WorldWideScience

Sample records for attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Doğangün, Burak; Yavuz, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is characterized by excessive overactiviy inattention and impulsiveness It is reported that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affects 5 12 of children worldwide It has significant negative effects on psychological and social development and academic functioning of the children if it remains nbsp; untreated The etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is unknown Genetic neurodevelopmental neurophysiological and psychosocial factors ar...

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic t...

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life. PMID:26386541

  4. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Anita D.; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Joanna L. Wexler; Mary Beth Nebel; Caffo, Brian S.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain–behavior associations...

  5. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Juan A. Amador-Campos; J. Antonio Aznar-Casanova; Izabela Bezerra; Nelson Torro-Alves; Manuel M. Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]).Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, part...

  6. Differentiating Attention Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Ramage, Barbara; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The attention and inhibition problems found in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are also common in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Attempts to distinguish ADHD from FASDs in terms of these deficits are rare and were pursued in this study. Method: A total of 116 children (47 with ADHD, 31…

  7. Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity)

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Adele

    2005-01-01

    Most studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD (not simply the subthreshold combined type) is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks, can detect this. Children with the truly inattentive type of ADHD, rather than being dist...

  8. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... physician offices, hospital outpatient and emergency departments) with attention deficit disorder as primary diagnosis: 9.0 million ( ...

  9. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  10. Visual Spatial Attention in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yao Chen

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD was characterized by deficitin the attention mechanism. Until now, the visual-spatial attention deficit inchildren with ADHD remains controversial. We report a study of the visualspatial attention to assess covert shifts of attention and sustained attentiontheoretically linked to two neuroanatomically defined attentional system inthe posterior and anterior parts of the human brain.Methods: Using the Neuroscan system, the reaction time (RT was measured accordingto three different within-subject conditions including cueing (valid, invalidand neutral; delay (800 msec and 100 msec; side [right visual field (RVFand left visual field (LVF] as well as one between-subject condition(healthy, ADHD.Results: The AHDH group showed slower RTs overall (RT=760 msec than the comparisongroup (RT=650 msec ( p = 0.001. RTs in the delayed condition of800 msec (RT=680 msec were faster than in the delayed condition of 100msec (RT=730 msec in all children ( p RTLVF: 830 msec inthe 100 msec delay for the invalid cueing condition ( p = 0.045 that was notfound in the comparison group.Conclusion: General dysfunction including posterior-based covert shift of attention andanterior-based sustained attention was found in ADHD group. Furthermore,asymmetric left parietal dysfunction in the disengaged operation was notedin those with ADHD.

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  12. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Most children get restless, rowdy, or distracted at ... might be signs of a developmental disorder called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. ADHD is a common brain condition ...

  13. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolraich, Mark L

    2006-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a challenging condition to diagnose and treat. For diagnosis, the clinician needs to establish the presence of ADHD on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria requiring information from parents and teachers and considering both alternative diagnoses and co-occurring conditions. In the treatment of ADHD as a chronic illness, the clinician needs to educate the family about the condition and partner with them about treatment decisions. The 2 treatments with demonstrated efficacy for ADHD are medications (stimulant medications and a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibiter) and behavior-modification programs. PMID:17178358

  14. Measurement of Stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop

  15. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  16. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Amador-Campos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task in which two letters (T1 and T2 were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB].Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1, whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1 and a probe letter (T2.Results:The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2 at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls.Conclusion:Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  17. Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retz, Wolfgang; Ringling, Jutta; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Vogelgesang, Monika; Rösler, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent mental disorder with childhood onset and high persistence into adulthood. There is much evidence that ADHD increases the risk for the development of other psychiatric disorders and functional problems in several domains of everyday life. In this study, the association of ADHD with gambling disorder (GD) was investigated. 163 adult subjects suffering from GD were examined for childhood and current ADHD according to DSM-5 as well as co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Moreover, characteristics of gambling behavior have been evaluated. The prevalence of lifetime ADHD was 28.8 %, with 25.2 % of the study population presenting ADHD as a full syndrome according to DSM-5. The prevalence of co-morbid substance use disorders and adjustment disorders and cluster B personality disorders was higher in GD patients with current ADHD than in the group without. Also, an increased rate of suicide attempts was detected in gamblers with ADHD. In contrast with gamblers without ADHD, those with ADHD were reported to spend more time with gambling, a sedative effect of gambling and a faster development of GD. The high prevalence of ADHD in patients with GD indicates that childhood ADHD is a risk factor for the development of GD in later life. Moreover, treatment of patients with GD and ADHD is complicated by a high rate of co-morbid disorders. Regarding therapeutic approaches, it should be considered that functional aspects of gambling differ in GD patients with and without ADHD. PMID:27328979

  18. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Halmøy Anne; Fasmer Ole; Eagan Tomas; Oedegaard Ketil; Haavik Jan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly recognized as a common disorder not only in children, but also in the adult population. Similarly, asthma also has a substantial prevalence among adults. Previous studies concerning a potential relationship between ADHD and asthma have not presented consistent results. Methods A cross-sectional study of 594 adult patients diagnosed with ADHD, compared with 719 persons from the general population. Information w...

  19. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Halmøy, Anne; Eagan, Tomas Mikal; Ødegaard, Ketil Joachim; Haavik, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly recognized as a common disorder not only in children, but also in the adult population. Similarly, asthma also has a substantial prevalence among adults. Previous studies concerning a potential relationship between ADHD and asthma have not presented consistent results. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 594 adult patients diagnosed with ADHD, compared with 719 persons from the general population. Infor...

  20. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER: COMORBIDITIES, EMPHASIS ON CONCURRENCE WITH EPILEPSY

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Pylaeva; A A Shatenshtein; M. Yu. Dorofeeva; K. Yu. Mukhin

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common cause of behavioral disorders and learning problems at preschool and school ages. Patients with ADHD are frequently found to have comorbidities that present additional diagnostic and therapeutic problems and result in an even greater decrease in quality of life in patients. Thus, ADHD is frequently concurrent with epilepsy; in this case, not only the manifestations of ADHD are more common in epilepsy, but the latter is more of...

  1. Stigmatization in teachers towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fuermaier, Anselm BM; Tucha, Lara; Mueller, Anna K.; Koerts, Janneke; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is understood as a developmental disorder which shares common characteristics between childhood, adolescence and adulthood. However, ADHD is widely associated with misconceptions and misbeliefs which can lead to stigmatization. Teachers have an important role for the individual development as they accompany students for a long period of time. The aim of the present study was to explore stigmatizing attitudes in teachers towards adults...

  2. Intellectual Disability in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Alka; Martin, Joanna; Langley, Kate; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and mild intellectual disability (ID) are a clinically distinct ADHD subgroup. Study design This was a cross-sectional study comparing clinical characteristics (ADHD subtypes, total number of symptoms, and rates of common comorbidities) between children with ADHD and mild ID and those with ADHD and IQ test scores >70, and also between children with ADHD and ID and a general population sample of childr...

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaywitz, B A; Fletcher, J M; Shaywitz, S E

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter we have reviewed the diagnosis and management of attention deficit disorder, focusing particularly on the role of stimulant therapy in ADHD. Hisorical review suggests that ADHD has roots that extend back almost a century. The definition of ADHD is based on inclusion and exclusion criteria that are established by history and reflect behavioral concerns. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disorder affecting the child's home, school, and community life. The primary symptoms of the disorder manifest a developmental pattern: activity diminishes while attentional deficits persist. Major sources of concern are the secondary and often more resistant problems of learning difficulties, behavioral problems, lack of peer acceptance, and low self-esteem. An often frustrating and perplexing characteristic of the disorder is its marked variability-over time, across situations, and within the same child and similar situations. Educational management represents an important priority and often forms the cornerstone of all other therapies, nonpharmacologic or pharmacologic. Cognitive-behavioral therapies represent the most widely used alternative to pharmacotherapy. Although the effects of CBT alone are disappointing, recent studies suggest that such therapies may provide a useful adjunct to pharmacotherapy and may be helpful when children are tapered off medication. Psychotherapy, or a combination of psychotherapy and medication (termed multimodality therapy), may also be useful. Pharmacotherapy for ADHD originated almost 60 years ago, and at this time the ameliorative effects of medications in ADHD are well established. The general skepticism of experienced clinicians, coupled with a climate where parents are reluctant to medicare children, serves to limit their use except where indicated. Although the effects of stimulants on attention and activity seem well established, effects on cognition, conduct, and social behavior are more controversial

  4. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with migraine headaches

    OpenAIRE

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Halmøy, Anne; Ødegaard, Ketil Joachim; Haavik, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is now recognized as a common disorder both in child and adult psychiatry. Adult patients with a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 572) and community controls (n = 675) responded to auto-questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, co-morbid conditions, including migraine, treatment history and work status. The prevalence of migraine was significantly higher in the patient group compared to the controls (28.3% vs. 19.2%, P 

  5. Story Comprehension and Academic Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…

  6. Cognitive control in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Westerhausen, René; Haavik, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to direct their attention and exert cognitive control in a forced instruction dichotic listening (DL) task. The performance of 29 adults with ADHD was compared with 58......-forced condition), or to focus and report either the right- or left-ear syllable (forced-right and forced-left condition). This procedure is presumed to tap distinct cognitive processes: perception (non-forced condition), orienting of attention (forced-right condition), and cognitive control (forced-left condition......). Adults with ADHD did not show significant impairment in the conditions tapping perception and attention orientation, but were significantly impaired in their ability to report the left-ear syllable during the forced-left instruction condition, whereas the control group showed the expected left...

  7. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Smalley, Susan L; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; Mcgough, James,; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulne...

  8. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of t

  9. Melatonin effects on sleep disorders in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bahremand; Peyman Hashemian; Fatemeh Moharreri; Ehsan Soltani

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. Around 25-50% of these children suffered from some kind of sleep disorder especially with chronic form of insomnia. The physicians usually have a plan for improving hyperactivity and attention deficit of this disease but unfortunately, they forget to manage the sleep disorders, which are a major part of patients’ problems.Nowadays, we know that there is a noticeable relationship between atte...

  10. Treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hechtman, Lily

    2008-01-01

    Dusan Kolar, Amanda Keller, Maria Golfinopoulos, Lucy Cumyn, Cassidy Syer, Lily HechtmanDepartment of Psychiatry, Montreal Children’s Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, CanadaAbstract: This review focuses on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. It briefly addresses prevalence, diagnostic and differential diagnostic issues specific to adults. Stimulant medication, non-stimulant medication, and psychosocial treatments are thoroughly reviewed....

  11. Treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Kolar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Dusan Kolar, Amanda Keller, Maria Golfinopoulos, Lucy Cumyn, Cassidy Syer, Lily HechtmanDepartment of Psychiatry, Montreal Children’s Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, CanadaAbstract: This review focuses on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults. It briefly addresses prevalence, diagnostic and differential diagnostic issues specific to adults. Stimulant medication, non-stimulant medication, and psychosocial treatments are thoroughly reviewed. For each class of medication possible mechanism of action, efficacy and side effects are summarized. Special attention is given to the pharmacological treatment for patients with adult ADHD and various comorbidities. In summary, stimulant medications are most effective and combined medication and psychosocial treatment is the most beneficial treatment option for most adult patients with ADHD.Keywords: adult ADHD, medication, stimulants, cognitive-behavioral therapy

  12. Treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Kolar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Dusan Kolar, Amanda Keller, Maria Golfinopoulos, Lucy Cumyn, Cassidy Syer, Lily HechtmanDepartment of Psychiatry, Montreal Children’s Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, CanadaAbstract: This review focuses on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults. It briefly addresses prevalence, diagnostic and differential diagnostic issues specific to adults. Stimulant medication, non-stimulant medication, and psychosocial treatments are thoroughly reviewed. For each class of medication possible mechanism of action, efficacy and side effects are summarized. Special attention is given to the pharmacological treatment for patients with adult ADHD and various comorbidities. In summary, stimulant medications are most effective and combined medication and psychosocial treatment is the most beneficial treatment option for most adult patients with ADHD.Keywords: adult ADHD, medication, stimulants, cognitive-behavioral therapy

  13. Neuroimaging of tic disorders with co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Royal, Jason M; Peterson, Bradley S

    BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are common and debilitating neuropsychiatric illnesses that typically onset in the preschool years. Recently, both conditions have been subject to neuroimaging studies, with the aim of understanding their...

  14. Psychosocial treatments for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P; Creed, Torrey; Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Brown, Ronald T

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews studies examining the efficacy of behavioral interventions for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A specific emphasis is placed on evidence-based interventions that include parent training, classroom, academic, and peer interventions. Results indicate that school-aged children respond to behavioral interventions when they are appropriately implemented both at home and in the classroom setting. Combined treatments (behavioral management and stimulant medication) represent the gold standard in ADHD treatment and are often recommended as the first-line treatment option due to the many problems faced by children with ADHD. Diversity issues, although an important consideration in the treatment of ADHD, continue to remain an understudied area. Recommendations for future research are made pertaining to treatment sequencing with regard to behavior management as well as for subgroups of ADHD children who may respond best to specific treatments. PMID:17260167

  15. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Yalug

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is known to accompany subtle physical anomalies, allergic and neurologic disorders, obesity and eating disorders, traumatic injuries, risky sexual behavior, sleep disorders, substance and alcohol use, axis I and II disorders, occupational, legal and academic problems and increased treatment expenditures. Though the effects of this disorder continue throughout life, create burdens to the society along with its treatment as well as disabling the affected patients through their lives, and receive increasing attention in recent years, reviews focusing on problems associated with it are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the results of previous studies conducted about medical comorbidities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  16. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER: COMORBIDITIES, EMPHASIS ON CONCURRENCE WITH EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pylaeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common cause of behavioral disorders and learning problems at preschool and school ages. Patients with ADHD are frequently found to have comorbidities that present additional diagnostic and therapeutic problems and result in an even greater decrease in quality of life in patients. Thus, ADHD is frequently concurrent with epilepsy; in this case, not only the manifestations of ADHD are more common in epilepsy, but the latter is more often encountered in patients with ADHD than in those as a whole. The authors consider the epidemiological factors and causes, which may lead to a concurrence of these two diseases in the same patient, the principles of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ADHD in epileptic patients, the specific features of treatment in this patient category. At the same time, the authors place emphasis on the fact that some antiepileptic drugs, such as barbiturates, may cause symptoms that mimic ADHD (in these cases, inattention and hyperactivity are adverse reactions of therapy and lessen or disappear after drug discontinuation or enhance the manifestations of ADHD in patients with a concurrence of these two diseases. On the other hand, care should be also taken to choose drugs for the treatment of ADHD due to the possible higher frequency of seizures. So preference should be given to the drugs having no negative effect on the course of comorbidities or those having a positive therapeutic effect against both diseases. 

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in prison inmates

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an inherited developmental disorder with early onset, chronically persisting in the vast majority of cases. ADHD is associated with pervasive cognitive, emotional and functional impairments, as well as an increased rate of coexisting disorders. ADHD in the presence of early disruptive behaviours increase the risk for later delinquency. ADHD is estimated to be present in about 25-45% of adult prison inmates, thus 10-times increased...

  18. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  20. What causes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam; Jefferies, Rachel; Stergiakouli, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects around 1–3% of children. There is a high level of comorbidity with developmental and learning problems as well as with a variety of psychiatric disorders. ADHD is highly heritable, although there is no single causal risk factor and non-inherited factors also contribute to its aetiology. The genetic and environmental risk factors that have been implicated appear to be associated with a range of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric outc...

  1. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Anna K; Anselm B M Fuermaier; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children wit...

  2. Bipolar Disorder Comorbid With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Inpatients With Acute Relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Alina; Scott, Duncan; Groll, Dianne L

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this prospective, observational study was to detect the rate of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of inpatients diagnosed with bipolar disorder, and to identify differences between patients with bipolar disorder with concomitant ADHD and those without concomitant ADHD.

  3. Complex prospective memory in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults has been associated with disturbances of attention and executive functions. Furthermore, impairments of verbal and figural retrospective memory were reported. However, little is known about the effects of ADHD on prospective memory, the execution of delayed intentions in the future. METHODS: The present study compared the performance of 45 adult patients with ADHD not treated with stimulant medication with the performance of 45 matched healthy individuals on a paradigm of complex prospective memory which measured task planning, plan recall, self-initiation and execution. Furthermore, the contribution of other cognitive functions to prospective memory functioning was assessed, including measures of attention, executive functions and memory. RESULTS: A large-scale impairment could be observed in task planning abilities in patients with ADHD. Only negligible to small effects were found for plan recall, self-initiation and execution. Inhibition was identified to contribute significantly to performance on task planning. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that four cognitive components contribute to the performance of prospective memory. Impairments of prospective memory mainly emerged from deficient planning abilities in adults with ADHD. Implications on behavioral based intervention strategies are discussed.

  4. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Attentional Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Kerstin; Gunther, Thomas; Hanisch, Charlotte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…

  5. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rosa Neto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with that of typically developing children.Methods:Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls, aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial and temporal organization.Results:Between-group testing revealed statistically significant differences between the ADHD and control groups for all domains. The results also revealed a deficit of nearly two years in the motor development of children with ADHD compared with the normative sample.Conclusion:The current study shows that ADHD is associated with a delay in motor development when compared to typically developing children. The results also suggested difficulties in certain motor areas for those with ADHD. These results may point to plausible mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and motor difficulties.

  6. Source discrimination in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were shown to have inefficient item memory, little is known about the context of memory experiences. METHODS: The present study compared 37 adult patients with a diagnosed ADHD with 40 matched healthy participants on a word list paradigm. Memory functions of encoding, retention and source discrimination were assessed. Furthermore, standardized measures of memory and executive control were applied in order to explore a qualitative differentiation of memory components. RESULTS: Adult patients with ADHD showed impaired performance in encoding of new information whereas the retention of encoded items was found to be preserved. The most pronounced impairment of patients with ADHD was observed in source discrimination. Regression models of cognitive functions on memory components supported some qualitative differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Data analysis suggests a differential pattern of memory impairment in adults suffering from ADHD with a particular deficit in source discrimination. Inefficient source discrimination in adults with ADHD can affect daily functioning by limiting biographic awareness and disturbing general cognitive processes.

  7. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halmøy Anne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is increasingly recognized as a common disorder not only in children, but also in the adult population. Similarly, asthma also has a substantial prevalence among adults. Previous studies concerning a potential relationship between ADHD and asthma have not presented consistent results. Methods A cross-sectional study of 594 adult patients diagnosed with ADHD, compared with 719 persons from the general population. Information was collected between 1997 and 2005 using auto-questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, co-morbid conditions, including asthma, and work status. Results The prevalence of asthma was significantly higher in the ADHD patient group compared to the controls, 24.4% vs. 11.3% respectively (OR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.89-3.44, and controls with asthma scored higher on ratings of both past and present symptoms of ADHD. Female ADHD patients had a significantly higher prevalence of asthma compared to male ADHD patients (30.9% vs. 18.2%, OR = 2.01, CI 1.36-2.95, but in controls a slight female preponderance was not statistically significant. In both ADHD patients and controls, having asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of symptoms of mood- and anxiety disorders. Conclusions The present findings point to a co-morbidity of ADHD and asthma, and these patients may represent a clinical and biological subgroup of adult patients with ADHD.

  8. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D. Barber

    2015-01-01

    While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children.

  9. Developmental Changes in Attention and Comprehension among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ursula L.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Milich, Richard; Charnigo, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Changes in visual attention and story comprehension for children (N = 132) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison peers were examined. Between the ages of 7 and 9 (Phase 1) and approximately 21 months later (Phase 2), children viewed 2 televised stories: 1 in the presence of toys and 1 in their absence. Both groups of…

  10. Examining executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typical development

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Constantine, Laura J.; Hendren, Robert; Rocke, David; Ozonoff, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning (EF) is an overarching term that refers to neuropsychological processes that enable physical, cognitive, and emotional self-control. Deficits in EF are often present in neurodevelopmental disorders, but the specificity of EF deficits and direct comparison across disorders is rare. The current study investigated EF in 7 to 12 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typical development using a comprehensive...

  11. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life. PMID:27193369

  12. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Freire Bueno; Elisa H. Kozasa; Maria Aparecida da Silva; Tânia Maria Alves; Mario Rodrigues Louzã; Sabine Pompéia

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP), but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL), mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls un...

  13. Initial Orientation of Attention towards Emotional Faces in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Ahmadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early recognition of negative emotions is considered to be of vital importance. It seems that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have some difficulties recognizing facial emotional expressions, especially negative ones. This study investigated the preference of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for negative (angry, sad facial expressions compared to normal children.Method: Participants were 35 drug naive boys with ADHD, aged between 6-11 years ,and 31 matched healthy children. Visual orientation data were recorded while participants viewed face pairs (negative-neutral pairs shown for 3000ms. The number of first fixations made to each expression was considered as an index of initial orientation. Results: Group comparisons revealed no difference between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group and their matched healthy counterparts in initial orientation of attention. A tendency towards negative emotions was found within the normal group, while no difference was observed between initial allocation of attention toward negative and neutral expressions in children with ADHD .Conclusion: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder do not have significant preference for negative facial expressions. In contrast, normal children have a significant preference for negative facial emotions rather than neutral faces.

  14. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Epileptic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Gun-Ha; Kim, Ji Yeon; Byeon, Jung Hye; Eun, Baik-Lin; Rhie, Young Jun; Seo, Won Hee; Eun, So-Hee

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is higher in epileptic children than in the general pediatric population. The aim of this study was to compare the accompaniment of ADHD in epileptic children with well-controlled seizures and no significant intellectual disability with that in healthy controls. We included epileptic children between the ages of 6 and 12 yr visiting our clinic for six consecutive months and controls without significant med...

  16. Assessment of Working Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Lucinete de Freitas; Tiedemann, Klaus Bruno; de Andrade, Enio Roberto; Primi, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This research investigated the cognitive abilities and the working memory in children and youngsters with three different types of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): (a) mainly with attention-deficit, (b) hyperactive and impulsive, and (c) combined. Method: A computerized test called Infant Cognitive Abilities Test, which…

  17. Understanding intentionality in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Azar; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Khorrami, Anahita; Noorian, Nahid

    2016-06-01

    One of the main aspects of theory of mind is intentionality which refers to recognizing other people's intentions in their behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate intentionality in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thirty children with ADHD were compared to thirty age- and IQ-matched normal children. All participants were assessed using the moving shapes paradigm task which contains one large red and one small blue triangle moving around a black screen. They were asked to describe what the movements mean and how the triangles interact with each other. The answers were rated based on the accuracy, type of descriptions applied, mental states, and length of phrases. With regard to intentionality score, children with ADHD performed significantly worse than normal children (P < .05). Based on appropriateness score, the accuracy of patients' answers was lower in comparison with the control group. Children with ADHD used longer phrases as compared to controls. Children with ADHD can have problems with comprehending others' intentionality. This leads to impairment in social relationship. PMID:26613599

  18. Treatment Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai-Otong, Deborah; Zimmerman, Michele L

    2016-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, adolescents, and adults, with a prevalence estimated from 5% to 7% across cultures and approximately 2% to 5% in adults. This lifelong disorder challenges nurses to understand the basis of ADHD, analyze symptoms, differentiate coexisting disorders, gather health information from varied sources, and implement person-centered multimodal treatment. Nurses are poised to plan, and work with patients, families, and teachers in the community and school systems to optimize academic and occupational performance and improve quality of life. Pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation, and behavioral therapies are strong components of multimodal treatment planning. PMID:27229276

  19. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Methods: Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 comb...

  20. Functional MRI studies in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the brain activation map during Go-NoGo tasks in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls using functional MRI. Methods: Block designed BOLD functional MRI scan covering the whole brain was performed on 10 boys having ADHD and 11 healthy boys. The 2 groups were matched by age, sex, and handedness. Executing advanced inhibitory Go-NoGo tasks served as stimuli for all subjects. The fMRI data was analyzed by SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping) software with statistic t-test to generate the activation map. Results: (1) The normal children showed significant activations in left thalamus and right cingulate gyrus and fewer activations in right middle frontal gyrus during stimulate controlled Go task, but the children with ADHD showed less activations in left thalamus. (2) In response controlled Go task, the normal children showed activations in right insula, cingulate gyrus and left frontal gyrus, while the ADHD children showed lower power of response in the right middle frontal gyrus.(3) In NoGo task, right middle frontal gyrus was the dominant activated regions, and left anterior cingulate, left middle frontal gyrus and right thalamus also had some activations in normal children, while the activations of right prefrontal decreased and the thalamus increased in ADHD boys. Conclusion: In children with ADHD, some dysfunctional brain areas, mainly the prefrontal lobe and anterior cingulate gyrus were found. Thalamus was also involved according to the brain activation map

  1. A Comparative Study on the Visual Perceptions of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman; Butun Ayhan, Aynur

    This study was conducted in order to (a) compare the visual perceptions of seven-year-old children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with those of normally developing children of the same age and development level and (b) determine whether the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vary with respect to gender, having received preschool education and parents` educational level. A total of 60 children, 30 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 30 with normal development, were assigned to the study. Data about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their families was collected by using a General Information Form and the visual perception of children was examined through the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to determine whether there was a difference of between the visual perceptions of children with normal development and those diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and to discover whether the variables of gender, preschool education and parents` educational status affected the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results showed that there was a statistically meaningful difference between the visual perceptions of the two groups and that the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were affected meaningfully by gender, preschool education and parents` educational status.

  2. Risperidone Treatment in 12 Children With Developmental Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Eapen, Valsamma; Gururaj, A K

    2005-01-01

    Background: Risperidone is a novel antipsychotic drug that has been tried in the treatment of several child psychiatric disorders. In an open clinical study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of risperidone in children with developmental disorder and behavioral problems including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

  3. Genetic Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nihal Yurteri; A. Evren Tufan; Gizem Melissa Akgun; Ayten Erdogan

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. Due to studies reporting that the effects of ADHD diagnosis on functioning may last throughout life, this disorder, which has great importance for child and adolescent psychiatry, started to attract greater attention recently in terms of adult psychiatry. A review, evaluating the results of studies conducted on the genetic basis of ADHD, which started to attract increasing attent...

  4. Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Salles Neves Machado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate.

  5. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Irem Yalug; Ali Evren Tufan

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention defic...

  6. Attention Mechanisms in Children with Anxiety Disorders and in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Adam S.; Chu, Brian C.; Reddy, Linda A.; Mohlman, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Inattention is among the most commonly referred problems for school-aged youth. Research suggests distinct mechanisms may contribute to attention problems in youth with anxiety disorders versus youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compared children (8-17 years) with anxiety disorders (n = 24) and children (8-16…

  7. Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/ADD is a neurobehavioral disorder of childhood onset characterized by severe, developmentally inappropriate motor hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsiveness that result in impairment in more than one setting. It affects the home, school, and community life of 39% of school-going children worldwide. There is increasing recognition that ADHD symptoms and clinically defined disorder can persist into adult life and are associated with later drug and alcohol misuse and social and work difficulties. Added to that is the extreme variability of the disorder over time, within the same individual, between individuals, and across different circumstances. Treatment with stimulants and nonstimulants has proven effective in different subgroups, with the effectiveness of specific agents most likely related to the primary neurotransmitter involved. However, stimulants with a short duration of action have been problematic for some patients. Parent training and cognitive behavioral therapies represent the most widely adjunct psychosocial interventions to pharmacotherapy.

  8. Use of Digital Console Game for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tsung-Yen; Lee, I-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chih

    2010-01-01

    ADHD or ADD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) is one of the most frequently diagnosed mental and behavioral disorders of children. Children with ADHD are characterized by poor attention and distractibility and/or hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Although there is no "cure" for ADHD, there are accepted treatments that specifically…

  9. Anxiety and Mood Disorders in Adolescents with Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Kashdan, Todd B.; Pelham, William E.; Hoza, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the association between childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety and mood disorders in adolescence. They compared a group of 142 adolescents ages 13 to 18 years with a history of ADHD in childhood to group of 100 community-recruited adolescents without ADHD. The two groups did not…

  10. Sleep Patterns in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorder, and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen; Kinkelbur, Joerg; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    Background: In children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder (TD), and their coexistence (ADHD + TD comorbidity) are very common and clinically important. Associated sleep patterns and their clinical role are still insufficiently investigated. This study aimed at characterizing these sleep patterns in children with ADHD,…

  11. Emotional Face Identification in Youths with Primary Bipolar Disorder or Primary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Young, Matthew; Dickstein, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid or confounded; therefore, we evaluated emotional face identification to better understand brain/behavior interactions in children and adolescents with either primary BD, primary ADHD, or typically developing controls (TDC). Method: Participants…

  12. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  13. Neuropsychological Functioning in Children with Tourette Syndrome with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Scahill, Lawrence; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well…

  14. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults with Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuztürk, Ömer; Ekici, Mehmet; Çimen, Dilay; Ekici, Aydanur; Senturk, Erol

    2012-01-01

    AAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood illness. In some patients, this illness may persist into adulthood and an association between ADHD and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) has been found in childhood. However, it is unclear how OSA and ADHD coincide in adulthood. Therefore, to explore the relationship between OSA and adult ADHD the current investigation utilized a clinically-based cross-sectional survey. Subjects consisted of 81 treatment-naïve OSA patients and...

  15. Helping Children and Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Systems of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a mental health care provider. Misperceptions and misunderstandings can lead to delayed diagnoses, misdiagnoses, or no ... Timothy copes with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),depression, learning disabilities, and alcoholism. Timothy was diagnosed with ...

  16. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  17. Inattentiveness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ariane Sroubek; Mary Kelly; Xiaobo Li

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a long-term impact on functioning,productivity and quality of life of patients.This impact is largely due to the symptoms of inattentiveness.However,despite its impairing role in the lives of ADHD patients,inattentiveness has been studied relatively less frequently than have symptoms of impulsivity/hyperactivity and problems with executive function.This review therefore seeks to integrate the neuropsychological theories and current findings in the research fields of neuropsychology,neurophysiology,and neuroimaging,in an attempt to gain a more complete understanding of the role that inattentiveness plays in ADHD,as well as to suggest directions for future studies.The need for a more comprehensive understanding of inattentiveness and ADHD,which integrates findings from each of the three disciplines mentioned above,is emphasized.

  18. Factors of teachers' competence for teaching students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Pulec Lah, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed disorder during the childhood period. Prevalence estimates of ADHD among the school population vary, with the dominating estimates ranging from 3 to 7 per cent (APA, 2000; NCCMH, 2009). The characteristic features that are primarily defined as attention deficit, impulsivity and hyperactivity by diagnostic classifications may to a great extent inhibit a person’s functioning in every important aspect of their life....

  19. Effects of Self-monitoring Technique on Inattentive Behaviors of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bagher Ghobari Bonab; Mir Mahmoud Mirnasab

    2011-01-01

    Beneficial effects of stimulants on core symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been reported in several studies. Behavioral interventions have also been proposed as empirically supported interventions for ADHD. Although cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) have been criticized for the lack of evidence-based data, some studies have indicated the positive effects of CBT techniques on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reports t...

  20. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  1. Treatment Programs for Students With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mihandoost, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Context: The aim of this study was to determine the experimental evidence of treatment/intervention programs for deficits in social skills, attention, and behavioral disorder in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence Acquisition: Meta-analysis procedures were employed to investigate whether children and adolescents with ADHD exhibit deficits in attention and social skills. A total of 17 empirical research studies published between 2000 and 2013...

  2. Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Comorbod Tic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.

  3. Functional MRI and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Stroop effect, a measure for selective attention, on behavioral and brain activation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD children (9 boys, ages 9.8-14.5 years, off or on methylphenidate and 9 controls was studied using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at the Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, China, and other centers in China and at Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

  4. Genetic Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Yurteri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. Due to studies reporting that the effects of ADHD diagnosis on functioning may last throughout life, this disorder, which has great importance for child and adolescent psychiatry, started to attract greater attention recently in terms of adult psychiatry. A review, evaluating the results of studies conducted on the genetic basis of ADHD, which started to attract increasing attention both in our country and the world, was thought to help clinicians working in this field. PubMed and Turkish Psychiatry Index online search engines were screened using “attention deficit hyperactivity disorder”, “ADHD”, “genetics” as key words. The data obtained were combined with information gleaned from several textbooks. Based on previous studies, it could easily be concluded that ADHD is one of the most common heritable psychiatric disorder with distinguished genetic features. Despite its importance for diagnosis and treatment, the etiology of ADHD is still not clear and the disorder seems to be a complex problem arising from the effects of both genetic and environmental factors. Although previous studies revealed that ADHD displayed familial and hereditary transmission, stable patterns of Mendelian inheritance could not be discriminated by evaluation of pedigrees. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on the molecular genetic basis of ADHD recently. The previous studies did not report consistent results in identification of the genes responsible for ADHD which has been partially linked to heterogeneity of the disorder. Grouping relevant patients according to comorbidities and persistence in adolescence rather than DSM-IV subtypes could be an important alternative method for overcoming this limitation in the research studies.

  5. Response Inhibition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K.; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with…

  6. Comparative Efficacy of Iranian and Foreign Methylphenidate in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    M Karahmadi; H Esmaili

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Methylphenidate is one of the basic drugs in treating ADHD. According to many clinical studies, the foreign form of methylphenidate (ritalin) is more efficient than the Iranian form of the drug (stimidate). This study aimed to compare the efficacy of stimidate and Ritalin in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Materials & Methods: In this double blind, randomized clinical trial, 200 children with attention deficit hyperactive d...

  7. Electrophysiological Indices of Abnormal Error-Processing in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Cahill, John D.; Bates, Alan T.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Calton, Timothy G.; Liddle, Peter F.; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been frequently observed in children and young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and might underlie the excessive hyperactivity and impulsivity in this population. We investigated behavioural and electrophysiological indices relevant to one domain of cognitive control; namely…

  8. Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Collaborative Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford-Butler, M. Ann; Theodore, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The school setting can be a difficult place for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The core symptoms of ADHD, which include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, make meeting the curriculum demands of the classroom challenging. That ADHD negatively impacts not only academic performance but also social and…

  9. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-12-22

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  10. Association between severity of behavioral phenotype and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Patricia A; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is sometimes comorbid with autism spectrum disorder. In the current study, we examined rates of parent-reported clinically significant symptoms of attention ...

  11. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Pharmacotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Elia, Josephine

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy, one of the effective modalities of treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), was discovered serendipitously and, until recently, consisted primarily of short-acting methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine compounds. The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval of Concerta in 2000 followed by approval of additional long-acting methylphenidate (Ritalin LA; Metadate CD) and amphetamine formulations (Adderall XR) expanded the repertoire. By providing su...

  12. Comparative efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Jasmin; Arun, Priti; Chavan, BS

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is frequently comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is associated with substantial functional impairments. Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are well-established drugs for the management of ADHD. Some studies from Western countries have reported these drugs to be effective in the management of ODD comorbid with ADHD. This study aimed to assess if methylphenidate and atomoxetine are efficacious in treating Indian childre...

  13. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms moderate cognition and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Sokoloff, Jennifer L.; Shook, Devon A.; James, Joette D.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that over 30% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) meet diagnostic criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and another 20% of children with ASD exhibit subthreshold clinical ADHD symptoms. Presence of ADHD symptoms in the context of ASD could have a variety of effects on cognition, autistic traits, and adaptive/maladaptive behaviors including: exacerbating core ASD impairments; adding unique impairments specific to ADHD; producing new...

  14. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of undetected feigned ADHD such as substantial costs covered by society for unnecessary assessments and treatments, unjustified occupation of limited medical resources and undermining society's trust in the existence of the disorder or the effectiveness of treatment. In times of economic crisis and cost savings in the medical sector, the detection of feigned ADHD is of importance. This review briefly describes the research on this topic with an emphasis on the approaches available for detection of feigned ADHD (i.e., self-report questionnaires, personality inventories, cognitive tests used in routine neuropsychological assessment and tests specifically designed for detecting feigned cognitive dysfunction). Promising approaches and measures are available for identifying feigned ADHD but there is an immediate need for further research. PMID:25096370

  15. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90 and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of the origin of this disorder. Its manifestations may be a reason for family conflicts, poor peer relationships, social and school maladjustment, learning problems, lower academic performance, accidents and injuries, smoking, psychoactive substance abuse (toxicomania, narcomania, delinquencies, deviant social behavior, thus having a negative impact on all spheres of a patient’s life. The manifestations of ADHD may continue in adulthood, resulting in work and family life problems, low self-evaluation, alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse, and other unfavorable consequences. The authors describe the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic principles (diagnostic scales and tests, differential diagnosis (by setting out a large group of different diseases, the manifestations of which can mimic ADHD, treatment, and prognosis of the disorder. Within its therapeutic correction framework, the authors present the definition and general principles of Montessori therapy, including recommendations for parents and relatives to deal with children with ADHD. 

  16. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Chi-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Yen-Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and epilepsy in clinical settings. We assessed 64 children with ASD, 64 with ADHD, 64 with epilepsy, and 64 typically developing children without any neuropsychiatric disorders by using a sex-and age-matched…

  17. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Eleonore

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder, i.e., it is by definition present from childhood. The main features characterizing ADHD are the difficulties to regulate attention, activity level, and impulses. The hallmark of bipolar disorder is episodic mood alterations with restitution between episodes. Although debut in childhood may occur, bipolar disorder typically debuts in late adolescence or early adulthood. The overarching aim with this ...

  18. How Can Comorbidity with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Aid Understanding of Language and Speech Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Mueller, Kathyrn L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a background for the topic of comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and spoken and written language and speech disorders that extends through this issue of "Topics in Language Disorders." Comorbidity is common within developmental disorders and may be explained by many possible reasons. Some of these can be…

  19. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Children with and without Intellectual Disability: An Examination across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, C. L.; Baker, B. L.; Blacher, J.; Crnic, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at heightened risk for mental disorders, and disruptive behaviour disorders appear to be the most prevalent. The current study is a longitudinal examination of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children with and without intellectual disability (ID) across…

  20. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  1. Cognitive Remediation Strategies : An Adjunct to the Psychotherapy of Adults With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    WEINSTEIN, CHERYL S.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence continues to emerge that childhood symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persist into adulthood. These symptoms include motoric hyperactivity, restlessness, attention deficits, poor organizational skills, impulsivity, and memory impairment. Poor academic and work performance, frustration, humiliation, and shame are also components of adult ADHD. Psychotherapists are challenged to understand the meaning of the disorder and its ramifications in a...

  2. Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... course of treatment may include medications such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) or dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), which are stimulants that decrease ... 301-443-4279 Related NINDS Publications and Information Methylphenidate and Clonidine Help Children With ADHD and Tics ...

  3. Current pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D S

    2013-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder in children and adults characterized by a persistent pattern of impulsiveness, inattention and hyperactivity. It affects about 3-10% of children and 2-5% of adolescents and adults and occurs about four times more commonly in boys than girls. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but it has strong genetic and environment components. The first-line treatment options for ADHD include behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy with stimulants or both. Methylphenidate and amphetamine salts are the stimulant drugs of choice for ADHD treatment. Amphetamines act by increasing presynaptic release of dopamine and other biogenic amines in the brain. Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and therefore its pharmacology is identical to that of amphetamines. Lisdex-amfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine with low feasibility for abuse. Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is an alternative, non-stimulant drug for ADHD but it is less efficacious than stimulants. Stimulants are generally safe but are associated with adverse effects including headache, insomnia, anorexia and weight loss. There is increased awareness about serious cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with ADHD drugs including concern for growth suppression in children. Stimulants have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and should be handled safely to prevent misuse and abuse. PMID:24191257

  4. Prevalence of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder†

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Amani; Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Langley, Kate; Thapar, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Background Some research suggests that children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a higher than expected risk of bipolar affective disorder. No study has examined the prevalence of bipolar disorder in a UK sample of children with ADHD. Aims To examine the prevalence of bipolar disorder in children diagnosed with ADHD or hyperkinetic disorder. Method Psychopathology symptoms and diagnoses of bipolar disorder were assessed in 200 young people with ADHD (170 male, 30 fema...

  5. The Effect of EEG Biofeedback Therapy on Motor Abilities of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Žiaková; Stanislava Klobucká

    2015-01-01

    Background. Currently, EEG biofeedback (Neurofeedback) is used in the rehabilitation of children with brain damage with the symptoms of attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity and impulsivity. After treatment improvements were observed not only in the control of attention and impulsivity but also in voluntary and involuntary movements. The aim of the prospective clinical study was to measure the impact of EEG biofeedback on motor abilities of children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactiv...

  6. Functional analysis and treatment of elopement for a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Kodak, Tiffany; Grow, Laura; Northup, John

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a functional analysis of elopement in an outdoor setting for a child with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A subsequent treatment consisting of noncontingent attention and time-out was demonstrated to be effective in eliminating elopement. Modifications of functional analysis procedures associated with the occurrence of elopement in a natural setting are demonstrated.

  7. Written Composition Performance of Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Ferrer, Manuel Soriano; Fortea, Inmaculada Baixauli

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with learning disabilities. The present study examined the written composition of children with ADHD, which depends to a large degree on continuous self-regulation and attentional control skills for organizing information and maintaining the level of effort. Fifty children…

  8. Abnormal Distracter Processing in Adults with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Marzinzik, Frank; Wahl, Michael; Krüger, Doris; Gentschow, Laura; Colla, Michael; Klostermann, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Background Subjects with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are overdistractible by stimuli out of the intended focus of attention. This control deficit could be due to primarily reduced attentional capacities or, e. g., to overshooting orienting to unexpected events. Here, we aimed at identifying disease-related abnormalities of novelty processing and, therefore, studied event-related potentials (ERP) to respective stimuli in adult ADHD patients compared to healthy subjects. Met...

  9. Motor Profile of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B.; Marques, Juliana C. Bilhar; Casella, Erasmo B.; Nascimento, Roseane O.; Oliveira, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the motor profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined type. Method: The case group consisted of 34 treatment-naive, male patients, aged 7-11 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD, combined type, without comorbidities (except oppositional defiant disorder). The…

  10. Detrimental effects of gum chewing on vigilance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William; Evans, Lynsay; Birrel, Laura; Sontag, Thomas A.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Impairments of attention are cardinal features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and can seriously affect the daily life of children with ADHD. Despite effective treatment strategies, there is a need of further treatment options that can be added to available and well established tr

  11. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Halder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  12. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Written Expression with Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Graham, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This review assessed the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) for teaching written composition strategies to students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. We examined the participants and the settings in which SRSD has been used, the writing strategies tested, genres addressed, and the effects of SRSD on outcome measures.…

  13. Study of Anxiety in Parents and Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jose Juan Castro; Bermúdez, M. Olga Escandell; Sevilla, M. del Sol Fortea; Hernán-Pérez, Alejandra Sanjuán

    2015-01-01

    The identification of factors that influence attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will help to develop intervention strategies for the personal and social adjustment of these individuals. The goal of the study is to assess the perception of anxiety in a group of children and adolescents with ADHD and the anxiety that their parents…

  14. Persistence of Sleep Problems in Children with Anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Skirbekk, Benedicte; Oerbeck, Beate; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Kristensen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the persistence of sleep problems over 18 months in 76 referred children with anxiety disorders and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and 31 nonreferred controls, and explores predictors of sleep problems at follow-up (T2) in the referred children. Diagnoses were assessed at initial assessment (T1) using the…

  15. Effects of Self-monitoring Technique on Inattentive Behaviors of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnasab, Mir Mahmoud; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari

    2011-01-01

    Beneficial effects of stimulants on core symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been reported in several studies. Behavioral interventions have also been proposed as empirically supported interventions for ADHD. Although cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) have been criticized for the lack of evidence-based data, some studies have indicated the positive effects of CBT techniques on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reports the effects of self-monitoring technique, as a CBT technique, on inattentive behaviors of children with ADHD. PMID:22952528

  16. Effects of Self-monitoring Technique on Inattentive Behaviors of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Ghobari Bonab

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of stimulants on core symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD have been reported in several studies. Behavioral interventions have also been proposed as empirically supported interventions for ADHD. Although cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT have been criticized for the lack of evidence-based data, some studies have indicated the positive effects of CBT techniques on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This article reports the effects of self-monitoring technique, as a CBT technique, on inattentive behaviors of children with ADHD.

  17. Lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of adolescents and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jadwiga Najib1–31Division of Pharmacy Practice, Arnold and Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Long Island University, Brooklyn, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Psychiatry, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders defined by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Symptoms begin in childhood and may persist into adolescence and adulthood. Currently available pharmacological treatment options for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents include stimulants that are efficacious and well tolerated; however, many of these preparations require multiple daily dosing and have the potential for abuse. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, the first prodrug stimulant, was developed to provide a longer duration of effect. It demonstrates a predictable delivery of the active drug, d-amphetamine, with low interpatient variability, and has a reduced potential for abuse. A literature search of the MEDLINE database and clinical trials register from 1995–2011, as well as relevant abstracts presented at annual professional meetings, on lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children and adolescents were included for review. This article presents the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and, more recently, in adolescents.Keywords: lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, prodrug stimulant, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorders, safety, efficacy, children, adolescents

  18. Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Kurt P.; Bédard, Anne-Claude V.; Jin Fan; Clerkin, Suzanne M.; Danai Dima; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functi...

  19. Differential motor alterations in children with three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Poblano; Belinda Luna; César Reynoso

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine frequency of motor alterations in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method We evaluated 19 children aged 7-12 years with ADHD classified in three sub-types: Combined (ADHD-C), with Inattention (ADHD-I), and with Hyperactivity (ADHD-H). Controls were age- and gender matched healthy children. We utilized Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) for measuring motor skills. Results We observed differences between children with A...

  20. Collicular dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by (inter alia) an increase in distractibility. The current front-line pharmacotherapies for the treatment of ADHD, namely the psychostimulants methylphenidate and amphetamines, have clear abuse potential, hence there is a strong need to develop new drug treatments for this disorder. Central to this process is the identification of the pathophysiological changes which underlie ADHD. Given the heterogeneity of the disorder, multiple loci are probably involved, providing multiple potential therapeutic targets. Here, we hypothesise (Hypothesis 1) that one such locus is the superior colliculus (SC), a sensory structure intimately linked with distractibility and the production of eye and head movements. It is proposed that in ADHD, the colliculus is hyper-responsive, leading to the core symptom of increased distractibility. Hypothesis 1 is supported by: 1. ADHD patients show increased distractibility in tasks which are sensitive to collicular function; 2. ADHD patients have a general problem inhibiting saccades, the generation of which involves the SC; 3. Saccadic deficits in ADHD include defects in the production of saccadic types (anti-saccades and express saccades) which are particularly associated with the colliculus; 4. Covert shifts in attention (which also have been argued to involve the SC) are also impaired in ADHD; 5. Reading disorders are frequently co-morbid with ADHD; dyslexia (which is associated with eye movement problems) is linked to a specific visual perceptual deficit in the M pathway, a major recipient of which is the colliculus. Whether or not the SC is indeed hyper-responsive in ADHD as Hypothesis 1 suggests, the SC may well represent an important therapeutic target for drugs. In fact current psychostimulant therapies, which reduce distractibility, may already work at that level (Hypothesis 2), a contention which is supported by: 1. The

  1. Parenting in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charlotte; Mash, Eric J; Miller, Natalie; Ninowski, Jerilyn E

    2012-06-01

    Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments associated with the condition in adults, study of how ADHD impacts an adult's ability to parent has been relatively neglected. Parenting is a particularly important domain of functioning given the familial nature of the disorder and emerging evidence that parenting behaviors play a role in the development or maintenance of child ADHD symptoms, comorbid psychopathologies, and other associated difficulties. In this paper, we focus on three broad categories of cognitive dysfunction proposed across models of ADHD - cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, planning, and inhibitory control), self-regulation deficits (e.g., self-monitoring of performance to detect errors or the need for regulation of behavior and/or emotions), and motivational or arousal difficulties (e.g., response to incentives, delay aversion). We consider how these deficits may lead to impairments in the parenting behaviors of effective behavioral control and emotional responsiveness, and review the available evidence regarding parenting in adults with ADHD symptoms. We conclude by noting the limitations in existing studies, and argue for further research that is theoretically grounded in how core deficits of ADHD may be related to dimensions of parenting. The implications of an improved understanding of how ADHD impacts parenting for the development of early intervention or prevention programs are outlined. PMID:22459785

  2. Neuroanatomical deficits correlate with executive dysfunction in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ning; Li, Fei; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Lanting; Chen, Lizhou; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lui, Su; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-07-23

    Previous structural imaging studies have revealed gray matter volume abnormalities to reflect the etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however, which are confounded by age, medication and comorbidity and also ignore the core feature of brain structure in the executive impairments of ADHD. In the present study, we explored gray matter volume abnormalities in male children and adolescents with ADHD who were drug-naive and without comorbidities, and tried to connect structural data and behavioral executive dysfunction to provide more information regarding the brain-behavior relationships in ADHD. Seventy-two male subjects (37 patients and 35 controls) underwent three-dimensional high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging and executive function assessments, including the Stroop Color-Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Voxel-based morphometry with diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra was used to identify gray matter volume differences between the ADHD and controls. Correlation analyses were performed to identify neuroanatomical deficits that were associated with executive dysfunctions. Significantly reduced gray matter volumes were identified in the right orbitofrontal cortex, right primary motor/premotor cortex, left anterior cingulate cortex and left posterior midcingulate cortex of ADHD patients compared with controls (PADHD at early illness stage. The correlations between structural abnormalities and executive dysfunction suggest that neuroanatomical substrate deficits are implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD. PMID:26049007

  3. A Coaching Intervention for College Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Stacy L.; Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we describe coaching as an intervention for college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Coaching college students with ADHD empowers individuals to organize and execute their responsibilities, both in academia and in everyday life. With the assistance of a coach, individuals with ADHD can create structure…

  4. Use of the Differential Ability Scales for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A.; Braunstein, Dania J.; Dumont, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    The validity of the Differential Ability Scales (DAS) was assessed among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a matched control sample. The sample included 45 children with ADHD (69% with comorbidity) and 45 controls matched by age, gender, ethnicity, and parental educational level. Multivariate analysis of variance…

  5. Assessing Self-Control Training in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloh, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the use of a progressive delay procedure with and without a concurrent activity to teach self-control to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Three participants were initially required to wait progressively longer periods of time for access to preferred edible reinforcers. After demonstrating this…

  6. The Developmental Trajectories of Executive Function of Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ying; Shuai, Lan; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Qian, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Yufeng

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of executive function (EF) of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Han Chinese. Five hundred and fifteen children and adolescents with ADHD and 249 healthy controls took part in this study. All of them were administered four EF tests capturing…

  7. Characteristics of College Students with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Who Misuse Their Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca; Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the characteristics of college students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms who misuse their prescribed psychostimulant medications. Methods and Participants: Forty-three undergraduate students with a prescription for Ritalin or Adderall completed structured…

  8. Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Holland, Niamh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite a reported excess of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in individuals with intellectual disability, it has been argued that ADHD symptoms have been under diagnosed and inadequately treated in individuals with intellectual disability. Materials and methods: Published studies focussing on the level of ADHD…

  9. Ethnic Disparities in Special Education Labeling among Children with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, David S.; Davis, Jasmine K.; Bevans, Katherine; Guevara, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined disparities in special education labeling among children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by merging calendar year 2002 special education records and Medicaid mental health claims for 4,852 children who had been diagnosed with ADHD in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Thirty-eight percent were receiving…

  10. Does Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Exacerbate Executive Dysfunction in Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jonathan M.; Arnold, Shelley S.; Pride, Natalie A.; North, Kathryn N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Although approximately 40% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) meet diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the impact of ADHD on the executive functioning of children with NF1 is not understood. We investigated whether spatial working memory and response inhibition are impaired in children with…

  11. Study of Level of Stress in the Parents of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sujata; Gandhi, Raghu; Anand, Vidhu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents who have children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience high level of stress related to caring for their children. But not much research has been conducted in this area in India. This study aimed to assess the stress of parenting children with ADHD. Methods: This is a clinic based comparative…

  12. The Importance of Friendship for Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee

    2010-01-01

    It is well-established that youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often peer-rejected and rated by parents, teachers, and observers to have poor social skills, when compared to typically developing peers. Significantly less research, however, has been devoted to the experiences youth with ADHD have in their close…

  13. Academic Interventions for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J.; Eckert, Tanya L.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews empirical studies that have reported the effects of academic interventions with students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Reviews intervention in the general categories of peer tutoring, computer-assisted instruction, task and instructional modifications, and strategy training. Finds peer tutoring and task…

  14. Including Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Around 80% of pupils with attention deficit disorders are educated in mainstream schools. The difficulties relating to inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity experienced by such pupils present mainstream educators with a unique set of challenges and opportunities. In this article, Neil Humphrey, Senior Lecturer in the Psychology of Education…

  15. Determining Eligibility for Educational Services for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Twila Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to educate administrators, teachers and parents on educational services available to students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Schools are required by federal and state laws to provide a student with a disability a free appropriate public education (FAPE) in the least restrictive…

  16. Stimulants and Cardiovascular Events in Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Huang, Cecilia; Gerhard, Tobias; Winterstein, Almut G.; Crystal, Stephen; Allison, Paul D.; Marcus, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between stimulant use and risk of cardiovascular events and symptoms in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and compared the risks associated with methylphenidate and amphetamines. Method: Claims were reviewed of privately insured young people 6 to 21 years old without known…

  17. Comorbidity of Social Anxiety Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Koyuncu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite high rates of reported comorbidity in patients with social anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidity was not evaluated in these studies. Studies, investigating the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD comorbidity in social anxiety disorder are limited and little is known about it. The reason for this may be the fact that, ADHD have been seen as a childhood disease over a period of time. In the prospective studies ,it is reported that ADHD is often observed in the adulthood and effects persist . On the other hand, studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, higher rates of social anxiety disorder comorbidity have been reported. The presence of comorbid anxiety disorder increases the risk of impulsive feature in ADHD, causes problems in functionality, impaired compliance and resistance to the treatment. The aim of this article is to investigate the the status of social anxiety disorder and ADHD comorbidity and to discuss the hypothesis of antidepressant-associated hypomanic shift due to antidepressant treatment in social anxiety disorder patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 10-21

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Scientific Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Thurber

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD continues to be controversial with arguments for and against its veracity being waged by individuals representing a variety of disciplines from behavioral scientists to philosophers. Our perspective focuses on the epistemological underpinnings of what is now commonly known as ADHD. Its ignominious history and current disputes may stem from a "pessimistic" epistemology, meaning that truth is only the province of persons in authority and power. The authoritative organizations that govern the diagnostic labels and criteria are the American Psychiatric Association and their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the World Health Organization that sponsors the International Classification of Disease. We contrast the pessimistic epistemology with criteria for truth from the scientific method. Although scientific scrutiny has been and is being applied subsequent to "authoritarian edicts" of the disorder, we opine that ADHD currently does not have status beyond that of the "hypothetical construct." Moreover, current brain-based causal models have failed to provide rigorous supporting data that comes from testing falsifiable hypotheses.

  19. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  20. White Matter Microstructure in Subjects with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Katherine E.; Levitt, Jennifer G.; Loo, Sandra K.; Ly, Ronald; Yee, Victor; O'Neill, Joseph; Alger, Jeffry; Narr, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous voxel-based and regions-of-interest (ROI)-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have found above-normal mean diffusivity (MD) and below-normal fractional anisotropy (FA) in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, findings remain mixed, and few studies have examined the contribution of ADHD…

  1. An Evaluation of Three Time-Out Procedures for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E.; Manos, Michael J.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Onyango, Adia N.; Lopez-Williams, Andy; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Meichenbaum, David L.; Caserta, Donald A.; Swain, Sara

    2004-01-01

    Behavior modification is an evidence-based treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Time-out from positive reinforcement is one behavior-modification procedure commonly recommended to manage disruptive or noncompliant behavior. This investigation examined the effects of time-out on children's behavior within the…

  2. Teaching Tommy: A Second-Grader with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachin, Katharina

    1996-01-01

    Recounts a second-grade teacher's efforts to help a rough-and-tumble boy diagnosed with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). After comprehensive behavioral and academic programs (including token rewards, peer tutoring, resource room activities, an inclass aide) failed to stabilize Tommy's behavior, Ritalin was (successfully) prescribed…

  3. The Efficacy of Notetaking to Improve Behavior and Comprehension of Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two studies evaluated a notetaking intervention targeting the passive learning style and disruptive behaviors exhibited by adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Thirty teens in a summer program were able to learn notetaking strategies using a modification of the Directed Notetaking Activity training method and showed…

  4. Consultation-Based Academic Intervention for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: School Functioning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra, Asha K.; DuPaul, George J.; Volpe, Robert J.; Tresco, Katy E.; Junod, Rosemary E. Vile; Lutz, J. Gary; Cleary, Kristi S.; Flammer-Rivera, Lizette M.; Manella, Mark C.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of two consultation-based models for designing academic interventions to enhance the educational functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children (N = 167) meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (4th ed.--text revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria for…

  5. Adults with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Assessment and Treatment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, John S.; Harper, Dennis C.

    2007-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults is characterized by inattentiveness and impulsivity. This article provides counselors with information about the etiology, assessment, and treatment of adult ADHD. The identification of the genetic and neurological features of ADHD has led to improvements in evaluation and treatment.…

  6. Perceived Effectiveness of Classroom Management Interventions with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Many teachers are concerned about their ability to work effectively with students who have attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive study was to determine the perceived efficacy of common interventions used to address negative ADHD behaviors in the elementary and middle school classrooms. The…

  7. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for College Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J. Russell; Rostain, Anthony L.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental syndrome that persists into adulthood for the majority of children with ADHD. Other individuals may not experience the full negative effects of undiagnosed ADHD until they face the demands of adult life. College counseling centers in particular are seeing a rise in the number of…

  8. Medication and School Intervention for Elementary Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisoli, Kelly; McLaughlin, T. F.

    2004-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects increasing numbers of children in every country around the world. Children who are diagnosed with ADHD are constantly having difficulties in the classroom environment. There are various medication therapies and evidence based procedures (EBP) which teachers can employ to further assist…

  9. Writing Characteristics of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Fishman, Evan J.; Reid, Robert; Hebert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) frequently experience significant difficulty mastering basic academic skills. This meta-analysis focuses on one specific potential area of learning difficulties for these students: namely, writing. To identify the extent and depth of the potential writing challenges faced by students…

  10. Development of a Family-School Intervention for Young Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautone, Jennifer A.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Power, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of multimodal psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, these programs are limited in that there has not been an explicit focus on the connection between family and school. This study was designed to develop and pilot test a family-school…

  11. Body Movements of Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) during Computer Video Game Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrace-DiZinno, Anna Marie; Douglas, Graham; Houghton, Stephen; Lawrence, Vivienne; West, John; Whiting, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that recorded the type and severity of body movements of 79 boys with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and 67 non-ADHD boys while playing a computer video game. Results of multivariate analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences in body movements between ADHD and non-ADHD boys. (Author/LRW)

  12. Executive Functioning Differences between Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Initiation, Planning and Strategy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramham, Jessica; Ambery, Fiona; Young, Susan; Morris, Robin; Russell, Ailsa; Xenitidis, Kiriakos; Asherson, Philip; Murphy, Declan

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning deficits characterize the neuropsychological profiles of the childhood neurodevelopmental disorders of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This study sought to determine whether similar impairments exist in adults with ADHD (N = 53) and ASD (N = 45) in comparison with a…

  13. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Freire Bueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP, but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL, mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II, before and after intervention. Results. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT and detectability (CPT II and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. Conclusion. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls.

  14. Neurofeedback as an Intervention to Improve Reading Achievement in Students with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Jeffry P.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates that attention deficits have a deleterious effect on academic achievement. Impairments in attention, and not hyperactivity/impulsivity, are associated with learning difficulties and academic problems in students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To date, most studies have focused on symptoms…

  15. Evaluation of Oxidative Metabolism in Child and Adolescent Patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kul, Muslum; Unal, Fatih; Kandemir, Hasan; Sarkarati, Bahram; Kilinc, Kamer; Kandemir, Sultan Basmacı

    2015-01-01

    Objective Oxidative metabolism is impaired in several medical conditions including psychiatric disorders, and this imbalance may be involved in the etiology of these diseases. The present study evaluated oxidative balance in pediatric and adolescent patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods The study included 48 children and adolescents (34 male, 14 female) with ADHD who had no neurological, systemic, or comorbid psychiatric disorders, with the exception of opposi...

  16. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...

  17. Effects of stimulant medication on the lateralisation of line bisection judgements of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, D; Bradshaw, J. (Jonathan); MATTINGLEY, J; Lee, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Deficits in the maintenance of attention may underlie problems in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD also show asymmetric attention deficits in traditional lateralisation and visuospatial orienting tasks, suggesting right hemispheric (and left hemispace) attentional disturbance. This study aimed to examine the lateralisation of selective attention in ADHD; specifically, the effect of a moving, random dot background, and stimulan...

  18. Career Beliefs and Job Satisfaction in Adults with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Carol A.; Prevatt, Frances; Welles, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    The authors evaluated dysfunctional career beliefs and subsequent low job satisfaction in adults reporting significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants (N = 81) completed the Adult Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale (S. B. McCarney & P. D. Anderson, 1996), the Career Thoughts Inventory (J. P.…

  19. Neuropsychological Functioning of Girls with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Followed Prospectively into Adolescence: Evidence for Continuing Deficits?

    OpenAIRE

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Carte, Estol T.; Fan, Catherine; Jassy, Jonathan S.; Owens, Elizabeth B.

    2007-01-01

    Prospectively followed girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), along with a matched comparison sample, five years after childhood neuropsychological assessments. Follow-up neuropsychological measures emphasized attentional skills, executive functions, and language abilities. Paralleling childhood findings, the childhood-diagnosed ADHD group displayed moderate to large deficits in executive/attentional performance as well as rapid naming, relative to the comparison group, a...

  20. Zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in a group of Egyptian children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Magdy M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a behavioral syndrome of childhood characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. There were many etiological theories showed dysfunction of some brain areas that are implicated in inhibition of responses and functions of the brain. Minerals like zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper may play a role in the pathogenesis and therefore the treatment of this disorder. Objective This study aimed to measure levels of zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comparing them to normal. Methods This study included 58 children aged 5-15 years with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder attending Minia University Hospital from June 2008 to January 2010. They were classified into three sub-groups: sub-group I included 32 children with in-attentive type, sub-group II included 10 children with hyperactive type and sub-group III included 16 children with combined type according to the DSM-IV criteria of American Psychiatric Association, 2000. The control group included 25 apparently normal healthy children. Results Zinc, ferritin and magnesium levels were significantly lower in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder than controls (p value 0.04, 0.03 and 0.02 respectively, while copper levels were not significantly different (p value 0.9. Children with inattentive type had significant lower levels of zinc and ferritin than controls (p value 0.001 and 0.01 respectively with no significant difference between them as regards magnesium and copper levels (p value 0.4 and 0.6 respectively. Children with hyperactive type had significant lower levels of zinc, ferritin and magnesium than controls (p value 0.01, 0.02 and 0.02 respectively with no significant difference between them as regards copper levels (p value 0.9. Children with combined type had significant lower levels of zinc and magnesium than controls (p value 0

  1. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make...... changes will most likely increase the prevalence of ADHD, especially in adults and adolescents, but maybe also in children. The added examples will also result in necessary revisions and new validations of rating scales and diagnostic interviews. This review will examine each of the proposed DSM-5 changes...... and the impact they may have, and in addition, the paper will make an overview of the main characteristics of some of the international and national guidelines for assessment and treatment of ADHD and how these impact the clinical practice....

  2. The origins and consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, and is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This highly prevalent disorder is estimated to affect about 5% of school-age children worldwide, with a substantial degree of persistence over time. Although the specific cause of ADHD is still largely unknown, despite a long history of research, it is believed to involve multip...

  3. Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder presenting with school truancy in an adolescent: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Wan Ismail, Wan Salwina; Tan, Chai Eng; Jaffar, Aida; Sharip, Shalisah; Omar, Khairani

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric illness commonly diagnosed during the early years of childhood. In many adolescents with undiagnosed ADHD, presentation may not be entirely similar to that in younger children. These adolescents pose significant challenges to parents and teachers coping with their disability. Often adolescents with behavioural problems are brought to medical attention as a last resort. This case describes an adolescent who presented to a primary c...

  4. The Neurological Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Shirley; Bolan, Morna; Burton, Michael; Snyder, Sherry; Pasterczyk-Seabolt, Claire; Martin, Don

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examines the role of neurochemical stimulation and signs of neurological deficits. Describes the chemical action of drugs used to treat ADHD, along with cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects, and side effects. Elaborates on drug treatment and basic behavior modification…

  5. Prevention of Serious Conduct Problems in Youth with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Villodas, Miguel T.; Pfiffner, Linda J.; McBurnett, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss issues in the prevention of serious conduct problems among children and adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We begin by reviewing research on the common genetic and environmental etiological factors, developmental trajectories, characteristics, and impairments associated with ADHD and comorbid Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders. Next, we present empirically-based models for intervention with children and adolescent...

  6. Concomitant Pharmacotherapy of Psychotropic Medications in EU Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sikirica, Vanja; Fridman, Moshe; Bruno, Amanda; Hodgkins, Paul; Erder, M. Haim

    2013-01-01

    Background With preliminary data suggesting an increasing trend in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence in Europe, the use of psychotropic medications in this population needs to be better understood, particularly among patients with ADHD and no co-morbid psychiatric disorder. Methods Medical charts of patients aged 6–17 years with one or more ADHD diagnosis between January 1, 2004 and June 30, 2007, and use of ADHD medication were abstracted by physicians from six Europ...

  7. Understanding Attention Deficit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…

  8. Neurocognitive Profile of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD: A comparison between subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Ahmadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the differences between ADHD subtypes in executive function tasks compared to themselves and normal controls.In this study, 45 school aged children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and 30 normal children who were matched based on age and IQ score in Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R were compared in terms of executive function. We used Wisconsin Sorting Card Test to assess executive function in both groups. We also used children's scores in Children Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4 for diagnosing ADHD and specifying ADHD subtypes. Data were entered in SPSS-17 and analyzed by T-test and ANOVA static tests to clarify the differences between ADHD and controls and between ADHD subtypes. Scheffe's test was also used to identify which groups were different from one another. The mean and standard divisions (SD were used for descriptive analysis.ADHD subtypes are significantly different in terms of perseverative responses (p≤ 0/01 and perseverative errors (p≤ 0/001. Based on Scheffe's test, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders-Hyperactive type (ADHD-H is not that different from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders-Inattention type (ADHD-I and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders-Combined type (ADHD-C, but there are significant responses and perseverative differences between ADHD-I and ADHD-C in terms of perseverative errors. ADHD-C shows more perseverative responses and perseverative errors than ADHD-I.The findings of this study revealed that executive function patterns are different in children with ADHD compared to normal children. In this study it was also found that ADHD subtypes are also different in terms of perseveration and response inhibition domains; ADHD-C has more deficits in these domains.

  9. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor as a Biomarker in Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Farshid Saadat; Maryam Kosha; Ali Amiry; Gholamreza Torabi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is involved in the pathogenesis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), although experimental data regarding the contribution of BDNF concentration to this psychiatric disorder are controversial. Aim: To evaluate the plasma levels of BDNF in patients with ADHD. Material and Methods: In this cross sectional study, ADHD and controls were recruited from the outpatient clinic of the ...

  10. Socio-emotional intervention in attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    María Jesús Cardoso-Moreno; Lucía Tomás-Aragonés; César Rodríguez-Ledo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuro-behavioural disorder with onset in childhood. These children have impaired emotional self-control, self-regulation of drive and motivation. Numerous studies have reported cognitive disabilities in memory, executive functions, spatial abilities and language skills. The main objective of this work is to determine whether a socio-emotional intervention programme could improve executive functions in children with Attention Deficit ...

  11. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  12. Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

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  13. Maternal Anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Roohallah Mirzaaghas; Yegane Kohani; Hasan baniasadi; Fateme Tara

    2014-01-01

    Background & aim:  According to the previous studies, anxiety along with some other psychiatric disorders is common among mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Since maternal anxiety affects mother-child interactions, early treatment plays an important role in the prognosis of ADHD in children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between maternal anxiety and hyperactivity in children. Methods: This study was conducted on 112 mothers of ADHD child...

  14. Dissociable attentional and affective circuits in medication-naïve children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Jonathan; Rauh, Virginia; Gruber, Allison; Gat, Inbal; Wang, Zhishun; Bradley S. Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Current neurocognitive models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that neural circuits involving both attentional and affective processing make independent contributions to the phenomenology of the disorder. However, a clear dissociation of attentional and affective circuits and their behavioral correlates has yet to be shown in medication-naïve children with ADHD. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in a cohort of medication naïve children with (...

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): review for primary care clinicians

    OpenAIRE

    Ougrin, Dennis; Chatterton, Sandie; Banarsee, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Up to 5% of primary school age children have ADHD. Both genes and environment play a role in the aetiology of ADHD. If left untreated, children with ADHD demonstrate a range of poor long-term psychosocial outcomes. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) may be used to screen children for a range of psychiatric disorders, including ADHD.1

  16. Screening for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adult inpatients with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Geetha; Faden, Justin; Steer, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose was to assess the effectiveness of the adult ADHD Module from the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales: Screening Version DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms Total Scale (CAARS-S:SV) in screening for attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder in patients hospitalized for other psychiatric disorders. Assessment measures were administered to 55 (50%) female and 55 (50%) male adult (>18 yr. old) inpatients. Only six (5%) of the 110 inpatients had been diagnosed with comorbid ADHD according to medical charts. In contrast, 55 (50%) patients met criteria for ADHD according to the MINI, and 39 (36%) patients met criteria on the CAARS-S:SV. The higher rates of prevalence for the MINI and the CAARS-S:SV were attributable to symptom criteria for ADHD being similar to those shared with comorbid disorders. PMID:21879629

  17. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  18. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  19. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu; Whiteman, Ronald; Amat, Jose; Quackenbush, Georgette A; Martin, Laura; Durkin, Kathleen; Blair, Clancy; Royal, Jason; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Peterson, Bradley S

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...

  20. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Ersland, Lars; Plessen, Kerstin J; Haavik, Jan; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Specht, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex in adults...... two groups. Results: The ADHD group showed a significant reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region compared to the controls. Conclusion: The reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region in the ADHD group may reflect a glutamatergic deficit in prefrontal neuronal circuitry in adults with...

  1. Pharmacological Management of Pediatric Patients with Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F

    2015-10-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental neurobiological condition of childhood characterized by age-inappropriate degrees of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention to tasks requiring sustained vigilance. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is an externalizing behavior disorder characterized by difficulties with emotional and behavioral regulation that frequently brings the child into conflict with authority figures. In the clinical setting, ODD is the most common ADHD comorbidity. The combination portends more severe symptom severity, daily impairment, and a more at-risk prognosis than either disorder alone. We briefly review the literature on the characteristics and treatment of the ADHD and ODD child. A clinical approach to evaluation and treatment of ADHD and ODD is then presented. This approach emphasizes the importance of child and parent psychoeducation about the two disorders alone and in combination, the importance of behavioral management therapy approaches, the possible need for school and academic supports, and the decision to use evidence-based stimulant or non-stimulant ADHD medications depending on symptom severity combined with child and parental wishes and choice. PMID:26233632

  2. Helping adolescents with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder transition toward adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, Edward M; Gotlieb, Jaquelin S

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians can help adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder prepare to enter post-high school training and the workforce. In this article peer-reviewed studies and other resources for informing patients of the issues ahead are identified. We discuss preventive counseling, including long-term monitoring, adherence to treatment, driving, tobacco, alcohol, and other drug usage, career planning, and intimacy. The current status of insurance coverage for young adults and federal programs to assist students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are reviewed also. Consideration is given for applying for precollege testing and college accommodations and traveling abroad with medications. Pediatricians and young adults are directed to Web-based and other self-management information and tools. PMID:19492699

  3. Quality of life and psychomotor profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Barbosa Goulardins; Juliana Cristina Fernandes Bilhar Marques; Erasmo Barbante Casella

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of psychomotor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may help in defining therapeutic approaches in order to minimize losses in their quality of life. The study objectives were to evaluate the quality of life and psychomotor profile of children with ADHD and check your correlation. Fourteen children, from seven to ten years, with ADHD combined type were evaluate using the scales PedsQL™ and Motor Development Scale. Results showed adverse ef...

  4. Comorbidities and Costs of Adult Patients Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Secnik; Andrine Swensen; Lage, Maureen J

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the prevalence of comorbidities, resource use, direct medical costs, and the costs associated with missed work for adults diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study design: From a large claims database that captures inpatient, outpatient and prescription drug services, individuals diagnosed with ADHD between the years 1999 and 2001 were retrospectively identified. The ADHD cohort (n = 2252) were ma...

  5. Gender and Conduct Problems Predict Peer Functioning among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Lorenzi, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often have poor relationships with peers. However, research on this topic has predominantly focused on boys. This study considered child gender, ADHD status, and dimensionally-assessed conduct problems as predictors of peer relationship difficulties. Participants were 125 children (ages 6–10; 67% male), 63 with clinical diagnoses of ADHD and 62 non-ADHD comparison youth. Conduct problems were reported by teachers and observed in a ...

  6. Study protocol: the sleeping sound with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder project

    OpenAIRE

    Oberklaid Frank; Mensah Fiona; Davey Margot; Gerner Bibi; Efron Daryl; Sciberras Emma; Hiscock Harriet

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Up to 70% of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experience sleep problems including difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep. Sleep problems in children with ADHD can result in poorer child functioning, impacting on school attendance, daily functioning and behaviour, as well as parental mental health and work attendance. The Sleeping Sound with ADHD trial aims to investigate the efficacy of a behavioural sleep program in treating sleep probl...

  7. Executive Dysfunction in Children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Alaghband-Rad; Reza Rad Goodarzi; Mehdi Tehrani-Doost

    2007-01-01

    "nObjective: The purpose of this study is to compare the executive functions children and adolescents who suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder "n(ADHD) with normal children. "nMethod: Twenty children with ADHD were compared to 19 healthy children terms of some executive functions using the computerized version of Tower London, Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and Stroop Color Test. "nResults: In "Tower of London", the performance of children with ADHD was "nworse than normal...

  8. Treatment planning for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: treatment utilization and family preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman, William B.; Epstein, Jeffery N.

    2011-01-01

    William B Brinkman, Jeffery N EpsteinDepartment of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USABackground: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition that often results in child and family functional impairments. Although there are evidence-based treatment modalities available, implementation of and persistence with treatment plans vary with patients. Family preferences also vary...

  9. Maternal Depression Predicts Maternal Use of Corporal Punishment in Children with Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Dong-Won; Stein, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose We sought to determine if maternal depression contributed to the use of corporal punishment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Patients and Methods The data were gathered through chart review of clinic-referred children with ADHD and their mothers who were evaluated at a psychiatric clinic located in a large academic medical center in Seoul, Korea. Daily records kept by parents and 13 items from the Physical Assault of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics S...

  10. Perceived parenting style and self-perception in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fernanda Molina

    2015-01-01

    Background: there is a growing interest in the study of the self-perceptions of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the bias in their self-concept. Goal: to explore how ADHD children’s perception of parenting style predicts their selfperception and the bias in self-concept. Method: Participants: children between 7 and 13 years old diagnosed with ADHD, children assisting to psychotherapy without an ADHD diagnose, and children not assisting to psychotherapy. It ...

  11. Altered pattern of brain dopamine synthesis in male adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Waters Nicholas; Waters Susanna; Fernell Elisabeth; Forssberg Hans; Tedroff Joakim

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Limited data from positron emission tomography (PET) studies of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) indicate alterations in brain dopamine neurotransmission. However, these studies have used conventional univariate approaches that are less sensitive to detect complex interactions that may exist between different brain dopamine pathways and individual symptoms of ADHD. We aimed to investigate these potential interactions in adolescents with ADHD. M...

  12. Risperidone Versus Methylphenidate in Treatment of Preschool Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Arabgol, Fariba; Panaghi, Leily; Nikzad, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric diagnosis among preschool children. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the Risperidone treatment compared to Methylphenidate (MPH) in preschool children with ADHD. Patients and Methods: Thirty three outpatient preschool children, aged 3-6 years, diagnosed with ADHD (The diagnosis of ADHD was established by two child and adolescent psychiatrists according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria), participated i...

  13. Psychometric evaluation of the Sheehan Disability Scale in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Coles T; Coon C; DeMuro C; McLeod L; Gnanasakthy A

    2014-01-01

    Theresa Coles,1 Cheryl Coon,1 Carla DeMuro,1 Lori McLeod,1 Ari Gnanasakthy21Patient-Reported Outcomes, RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USAAbstract: Inattention and impulsivity symptoms are common among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can lead to difficulty concentrating, restlessness, difficulty completing tasks, disorganization, impatience, and impulsiveness. Many adults with ADHD find it diffic...

  14. Tobacco Smoking in Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Epidemiology and Pharmacological Approaches to Cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Kevin M.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2009-01-01

    The co-occurrence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Nicotine Dependence is common. Individuals with ADHD are more likely to initiate smoking and become dependent on nicotine than their non-ADHD counterparts, and recent evidence suggests that they may have more difficulty quitting smoking. Little is known about how to best approach treating these co-morbidities to optimize clinical outcome. Clinicians treating individuals with either ADHD or Nicotine Dependence should be a...

  15. Disordered sleep in pediatric patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganelin-Cohen, Esther; Ashkenasi, Arie

    2013-11-01

    There is a well-established correlation between sleep disturbances and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A large number of pediatric patients diagnosed with ADHD have sleep problems, while patients with sleep disturbances often display behavioral patterns that resemble some features of ADHD. Despite these observations, the relationship between sleep problems and ADHD is not yet fully understood. It is often difficult to pinpoint which of the disorders is the primary and which a byproduct of the other. A complicating factor is that stimulant medication such as methylphenidate, a drug of choice for ADHD, may adversely affect sleep quality in ADHD patients. However, there have also been reports that it may actually improve sleep quality. This review examines the latest trends in the contemporary literature on this clinical dilemma. PMID:24511653

  16. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieber, Sarah; Neufang, Susanne; Bruning, Nicole; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Fink, Gereon R.; Konrad, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two distinct neurodevelopmental diseases, they share behavioural, neuropsychological and neurobiological characteristics. For the identification of endophenotypes across diagnostic categories, further investigations of phenotypic overlap…

  17. Developing a model of occupational therapy practice for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Sidney Kin Hoi

    2005-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 15/06/2005. This three-stage study led to the development of a delineation model of occupational therapy practice for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Stage one explored the current practice of occupational therapy in the United Kingdom (UK) by conducting a national survey of 282 paediatric occupational therapists. Results indicated that there were only a small n...

  18. Neurocognitive Profile of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD): A comparison between subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Nastaran Ahmadi; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Seyed Mohsen Araghi; Hadi Zarafshan

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the differences between ADHD subtypes in executive function tasks compared to themselves and normal controls. Method In this study, 45 school aged children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and 30 normal children who were matched based on age and IQ score in Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) were compared in terms of executive function. We used Wisconsin Sorting Card Test to assess executive function in ...

  19. The Safety and Efficacy of Methylphenidate and Dexmethylphenidate in Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Michael A. Sopko Jr; Harjeet Caberwal; Benjamin Chavez

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate, OROS-methylphenidate, methylphenidate ER, and dexmethylphenidate in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). To analyze the effects of different doses of methylphenidate, it’s various formulations, and methylphenidate on efficacy and safety in this population. Data sources Literature retrieval was performed through Pubmed/MEDLINE (Up to May 2010) using the terms methylphenidate, dexmethylphen...

  20. Understanding Discipline in Families of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Equation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Casas, Ana; Grau, Dolores; Rosel, Jesus; Meliá, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-five mothers of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) completed a semi-structured interview, the Parenting Stress Index Questionnaire (Abidin, 1990), to evaluate parenting stress. The Parenting Scale (Arnold, O’Leary, Wolff & Acker, 1993) was also administered to measure dysfunctional discipline strategies. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which the independent variables were the Child’s Characteristics and t...

  1. Hyperresponsiveness to social rewards in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Herpertz-Dahlmann Beate; Kohls Gregor; Konrad Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Current research suggests that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with larger behavioral sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies. However, most studies have focused thus far on the enhancing effects of tangible rewards such as money, neglecting that social-emotional stimuli may also impact task performance in ADHD patients. Methods To determine whether non-social (monetary) and social (positive facial expressions) rewards differentially improv...

  2. CLUSTER TAXOMETRY OF ATTENTION DEFICIT/ HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER WITH LATENT CLASS AND CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Pineda; DANIEL CAMILO AGUIRRE-ACEVEDO; FRANCISCO LOPERA; DANIEL A PINEDA; MAURICIO ARCOS-BURGOS

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has heterogeneous symptoms with diverse grades of severity. Latentclass cluster analysis (LCCA) can be used to classify children, using direct data from any instrument that reports thesesymptoms, without previous gold standard diagnosis. One ADHD symptoms checklist, and one ADHD comorbiditiesquestionnaire were used. LCCAs were developed for each instrument, which were administered to a sample of 540children and adolescents, aged 4-17 years, from...

  3. Diagnosis, treatment, and burden of illness among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen L. Able

    2014-01-01

    Stephen L Able,1 Virginia Haynes,1 Jihyung Hong2 1Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, UK Purpose: To quantitatively address the burden of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe (Germany, the UK, Sweden, Denmark, and the Netherlands), to describe adult experience leading to diagnosis and treatment of ADHD, and to compare those findings with results from the US. Survey respondents and methods: Data were collected from an internat...

  4. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36 and in healthy controls (n = 35. Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.. Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A. There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  5. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF) intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8) and control (CG, N = 10) groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children partici...

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Patient With Congenital Mirror Movement Disorder and Colpocephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcen Yaroglu Kazanci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital mirror movement disorder designates involuntary movements on one side of the body that occur as mirror of the intentional movements on the contralateral side. Colpocephaly is described as persistence of fetal configuration of lateral ventricles. Case Presentation: A two-month old male infant was brought to the hospital due to bilateral identical movements of the hands. Except for bilateral involuntary synkinetic imitative movements in hands, neurological and physical examination was normal. Cranial MRI showed corpus callosum dysgenesis, hypogenesis and dilation of bilateral lateral ventricular posterior horns (colpocephaly. At the age of 7 years, he was started to use metylphenydate to mitigate attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. The mirror movements were decreasing in amplitude by years and were not so serious to affect normal life activities. Conclusions: Mirror movements, diagnosed usually during childhood, may be congenital or secondary to neurological diseases. Although they generally do not affect normal life activities, in some cases severity of mirror movements causes a real debilitating disease. In our case the patient was diagnosed at the age of 2 months and on follow-up no debilitating problems were observed. This is the first case to describe the association of colpocephaly and mirror movements. The exact mechanism of this association is not known. Although it is known that mirror movements may be in relation with some pychiatric pathologies, this is the first report of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in conjunction with mirror movements and/or colpocephaly. Managing comorbidities, either physical or psyhchological, will help the patient to live in good health without trying to cope with other pathological diseases.

  7. Intervention strategies in children with cochlear implants having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundir, Munish; Nagarkar, Anu N; Panda, Naresh K

    2007-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood which not only affects child's education, development and peer functioning but is also associated with significant morbidity in areas of social and academic success. ADHD may hamper the language acquisition in hearing impaired children. When such children are scheduled for the auditory verbal therapy following cochlear implantation, the outcome is limited due to reduced attention span. We have presented two cases who had undergone cochlear implantation and showed the signs of ADHD. As there was little progress in listening skills and speech and language acquisition following 3 months of therapy, both children were referred to Psychiatry Department and were diagnosed as having ADHD. Following little improvement with behavior modification techniques, they were put on medication. Significant improvement was noticed with reduction in hyperactivity and increased attention span after the administration of the drugs. PMID:17391776

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mulligan, Aisling; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have co

  9. Lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of adolescents and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Najib J

    2012-01-01

    Jadwiga Najib1–31Division of Pharmacy Practice, Arnold and Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Long Island University, Brooklyn, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Psychiatry, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders defined by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Symptoms begin in childho...

  10. Zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in a group of Egyptian children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Magdy M; El-Mazary Abdel-Azeem M; Maher Reham M; Saber Manal M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a behavioral syndrome of childhood characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. There were many etiological theories showed dysfunction of some brain areas that are implicated in inhibition of responses and functions of the brain. Minerals like zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper may play a role in the pathogenesis and therefore the treatment of this disorder. Objective This study aimed to measure levels of zinc,...

  11. Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L.; Short, Elizabeth J.; McNamara, Nora K.; Demeter, Christine A.; Stansbrey, Robert J.; Gracious, Barbara L.; Whipkey, Resaca; Manos, Michael J.; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2007-01-01

    The short-term efficacy of methylphenidate in the treatment of youths aged 5 to 17 years with bipolar disorder (BD) and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was investigated. The trial observation showed that euthymic youths with BD and ADHD might benefit from short-term concomitant treatment with methylphenidate.

  12. Exploring five common assumptions on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Nieweg, Edo H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    The number of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with medication is steadily increasing. The aim of this paper was to critically discuss five debatable assumptions on ADHD that may explain these trends to some extent. These are that ADHD (i) causes de

  13. Does Response Variability Predict Distractibility among Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary W.; Roberts, Walter M.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Increased intraindividual variability in response time (RTSD) has been observed reliably in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and has often been used as a measure of inattention. RTSD is assumed to reflect attentional lapses and distractibility, though evidence for the validity of this connection is lacking. We assessed whether RTSD…

  14. Self-Regulation Interventions for Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert; Trout, Alexandra L.; Schartz, Michalla

    2005-01-01

    Current recommendations for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) call for a multimodal approach including a combination of medication, behavior modification, school accommodations, and ancillary services. One method that has been proposed as an effective and efficient means for increasing students' attention and…

  15. Exposure to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, Caitlin; Garcia-Bournissen, Facundo; Ito, Shinya; Koren, Gideon

    2007-01-01

    QUESTION An 18-year-old patient of mine, currently under treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with methylphenidate, just found out that she is pregnant. What are the risks for the baby when the mother uses ADHD medications during pregnancy?

  16. GAME BIOFEEDBACK TECHNOLOGY IN ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stoller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue the study of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder when using betastimulating game neurofeedback. The dynamics of segmental characteristics of the alpha rhythm and θ/β ratio for different groups of successful training. Evaluate the effectiveness of training in terms of the number of ADHD symptoms (at the beginning and end of the training.

  17. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found t

  18. Methylphenidate significantly improves driving performance of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized crossover trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; Bekker, E.M.; Roos, M.; Minova, A.; Eijken, E.J.; Kooij, J.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Kenemans, J.L.; Verbaten, M.N.; Olivier, B.; Volkerts, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Although patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have reported improved driving performance on methylphenidate, limited evidence exists to support an effect of treatment on driving performance and some regions prohibit driving on methylphenidate. A randomized, crossover trial e

  19. Support for Learning Goes beyond Academic Support: Voices of Students with Asperger's Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the experiences of support at school among young adults with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and also to examine what support they, in retrospect, described as influencing learning. Purposive sampling was used to enroll participants. Data were collected through…

  20. Medications for adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soileau, Earl J

    2008-08-01

    ADHD is recognized as a neurologic condition rather than just bad behavior. Medical treatment has been recognized as very helpful. Risks of untreated ADHD are substantial. Every life area is negatively affected including school performance, drug abuse and dependence risk, driving performance, sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancy and family cohesiveness to mention some of them. Frequent misinformation in the popular media causes apprehension about medical treatment. Even after almost 60 years stimulants remain the mainstay in treatment of ADHD. Newer release systems have produced longer acting and smoother acting medication. Side effects have always been brief and mild however, newer forms cause fewer side effects than older preparations and cover symptoms for more of the waking hours of each day. Although studies in adolescents are less numerous than in children the literature standard supports the safety and efficacy of stimulants in adolescents. In addition there are non-stimulant medications that have shown efficacy in adolescents. There are now a greater number of medications and more effective medications than ever before. Clinical pearls in medication management are shared in practical terms so that these newer treatments can be used to help those affected with ADHD more effectively than ever before. PMID:18822831

  1. Differential motor alterations in children with three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Poblano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine frequency of motor alterations in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Method We evaluated 19 children aged 7-12 years with ADHD classified in three sub-types: Combined (ADHD-C, with Inattention (ADHD-I, and with Hyperactivity (ADHD-H. Controls were age- and gender matched healthy children. We utilized Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP for measuring motor skills. Results We observed differences between children with ADHD and controls in BOTMP general score and in static coordination, dynamic general- and hand- coordination, and in synkinetic movements. We also found differences in dynamic hand coordination between controls and children with ADHD-C; in dynamic general coordination between controls and children with ADHD-H; and in frequency of synkinetic movements between controls and children with ADHD-H. Conclusion Children with ADHD with a major degree of hyperactivity showed greater frequency of motor alterations.

  2. Does Electroencephalography Contribute to Examining Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Fayyazi A, Khajeh A. Does Electroencephalography Contribute to Examining Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer;8(3: 65-67.Letter to Editor, Has not abstract.ReferencesSwaiman Kenneth F AS, Ferriero D, Schor N. Pediatric neurology: principles & practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders; 2012. p.622-628.Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P, Kaplan HI. Kaplan & Sadock’s comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.p.3560-3579.Parisi P, Moavero R, Verrotti A, Curatolo P. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with epilepsy. Brain & development. 2010;32(1:10-6. Epub 2009/04/17.Laporte N, Sebire G, Gillerot Y, Guerrini R, Ghariani S. Cognitive epilepsy: ADHD related to focal EEG discharges. Pediatric neurology. 2002;27(4:307-11. Epub 2002/11/19.Dunn DW, Kronenberger WG. Childhood epilepsy, attention problems, and ADHD: review and practical considerations. Seminars in pediatric neurology. 2005;12(4:222-8. Epub 2006/06/20.Kattimani S, Mahadevan S. Treating children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid epilepsy. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology. 2011;14(1:9-11. Epub 2011/06/03.Holtmann M, Becker K, Kentner-Figura B, Schmidt MH. Increased frequency of rolandic spikes in ADHD children. Epilepsia. 2003;44(9:1241-4. Epub 2003/08/16.Richer LP, Shevell MI, Rosenblatt BR. Epileptiform abnormalities in children with attention-deficithyperactivity disorder. Pediatric neurology. 2002;26(2:125-9. Epub 2002/03/19.Marston D, Besag F, Binnie CD, Fowler M. Effects of transitory cognitive impairment on psychosocial functioning of children with epilepsy: a therapeutic trial. Developmental medicine and child neurology. 1993;35(7:574-81. Epub 1993/07/01.Fonseca LC, Tedrus GM, Moraes C, Vicente Machado A, Almeida MP, Oliveira DO. Epileptiform abnormalities and quantitative EEG in

  3. Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Ramstad, Erica; Krogh, Helle B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated psychiatric disorders in childhood. Typically, children with ADHD find it difficult to pay attention, they are hyperactive and impulsive.Methylphenidate is the drug most often prescribed to...... treat children and adolescents with ADHD but, despite its widespread use, this is the first comprehensive systematic review of its benefits and harms. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with ADHD. SEARCH METHODS: In February 2015 we...... methylphenidate to request published and unpublished data. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing methylphenidate versus placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents aged 18 years and younger with a diagnosis of ADHD. At least 75% of participants needed to have...

  4. Memantine versus Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    MohammadReza Mohammadi; Soleiman Mohammadzadeh; Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of memantine versus methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Method: Forty participants (34 boys and 6 girls) aged 6-11 who were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder based on (DSM-IV-TR) criteria were selected for this study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups: group one (n = 22) received memantine and the other group (n = 18)...

  5. Use of stimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: FOR

    OpenAIRE

    Coghill, David

    2004-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is complex. David Coghill believes the condition is undertreated, but Harvey Markovitch argues that current uncertainties about diagnosis and treatment mean doctors should be cautious

  6. Use of stimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: AGAINST

    OpenAIRE

    Marcovitch, Harvey

    2004-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is complex. David Coghill believes the condition is undertreated, but Harvey Markovitch argues that current uncertainties about diagnosis and treatment mean doctors should be cautious

  7. Cognitive computer training in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus no intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikic, Aida; Leckman, J. F.; Lindschou, Jane; Ø. Christensen, Torben; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and impulsivity and/or hyperactivity and a range of cognitive dysfunctions. Pharmacological treatment may be beneficial; however, many affected individuals...... continue to have difficulties with cognitive functions despite medical treatment, and up to 30 % do not respond to pharmacological treatment. Inadequate medical compliance and the long-term effects of treatment make it necessary to explore nonpharmacological and supplementary treatments for ADHD. Treatment...... parts of cognition, mostly on the working memory or attention but with poor generalization of training on other cognitive functions and functional outcome. Children with ADHD have a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is important that cognitive training target multiple cognitive functions...

  8. The Effect of Multimodal Trainings on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kaymak Özmen, Suna; Kafkas Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of parent, teacher and attention training programs for daily problem behaviors of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was analyzed through parent and teacher evaluations. To achieve this purpose, single case study was employed. At the beginning of the study, baseline data were gathered both at home and in school. When the baseline data was decided to be decisive, parent training, teacher training and attention training programs were applied c...

  9. Raising attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallanti, Stefano; Salerno, Luana

    2015-03-22

    Schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two psychiatric disorders with a negative impact on quality of life of individuals affected. Although they are classified into distinct disorders categories, attentional dysfunction is considered as a core feature in both conditions, either at the clinical then pathophysiological level. Beyond the obvious clinical overlap between these disorders, the Research Domain Criteria approach might offer an interesting perspective for disentangling common circuits underpinning both disorders. Hence, we review evidences regarding the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, at the clinical level, and at the level of underlying brain mechanisms. The evidence regarding the influence of environmental risk factors in the emergence of both disorders, and their developmental trajectories is also reviewed. Among these, we will try to elucidate the complex relationship between stimulants use and psychotic symptoms, discussing the potential role of ADHD medication in inducing psychosis or in exacerbating it. We aim that, taken together, these findings may promote further investigation with important implications both for clinicians and research. In fact, considering the amounting evidence on the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, the delineation of their boundaries might help in the decision for diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, it may help to promote interventions focused on the prevention of both schizophrenia and ADHD, by the reduction of recognized environmental risk factors. PMID:25815254

  10. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Measures in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Steve W.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Shahana, Nasrin; HUDDLESTON, DAVID A; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2012-01-01

    Children affected by Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have diminished intra-hemispheric inhibition (Short Interval Cortical Inhibition) as measured by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. This study’s objective is to determine whether inter-hemispheric inhibition (Ipsilateral Silent Period Latency) correlates with clinical behavioral rating and motor control deficits of affected children. In 114 8–12 year old, right-handed children (age/sex-matched, 50 affected, 64 controls), we perform...

  11. Association between Severity of Behavioral Phenotype and Comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Patricia A.; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association," 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity…

  12. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Bathula, Deepti; Herting, Megan; Schmitt, Colleen; Kroenke, Christopher D.; Fair, Damien; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Identification of biomarkers is a priority for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies have documented macrostructural brain alterations in ADHD, but few have examined white matter microstructure, particularly in preadolescent children. Given dramatic white matter maturation across childhood, microstructural differences…

  13. Electrophysiological Evidence of Atypical Motivation and Reward Processing in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Clay B.; Baker, Travis E.; Kerns, Kimberly A.; Muller, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence suggest that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by the impact of abnormal reward prediction error signals carried by the midbrain dopamine system on frontal brain areas that implement cognitive control. To investigate this issue, we recorded the event-related brain potential…

  14. Individuals with a Gifted/Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelly M.; Olenchak, F. Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on twice-exceptional students who are dual diagnosed as having giftedness and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This area of research is warranted because giftedness and ADHD present similarly but have different ramifications for performance and outcomes. In addition, research inquiry and…

  15. Caregiver Survey of Pharmacotherapy to Treat Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marilee A.; Seyfer, Daisha L.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Foster, Jessica E. A.; McClure, Kelsey E.; Coury, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by a unique neurocognitive and behavioral profile, including increased incidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the perceived helpfulness and side effects of medications used to treat ADHD (methylphenidate class,…

  16. Quantitative Evaluation System of Soft Neurological Signs for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Kaneko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Soft neurological signs (SNS are minor neurological abnormalities in motor performance, and are used as one evaluation method for neurodevelopmental delays in children with ADHD. Our aim is to establish a quantitative evaluation system for children with ADHD. We focused on the arm movement called pronation and supination, which is one such soft neurological sign. Thirty three children with ADHD aged 7–11 years (27 males, six females and twenty five adults participants aged 21–29 years old (19 males, six females participated in our experiments. Our results suggested that the pronation and supination function in children with ADHD has a tendency to lag behind that of typically developing children by several years. From these results, our system has a possibility to objectively evaluate the neurodevelopmental delay of children with ADHD.

  17. When attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder co-occurs with anxiety disorders: effects on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, Katharina

    2007-08-01

    Anxiety disorders (ANX) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occur; this comorbidity is associated with a high degree of impairment and a poor long-term prognosis. In this review, the nature of this comorbidity and its treatment will be described, and an approach to treating children with ANX + ADHD will be presented. The etiology of ANX + ADHD is controversial, with biological, developmental, environmental and cognitive factors examined in various studies. There is increasing evidence that ANX + ADHD may be distinct from each separate disorder, and may represent a neuropsychiatric condition that involves dysregulation in both anxiety and ADHD domains. Treatment usually requires a combination of medication and psychotherapeutic intervention. Stimulant medications have been found most helpful so far compared with other medications, although atomoxetine is also being studied. There is limited evidence for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and their potential for behavioral activation may be problematic in these children. Intensive behavior modification was shown to be beneficial in conjunction with medication for ANX + ADHD in a multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has been used to address anxiety symptoms, but may need to be individualized in ANX + ADHD as cognitive limitations and ADHD behaviors may otherwise interfere. Parental anxious or ADHD traits and the child's developmental level must also be considered to optimize treatment. PMID:17678493

  18. Attentional Bias towards Emotional Scenes in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Pishyareh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Children with attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD react explosively and inappropriately to emotional stimuli. It could be hypothesized that these children have some impairment in attending to emotional cues. Based on this hypothesis, we conducted this study to evaluate visual directions of children with ADHD towards paired emotional scenes.Method: thirty boys between the ages of 6 and 11 years diagnosed with ADHD were compared with 30 age-matched normal boys. All participants were presented paired emotional and neutral scenes in the four following categories: pleasant-neutral; pleasant-unpleasant; unpleasant-neutral; and neutral – neutral. Meanwhile, their visual orientations towards these pictures were evaluated using the eye tracking system. The number and duration of first fixation and duration of first gaze were compared between the two groups using the MANOVA analysis. The performance of each group in different categories was also analyzed using the Friedman test.Results: With regards to duration of first gaze, which is the time taken to fixate on a picture before moving to another picture, ADHD children spent less time on pleasant pictures compared to normal group ,while they were looking at pleasant – neutral and unpleasant – pleasant pairs. The duration of first gaze on unpleasant pictures was higher while children with ADHD were looking at unpleasant – neutral pairs (P<0.01.Conclusion: based on the findings of this study it could be concluded that children with ADHD attend to unpleasant conditions more than normal children which leads to their emotional reactivity.

  19. Advances and Considerations in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Pharmacotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin Akhondzadeh; Mohammad Mohammadi

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder associated with significant impairments in occu¬pational, academic, neuropsychological, and social functioning. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are recommended as first-line medication therapy for children. CNS stimulants include formulations of methylphenidate and amphetamine derivatives and are available in a large variety of immediate- and extended-release preparations. Extended-release ...

  20. Motor Circuit Anatomy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder With or Without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Crocetti, Deana; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the morphology of frontal-parietal regions relevant to motor functions in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We also explored its associations with autism severity and motor skills, and the impact of comorbid ADHD on these associations. Participants included 126 school-age children: 30 had ASD only, 33 had ASD with ADHD, and 63 were typically developing. High resolution 3T MPRAGE images were acquired to examine the cortical morphology (gray matter volume, GMV, surface area, SA, and cortical thickness, CT) in three regions of interest (ROI): precentral gyrus (M1), postcentral gyrus (S1), and inferior parietal cortex (IPC). Children with ASD showed abnormal increases in GMV and SA in all three ROIs: (a) increased GMV in S1 bilaterally and in right M1 was specific to children with ASD without ADHD; (b) all children with ASD (with or without ADHD) showed increases in the left IPC SA. Furthermore, on measures of motor function, impaired praxis was associated with increased GMV in right S1 in the ASD group with ADHD. Children with ASD with ADHD showed a positive relationship between bilateral S1 GMV and manual dexterity, whereas children with ASD without ADHD showed a negative relationship. Our findings suggest that (a) ASD is associated with abnormal morphology of cortical circuits crucial to motor control and learning; (b) anomalous overgrowth of these regions, particularly S1, may contribute to impaired motor skill development, and (c) functional and morphological differences are apparent between children with ASD with or without ADHD. PMID:25962921

  1. Correlation between sleep disorder screening and executive dysfunction in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zambrano-Sanchez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare frequency of sleep disorders (SD and executive dysfunction (ED in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and a control group. Method We studied 156 children with ADHD with a mean age of 8.5 years, and a control group with 111 children with a mean age of 8.3 years. We utilized the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ to screen SD and the working memory measurement from the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV to screen ED. Results We did not observe an increased frequency of SD in children with ADHD compared with the controls. However, we did identify ED in children with ADHD; additionally a significant correlation was observed between the type of ADHD and SD and among ED, WISC-IV measurements, and type of SD in children with ADHD. Conclusion An increase of SD frequency in children with ADHD was not observed, but we did identify ED in children with ADHD. Additionally, a correlation among ADHD types, SD, ED, and WISC-IV measurements was observed in children with ADHD.

  2. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – a brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha eDramsdahl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundImpaired cognitive control in individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in adults with ADHD and healthy controls. MethodsTwenty-nine adults with ADHD and 38 healthy controls were included. We used Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging with single-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy to measure the ratio of glutamate to creatine (Glu/Cre in the left and the right midfrontal region in the two groups. ResultsThe ADHD group showed a significant reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region compared to the controls. ConclusionsThe reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region in the ADHD group may reflect a glutamatergic deficit in prefrontal neuronal circuitry in adults with ADHD, resulting in problems with cognitive control.

  3. Indicators of Simulated Driving Skills in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sherrilene Classen PhD, MPH, OTR/L, FAOTA; Miriam Monahan MS, OTR/L, CDRS; Kiah Brown BHS

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk for committing traffic violations, and they are four times more likely than neurotypical peers to be crash involved, making them a potentially high risk group for driving. We used a two-group design to measure differences in demographics, clinical off-road tests, and fitness to drive abilities in a driving simulator with nine adolescents with ADHD (mean age = 15.00, SD ± 1.00) compared to 22 healthy contro...

  4. GUTI: a measure of urgent task involvement among adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, M M; Dodd, D K

    1998-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been proposed to represent adaptive responding to highly urgent situations as in primitive hunting. In the present study, 31 adults with self-reported ADHD were compared with 33 normal adults on a newly developed, 10-item measure of urgent task involvement. The internal consistency of the scale was suitable, and the group with ADHD scored significantly higher than the control group, as predicted. Validation and further development of this scale is required for it to become a tool for the study of performance of highly urgent tasks. PMID:9621734

  5. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Ersland, Lars; Plessen, Kerstin J; Haavik, Jan; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Specht, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex in adults...... with ADHD and healthy controls. Methods: Twenty-nine adults with ADHD and 38 healthy controls were included. We used Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging with single voxel point-resolved spectroscopy to measure the ratio of glutamate to creatine (Glu/Cre) in the left and the right midfrontal region in the...... two groups. Results: The ADHD group showed a significant reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region compared to the controls. Conclusion: The reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region in the ADHD group may reflect a glutamatergic deficit in prefrontal neuronal circuitry in adults with...

  6. Motivational Incentives and Methylphenidate Enhance Electrophysiological Correlates of Error Monitoring in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Scerif, Gaia; Liddle, Peter F.; Batty, Martin J.; Liotti, Mario; Hollis, Chris P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterised by developmentally inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and/or inattention and are particularly impaired when performing tasks that require a high level of cognitive control. Methylphenidate (MPH) and motivational incentives may help improve…

  7. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and childhood autism in association with prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants found to be endocrine disruptive and neurotoxic in animals. Positive correlations between PFASs and neurobehavioral problems in children were reported in cross-sectional data, but findings from prospective studies are limited....... OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. METHODS: Among 83,389 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301...

  8. Does Electroencephalography Contribute to Examining Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    FAYYAZI, Afshin; Ali KHAJEH

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Fayyazi A, Khajeh A. Does Electroencephalography Contribute to Examining Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer;8(3): 65-67.Letter to Editor, Has not abstract.ReferencesSwaiman Kenneth F AS, Ferriero D, Schor N. Pediatric neurology: principles & practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders; 2012. p.622-628.Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P, Kaplan HI. Kaplan & Sadock’s comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. 9th...

  9. Effect of Treating Anxiety Disorders on Cognitive Deficits and Behaviors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Isabelle; Guay, Marie-Claude; Foldes-Busque, Guillaume; BenAmor, Leila

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-five percent of children with ADHD also have an anxiety disorder (AD). As per Quay and in light of Barkley's model, anxiety may have a protective effect on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of treating AD on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in children with both disorders. Twenty-four children with ADHD and AD were divided into two groups: treatment for AD, and wait list. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up with the ADIS-C, the CBCL, and neuropsychological measures. The results revealed a significant improvement in automatic response inhibition and flexibility, and a decrease in inattention/hyperactivity behaviors following the treatment for AD. No significant differences were observed in motor response inhibition, working memory, or attention deficits. The results do not seem to support Quay's hypothesis: treating AD did not exacerbate cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in our sample. PMID:26323585

  10. Tourette syndrome associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The impact of tics and psychopharmacological treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwabusi, Olumide O; Parke, Susan; Ambrosini, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Several studies describe the association between TS and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty percent of children diagnosed with ADHD have comorbid tic disorder. ADHD related symptoms have been reported in 35% to 90% of children with TS. Since ADHD is the most prevalent comorbid condition with TS and those with concomitant TS and ADHD present with considerable psychosocial and behavioral impairments, it is essential for clinicians to be familiar with these diagnoses and their management. This paper highlights the association between treating ADHD with stimulants and the development of tic disorders. The two cases discussed underscore the fact that children with TS may present with ADHD symptomatology prior to the appearance of any TS related symptoms. Appropriate management of TS in a patient diagnosed with ADHD can lead to quality of life improvements and a reduction in psychosocial impairments. PMID:26862512

  11. Methylphenidate and continuous spike and wave during sleep in a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Volney L; Shankar, Maithreyi; Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Bridgemohan, Carolyn H; Torres, Alcy R

    2013-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is the most common neurobehavioral disorder in children and frequently associated with epilepsy. For patients with both conditions, methylphenidate remains a mainstay in the treatment of behavioral problems. Most studies demonstrate that methylphenidate is effective in treating children with well-controlled epilepsy, and that methylphenidate does not increase the risk of having seizures in patients with EEG abnormalities without epilepsy. However, in patients with active seizures, the results are somewhat contradictory. This article presents the case of a young girl with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and behavioral problems on Depakote (valproic acid) who had an abnormal EEG with left centroparietal spikes but no history of electrographic seizures. She experienced a convulsion the day after her first dose of methylphenidate, and repeat EEG demonstrated continuous spike and slow wave during sleep. This case report suggests that children with continuous spike and slow wave during sleep may have a higher risk of developing seizures with methylphenidate treatment. PMID:23827428

  12. Parenting teens with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Chaplin, Margaret; Godsay, Viraj; Soovajian, Victoria

    2014-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presents in childhood with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and is associated with functional impairments. These children tend to display a variety of disruptive behaviors, which may worsen in adolescence. Teens with ADHD may show high levels of defiance, posing significant challenges for parents. Early efforts to understand parenting in the context of teen ADHD reveal high levels of parental stress and reactivity in response to the teen's ADHD symptoms. Subsequent research recognized that some of these parents have ADHD or other psychopathology that may contribute to maladaptive parenting. However, some parents adjust and demonstrate optimism and resilience in the face of their teens' ADHD. Recent research has identified parental factors (eg, emotional intelligence) and interventions (eg, mindfulness training) that may improve parenting/teen relationships and the developmental outcomes of teens. This article explores parenting teens with ADHD with a focus on these novel interventions. PMID:24982442

  13. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, ...

  14. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  15. The role of divided attention and selective attention in time perception deficit of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Poi-ki; 蔡博麒

    2012-01-01

    Time deficit in people with ADHD has been consistently found, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate whether divided attention and selective attention are the causes for the deficit; and whether duration judgment performance was related to everyday temporal behaviour. 20 children with ADHD and 23 control children (mean age = 9 years 5 months) matched on age and IQ with no significant difference in working memory were tested. Experiment 1 used retr...

  16. Self-Instructional Cognitive Training to Reduce Impulsive Cognitive Style in Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Flores, Gladys Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Children with attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an impulsive, rigid and field-dependent cognitive style. This study examines whether self-instructional cognitive training reduces impulsive cognitive style in children diagnosed with this disorder. Method: The subjects were 10 children between the ages of 6 and…

  17. Attentional Performance in Children and Adolescents with Tic Disorder and Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder: New Insights from a 2 x 2 Factorial Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimel, Ellen; Wanderer, Sina; Rothenberger, Aribert; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Roessner, Veit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of both tic disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on attentional functions. N = 96 children and adolescents participated in the study, including n = 21 subjects with TD, n = 23 subjects with ADHD, n = 25 subjects with TD+ADHD, and n = 27 controls. Attentional…

  18. The process of assisting behavior modification in a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Sheng; Shih, Ying-Ling

    2007-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disease among children. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of assisting with behavior modification in a child with ADHD. The patient had undergone medical treatment for a year with no obvious effect. With the guidance of other professional people, the child's teachers and nursing instructors, the researchers proceeded with behavioral modification in conjunction with medication for another year. The medication treatment followed doctors' prescriptions, and, as regards the behavioral treatment, doctors and experts drafted and decided the content of the behavioral contract. The main basic techniques were skillful reinforcement and punishment. Then, via interviews with his parents and teachers, information was obtained that provided an understanding of the patient's condition and progress. It was found that the improvements were very significant. On the basis of the research results, the researchers submit that: (1) drug treatment combined with behavioral treatment apparently improves the daily behaviors of hyperactive children; (2) good communication with parents and psychological preparation are the most critical keys to the success of substantial behavioral improvement among hyperactive children; (3) establishment and integration of social resources, including provision of transitional parenting education solutions, and cooperation and sound interaction from school teachers, which fosters consolidated team work, are the critical factors to behavioral improvement among hyperactive children. PMID:17551896

  19. Motor Skills of Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prior to and Following Treatment with Stimulant Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Huizink, Anja; Lier, P.A.C.; Crijnen, Alfons

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized controlled intervention trial, we examined whether intervention-induced reductions in ADHD symptoms at age 9 mediated the reduced risk of tobacco use onset among these children at age 10...

  1. Predictors of Treatment Response in Adolescents with Comorbid Substance Use Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Tamm, Leanne; Trello-Rishel, Kathlene; Riggs, Paula; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Acosta, Michelle; Bailey, Genie; Winhusen, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with substance use disorder (SUD) and is associated with poor substance-use treatment outcomes. A trial evaluating osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) for adolescents with ADHD and SUD, concurrently receiving behavioral therapy, revealed inconsistent medication effects on ADHD or SUD. Clinical care for this population would be advanced by knowledge of treatment outcome predictors. Data from the randomized ...

  2. Methylphenidate in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nicolas; Rolland, Benjamin; Karila, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopment disorder occurring during childhood. However, ADHD persists into adulthood in 45.7% of cases. The global prevalence of adult ADHD is estimated to 5.3%, with no difference between Europe and North America. ADHD is often comorbid with substance use disorder (SUD), with Odds Ratio ranges from 1.5 to 7.9, depending on the substance and the dependence level. Conversely, the prevalence of ADHD among patients with SUD is 10.8%, versus 3.8% for patients without SUD. Methylphenidate (MPH) alleviates ADHD symptoms and, as such, is currently considered as a first choice medication. MPH blocks the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters leading to an increase in extracellular dopamine. It should be noted that its subjective effects are highly dependent on the pharmacokinetic and especially on the rate of input, which highlights the importance of choosing a sustained-release formulation. Meanwhile, prescribing MPH to patients with comorbid SUD has always been challenging for clinicians. The aim of this review is to address the benefits and pitfalls of using MPH in adults with ADHD comorbid SUD, depending on each of the following types of SUD: amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol, cannabis and opiates. Overall, due to the prevalence of ADHD in SUD and to the benefits of MPH observed in this population, and considering the mild or low side effects observed, the response to MPH treatment should be evaluated individually in adults with comorbid ADHD and SUD. The choice of the formulation should favor sustained- release MPH over immediate release MPH. Cardiovascular parameters also have to be monitored during long-term use. PMID:26088112

  3. Affective processing bias in youth with primary bipolar disorder or primary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E; Kim, Kerri L; Cushman, Grace K; Puzia, Megan E; Weissman, Alexandra B; Galvan, Thania; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2015-11-01

    High rates of comorbidity and overlapping diagnostic criteria between pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) contribute to diagnostic and treatment confusion. To advance what is known about both disorders, we compared effect of emotional stimuli on response control in children with primary BD, primary ADHD and typically developing controls (TDC). Participants included 7-17 year olds with either "narrow-phenotype" pediatric BD (n = 25), ADHD (n = 25) or TDC (n = 25). Groups were matched on participant age and FSIQ. The effect of emotional stimuli on response control was assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Affective Go/No-Go task (CANTAB AGN). We found a group by target valence interaction on commission errors [F(2,71) = 5.34, p ADHD, but not TDC participants, made more errors on negative than positive words [t(24) = -2.58, p ADHD and TDC participants. Between-subjects effects showed that ADHD participants made more errors than TDC, but not BD participants. Our main finding advances what is known about the effect of emotional stimuli on response control in children with ADHD. Our results suggesting a positive affective processing bias in children with ADHD compliment emerging literature show that difficulties with emotional processing and regulation may be core features of ADHD. Further, given the observed pattern of results in children with ADHD compared to BD children, our behavioral results suggest the importance of examining differences in the brain-behavior mechanisms involved in affective processing in children with ADHD compared to BD children. PMID:25724546

  4. Gendering attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a discursive analysis of UK newspaper stories

    OpenAIRE

    Horton-Salway, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Discursive psychology is used to study the gendering of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK national newspapers in the period of 2009-11. The analysis examines how gendering is embedded in causal attributions and identity constructions. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is portrayed as a predominantly male phenomemon with representations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder being gendered through extreme stories about victims, villains or heroes that depict boys and m...

  5. Six week open-label reboxetine treatment in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabgol F

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common psychiatric disorder among children and adolescents. This disorder causes difficulties in academic, behavioral, emotional, social and family performance. Stimulants show robust efficacy and a good safety profile in children with this disorder, but a significant percent of ADHD children do not respond adequately or cannot tolerate the associated adverse effects with stimulants. Such difficulties highlight the need for alternative safe and effective medications in the treatment of this disorder. This open-label study assessed the effectiveness of reboxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD."nMethods: Fifteen child and adolescent outpatients, aged 7 to 16 (Mean± SD=9.72±2.71 years, diagnosed with ADHD were enrolled in a six open-label study with reboxetine 4-6 mg/d. The principal measure of the outcome was the teacher and parent Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD Rating Scale. Patients were assessed by a child psychiatrist at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 weeks of the medication started. Side effects questionnaire was used to detect side effects of reboxetine. Repeated measures Analysis of variance (ANOVA was done for comparison of Teacher and Parent ADHD Rating Scale scores during the intervention."nResults: Twelve of 15 (80% participants completed the treatment protocol. A significant decrease in ADHD symptoms on teacher (p=0.04 and parent (p=0.003 ADHD rating scale was noted. Adverse effects were mild to moderate in severity. The most common adverse effects were drowsiness/sedation and appetite decrease."nConclusion: The results of the current study suggest the effectiveness of reboxetine in the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies and larger sample size with long duration of intervention are indicated to rigorously

  6. Comparative Efficacy of Iranian and Foreign Methylphenidate in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karahmadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Methylphenidate is one of the basic drugs in treating ADHD. According to many clinical studies, the foreign form of methylphenidate (ritalin is more efficient than the Iranian form of the drug (stimidate. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of stimidate and Ritalin in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Materials & Methods: In this double blind, randomized clinical trial, 200 children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder who referred to Isfahan psychiatric clinics were studied. For 100 of these patients ritalin was prescribed while others received stimidate. After 4 weeks, changes in severity of symptoms were evaluated with parental form of Conner's questionnaire. Results: After 4 weeks of treatment, the mean decrease of Conner's number in Ritalin group was 19.63±13.5 and in Stimidate group was 3.29±7.2. Ritalin had effectiveness in treatment of 83.3 percent of the patients ( 6 reduction in Conner's number, but Stimidate was only effective in treating 37.5 percent of the patients. Conclusion: This study showed that foreign methylphenidate (ritalin is more effective than the Iranian form of the medicine (stimidate.

  7. ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Purnamasari Tanoyo

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most occur neurobehavioral disorder in children, it is also chronically condition that most influence in school children, and it is a disorder of way of thinking that always find in children. ADHD is signed by decrease of attention ability, included increase of distractibilition, and difficulty to defense the attention; difficulty to stronghold impuls control; over activity and restless of motoric. The certain reason of ADHD is not know...

  8. The Effect of Neurofeedback Therapy on Reducing Symptoms Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Case Series Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deilami, Mostafa; Jahandideh, Asghar; Kazemnejad, Yousef; Fakour, Yousef; Alipoor, Shiva; Rabiee, Fatemeh; Pournesaie, Ghazal Saadat; Heidari, Rosemarie Noot; Mosavi, Seyed Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of neurofeedback on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study without a control group. The study population included all children aged 5 to 12 years old affected with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Tehran, Iran who were referred to psychiatric clinics and given the diagnosis. The sample included 12 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who were selected based on their availability (non-random sampling). They received 30 sessions of neurofeedback treatment, 2 times per week. Before and after neurofeedback training, the children were evaluated and compared with the use of cognitive assessment system test. Data were analyzed using dependent T-test. Results: The total mean score for pretest was 88.81 while the total mean score for the post test was 82.23. The mean in pretest for attention hyperactivity disorder was higher than the mean in the post test. Moreover, The difference of pretest and post test scores of children affected with learning disorder associated with ADHD was calculated that showed significant (P=0.003). Conclusion: Neurofeedback is effective in the improvement of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:27303612

  9. Deficits in Interval Timing Measured by the Dual-Task Paradigm among Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shoou-Lian; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Background: The underlying mechanism of time perception deficit in long time intervals in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still unclear. This study used the time reproduction dual task to explore the role of the attentional resource in time perception deficits among children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods: Participants…

  10. Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder insomnia with blue wavelength light-blocking glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Fargason, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Rachel E Fargason, Taylor Preston, Emily Hammond, Roberta May, Karen L GambleDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USABackground: The aim of this study was to examine a nonmedical treatment alternative to medication in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) insomnia, in which blue wavelength light-blocking glasses are worn during the evening hours to counteract the phase-delaying effect of light. ...

  11. Resting State Functional Connectivity Correlates of Inhibitory Control in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    MaartenMennes; F. XavierCastellanos; Milham, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Motor inhibition is among the most commonly studied executive functions in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Imaging studies using probes of motor inhibition such as the Stop Signal Task (SST) consistently demonstrate ADHD-related dysfunction within a right-hemisphere fronto-striatal network that includes inferior frontal gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). Beyond findings of focal hypo- or hyper-function, emerging models of ADHD psychopathology highlight disease-...

  12. Additional Brain Functional Network in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Phase Synchrony Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Dongchuan

    2013-01-01

    We develop a method to construct a new type of functional networks by the usage of phase synchrony degree that is different from the widely used Pearson's correlation approach. By a series of very strict statistical tests, we found that there is an additional network in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subjects, superimposing the original (normal) brain functional network corresponding to healthy controls. The additional network leads to the increase in clustering coefficient, ...

  13. Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptom Severity Associated with Tobacco Use?

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies report a strong link between ADHD and tobacco use; however, the nature of this relationship is not entirely clear. We examined the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and tobacco use within a sample of college students. Although tobacco use was the main focus, we also examined alcohol and marijuana use. We examined the association between the number of ADHD symptoms endorsed (severity), and tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use in a conv...

  14. Can Behavioral Sensory Processing Problems Guide Us to a Better Pharmacological Management of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Sensory processing problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have been the focus of many studies in recent years. It is obvious that different aspects of sensory problems such as with tactile sensory are involved in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, whether the sensory information process problems can be factors in decision making regarding pharmacological management of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has not been researched. Th...

  15. Melatonin Effects in Methylphenidate Treated Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Seyed Ali Mostafavi; Seyed Ali Keshavarz; Mohammad Reza Eshraghian; Payam Hosseinzadeh; Mohammad.Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar; Maryam Chamari,; Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine melatonin effects on sleep patterns, symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficiency in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Methods: Children with age range of 7-12 years who had a combined form of ADHD were randomly divided in to 2 groups according to gender blocks. One group took melatonin (3 or 6mg) combined with methylphenidate (Ritalin) (1mg/kg), and the other group took placebo combined with methylphenidate (...

  16. Melatonin Effects in Methylphenidate Treated Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Seyed Ali; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Payam; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Kooshesh, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Chamari, Maryam; Shahin AKHONDZADEH

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine melatonin effects on sleep patterns, symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficiency in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Children with age range of 7-12 years who had a combined form of ADHD were randomly divided in to 2 groups according to gender blocks. One group took melatonin (3 or 6mg) combined with methylphenidate (Ritalin) (1mg/kg), and the other group took placebo combined with methylphenidate (1...

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suravi Patra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatitis artefacta, a self-inflicted intentional dermatosis is a very rare diagnosis in childhood. In a large proportion, the underlying psychiatric disorders go unidentified due to lack of collaboration between dermatologist and psychiatrist. The underlying psychological reasons for childhood dermatitis artefacta include emotional distress and interpersonal conflicts. A multitude of psychosocial factors interact to precipitate this disorder. Here, we report a child with dermatitis artefacta who was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during psychiatric evaluation. Parental expectations and sibling rivalry were further increasing the stress of the index child. Appropriate diagnosis and management lead to treatment compliance and functional improvement in the child.

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Suravi; Sirka, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta, a self-inflicted intentional dermatosis is a very rare diagnosis in childhood. In a large proportion, the underlying psychiatric disorders go unidentified due to lack of collaboration between dermatologist and psychiatrist. The underlying psychological reasons for childhood dermatitis artefacta include emotional distress and interpersonal conflicts. A multitude of psychosocial factors interact to precipitate this disorder. Here, we report a child with dermatitis artefacta who was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during psychiatric evaluation. Parental expectations and sibling rivalry were further increasing the stress of the index child. Appropriate diagnosis and management lead to treatment compliance and functional improvement in the child. PMID:27195043

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Korean Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Paul Kyuman; Jung, Hyun-Oak; Noh, Kyung-Sun

    2001-01-01

    Identifies attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in Korean juvenile delinquents. Intelligence tests, Test of Variables of Attention, Teacher Report form, Youth Self-Report, and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale were administered to 98 incarcerated youth and 84 nondelinquent youth. In the delinquent youth, 42.2% of the adolescents were…

  20. [Assessment of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J; Blocher, D; Trott, G E; Rösler, M

    1999-01-01

    The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders in childhood and adolescence with a prevalence of app. 5%. The importance of ADHD in childhood as a factor of vulnerability for psychiatric disorders in adults is becoming a focus of discussion. It was shown that there is a comorbidity in adults with substance abuse, delinquency and personality disorders. There is a growing evidence that ADHD will persist in a significant number of patients during adulthood. This is the first german study to evaluate this interdependence. We examined 164 adult inpatients and 48 healthy volunteers with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), a retrospective self-evaluation scale for the diagnosis of ADHD in childhood, and the Eysenck impulsiveness questionnaire I7. It could be shown that the WURS and the I7 are suitable instruments for the evaluation of the ADHD in adults especially concerning the aspects of attention deficits and impulsiveness. PMID:10087514

  1. Birth Order and Sibling Gender Ratio of a Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh; Marzie Abotorabi-Zarchi; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Ali Firoozabadi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: It is not clear whether sibling’s gender ratio is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examines whether inattentiveness severity and hyperactivity/impulsivity severity are associated with birth order of children with ADHD.Method: Participants are a clinical sample of 173 children and adolescents with ADHD and 43 ones without ADHD. Diagnoses were made using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders forth edition-Text Revision (DSM-I...

  2. An auditable protocol for treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, P; Taylor, E.

    2001-01-01

    We present an auditable protocol for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or hyperkinetic disorder. The protocol is derived from standard recommendations and evidence, and is intended for outpatient medical clinic practice in secondary care. Suggested side effect rating scales are included.



  3. Parental schemata in the management of children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Colin; Whelan, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    The authors describe the management schemata held by parents of children diagnosed with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). They conducted semistructured interviews with 10 mothers of children who had ADHD and used interpretative, phenomenological analysis on the interview transcriptions to identify the schemata that guided the parents' management practices. The predominant schemata were the perceived difference of children with ADHD, parental aspirations, the necessity of medication, psychological management, parental authority, role of the father, mothering concept, and community support. The authors discuss these schemata in the context of the current controversy as to whether ADHDis best regarded as a medical or a developmental disorder. They conclude that the parents' schemata conformed to current child-raising theory, but as a consequence, the parents might not consider social factors involved in the development of ADHD sufficiently. The authors suggest that this restricted perspective limits the parents' options for managing the condition. PMID:16611971

  4. The Treatment of Fetishism in An Adolescent with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Ling Chang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fetishism is characterized by recurrent, intense sexual fantasy or behavior involving theuse of nonliving objects, such as women’s undergarments, over a period of at least sixmonths. This disorder occurs mostly in males and usually begins in adolescence. The neurobiological etiologies of fetishism remain unclear, and studies on treatment were limited. Wepresent a 14- year-old boy with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with fetishisticbehavior who was treated successfully with 36 mg extended-release methylphenidate dailya n d 4 mo n t h s o f c o g n i t i v e – r a t i o n a l emo t i v e p s y c h o t h e r a p y

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  6. Drug therapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash De Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a developmental disorder with an age onset prior to 7 years. Children with ADHD have significantly lower ability to focus and sustain attention and also score higher on impulsivity and hyperactivity. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate, have remained the mainstay of ADHD treatment for decades with evidence supporting their use. However, recent years have seen emergence of newer drugs and drug delivery systems, like osmotic release oral systems and transdermal patches, to mention a few. The use of nonstimulant drugs like atomoxetine and various other drugs, such as a-agonists, and a few antidepressants, being used in an off-label manner, have added to the pharmacotherapy of ADHD. This review discusses current trends in drug therapy of ADHD and highlights the promise pharmacogenomics may hold in the future.

  7. Familial Clustering and DRD4 Effects on Electroencephalogram Measures in Multiplex Families with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Nelson, Stanley; Smalley, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The current study tests electroencephalogram (EEG) measures as a potential endophenotype for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by examining sibling and parent-offspring similarity, familial clustering with the disorder, and association with the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) candidate gene. Method: The sample consists of 531…

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Salehi, Bahman; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) and compare it with healthy children. A total of 100 five to 16-year-old children with PMNE and 100 healthy children without NE were included in this case-control study as the cases and control groups, respectively. Subjects were selected from children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of the Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria and was confirmed by consultation with a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed by binomial test using SPSS18. ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16%) with PMNE and five controls (5%) (P=0.01). Despite these significant differences in the case and control groups, 25 (25%) and 16 (16%) children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (P=0.08) and 15 (15%) and 16 (16%) children were affected by ADHD mixed type (P=0.84), respectively. ADHD inattentive type in children with PMNE was significantly more common than that in healthy children. The observed correlation between ADHD inattentive type and PMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with PMNE. PMID:26787570

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common childhood neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE and compare it with healthy children. A total of 100 five to 16-year-old children with PMNE and 100 healthy children without NE were included in this case-control study as the cases and control groups, respectively. Subjects were selected from children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of the Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner′s Parent Rating Scale-48 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria and was confirmed by consultation with a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed by binomial test using SPSS18. ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16% with PMNE and five controls (5% (P = 0.01. Despite these significant differences in the case and control groups, 25 (25% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (P = 0.08 and 15 (15% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD mixed type (P = 0.84, respectively. ADHD inattentive type in children with PMNE was significantly more common than that in healthy children. The observed correlation between ADHD inattentive type and PMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with PMNE.

  10. Parenting Behavior and Cognitions in a Community Sample of Mothers with and without Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tracy; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Mash, Eric J.; Semple, Deborah L.

    2008-01-01

    Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has recently emerged as an important area of research, little attention has been given to the family functioning of women with ADHD, particularly in their role as mothers. We examined parenting self-esteem, locus of control, and disciplinary styles in a community sample of mothers…

  11. Enhancing Academic Achievement for Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence from School-Based Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra, Asha K.; DuPaul, George J.; Someki, Fumio; Tresco, Katy E.

    2008-01-01

    Although children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit significant academic difficulties in school settings, considerably less attention is devoted to remediating their academic problems when compared to behavioral and social difficulties. The purpose of this article is to review empirically supported academic interventions…

  12. Subtypes of Aggression in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Medication Effects and Comparison with Typical Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Corkum, Penny V.; Jacques, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    We examined aggressive behavior in 6- to 12-year-old children, including 20 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on stimulant medication, 19 children with ADHD on placebo (n = 19), and 32 controls. Children completed a laboratory provocation task designed to measure hostile, instrumental, reactive, and proactive…

  13. Methodological Issues in the Assessment of Medication Effects in Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollins, Scott H.

    2004-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders in school-aged children and is usually treated with stimulant medications, including methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin[R], Ritalin-LA[R], Concerta[R], Metadate[R], or Focalin[R]) and other drug compounds (e.g., Adderall[R], Adderall-XR[R], or Dexedrine).…

  14. Detrimental effects of gum chewing on vigilance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William; Evans, Lynsay; Birrel, Laura; Sontag, Thomas A; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    Impairments of attention are cardinal features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and can seriously affect the daily life of children with ADHD. Despite effective treatment strategies, there is a need of further treatment options that can be added to available and well established treatments. Further treatment options are needed since available treatments are often time consuming, expensive and limited regarding their external validity. Recent research demonstrated that gum chewing has beneficial effects on cognition including certain aspects of attention. Therefore, gum chewing may benefit children with ADHD in situations requiring particular cognitive efforts. In a crossover study, attentional functioning of 32 children with ADHD and 32 children without the condition was examined. All participants were assessed with chewing gum and without chewing gum. A computerized test was used for the assessment of vigilance and sustained attention. The findings of the present study suggest that gum chewing during task execution has detrimental effects on vigilance of both healthy children and children with ADHD. Sustained attention was not affected by gum chewing. Chewing gum, therefore, appears not to improve attentional performance in children with ADHD. PMID:20933558

  15. Children with Comorbid Speech Sound Disorder and Specific Language Impairment Are at Increased Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Hutaff-Lee, Christa; Scott, Ashley; Boada, Richard; Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and speech sound disorder (SSD). SSD is a developmental disorder characterized by speech production errors that impact intelligibility. Previous research addressing this comorbidity has typically used heterogeneous groups of speech-language…

  16. Improving Compliance with Diabetes Management in Young Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Using Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Lisa M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Hunter, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Medical adherence to complex diabetes regimens can be challenging, particularly for adolescents, and therefore represents the most common reason for referral to behavioral psychologists among this population. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), when present in children and adolescents with diabetes, presents unique barriers to…

  17. Parental rating of sleep in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan; Bilenberg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    parents. The ADHD group report problems with bedtime resistance, problems with sleep onset latency, unsettled sleep and nightmares more often than the control groups. It may therefore be relevant for clinicians to initiate a closer examination of those cases reporting sleep difficulties.......OBJECTIVE: Sleep problems have often been associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents of those with ADHD and children with ADHD report sleep difficulties more frequently than healthy children and their parents. The primary objective of this paper is to describe sleep...... patterns and problems of 5 to 11-year-old children suffering from ADHD as described by parental reports and sleep questionnaires. METHOD: The study included 321 children aged 5-11 years (average age 8.4 years); 45 were diagnosed with ADHD, 64 had other psychiatric diagnoses, and 212 were healthy. One...

  18. The Effect of EEG Biofeedback Therapy on Motor Abilities of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Žiaková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Currently, EEG biofeedback (Neurofeedback is used in the rehabilitation of children with brain damage with the symptoms of attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity and impulsivity. After treatment improvements were observed not only in the control of attention and impulsivity but also in voluntary and involuntary movements. The aim of the prospective clinical study was to measure the impact of EEG biofeedback on motor abilities of children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and compare the effectiveness of EEG biofeedback with classical rehabilitation. It was assumed that in children with ADHD in combination with central motor disorders EEG biofeedback therapy will strengthen not only the control of impulsivity and attention but also motor skills. Material. The observed group consisted of 60 (N = 60 children with mild central motor disorders with ADHD. They were randomly assigned to either the EEG biofeedback group (N = 30, mean age 8.9 years or the classical rehabilitation group (N = 30, mean age 8.5 years. Methods. Both groups received thirty 30-45 minute sessions of training, at a frequency of 2-3 times a week. Pre-post assessment included testing of motor skills with PANESS test (Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle Signs for both groups and the EEG biofeedback group were assessed also for changes in impulse and attention control using CPT (Continuous Performance Test test AX version and changes observed by parents using TLC Subjective Assessment (The Learning Curve, 2004. Results. Achieved overall score of EEG biofeedback group was lower after therapy (Mdn = 24.00 than before therapy (Mdn = 55.00, T = 0.00, p <0.01, Z = -4.78, r = -0.62. Values of significance (Asymp.Sig. 2-tailed = 0.000 and effect size (effect size r = -0.62 indicate a statistical and factual significant positive effect of EEG biofeedback to improve overall motor skills (lower score is better. Conclusion. EEG biofeedback therapy

  19. The written expression abilities of adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Stephen J; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W

    2016-01-01

    Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often experience deficits in academic achievement. Written expression abilities in this population have not been extensively studied but existing prevalence estimates suggest that rates of comorbid writing underachievement may be substantially higher than rates of comorbid reading and mathematics underachievement. The current study examined written expression abilities in a school-based sample of 326 middle school age students with ADHD. The prevalence of written expression impairment, the associations between written expression and academic outcomes, and specific patterns of written expression were investigated. Students with ADHD in this sample experienced written expression impairment (17.2-22.4%) at a similar rate to reading impairment (17.0-24.3%) and at a slightly lower rate than mathematics impairment (24.7-36.3%). Students' written expression abilities were significantly associated with school grades and parent ratings of academic functioning, above and beyond the influence of intelligence. Analyses of patterns suggest that students with ADHD exhibit greater deficits in written expression tasks requiring organization and attention to detail, especially in the context of a complex task. PMID:26802631

  20. Unwanted intrusive and worrisome thoughts in adults with Attention Deficit\\Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Schweiger, Avraham

    2009-08-15

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficient motor and cognitive inhibitory mechanisms. The aim of this article is to examine two symptoms associated with cognitive disinhibition, namely: intrusive unwanted thoughts, worrisome thoughts and their suppression. Thirty-seven college students diagnosed with ADHD and 23 healthy college students were compared on the Distressing Thoughts Questionnaire and on the Anxious Thoughts Inventory. Results show that in comparison to the control group, participants with ADHD experienced significantly higher ratings on all intrusive thoughts scales, and three worrisome thoughts scales. Our results suggest that worrisome intrusive thoughts are an important phenotypical expression of adults with ADHD. A neurobiological explanation for this phenomenon is suggested, and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:19570581

  1. Perceived parenting style and self-perception in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: there is a growing interest in the study of the self-perceptions of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and the bias in their self-concept. Goal: to explore how ADHD children’s perception of parenting style predicts their selfperception and the bias in self-concept. Method: Participants: children between 7 and 13 years old diagnosed with ADHD, children assisting to psychotherapy without an ADHD diagnose, and children not assisting to psychotherapy. It also participated one of their parents. Data analysis: It was used simple logistic regressions. Groups were studied separately. Results: maternal pathological control was the main predictor of ADHD children’s positive self-perceptions and bias. In the comparison groups it predicts negative self-perceptions. Results are discussed in the light of self-protection hypothesis.

  2. Effect of reinforcement on facial responsivity and persistence in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigal, T; Swanson, J M; Douglas, V I; Wigal, S B; Wippler, C M; Cavoto, K F

    1998-04-01

    Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may learn poorly under conditions of inconsistent (partial) reinforcement because they are easily frustrated and fail to develop persistence. To test this hypothesis, a nonsense word spelling task was used with 22 ADHD and 20 control children to investigate the effects of partial and continuous reinforcement on facial responsivity (frustration measure), words spelled correctly (learning performance measure), and persistence ratings. Partially reinforced ADHD children manifested higher levels of frustration in both acquisition and extinction than any other group and gave significantly lower persistence ratings across acquisition than partially reinforced control children. ADHD children spelled fewer words correctly than controls, regardless of reinforcement schedule. These findings suggest that partial reinforcement training develops persistence in normal but not ADHD children. The findings have theoretical implications for the etiology of ADHD as well as practical implications for designing behavior modification programs to treat ADHD. PMID:9563288

  3. [Methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: monitoring in biological matrices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaseit, E; García-Algar, O; Simó, S; Pichini, S; Farré, M

    2013-02-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has emerged in the last few years as the most commonly diagnosed and treated psychiatric disorder in the paediatric population. In 1980's, methylphenidate (MFD) a psychomotor stimulant drug, was approved in Spain for the symptomatic therapy of ADHD. Since then, MFD has become one of the most extensively prescribed and studied treatment for ADHD both in children and adults. In this paper, the main pharmacological issues of MFD are reviewed, focusing on its pharmacokinetics in conventional (blood and urine) and non-conventional (hair, oral fluid and sweat) biological matrices, its pharmaceutical preparations, therapeutic levels and side effects. PMID:23063334

  4. Motor skills in Czech children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their neurotypical counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharoun, S M; Bryden, P J; Otipkova, Z; Musalek, M; Lejcarova, A

    2013-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioural disorder. Characterized by recurring problems with impulsiveness and inattention in combination with hyperactivity, motor impairments have also been well documented in the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the fine and gross motor skills of male and female children with ADHD and their neurotypical counterparts within seven skill assessments. This included three fine motor tasks: (1) spiral tracing, (2) dot filling, (3) tweezers and beads; and four gross motor tasks: (1) twistbox, (2) foot tapping, (3) small plate finger tapping, and (4) large plate finger tapping. It was hypothesized that children with ADHD would display poorer motor skills in comparison to neurotypical controls in both fine and gross motor assessments. However, statistically significant differences between the groups only emerged in four of the seven tasks (spiral tracing, dot filling, tweezers and beads and foot tapping). In line with previous findings, the complexity underlying upper limb tasks solidified the divide in performance between children with ADHD and their neurotypical counterparts. In light of similar research, impairments in lower limb motor skill were also observed. Future research is required to further delineate trends in motor difficulties in ADHD, while further investigating the underlying mechanisms of impairment. PMID:24060728

  5. CLUSTER TAXOMETRY OF ATTENTION DEFICIT/ HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER WITH LATENT CLASS AND CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID A PINEDA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has heterogeneous symptoms with diverse grades of severity. Latentclass cluster analysis (LCCA can be used to classify children, using direct data from any instrument that reports thesesymptoms, without previous gold standard diagnosis. One ADHD symptoms checklist, and one ADHD comorbiditiesquestionnaire were used. LCCAs were developed for each instrument, which were administered to a sample of 540children and adolescents, aged 4-17 years, from the regular school of Manizales-Colombia. A simple correspondenceanalysis (SCA was done to determine the relationships between the groups classified from both LCCAs. Six clusters were obtained from ADHD checklist and five from the ADHD comorbidities questionnaire. SCA found fourindependent groups, derived from the concordances between the 11 clusters obtained by the LCCAs from bothinstruments. These findings suggest that LCCA and SCA can be use as accurate taxometric procedures to classifyexternalizing psychopathologies.

  6. Identity status and attachment in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuhadaroğlu Çetin, Füsun; Akdemir, Devrim; Tüzün, Zeynep; Cak, Tuna; Senses Dinç, Gülser; Taşğın Çöp, Esra; Evinç, Gülin

    2013-01-01

    Identity and attachment are two concepts of different theories that might be related and that are developmentally very important in adolescence. The aim of this study was to explore the sense of identity, attachment styles and their relation in a group of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thirty-four adolescents who were diagnosed with ADHD in childhood were reevaluated at the age of 13-16 years. The comparison group consisted of age- and gender-matched adolescents without a psychiatric disorder. The Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF) and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) were used to examine the sense of identity and attachment styles of adolescents, respectively. Compared to adolescents without a psychiatric disorder, adolescents with ADHD, independent of the presence of a comorbid psychiatric disorder, had a similar identity formation process; however, adolescents with ADHD and a comorbid psychiatric disorder experienced more preoccupied attachment styles. Comorbid psychiatric disorders seem to be related to the insecure attachment patterns in adolescents with ADHD. PMID:24192680

  7. InforMatrix for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janknegt, Robert; Faber, Adrianne; Pereira, Rob Rodrigues; Kalverdijk, Luuk J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to facilitate discussion on drug selection for the treatment of ADHD by using only clinically relevant selection criteria and providing an up-to-date overview. The InforMatrix method was used to select drugs to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The

  8. DSM-5 Further Inflates Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible harmf

  9. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  10. Importance of pharmacogenetics in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan-kam T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Teerarat Tan-kam,1 Chutamanee Suthisisang,2 Chosita Pavasuthipaisit,1 Penkhae Limsila,1 Apichaya Puangpetch,3 Chonlaphat Sukasem31Yuwaprasart Waithayopathum Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Hospital, Department of Mental Health Services, Ministry of Public Health, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, 3Division of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: This case report highlights the importance of pharmacogenetic testing in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD. A 6-year-old boy diagnosed with ADHD was prescribed methylphenidate 5 mg twice daily (7 am and noon and the family was compliant with administration of this medication. On the first day of treatment, the patient had an adverse reaction, becoming disobedient, more mischievous, erratic, resistant to discipline, would not go to sleep until midnight, and had a poor appetite. The All-In-One PGX (All-In-One Pharmacogenetics for Antipsychotics test for CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9 was performed using microarray-based and real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques. The genotype of our patient was identified to be CYP2D6*2/*10, with isoforms of the enzyme consistent with a predicted cytochrome P450 2D6 intermediate metabolizer phenotype. Consequently, the physician adjusted the methylphenidate dose to 2.5 mg once daily in the morning. At this dosage, the patient had a good response without any further adverse reactions. Pharmacogenetic testing should be included in the management plan for ADHD. In this case, cooperation between the medical team and the patients' relatives was key to successful treatment.Keywords: attention deficit hyperactive disorder, pharmacogenomics, CYP2D6, adverse drug reactions, dose adjustment, intermediate metabolizer

  11. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Menezes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8 and control (CG, N = 10 groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  12. Comparison of Therapeutic Effects of Omega-3 and Methylphenidate (Ritalin®) in Treating Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dashti, Naser; Hekmat, Hoda; Soltani, Hamid Reza; Rahimdel, Abolghasem; Javaherchian, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a fixed pattern of disregard and hyperactivity that is much more severe than what is normal in children of the same age. Multiple drugs are used for the treatment of children with ADHD; however, their side effects and efficacy are not clearly known. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the therapeutic effects of two drugs, that is, omega-3 and methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin®), used to treat patients with ADHD. Me...

  13. Will Working Memory Training Generalize to Improve Off-Task Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Chloe T.; Long, Debra L.; Green,David; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Dixon, J. Faye; Miller, Meghan R.; Fassbender, Catherine; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2012-01-01

    Computerized working memory and executive function training programs designed to target specific impairments in executive functioning are becoming increasingly available, yet how well these programs generalize to improve functional deficits in disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), beyond the training context is not well-established. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which working memory (WM) training in children with ADHD would diminish a core dy...

  14. Effects of Motivation and Medication on Electrophysiological Markers of Response Inhibition in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Scerif, Gaia; Peter F Liddle; Batty, Martin J; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Roberts, Katherine L.; Cahill, John D; Liotti, Mario; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background Theories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) posit either executive deficits and/or alterations in motivational style and reward processing as core to the disorder. Effects of motivational incentives on electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control and relationships between motivation and stimulant medication have not been explicitly tested. Methods Children (9–15 years) with combined-type ADHD (n = 28) and matched typically developing children (CTRL) (n = 28...

  15. Diagnosing and treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Antshel, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a valid and impairing psychiatric disorder. In this article, we review the diagnosis of ADHD in adults, focusing on symptom presentation differences between pediatric and adult ADHD as well as the importance of assessing functional impairments. Differentiating ADHD from other clinical disorders is often the most difficult part of making an ADHD diagnosis in adults. Psychiatric comorbidities are also described and discussed as potential ...

  16. Early detection and intervention for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Barke, Edmund; Koerting, J; Smith, E.; McCann, DC; Thompson, M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a high-cost/high-burden disorder. Early detection and intervention may prevent or ameliorate the development of the disorder and reduce its long-term impact. In this article, we set out a rationale for an early detection and intervention program. First, we highlight the costs of the condition and second, we discuss the limitations of the current treatments. We then outline the potential value of an early detection and intervention program. We...

  17. Theory of mind in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder compared to controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Saeedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have serious social skill deficits and problems in relation with peers. This study aimed to compare theory of mind (ToM in drug-naïve children with ADHD with those with no psychiatric disorders at the same age. Methods: This cross-sectional study was established in child and adolescent psychiatry clinic of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Tabriz, Iran. Drug naïve, male children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ADHD were enrolled as well as age and intelligence quotient (IQ matched healthy controls. Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version ‎(K-SADS-PL‎, Child Symptom Inventory-4 ‎(CSI-4‎, and Conner’s Parents Rating Scales-Revised ‎(CPRS‎ were used to measure psychiatric disorders and Sally-Anne False Belief Task, and The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task (child for components of ToM. Results: A total of 30 children completed the study in each group. Half of children with ADHD could not give the expected answer in Sally-Anne False Belief Task, which was significantly lower than controls. They also showed a significantly lower performance in The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task. Severity of ADHD was not correlated with a score of The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task. Conclusion: Children with ADHD have deficits in ToM compared with age and IQ matched controls in terms of social cognition and social sensitivity.

  18. Frequency of Parental Psychopathology in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha KS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Parental mental health concerns place children at a significantly greater risk of lower social, psychological and physical health than children in families not affected by mental illness. Several studies have examined the extent to which psychopathology in children are closely related to parental substance use disorders or to other mental disorders. This study intended to investigate the frequency of occurrence of parental psychopathology in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and compare the characteristics of children with and without parental psychopathology. Fifty children between 7-14 years of either sex fulfilling the ICD-10 criteria for ADHD comprised the sample of this study.It would be a chart review of in-patients and out-patients who have consulted at Kasturba Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Manipal over a two year period. Parents diagnosed with Substance Use Disorders (SUD and other psychiatric morbidity according to ICD-10 was compared with those parents without any psychiatric illness on various Sociodemographic, clinical characteristics. Most of the parents were in the second or third decade of their life. Of the fifty patients 41(82% were males and 9 (18% were females. In 36(87.0 % of the fathers had a history of substance use disorder and 5(13.0 % it was absent. Other morbidities were also present in both parents. The findings are discussed in light of the implications.

  19. The influence of working memory load on response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or reading disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Van De Voorde, Séverine; Roeyers, Herbert; Verte, Sylvie; Wiersema, Roeljan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between response inhibition and working memory in 8-12-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 19), reading disorder (RD; n = 17), ADHD + RD (n = 21), and control children (n = 19). For the first time a within-task methodology was used to study the combined effect of both executive functions on a common measure of task performance in two often comorbid childhood disorders, ADHD and RD. We found evi...

  20. Elements of Working Memory as Predictors of Goal-Setting Skills in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Anna; Taskinen, Taina; Gronroos, Matti; Haataja, Leena; Lahdetie, Jaana; Korhonen, Tapio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how goal-setting skills of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be predicted with elements of working memory. The study involved 30 children with an ADHD diagnosis and 30 healthy volunteers. The IQ of the participants was assessed, and ADHD symptoms were evaluated by parents. Each of…

  1. The Effects of Thematic Importance on Story Recall among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Comparison Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flake, Rebecca A.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Milich, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the recall of televised stories for younger (4-6 years) and older (7-9 years) children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under two different viewing conditions (toys present/toys absent). Each child watched two "Rugrats" television programs, once with toys present and once with toys absent.…

  2. Emotional Lability in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Clinical Correlates and Familial Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobanski, Esther; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Chen, Wai; Franke, Barbara; Holtmann, Martin; Krumm, Bertram; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Stringaris, Argyris; Taylor, Eric; Anney, Richard; Ebstein, Richard P.; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence, severity and clinical correlates of emotional lability (EL) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to examine factors contributing to EL and familiality of EL in youth with ADHD. Methods: One thousand, one hundred and eighty-six children with ADHD…

  3. Practice Brief: Assessing Compensatory Strategies and Motivational Factors in High-Achieving Postsecondary Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Research speculates that high-achieving college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may demonstrate a set of compensatory strategies and experience areas of difficulty and motivational factors that differ from the general ADHD populace. This Practice Brief used informal surveys with seven undergraduates with ADHD who had…

  4. Sleep in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-Analysis of Subjective and Objective Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 16 subjective and objective sleep studies with a sample of 722 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus a control that numbers 638 shows that the children with ADHD are significantly more impaired in most of the subjective and some of the objective sleep measures than their counterpart.

  5. A comparative study on Naladadi Ghrita in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with Kushmanda Ghrita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshama Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder. Children with ADHD have been found to have cognitive deficits, lower IQ, impaired social relationships with in the family and with peers as well as poor study skills and lower academic achievement. ADHD prevalence is estimated to be 5% for the Indian paediatric population. The persistence of these problems highlights the need for effective treatment. Objective: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the comparative effect of Naladadi Ghrita with Kushmanda Ghrita in reducing the signs and symptoms of ADHD. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 subjects with ADHD satisfying the DSM-IV TR diagnostic criteria were selected and divided in to two groups by following randomisation method. Trial group received Naladadi Ghrita 5 ml twice a day and control group received Kushmanda Ghrita 5 ml twice a day for 1 month. Two assessments were done before and after the treatment. Criterion of assessment was based on the scoring of ADHD Rating Scale. Paired and unpaired ′t′- test was used for statistical analysis. Results and Conclusion: Naladadi Ghrita and Kushmanda Ghrita both were effective on ADHD Rating Scale and they provided 35%, 38.68% of relief, respectively (P 0.05.

  6. The impact of distractions on young adult drivers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Fried, Ronna

    2010-05-01

    Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk for being involved in automobile crashes. Although driving simulators have been used to identify and understand underlying behaviors, prior research has focused largely on single-task, non-distracted driving. However, in-vehicle infotainment and communications systems often vie for a driver's attention, potentially increasing the risk of collision. This paper explores the impact of secondary tasks on individuals with and without ADHD, a medical condition known to affect the regulation of attention. Data are drawn from a validated driving simulation representing periods before, during, and after participation in a secondary cognitive task. A hands-free phone task was employed in a high stimulus, urban setting and a working memory task during low stimulus, highway driving. Drivers with ADHD had more difficulty on the telephone task, yet did not show an increased decrement in driving performance greater than control participants. In contrast, participants with ADHD showed a larger decline in driving performance than controls during a secondary task in a low demand setting. The results suggest that the interaction of the nature of the driving context and the secondary task has a significant influence on how drivers with ADHD allocate attention and, in-turn, on the relative impact on driving performance. Drivers with ADHD appear particularly susceptible to distraction during periods of low stimulus driving. PMID:20380911

  7. Altered regional homogeneity patterns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Investigating the discriminative brain map for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on feature selection and classifier; and identifying patients with ADHD based on the discriminative model. Materials and methods: A dataset of resting state fMRI contains 23 patients with ADHD and 23 healthy subjects were analyzed. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was extracted from resting state fMRI signals and used as model inputs. Raw ReHo features were ranked and selected in a loop according to their p values. Selected features were trained and tested by support vector machines (SVM) in a cross validation procedure. Cross validation was repeated in feature selection loop to produce optimized model. Results: Optimized discriminative map indicated that the ADHD brains exhibit more increased activities than normal controls in bilateral occipital lobes and left front lobe. The altered brain regions included portions of basal ganglia, insula, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), thalamus, and cerebellum. Correlation coefficients indicated significant positive correlation of inattentive scores with bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and significant negative correlation of hyperactive/impulsive scores with bilateral insula and claustrum. Additionally, the optimized model produced total accuracy of 80% and sensitivity of 87%. Conclusion: ADHD brain regions were more activated than normal controls during resting state. Linear support vector classifier can provide useful discriminative information of altered ReHo patterns for ADHD; and feature selection can improve the performances of classification

  8. Altered regional homogeneity patterns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xunheng [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Jiao, Yun, E-mail: yunjiao@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Tang, Tianyu; Wang, Hui; Lu, Zuhong [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Investigating the discriminative brain map for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on feature selection and classifier; and identifying patients with ADHD based on the discriminative model. Materials and methods: A dataset of resting state fMRI contains 23 patients with ADHD and 23 healthy subjects were analyzed. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was extracted from resting state fMRI signals and used as model inputs. Raw ReHo features were ranked and selected in a loop according to their p values. Selected features were trained and tested by support vector machines (SVM) in a cross validation procedure. Cross validation was repeated in feature selection loop to produce optimized model. Results: Optimized discriminative map indicated that the ADHD brains exhibit more increased activities than normal controls in bilateral occipital lobes and left front lobe. The altered brain regions included portions of basal ganglia, insula, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), thalamus, and cerebellum. Correlation coefficients indicated significant positive correlation of inattentive scores with bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and significant negative correlation of hyperactive/impulsive scores with bilateral insula and claustrum. Additionally, the optimized model produced total accuracy of 80% and sensitivity of 87%. Conclusion: ADHD brain regions were more activated than normal controls during resting state. Linear support vector classifier can provide useful discriminative information of altered ReHo patterns for ADHD; and feature selection can improve the performances of classification.

  9. Response Switching Process in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder on the Novel Continuous Performance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuki; Inagaki, Masumi; Gunji, Atsuko; Furushima, Wakana; Kaga, Makiko

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of previous trials on subsequent trials on performance in the continuous performance test (CPT) in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thirty-five non-medicated children with ADHD (31 males, four females; mean age 9y 10mo [SD 2y 4mo]) and 33 comparison children (20 males, 13 females; mean age 10y…

  10. Maternal Parenting Styles and Mother-Child Relationship among Adolescents with and without Persistent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD…

  11. Impact of Tactile-Cued Self-Monitoring on Independent Biology Work for Secondary Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Catherine; McDougall, Dennis; Black, Rhonda S.; King-Sears, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Results from a multiple baseline with changing conditions design across high school students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) indicated that the students increased the percentage of independent work they completed in their general education biology class after learning tactile-cued self-monitoring. Students maintained high…

  12. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - A diffusion-tensor imaging study of the corpus callosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Westerhausen, René; Haavik, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the microstructure and the macrostructure of the corpus callosum (CC) in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-nine participants with ADHD and 37 controls were included...

  13. Effects of long acting methylphenidate on ghrelin levels in male children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an open label trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ozhan yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This is the first study which directly aims to determine methylphenidate’s effect on serum active ghrelin levels. Further research with higher methylphenidate doses and/or other stimulants such as atomoxetine and amphetamine should be done as ghrelin is also associated with obesity, alcohol and drug addiction and reward system pathologies, which are also closely related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  14. Case Series: Evaluation of a Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Three Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Dyssomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullane, Jennifer; Corkum, Penny

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a preliminary evaluation of a behavioral sleep intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyssomnia delivered via distance treatment. Method: Three children (1 male, 2 females; aged 6-10 years) with ADHD and dyssomnia participated in a 5-week manualized intervention. Using a…

  15. Maternal Depression and Early Positive Parenting Predict Future Conduct Problems in Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis, Andrea M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Williams, Stephanie Hall; Baumann, Barbara L.; Kipp, Heidi; Jones, Heather A.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for adverse outcomes such as substance abuse and criminality, particularly if they develop conduct problems. Little is known about early predictors of the developmental course of conduct problems among children with ADHD, however. Parental psychopathology and parenting …

  16. Delayed Circadian Rhythm in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Boonstra, A. Marije; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest circadian rhythm disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sleep-onset insomnia (SOI). We investigate here sleep and rhythms in activity and melatonin in adults with ADHD. Methods: Sleep logs and actigraphy data were collec

  17. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This practice parameter describes the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on the current scientific evidence and clinical consensus of experts in the field. This parameter discusses the clinical evaluation for ADHD, comorbid conditions associated with ADHD, research on the…

  18. Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Teaching Children with ADHD: The Role of Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Susan E.; Noble, William; Shanley, Dianne C.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD are compared across stages of Australian teachers' careers. Relative to pre-service teachers with (n = 218) and without (n = 109) teaching experience, in-service teachers (n = 127) show more overall knowledge of ADHD, more knowledge of…

  19. Effect of drugs on the risk of injuries in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Leckman, James F.; Mortensen, Preben Bo;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injuries represent the largest disease burden and most common cause of death in children. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased mortality, with accidents being the most common cause of death in ADHD. However, it is not known whether pharmacologic...

  20. A Randomized Trial of a Classroom Intervention to Increase Peers' Social Inclusion of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Lerner, Matthew D.; Emeh, Christina C.; Reuland, Meg M.; Jack, Allison; Anthony, Maria R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Interventions for peer problems among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) typically focus on improving these children's behaviors. This study tested the proposition that an adjunctive component encouraging the peer group to be socially inclusive of children with ADHD would augment the efficacy of traditional…

  1. Reducing the Effects of Auditory and Visual Distraction on the Math Performances of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercood, Suneeta; Grskovic, Janice A.

    2010-01-01

    Two exploratory studies assessed the effects of an intervention on the math problem solving of students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In the first study, students were assessed on a visual task in a high stimulation classroom analog setting with and without the use of a fine motor activity. Results showed that the fine…

  2. The Importance of Parental Attributions in Families of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charlotte; Ohan, Jeneva L.

    2005-01-01

    Presents a social-cognitive model outlining the role of parental attributions for child behavior in parent?child interactions. Examples of studies providing evidence for the basic model are presented, with particular reference to applications of the model in families of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or…

  3. School-Based Intervention for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects on Academic, Social, and Behavioural Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit significant academic, social, and behavioural difficulties in school settings. This article reviews empirical findings regarding the effects of classroom interventions for students with ADHD. Three major types of interventions are reviewed including behavioural (e.g., token…

  4. Guanfacine Extended Release in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Floyd R.; McGough, James; Wigal, Tim; Donahue, Jessica; Lyne, Andrew; Biederman, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    A double-blind, 9-week, randomized trial was done to compare the efficacy of guanfacine extended release (GXR) with a placebo in treating children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). Results find a significant reduction in ADHD from baseline to endpoint for all daily doses of GXR which were measured at 1-, 2-,…

  5. Oculomotor Performance Identifies Underlying Cognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Yasui, Enami; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the cognitive control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder through the use of oculomotor tests reveal that this group showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. All subjects were found to have intact sensorimotor function and working memory.

  6. Factors associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among US children: Results from a national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lingineni, Ravi K.; Biswas, Swati; Ahmad, Naveed; Jackson, Bradford E; Bae, Sejong; Singh, Karan P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and various factors using a representative sample of US children in a comprehensive manner. This includes variables that have not been previously studied such as watching TV/playing video games, computer usage, family member’s smoking, and participation in sports. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 68,634 children, 5–17 years old, from the National Survey of...

  7. Factors associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among US children: Results from a national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lingineni Ravi K; Biswas Swati; Ahmad Naveed; Jackson Bradford E; Bae Sejong; Singh Karan P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and various factors using a representative sample of US children in a comprehensive manner. This includes variables that have not been previously studied such as watching TV/playing video games, computer usage, family member’s smoking, and participation in sports. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 68,634 children, 5–17 years old, from the National ...

  8. Disorder-specific and shared neurophysiological impairments of attention and inhibition in women with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and women with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Michelini, G.; Kitsune, G.L; Hosang, G M; Asherson, P.; Mcloughlin, G.; Kuntsi, J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have certain overlapping symptoms, which can lead to uncertainty regarding the boundaries of the two disorders. Despite evidence of cognitive impairments in both disorders separately, such as in attentional and inhibitory processes, data on direct comparisons across ADHD and BD on cognitive-neurophysiological measures are as yet limited. Method We directly compared cognitive performance and event-...

  9. Psychosocial interventions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common reason for referral to child and adolescent psychiatry clinics. Although stimulant medications represent an evidence-based approach to managing ADHD, psychosocial interventions for child/adolescent ADHD target functional impairments as the intervention goal, and rely heavily on behavioral therapy techniques and operant conditioning principles. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for managing pediatric ADHD include behavioral parent training, school-based interventions relying on behavioral modification, teaching skills, and operant conditioning principles, and intensive summer treatment programs. The use of conjoint psychosocial treatments with ADHD medications may enable lower doses of each form of treatment. PMID:25455577

  10. Functional imaging of neurocognitive dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder of early childhood onset. Defining symptoms are chronic impairments of attention, impulse control and motor hyperactivity that frequently persist until adulthood. Miscellaneous causes of the disorder have been discussed. Accumulating evidence from imaging- and molecular genetic studies strengthened the theory of ADHS being a predominantly inherited disorder of neurobiological origin. In the last 15 years, non-invasive brain imaging methods were successfully implemented in pediatric research. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies gave major insight into the neurobiological correlates of executive malfunction, inhibitory deficits and psychomotoric soft signs. These findings are in good accordance with brain morphometric data indicating a significant volumetric decrease of major components of striato-thalamo-cortical feedback loops, primarily influencing prefrontal executive functioning (e.g. basal ganglia). Empirical evidence points to a broad array of associated behavioral disturbances like deficient visuomotor abilities and oculomotor dysfunctions. This paper reviews the current empirical evidence derived from prior imaging studies. Special emphasis is given to the relevance of oculomotor dysfunctions in clinical and research settings, as well as their assessment in the MR environment. (orig.)

  11. Previous medical history of diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The etiology of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is complex and most likely includes genetic and environmental factors. This study was conducted to evaluatethe role of previous medical history of diseases in ADHD children and their parents during theearlier years of the ADHD children's lives. Methods: In this case-control study, 164 ADHD children attending to Child and AdolescentPsychiatric Clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, compared with 166 normal children selected in a random-cluster method from primary and guidance schools. ADHDrating scale (Parents version and clinical interview based on schedule for Schedule forAffective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version(K-SADS were used to diagnose ADHD cases and to select the control group. Two groupswere compared for the existence of previous medical history of diseases in children andparents. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression model were used for data analysis. Results: The frequency of maternal history of medical disorders (28.7% vs. 12.0%; P = 0.001was significantly higher in children with ADHD compared with the control group. The frequency of jaundice, dysentery, epilepsy, asthma, allergy, and head trauma in the medicalhistory of children were not significantly differed between the two groups. Conclusion: According to this preliminary study, it may be concluded that the maternal historyof medical disorders is one of contributing risk factors for ADHD.

  12. A Comparison of Behavioral Parent Training Programs for Fathers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Chacko, Anil; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Robb, Jessica; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances; Sastry, Amber L.; Flammer, Lizette; Keenan, Jenna K.; Visweswaraiah, Hema; Shulman, Simon; Herbst, Laura; Pirvics, Lauma

    2009-01-01

    Few behavioral parent training (BPT) treatment studies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have included and measured outcomes with fathers. In this study, fathers were randomly assigned to attend a standard BPT program or the Coaching Our Acting-Out Children: Heightening Essential Skills (COACHES) program. The COACHES program…

  13. Positive Psychology and Self-Efficacy: Potential Benefits for College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Carla A.; Stone, Sharon L. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine strategies for supporting college students with learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from the conceptual frameworks of positive psychology and self-efficacy theory. Higher education professionals can use principles taken from the relatively new field of positive…

  14. Use of Health and School-Based Services in Australia by Young People with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Rey, Joseph M.; Arney, Fiona Marie; Whitham, Justine Nikola; Clark, Jennifer Joy; Baghurst, Peter Adrian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine use of health (including psychiatric) and school-based services by children and adolescents who met symptom criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the factors associated with service use, and barriers to service access. Method: The relationship between parents' perceptions of children's need for…

  15. Identifying Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder with the WISC-R and the Stroop Color and Word Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufi, Dubi; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared 29 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), 21 emotionally disturbed (ED) children, and control (CO) group of 20 nonproblem children using 12 subtests of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and Stroop Color and Word Test. Results showed CO group superior to ADHD and ED groups and ED group superior to ADHD…

  16. The Effects of Incentives on Visual-Spatial Working Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, Keri; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.; Lysczek, Cynthia L.; Tannock, Rosemary; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Gangloff, Brian P.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Working memory is one of several putative core neurocognitive processes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present work seeks to determine whether visual-spatial working memory is sensitive to motivational incentives, a laboratory analogue of behavioral treatment. Participants were 21 children (ages 7-10) with a diagnosis of…

  17. Effects of Self-Monitoring on Classroom Preparedness Skills of Middle School Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Chrissy; Fore, Cecil, III; Boon, Richard T.; Bender, William N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a self-monitoring procedure to increase classroom preparedness skills of four sixth grade students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study used a multiple-baseline across participants design to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention. The baseline,…

  18. Using Computer Assisted Biofeedback to Help Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder to Gain Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Judy; Johnson, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of computer-assisted biofeedback on the electromyographic activity of three students (grades four and six) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results indicated increased relaxation abilities and, in the case of the one student also observed in the classroom, increased on-task behavior after the biofeedback…

  19. Is EEG Biofeedback Efficacious as a Treatment for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Trevin Douglas

    This literature review examined 16 treatment studies which employed electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback to treat children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An introductory section reviews hallmarks of ADHD, its historical background, current diagnostic criteria, etiology, single treatment or symptom focused treatment,…

  20. Six-Week Open-Label Reboxetine Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Sharon; Laor, Nathaniel; Bronstein, Yifat; Weizman, Abraham; Toren, Paz

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This open-label study assessed the effectiveness of reboxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) resistant to a previous methylphenidate trial. Method: Thirty-one child and adolescent outpatients, aged 8 to 18 (mean age, 11.7; SD = 2.87)…

  1. Varying the Wear Time of the Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Boellner, Samuel W.; Lopez, Frank A.; Turnbow, John M.; Wigal, Sharon B.; Childress, Ann C.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Manos, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A study investigated the impact of variable wear times of the methylphenidate transdermal system in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It was concluded that duration of medication effect was directly related to the wear time of the methylphenidate transdermal system patch.

  2. Switch in Therapy from Methylphenidate to Atomoxetine in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warrer, Pernille; Thomsen, Per Hove; Dalsgaard, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate therapy switching from methylphenidate (MPH) to atomoxetine (ATX) in a clinical sample of Danish children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); specifically, to determine the duration of MPH treatment before...

  3. The Utility of Home Problem Pervasiveness and Severity in Classifying Children Identified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tammy D.; Pinard, Ferne A.; Barry, Christopher T.; Garland, Beth H.; Lyman, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Given the propensity for clinical assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to focus on core behavioral symptoms, the current study examined how well other predictors classified children who were diagnosed with ADHD by licensed practitioners. Participants were 91 children (39 ADHD-identified, 52 without ADHD), aged 8 to 13…

  4. The Effects of Computer-Administered Choice on Students with and without Characteristics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Deborah E.; Zentall, Sydney S.; French, Brian F.; Giorgetti-Borucki, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Providing choice to individual students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has previously been demonstrated (in single-subject research) to reduce undesirable behavior but has failed to demonstrate gains that are independent of task difficulty or interests/ preferences. We examined choice of feedback type on a computerized math…

  5. Dysfunctional Career Thoughts and Attitudes as Predictors of Vocational Identity among Young Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipeolu, Abiola; Sniatecki, Jessica L.; Storlie, Cassandra A.; Hargrave, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes as predictors of vocational identity among high school students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Regression analysis results indicated that dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes were significant predictors of vocational identity, accounting for 42% of the…

  6. The Effects of Automated Prompting and Self-Monitoring on Homework Completion for a Student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blicha, Amy; Belfiore, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention consisting of automated prompting and self-monitoring on the level of independent homework task completion for an elementary-age student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Instituting a single subject, within series ABAB design, the results showed a consistent increase and…

  7. Neural correlates of reactive aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubenzer-Busch, Sarah; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Kuzmanovic, B; Gaber, TJ; Helmbold, K; Ullisch, Marcus Görge; Baurmann, D; Eickhoff, SB; Fink, GR; Zepf, FD

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often linked with impulsive and aggressive behaviour, indexed by high comorbidity rates between ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). The present study aimed to investigate underlying neural activity of reactive aggression in...... children with ADHD and comorbid DBD using functional neuroimaging techniques (fMRI). MethodEighteen boys with ADHD (age 9-14years, 10 subjects with comorbid DBD) and 18 healthy controls were administered a modified fMRI-based version of the Point Subtraction Aggression Game' to elicit reactive aggressive...

  8. Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder presenting with school truancy in an adolescent: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Wan Ismail, Wan Salwina; Tan, Chai Eng; Jaffar, Aida; Sharip, Shalisah; Omar, Khairani

    2011-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric illness commonly diagnosed during the early years of childhood. In many adolescents with undiagnosed ADHD, presentation may not be entirely similar to that in younger children. These adolescents pose significant challenges to parents and teachers coping with their disability. Often adolescents with behavioural problems are brought to medical attention as a last resort. This case describes an adolescent who presented to a primary care clinic with school truancy. He was initially treated for depression with oppositional defiant disorder and sibling rivalry. Only following a careful detailed history and further investigations was the diagnosis of ADHD made. He showed a positive improvement with the use of methylphenidate for his ADHD and escitalopram for his depression. The success of his management was further supported by the use of behavioural therapy and parenting interventions. There is a need to increase public awareness of ADHD, especially among parents and teachers so that early intervention can be instituted in these children. PMID:23205066

  9. Attention deficit and hyperactivity in social anxiety disorder: relationship with trauma history and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Ahmet; Çelebi, Fahri; Ertekin, Erhan; Kök, Burcu Ece; Tükel, Raşit

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the rate of childhood traumatic experiences and assess the relationship between childhood trauma and impulsivity in the presence of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). A total of 123 patients with a primary diagnosis of SAD were enrolled. All patients were assessed by using the clinical version of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I/CV) and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), ADHD module. A clinical and sociodemographic data form and rating scales were filled out. We found higher rates of emotional traumatic experiences and impulsivity along with more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and social anxiety in the group of SAD patients with childhood ADHD than in SAD patients without ADHD in childhood. The presence of ADHD is associated with higher severity in several domains in patients with SAD. Patients with SAD should be assessed carefully whether they have ADHD, especially when their SAD symptoms are severe, when they have a history of traumatic experiences or problems with impulse control. PMID:26797941

  10. Socio-emotional intervention in attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Cardoso-Moreno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neuro-behavioural disorder with onset in childhood. These children have impaired emotional self-control, self-regulation of drive and motivation. Numerous studies have reported cognitive disabilities in memory, executive functions, spatial abilities and language skills. The main objective of this work is to determine whether a socio-emotional intervention programme could improve executive functions in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The sample of this study consisted of 25 children (8 female and 17 male aged between 8 and 12 years, diagnosed with ADHD and who were not taking any psychopharmacological treatment at the time of the study, and had not taken medication previously. Executive functioning was assessed through the Zoo Map test and Tower of Hanoi puzzle in pre-/post-test design. A socio-emotional intervention programme was implemented. The training consisted of 8 one-hour weekly sessions, on an individual basis. Results indicate that such a programme does lead to improved performance in the execution of tasks that evaluate executive functions. After the intervention, the children took less time to resolve the Zoo Map test. Results for the Hanoi Tower puzzle were also improved after intervention. The children needed a lower number of movements to complete the task.

  11. Neuroscience of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)- a review

    OpenAIRE

    Haile D.B; Mohammed S

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) does not have a single underlying pathophysiology which seems it has a multifaceted etiology. There are various contributing factors for ADHD, environmental and genetic being few of them. This neurobiological disorder has been a result of continuous actions of the risk factors. Neuroimaging study has indicated that children suffering from ADHD had immature brains compared to other children. This has pointed towards the fact that the Cerebellum, ...

  12. Prevalence of obesity and overweight among Chinese children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a survey in Zhejiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Rongwang; Mao, Shujiong; Zhang, Suhan; Li, Rong; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with psychiatric and developmental disorders. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Chinese children with ADHD, and to explore which subtypes of the disorder may specifically be associated with obesity/overweight. Methods Children meeting the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were enrolled in the study. Weight, weight z-score, height, height z-score, BMI, and BMI z-score were used to e...

  13. Depression in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Mediating Role of Cognitive-Behavioral Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Knouse, Laura E.; Zvorsky, Ivori; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for depressive disorders but little is known about the potential cognitive and behavioral mechanisms of risk that could shape treatment. This study evaluated the degree to which cognitive-behavioral constructs associated with depression and its treatment—dysfunctional attitudes and cognitive-behavioral avoidance—accounted for variance in depressive symptoms and disorder in adults with ADHD. 77 adults clinically ...

  14. Behavioral parent training for Taiwanese parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huei-Lin; Chao, Chia-Chen; Tu, Chuan-Ching; Yang, Pin-Chen

    2003-06-01

    It has been observed that it is relatively difficult for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to follow social rules and behave in a socially desirable manner. The ADHD children in Chinese culture, which emphasizes Confucian values, might encounter even greater adjustment difficulties. The purpose of the present study is to implement a behavioral parent training program in a Confucian environment and examine its effectiveness. Twenty-three ADHD preschoolers (age: 3-6 years) and their parents were selected to participate in the present study. Fourteen of these 23 parents completed a 10-session parent training program. Parent ratings of ADHD/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and problem behaviors at home were collected at the first, fourth, sixth, seventh, and tenth sessions. Three instruments were used to evaluate treatment outcome: the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-Parent Form, Child Attention Profile, and Home Situations Questionnaire. The results showed that both ADHD/ODD symptoms and home behaviors of these 14 children improved significantly after the parent training. There was also a significant decline in the severity of symptoms and problem behaviors at home with the progression of training. These findings support the effectiveness of this parent training program for parents of ADHD children in an environment of Confucianism. Limitations of the present study and future direction for research are discussed. PMID:12753567

  15. Learning experiences of children presenting with Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders in primary schools / Tebogo Onicca Sepeng

    OpenAIRE

    Sepeng, Tebogo Onicca

    2006-01-01

    A quantitave study was done on children who were diagnosed with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders in primary schools. The main aim was to measure IQ and to find out if there are indicators of organicity. The hypotheses of the study were as follows: (i) Children diagnosed with ADHD will obtain lower scores on IQ tests than children not diagnosed with ADHD; (ii) Children diagnosed with ADHD have some form of neurological deficit or organicity The study consisted of...

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A review for family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande Sunil

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic behavioral disorder characterized by persistent hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention that impairs educational achievement and/or social functioning. Its diagnosis is made by ascertaining whether the child′s specific behaviors meet the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-revised criteria. Its etiology is still unclear but recent studies suggest that genetics plays a major role in conferring susceptibility. Comorbidity with psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorder, depression, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder; and with specific learning disability is not uncommon. Although medication works well in most cases of ADHD, optimal treatment requires integrated medical and behavioral treatment. Methylphenidate (MPH and atomoxetine are the two drugs being currently prescribed and their efficacy in decreasing the symptoms of ADHD is well documented. Pyschoeducational interventions in school can help increase the successful functioning of affected children and improve their academic performance. Almost half of affected children continue to show significant symptoms of the disorder into adolescence and young adulthood. The family physician can play an important role in detecting this condition early, coordinating its assessment and treatment, counseling the parents and classroom teacher, and monitoring the child′s academic and psychosocial progress on a long-term basis.

  17. A Comparison of Comorbidity and Psychological Outcomes in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Yoon; Choi, Inchul; Song, Misun; Kim, Sunyoung; Hong, Sungdo David; Joung, Yoosook

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare psychiatric comorbid disorders and psychological outcomes in children and adolescents with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Subjects were divided into a child group (aged under 12 years) and an adolescent group (aged 12 years and above). All subjects were diagnosed with ADHD based on the DSM IV diagnostic criteria using the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Korean Version (K...

  18. Performance patterns in Conners' CPT among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Carolina Miranda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the performance of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and dyslexia using Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT. The clinical groups were composed of 52 children with ADHD and 32 children with dyslexia. Performance in the CCPT was evaluated using ANCOVA to compare the clinical groups with the normative Brazilian sample. The ADHD group performed worse than the normative sample in almost all of the measurements, except for reaction time and response style. The dyslexia group scored higher on commissions, variability, perseverations and inconsistency in the reaction time over the six time blocks (Hit SE Block Change than the children in the normative Brazilian sample. The ADHD and dyslexia groups differed in omission measurements, Hit RT SE, variability, perseverations, Hit RT Interstimulus Intervals (ISI Change and Hit SE ISI Change. We thus found that the dyslexia group had specific deficit patterns, with greater response to non-target stimuli, greater perseveration and response variability, and difficulties in hit reaction time as the test progressed.

  19. Memantine versus Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadReza Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of memantine versus methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Method: Forty participants (34 boys and 6 girls aged 6-11 who were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder based on (DSM-IV-TR criteria were selected for this study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups: group one (n = 22 received memantine and the other group (n = 18 received methylphenidate for six weeks. Treatment outcomes were assessed using the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression- Severity Scale administered at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6 following the treatment. Also, a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (time- treatment interaction was used.Results: At 6 weeks, methylphenidate produced a significantly better outcome on the Parent Rating Scale scores and Clinical Global Impression- Severity than memantine. Side effects were observed more often in the memantine group. However, with respect to the frequency of side effects, the difference between the memantine and methylphenidate groups was not significant. The most common side effects associated with memantine are appetite suppression, headache, vomiting, nausea and fatigue.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that although memantine was less effective than methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, it may be considered as an alternative treatment.

  20. A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Francesco; Margari, Francesco; Legrottaglie, Anna R; Palumbi, Roberto; de Giambattista, Concetta; Margari, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and concept formation does not appear to be distinctive in discriminating from ASD, ADHD, or ASD + ADHD group. On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. PMID:27274255

  1. Evaluating cognitive and motivational accounts of greater reinforcement effects among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fosco, Whitney D.; Hawk, Larry W.; Rosch, Keri S; Bubnik, Michelle G

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is associated with cognitive deficits and dysregulated motivation. Reinforcement improves cognitive performance, often to a greater degree among children with ADHD compared to typically-developing controls. The current study tests the degree to which cognitive (individual differences in baseline cognition) and/or motivational (individual differences in Sensitivity to Reward; SR) processes can account for diagnostic group differences in reinf...

  2. Evaluation of the Prevalence of Drug Abuse and Smoking in Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaresh, Nooshin; Mazhari, Shahrzad; Mohamadi, Neda; Mohamadi, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 5% of children. In addition to pharmacotherapy, non-drug treatments such as appropriate parenting are also very important in the treatment of these children. Diagnosis and treatment of parents with psychiatric disorders and substance abuse and evaluation of the frequency of these disorders in parents is critical. Methods In this case-control study, 200 parents were studied. The target population included parents of 7 to 12 yea...

  3. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Korean Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Psychopathology According to Subtype

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Heejung; Yang, Jaewon; Lee, Moonsoo; Jang, Wonseok; Yang, Jae-Won; Kim, Ji-Hae; Hong, Sungdo David; Joung, Yoo Sook

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that more than 50% of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) cases also have comorbid psychiatric disorders. We evaluated the comorbid psychopathology of Korean children and adolescents with ADHD using a standardized diagnostic instrument. The Korean Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL-K) was administered and completed in 105 patients who had been referred to the outpatient and inpatient clinics at the Sam...

  4. Stigmatization and self-perception of youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussing R

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Regina Bussing, Anuja S Mehta Department of Psychiatry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: Increasing numbers of families must learn to manage their child's attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD through multimodal interventions that may include psychosocial, educational, and medication treatments. Like others with mental disorders, youth with ADHD face significant stigma in its various forms, including public (expressed as prejudice and discrimination, courtesy (stigma suffered by family members or associates of individuals with ADHD, and self-stigma (stigmatized individual's acceptance of negative views by others. Successful ADHD management requires awareness of stigma and of its potential adverse consequences on treatment initiation and persistence, but also calls for effective means to combat it. This review on stigmatization and self-perception of youth with ADHD first considers the current context of management and treatment options. Next, we appraise recent research in ADHD stigma measurement, identifying a dearth of validated tools and a need for additional instrument development, especially brief measures suitable for clinical encounters. The review then addresses studies of public stigma from the perspectives of youth and adults. A number of qualitative studies document the ubiquitous nature of public stigma experiences associated with ADHD from the perspectives of caregivers. Notably, impressions gathered in qualitative research are confirmed through quantitative studies of representative youth and adult samples, such as the National Stigma Study – Children, which report considerable stigmatization of ADHD by the general public. Unlike public stigma, courtesy stigma has not been examined through large-scale quantitative studies. However, courtesy stigma has been amply documented in qualitative research as a phenomenon experienced at various ecological levels, within the dyadic relationship with the

  5. A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Craig,1 Francesco Margari,2 Anna R Legrottaglie,1 Roberto Palumbi,1 Concetta de Giambattista,1 Lucia Margari1 1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, 2Psychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy Abstract: Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and concept formation does not appear to be distinctive in discriminating from ASD, ADHD, or ASD + ADHD group. On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. Keywords: executive function, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ASD + ADHD, neurocognitive endophenotype

  6. Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder insomnia with blue wavelength light-blocking glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fargason RE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rachel E Fargason, Taylor Preston, Emily Hammond, Roberta May, Karen L GambleDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USABackground: The aim of this study was to examine a nonmedical treatment alternative to medication in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD insomnia, in which blue wavelength light-blocking glasses are worn during the evening hours to counteract the phase-delaying effect of light. Outcome measures included sleep quality and midsleep time. The capacity of ADHD subjects to comply with treatment using the glasses was assessed.Methods: Daily bedtime, wake-up time, and compliance diaries were used to assess sleep quality and timing during a baseline observation week and a 2-week intervention period. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was administered following baseline and intervention. The intervention protocol consisted of use of blue wavelength-blocking glasses and a moderate lighting environment during evening hours.Results: Partial and variable compliance were noted, with only 14 of 22 subjects completing the study due to nonadherence with wearing the glasses and diary completion. Despite the minimum 3-hour recommendation, glasses were worn, on average, for 2.4 hours daily. Lighting was reduced for only 58.7% of the evening. Compared with baseline, the intervention resulted in significant improvement in global PSQI scores, PSQI subcomponent scores, and sleep diary measures of morning refreshment after sleep (P = 0.037 and night-time awakenings (P = 0.015. Global PSQI scores fell from 11.15 to 4.54, dropping below the cut-off score of 5 for clinical insomnia. The more phase-delayed subjects, ie, those with an initial midsleep time after 4:15 am, trended towards an earlier midsleep time by 43.2 minutes following the intervention (P = 0.073. Participants reported less anxiety following the intervention (P = 0.048.Conclusions

  7. Psychometric evaluation of the Sheehan Disability Scale in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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    Coles T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Theresa Coles,1 Cheryl Coon,1 Carla DeMuro,1 Lori McLeod,1 Ari Gnanasakthy21Patient-Reported Outcomes, RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USAAbstract: Inattention and impulsivity symptoms are common among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, which can lead to difficulty concentrating, restlessness, difficulty completing tasks, disorganization, impatience, and impulsiveness. Many adults with ADHD find it difficult to focus and prioritize. Resulting outcomes, such as missed deadlines and forgotten engagements, may ultimately impact the ability to function at work, school, home, or in a social environment. The European Medicines Agency guidelines for evaluating medicinal products for ADHD recommend inclusion of both functional outcomes, such as school, social, or work functioning, and outcomes related to symptoms of ADHD in clinical studies of novel medication primary efficacy endpoints. Due to its performance in other disease areas and the relevance of its items as evidenced by content validity analyses, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS was chosen to assess functional impairment in ADHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the SDS, used as a brief measure of functional impairment in a number of psychiatric disorders, in adult patients with ADHD. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the reliability of the SDS (based on Cronbach's coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability, its validity (construct and known-groups validity, and its ability to detect change in this patient population. This study also established a preliminary responder definition for the SDS in this study population to determine when change can be considered clinically beneficial in a clinical trial setting. The psychometric results support the use of the SDS subscales (items 1–3 and total score (sum of items 1–3 in an ADHD

  8. Sleep Promotes Consolidation of Emotional Memory in Healthy Children but Not in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Munz, Manuel; Molzow, Ina; Wilhelm, Ines; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2013-01-01

    Fronto-limbic brain activity during sleep is believed to support the consolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by emotional deficits coincidently caused by dysfunctional interplay of fronto-limbic circuits. This study aimed to examine the role of sleep in the consolidation of emotional memory in ADHD in the context of healthy development. 16 children with ADHD, 16 healthy children, and 20 healthy adults participated i...

  9. High dose methylphenidate treatment in adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Liebrenz Michael; Hof Danielle; Buadze Anna; Stohler Rudolf; Eich Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Stimulant medication improves hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity in both pediatric and adult populations with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, data regarding the optimal dosage in adults is still limited. Case presentation We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian patient who was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder when he was nine years old. He then received up to 10 mg methylphenidate (Ritalin®) and 20 mg sustai...

  10. Factors related to methylphenidate response in children with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gokce nur say

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to explore the predictive value of clinical features and self-concept on methylphenidate (MPH response in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods: The study had a naturalistic design where the results were analyzed retrospectively. ADHD and comorbidity were diagnosed by Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. At the baseline assessment, parents completed Turgay DSM-IV Disruptive Disorders Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S and Child Behavior Check List (CBCL; teachers were given T-DSM-IV-S, CBCL. The children completed Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale (PHSCS, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI, and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED. Following 4-8 weeks of MPH treatment, the parents completed T-DSM-IV-S and the clinician completed Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (CGI-I. This study included 54 children (18 girls, 36 boys; mean age 9.32±0.21 years old. The sample was divided in “good responders” (GR and “poor responders” (PR regarding the response criteria defined by authors. Results: The PR group had significantly higher rates of anxiety disorders, higher internalizing scores and lower PHSCS scores compared to GR. Comorbid anxiety disorders, elimination disorders and negative self-concept were found to predict poor MPH response by multiple regression analysis. Conclusions: The results point to the need for additional interventions in the presence of comorbid anxiety, incontinence or poor self-concept in children with ADHD.

  11. The Impact of Mindfulness Training on Hyperactive Behaviors Demonstrated by Elementary Age Children with a Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders in the United States. Although many children with an ADHD diagnosis are prescribed medication to control symptoms, behavioral concerns are still regularly noted in the classroom, home, and other settings. Therefore, school psychologists are often…

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the Light of the Epigenetic Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Schuch, Viviane; Utsumi, Daniel Augusto; Costa, Thaís Virgínia Moura Machado; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Muszkat, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a definite behavioral pattern that might lead to performance problems in the social, educational, or work environments. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, the symptoms of ADHD were restricted to those associated with cognitive (attention deficit) and behavioral (hyperactivity/impulsivity) deficits, while deficient emotional self-regulatio...

  13. Treatment for Co-Occurring Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Naomi Ornstein; Kollins, Scott H.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the co-occurrence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has grown in the last decade. Research on clinical populations supports the frequent co-occurrence of ADHD traits (e.g., hyperactivity) in individuals with ASD and ASD traits (e.g., social communication deficits) in individuals with ADHD. Similar trends in co-occurring traits have been observed in population-based samples, as well as family and genetic studies of affected indivi...

  14. Structured group psychotherapy in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of an open multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Richter, Harald; Peters, Julia; Alm, Barbara; Sobanski, Esther; Colla, Michael; Münzebrock, Mirka; Scheel, Corinna; Jacob, Christian; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Hesslinger, Bernd

    2007-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder that often persists in adulthood. In a pilot study, a structured skills training group program for adult ADHD led to significant symptomatic improvements. The present study evaluated the program's effectiveness, feasibility, and patient acceptability in a multicenter setting. Seventy-two adult ADHD patients were assigned to 13 two-hour weekly sessions at 4 different therapy sites. The therapy was well tolerated and led to significant improvements of ADHD, depressive symptoms, and personal health status (p mindfulness," and "emotion regulation" as the most helpful. In this multicenter study, the therapy program showed therapist-independent effects and seemed to be disorder-specific. This warrants the effort of organizing further controlled studies. PMID:18091195

  15. Altered resting-state frontoparietal control network in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Matsuo, Kayako; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-04-01

    The frontoparietal control network, anatomically and functionally interposed between the dorsal attention network and default mode network, underpins executive control functions. Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly exhibit deficits in executive functions, which are mainly mediated by the frontoparietal control network. Involvement of the frontoparietal control network based on the anterior prefrontal cortex in neurobiological mechanisms of ADHD has yet to be tested. We used resting-state functional MRI and seed-based correlation analyses to investigate functional connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in a sample of 25 children with ADHD (7-14 years; mean 9.94 ± 1.77 years; 20 males), and 25 age-, sex-, and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children. All participants had limited in-scanner head motion. Spearman's rank correlations were used to test the associations between altered patterns of functional connectivity with clinical symptoms and executive functions, measured by the Conners' Continuous Performance Test and Spatial Span in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Compared with TD children, children with ADHD demonstrated weaker connectivity between the right anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the right ventrolateral PFC, and between the left anterior PFC and the right inferior parietal lobule. Furthermore, this aberrant connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in ADHD was associated with symptoms of impulsivity and opposition-defiance, as well as impaired response inhibition and attentional control. The findings support potential integration of the disconnection model and the executive dysfunction model for ADHD. Atypical frontoparietal control network may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. PMID:25928822

  16. Challenges in the transition of care for adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Adelaide; Findling, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often considered a childhood disorder. However, in those diagnosed with ADHD as children, inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity can persist into adulthood, causing significant functional impairment and emotional distress, even if the condition no longer meets diagnostic criteria. This review examines the developmental and psychosocial factors to consider in adolescents with ADHD and the strategies that facilitate the transition from pediatric to adult care. Our findings are based on PubMed database searches conducted on November 29, 2011, that identified articles pertaining to ADHD and continuity or transition in medical care for adolescents published in English within the 5-year period preceding this date. Adolescents with ADHD face specific burdens associated with transitioning into adulthood that can impede the achievement of academic and occupational goals. The main finding of the literature review was that ADHD treatment rates decline sharply from childhood through young adulthood, despite the fact that functional impairment often persists. Moreover, although psychosocial therapy can play an important role in resolving functional difficulties and encouraging patient adherence to pharmacotherapy, the existing literature focuses mainly on pharmacotherapy as first-line treatment for ADHD. Therefore, careful, advanced planning to ensure continuity of medical and psychiatric care is essential. This planning involves the pediatric service that has been providing care, the adult service that will assume the responsibility of providing care, the young person with ADHD, and the family. Although recommendations for planning initiatives have been developed by a variety of professional organizations, they do not seem to be routinely implemented for the transition of ADHD care. Such careful advanced transition planning can ensure continuity of treatment, encourage treatment adherence, and help young individuals

  17. A controlled study of a simulated workplace laboratory for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Ronna; Surman, Craig; Hammerness, Paul; Petty, Carter; Faraone, Stephen; Hyder, Laran; Westerberg, Diana; Small, Jacqueline; Corkum, Lyndsey; Claudat, Kim; Biederman, Joseph

    2012-12-30

    Despite an extant literature documenting that adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for significant difficulties in the workplace, there is little documentation of the underlying factors associated with these impairments. The main aim of this study was to examine specific deficiencies associated with ADHD on workplace performance in a simulated workplace laboratory relative to controls. Participants were 56 non-medicated young adults with DSM-IV ADHD and 63 age- and sex-matched controls without ADHD. Participants spent 10h in a workplace simulation laboratory. Areas assessed included: (1) simulated tasks documented in a government report (SCANS) often required in workplace settings (taxing vigilance; planning; cooperation; attention to detail), (2) observer ratings, and (3) self-reports. Robust findings were found in the statistically significant differences on self-report of ADHD symptoms found between participants with ADHD and controls during all workplace tasks and periods of the workday. Task performance was found to be deficient in a small number of areas, and there were a few statistically significant differences identified by observer ratings. Symptoms reported by participants with ADHD in the simulation including internal restlessness, intolerance of boredom and difficulty maintaining vigilance were significant and could adversely impact workplace performance over the long-term. PMID:22608823

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, CNS stimulants and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, G; Fricker, P

    1999-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 1 to 10% of children and is characterised by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Over one-half of children with ADHD have associated conditions, including learning disabilities, conduct disorders, poor coordination, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders and bipolar disorders. CNS stimulant medication used in the management of ADHD is not permitted for use in competition by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and this poses a problem for the physicians of patients with ADHD. On the one hand, attention and concentration are improved by stimulant medication and fine motor coordination and balance are improved after methylphenidate administration, but these therapeutic and sport-related benefits are not available to the athlete with ADHD who wishes to compete under IOC rules. It has been suggested that treatment with methylphenidate may be suitable for athletes with ADHD, as cessation of therapy 24 hours before competition is usually adequate to allow drug clearance which should avoid a positive result being returned on drug testing. More research is needed to establish whether stimulant medication for athletes with ADHD provides an unfair advantage in competition. PMID:10028130

  19. Indicators of Simulated Driving Skills in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherrilene Classen PhD, MPH, OTR/L, FAOTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have an increased risk for committing traffic violations, and they are four times more likely than neurotypical peers to be crash involved, making them a potentially high risk group for driving. We used a two-group design to measure differences in demographics, clinical off-road tests, and fitness to drive abilities in a driving simulator with nine adolescents with ADHD (mean age = 15.00, SD ± 1.00 compared to 22 healthy controls (HC (mean age = 14.32, SD ±..716, as evaluated by an Occupational Therapist Certified Driving Rehabilitation Specialist (OT-CDRS. Despite few demographic differences, the adolescents with ADHD performed worse than the HC on tests of right visual acuity (F = 5.92, p = .036, right peripheral field (F = 6.85, p = .019, selective attention (U = 53.00, p = .046, and motor coordination (U = 53.00, p = .046. The ADHD group made more visual scanning (U = 52.50, p = .041, speed regulation (U = 28.00, p = .001, and total driving errors (U = 32.50, p = .003 on the simulator. Adolescents with ADHD performed worse on tests measuring visual, cognitive, motor, and pre-driving skills, and on a driving simulator. They may require the services of an OT-CDRS to determine their fitness to drive abilities prior to referring them for driver’s education.

  20. Adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and exposure to violence: parents' opinion1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Scherer, Zeyne Alves Pires; Scherer, Edson Arthur; Cavalin, Luciana Aparecida; Guazzelli, Mariana Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to identify the opinion of parents or guardians of adolescents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) about their children's exposure as perpetrators or victims of violence situations in family life or outside. Method: qualitative study with use of thematic oral history. Nine parents of 07 adolescents with ADHD participated. Data were collected from April to September of 2013 using thematic interview. The interviews were recorded at scheduled times at the participants' home, with an average duration of 30 minutes. The findings were submitted to inductive thematic analysis. Results: data analysis allowed the identification of the occurrence of "Conflicts in family life" and "Conflicts in the context of school and community". Parents reported the involvement of their children as victims, perpetrators and witnesses of physical and psychological violence, and the difficulty of them and the school to understand and handle these situations. Conclusion: violence occurs in ADHD adolescents' interpersonal relationships. Communication between health professionals, school and families is precarious. Through the systematization of nursing care, nurses can plan strategies that articulate support networks and interpersonal relationships of adolescents with the disorder (family and school). PMID:26626000

  1. Adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and exposure to violence: parents' opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Rodrigues Stefanini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the opinion of parents or guardians of adolescents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD about their children's exposure as perpetrators or victims of violence situations in family life or outside. Method: qualitative study with use of thematic oral history. Nine parents of 07 adolescents with ADHD participated. Data were collected from April to September of 2013 using thematic interview. The interviews were recorded at scheduled times at the participants' home, with an average duration of 30 minutes. The findings were submitted to inductive thematic analysis. Results: data analysis allowed the identification of the occurrence of "Conflicts in family life" and "Conflicts in the context of school and community". Parents reported the involvement of their children as victims, perpetrators and witnesses of physical and psychological violence, and the difficulty of them and the school to understand and handle these situations. Conclusion: violence occurs in ADHD adolescents' interpersonal relationships. Communication between health professionals, school and families is precarious. Through the systematization of nursing care, nurses can plan strategies that articulate support networks and interpersonal relationships of adolescents with the disorder (family and school.

  2. Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

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    Hae Dong Woo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA. PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the “traditional” pattern, the “seaweed-egg” pattern, the “traditional-healthy” pattern, and the “snack” pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12–0.79. The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD.

  3. Executive Dysfunction in Children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

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    Javad Alaghband-Rad

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: The purpose of this study is to compare the executive functions children and adolescents who suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder "n(ADHD with normal children. "nMethod: Twenty children with ADHD were compared to 19 healthy children terms of some executive functions using the computerized version of Tower London, Continuous Performance Test (CPT, and Stroop Color Test. "nResults: In "Tower of London", the performance of children with ADHD was "nworse than normal children (p<0.05. In Continuous Performance Test, the "ncommission errors in children with ADHD were significantly more than the "nnormal group (p<0.01. In Stroop Test, the time spent to name the colors was "nsignificantly higher in ADHD group. A significant correlation was also found "nbetween the performance of children on Tower of London and CPT (P<0.05. "nConclusions: This study demonstrates that children and adolescents who "nsuffer from ADHD have some impairment of executive functions, particularly "nplanning and inhibition to response, but not in attention.

  4. Effect of acute exercise on executive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Liu, Suyen; Yu, Hui-Hsiang; Lee, Yuan-Hung

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of acute aerobic exercise on executive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Forty children with ADHD were randomly assigned into exercise or control groups. Participants in the exercise group performed a moderate intensity aerobic exercise for 30 min, whereas the control group watched a running/exercise-related video. Neuropsychological tasks, the Stroop Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), were assessed before and after each treatment. The results indicated that acute exercise facilitated performance in the Stroop Test, particularly in the Stroop Color-Word condition. Additionally, children in the exercise group demonstrated improvement in specific WCST performances in Non-perseverative Errors and Categories Completed, whereas no influences were found in those performances in the control group. Tentative explanations for the exercise effect postulate that exercise allocates attention resources, influences the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and is implicated in exercise-induced dopamine release. These findings are promising and additional investigations to explore the efficacy of exercise on executive function in children with ADHD are encouraged. PMID:22306962

  5. Low serum sphingolipids in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

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    Marcela Patricia Henríquez-Henríquez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most prevalent neuropsychiatric condition in childhood. ADHD is a multifactorial trait with a strong genetic component. One neurodevelopmental hypothesis is that ADHD is associated with a lag in brain maturation. Sphingolipids are essential for brain development and neuronal functioning, but their role in ADHD pathogenesis is unexplored. We hypothesized that serum sphingolipid levels distinguish ADHD patients from unaffected subjects. Methods: We characterized serum sphingolipid profiles of ADHD patients and two control groups: non-affected relatives and non-affected subjects without a family history of ADHD. Sphingolipids were measured by LC-MS/MS in 77 participants (28 ADHD patients, 28 related controls and 21 unrelated controls. ADHD diagnosis was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV-TR. Diagnostic criteria were assessed by 2 independent observers. Groups were compared by parametrical statistics. Results: Serum sphingomyelins C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C24:1, ceramide C24:0 and deoxy-ceramide C24:1 were significantly decreased in ADHD patients at 20-30% relative reductions. In our sample, decreased serum sphingomyelin levels distinguished ADHD patients with 79% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Conclusions: Our results showed lower levels of all major serum sphingomyelins in ADHD. These findings may reflect brain maturation and affect neuro-functional pathways characteristic for ADHD.

  6. Circadian motor activity affected by stimulant medication in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Sarah; Davidson, Fiona; Corkum, Penny

    2010-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder occurring in approximately 3-5% of school-aged children. The core symptoms of ADHD are effectively treated with stimulant medications such as methylphenidate; however, there are also negative side effects, including insomnia. It has been suggested that administration of stimulant medication may alter the timing or regularity of circadian motor activity levels. This study aimed to investigate the impact of stimulant medication on the strength and timing of circadian rhythms in 16 stimulant medication-naïve children with ADHD. Participants were monitored for changes in motor activity during a 3-week blinded placebo-controlled medication trial to examine the impact of immediate-release methylphenidate hydrochloride. Motor activity was measured by actigraphy, and 24-h activity profiles were analysed using cosinor analyses to identify measurable changes in circadian rhythms. The children in this sample demonstrated significant increases in motor activity during the sleep-onset latency period. They also showed a significant reduction in relative circadian amplitude and a phase-delay in the timing of the daily rhythm. Clinicians and parents of children being treated with stimulant medication for ADHD should be aware that stimulant medication may cause disruption of sleep/circadian rhythms. Behavioural strategies to improve sleep may be useful for children experiencing these negative effects from medication. PMID:20629940

  7. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Adversely Associated with Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ching-Jung; Du, Jung-Chieh; Chiou, Hsien-Chih; Feng, Chun-Cheng; Chung, Ming-Yi; Yang, Winnie; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Chien, Ling-Chu; Hwang, Betau; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood neurobehavioral conditions. Evidence of the negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on mental health has not been convincing, although a few studies have found an association between high SSB levels and attention problems in children. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that SSB consumption is associated with ADHD among children. Doctor-diagnosed ADHD cases (n = 173) and non-ADHD controls (n = 159) between age 4 to 15 were recruited. SSB consumption, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of the children, as well as of their mothers' characteristics during pregnancy, were collected using a questionnaire. Blood lead levels and polymorphisms of two commonly verified dopaminergic-related genes (the D4 dopamine receptor gene DRD4 and the dopamine transporter gene DAT1) were also analyzed. There was a dose-response relationship between SSB consumption and ADHD. After covariates were adjusted, children who consumed SSBs at moderate levels and high levels had 1.36 and 3.69 odds, respectively, of having ADHD, compared with those who did not consume SSBs (p for trend < 0.05). Similar results were obtained when females were excluded. Our findings highlighted the adverse correlation between SSB consumption and ADHD and indicated a dose-response effect even after covariates were adjusted. PMID:27384573

  8. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Adversely Associated with Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Jung Yu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common childhood neurobehavioral conditions. Evidence of the negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs on mental health has not been convincing, although a few studies have found an association between high SSB levels and attention problems in children. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that SSB consumption is associated with ADHD among children. Doctor-diagnosed ADHD cases (n = 173 and non-ADHD controls (n = 159 between age 4 to 15 were recruited. SSB consumption, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of the children, as well as of their mothers’ characteristics during pregnancy, were collected using a questionnaire. Blood lead levels and polymorphisms of two commonly verified dopaminergic-related genes (the D4 dopamine receptor gene DRD4 and the dopamine transporter gene DAT1 were also analyzed. There was a dose-response relationship between SSB consumption and ADHD. After covariates were adjusted, children who consumed SSBs at moderate levels and high levels had 1.36 and 3.69 odds, respectively, of having ADHD, compared with those who did not consume SSBs (p for trend < 0.05. Similar results were obtained when females were excluded. Our findings highlighted the adverse correlation between SSB consumption and ADHD and indicated a dose-response effect even after covariates were adjusted.

  9. Treatment planning for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: treatment utilization and family preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Brinkman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available William B Brinkman, Jeffery N EpsteinDepartment of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USABackground: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common condition that often results in child and family functional impairments. Although there are evidence-based treatment modalities available, implementation of and persistence with treatment plans vary with patients. Family preferences also vary and may contribute to variability in treatment utilization.Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the evidence-based treatments available for ADHD, identify patterns of use for each modality, and examine patient and parent treatment preferences.Method: Literature review.Results: Treatment options differ on benefits and risks/costs. Therefore, treatment decisions are preference sensitive and depend on how an informed patient/parent values the tradeoffs between options. Literature on patient and parent ADHD treatment preferences is based on quantitative research assessing the construct of treatment acceptability and qualitative and quantitative research that assesses preferences from a broader perspective. After a child is diagnosed with ADHD, a variety of factors influence the initial selection of treatment modalities that are utilized. Initial parent and child preferences are shaped by their beliefs about the nature of the child's problems and by information (and misinformation received from a variety of sources, including social networks, the media, and health care providers. Subsequently, preferences become further informed by personal experience with various treatment modalities. Over time, treatment plans are revisited and revised as families work with their health care team to establish a treatment plan that helps their child achieve goals while minimizing harms and costs.Conclusions: Studies have not been able to determine the extent to which

  10. The differential effects of teacher and peer attention on the disruptive classroom behavior of three children with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northup, J; Broussard, C; Jones, K; George, T; Vollmer, T R; Herring, M

    1995-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of classroom disruption during contingent teacher and peer attention conditions for 3 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention provided by peer confederates appeared to function as a distinct form of positive reinforcement for all 3 children. PMID:7601806

  11. The differential effects of teacher and peer attention on the disruptive classroom behavior of three children with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Northup, J; Broussard, C.; Jones, K; George, T.; Vollmer, T R; Herring, M

    1995-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of classroom disruption during contingent teacher and peer attention conditions for 3 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention provided by peer confederates appeared to function as a distinct form of positive reinforcement for all 3 children.

  12. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties. PMID:25763856

  13. Oxytocin system social function impacts in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Ayşe Burcu; Karkucak, Mutlu; Ayaz, Muhammed; Gokce, Sebla; Kayan, Esengul; Güler, Elif Erol; Güngen, Belma Doğan; Kuşcu, Tugba Didem; Ocakoğlu, Gökhan; Yakut, Tahsin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate relationships between the polymorphisms and social functioning of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), according to the polymorphism of three oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genes (rs53576, rs13316193, and and rs2268493). A total of 198 children-studying in the same primary and secondary school and matched in terms of age and gender (99 ADHD, 99 control)-were included in this study. The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version was administered to establish the clinical diagnosis. The Social Reciprocity Scale (SRS) was applied to evaluate social functioning. The total genomic DNA was isolated from buccal mucosa samples. No significant differences were determined between the ADHD and control groups in terms of rs2268493, rs13316193, and rs53576 genotype distribution (P = 0.078, P = 0.330, and P = 0.149, respectively). However, the control group T allele frequency in the OXTR Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs2268493 was significantly higher than the ADHD group (P = 0.024). Compared to the control group, the ADHD group had a higher score on the SRS scale (SRS total; Z = -21,135, P gene SNP rs2268493 was significantly different in the ADHD group, compared to the control group. This observation is important in understanding the underlying biological infrastructure in ADHD and developing treatment modalities. PMID:26174935

  14. No Tryptophan, Tyrosine and Phenylalanine Abnormalities in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, Catharina Elisabeth; Luman, Marjolein; Blom, Henk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to explore the role of aromatic amino acids (AAAs) in blood in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given their impact on the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine, decreased concentrations of the AAAs tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine in blood may contribute to the expression of ADHD symptoms. Decreased AAA blood concentrations, in turn, may be related to lowered dietary protein intake or to abnormal AAA catabolism, as evidenced by increased urinary AAA concentrations. Methods Eighty-three children with ADHD (75% males) and 72 typically developing (TD) children (51% males), aged 6 to 13 years, participated in the study. AAA concentrations were assessed in blood spots and an 18-hour urinary sample. A nutritional diary was filled out by parents to calculate dietary protein intake. Parent and teacher questionnaires assessed symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. Results Children with ADHD showed normal AAA concentrations in blood spots and urine, as well as normal protein intake compared to controls. No associations between AAA concentrations and symptoms of ADHD or comorbid psychiatric disorders were found. Conclusions This study is the first to explore AAA metabolism in children with ADHD using a well-defined and relatively large sample. We found that AAA deficiencies are not related to ADHD. The results do not support treatment with AAA supplements in children with ADHD. Future studies regarding the cause of serotonin and dopamine alterations in ADHD should focus on other explanations, such as effects of altered transport of AAAs. PMID:26938936

  15. Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt P. Schulz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD.

  16. Concurrent Validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zarrabi, Mojgan; Shahrivar, Zahra; Tehrani Doost, Mehdi; Khademi, Mojgan; Zargari Nejad, Ghazale

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in which impairment of executive functions plays an important role. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in children with ADHD. Patients and Methods: Thirty children, aged 7-12 years, attending the child and adolescent clinic of Roozbeh hospital and diagnosed with ADHD according to interview with a child ...

  17. Support for learning goes beyond academic support: Voices of students with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the experiences of support at school among young adults with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and also to examine what support they, in retrospect, described as influencing learning. Purposive sampling was used to enroll participants. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 13 young adults aged between 20 and 29 years. A qualitative analysis, based on interpreting people's experiences, was conducted by grouping and searching for patterns in data. The findings indicate that the participants experienced difficulties at school that included academic, social, and emotional conditions, all of which could influence learning. Support for learning included small groups, individualized teaching methods, teachers who cared, and practical and emotional support. These clusters together confirm the overall understanding that support for learning aligns academic and psychosocial support. In conclusion, academic support combined with psychosocial support at school seems to be crucial for learning among students with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25911093

  18. Dietary Patterns and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Iranian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Azadbakht; Mohammad H. Rouhani; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: : To evaluate the association of major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a group of Iranian school aged children.Materials and Method: : This cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 school-aged children in Tehran, Iran. Usual dietary intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. DSM-IV questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of ADHD. Major dietary patterns were ident...

  19. Reduced white matter integrity in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Liberty S.; Levitt, Jennifer G; O’Neill, Joseph; Alger, Jeffry R; Luders, Eileen; Phillips, Owen R.; Caplan, Rochelle; Toga, Arthur W.; McCracken, James; Narr, Katherine L.

    2008-01-01

    We used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of fiber tract integrity, in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using a tract-based atlasing approach on six-direction diffusion tensor imaging data, we examined FA within the cingulum, corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, fornix, optic radiations, superior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and the superior and inferior occipitofrontal fasciculi in an all-male sample of17 children ...

  20. A framework of psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Merkt, Julia; Reinelt, Tilman; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The term compensation is widely used in the context of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992) to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: we will (1) introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2) discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3) set up requirements for research on psychological ...

  1. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students

    OpenAIRE

    Murkett, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Kevin Nugent,1 Wallace Smart2,3 1Kinark Child and Family Services, Trent University and Sir Sanford Fleming College, Peterborough, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 3University of Lethbridge Health Centre, Lethbridge, AB, Canada Abstract: A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determ...

  2. Association Between 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Tics after Treatment with Methylphenidate in Korean Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seo Yeon; Kim, Eun Joo; Cheon, Keun-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (44-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism of serotonin transporter gene) and methylphenidate (MPH) treatment response, as well as the association between the adverse events of MPH treatment and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: A total of 114 children with ADHD (mean age 9.08 ± 1.94 years) were recruited from the child psychiat...

  3. Intervention in Learning Difficulties with children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) at Primary School: A North of Portugal Research

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a Teachers Training Programme involving Primary School teachers who has students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and it describes a part of the research dissertation on the course of PhD degrees in Science Education in the Catholic University in Porto, Portugal. The aim of our research is based on testing an approach, both training and acceptable involving teachers with ADHD in their classrooms, focusing in the identification of the barriers conne...

  4. [Autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: pharmacological intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Martín Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel; Fernández-Perrone, Ana Laura; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Muñoz-Jareño, Nuria; López-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    The cardinal symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness--are not specific and may be found in the general population and in other disorders. These symptoms are present in over 50% of patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It thus seems quite clear that both problems can coexist in these patients. The usual pharmacological treatments for ADHD, methylphenidate and atomoxetine, appear to be useful in reducing the above-mentioned symptoms in patients with ADHD and ASD. Effectiveness seems to be lower in patients with ASD and tolerance is slightly poorer. This may be conditioned by a number of variables, including: the complexity of ASD, association with mental retardation, polypharmacotherapy, and so on. Given the long-term tolerance profile of methylphenidate and atomoxetine, these treatments appear to be a good alternative with which to improve the problems of attention and self-control these patients have. Nevertheless, further controlled studies are needed to confirm this proposition. PMID:23897149

  5. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-yong Park; Hyunjin Park

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. ...

  6. Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Zinc Deficiencies in Children Presenting with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amelia Villagomez; Ujjwal Ramtekkar

    2014-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder increasing in prevalence. Although there is limited evidence to support treating ADHD with mineral/vitamin supplements, research does exist showing that patients with ADHD may have reduced levels of vitamin D, zinc, ferritin, and magnesium. These nutrients have important roles in neurologic function, including involvement in neurotransmitter synthesis. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of each of these...

  7. Executive Function in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess executive functions in medication naive children with attention deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD). Method: Group matched (age and gender) children with ADHD (N=30) and healthy children (N=30) in the age range of 6-14 years were compared on measures of executive functions (response inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility,…

  8. Antisaccades elicited by visual and acoustic cues – an investigation of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Goepel, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity and with it deficient inhibition control is one of the core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – one of the most prevalent chronic psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. One possibility to investigate inhibitory mechanisms is the antisaccade task – a task, in which a subject is required to suppress a saccade towards a suddenly appearing cue (prosaccade) and to generate a voluntary saccade of equal size towards the opposite direction instead. A...

  9. Methylphenidate improves response inhibition but not reflection–impulsivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    DeVito, Elise E.; Blackwell, Andrew D.; Clark, Luke; Kent, Lindsey; Dezsery, Anna Maria; Turner, Danielle C; Aitken, Michael R.F.; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2008-01-01

    Rationale Impulsivity is a cardinal feature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is thought to underlie many of the cognitive and behavioural symptoms associated with the disorder. Impairments on some measures of impulsivity have been shown to be responsive to pharmacotherapy. However, impulsivity is a multi-factorial construct and the degree to which different forms of impulsivity contribute to impairments in ADHD or respond to pharmacological treatments remains unclear....

  10. Is physical activity causally associated with symptoms of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Anna-Sophie; Lichtenstein, Paul; Rydell, Mina; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna; Larsson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objective Emerging evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) enhances cognition and may be a protective factor for attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Yet, the impact of PA on ADHD symptoms has only been investigated in a few undersized, non-randomised and retrospective studies. We examined the effect of PA during late adolescence on ADHD symptoms in early adulthood while controlling for unmeasured genetic and shared environmental confounding. Methods The effect of PA at age 16-17 (baseline) on ADHD symptoms at age 19-20 (follow-up) was examined using a within-monozygotic twins fixed-effects model in 232 monozygotic twin pairs born in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986. Parents rated their children’s DSM ADHD symptoms at baseline and follow-up. Participants’ weekly energy expenditure (in metabolic equivalent task minutes/ week) was based on self-reports at baseline of PA frequency, intensity and duration. Results Greater weekly energy expenditure in adolescence was significantly associated with reduced ADHD symptom levels in early adulthood, even when controlling for unmeasured confounding (all genetic and shared environmental factors shared within MZ twin pairs) and ADHD symptoms and BMI at baseline, β = - 0.21, p=0.013 (95% CI= -0.38 – -0.05). Similar results were observed for the two ADHD sub-components; hyperactivity/ impulsivity, β = -0.21, p=0.022 (95% CI= -0.39 – -0.03), and inattention, β = -0.19, p=0.049 (95% CI= -0.36 – -0.0005). Conclusion In line with a causal hypothesis, PA was inversely associated with ADHD symptoms, even after adjusting for unmeasured confounding. These findings suggest that PA in adolescence might decrease ADHD symptoms in early adulthood. However, given the size of the effect, the clinical value of this intervention needs to be explored further. PMID:26088661

  11. Hyperresponsiveness to social rewards in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herpertz-Dahlmann Beate

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current research suggests that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is associated with larger behavioral sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies. However, most studies have focused thus far on the enhancing effects of tangible rewards such as money, neglecting that social-emotional stimuli may also impact task performance in ADHD patients. Methods To determine whether non-social (monetary and social (positive facial expressions rewards differentially improve response inhibition accuracy in children and adolescents with ADHD, we applied an incentive go/no-go task with reward contingencies for successful inhibition and compared ADHD subjects with typically developing individuals. Results Both social and monetary contingencies improved inhibition accuracy in all participants. However, individuals with ADHD displayed a particularly higher profit from social reward than healthy controls, suggesting that cognitive control in ADHD patients can be specifically improved by social reinforcement. By contrast, self-rated motivation associated with task performance was significantly lower in ADHD patients. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence for hyperresponsiveness to social rewards in ADHD patients, which is accompanied by limited self-awareness. These data suggest that social reward procedures may be particularly useful in behavioral interventions in children with ADHD.

  12. Altered pattern of brain dopamine synthesis in male adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Nicholas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data from positron emission tomography (PET studies of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD indicate alterations in brain dopamine neurotransmission. However, these studies have used conventional univariate approaches that are less sensitive to detect complex interactions that may exist between different brain dopamine pathways and individual symptoms of ADHD. We aimed to investigate these potential interactions in adolescents with ADHD. Methods We used a 3D PET scan to measure utilization of native L-[11C]-DOPA to map dopamine presynaptic function in various cortical, striatal and midbrain regions in a group of 8 male adolescents with ADHD and 6 age matched controls. To evaluate the interactions between the studied brain regions, multivariate statistical methods were used. Results Abnormal dopaminergic function was found in multiple brain regions of patients with ADHD. A main finding was lower L-[11C]-DOPA utilization in adolescent with ADHD as compared to control subjects, especially in subcortical regions. This pattern of dopaminergic activity was correlated specifically with symptoms of inattention. Conclusion Dopamine signalling in the brain plays an important modulatory role in a variety of motor and cognitive functions. We have identified region-specific functional abnormalities in dopaminergic function, which may help better account for the symptoms of ADHD.

  13. Classroom strategies used by teachers of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, S

    2001-01-01

    Pediatric therapists working in schools commonly function as consultants to assist teachers to develop strategies to help promote the classroom performance of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). This study surveyed general education teachers in northern New England to determine the classroom strategies teachers commonly use and perceive as being effective for improving the performance of children with ADHD. The strategies receiving the highest frequency and effectiveness ratings were enforcing routine and structure, frequent contact, preferential seating, use of motor breaks, and teaching self-monitoring of behaviors. The strategies receiving the lowest effectiveness ratings were peer tutoring, timeout, and giving assistance during transitions. Cross tabulations with chi-square analysis of the effectiveness ratings by grade level indicated the ratings for 3 of the 15 strategies, use of a designated quiet space, use of motor breaks, and sensory modulation techniques, were dependent on grade level. Qualitative analysis of teacher responses to open-ended questions provided recommendations for improving the education of children with ADHD, including: increasing special education support in the classroom, smaller class sizes, frequent parent-teacher collaboration, and more hands-on learning experiences. Implications of the results of the study for therapists working with students with ADHD and their teachers are discussed. PMID:11382204

  14. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu;

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...... of the hippocampus and amygdala in children with ADHD. DESIGN: A cross-sectional case-control study of the hippocampus and amygdala using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. SETTINGS: University research institute. PATIENTS: One hundred fourteen individuals aged 6 to 18 years, 51 with combined......-type ADHD and 63 healthy controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Volumes and measures of surface morphology for the hippocampus and amygdala. RESULTS: The hippocampus was larger bilaterally in the ADHD group than in the control group (t = 3.35; P <.002). Detailed surface analyses of the hippocampus further...

  15. Internet Uses and parental mediation in adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Arrizabalaga-Crespo, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The youth of today lives in the midst of a technological revolution, particularly in the field of communications (e-chats, mobile telephones, Messenger, etc.. In many parts of Spain, the Internet has overtaken television, not only as a source of entertainment and recreation among teenagers, but also as a socialisation force. Adolescents suffering from Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD have specific characteristics that may make them more vulnerable when using new technologies. Consequently, it is important to investigate the ways in which these teenagers use the Internet. This study attempts to identify, through the application of the Television Viewing Habits Questionnaire CH-TV 0.2, the possible differences between teenagers with ADHD and normal teenagers, with regards to Internet use, purpose of use, and parental mediation. The results, which are based on a sample of 232 adolescents from the Basque Country (Spain, indicate differences in Internet use profiles between adolescents with ADHD and the normal adolescent population. Contrary to our hypothesis, the former group uses the Internet less than the latter. Furthermore, despite the fact that for both sample groups the principal purpose of using the Internet was communication, significant differences were detected. In relation to parental mediation, teenagers with ADHD reported a higher degree of instructive and restrictive mediation.

  16. Parental interaction patterns in children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder and control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Karahmadi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Parental communication patterns influence children's personality. This study investigated effects of parental interaction patterns on children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD.
    METHODS: There were 50 male children, 7-12 years old, selected in two groups. The first group included students with ADHD referred to psychiatry clinics in Isfahan-based on diagnostic scale of DSM-IV (25 subjects. The second group involved healthy boys selected by random cluster multistage sampling from primary schools in five districts of Isfahan (25 subjects from September 2005 to March 2005. Schaffer and Edgerton parental interaction questionnaire was filled for them.
    RESULTS: Mean scores of parental interaction patterns in healthy children were all higher than those in ADHD children except for “aggression control” and “lack of aggressive attachment”.
    CONCLUSIONS: The severity of ADHD signs has negative relationship with parental "admission" and parental "control" patterns. It also has positive relationship with “lack of aggressive/attachment” and “aggressive/control” patterns.
    KEY WORDS: Parental interaction patterns, ADHD.

  17. Technetium-99m HMPAO brain SPECT in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, G.C.; Pekcanlar, A.; Bekis, R.; Ada, E.; Miral, S.; Emiroglu, N.; Durak, H. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental, neurobehavioral syndrome with an onset in childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of regional perfusion changes in ADHD by means of Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT. Thirteen children with a diagnosis of ADHD and 7 healthy, age-matched controls were included in this study. Hypoperfusion was observed on the right temporal cortex in 9, and on the left temporal cortex in 3 children. The distribution of the lesions showed right lateral temporal cortex involvement in 3, right medial temporal cortex in 9 and left medial temporal cortex in 8 children. Asymmetric perfusion was seen on the caudate nucleus in 4, on the thalamus in 3 and on the frontal cortex in 6 children. There was a significant difference between children with ADHD and controls in right medial temporal cortex: cerebellum and right lateral temporal cortex: cerebellum ratios. Hypoperfusion in the right medial temporal cortex was significantly and inversely correlated with Du Paul teachers' questionnaire rating scale (r=-0.71, p=0.006). It has been postulated that difficulty in self regulating response to stimuli in ADHD is mediated by underfunctioning of the orbital frontal cortex and subsequent connection to the limbic system. Decreased temporal cortex perfusion may dysfunction of the limbic system or the orbito-frontal-limbic axis. (author)

  18. Technetium-99m HMPAO brain SPECT in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental, neurobehavioral syndrome with an onset in childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of regional perfusion changes in ADHD by means of Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT. Thirteen children with a diagnosis of ADHD and 7 healthy, age-matched controls were included in this study. Hypoperfusion was observed on the right temporal cortex in 9, and on the left temporal cortex in 3 children. The distribution of the lesions showed right lateral temporal cortex involvement in 3, right medial temporal cortex in 9 and left medial temporal cortex in 8 children. Asymmetric perfusion was seen on the caudate nucleus in 4, on the thalamus in 3 and on the frontal cortex in 6 children. There was a significant difference between children with ADHD and controls in right medial temporal cortex: cerebellum and right lateral temporal cortex: cerebellum ratios. Hypoperfusion in the right medial temporal cortex was significantly and inversely correlated with Du Paul teachers' questionnaire rating scale (r=-0.71, p=0.006). It has been postulated that difficulty in self regulating response to stimuli in ADHD is mediated by underfunctioning of the orbital frontal cortex and subsequent connection to the limbic system. Decreased temporal cortex perfusion may dysfunction of the limbic system or the orbito-frontal-limbic axis. (author)

  19. Importance of pharmacogenetics in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan-kam, Teerarat; Suthisisang, Chutamanee; Pavasuthipaisit, Chosita; Limsila, Penkhae; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Sukasem, Chonlaphat

    2013-01-01

    This case report highlights the importance of pharmacogenetic testing in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). A 6-year-old boy diagnosed with ADHD was prescribed methylphenidate 5 mg twice daily (7 am and noon) and the family was compliant with administration of this medication. On the first day of treatment, the patient had an adverse reaction, becoming disobedient, more mischievous, erratic, resistant to discipline, would not go to sleep until midnight, and had a poor appetite. The All-In-One PGX (All-In-One Pharmacogenetics for Antipsychotics test for CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9) was performed using microarray-based and real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques. The genotype of our patient was identified to be CYP2D6*2/*10, with isoforms of the enzyme consistent with a predicted cytochrome P450 2D6 intermediate metabolizer phenotype. Consequently, the physician adjusted the methylphenidate dose to 2.5 mg once daily in the morning. At this dosage, the patient had a good response without any further adverse reactions. Pharmacogenetic testing should be included in the management plan for ADHD. In this case, cooperation between the medical team and the patients’ relatives was key to successful treatment. PMID:23526481

  20. Systematic review of risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Kalil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is complex in its etiology and its manifestations. This systematic review will critically analyze the latest research regarding risk factors associated with ADHD such as environmental, including preterm birth, smoking, and prenatal alcohol use. Furthermore reviewed, will be articles researching genetics, such as dopamine active transporter (DAT1, LPHN3, as well as genetic-environmental interaction for precursors of ADHD. Discussion: Current theories of ADHD show evidence supporting multiple genetic and environmental factors that interact during early developmental stages in the fetus to create a neuro-biological susceptibility to ADHD. The DAT1 has been implicated in ADHD although the mechanism by which it exerts its effects remains unknown. Factors due to drinking, smoking or stress while pregnant can affect the nervous system, which later may be linked to ADHD symptoms because they may alter genes during development by causing a genetic variation. Conclusion: Future research could benefit from using prospective, longitudinal studies, with large sample sizes. With contradictory results and many competing theories about precursors of ADHD, more research using advanced genetic technology will help researchers learn more about ADHD’s complex risks, precursors, and symptoms.

  1. Self-evaluated burden in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mattos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate feasibility and easiness of administration of a brief and simple instrument addressing impairment associated with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and if ADHD subtypes were correlated to specific profiles of self-reported impairment. METHODS: Thirty-five adults (19 men and 16 women; mean age of 31.74 years diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV with a semi-structured interview (K-SADS PL were asked to fill out a Likert scale covering six different functional areas (academic, professional, marital, familiar, social and daily activities. Clinicians questioned patients about their understanding of the questionnaire and investigated their answers in more details to check consistency of their answers. RESULTS: No patient reported difficulties in understanding the questionnaire. Further questioning of patients' answers confirmed their choices in the six areas. Academic burden had the highest average score in the whole sample, followed by professional burden. Social area had the lowest average score in this sample.

  2. Alcohol expectancies and drinking characteristics in parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, B S; Pelham, W E; Lang, A R

    1997-05-01

    Alcohol expectancies, drinking characteristics, and their association were examined in 587 adults: 431 parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 156 parents of children without ADHD. In addition to examining both traditional and parenting-specific alcohol expectancies for these adults, risk variables cutting across the two groups were considered: single parenthood and male gender. Few differences in mean expectancy levels were found between parents of children with and without ADHD, between single and married mothers, and between men and women. Furthermore, expectancies did not predict drinking differently across groups. However, there was some support for the utility of assessing parental expectations of alcohol's effects on interactions with children, and there were robust and interesting effects of socioeconomic status on expectancies and drinking. Single mothers also reported consuming higher quantities of alcohol than married mothers. Findings are discussed in terms of the link between ADHD and alcoholism, the ability of alcohol expectancies to explain drinking differences between high risk groups, the effect of socioeconomic status on these variables, and single motherhood as a vulnerability factor for increased drinking. PMID:9161617

  3. Attributions for parents' behavior by boys with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colalillo, Sara; Williamson, David; Johnston, Charlotte

    2014-12-01

    Attributions for parents' behavior were examined in a sample of boys with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Sixty-six boys (mean age = 9.75 years) rated attributions for their mothers' and their fathers' behavior, across positive and negative scenarios, and along four attribution dimensions (parent ability, parent effort, task difficulty, and child responsibility). Three-way interactions emerged among child ADHD status, parent gender, and attribution type, and among scenario valence, parent gender, and attribution type. All children rated attributions higher in the positive scenarios, and attributions of child responsibility higher for fathers than mothers. Children rated task-related attributions higher for mothers in negative scenarios, but higher for fathers in positive scenarios. Boys with ADHD rated child responsibility attributions higher than controls, across all scenarios. Results highlight important differences in children's perceptions of their parents' behavior that may have implications for understanding parent-child relationships in families of children with and without ADHD. PMID:24526459

  4. Functional MRI study of verbal working memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the verbal working memory of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as to explore the characteristics of functional areas of verbal working memory with blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: Eighteen children were selected in the study. There were 9 ADHD children with inattention subtype and 9 healthy subjects. All patients and healthy subjects completed the cognitive examination and the block- designed N-block verbal working memory task using a GE 3.0 T MR. Data were analyzed by AFNI software. Result: The neural activations of ADHD's children are lower than that of control under verbal working memory. Especially in the areas of bilateral middle frontal gyri and inferior frontal gyri, bilateral superior parietal lobules and inferior parietal lobules, right basal ganglia in the 1-BACK task. And bilateral middle frontal gyri and inferior frontal gyri, bilateral superior parietal lobules, left cortex inferior parietallobule, right basal ganglia, anterior cingulatecortex in the 2-BACK task. Conclusion: The hypofunctional areas of verbal working memory (including bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex) can be seen in the ADHD children especially who also has lower activation of anterior cingulate cortex under 2-BACK task. (authors)

  5. Cardiovascular Safety of Stimulants in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Kvist, Anette Primdal; Leckman, James F;

    2014-01-01

    -deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We also aim to examine a possible dose-response relationship in such an association. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal, prospective cohort study of all children born in Denmark between 1990 and 1999. Within this cohort, children with ADHD were identified. Data from national health...... also increased the risk of a cardiovascular event (adjusted HR = 2.20 [2.15-2.24]), with a complex time-dependent dose-response relationship. Conclusions: This is the first nationwide cohort study of the cardiovascular safety of stimulants in children and adolescents, and it represents, to our...

  6. Summer treatment program for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Japanese experience in 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yushiro; Mukasa, Akiko; Anai, Chizuru; Honda, Yuko; Kunisaki, Chie; Koutaki, Junichi; Tada, Yahuhiro; Egami, Chiyomi; Kodama, Naoko; Nakashima, Masayuki; Nagamitsu, Shin-ichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2011-03-01

    In 2005 we established the first American-style summer treatment program (STP) for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) located outside North America. This program was based on methods established by professor Pelham and has been used in a number of studies and at a number of sites in the USA. A total of 137 children diagnosed with ADHD, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years, participated in at least one of five annual summer treatment programs in Kurume city, Japan, during 2005-2009. The duration of the STP was 2 weeks in 2005, 2008, and 2009; 3 weeks in 2006 and 2007. A set of evidence-based behavioral modification techniques comprising the STP behavioral program (e.g., point system, daily report card, positive reinforcement, time out) was used. We also assessed the cognitive function of individual children before and after STP using the CogState(R) batteries. Every year, regardless of the duration of the STP, most children showed positive behavioral changes in multiple domains of functioning, demonstrated by significant improvement in points earned daily, which reflect behavior frequencies. Cognitive functions, particularly the rate of anticipatory errors in executive function, significantly improved after the STP, suggesting that STP has positive effects not only on behavioral aspects but also on some cognitive functions. Further studies are necessary to confirm this finding by studying sequential cognitive function of age-matched children who do not attend STP. PMID:20934284

  7. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven W; Owens, Julie Sarno; Bunford, Nora

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to update the Pelham and Fabiano ( 2008 ) review of evidence-based practices for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We completed a systematic review of the literature published between 2007 and 2013 to establish levels of evidence for psychosocial treatments for these youth. Our review included the identification of relevant articles using criteria established by the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (see Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, in press ) using keyword searches and a review of tables of contents. We extend the conceptualization of treatment research by differentiating training interventions from behavior management and by reviewing the growing literature on training interventions. Consistent with the results of the previous review we conclude that behavioral parent training, behavioral classroom management, and behavioral peer interventions are well-established treatments. In addition, organization training met the criteria for a well-established treatment. Combined training programs met criteria for Level 2 (Probably Efficacious), neurofeedback training met criteria for Level 3 (Possibly Efficacious), and cognitive training met criteria for Level 4 (Experimental Treatments). The distinction between behavior management and training interventions provides a method for considering meaningful differences in the methods and possible mechanisms of action for treatments for these youth. Characteristics of treatments, participants, and measures, as well as the variability in methods for classifying levels of evidence for treatments, are reviewed in relation to their potential effect on outcomes and conclusions about treatments. Implications of these findings for future science and practice are discussed. PMID:24245813

  8. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α4 Subunit Gene Variation Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xuezhu; XU Yong; LI Qianqian; LIU Pozi; YANG Yuan; ZHANG Fuquan; GUO Tianyou; YANG Chuang; GUO Lanting

    2009-01-01

    Previous pharmacological, human genetics, and animal models have implicated the nicotinic ace-tylcholine receptor a4 subunit (CHRNA4) gene in the pathogenesis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this study is to examine the genetic association between single nucleotide poly-morphisms in the CHRNA4 gene (rs2273502, rs1044396, rs1044397, and rs3827020 loci) and ADHD. Both case-control and family-based designs are used. Children aged 6 to 16 years were interviewed and as-sessed with the children behavior checklist and the revised conner' parent rating scale to identify probands. No significant differences in the frequency distribution of genotypes or alleles were found between the case and control groups. However, further haplotype analyses showed the CCGG haplotype on dsk for ADHD in 164 case-control samples and the standard transmission disequilibrium test analyses suggest that the allele C of rs2273502 was over-transferred in 98 ADHD parent-offspring tdos. These findings suggest that the CHRNA4 gene may play a role in the pathogenesis of ADHD.

  9. Otoacoustic emissions measured in children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Dennis; Westhafer, J. Gregory; Pasanen, Edward G.; Tucker, David M.; Carlson, Caryn L.

    2003-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is generally acknowledged to be more prevalent in males than in females. Further, some precursors to ADHD appear early in life. Together these facts suggest that ADHD may be influenced by androgenic mechanisms operating early in development. This reasoning raises the question of whether the otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) of children with ADHD are masculinized. Click-evoked OAEs were measured for one click level in 8 boys and 3 girls diagnosed as ADHD/Combined, in 11 males and 5 females diagnosed as ADHD/Inattentive (IA), and in 17 male and 18 female controls. The ages of these samples ranged between 7 and 15. As in adults, the CEOAEs of the control males were weaker than those of the control females. Further, the CEOAEs of the ADHD/IA males were weaker than in the control males (a hypermasculinization) and the CEOAEs of the IA females were weaker than in the female controls (a masculinization). The CEOAEs of the Combined groups were slightly stronger (feminized) than those of the control males and females. One interpretation is that the IA subgroup of ADHD boys and girls (but not the Combined subgroup) was exposed to higher-than-normal levels of androgens sometime early in development. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  10. Effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System Methylphenidate on Different Domains of Attention and Executive Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Nathan J.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Clarke, Angela T.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated whether components of attention and executive functioning improve when children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are treated with osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate. Method: Thirty children (24 males, six females; mean age 8y 6mo, SD 1y 11mo; range 6y 5mo-12y 6mo) with ADHD combined…

  11. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  12. Association between Urine Phthalate Levels and Poor Attentional Performance in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Evidence of Dopamine Gene-Phthalate Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Subin Park; Bung-Nyun Kim; Soo-Churl Cho; Yeni Kim; Jae-Won Kim; Ju-Young Lee; Soon-Beom Hong; Min-Sup Shin; Hee Jeong Yoo; Hosub Im; Jae Hoon Cheong; Doug Hyun Han

    2014-01-01

    Although there is some evidence supporting the existence of an association between prenatal maternal or postnatal child’s urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances, the interaction between urine phthalate metabolite levels and genetic variation for neuropsychological deficit of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been examined. The aim of this study was to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine are associated with poor neuropsych...

  13. Effects of methylphenidate on appetite and growth in children diagnosed with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Fatih; Gurbuz, Berrak Bilginer; Celik, Gonca Gul; Yildirim, Veli; Ucakturk, Seyit Ahmet; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Ucakturk, Eda Mengen; Topaloglu, Ali Kemal; Yuksel, Bilgin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of leptin, ghrelin, and nesfatin-1 to elucidate the causes of poor appetite and growth retardation in patients receiving methylphenidate therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The study was performed on 89 male subjects; 48 patients and 41 healthy controls, aged 7-14 years. Following treatment, patients' leptin levels increased and ghrelin levels decreased while no significant change was found in nesfatin-1 levels. Of the 48 patients, 34 developed lack of appetite. In patients who developed lack of appetite, body weight SDS, body mass index (BMI), and BMI SDS were statistically significantly reduced; moreover, height SDS was reduced, though not to a statistically significant extent. This study attempted to elucidate the mechanisms that mediate the association between methylphenidate and appetite and growth, for which no studies have yet to be published. PMID:26352086

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Erroneously Diagnosed and Treated as Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Ozler, Sinan; Topuz, Mehtap; Goldstein, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of literature on patients erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder. Method: The authors report a case of an adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder for 6 years. At that point, methylphenidate was initiated. The patient was judged to be a…

  15. Test of Alternative Hypotheses Explaining the Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Willcutt, Erik G.; Hartman, Christie A.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

    2008-01-01

    There is significant comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). The conclusions of studies that examined the causes of comorbidity between ADHD and CD conflict, with some researchers finding support for the three independent disorders model and others finding support for the correlated risk…

  16. Predicting Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder from Preschool Diagnostic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Thakar, Dhara A.; Errazuriz, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the power of measures of early preschool behavior to predict later diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 168 children with behavior problems at age 3 who underwent a multimethod assessment of ADHD and ODD symptoms and…

  17. Parenting Stress of Parents of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Biondic, Daniella; Grimbos, Teresa; Herbert, Monique

    2016-04-01

    This study examined parenting stress among parents of adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 138 adolescents (84 ADHD, 52 boys, 32 girls; 54 non-ADHD, 24 boys, 30 girls) age 13 to 18 and their parents. Mothers (n = 135) and fathers (n = 98) of participating teens completed the Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents. Mothers and fathers of adolescents with ADHD reported more stress than parents of adolescents without ADHD with regard to their children's challenging behaviors (Adolescent domain stress). Mothers of adolescents with ADHD also reported that they experienced elevated levels of stress in terms of role restrictions, feelings of social alienation, conflict with their partner, feelings of guilt and incompetence (Parent domain stress), and relationship with their children (Adolescent-Parent Relationship domain stress; APR). The extent to which clinical levels of adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms or externalizing behavior in general were associated with parenting stress depended on the rater of these behaviors. Parenting stress was associated with higher levels of ODD and other externalizing behaviors when these behaviors were rated by parents but not when they were rated by teachers. In addition, over and above adolescent ADHD classification, mothers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with higher parenting stress in the Adolescent and Parent domains, and fathers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with lower APR stress. The results suggest directions that should be considered for addressing parenting stress when designing interventions for families of adolescents with ADHD. PMID:26183609

  18. Factors Associated With Adherence to Methylphenidate Treatment in Adult Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, Charlotte; Brandt, Lena; Almqvist, Catarina; DʼOnofrio, Brian M; Konstenius, Maija; Franck, Johan; Larsson, Henrik

    2016-06-01

    Adherence to treatment is one of the most consistent factors associated with a favorable addiction treatment outcome. Little is known about factors associated with treatment adherence in individuals affected with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders (SUD). This study aimed to explore whether treatment-associated factors, such as the prescribing physician's (sub)specialty and methylphenidate (MPH) dose, or patient-related factors, such as sex, age, SUD subtype, and psychiatric comorbidity, were associated with adherence to MPH treatment. Swedish national registers were used to identify adult individuals with prescriptions of MPH and medications specifically used in the treatment of SUD or a diagnosis of SUD and/or coexisting psychiatric diagnoses. Primary outcome measure was days in active MPH treatment in stratified dose groups (≤36 mg, ≥37 mg to ≤54 mg, ≥55 mg to ≤72 mg, ≥73 mg to ≤90 mg, ≥91 mg to ≤108 mg, and ≥109 mg). Lower MPH doses (ie, ≤36 mg day 100) were associated with treatment discontinuation between days 101 and 830 (HR≤36 mg, 1.67; HR37-54mg, 1.37; HR55-72mg, 1.36; HR73-90mg, 1.19; HR≥108mg, 1.09). The results showed a linear trend (P treatment discontinuation along with increase of MPH doses. In conclusion, this study shows that higher MPH doses were associated with long-term treatment adherence in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and SUD. PMID:27043119

  19. Behavioural sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): protocol for a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Lycett, Kate; Sciberras, E; Mensah, F K; Gulenc, A; Hiscock, H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly experience behavioural sleep problems, yet these difficulties are not routinely assessed and managed in this group. Presenting with similar symptoms to ADHD itself, sleep problems are complex in children with ADHD and their aetiology is likely to be multifactorial. Common internalising and externalising comorbidities have been associated with sleep problems in children with ADHD; however, this relationship is ...

  20. Altered salience processing in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Bunzeck, Nico; Duzel, Emrah; Bonath, Björn; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2015-06-01

    Attentional problems in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been linked with deficits in cognitive control. Whether these deficits are associated with increased sensitivity to external salient stimuli remains unclear. To address this issue, we acquired functional brain images (fMRI) in 38 boys with and without ADHD (age: 11-16 years). To differentiate the effects of item novelty, contextual rareness and task relevance, participants performed a visual oddball task including four stimulus categories: a frequent standard picture (62.5%), unique novel pictures (12.5%), one repeated rare picture (12.5%), and a target picture (12.5%) that required a specific motor response. As a main finding, we can show considerable overlap in novelty-related BOLD responses between both groups, but only healthy participants showed neural deactivation in temporal as well as frontal regions in response to novel pictures. Furthermore, only ADHD patients, but not healthy controls, engaged wide parts of the novelty network when processing the rare but familiar picture. Our results provide first evidence that ADHD patients show enhanced neural activity in response to novel but behaviorally irrelevant stimuli as well as reduced habituation to familiar items. These findings suggest an inefficient use of neuronal resources in children with ADHD that could be closely linked to increased distractibility. PMID:25648705

  1. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ADHD behaviors and problems can cause low self-esteem and problems with relationships. Individual counseling and support groups may help you with these problems. Other Organizations American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Psychiatric Association Children and Adults with ...

  2. Psychometric evaluation of the Sheehan Disability Scale in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Theresa; Coon, Cheryl; DeMuro, Carla; McLeod, Lori; Gnanasakthy, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Inattention and impulsivity symptoms are common among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can lead to difficulty concentrating, restlessness, difficulty completing tasks, disorganization, impatience, and impulsiveness. Many adults with ADHD find it difficult to focus and prioritize. Resulting outcomes, such as missed deadlines and forgotten engagements, may ultimately impact the ability to function at work, school, home, or in a social environment. The European Medicines Agency guidelines for evaluating medicinal products for ADHD recommend inclusion of both functional outcomes, such as school, social, or work functioning, and outcomes related to symptoms of ADHD in clinical studies of novel medication primary efficacy endpoints. Due to its performance in other disease areas and the relevance of its items as evidenced by content validity analyses, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) was chosen to assess functional impairment in ADHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the SDS, used as a brief measure of functional impairment in a number of psychiatric disorders, in adult patients with ADHD. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the reliability of the SDS (based on Cronbach's coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability), its validity (construct and known-groups validity), and its ability to detect change in this patient population. This study also established a preliminary responder definition for the SDS in this study population to determine when change can be considered clinically beneficial in a clinical trial setting. The psychometric results support the use of the SDS subscales (items 1-3) and total score (sum of items 1-3) in an ADHD population. In addition, the evaluation provides evidence for a three-point preliminary responder definition for the SDS and further evidence of its responsiveness in adults with ADHD. Altogether, the results indicate that the SDS is a

  3. Response Inhibition and Academic Abilities in Typically Developing Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined Subtype

    OpenAIRE

    Bledsoe, Jesse C.; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Research in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) generally utilizes clinical samples or children with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Findings indicated that children with ADHD experience academic underachievement and poor performance on measures of response inhibition (RI). Less is known, about the neuropsychological profile of typically developing children with ADHD. The aim of the current study was twofold: (1) determine if academic skills and RI were impaired in typically devel...

  4. Executive Functions among Traumatic Injury Patients: Comparison of Normal Individuals and those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Mani; Rohallah Rostami; Ali Alavi Shoushtari; Shahram Paydar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the executive function of patients with traumatic injury admitted to Rajaei hospital, Shiraz, Iran and to compare the executive function between normal individuals and those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods: This was a case control study being performed during a 6-month period during spring and summer of 2013 in Shiraz level I trauma center. We included all patients admitted during the study period with impression of traumatic inju...

  5. Duration-dependence of the effect of treadmill exercise on hyperactivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Chang-Ju; Park, Jun Heon; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder, and its symptoms are hyperactivity and deficits in learning and memory. Physical exercise increases dopamine synthesis and neuronal activity in various brain regions. In the present study, we investigate the duration-dependence of the treadmill exercise on hyperactivity in relation with dopamine expression in ADHD. Spontaneously hypertensive rats were used for the ADHD rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats were used fo...

  6. Improved quality of life among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is mediated by protective factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schei, Jorun; Nøvik, Torunn Stene; Thomsen, Per Hove; Indredavik, Marit S; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the role of protective factors as mediators and/or moderators of the relationship between coexisting emotional and conduct problems and quality of life (QoL) among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: The sample...... family cohesion may identify potential treatment goals for adolescents with ADHD and coexisting problems, and may contribute to improvements in QoL....

  7. Efficacy of Medication and Nonmedication Methods on Working Memory of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadpanah; Haghighi; Ghaleiha; Jahangard; Nazaribadie; Akhondi

    2015-01-01

    Background Working memory is the ability to keep and manipulate information in a short time. Children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are among the people suffering from deficiency in the active memory, and this deficiency has been attributed to the problem of frontal lobe. This study utilized a new approach with suitable tasks and methods for training active memory and assessment of its effects. Objectives ...

  8. Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions...

  9. Testing the ability of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to accurately report the effects of medication on their behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Ardoin, S. P.; Martens, B K

    2000-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often treated with central nervous system stimulants, making the evaluation of medication effects an important topic for applied behavior analysts. Because assessment protocols emphasize informant reports and direct observations of child behavior, little is known about the extent to which children themselves can accurately report medication effects. Double-blind placebo-controlled procedures were used to examine whether 6 child...

  10. Adverse reactions of Methylphenidate in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: Report from a referral center

    OpenAIRE

    Khajehpiri, Zahra; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Faghihi, Toktam; Karimzadeh, Iman; Khalili, Hossein; Mohammadi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine various aspects of methylphenidate adverse reactions in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Iran. Methods: During the 6 months period, all children under methylphenidate treatment alone or along with other agents attending a university-affiliated psychology clinic were screened regarding all subjective and objective adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of methylphenidate. Causality and seriousness of detected ADRs ...

  11. Buspirone Versus Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Children with Attention- Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Randomized Double-Blind Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin Akhondzadeh; Reza Hajiaghaee; Ali Galeiha; Poopak Hafezi; Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    A recent randomized clinical trial showed buspirone efficacy in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. However, results from a recent multi-site controlled clinical trial of transdermal buspirone failed to separate it from placebo in a large sample of children with ADHD. Therefore, due to these inconsistent findings, this study was designed to assess the efficacy of buspirone in the treatment of children with ADHD compared to methylphenidate in a double ...

  12. A Meta-analysis of Executive Functioning in Chinese and North American Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jiechao

    2013-01-01

    ​This study synthesizes findings from North American and Chinese studies that compare the performance of children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on executive function tasks. The relationship between the executive functions and ADHD in Chinese and North American children are found to be best described by multimodal model. The magnitude of average performance differences between Chinese and North American children with and without ADHD on each executive functio...

  13. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder without Comorbidity is Associated with Distinct Atypical Patterns of Cerebral Microstructural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Adisetiyo, Vitria; Tabesh, Ali; Martino, Adriana Di; Falangola, Maria F.; Castellanos, Francisco X; Jensen, Jens H.; Helpern, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Differential core symptoms and treatment responses are associated with the pure versus comorbid forms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, comorbidity has largely been unaccounted for in neuroimaging studies of ADHD. We used diffusional kurtosis imaging to investigate gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) microstructure of children and adolescents with ADHD (n = 22) compared to typically developing controls (TDC, n = 27) and examined whether differing developmental pa...

  14. Barkley’s Parent Training Program, Working Memory Training and their Combination for Children with ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Hosainzadeh Maleki; Ali Mashhadi; Atefeh Soltanifar; Fatemeh Moharreri; Ali Ghanaei Ghamanabad

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of Barkley’s parent training program, working memory training and the combination of these two interventions for children with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods In this study, 36 participants with ADHD (aged 6 to 12 years) were selected by convenience sampling. Revision of the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP) questionnaire (SNAP–IV), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and clinical interviews were emplo...

  15. Addressing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Although generally considered a childhood disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood and impede achievement in the workplace. Core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity can be associated with poor organization, time management, and interpersonal relationships. Employment levels, earning power, and productivity are reduced among individuals with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Furthermore, the costs of employing individuals with ADHD are higher because of work absences and lost productivity. The primary care provider plays an integral role in managing ADHD symptoms and providing the necessary resources that will help individuals with ADHD succeed in the workplace. Pharmacotherapy can reduce ADHD symptoms and improve functioning; however, it is also important to consider how positive traits associated with ADHD, such as creative thinking, can be used in the workplace. Workplace accommodations and behavioral therapies, such as coaching, can also enhance time management and organizational skills. This review describes how ADHD symptoms affect workplace behaviors, the effect of ADHD on employment and workplace performance, and the management of ADHD in working adults. PMID:25295647

  16. Low quality of life scores in school children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder related to anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Zambrano-Sánchez; José A Martínez-Cortés; Yolanda del Río-Carlos; Minerva Dehesa-Moreno; Adrián Poblano

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an alteration that begins early in infancy and whose cardinal symptoms are inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. There are few studies for specific tests to measure Quality of Life (QoL) in children with ADHD. METHODS: We evaluated QoL of 120 children from 7-12 years of age with ADHD and of a group of 98 healthy control children. To measure QoL, we utilized the Questionnaire of Quality of Life for Children in Pictures (AutoQu...

  17. Clinical and psychoeducational profile of children with specific learning disability and co-occurring attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Karande Sunil; Satam Nitin; Kulkarni Madhuri; Sholapurwala Rukhshana; Chitre Anita; Shah Nilesh

    2007-01-01

    Background: Almost 10% of school-going children have specific learning disability (SpLD) in the form of dyslexia, dysgraphia and/ or dyscalculia. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) occurs as a comorbidity in about 20% of these children. Aims: To document the clinical profile and academic history of children with SpLD and co-occurring ADHD. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study conducted in our clinic. Materials and Methods: From August to November 200...

  18. 1Controlled evaluation of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich Hartmut; Doehnert Mirko; Straub Marc; Drechsler Renate; Steinhausen Hans-Christoph; Brandeis Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Although several promising studies on neurofeedback training in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been performed in recent years, the specificity of positive treatment effects continues to be challenged. Methods To evaluate the specificity of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials, a twofold strategy was pursued: First, the efficacy of neurofeedback training was compared to a group training program for children with ADHD. Secondly, the exte...

  19. Assessment of cardiovascular risks due to methylphenidate in six months of treatment in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    mehmet emre ari; ibrahim ilker cetin; filiz ekici; abdullah kocabas; sancar eminoglu; esra guney; onder ozturk; gulser senses dinc; zeynep goker

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cardiovascular adverse effects can be seen rarely in patients receiving methylphenidate for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we planned to investigate the effects of methylphenidate on the cardiovascular system in ADHD patients. Methods: One hundred and forty-one patients, who were diagnosed with ADHD and started on methylphenidate treatment between May 2011 and May 2012, were investigated. A cardiologic evaluation was performed on all of the ...

  20. Dopamine Transporter Genotype and Stimulant Side Effect Factors in Youth Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Reut; Joober, Ridha; Grizenko, Natalie; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Cook, Edwin H.; Stein, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The dopamine transporter locus (DAT1) has been studied as a risk factor for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in pharmacogenetic studies of stimulant response. Several prospective studies have reported an association between the homozygous 9 repeat allele of the DAT1 3′ untranslated region (UTR) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) (DAT1 3′) and decreased efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH). We hypothesized that children with the 9/9 genotype would display higher rates of spec...

  1. The Effects of Incentives on Visual-Spatial Working Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shiels, Keri; Hawk, Larry W.; Lysczek, Cynthia L.; Tannock, Rosemary; Pelham, William E.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Gangloff, Brian P.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Working memory is one of several putative core neurocognitive processes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The present work seeks to determine whether visual-spatial working memory is sensitive to motivational incentives, a laboratory analogue of behavioral treatment. Participants were 21 children (ages 7–10) with a diagnosis of ADHD-Combined type. Participants completed a computerized Spatial Span task designed to assess storage of visual-spatial information (forward span) a...

  2. Designing personal informatics for self-reflection and self-awareness: the case of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez Garcia, Juan; Bruyckere, de, Hilde; Keyson, David V.; Romero, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    A main challenge in designing for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is to support the learning process of supressing undesired behaviour on daily routines by means of positive feedback and rewards. Personal Informatics (PI) is a model that supports capturing and integration of personal data to facilitate reflection and action that is used as a design platform to support behavioral learning. This paper presents a designdriven research study that illustrates the pote...

  3. Sex differences in white matter integrity in youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    King, Jace B.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Stoeckel, Amanda; DiMuzio, Jennifer M.; Lopez-Larson, Melissa P.

    2015-01-01

    Widespread disparities in white matter (WM) microstructure and organization have been found in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, little is known about the role sex plays in these differences. The present diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study performed whole-brain, tract-based, voxel-wise, and region of interest (ROI) analyses to investigate WM microstructure differences between ADHD and healthy control (HC) adolescents to examine the impact of sex on me...

  4. Relationship between symptom impairment and treatment outcome in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a physician perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Setyawan, Juliana; Fridman, Moshe; Hodgkins, Paul; Quintero, Javier; Erder, M. Haim; Katić, Božena J.; Harpin, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the association between those symptoms/behaviours of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that were present at diagnosis and outcomes of treatment in children and adolescents in six European countries. Physicians abstracted clinical records from patients (6–17 years) diagnosed with ADHD between 2004 and 2007 and treated for ≥2 years. Physicians scored the severity of impairment for core ADHD symptoms and additional (non-core) ADHD symptoms/behaviours at diagnosis and e...

  5. Parent-Reported Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Intermittent Exotropia before and after Strabismus Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Seung Ah; Chang, Yoon Hee; Rhiu, Soolienah; Lew, Helen; Lee, Jong Bok

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as reported by parents in children with intermittent exotropia [X(T)] and to determine whether strabismus surgery for X(T) affects ADHD symptoms. Materials and Methods Fifty-one consecutive children undergoing muscle surgery for X(T) were prospectively recruited. One parent of each child completed the ADHD rating scale IV (ADHD RS-IV) assessment consecutively before and one year after surgery. Patients whos...

  6. Prescription stimulants in individuals with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: misuse, cognitive impact, and adverse effects

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Kirchgessner, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Prescription stimulants are often used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Drugs like methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), and dextroamphetamine-amphetamine (Adderall) help people with ADHD feel more focused. However, misuse of stimulants by ADHD and nonaffected individuals has dramatically increased over recent years based on students' misconceptions or simple lack of knowledge of associated risks. In this review, we discuss recent advance...

  7. Rapid Naming in Brazilian Students with Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luciana Mendonça; Siqueira, Cláudia M.; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo Mangelli; Alves, Juliana Flores Mendonça; Lodi, Débora F.; Bicalho, Lorena; Celeste, Letícia C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The effective development of reading and writing skills requires the concerted action of several abilities, one of which is phonological processing. One of the main components of phonological processing is rapid automatized naming (RAN)—the ability to identify and recognize a given item by the activation and concomitant articulation of its name. Objective: To assess the RAN performance of schoolchildren with dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with their peers. Methods: In total, 70 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11 years participated in the study. Of these, 16 children had a multiprofessional diagnosis of ADHD while 14 were diagnosed with dyslexia. Matched with these groups, 40 schoolchildren with no history of developmental impairments were also evaluated. The RAN test was administered to assess the length of time required to name a series of familiar visual stimuli. The statistical analysis was conducted using measures of descriptive statistics and the 2-sample t-test at the 5% significance level. Results: The performance of the group with dyslexia was inferior to that of the control group in all tasks and the ADHD group had inferior performance for color and letters-naming tasks. The schoolchildren with dyslexia and those with ADHD showed very similar response times. Age was an important variable to be analyzed separately. As they aged, children with typical language development had fast answers on colors and digits tasks while children with dyslexia or ADHD did not show improvement with age. Conclusions: The schoolchildren with dyslexia took longer to complete all tasks and ADHD took longer to complete digits and objects tasks in comparison to their peers with typical development. This ability tended to improve with age, which was not the case, however, with schoolchildren who had ADHD or dyslexia. PMID:26858672

  8. Reinforcement and Stimulant Medication Ameliorate Deficient Response Inhibition in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, Keri S; Fosco, Whitney D; Pelham, William E; Waxmonsky, James G; Bubnik, Michelle G; Hawk, Larry W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the degree to which reinforcement, stimulant medication, and their combination impact response inhibition in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Across three studies, participants with ADHD (n = 111, 25 girls) and typically-developing (TD) controls (n = 33, 6 girls) completed a standard version of the stop signal task (SST) and/or a reinforcement-manipulation SST with performance-contingent points. In two of these studies, these tasks were performed under placebo or 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg methylphenidate (MPH) conditions. Cross-study comparisons were conducted to test hypotheses regarding the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and methylphenidate on response inhibition among children with ADHD relative to TD controls. Baseline response inhibition was worse among children with ADHD compared to controls. MPH produced dose-related improvements in response inhibition in children with ADHD; compared to non-medicated TD controls, 0.3 mg/kg MPH normalized deficient response inhibition, and 0.6 mg/kg MPH resulted in better inhibition in children with ADHD. Reinforcement improved response inhibition to a greater extent for children with ADHD than for TD children, normalizing response inhibition. The combination of MPH and reinforcement improved response inhibition among children with ADHD compared to reinforcement alone and MPH alone, also resulting in normalization of response inhibition despite repeated task exposure. Deficient response inhibition commonly observed in children with ADHD is significantly improved with MPH and/or reinforcement, normalizing inhibition relative to TD children tested under standard conditions. PMID:25985978

  9. Role of Perinatal Adversities on Tic Severity and Symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents With a Tic Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos-Veneman, Netty G. P.; Kuin, Anne; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of perinatal adversities with regard to tic severity and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with a tic disorder. Methods: In 75 children and adolescents with a tic disorder, we retrospectively assessed presence of pregnanc

  10. Differential brain development with low and high IQ in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick de Zeeuw

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and intelligence (IQ are both heritable phenotypes. Overlapping genetic effects have been suggested to influence both, with neuroimaging work suggesting similar overlap in terms of morphometric properties of the brain. Together, this evidence suggests that the brain changes characteristic of ADHD may vary as a function of IQ. This study investigated this hypothesis in a sample of 108 children with ADHD and 106 typically developing controls, who participated in a cross-sectional anatomical MRI study. A subgroup of 64 children also participated in a diffusion tensor imaging scan. Brain volumes, local cortical thickness and average cerebral white matter microstructure were analyzed in relation to diagnostic group and IQ. Dimensional analyses investigated possible group differences in the relationship between anatomical measures and IQ. Second, the groups were split into above and below median IQ subgroups to investigate possible differences in the trajectories of cortical development. Dimensionally, cerebral gray matter volume and cerebral white matter microstructure were positively associated with IQ for controls, but not for ADHD. In the analyses of the below and above median IQ subgroups, we found no differences from controls in cerebral gray matter volume in ADHD with below-median IQ, but a delay of cortical development in a number of regions, including prefrontal areas. Conversely, in ADHD with above-median IQ, there were significant reductions from controls in cerebral gray matter volume, but no local differences in the trajectories of cortical development.In conclusion, the basic relationship between IQ and neuroanatomy appears to be altered in ADHD. Our results suggest that there may be multiple brain phenotypes associated with ADHD, where ADHD combined with above median IQ is characterized by small, more global reductions in brain volume that are stable over development, whereas ADHD with

  11. Study protocol: the sleeping sound with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberklaid Frank

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 70% of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD experience sleep problems including difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep. Sleep problems in children with ADHD can result in poorer child functioning, impacting on school attendance, daily functioning and behaviour, as well as parental mental health and work attendance. The Sleeping Sound with ADHD trial aims to investigate the efficacy of a behavioural sleep program in treating sleep problems experienced by children with ADHD. We have demonstrated the feasibility and the acceptability of this treatment program in a pilot study. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial (RCT is being conducted with 198 children (aged between 5 to 12 years with ADHD and moderate to severe sleep problems. Children are recruited from public and private paediatric practices across the state of Victoria, Australia. Upon receiving informed written consent, families are randomised to receive either the behavioural sleep intervention or usual care. The intervention consists of two individual, face-to-face consultations and a follow-up phone call with a trained clinician (trainee consultant paediatrician or psychologist, focusing on the assessment and management of child sleep problems. The primary outcome is parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms (ADHD Rating Scale IV. Secondary outcomes are child sleep (actigraphy and parent report, behaviour, daily functioning, school attendance and working memory, as well as parent mental health and work attendance. We are also assessing the impact of children's psychiatric comorbidity (measured using a structured diagnostic interview on treatment outcome. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first RCT of a behavioural intervention aiming to treat sleep problems in children with ADHD. If effective, this program will provide a feasible non-pharmacological and acceptable intervention improving child sleep and ADHD

  12. The management of dental fracture on tooth 61 in a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veranica Veranica

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often characterized as a neurobehavioral developmental disorder, impaired concentration, impaired motor skills, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, and also diagnosed as psychiatric disorders. Children with ADHD would have a tendency of the traumatized anterior teeth because of their hyperactive behavior. Dental trauma is actually one of factors causing the damages of the deciduous teeth and the permanent teeth. Dental and mouth care for children with special needs, such as children with ADHD, requires special treatment. Purpose: This study is aimed to report the case management of the dental fracture of the tooth 61 in a child with ADHD. Case: A four-year old girl suffered from both ADHD and dental fracture involving the dentin of the tooth 61. Case management: The examination of the patient with dental fracture consists of emergency examination and further investigation. The emergency examination covers general condition and clinical situation. Based on the dental radiographic assessment, it is known that the dental fracture of the tooth 61 had involved the dentine, the resorption had reached 1/3 of the apical teeth and the permanent teeth had been formed. The application of calcium hydroxide on the opened dentin is aimed to improve the formation of the secondary dentin served as pulp protector. Next, the restoration of the traumatized teeth used compomer since it does not only meet all the aesthetic requirements, but it also releases fluoride. Management of the patient’s behavior with ADHD was conducted by non-pharmacological method; tell show do (TSD method combined with restrain method. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the application of calcium hydroxide and the restoration of the teeth with compomer could provide maximum results through the combination of TSD and restrain methods that can effectively increase the positive value to replace the negative behaviors that have been

  13. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Specific Stimulant Misuse, Mood, Anxiety, and Stress in College-Age Women at High Risk for or with Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Elise L.; Kass, Andrea E.; Eichen, Dawn M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Trockel, Mickey; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the misuse of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-specific stimulants in a college population at high risk for or with clinical or subclinical eating disorders. Participants: Four hundred forty-eight college-age women aged 18-25 at high risk for or with a clinical or subclinical eating disorder. Methods:…

  14. The prevalence of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatto, Samyra Jogaib; Kerner, Mariana; Merelles, Saulo; Pondé, Milena Pereira

    2016-06-30

    This study aims to estimate the prevalence of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with the parents of 89 children previously diagnosed with ASD. The research instrument used was the 18-item Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Symptoms of ADHD were present in 10.4% of the mothers of children with a diagnosis of ASD and in 11.3% of the fathers. These results suggest that the prevalence of symptoms of ADHD in the parents of children with autism is higher than that found in the general adult population. PMID:27060874

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Conduct Disorder in Children of Drug Dependent Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaresh, Nooshin; Ziaaddini, Hassan; Kheradmand, Ali; Bayati, Hamidreza

    2010-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder are amongrelatively prevalent disorders during childhood and adolescence.Considering the negative impact of the parents' drug dependency andbipolar disorder, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence ofADHD and conduct disorder in children of drug-dependent and bipolar parents. Methods In this case-control study, the case group included two groups ofpatients with drug dependency and bipolar disorder hospitalize...

  16. Family Functioning in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with or without Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebla Gokce Imren

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine family functioning in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and ADHD comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder ( ODD or conduct disorder ( CD. Method: Forty nine children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and forty eight controls (aged 8-16 years were assesed with Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version; Parents completed the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD for family functioning which asseses 6 dimensions of family functioning ( problem solving, communication, behavior control, affective involvement, affective responsiveness, and roles and also includes a general functioning subscale. Results: 34.7 % of the ADHD children had comorbid psychiatric disorders, and the major comorbidity was ODD (24.5 %. ADHD families scored high at the level of “unhealthy functioning “ in the problem solving, roles, affective involvement, general functioning, and behavior control subscales of FAD. Besides, problem solving behaviour and general functioning were significantly poorer than control families and they had more difficulties in area of roles. When DEHB was comorbid with ODD or DB, all areas of family functioning as measured by FAD were scored high at the level of “unhealthy functioning “. Additionally, general functioning and affective responsiveness were significantly poorer than ADHD without ODD or DB comorbidity. Discussion: Recent studies revealed that ADHD and especially ADHD comorbid with ODD or DB may disrupt family functioning in many ways. In this study, the families of children and adolescents with ADHD and ADHD comorbid with ODD or DB had poorer family functioning in most of the subscales of FAD. Treatment of children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD especially comorbid with ODD or DB should include parental treatment and intervention addressing parental skills, and family functioning. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 22-30

  17. Autonomic reactivity in clinically referred children attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lang, Natasja D. J.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Kallen, Victor L.; Rosbergen, Bianca; Dieleman, Gwen; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have lower autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and show less stress reactivity than children with an anxiety disorder. It also explored whether such a difference was accounted for by comorbid oppositional d

  18. Factors associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among US children: Results from a national survey

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    Lingineni Ravi K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and various factors using a representative sample of US children in a comprehensive manner. This includes variables that have not been previously studied such as watching TV/playing video games, computer usage, family member’s smoking, and participation in sports. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 68,634 children, 5–17 years old, from the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH, 2007–2008. We performed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with ADHD classification as the response variable and the following explanatory variables: sex, race, depression, anxiety, body mass index, healthcare coverage, family structure, socio-economic status, family members’ smoking status, education, computer usage, watching television (TV/playing video games, participation in sports, and participation in clubs/organizations. Results Approximately 10% of the sample was classified as having ADHD. We found depression, anxiety, healthcare coverage, and male sex of child to have increased odds of being diagnosed with ADHD. One of the salient features of this study was observing a significant association between ADHD and variables such as TV usage, participation in sports, two-parent family structure, and family members’ smoking status. Obesity was not found to be significantly associated with ADHD, contrary to some previous studies. Conclusions The current study uncovered several factors associated with ADHD at the national level, including some that have not been studied earlier in such a setting. However, we caution that due to the cross-sectional and observational nature of the data, a cause and effect relationship between ADHD and the associated factors can not be deduced from this study. Future research on ADHD should take into consideration these factors, preferably through a

  19. CDH13 is associated with working memory performance in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Vásquez, A; Altink, M E; Rommelse, N N J; Slaats-Willemse, D I E; Buschgens, C J M; Fliers, E A; Faraone, S V; Sergeant, J A; Oosterlaan, J; Franke, B; Buitelaar, J K

    2011-11-01

    Different analytic strategies, including linkage, association and meta-analysis support a role of CDH13 in the susceptibility to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). CDH13 codes for cadherin 13 (or H-cadherin), which is a member of a family of calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion proteins and a regulator of neural cell growth. We tested the association between CDH13 on three executive functioning tasks that are promising endophenotypes of ADHD. An adjusted linear regression analysis was performed in 190 ADHD-affected Dutch probands of the IMAGE project. Three executive functions were examined: inhibition, verbal and visuo-spatial working memory (WM). We tested 2632 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CDH13 and 20 kb up- and downstream of the gene (capturing regulatory sequences). To adjust for multiple testing within the gene, we applied stringent permutation steps. Intronic SNP rs11150556 is associated with performance on the Verbal WM task. No other SNP showed gene-wide significance with any of the analyzed traits, but a 72-kb SNP block located 446 kb upstream of SNP rs111500556 showed suggestive evidence for association (P-value range 1.20E-03 to 1.73E-04) with performance in the same Verbal WM task. This study is the first to examine CDH13 and neurocognitive functioning. The mechanisms underlying the associations between CDH13 and the clinical phenotype of ADHD and verbal WM are still unknown. As such, our study may be viewed as exploratory, with the results presented providing interesting hypotheses for further testing. PMID:21815997

  20. Resting state functional connectivity correlates of inhibitory control in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Maarten Mennes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor inhibition is among the most commonly studied executive functions in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Imaging studies using probes of motor inhibition such as the Stop Signal Task (SST consistently demonstrate ADHD-related dysfunction within a right-hemisphere fronto-striatal network that includes inferior frontal gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA. Beyond findings of focal hypo- or hyper-function, emerging models of ADHD psychopathology highlight disease-related changes in functional interactions between network components. Resting state fMRI (R-fMRI approaches have emerged as powerful tools for mapping such interactions (i.e., resting state functional connectivity, RSFC, and for relating behavioral and diagnostic variables to network properties. We used R-fMRI data collected from 17 typically developing controls (TDC and 17 age-matched children with ADHD (aged 8-13 years to identify neural correlates of SST performance measured outside the scanner. We examined two related inhibition indices: stop signal reaction time (SSRT, indexing inhibitory speed, and stop signal delay (SSD, indexing inhibitory success. Using 11 fronto-striatal seed regions-of-interest, we queried the brain for relationships between RSFC and each performance index, as well as for interactions with diagnostic status. Both SSRT and SSD exhibited connectivity-behavior relationships independent of diagnosis. At the same time, we found differential connectivity-behavior relationships in children with ADHD relative to TDC. Our results demonstrate the utility of RSFC approaches for assessing brain/behavior relationships, and for identifying pathology-related differences in the contributions of neural circuits to cognition and behavior.