WorldWideScience

Sample records for attention deficit and disruptive behavior disorders

  1. Stop Hurting Start Helping. Empathy in children with disruptive behavior, attention-deficit and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, P.K.H.

    2014-01-01

    To date, various psychiatric disorders such as disruptive behavior, attention-deficit/hyperactivity and autism spectrum disorders have been associated with deficits in empathy in school-aged children and adolescents. In this dissertation, behavioral and physiological measures were used to study empa

  2. Empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in 6- to 7-year olds diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, P. K. H.; Schutter, D. J. L. G.; Kenemans, J. L.; Matthys, W.

    2015-01-01

    Empathy has been associated with decreased antisocial and increased prosocial behavior. This study examined empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Six- and 7-year-old children with

  3. Cortisol reactivity in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behavior problems: the impact of callous unemotional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Christina; Kroeger, Anne; Weyers, Peter; Grasmann, Doerte; Horschinek, Mira; Freitag, Christine; Clement, Hans-Willi

    2011-05-15

    There is a body of literature demonstrating an association between altered hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity and aggressive behavior. Aggressive and disruptive behavior also is highly prevalent in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Findings on HPA-axis reactivity in ADHD, however, are rather inconsistent. Specific temperamental risk factors previously were associated with a specific subtype of severe disruptive behavior. These traits might also be characterized by a distinct neurobiological profile across ADHD and disruptive behavior disorders. In this study we focus on psychopathic traits, notably callous unemotional (CU) traits. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether two groups of ADHD patients with high or low CU traits differed in cortisol reactivity. Subjects were 36 boys with ADHD and disruptive behavior symptoms aged 8 to 14 years. Salivary cortisol probes were taken before and repeatedly after an experimental standardized stress test. Patients scoring high on CU traits showed a blunted HPA axis reactivity to the experimentally induced stress. Results underscore the need to consider specific personality traits in investigating neurobiological correlates in ADHD with disruptive behavior problems.

  4. Anxiety and disruptive behavior mediate pathways from attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder to depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Roy (Arunima); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. Ormel (Johan); C.A. Hartman (Catharina)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The progression to depression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clearly understood. To clarify this relationship, we tested the following hypotheses in a population-based study: (1) children with ADHD have a higher risk of developing depre

  5. The differential effects of teacher and peer attention on the disruptive classroom behavior of three children with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northup, J; Broussard, C; Jones, K; George, T; Vollmer, T R; Herring, M

    1995-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of classroom disruption during contingent teacher and peer attention conditions for 3 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention provided by peer confederates appeared to function as a distinct form of positive reinforcement for all 3 children.

  6. Guanfacine Use in Children With Down Syndrome and Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) With Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, George T; Brecher, Liza; Bay, Mihee

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize children with Down syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with disruptive behaviors using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and to measure the treatment effects of guanfacine on maladaptive behaviors. Subjects were enrolled from a group of outpatients who visited our clinic between 2002 and 2007. Subjects (N = 23) were children with Down syndrome ages 4 to 12 years (mean 7.4 ± 4.1), who met criteria for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition The Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability and Hyperactivity subscales each showed a significant decrease (P < .0001) at follow-up. The mean decline on Hyperactivity was 25% (-7.8 points), and for Irritability, 25% (-3.5 points). The mean composite score also declined by 24% (-12 points). Effect size differences on Irritability were moderate, whereas differences on Hyperactivity and composite score appeared large. Clinically important target behaviors were reduced. Medication was generally well tolerated and the incidence of treatment emergent side effects remained low.

  7. Empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in 6- to 7-year olds diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, P K H; Schutter, D J L G; Kenemans, J L; Matthys, W

    2015-01-01

    Empathy has been associated with decreased antisocial and increased prosocial behavior. This study examined empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Six- and 7-year-old children with DBD (with and without ADHD) (n = 67) and with ADHD only (n = 27) were compared to typically developing children (TD) (n = 37). Parents and teachers rated affective empathy in response to sadness and distress on the Griffith Empathy Measure. Children reported affective empathic ability in response to sad story vignettes. Empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress was assessed with a computer task, the Interpersonal Response Task (IRT). Compared to TD, children with DBD (with and without ADHD) and those with ADHD only were rated as less empathic by their teachers, but not by their parents. No differences between groups were observed in children who reported affect correspondence. Children with DBD (with and without ADHD) showed less prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress compared to TD. Children with ADHD only did not differ from TD. An additional analysis comparing all children with a diagnosis to the TD group revealed that the difference in prosocial behavior remained after controlling for ADHD symptoms, but not after controlling for DBD symptoms. These findings of impaired empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in young children with DBD suggest that interventions to ameliorate peer relationships may benefit from targeting on increasing prosocial behavior in these children.

  8. Comparison of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Safavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although pharmacotherapy with atypical antipsychotics is common in child psychiatry, there has been little research on this issue. To compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders comorbid with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Randomized clinical trial conducted in a university-affiliated child psychiatry clinic in southwest Iran. Forty 3-6-year-old children, diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with ADHD, were randomized to an 8-week trial of treatment with risperidone or aripiprazole (20 patients in each group. Assessment was performed by Conners′ rating scale-revised and clinical global impressions scale, before treatment, and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 of treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Mean scores between the two groups were compared by analysis of variance and independent and paired t-test. Mean scores of Conners rating scales were not different between two groups in any steps of evaluation. Both groups had significantly reduced scores in week 2 of treatment (P = 0.00, with no significant change in subsequent measurements. Rates of improvement, mean increase in weight (P = 0.894, and mean change in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.671 were not significantly different between two groups. Mean serum prolactin showed a significant increase in risperidone group (P = 0.00. Both risperidone and aripiprazole were equally effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and relatively safe, but high rates of side effects suggest the cautious use of these drugs in children.

  9. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaastra, Geraldina F; Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of several types of classroom interventions (antecedent-based, consequence-based, self-regulation, combined) that can be applied by teachers in order to decrease off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD. A second aim was to identify potential moderators (classroom setting, type of measure, students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use). Finally, it was qualitatively explored whether the identified classroom interventions also directly or indirectly affected behavioral and academic outcomes of classmates. Separate meta-analyses were performed on standardized mean differences (SMDs) for 24 within-subjects design (WSD) and 76 single-subject design (SSD) studies. Results showed that classroom interventions reduce off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD (WSDs: MSMD = 0.92; SSDs: MSMD = 3.08), with largest effects for consequence-based (WSDs: MSMD = 1.82) and self-regulation interventions (SSDs: MSMD = 3.61). Larger effects were obtained in general education classrooms than in other classroom settings. No reliable conclusions could be formulated about moderating effects of type of measure and students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use, mainly because of power problems. Finally, classroom interventions appeared to also benefit classmates' behavioral and academic outcomes.

  10. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : A Meta-Analytic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, Geraldina F; Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of seve

  11. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldina F Gaastra

    Full Text Available Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of several types of classroom interventions (antecedent-based, consequence-based, self-regulation, combined that can be applied by teachers in order to decrease off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD. A second aim was to identify potential moderators (classroom setting, type of measure, students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use. Finally, it was qualitatively explored whether the identified classroom interventions also directly or indirectly affected behavioral and academic outcomes of classmates. Separate meta-analyses were performed on standardized mean differences (SMDs for 24 within-subjects design (WSD and 76 single-subject design (SSD studies. Results showed that classroom interventions reduce off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD (WSDs: MSMD = 0.92; SSDs: MSMD = 3.08, with largest effects for consequence-based (WSDs: MSMD = 1.82 and self-regulation interventions (SSDs: MSMD = 3.61. Larger effects were obtained in general education classrooms than in other classroom settings. No reliable conclusions could be formulated about moderating effects of type of measure and students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use, mainly because of power problems. Finally, classroom interventions appeared to also benefit classmates' behavioral and academic outcomes.

  12. Understanding Attention Deficit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…

  13. Functional connectivity of neural motor networks is disrupted in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Kevin R; Langevin, Lisa Marie; Goodyear, Bradley G; Dewey, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prevalent childhood disorders that frequently co-occur. Evidence from neuroimaging research suggests that children with these disorders exhibit disruptions in motor circuitry, which could account for the high rate of co-occurrence. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the functional connections of the motor network in children with DCD and/or ADHD compared to typically developing controls, with the aim of identifying common neurophysiological substrates. Resting-state fMRI was performed on seven children with DCD, 21 with ADHD, 18 with DCD + ADHD and 23 controls. Resting-state connectivity of the primary motor cortex was compared between each group and controls, using age as a co-factor. Relative to controls, children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibited similar reductions in functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex and the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, right supramarginal gyrus, angular gyri, insular cortices, amygdala, putamen, and pallidum. In addition, children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibited different age-related patterns of connectivity, compared to controls. These findings suggest that children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibit disruptions in motor circuitry, which may contribute to problems with motor functioning and attention. Our results support the existence of common neurophysiological substrates underlying both motor and attention problems.

  14. Functional connectivity of neural motor networks is disrupted in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental coordination disorder (DCD and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are prevalent childhood disorders that frequently co-occur. Evidence from neuroimaging research suggests that children with these disorders exhibit disruptions in motor circuitry, which could account for the high rate of co-occurrence. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the functional connections of the motor network in children with DCD and/or ADHD compared to typically developing controls, with the aim of identifying common neurophysiological substrates. Resting-state fMRI was performed on seven children with DCD, 21 with ADHD, 18 with DCD + ADHD and 23 controls. Resting-state connectivity of the primary motor cortex was compared between each group and controls, using age as a co-factor. Relative to controls, children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibited similar reductions in functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex and the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, right supramarginal gyrus, angular gyri, insular cortices, amygdala, putamen, and pallidum. In addition, children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibited different age-related patterns of connectivity, compared to controls. These findings suggest that children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibit disruptions in motor circuitry, which may contribute to problems with motor functioning and attention. Our results support the existence of common neurophysiological substrates underlying both motor and attention problems.

  15. The disruptive behavior disorders and the coexisting deficits in the context of theories describing family relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak, Marta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study is to understand behavior disturbances and widely comprehended deficits attached to it, with regards to quality of family relations.Method. To explain the etiology and the consequences of the diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorder the authors analyzed literature which allowed combining the theory of attachment and the theory of deficits.In the first part of the script the authors described Bowlby’s theory of attachment, which arranges attachment behaviors in behavioral attachment system. To expand comprehension of the subject theymentioned psychoanalytic and system concepts. The second part of the paper is devoted to the definition of deficit phenomenon and determining its different areas on the basis of observations made by the researchers dealing with this matter.Conclusion. In authors’ opinion the deficits occurring in children suffering from disruptive behavior disorder are connected with improper family relations. The disruptive behavior disorders may be a way of defense against narcissistic injury as well as motor discharging of the emotional difficulties.

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  17. Neural correlates of reactive aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubenzer-Busch, Sarah; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Kuzmanovic, B

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often linked with impulsive and aggressive behaviour, indexed by high comorbidity rates between ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). The present study aimed to investigate underlying neural activity of reactive aggression...... in children with ADHD and comorbid DBD using functional neuroimaging techniques (fMRI). MethodEighteen boys with ADHD (age 9-14years, 10 subjects with comorbid DBD) and 18 healthy controls were administered a modified fMRI-based version of the Point Subtraction Aggression Game' to elicit reactive aggressive...... activation of regions belonging to the insula and the middle temporal sulcus. ConclusionData support the hypothesis that deficient inhibitory control mechanisms are related to increased impulsive aggressive behaviour in young people with ADHD and comorbid DBD....

  18. International consensus statement on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs): clinical implications and treatment practice suggestions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutcher, S.; Aman, M.; Brooks, S.J.; Daalen, E. van; Fegert, J.; Findling, R.L.; Fisman, S.; Greenhill, L.L.; Huss, M.; Kusumakar, V.; Pine, D.; Taylor, E.; Tyano, S.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians worldwide share concerns that many youngsters with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) do not receive appropriate treatment despite availability of effective therapies. At the request of Johnson and Johnson (sponsor)

  19. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptacek R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radek Ptacek,1,2 George B Stefano,1,3 Simon Weissenberger,1 Devang Akotia,1 Jiri Raboch,1 Hana Papezova,1 Lucie Domkarova,1 Tereza Stepankova,1 Michal Goetz4 1Department of Psychiatry, Charles University 1st Medical Faculty and General Teaching Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychology, University of New York in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3MitoGenetics Research Institute, MitoGenetics, LLC, Farmingdale, NY, USA; 4Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs. In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1 impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2 other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3 poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4 other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from

  1. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions…

  2. Impulsivity and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Subtype Classification Using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Drew J.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Lynam, Donald R.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the classification accuracy of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS) in discriminating several attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes, including predominantly inattentive type (ADHD/I), combined type (ADHD/C), and combined type with behavioral problems (ADHD/ODD), between each other and a non-ADHD control group using logistic regression analyses. The sample consisted of 88 children ranging in age from 9.0 years to 12.8 years, with a mean of 10.9 years....

  3. Association between Severity of Behavioral Phenotype and Comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Patricia A.; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association," 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity…

  4. Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen Markussen; Dalsgaard, Søren; Obel, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to examine the literature assessing the relationship between prenatal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and psychosocial stress during pregnancy to the risk of developing behavioral problems related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD...... indicated a greater risk of ADHD-related disorders among children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Contradictory findings were reported in the alcohol studies, and no conclusion could be reached on the basis of the caffeine study. Results from studies on psychological stress during pregnancy were...... of information on familial psychopathology also limited the interpretations. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero is suspected to be associated with ADHD and ADHD symptoms in children. Other maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy may also be associated with these disorders. Further studies...

  5. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD.

  6. Impulsivity and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Subtype Classification Using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Drew J; Derefinko, Karen J; Lynam, Donald R; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the classification accuracy of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS) in discriminating several attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes, including predominantly inattentive type (ADHD/I), combined type (ADHD/C), and combined type with behavioral problems (ADHD/ODD), between each other and a non-ADHD control group using logistic regression analyses. The sample consisted of 88 children ranging in age from 9.0 years to 12.8 years, with a mean of 10.9 years. Children were predominantly male (74%) and Caucasian (86%) and in grades 3-7. Results indicated that the UPPS performed well in classifying ADHD subtypes relative to traditional diagnostic measures. In addition, analyses indicated that differences in symptoms between subtypes can be explained by specific pathways to impulsivity. Implications for the assessment of ADHD and conceptual issues are discussed.

  7. Relative contribution of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tic severity to social and behavioral problems in tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Steenhuis, MP; Troost, PW; Korf, J; Kallenberg, CGM; Minderaa, RB

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social and behavioral problems related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessions and compulsions, and tic severity in children with a tic disorder. Parents of 58 children with a tic disorder with and without different forms of ADHD comple

  8. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  9. Sleep habits, parasomnias and associated behaviors in school children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodopman-Arman, Ayşe; Perdahli-Fiş, Neşe; Ekinci, Ozalp; Berkem, Meral

    2011-01-01

    Considerable clinical data support an association between sleep problems and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimed to investigate the sleep habits, associated parasomnias and behavioral symptoms in primary school children with ADHD. Forty primary school children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD and 40 age-sex-matched healthy community controls were recruited. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire providing information regarding sleep habits and nighttime and daytime symptoms was used. About 22% of children with ADHD (versus 2.9% of the controls) needed their parents to accompany them while going to sleep (p: 0.008). Transitional objects were needed by 8.1% of ADHD children in contrast to 2.9% of controls. Nightmares, overactivity during sleep, habitual snoring, and bed-wetting were significantly higher in the ADHD group. ADHD children needed significantly more time to go to sleep on school days (p Children undergoing evaluation for ADHD should be routinely screened for sleep disturbances.

  10. Distinguishing between autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by using behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and neuropsychological test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Naomi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Arai, Sumiyoshi; Kawamura, Kaori; Asano, Mizuki; Inohara, Keisuke; Narimoto, Tadamasa; Wada, Yuji; Hiratani, Michio; Kosaka, Hirotaka

    2014-12-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share many common symptoms, including attention deficit, behavioral problems, and difficulties with social skills. The aim of this study was to distinguish between ASD and ADHD by identifying the characteristic features of both the disorders, by using multidimensional assessments, including screening behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and comprehensive neurological battery. After screening for comorbid disorders, we carefully selected age-, sex-, IQ-, and socio-economic status-matched children with typical development (TD). In the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, a lower score was observed for the ASD group than for the TD group in Picture concept, which is a subscale of perceptual reasoning. A lower score was shown by the ADHD group than by the TD group in the spatial working memory test in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB(®)). Although ASD and ADHD have many similar symptoms, they can be differentiated by focusing on the behavioral and cognitive characteristics of executive function.

  11. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and TSC What is ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder. It is ...

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  15. Behavioral sleep problems and internalizing and externalizing comorbidities in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Kate; Sciberras, Emma; Mensah, Fiona K; Hiscock, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral sleep problems are common in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as are internalizing and externalizing comorbidities. The prevalence of these difficulties and the extent to which they co-exist in children with ADHD could inform clinical practice, but remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the association between sleep problems and internalizing and externalizing comorbidities in children with ADHD. Children aged 5-13 years were recruited from 21 pediatric practices across Victoria, Australia (N = 392). Internalizing and externalizing comorbidities (none, internalizing, externalizing, co-occurring) were assessed by the telephone-administered Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children IV/Parent version. Sleep problem severity was assessed by primary caregiver report (no, mild, moderate or severe problem). Moderate/severe sleep problems were confirmed using International Classification of Sleep Disorders. Seven specific sleep problem domains (bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, sleep onset delay, sleep duration, night waking, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness) were assessed using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using adjusted logistic and linear regression models. Compared to children without comorbidities, children with co-occurring internalizing and externalizing comorbidities were more likely to have moderate/severe sleep problems (adjusted OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.2; 4.5, p = 0.009) and problematic sleep across six of seven sleep domains. Children with either comorbidity alone were not at risk of moderate/severe sleep problems, but at the sleep domain level, children with internalizing alone had more sleep anxiety, and those with externalizing alone had less night waking. In conclusion, children with ADHD experiencing co-occurring internalizing and externalizing comorbidities are at an increased risk of sleep problems.

  16. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Lifestyle-Related Behaviors in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lian; Xiong, Xu; Tan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with obesity in children. Lifestyle-related behaviors (external eating, screen time and physical inactivity) are well known to be associated with increased risk of obesity, but their associations with ADHD are unclear. The objectives of this study were to clarify the associations between ADHD symptoms in children and their associated lifestyle. A cross sectional study was carried out with a total of 785 primary students aged 9 to 13 years old and their parents were recruited by stratified random sampling from primary schools of China. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) test was used to examine the relationships between ADHD symptoms and health related behaviors. We found that children with ADHD symptoms were likely to spend more time using a computer during school days; they were also more likely to eat while using a computer. These children were also more likely to eat while seated in a car, using a smart phone, using a computer at bedtime, and snacking before going to sleep than children without ADHD symptoms. An increased risk of obesity in children with ADHD symptoms was associated with the overuse of electronic devices, eating while using electronic devices, and delaying bedtimes to snack and use electronic devices. PMID:27658266

  17. Spelling Difficulties in School-Aged Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral, Psycholinguistic, Cognitive, and Graphomotor Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Kopp, Svenny; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Writing difficulties are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the nature of these difficulties has not been well studied. Here we relate behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive (memory/executive), and graphomotor measures to spelling skills in school-age girls with ADHD (n = 30) and an age-matched group…

  18. Behavioral impairments in rats with chronic epilepsy suggest comorbidity between epilepsy and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Eduardo; Jentsch, J David; Shin, Don; Griesbach, Grace; Sankar, Raman; Mazarati, Andrey

    2014-02-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is encountered among patients with epilepsy at a significantly higher rate than in the general population. Mechanisms of epilepsy-ADHD comorbidity remain largely unknown. We investigated whether a model of chronic epilepsy in rats produces signs of ADHD, and thus, whether it can be used for studying mechanisms of this comorbidity. Epilepsy was induced in male Wistar rats via pilocarpine status epilepticus. Half of the animals exhibited chronic ADHD-like abnormalities, particularly increased impulsivity and diminished attention in the lateralized reaction-time task. These impairments correlated with the suppressed noradrenergic transmission in locus coeruleus outputs. The other half of animals exhibited depressive behavior in the forced swimming test congruently with the diminished serotonergic transmission in raphe nucleus outputs. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depressive behavior appeared mutually exclusive. Therefore, the pilocarpine model of epilepsy affords a system for reproducing and studying mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and both ADHD and/or depression.

  19. Use of cognitive behavioral therapy and token economy to alleviate dysfunctional behavior in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Flavia Coelho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT with the Token Economy (TE technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11 on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior, a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in 7 categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication.

  20. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, risky behaviors, and motorcycle injuries: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,1,2 Leili Abedi,3 Minoo Mahini,4 Shahrokh Amiri,5 Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh6 1Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Safe Community Promotion, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 4Department of Counseling, Aras International Campus, University of Tehran, Jolfa, 5Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 6Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association of motorcycle traffic injuries with motorcycle riding behavior and subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD while controlling for individual correlates of motorcycle traffic injuries.Methods: A case-control study was carried out in 298 patients with motorcycle trauma along with 151 control patients admitted to the Shohada and Imam Reza university hospitals as the two referral specialty centers in the East Azarbyjan Province of Iran in 2013. The Persian version of the Motorcycle Riding Behavior Questionnaire and the Persian version of Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scales (the self-report short version were used to assess riding behavior and screen for adult ADHD, respectively. The scale has four subscales, comprising subscale A (inattention, subscale B (hyperactivity, impulsivity, subscale C (A + C, and subscale D (ADHD index. The statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11.Results: All subjects were male and aged 13–79 years. Approximately 54% of the participants were married and 13% had academic education. Approximately 18% of the motorcycle riders stated that their motorcycle riding was only for fun purposes. More than two thirds of the participants did not

  1. Shared and Disorder-Specific Prefrontal Abnormalities in Boys with Pure Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Compared to Boys with Pure CD during Interference Inhibition and Attention Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, Katya; Halari, Rozmin; Smith, Anna B.; Mohammad, Majeed; Scott, Stephen; Brammer, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inhibitory and attention deficits have been suggested to be shared problems of disruptive behaviour disorders. Patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and patients with conduct disorder (CD) show deficits in tasks of attention allocation and interference inhibition. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging…

  2. Faking attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2011-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common malady in the general population, with up to 8.1 percent of adults meeting criteria for this syndrome. In the college setting, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may offer specific academic advantages. Once the diagnosis is assigned, the prescription of stimulant medication may provide additional secondary gains through misuse and/or diversion. For example, these drugs may be used by college consumers to increase alertness, energy, academic performance, and athletic performance. Stimulants may also decrease psychological distress, alleviate restlessness and weight concerns, and be used for recreational purposes. According to the findings of five studies, the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be believably faked, particularly when assessed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom checklists. Thus, the faking of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a realistic concern in both psychiatric and primary care settings.

  3. An analysis of challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Fragile X Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Newman, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    The present study sought to investigate the relationship between challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD\\/HD) in Fragile X Syndrome (FRAX). Additionally, this study sought to examine how such disorders are predicted by gender, presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and presence of intellectual disability (ID). A total of 47 children and adolescents with FRAX were assessed. Results revealed high levels of challenging behavior and AD\\/HD symptoms within the sample, with some participants exhibiting symptoms of comorbid psychopathology. Further analysis revealed that challenging behavior and comorbid psychopathology were positively correlated, with stereotypy correlating most strongly with comorbid psychopathology. In addition, ASD was found to predict challenging behavior, and gender was found to predict AD\\/HD symptoms. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Noncontingent peer attention as treatment for disruptive classroom behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, K. M.; Drew, H A; Weber, N L

    2000-01-01

    A functional analysis isolated peer attention as the primary maintaining variable for disruptive behavior displayed by a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Using a brief reversal design, noncontingent reinforcement was then shown to reduce disruptive behavior relative to the peer attention condition. Implications for assessing behavior disorders in mainstream school settings are discussed.

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by the presence ...

  6. Pemoline in attention deficit disorder and alcoholism: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnquist, K; Frances, R; Rosenfeld, W; Mobarak, A

    1983-05-01

    Diagnosis of attention deficit disorder in a 35-year-old man and treatment with pemoline substantially improved his response to alcoholism treatment and aftercare. The authors conclude that treatment of attention deficit disorder may aid in rehabilitation of alcoholic patients.

  7. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls ADHD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... therapy is the recommended first line treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in young children, and should be tried ...

  8. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  9. Parenting Behavior and Cognitions in a Community Sample of Mothers with and without Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tracy; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Mash, Eric J.; Semple, Deborah L.

    2008-01-01

    Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has recently emerged as an important area of research, little attention has been given to the family functioning of women with ADHD, particularly in their role as mothers. We examined parenting self-esteem, locus of control, and disciplinary styles in a community sample of mothers…

  10. Updates on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Bledsoe, Jesse

    2011-10-01

    The relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to learning disorders was reviewed and included reading disability, mathematics learning disability, and nonverbal learning disability. Genetic, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological functioning were examined for each disorder, along with a discussion of any existing literature when ADHD co-occurred with the disorder. All the disorders were found to frequently co-occur with ADHD. A review of the underlying neuroanatomic and neurofunctional data found specific structures that frequently co-occur in these disorders with others that are specific to the individual diagnosis. Aberrations in structure and/or function were found for the caudate, corpus callosum, and cerebellum, making these structures sensitive for the disorder but not specific. Suggestions for future research, particularly in relation to intervention, are provided.

  11. Faking Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common malady in the general population, with up to 8.1 percent of adults meeting criteria for this syndrome. In the college setting, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may offer specific academic advantages. Once the diagnosis is assigned, the prescription of stimulant medication may provide additional secondary gains through misuse and/or diversion. For example, these drugs may be used by college consumers to increase aler...

  12. Neuropsychological Profiles Correlated with Clinical and Behavioral Impairments in a Sample of Brazilian Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzutti, Sueli; Schuch, Viviane; Augusto, Bruno Muszkat; Coimbra, Caio Colturato; Pereira, João Pedro Cabrera; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that implies several-step process, and there is no single test to diagnose both ADHD and associated comorbidities, such as oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety disorder, depression, and certain types of learning disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to examine correlations between behavioral and clinical symptoms by administering an extensive neuropsychological battery to a sample of children and adolescents from a developing country. The sample was divided into three groups: non-ADHD, ADHD-non-comorbid, and ADHD + comorbidity. A full neuropsychological battery and clinical assessment found that 105 children met DSM-5 criteria, of whom 46.6% had the predominantly inattentive presentation, 37.3% had combined presentation, and 16% were predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation. The internal correlation between neuropsychological tests did not reach statistical significance in the comparison between ADHD and non-ADHD cases (p disorder showed close correlations between clinical CBCL profiles and externalized symptoms. Our findings suggest that ADHD + comorbidity and ADHD non-comorbid cases may be differentiated by a number of neuropsychological measures, such as processing speed, inhibitory control, and working memory, that may reflect different levels of involvement of the hot and cool executive domains, which are more impaired in cases of severe symptomatic-externalized behavior and emotional regulation problems. Therefore, profiles based on clinical and behavioral findings can help clinicians select better strategies for detecting neuropsychological impairment in Brazilian children with ADHD.

  13. A racket-sport intervention improves behavioral and cognitive performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Chu, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Lo, Shen-Yu; Cheng, Yun-Wen; Liu, Yu-Jen

    2016-10-01

    The present study assessed the effects of a 12-week table tennis exercise on motor skills, social behaviors, and executive functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the first 12-week phase, 16 children (group I) received the intervention, whereas 16 children (group II) did not. A second 12-week phase immediately followed with the treatments reversed. Improvements were observed in executive functions in both groups after the intervention. After the first 12-week phase, some motor and behavioral functions improved in group I. After the second 12-week phase, similar improvements were noted for group II, and the intervention effects achieved in the first phase were persisted in group I. The racket-sport intervention is valuable in promoting motor skills, social behaviors, and executive functions and should be included within the standard-of-care treatment for children with ADHD.

  14. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental right-hemisphere syndrome : Congruence and incongruence of cognitive and behavioral aspects of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landau, YE; Gross-Tsur, [No Value; Auerbach, JG; Van der Meere, J; Shalev, RS

    1999-01-01

    We studied clinical aspects of attention in three groups: children with developmental right-hemisphere syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), children with ADHD only, and normal controls. The three groups (N = 54) were case-matched for age, sex, IQ, hand dominance, and socioec

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicide: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Judit; Kereszteny, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate suicidality and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this paper aims to systematically review the literature as an extension of previous reviews. METHODS We searched five databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Psychinfo, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) with two categories of search terms: (1) suicide; suicidal; suicide behavior; suicide attempt; suicidal thought; and (2) ADHD. RESULTS The search resulted 26 articles. There is a positive association between ADHD and suicidality in both sexes and in all age groups. Comorbid disorders mediate between suicidality and ADHD. CONCLUSION Recognizing ADHD, comorbid conditions and suicidality is important in prevention.

  16. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  17. Behavioral and psychophysiological markers of disordered attention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsky, A.F.

    1987-10-01

    Behavioral and psychophysiological assays provide the most sensitive indication of whether a presumed neurotoxin has a deleterious effect on the nervous system. The effects of lead on the nervous system are strongly suggestive that this agent can produce disturbances in attention; moreover, there are clinical reports of such effects. The action of lead is also manifest in behaviors described as ''hyperactive,'' or reflecting ''minimal brain damage.'' The core symptom in both disorders is probably impairment in attention. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III) of the American Psychiatric Association uses the term Attention Deficit Disorder to replace such terms as hyperactivity and minimal brain damage. Prior studies of the behavioral toxicity of lead may have used inadequate or incomplete assays of attention; this could in part account for the variability in outcomes. Recent research on attention suggests that it is a complex behavior consisting of a number of elements or components, each of which may be in part dependent upon a different region of the central nervous system. Behavioral assays should examine the components of attentive behavior using tests which are sensitive to the different elements. It is recommended that psychophysiological assays (using cognitive event-related potentials), although more difficult and costly to implement, be used as well. These assays may provide a more dynamic view of altered information processing in the brain and help to localize and characterize the behavioral impairment. 50 references.

  18. Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)…

  19. A Comparison of Effectiveness of Parent Behavioral Management Training and Methylphenidate on Reduction of Symptomsof Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychological disorders of childhood. Methylphenidate is highly effective in the treatment of ADHD. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of combined Parent behavioral management training (PBMT and medication treatment (Methylphenidate in reducing ADHD symptoms in 6-12-year-old children, using randomized sampling. A total of 50 children with ADHD were assigned into two groups: an experimental group of PBMT and a control group of medication treatment (Methylphenidate without other interventions. Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48 was employed before and after interventions to determine the effects. Descriptive Statistics method (consisting of Mean and Standard deviation and Statistical inference method, (including t-test and Levene's Test were used for data analysis.  Findings revealed that the combined behavioral intervention of PBMT and methylphenidate treatment is more effective in reduction of ADHD in children. The difference of means between pre-test and post-test of CPRS in the experimental group was equal to 10.77, and it was equal to 1.88 in the control group. In addition, PBMT was more effective in the case of younger parents (P<0.025. However, parents’ education level did not affect the behavioral intervention (P<0.025.The findings suggest that combined intervention of PBMT and methylphenidate is effective in reducing the symptoms of ADHD in children.

  20. Story Comprehension and Academic Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…

  1. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling.

  2. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...

  3. Effects of stimulant medication treatment on mothers' and children's attributions for the behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C; Fine, S; Weiss, M; Weiss, J; Weiss, G; Freeman, W S

    2000-08-01

    Participants were 55 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were receiving ongoing treatment with stimulant medications and their mothers, and 31 children with ADHD who were beginning stimulant medication and their mothers. Mothers and children offered attributions for child behaviors that occurred when the child was medicated and not medicated. Mothers rated child compliance and prosocial behavior as more global and stable when the child was medicated and rated noncompliance, ADHD symptoms, and oppositional behavior as more externally caused, less global and stable, but more controllable by the child when the child was medicated. Children rated both their compliance and noncompliance as more controllable in the medicated condition. On a forced-choice measure, both mothers and children selected ability, effort, and task attributions for compliance more in the not-medicated condition, and pill-taking attributions more in the medicated condition. This was reversed for noncompliance, which was attributed more to effort, task, or ability in the medicated condition and more to not taking a pill in the not-medicated condition. The potential risks and benefits for parent-child interactions and children's self-perceptions of these medication-related differences in attributions are discussed.

  4. ERPs and behavioral inhibition in a Go/No-go task in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Liang, G; Robaey, P; Karayanidis, F; Bourassa, M; Pelletier, G; Geoffroy, G

    2000-01-01

    In order to study the behavioral responses and the brain inhibition process in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 30 scalp electrodes in 21 ADHD and 21 normal boys during performing a Go/No-go task. ADHD children made fewer correct responses to both Go and No-go stimuli than normal controls. The frontal N2 amplitude was larger for No-go stimuli than Go stimuli in both groups, reflecting inhibition of responding. Smaller N2 amplitudes to No-go stimuli were found in ADHD children, but only when the Go/No-go task was performed after a first stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task. In addition, the controls exhibited a prolonged N2 only when the Go/No-go task was performed second. However, the ADHD subjects exhibited this prolonged N2 when the task was first, but not when it was second. These results suggest an inhibitory regulation problem rather an inhibition deficit in ADHD children.

  5. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Children with and without Intellectual Disability: An Examination across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, C. L.; Baker, B. L.; Blacher, J.; Crnic, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at heightened risk for mental disorders, and disruptive behaviour disorders appear to be the most prevalent. The current study is a longitudinal examination of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children with and without intellectual disability (ID) across…

  6. Theory of Planned Behavior Predicts Graduation Intentions of Canadian and Israeli Postsecondary Students with and without Learning Disabilities/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichten, Catherine S.; Heiman, Tali; Jorgensen, Mary; Nguyen, Mai Nhu; Havel, Alice; King, Laura; Budd, Jillian; Amsel, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    We tested the ability of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model to predict intention to graduate among Canadian and Israeli students with and without a learning disability/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (LD/ADHD). Results based on 1486 postsecondary students show that the model's predictors (i.e., attitude, subjective norms,…

  7. The Single and Combined Effects of Multiple Intensities of Behavior Modification and Methylphenidate for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran; Garefino, Allison; Keenan, Jenna K.; Onyango, Adia N.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Massetti, Greta M.; Robb, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    Currently behavior modification, stimulant medication, and combined treatments are supported as evidence-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in classroom settings. However, there has been little study of the relative effects of these two modalities and their combination in classrooms. Using a within-subject design, the…

  8. Behavioral and genetic evidence for a novel animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-James Y

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to DSM-IV there are three subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, namely: ADHD predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-PI, ADHD predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type (ADHD-HI, and ADHD combined type (ADHD-C. These subtypes may represent distinct neurobehavioral disorders of childhood onset with separate etiologies. The diagnosis of ADHD is behaviorally based; therefore, investigations into its possible etiologies should be based in behavior. Animal models of ADHD demonstrate construct validity when they accurately reproduce elements of the etiology, biochemistry, symptoms, and treatment of the disorder. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fulfill many of the validation criteria and compare well with clinical cases of ADHD-C. The present study describes a novel rat model of the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-PI. Methods ADHD-like behavior was tested with a visual discrimination task measuring overactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. Several strains with varied genetic background were needed to determine what constitutes a normal comparison. Five groups of rats were used: SHR/NCrl spontaneously hypertensive and WKY/NCrl Wistar/Kyoto rats from Charles River; SD/NTac Sprague Dawley and WH/HanTac Wistar rats from Taconic Europe; and WKY/NHsd Wistar/Kyoto rats from Harlan. DNA was analyzed to determine background differences in the strains by PCR genotyping of eight highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and 2625 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Results Compared to appropriate comparison strains (WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats, SHR/NCrl showed ADHD-C-like behavior: striking overactivity and poor sustained attention. Compared to WKY/NHsd rats, WKY/NCrl rats showed inattention, but no overactivity or impulsiveness. WH/HanTac rats deviated significantly from the other control groups by being more active and less attentive than the WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats. We also found substantial

  9. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  10. Brain differences between persistent and remitted attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Gabrieli, John D E; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Kotte, Amelia; Kagan, Elana; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Previous resting state studies examining the brain basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have not distinguished between patients who persist versus those who remit from the diagnosis as adults. To characterize the neurobiological differences and similarities of persistence and remittance, we performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals who had been longitudinally and uniformly characterized as having or not having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and again in adulthood (16 years after baseline assessment). Intrinsic functional brain organization was measured in patients who had a persistent diagnosis in childhood and adulthood (n = 13), in patients who met diagnosis in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 22), and in control participants who never had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17). A positive functional correlation between posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, major components of the default-mode network, was reduced only in patients whose diagnosis persisted into adulthood. A negative functional correlation between medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was reduced in both persistent and remitted patients. The neurobiological dissociation between the persistence and remittance of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may provide a framework for the relation between the clinical diagnosis, which indicates the need for treatment, and additional deficits that are common, such as executive dysfunctions.

  11. Diagnosing and treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Antshel, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a valid and impairing psychiatric disorder. In this article, we review the diagnosis of ADHD in adults, focusing on symptom presentation differences between pediatric and adult ADHD as well as the importance of assessing functional impairments. Differentiating ADHD from other clinical disorders is often the most difficult part of making an ADHD diagnosis in adults. Psychiatric comorbidities are also described and discussed as potential ...

  12. Discriminant Validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Parent Form for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A.; Hale, James B.; Brodzinsky, Lara K.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, with concomitant executive function deficits often being the focus of empirical and clinical investigation. This study explored the validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Parent Form (BRIEF; Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000) for…

  13. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition, behavior, and the rest-activity rhythm in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, S; Bouma, A; Sergeant, JA; Scherder, EJA; Bouma, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition, behavior, and the rest-activity rhythm in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT). Methods. Twenty-two children diagnosed with ADHD-

  14. "Nothing Works!" A Case Study Using Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions to Engage Parents, Educators, and Children in the Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Eva S.; Anshel, Daphne J.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains one of the most prevalent mental health diagnoses identified in school-age children. Affected children show an increased risk for school failure, social difficulties, and the development of psychiatric comorbidities. Despite the availability of evidence-based behavioral protocols for managing…

  15. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  16. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls ADHD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... for developmental level: Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, ...

  17. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  18. The Psychoeducational Link between Attention Deficit Disorder and Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; And Others

    This paper examines cognitive processing problems associated with attention deficit disorders (ADD) and their relationship to learning disabilities in elementary and secondary students. Children with ADD, medicated (N=20) and unmedicated (N=21), were compared on the Raven test of Progressive Matrices and other tests with children who had been…

  19. Spelling difficulties in school-aged girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive, and graphomotor correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Kopp, Svenny; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Writing difficulties are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the nature of these difficulties has not been well studied. Here we relate behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive (memory/executive), and graphomotor measures to spelling skills in school-age girls with ADHD (n = 30) and an age-matched group of typically developed spellers (TYPSP, n = 35). When subdividing the ADHD group into those with poor (ADHDPSP, n = 19) and typical spelling (ADHDTYPSP, n = 11), the two subgroups did not differ with regard to inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity according to parent or teacher ratings. Both ADHD subgroups also had equally severe difficulties in graphomotor control-handwriting and (parent ratings of) written expression as compared to the TYPSP group. In contrast, ADHDPSP had problems relative to ADHDTYPSP and TYPSP on phonological and orthographic recoding (choice tasks) and verbal memory (digit span) and were more likely to make commissions on a continuous performance task (CPT). Further analyses using the collapsed ADHD group showed that both digit span and the presence of CPT commissions predicted spelling performance independently of each other. Finally, results showed that phonological recoding skills mediated the association between digit span and spelling performance in ADHD. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed.

  20. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  1. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) : Evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat n

  2. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adoption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; Fernández-Perrone, Ana L; López-Arribas, Sonia; Pelaz-Antolín, Antonio; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. Se entiende por adopcion o filiacion adoptiva el acto juridico mediante el cual se crea un vinculo de parentesco entre dos personas, de tal forma que se establece entre ellas una relacion de paternidad o maternidad. Objetivos. Tratar de exponer los problemas derivados de la exposicion prenatal al alcohol y otros factores de riesgo, de la hipoestimulacion durante el 'periodo critico' en pacientes institucionalizados (especialmente aquellos adoptados de paises del este de Europa) y su relacion con el trastorno de deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH). Realizar una aproximacion al diagnostico, prevencion y tratamiento de estos problemas. Desarrollo. Estos niños presentan problemas de relacion psicosocial, problemas conductuales, retraso del desarrollo del lenguaje o de la lectura y, sobre todo, TDAH. Existe una enorme dificultad practica a la hora de separar ambos factores durante la evaluacion de niños adoptados de paises del este de Europa en las consultas de neuropediatria. La interrelacion de todos estos factores no es bien conocida. Conclusiones. Existe una intima relacion entre la exposicion prenatal al alcohol y las consecuencias de la adopcion. Se necesitan estudios aleatorizados controlados con placebo, con mayores muestras poblacionales, que comprueben el beneficio y perfil de efectos secundarios, tanto con psicoestimulantes como con la atomoxetina en este grupo de pacientes.

  3. Response Inhibition in Preschoolers at Familial Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Stop-Signal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrea; Alyagon, Uri; Hadaya, Hadas; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G.

    2013-01-01

    Children participating in the Ben-Gurion Infant Development Study were assessed with a dynamic-tracking version of the stop-signal task at the age of 5 years. The sample consisted of 60 males. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was correlated with concurrent ratings of the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms.…

  4. Neuroelectric and Behavioral Effects of Acute Exercise on Task Switching in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Tsai, Yu-Jung; Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this two-part study was to examine the effects of acute, moderate intensity exercise on task switching in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In Study 1, we compared the task switching performance of children with and without ADHD. Twenty children with ADHD and 20 matched controls performed the task switching paradigm, in which the behavioral indices and P3 component of event-related potentials elicited by task-switching were assessed simultaneously. The amplitude and latency of P3 reflected the amount of attention resource allocated to task-relevant stimulus in the environment and the efficiency of stimulus detection and evaluation, respectively. The task switching included two conditions; the pure condition required participants to perform the task on the same rule (e.g., AAAA or BBBB) whereas the mixed condition required participants to perform the task on two alternating rules (e.g., AABBAA…). The results indicated that children with ADHD had significantly longer RTs, less accuracy, and larger global switch cost for accuracy than controls. Additionally, ADHD participants showed smaller amplitudes and longer P3 latencies in global switch effects. In Study 2, we further examined the effects of an acute aerobic exercise session on task switching in children with ADHD. Thirty-four children with ADHD performed a task switching paradigm after 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on a treadmill and after control sessions (watching videos while seated). The results revealed that following exercise, children with ADHD exhibited smaller global switch costs in RT compared with after control sessions. The P3 amplitude only increased following exercise in the mixed condition relative to the pure condition, whereas no effects were found in the control session. These findings suggest that single bouts of moderate intensity aerobic exercise may have positive effects on the working memory of children with ADHD. PMID

  5. Testing candidate genes for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in fruit flies using a high throughput assay for complex behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Madsen, Lisbeth Strøm; Arvidson, Sandra Marie Neumann

    2016-01-01

    Fruit flies are important model organisms for functional testing of candidate genes in multiple disciplines, including the study of human diseases. Here we use a high-throughput locomotor activity assay to test the response on activity behavior of gene disruption in Drosophila melanogaster. The aim...... was to investigate the impact of disruption of 14 candidate genes for human attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on fly behavior. By obtaining a range of correlated measures describing the space of variables for behavioral activity we show, that some mutants display similar phenotypic responses...... in fruit flies. Results provide additional support for the investigated genes being risk candidate genes for ADHD in humans....

  6. Methylphenidate for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole J; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    CLINICAL QUESTION: Is treatment with methylphenidate associated with benefits or harms for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? BOTTOM LINE: Methylphenidate is associated with improvement in ADHD symptoms, general behavior, and quality of life; however, due...

  7. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: associations with overeating and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline

    2010-10-01

    In the past decade, we have become increasingly aware of strong associations between overweight/obesity and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. This review addresses the prevalence of the comorbidity and discusses some of the mechanisms that could account for their relationship. It is suggested that the inattentive and impulsive behaviors that characterize ADHD could contribute to overeating in our current food environment, with its emphasis on fast food consumption and its many food temptations. It is also proposed-based on the compelling evidence that foods high in fat, sugar, and salt are as addictive as some drugs of abuse-that excessive food consumption could be a form of self-medication. This view conforms with the well-established evidence that drug use and abuse are substantially higher among those with ADHD than among the general population.

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined by extreme levels of inattention–disorganization and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. In DSM-IV, the diagnostic criteria required impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. With DSM-5 publication imminent in 2013, further evaluation of impairment in ADHD is timely. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on health-related impairments of ADHD, including smoking, drug abuse, accidental injury, sleep, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and suicidal behavior. It concludes by suggesting the need for new avenues of research on mechanisms of association and the potential for ADHD to be an early warning sign for secondary prevention of some poor health outcomes. PMID:23298633

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    This detailed booklet describes the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatments, with information on getting help and coping. Interventions described herein are psychotherapy, behavior therapy, social skills training, support groups, and parenting skills training. Some simple behavioral interventions are suggested because children with ADHD may…

  10. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADDH) and Delinquency Subgroups

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1988-01-01

    Two subgroups of hyperactive children (25 non-delinquent and 9 delinquent) and 1 group of 34 non-delinquent normal children were evaluated from childhood to adolescence at the National Center for Hyperactive Children, Encino, CA, using auditory evoked response potential (AERP) measures and EEG recordings.

  11. An Integrative, Cognitive-Behavioral, Systemic Approach to Working with Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford, Margaret Ann; Lambie, Glenn W.; Walter, Sara Meghan

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent diagnostic disorder for many students, which correlates with negative academic, social, and personal consequences. This article presents an integrative, cognitive-behavioral, systemic approach that offers behaviorally based interventions for professional school counselors to support…

  12. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Yalug

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is known to accompany subtle physical anomalies, allergic and neurologic disorders, obesity and eating disorders, traumatic injuries, risky sexual behavior, sleep disorders, substance and alcohol use, axis I and II disorders, occupational, legal and academic problems and increased treatment expenditures. Though the effects of this disorder continue throughout life, create burdens to the society along with its treatment as well as disabling the affected patients through their lives, and receive increasing attention in recent years, reviews focusing on problems associated with it are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the results of previous studies conducted about medical comorbidities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  13. Pre- and Perinatal Risk for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Does Neuropsychological Weakness Explain the Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, Kelsey; Elmore, Alexis L; Nigg, Joel T; Nikolas, Molly A

    2016-11-01

    Etiological investigations of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior problems support multiple causal pathways, including involvement of pre- and perinatal risk factors. Because these risks occur early in life, well before observable ADHD and externalizing symptoms emerge, the relation between risk and symptoms may be mediated by neurodevelopmental effects that manifest later in neuropsychological functioning. However, potential dissociable effects of pre/perinatal risk elements on ADHD and familial confounds must also be considered to test alternative hypotheses. 498 youth aged 6-17 years (55.0 % male) completed a multi-stage, multi-informant assessment including parent and teacher symptom reports of symptoms and parent ratings of pre/perinatal health risk indicators. Youth completed a neuropsychological testing battery. Multiple mediation models examined direct effects of pre- and perinatal health risk on ADHD and other disruptive behavior disorder symptoms and indirect effects via neuropsychological functioning. Parental ADHD symptoms and externalizing status was covaried to control for potential familial effects. Effects of prenatal substance exposure on inattention were mediated by memory span and temporal processing deficits. Further, effects of perinatal health risk on inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and ODD were mediated by deficits in response variability and temporal processing. Further, maternal health risks during pregnancy appeared to exert direct rather than indirect effects on outcomes. Results suggest that after controlling for familial relatedness of ADHD between parent and child, early developmental health risks may influence ADHD via effects on neuropsychological processes underpinning the disorder.

  14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Almeida Bolognani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study, stated as Previous Notation, is to demonstrate that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Pathology presents a differentiated condition in carriers where a significant percentage, close to 60%, present a higher level of zinc elimination by kidneys. In this study, a direct relation of Zinc Mettalicum pathogenetic symptoms, this disturbance and the elimination of this element which participates in neurotransmission process were identified, and the relation with elements from regular diet, which can act as zinc chelating agents would be involved in the evolution of this disturbance, justifying the issue of individual susceptibility, essential in homeopathic investigation

  15. The Effects of Yoga on the Attention and Behavior of Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pauline. S.; Kenny, Dianna T.

    2004-01-01

    Boys diagnosed with ADHD by specialist pediatricians and stabilized on medication were randomly assigned to a 20-session yoga group (n = 11) or a control group (cooperative activities; n = 8). Boys were assessed pre- and post-intervention on the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Long (CPRS-R:L & CTRS-R:L; Conners, 1997), the…

  16. Right hemisphere dysfunction in subjects with attention-deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, C; Estévez-González, A; Suárez-Romero, E; Junqué, C

    1997-02-01

    The attention-deficit disorder, with and without hyperactivity, is associated with defective attention, response inhibition and, in attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity, with motor restlessness. In adults, inattention, defective response inhibition, and impersistence are more commonly seen in right hemisphere lesions. In the present study, we investigate possible right hemisphere dysfunctions in attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity and attention-deficit disorder without hyperactivity. The right hemisphere performance of 60 teenagers, 16 having attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity, 9 having attention-deficit disorder without hyperactivity, and 35 controls, selected clinically (DSM-III) and experimentally (through Continuous Performance Test and Paced Auditory Addition Task), with normal IQ was assessed using a wide-ranging battery of visuospatial, visuoperceptive, and visuoconstructive functions (Benton's Line Orientation, Benton's Visual Retention, Raven's Progressive Matrices, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale [WAIS] Block-Design, Rey's Complex Figure). Teenagers with attention-deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity performed significantly worse than controls. Greater differences were found between subjects with attention-deficit disorder without hyperactivity and control than between subjects with attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity and control subjects. Our results seem to be consistent with right-hemisphere dysfunction, especially in subjects with attention-deficit disorder without hyperactivity. Additionally, WAIS Block-Design and Benton's Line Orientation are the visuospatial tests with the highest discriminant power to differentiate between controls, subjects with attention-deficit disorder without hyperactivity, and subjects with attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity.

  17. Helping Children and Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Systems of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Human Services. Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder www.chadd.org Tel: 301.306.7070 Federation ... information, contact: 4 Helping Children and Youth With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Systems of Care Attention -Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder Helping ...

  18. Effects of Environmental Stimulation on Students Demonstrating Behaviors Related to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostal, Brooks R.; Lee, David L.; Miller, Faith

    2013-01-01

    Behaviors characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often interfere with students' and their classmates' learning, and interventions targeting these behaviors may be particularly important in schools. This article reviews studies in which researchers manipulated environmental stimulation during task presentation…

  19. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Blum

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth Blum1,6,7,8,9,10, Amanda Lih-Chuan Chen2, Eric R Braverman3,9, David E Comings4, Thomas JH Chen5, Vanessa Arcuri9, Seth H Blum6, Bernard W Downs7,8, Roger L Waite7, Alison Notaro9, Joel Lubar10, Lonna Williams7, Thomas J Prihoda11, Tomas Palomo12, Marlene Oscar-Berman131Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; 2Department of Engineering and Management of Advanced Technology, Chang Jung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Neurosurgery, Weill College of Medicine, New York, NY; 4Department of Medical Genetics, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA; 5Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chang Jung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 6Department of Psychoneurogenetics, Synapatamine, Inc., San Antonio, TX; 7LifeGen, Inc., La Jolla, CA; 8Allied Nutraceutical Research, Lederach, PA; 9PATH Research Foundation, New York, NY; 10Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; 11Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX; 12Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; 13Boston University School of Medicine, and Boston VA Healthcare System, Boston, MAParts of this manuscript have been published in Theor Biol Med Model (Comings et al 2005, which is an open access journalAbstract: Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes that may mediate susceptibility to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the “brain reward cascade,” especially in the dopamine system, causing a low or hypo-dopaminergic trait, the brain may require dopamine for individuals to avoid unpleasant feelings. This high-risk genetic trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behaviors, because the drugs activate release of dopamine, which can diminish abnormal cravings. Moreover, this genetic trait is due in part to a

  20. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms: Do the Software and the Instruction Method Affect Their Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonidou, Christina; Garagouni-Areou, Fotina; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) use on pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Nine Greek primary school pupils with ADHD symptoms and four others with no such deficit worked on a computer, either individually or collaboratively, once a week for a six-week period.…

  1. QUANTITATIVE EEG COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD AND ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen D. Dimitrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a mental developmental disorder, manifested in the early childhood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is another psychiatric condition of the neurodevelopmental type. Both disorders affect information processing in the nervous system, altering the mechanisms which control how neurons and their synapses are connected and organized. Purpose: To examine if quantitative EEG assessment is sensitive and simple enough to differentiate autism from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and neurologically typical children. Material and methods: Quantitative EEG is a type of electrophysiological assessment that uses computerized mathematical analysis to convert the raw waveform data into different frequency ranges. Each frequency range is averaged across a sample of data and quantified into mean amplitude (voltage in microvolts mV. We performed quantitative EEG analysis and compared 4 cohorts of children (aged from 3 to 7 years: with autism (high [n=27] and low [n=52] functioning, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [n=34], and with typical behavior [n75]. Results: Our preliminary results show that there are significant qEEG differences between the groups of patients and the control cohort. The changes affect the potential levels of delta-, theta-, alpha-, and beta- frequency spectrums. Conclusion: The present study shows some significant quantitative EEG findings in autistic patients. This is a step forward in our efforts, aimed at defining specific neurophysiologic changes, in order to develop and refine strategies for early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders, differentiation from other development conditions in childhood, detection of specific biomarkers and early initiation of treatment.

  2. [Attention deficit - hyperactivity disorder and enuresis in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadenko, N N; Kolobova, N M; Suvorinova, N Iu

    2010-01-01

    Frequency of comorbid disorders and neuropsychological state, executive functions (EF), were studied in two groups of patients aged from 5 to 14 years: 53 patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the association with enuresis and 71 patients with ADHD without enuresis. The most cases of enuresis (50 out of 53 patients) were represented by primary nocturnal enuresis. The significant increase of total number of ADHD cases with comorbidity for oppositional-defiant disorder, anxiety disorder, tics or encopresis (77.7%) was found in the first group compared to the second one (60.6%). The presence of enuresis in ADHD was associated with the significant increase of frequency of anxiety disorders (54.7% versus 39.4%). Moreover, in the group of patients with ADHD and enuresis, the frequency of oppositional-defiant disorder and encopresis was higher in the age of 5-9 years while the frequency of obsessive-compulsive disorder and tics increased in the period of 10-14 years as compared to patients without enuresis. The assessment of executive functions with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test did not reveal any differences between patients of two groups.

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and telemental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Nancy B; Myers, Kathleen M; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCarty, Carolyn A; Geyer, John R; Desalvo, Amy

    2010-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders diagnosed in children and adolescents (youth). ADHD is equally distributed geographically, but services are not. Access to expert evaluation and treatment remains limited for youth with ADHD living in rural areas, as well as for ethnic and racial minority youth. Telepsychiatry is a service delivery model with the potential to reach these youth and to develop collaborative models of care among local primary care physicians, remote telepsychiatrists, and local families. Care delivered through telepsychiatry can readily adhere to the practice parameters of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Work to date indicates that ADHD is the most common disorder treated through telepsychiatry. This article reviews the status of child and adolescent telepsychiatry, with particular focus on its potential to improve the care and outcomes of underserved populations of youth diagnosed with ADHD.

  4. Drug holidays and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher P. SZABO

    2011-01-01

    The concept of ‘drug holidays’ (defined as "...the structured interruption of pharmacological treatment..."[1]) in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established,but poorly researched[1].The question is whether there is indeed a justifiable basis for the practice.In the opinion piece by Professors Du and Wang[2],they argue that on the balance of available evidence it is not justified.Herein lies the issue-the evidence.In reality significant numbers of parents both report side effects[3] and stop medication intermittently[1],and many sufferers stop treatment prematurely[4] (generally due to adverse effects).

  5. Sustained Attention and Response Inhibition in Young Children at Risk for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwid, Olga G.; Curko Kera, Elizabeth A.; Marks, David J.; Santra, Amita; Bender, Heidi A.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies of school-aged children, adolescents, and adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have variably shown ADHD-related impairment in both inhibitory control and sustained attention. However, few studies have examined ADHD-associated patterns of performance on these tasks among younger children (below age 7…

  6. Attention and Executive Function in Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Stepanian, Mariam; Grizenko, Natalie; Cornish, Kim; Talwar, Victoria; Mbekou, Valentin; Schmitz, Norbert; Joober, Ridha

    2017-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between comorbid disorders and executive function (EF) in children diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods Three hundred and fifty-five, 6–12 year old children clinically diagnosed with ADHD were included in the study. Comorbid anxiety disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) were examined. The EF domains were assessed using the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Tower of London (ToL), Finger Windows (FW) and Self Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Results The findings indicate that children with comorbid anxiety disorders performed worse in domains measured by CPT and prior to controlling for age and sex, by FW. However, once sex was controlled for the results for FW were no longer significant. Children with CD obtained lower scores on WCST. Furthermore, a significant sex by CD interaction was observed. Conclusion These results indicate that comorbid disorders should be carefully examined as they play a significant role in EF performance and subsequently in day-to-day functioning of children with ADHD.

  7. Attention Mechanisms in Children with Anxiety Disorders and in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Adam S.; Chu, Brian C.; Reddy, Linda A.; Mohlman, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Inattention is among the most commonly referred problems for school-aged youth. Research suggests distinct mechanisms may contribute to attention problems in youth with anxiety disorders versus youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compared children (8-17 years) with anxiety disorders (n = 24) and children (8-16…

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mulligan, Aisling; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have co

  9. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found t

  10. The Effect of Acupressure for Moderating Behavior of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynn; Sinnott, Jan

    This study examined the effects of an acupressure intervention with two adolescents previously diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An inventory based on standard criteria for diagnosing ADHD was completed by each student, their parents, case workers, and teachers both before and after the intervention. The intervention…

  11. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Motor Preparation Deficits in a Visual Cued Spatial Attention Task in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, Estate M; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Guela E; El-Baz, Ayman S; Casanova, Manuel F

    2016-03-01

    Abnormalities in motor skills have been regarded as part of the symptomatology characterizing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It has been estimated that 80 % of subjects with autism display "motor dyspraxia" or clumsiness that are not readily identified in a routine neurological examination. In this study we used behavioral measures, event-related potentials (ERP), and lateralized readiness potential (LRP) to study cognitive and motor preparation deficits contributing to the dyspraxia of autism. A modified Posner cueing task was used to analyze motor preparation abnormalities in children with autism and in typically developing children (N = 30/per group). In this task, subjects engage in preparing motor response based on a visual cue, and then execute a motor movement based on the subsequent imperative stimulus. The experimental conditions, such as the validity of the cue and the spatial location of the target stimuli were manipulated to influence motor response selection, preparation, and execution. Reaction time and accuracy benefited from validly cued targets in both groups, while main effects of target spatial position were more obvious in the autism group. The main ERP findings were prolonged and more negative early frontal potentials in the ASD in incongruent trials in both types of spatial location. The LRP amplitude was larger in incongruent trials and had stronger effect in the children with ASD. These effects were better expressed at the earlier stages of LRP, specifically those related to response selection, and showed difficulties at the cognitive phase of stimulus processing rather that at the motor execution stage. The LRP measures at different stages reflect the chronology of cognitive aspects of movement preparation and are sensitive to manipulations of cue correctness, thus representing very useful biomarker in autism dyspraxia research. Future studies may use more advance and diverse manipulations of movement preparation demands in testing more

  12. The process of assisting behavior modification in a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Sheng; Shih, Ying-Ling

    2007-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disease among children. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of assisting with behavior modification in a child with ADHD. The patient had undergone medical treatment for a year with no obvious effect. With the guidance of other professional people, the child's teachers and nursing instructors, the researchers proceeded with behavioral modification in conjunction with medication for another year. The medication treatment followed doctors' prescriptions, and, as regards the behavioral treatment, doctors and experts drafted and decided the content of the behavioral contract. The main basic techniques were skillful reinforcement and punishment. Then, via interviews with his parents and teachers, information was obtained that provided an understanding of the patient's condition and progress. It was found that the improvements were very significant. On the basis of the research results, the researchers submit that: (1) drug treatment combined with behavioral treatment apparently improves the daily behaviors of hyperactive children; (2) good communication with parents and psychological preparation are the most critical keys to the success of substantial behavioral improvement among hyperactive children; (3) establishment and integration of social resources, including provision of transitional parenting education solutions, and cooperation and sound interaction from school teachers, which fosters consolidated team work, are the critical factors to behavioral improvement among hyperactive children.

  13. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Menezes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8 and control (CG, N = 10 groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  14. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Amanda; Dias, Natália Martins; Trevisan, Bruna Tonietti; Carreiro, Luiz Renato R; Seabra, Alessandra Gotuzo

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF) intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8) and control (CG, N = 10) groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  15. The role of children's ethnicity in the relationship between teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and observed classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffrey N; Willoughby, Michael; Valencia, Elvia Y; Tonev, Simon T; Abikoff, Howard B; Arnold, L Eugene; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2005-06-01

    Significant ethnic differences have been consistently documented on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) teacher rating scales. Whether these ethnic differences result from a teacher rating bias or reflect actual classroom behavior patterns is unknown. Ethnic differences between Caucasian and African American (AA) elementary schoolchildren on teacher ratings and codings of observed classroom behavior were examined with latent variables. In structural equation models, correlations between teacher ratings and observed classroom behavior suggested nonbiased teacher ratings of AA schoolchildren with diagnosed ADHD. Ethnic differences were documented for both teacher ratings of ADHD and classroom behavior. Differences in classroom behavior were attenuated when the behavior of an average child in the classroom was taken into account. Multiple explanations for this pattern of results are discussed.

  16. How Can Comorbidity with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Aid Understanding of Language and Speech Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Mueller, Kathyrn L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a background for the topic of comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and spoken and written language and speech disorders that extends through this issue of "Topics in Language Disorders." Comorbidity is common within developmental disorders and may be explained by many possible reasons. Some of these can be…

  17. A Multiple Deficit Model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Shared Cognitive Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shanahan, Michelle A.; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E.; Barnard, Holly D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. Methods: A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique…

  18. Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, R Matt; Rapport, Mark D; Kasper, Lisa J; Sarver, Dustin E; Kofler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models of ADHD hypothesize that hyperactivity reflects a byproduct of inhibition deficits. The current study investigated the relationship between children's motor activity and behavioral inhibition by experimentally manipulating demands placed on the limited-resource inhibition system. Twenty-two boys (ADHD = 11, TD = 11) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a conventional stop-signal task, two choice-task variants (no-tone, ignore-tone), and control tasks while their motor activity was measured objectively by actigraphs placed on their nondominant wrist and ankles. All children exhibited significantly higher activity rates under all three experimental tasks relative to control conditions, and children with ADHD moved significantly more than typically developing children across conditions. No differences in activity level were observed between the inhibition and noninhibition experimental tasks for either group, indicating that activity level was primarily associated with basic attentional rather than behavioral inhibition processes.

  19. Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Franke, Barbara; Geurts, Hilde M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders. Evidence indicates both disorders co-occur with a high frequency, in 20-50% of children with ADHD meeting criteria for ASD and in 30-80% of ASD children meeting

  20. A Comparison of Behavioral Parent Training Programs for Fathers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Chacko, Anil; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Robb, Jessica; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances; Sastry, Amber L.; Flammer, Lizette; Keenan, Jenna K.; Visweswaraiah, Hema; Shulman, Simon; Herbst, Laura; Pirvics, Lauma

    2009-01-01

    Few behavioral parent training (BPT) treatment studies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have included and measured outcomes with fathers. In this study, fathers were randomly assigned to attend a standard BPT program or the Coaching Our Acting-Out Children: Heightening Essential Skills (COACHES) program. The COACHES program…

  1. Methylphenidate and Attributions in Boys with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, William E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Conducted two experiments in which attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder boys underwent double-blind, placebo-controlled medication assessment in summer day-treatment program. Daily, boys assessed attributions for and evaluations of their behavior. Objective measured showed improved behavior with methylphenidate; however, boys tended to…

  2. Restraint and Cancellation: Multiple Inhibition Deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachar, Russell; Logan, Gordon D.; Robaey, Philippe; Chen, Shirley; Ickowicz, Abel; Barr, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    We used variations of the stop signal task to study two components of motor response inhibition--the ability to withhold a strong response tendency (restraint) and the ability to cancel an ongoing action (cancellation)--in children with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in non-ADHD controls of similar age (ages…

  3. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder: Two separate disorders or do they share a common etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Rigoli, Daniela; Licari, Melissa; Piek, Jan P; Hasue, Renata H; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Oliveira, Jorge A

    2015-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been described as the most prevalent behavioral disorder in children. Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is one of the most prevalent childhood movement disorders. The overlap between the two conditions is estimated to be around 50%, with both substantially interfering with functioning and development, and leading to poorer psychosocial outcomes. This review provides an overview of the relationship between ADHD and DCD, discussing the common presenting features, etiology, neural basis, as well as associated deficits in motor functioning, attention and executive functioning. It is currently unclear which specific motor and cognitive difficulties are intrinsic to each disorder as many studies of ADHD have not been screened for DCD and vice-versa. The evidence supporting common brain underpinnings is still very limited, but studies using well defined samples have pointed to non-shared underpinnings for ADHD and DCD. The current paper suggests that ADHD and DCD are separate disorders that may require different treatment approaches.

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, M L; Zolotor, A

    2001-10-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder of childhood and often persists into adulthood. ADHD is a neurophysiologic disorder defined in behavioral terms and associated with significant morbidity in the realms of social and academic success, and self-esteem. ADHD is often associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and learning disabilities, which further impede the successful development of these persons. It is essential that family physicians be knowledgeable about the presentation and diagnosis of ADHD. Stimulant medications continue to be the mainstay of treatment, although many other medications (such as antidepressants and alpha blockers) are helpful adjuvants to therapy. Current recommendations for treatment include an individualized, multimodal approach involving parents, teachers, counselors and the school system. Treatment follow-up includes monitoring response to medications in various settings, as well as side effects. With time and interest, the family physician can develop the skills needed to treat this disorder.

  6. Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, H.C.; Henriksen, L.; Bruhn, P.; Borner, H.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported that periventricular structures are hypoperfused in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study has expanded the number of patients, who were divided into two groups: six patients with pure ADHD, and 13 patients with ADHD in combination with other neurologic symptoms. By using xenon 133 inhalation and emission tomography, the regional cerebral blood flow distribution was determined and compared with a control group. Striatal regions were found to be hypoperfused and, by inference, hypofunctional in both groups. This hypoperfusion was statistically significant in the right striatum in ADHD, and in both striatal regions in ADHD with other neuropsychologic and neurologic symptoms. The primary sensory and sensorimotor cortical regions were highly perfused. Methylphenidate increased flow to striatal and posterior periventricular regions, and tended to decrease flow to primary sensory regions. Low striatal activity, partially reversible with methylphenidate, appears to be a cardinal feature in ADHD.

  7. Test of Alternative Hypotheses Explaining the Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Willcutt, Erik G.; Hartman, Christie A.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

    2008-01-01

    There is significant comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). The conclusions of studies that examined the causes of comorbidity between ADHD and CD conflict, with some researchers finding support for the three independent disorders model and others finding support for the correlated risk…

  8. Stimulant treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and risk of developing substance use disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman, Annabeth P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Franke, Barbara; Greven, Corina U.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Luman, Marjolein; Roeyers, Herbert; Oades, Robert D.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to increased risk for substance use disorders and nicotine dependence. Aims To examine the effects of stimulant treatment on subsequent risk for substance use disorder and nicotine dependence in a prospective longitudinal ADHD case

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Erroneously Diagnosed and Treated as Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Ozler, Sinan; Topuz, Mehtap; Goldstein, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of literature on patients erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder. Method: The authors report a case of an adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder for 6 years. At that point, methylphenidate was initiated. The patient was judged to be a…

  10. Stimulant treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and risk of developing substance use disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman, A.P.; Oosterlaan, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Franke, B.; Greven, C.U.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Hartman, C.A.; Luman, M.; Roeyers, H.; Oades, R.D.; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Faraone, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to increased risk for substance use disorders and nicotine dependence. AIMS: To examine the effects of stimulant treatment on subsequent risk for substance use disorder and nicotine dependence in a prospective longitudinal ADHD ca

  11. Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Dustin E; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Raiker, Joseph S; Friedman, Lauren M

    2015-10-01

    Excess gross motor activity (hyperactivity) is considered a core diagnostic feature of childhood ADHD that impedes learning. This view has been challenged, however, by recent models that conceptualize excess motor activity as a compensatory mechanism that facilitates neurocognitive functioning in children with ADHD. The current study investigated competing model predictions regarding activity level's relation with working memory (WM) performance and attention in boys aged 8-12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.26) with ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing children (TD; n = 23). Children's phonological WM and attentive behavior were objectively assessed during four counterbalanced WM tasks administered across four separate sessions. These data were then sequenced hierarchically based on behavioral observations of each child's gross motor activity during each task. Analysis of the relations among intra-individual changes in observed activity level, attention, and performance revealed that higher rates of activity level predicted significantly better, but not normalized WM performance for children with ADHD. Conversely, higher rates of activity level predicted somewhat lower WM performance for TD children. Variations in movement did not predict changes in attention for either group. At the individual level, children with ADHD and TD children were more likely to be classified as reliably Improved and Deteriorated, respectively, when comparing their WM performance at their highest versus lowest observed activity level. These findings appear most consistent with models ascribing a functional role to hyperactivity in ADHD, with implications for selecting behavioral treatment targets to avoid overcorrecting gross motor activity during academic tasks that rely on phonological WM.

  12. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  13. Readings on Attention Deficit Disorder or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. ERIC Mini-Bib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Barbara, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography identifies 17 readings, 3 videotapes, and 8 children's books concerned with attention deficit disorder or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Items include guides for parents, teachers, and students; analyses of issues in the field; practical teaching guides; investigations into etiology; and resource guides.…

  14. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ADHD behaviors and problems can cause low self-esteem and problems with relationships. Individual counseling and support ... was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: Adolescent, adult, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity, child, Neurologic, Overview Family ...

  15. Developmental trajectories of aggression, prosocial behavior, and social-cognitive problem solving in emerging adolescents with clinically elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E; Tolan, Patrick H

    2015-11-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given their childhood social difficulties. Relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior and social-cognitive problem solving beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (6th grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD-combined symptoms were compared longitudinally across 6th through 8th grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d = -0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d = 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group after accounting for co-occurring ODD symptoms and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in 6th grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was highly similar for the ADHD and non-ADHD groups.

  16. [Neurotrophic factors and their importance in attention deficit hyperactivity disorde].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Corominas, Margarida; Martínez, Iris; Barrau, Víctor; Prats, Laura; Casas, Miguel; Ribasés, Marta

    2014-02-24

    The existing literature that reports findings linked with the involvement of neurotrophic factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reviewed. Neurotrophins, a family of neurotrophic factors, are a kind of proteins that are specific to the nervous system and play an essential role in neuron survival, differentiation and proliferation during the development of the central and peripheral nervous system. These molecules stimulate axonal growth and exert an influence on the connections with the target tissue in order to establish the synaptic connections. The study of neurotrophins in ADHD, a neurodevelopmental disorder, is of interest mainly due to the functions that these proteins perform in the central nervous system. Studies on animal, pharmacological and molecular genetic models yield evidence that relates neurotrophins with the disorder. This work reviews the results from the studies conducted to date on ADHD and neurotrophic factors, especially brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, although pharmacological studies suggest that the response to atomoxetine in adults with ADHD is not directly mediated by the effect on the BDNF, reductions in BDNF levels in the plasma of adult patients with ADHD have been reported. Further studies with broader samples and greater control of environmental factors that can regulate neurotrophin expression, such as diet, physical exercise and situations of social risk, are needed to be able to determine the role they play in the aetiology of ADHD.

  17. Associations between Inadequate Parenting Practices and Behavioral Problems in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents with ADHD present behaviors such as impulsiveness, inattention, and difficulties with personal organization that represent an overload for parents. Moreover, it also increases their level of stress and leads them to resort to inadequate educational strategies. The present study verifies associations between inadequate parenting practices and behavioral profiles of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample was composed of 22 children with ADHD (age range 6–16 years and their mothers. Spearman correlation analyses were made with the scores of Parenting Style Inventory (PSI and Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6–18 (CBCL/6–18. Results indicate statistically significant associations between behavioral problems and the use of punishment practices and negligence. When assessing a child with ADHD, it is important to verify the predominant types of parenting practices that can influence both immediate interventions and the prognosis of the disorder.

  18. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat neglected in the literature and mostly omitted from reviews on ADHD. There is therefore a lack of integrative reviews on the up-to-date evidence on neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits of timing in ADHD and their significance with respect to other behavioural and cognitive deficits. The present review provides a synthetic overview of the evidence for neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits in ADHD in timing functions, and integrates this evidence with the cognitive neuroscience literature of the neural substrates of timing. The review demonstrates that ADHD patients are consistently impaired in three major timing domains, in motor timing, perceptual timing and temporal foresight, comprising several timeframes spanning milliseconds, seconds, minutes and longer intervals up to years. The most consistent impairments in ADHD are found in sensorimotor synchronisation, duration discrimination, reproduction and delay discounting. These neurocognitive findings of timing deficits in ADHD are furthermore supported by functional neuroimaging studies that show dysfunctions in the key inferior fronto-striato-cerebellar and fronto-parietal networks that mediate the timing functions. Although there is evidence that these timing functions are inter-correlated with other executive functions that are well established to be impaired in the disorder, in particular working memory, attention, and to a lesser degree inhibitory control, the key timing deficits appear to survive when these functions are controlled for, suggesting independent cognitive deficits in the temporal domain. There is furthermore strong evidence for an association between timing deficits and behavioural

  19. Parenting teens with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Chaplin, Margaret; Godsay, Viraj; Soovajian, Victoria

    2014-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presents in childhood with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and is associated with functional impairments. These children tend to display a variety of disruptive behaviors, which may worsen in adolescence. Teens with ADHD may show high levels of defiance, posing significant challenges for parents. Early efforts to understand parenting in the context of teen ADHD reveal high levels of parental stress and reactivity in response to the teen's ADHD symptoms. Subsequent research recognized that some of these parents have ADHD or other psychopathology that may contribute to maladaptive parenting. However, some parents adjust and demonstrate optimism and resilience in the face of their teens' ADHD. Recent research has identified parental factors (eg, emotional intelligence) and interventions (eg, mindfulness training) that may improve parenting/teen relationships and the developmental outcomes of teens. This article explores parenting teens with ADHD with a focus on these novel interventions.

  20. Behavioral Parent Training Effect on Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Varnado

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and other disorders affecting central nervous system functioning leading to disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents seldom include an adjunctive psychosocial intervention. Objective: The purpose of this quality improvement study was to implement Behavioral Parent Training (BPT in an outpatient private practice setting to improve outcomes in home, school, and social settings for children and adolescents. Method: Parent(s/guardian(s of ten (n=10 children ages seven through 12. The study utilized the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale, Home Situations Questionnaire, and Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale – Parent Form as well as Teacher Rating Scale and School Questionnaires for measurement of behaviours prior to BPT. The standardized ADHD parent and teacher rating scales along with the questionnaires for both were again completed at the conclusion of the BPT sessions for comparison. Results: Findings indicated significant improvements in disruptive behaviour. Conclusion: Psychosocial interventions such as BPT can be a powerful adjunct to pharmacotherapy in ADHD and behavior disorders for this population. Providing such intervention in a routine practice setting offers the potential for improved outcomes in the child/adolescent’s home, school, and social setting.

  1. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  2. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  3. Recognizing and Treating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevatt, Frances; Young, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally diagnosed in children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is now regarded as a life span condition. The academic difficulties experienced by children and adolescents with ADHD have been observed to continue into young adulthood. Treatment outcome studies demonstrate that behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions…

  4. The Relation between Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mother-Infant Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Deborah L.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between maternal symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific maternal behaviors was examined in a community sample of 40 mothers of infants aged 3-8 months. It was hypothesized that maternal ADHD symptoms would be related to lower levels of maternal sensitivity, and higher levels of maternal…

  5. Can attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder be differentiated by motor and balance deficits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Ramage, Barbara; Crawford, Susan; Cantell, Marja; Wormsbecker, Shirley; Gibbard, Ben; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the diagnostic overlap between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Differential diagnosis is important because of treatment implications. Children aged 7-10years (47 ADHD, 30 FASD, 39 controls) participated.

  6. Peer-mediated reinforcement plus prompting as treatment for off-task behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, William A; Wilder, David A; Flood, Amy L; Masuda, Akihiko

    2002-01-01

    Functional analyses revealed that peer attention was one variable maintaining the off-task behavior exhibited by 3 students with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Peer-mediated reinforcement plus prompting was then used to reduce off-task behavior in a simulated classroom environment. Implications for future applications of this procedure with children diagnosed with ADHD are discussed.

  7. Fine Motor Skills in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The manual dexterity subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and handwriting and computerized graphomotor tasks were used to investigate motor skills of a group of 12 children (11 males, 1 female; mean age 9 years 7 months with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD and 12 controls at University Medical Centre Groningen, the Netherlands.

  8. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of t

  9. Self-monitoring during spelling practice: effects on spelling accuracy and on-task behavior of three students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Lisa A; Arroyo, Jenna; Ginnane, Shaunna; Wilczynski, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    We used a multiple baseline across subjects design to investigate the effects of self-monitoring on the on-task behavior and spelling accuracy of three fifth-grade students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during an independent spelling practice period in the general education environment. We also compared their on-task levels to that of peers without disabilities in the same classroom context before and after the self-monitoring intervention. Our results showed that time on-task and spelling accuracy increased for the students diagnosed with ADHD during independent spelling practice after the teacher taught them how to self-monitor. These same students' on-task behavior also increased to levels comparable to that of their peers. Suggestions for educators interested in teaching their students self-monitoring strategies are included following a discussion of the results of the analysis.

  10. Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Future Substance Use Disorders: Comparative Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charach, Alice; Yeung, Emanuela; Climans, Troy; Lillie, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In recent years cohort studies have examined childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence and young adulthood. The long-term risk is estimated for development of alcohol, cannabis, combined alcohol and psychoactive SUDs, combined SUDs (nonalcohol), and…

  11. Discrimination between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Reactive Attachment Disorder in School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follan, Michael; Anderson, Seonaid; Huline-Dickens, Sarah; Lidstone, Emma; Young, David; Brown, Gordon; Minnis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether it is possible to discriminate between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) using standardized assessment tools for RAD. The study involved 107 children: 38 with a diagnosis of RAD and 30 with ADHD were recruited through community child and…

  12. Speech-Sound Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Short, Elizabeth J.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Freebairn, Lisa; Tag, Jessica; Avrich, Allison A.; Stein, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of speech-sound disorders (SSD) with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the severity of the SSD and the mode of transmission of SSD within the pedigrees of children with SSD. Participants and Methods: The participants were 412 children who were enrolled…

  13. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36 and in healthy controls (n = 35. Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.. Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A. There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  14. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: parents' and professionals' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Tanya; Davis, Monica; Johnson, Ursula; Brooks, Hoplyn; Humbi, Annette

    2008-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent childhood psychiatric condition. This study was a qualitative investigation with parents and professionals conducted in two north London boroughs, using focus groups as well as semi-structured and narrative interviews. The aim was to explore parents' and professionals' beliefs regarding the causes of ADHD and their perceptions of service provision. The sample was drawn purposively from GP practices and voluntary support groups. Professionals were recruited via professional networks. Analysis was thematic. It was found that the views of parents and professionals differed. Professionals were more likely to see ADHD as a medical condition, while parents were more likely to see ADHD in association with socio-environmental causes. Delayed diagnosis, inadequate access to information and a lack of co-ordinated care are stated as some of the reasons for parental dissatisfaction with services. Professionals emphasised the need for multidisciplinary input into the management of ADHD. The implications of these findings were that parents often battled with professionals to encourage them to see their viewpoint, access to treatment was influenced by the views of parents and professionals, and noncompliance occurred when parents had different views from professionals.

  16. Dietary Patterns and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azadbakht

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: : To evaluate the association of major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in a group of Iranian school aged children.Materials and Method: : This cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 school-aged children in Tehran, Iran. Usual dietary intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. DSM-IV questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of ADHD. Major dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Results: The prevalence of ADHD was 9.7% in this population. We identified 4 major dietary patterns: "healthy", "western", "sweet" and "fast foods" dietary patterns. Children in top quintile of "sweet dietary pattern” score had greater odds for having ADHD as compared with those in the lowest quintile (Odds ratio: 3.95; 95% CI: 1.16, 15.31; p=0.03. Greater adherence to "fast food" dietary pattern was significantly associated with higher risk of having ADHD (Odds ratio: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 10.90; p=0.03. No overall significant associations were seen between either healthy or western dietary patterns with ADHD. All these analysis were done in the controlled model for confounders.Conclusion: We found significant independent associations between "sweet" and "fast foods" dietary patterns and prevalence of ADHD. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings

  17. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves.

  18. Neuropsychological profiles correlated with clinical and behavioral impairments in a sample of Brazilian children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli eRizzutti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ADHD is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that implies several-step process and there is no single test to diagnose both ADHD and associated comorbidities such as oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety disorder, depression and certain types of learning disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to examine correlations between behavioral and clinical symptoms by administering an extensive neuropsychological battery to a sample of children and adolescents from a developing country. The sample was divided into three groups: non-ADHD; ADHD-non-comorbid; and ADHD+comorbidity. A full neuropsychological battery and clinical assessment found that 105 children met DSM-5 criteria, of whom 46.6% had the predominantly inattentive presentation, 37.3% had combined presentation and 16% were predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation. The internal correlation between neuropsychological tests did not reach statistical significance in the comparison between ADHD and non-ADHD cases (p<0.17. Clinical ADHD cases, including both +comorbidity and non-comorbid groups, performed substantially worse on CPT, working memory. Comparing ADHD-non-comorbid and ADHD+comorbidity groups, the latter did significantly worse on inhibitory control, time processing and the level of perseveration response on CPT indexes, as well as on working memory performance and CBCL tests particularly the CBCL-DESR (deficient emotional self-regulation test in the ADHD+comorbidity group. Children diagnosed as oppositional-defiant (ODD or with conduct disorder (CD showed close correlations between clinical CBCL profiles and externalized symptoms. Our findings suggest that ADHD+comorbidity and ADHD non-comorbid cases may be differentiated by a number of neuropsychological measures, such as processing speed, inhibitory control and working memory, that may reflect different levels of involvement of the hot and cool executive domains, which are more impaired in cases of severe

  19. Temperament and Character as Endophenotype in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Bram B.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in cognitive and brain domains. They found that…

  20. Executive Functioning Characteristics Associated with ADHD Comorbidity in Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A.; Kronenberger, William G.; Wang, Yang; Dunn, David W.; Mosier, Kristine M.; Kalnin, Andrew J.; Mathews, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of executive dysfunction in youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) remains unclear, despite extensive research in samples of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine the relationship between DBD, ADHD, and executive function deficits in aggressive teens, adolescents with DBD and comorbid ADHD…

  1. Temperament and character as endophenotype in adults with autism spectrum disorders or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, B.B.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Brink, W. van den

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  2. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  3. MR imaging of the effects of methylphenidate on brain structure and function in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweren, Lizanne J. S.; de Zeeuw, Patrick; Durston, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate is the first-choice pharmacological intervention for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The pharmacological and behavioral effects of methylphenidate are well described, but less is known about neurochemical brain changes induced by methylphenidate. Thi

  4. Disentangling deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, E.M.; Overtoom, C.C.; Kooij, J.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verbaten, M.N.; Kenemans, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: A lack of inhibitory control has been suggested to be the core deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), especially in adults. This means that a primary deficit in inhibition mediates a cascade of secondary deficits in other executive functions, such as attention. Impaired

  5. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version in Healthy Adults and Application to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Robert M.; Lance, Charles E.; Isquith, Peter K.; Fischer, Adina S.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) is a questionnaire measure designed to assess executive functioning in everyday life. Analysis of data from the BRIEF-A standardization sample yielded a two-factor solution (labeled Behavioral Regulation and Metacognition). The present investigation employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate four alternative models of the factor structure of the BRIEF-A self-report form in a sample of 524 healthy young adults. Results indicated that a three-factor model best fits the data: a Metacognition factor, a Behavioral Regulation factor consisting of the Inhibit and Self-Monitor scales, and an Emotional Regulation factor composed of the Emotional Control and Shift scales. The three factors contributed 14%, 19%, and 24% of unique variance to the model, respectively, and a second-order general factor accounted for 41% of variance overall. This three-factor solution is consistent with recent CFAs of the Parent report form of the BRIEF. Furthermore, although the Behavioral Regulation factor score in the two-factor model did not differ between adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and a matched healthy comparison group, greater impairment on the Behavioral Regulation factor but not the Emotional Regulation factor was found using the three-factor model. Together, these findings support the multidimensional nature of executive function and the clinical relevance of a three-factor model of the BRIEF-A. PMID:23676185

  6. Attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity disorder: the medicalization and the coercion in moral development

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which concern the increasing number of referrals. Backed by a hegemonic vision and medicalized, such pathology conquered space currently and directly affects education, it transfers to the field of health issues from the field of education. In the quest for solving the problems of indiscipline and learning moves from a political- pedagogical discussion and uses the administration of ...

  7. Attention deficit disorders--drugs or nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Toshiko

    2007-01-01

    3-9% of schoolchildren in the U.K. suffer Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Since the 1950s stimulants have been used. particularly methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine, with some 75% response rate. The first non-stimulant medication--atmoxetine hydrochloride, has also been used. However, side effects have included: growth retardation; appetite loss: headache: stomachache: heart problem: insomnia: seizure; change of character: addiction or even suicidal thoughts. Alternative treatments have been used including omega-3s, yet the way they benefit in ADHD is uncertain. They may be important in remodelling dendrites and synapses, and/or sustaining: blood brain barrier, neuronal membrane. neurotransmitter channel, receptors and ion channel. Stevens in 2003 found long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) effective for oppositional defiant disorder, whereas Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) specifically was helpful with disruptive behaviour. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important during gestation and early infancy, particularly for neurodevelopment. The Durham Trial by Richardson published in 2005, tested omega-3s with omega-6s on schoolchildren with developmental coordination disorder (many of them had ADHD symptoms), improving scores in co-ordination and short term memory.

  8. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Viviane Freire; Kozasa, Elisa H.; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Alves, Tânia Maria; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues; Pompéia, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP), but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL), mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II), before and after intervention. Results. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT) and detectability (CPT II) and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. Conclusion. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls. PMID:26137496

  9. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Freire Bueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP, but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL, mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II, before and after intervention. Results. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT and detectability (CPT II and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. Conclusion. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls.

  10. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder outcome in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bange, F

    2011-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood. Although some symptoms of ADHD may diminish this does not mean that functioning is unimpaired in adults. Follow-up studies of children with ADHD show that it persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. Due to genetic factors high rates of ADHD exist among the parents of children with ADHD. More females are identified and become diagnosed in adulthood. There is a greater persistence of inattentive than of hyperactive/impulsive childhood symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. Some experts conceptualise ADHD as primarily a deficit of executive functions impairing planification, time perception and emotional regulation. ADHD often presents as a lifelong condition in adults associated with a range of clinical and psychosocial impairments. Young adults with comorbid antisocial or substance use disorder in adolescence are at significantly increased risk for criminal behaviors. Some predictors of the outcome have been identified such as childhood symptom profile and severity, comorbidity and childhood family adversities.

  11. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies.

  12. Does the cortisol response to stress mediate the link between expressed emotion and oppositional behavior in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psychogiou Lamprini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Emotions (EE are associated with oppositional behavior (OPB in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. EE has been linked to altered stress responses in some disorders, but ADHD has not been studied. We test the hypothesis that OPB in ADHD is mediated by altered stress-related cortisol reactivity to EE. Methods Two groups of children (with/without ADHD and their respective parents were randomly assigned to two different conditions with/without negative emotion and participated in an emotion provocation task. Parents' EE, their ratings of their children's OPB and their children's salivary cortisol levels were measured. Results Low parental warmth was associated with OPB in ADHD. High levels of parental EE elicited a larger cortisol response. Stress-related cortisol reactivity mediated the EE-OPB link for all children. This highlights the general importance of parent-child interactions on externalizing behavior problems. Conclusion High EE is a salient stressor for ADHD children that leads to increased levels of cortisol and OPB. The development of OPB might be mediated by the stress-response to high EE.

  13. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Anna K Mueller; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children wit...

  14. [Gifted children in difficulty: from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to depression and school failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S

    2006-02-22

    We became interested in gifted children with difficulties based on the number of children who were addressed to our outpatient units for behavioral problems such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, scholastic problems or symptoms of depression, and for whom we identified a high intellectual potential. This article treats in particular Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) which is observed for certain gifted children and can cover a depression and lead to school failure. How can ADHD in gifted children be interpreted? Based on our clinical experience and the literature, we propose that this disorder stem from need for external and internal stimulation. Several hypotheses concerning this idea will be then discussed, notably concerning their therapeutic implications.

  15. Addiction in developmental perspective: influence of conduct disorder severity, subtype, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on problem severity and comorbidity in adults with opioid dependence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, P.J.; Knapen, L.J.; Gogh, M.T. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study examines whether conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are associated with problem severity and psychiatric comorbidity in 193 middle-aged, opioid-dependent patients. Conduct disorder history, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,

  16. Executive functions: performance-based measures and the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Maggie E; Bucciarelli, Stefania M; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Performance-based measures and ratings of executive functions were examined in a sample of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison controls. Performance-based measures of executive function included inhibition, working memory, set shifting, and planning, and ratings of these same executive functions were completed by parents and teachers. Adolescents with ADHD demonstrated lower executive function performance than controls and displayed elevated ratings on the executive function ratings by parents and teachers. Significant associations were obtained between the performance-based measures and the parent and teacher ratings, but each measure was not uniquely associated with its respective scale on the rating scales. When performance-based measures and ratings were examined as predictors of ADHD status, the parent and teacher ratings entered as significant predictors of ADHD status. Further commonality analyses indicated that performance-based measures accounted for little unique variance in predicting ADHD status and also displayed little overlap with the behavioral ratings. These findings highlight the diagnostic utility of behavioral ratings of executive function in predicting ADHD status; however, behavioral ratings should not be assumed to be a proxy for performance on measures of executive function in clinical practice.

  17. Dance-movement therapy for movement development of a child with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sernec, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Movement is a basic need of children that allows them to learn appropriate responses and control behavior. The research problem refers to the observation of the qualitative aspect of the movement of a child with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity. The main purpose of the study was to verify the effects of the dance-movement therapy on movement repertoire and expression and also movement competence in different situations. The survey was conducted as action research. Case-study was b...

  18. A Genetic Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Reading Disability: Aetiological Overlaps and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence; Pieka, Jan; Hay, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occurs with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Reading Disability. Twin studies are an important approach to understanding and modelling potential causes of such comorbidity. Univariate and bivariate genetic models were fitted to maternal report data from 2040 families of…

  19. Neurofibromatozis and Attention Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERYILMAZ et al.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type VI, a disease characterized by the presence of café-au-lait spots withoutthe presence of neurofibromas typically present in neurofibromatosis, as well as cognitivefunction and speech problems, often shows neurological involvement. We describe a case of a14-year-old child who has speech problems and isolated cafè-au-lait macules. We performedan IQ test on him and he scored 70 points. His problems started when he was approximately 5years old (school age. He was diagnosed with attention deficit disorder syndrome withouthyperactivity after neuropsychiatric investigation. We reported this case to improve recognitionof NF VI in children who have cognitive function problems.

  20. Concordance of actigraphy with polysomnography in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldon, Jessica; Begum, Esmot; Gendron, Melissa; Rusak, Benjamin; Andreou, Pantelis; Rajda, Malgorzata; Corkum, Penny

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to: (1) compare actigraphy-derived estimated sleep variables to the same variables based on the gold-standard of sleep assessment, polysomnography; (2) examine whether the correlations between the measures differ between children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children; and (3) determine whether these correlations are altered when children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are treated with medication. Participants (24 attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; 24 typically developing), aged 6-12 years, completed a 1-week baseline assessment of typical sleep and daytime functioning. Following the baseline week, participants in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group completed a 4-week blinded randomized control trial of methylphenidate hydrochloride, including a 2-week placebo and 2-week methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment period. At the end of each observation (typically developing: baseline; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: baseline, placebo and methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment), all participants were invited to a sleep research laboratory, where overnight polysomnography and actigraphy were recorded concurrently. Findings from intra-class correlations and Bland-Altman plots were consistent. Actigraphy was found to provide good estimates (e.g. intra-class correlations >0.61) of polysomnography results for sleep duration for all groups and conditions, as well as for sleep-onset latency and sleep efficiency for the typically developing group and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group while on medication, but not for the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group during baseline or placebo. Based on the Bland-Altman plots, actigraphy tended to underestimate for sleep duration (8.6-18.5 min), sleep efficiency (5.6-9.3%) and sleep-onset latency, except for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during placebo in which actigraphy overestimated (-2.1 to 6

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder associated with orbitofrontal epilepsy in a father and a son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, A L; Yudd, A; Zee, P; Mandelbaum, D E

    1997-04-01

    The authors report on a father and son with frontal lobe epilepsy and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Attention deficit hyperactivity is a syndrome defined by criteria that include inattention, impulsive behavior, impaired concentration and motor restlessness. It does not require medical or neurobehavioral evaluation to determine an underlying etiology. The father is a 45-year-old man evaluated for possible ADHD. His referral came after the diagnosis of ADHD in his 6-year-old son who responded well to treatment with methylphenidate HCL. Neurobehavioral evaluation of the father suggested frontal lobe dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography (EEG) were normal. Brain 99mTc HMPAO single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed left orbitofrontal hypoperfusion. Additional history from his wife revealed episodic symptoms suggestive of nonconvulsive epilepsy that included nonresponsive staring, complex automatic behavior, and amnesic lacunas. Treatment of the father with carbmazepine produced dramatic improvement. Subsequent evaluation of his son, currently on maintenance treatment with methylphenidate HCL for ADHD, elicited a history consistent with atonic and simple motor partial epilepsy. The son's brain SPECT revealed bilateral orbitofrontal hypoperfusion defects. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a syndrome that may be caused by frontal lobe lesions or epilepsy. In the setting of possible ADHD, neurological evaluation is warranted. Although overreliance on structural imaging or EEG in such an evaluation must be discouraged, brain SPECT may be useful to evaluate patients with symptoms of attention disorders for frontal epilepsy.

  2. Treating parents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the effects of behavioral parent training and acute stimulant medication treatment on parent-child interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Dara E; Waxmonsky, James G; Pelham, William E

    2014-10-01

    This multiple baseline study evaluated the efficacy of behavioral parent training (BPT) for 12 parents (M age = 39.17 years; 91% mothers) and their children (ages 6-12; 83% boys) both with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and also explored the acute effect of stimulant medication for parents before and after BPT. Parents rated their own and their children's symptoms and impairment and were stabilized on optimally dosed medication. Then, parents discontinued medication and were randomly assigned to a 3, 4, or 5 week baseline (BL), during which they provided twice-weekly ratings of their impairment, parenting, and their child's behavior. Following BL, parents and their children completed two laboratory tasks, once on their optimally dosed medication and once on a placebo to assess observable effects of medication on parent-child behavior, and they completed additional assessments of family functioning. Parents then completed eight BPT sessions, during which they were unmedicated. Twice-weekly ratings of parent and child behavior were collected during BPT and additional ratings were collected upon completing BPT. Two more parent-child tasks with and without parent medication were conducted upon BPT completion to assess the observable effects of BPT and BPT plus medication. Ten (83.33%) parents completed the trial. Improvements in parent and child behavior were observed, and parents reported improved child behavior with BPT. Few benefits of BPT emerged through parent reports of parent functioning, with the exception of inconsistent discipline, and no medication or interaction effects emerged. These results, although preliminary, suggest that some parents with ADHD benefit from BPT. While pharmacological treatment is the most common intervention for adults with ADHD, further examination of psychosocial treatments for adults is needed.

  3. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90 and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of the origin of this disorder. Its manifestations may be a reason for family conflicts, poor peer relationships, social and school maladjustment, learning problems, lower academic performance, accidents and injuries, smoking, psychoactive substance abuse (toxicomania, narcomania, delinquencies, deviant social behavior, thus having a negative impact on all spheres of a patient’s life. The manifestations of ADHD may continue in adulthood, resulting in work and family life problems, low self-evaluation, alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse, and other unfavorable consequences. The authors describe the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic principles (diagnostic scales and tests, differential diagnosis (by setting out a large group of different diseases, the manifestations of which can mimic ADHD, treatment, and prognosis of the disorder. Within its therapeutic correction framework, the authors present the definition and general principles of Montessori therapy, including recommendations for parents and relatives to deal with children with ADHD. 

  4. Personality Disorder in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Attrition and Change During Long-term Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, Thomas E; Reimherr, Frederick W; Marchant, Barrie K; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2016-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are commonly found in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are associated with increased ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. To assess the impact of PDs or personality traits on retention rates in ADHD trials and whether treating ADHD affects the expression of PD, data were analyzed from 2 methylphenidate trials. Assessment of PDs and personality traits included using the Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Personality Disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were evaluated using the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale. Major findings were that subjects with cluster A, cluster B, passive-aggressive, or more than 1 PD showed more attrition. Subjects dropping out also had more schizoid and narcissistic traits. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (p Disorders Inventory IV items that improved most, 8 resembled ADHD or oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

  5. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This…

  6. Behavioral interventions in Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials across multiple outcome domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Daley; S. van der Oord; M. Ferrin; M. Danckaerts; M. Doepfner; S. Cortese; E.J.S. Sonuga-Barke

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Behavioral interventions are recommended as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatments. However, a recent meta-analysis found no effects on core ADHD symptoms when raters were probably blind to treatment allocation. The present analysis is extended to a broader range of ch

  7. Parental involvement moderates etiological influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder behaviors in child twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolas, Molly A; Klump, Kelly L; Burt, S Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Although few would now contest the presence of Gene × Environment (G × E) effects in the development of child psychopathology, it remains unclear how these effects manifest themselves. Alternative G × E models have been proposed (i.e., diathesis-stress, differential susceptibility, bioecological), each of which has notably different implications for etiology. Child twin studies present a powerful tool for discriminating between these models. The current study examined whether and how parental involvement moderated etiological influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) within 500 twin pairs aged 6-11 years. Results indicated moderation of genetic and nonshared environmental contributions to ADHD by parental involvement, and moreover, suggested both differential susceptibility and bioecological models of G × E. Results highlight the utility of child twin samples in testing different manifestations of G × E effects.

  8. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis.

  9. Distinguishing between attention-deficit hyperactivity and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in children: clinical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Peadon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Peadon, Elizabeth J ElliottDiscipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are the physical and neurodevelopmental outcomes of fetal alcohol exposure. The behavioral phenotype of children with FASD includes difficulties with executive function, memory, planning, processing speed, and attention. Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is diagnosed in up to 94% of individuals with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, the exact relationship between FASD and ADHD is unclear. There is some evidence that ADHD in FASD may be a specific clinical subtype and thus may require a different treatment approach. Although traditional behavioral observation scales may not distinguish between the two groups, there is evidence that children with FASD have a different profile on the four-factor model of attention than children with ADHD who do not have FASD. There is a paucity of good scientific evidence on effective interventions for individuals with ADHD and FASD. There is weak evidence that children with FASD and ADHD may have a better response to dexamphetamine than methylphenidate. There is a strong need for larger, high quality studies to examine the relationship between ADHD and FASD and identify effective treatments because management of inattention and hyperactivity may improve learning and ameliorate the common secondary disabilities associated with FASD.Keywords: fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  10. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case study and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel CS; Chaim-Avancini TM; Silva MA; Louzã MR

    2015-01-01

    Carmen Sílvia Miguel, Tiffany M Chaim-Avancini, Maria Aparecida Silva, Mario Rodrigues LouzãAdult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Program (PRODATH), Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: The cognitive profile of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been well characterized, but few studies have evaluated the cognitive abilities o...

  11. Interaction of Dopamine Transporter Gene and Observed Parenting Behaviors on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that some individuals may be simultaneously more responsive to the effects from environmental adversity "and" enrichment (i.e., differential susceptibility). Given that parenting behavior and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3'untranslated region of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene…

  12. Executive Functioning Differences between Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Initiation, Planning and Strategy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramham, Jessica; Ambery, Fiona; Young, Susan; Morris, Robin; Russell, Ailsa; Xenitidis, Kiriakos; Asherson, Philip; Murphy, Declan

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning deficits characterize the neuropsychological profiles of the childhood neurodevelopmental disorders of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This study sought to determine whether similar impairments exist in adults with ADHD (N = 53) and ASD (N = 45) in comparison with a…

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make...... the criteria more appropriate for children, adolescents and adults. The age of onset will also be changed from 7 to 12 years, the subtyping of the disorder will change, and pervasive developmental disorders will no longer be an exclusion criterion. Although the main concept is unchanged, the suggested changes...

  14. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Pedersen, Nadia; Ramstad, Erica

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies....

  15. Baroreflex sensitivity during rest and executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A.; Althaus, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Minderaa, R.B.; van den Hoofdakker, B.J.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show executive function (EF) problems and neurophysiological hypoarousal. Baroreceptor activation, as part of the baroreflex short-term blood pressure regulatory mechanism, has been linked to cortical inhibition and attenuated cogni

  16. Baroreflex sensitivity during rest and executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The TRAILS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A.; Althaus, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mindera, R.B.; Hoofdakker, B.J. van den; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show executive function (EF) problems and neurophysiological hypoarousal. Baroreceptor activation, as part of the baroreflex short-term blood pressure regulatory mechanism, has been linked to cortical inhibition and attenuated cogni

  17. Characteristics of children of younger school age with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Abshilava E.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers different approaches to the definition of the syndrome of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder: hyperkinetic syndrome, hyperkinetic disorders, minimal brain dysfunction. Examines the principal causes and the main symptoms of ADHD: clinical manifestations of attention deficit in children, prenatal pathology, complications, psycho–social reasons. A scheme of the integrated multi–level therapeutic and remedial assistance to children with ADHD: first level — metaboli...

  18. Color naming deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A retinal dopaminergic hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannock Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD have unexplained difficulties on tasks requiring speeded processing of colored stimuli. Color vision mechanisms, particularly short-wavelength (blue-yellow pathways, are highly sensitive to various diseases, toxins and drugs that alter dopaminergic neurotransmission. Thus, slow color processing might reflect subtle impairments in the perceptual encoding stage of stimulus color, which arise from hypodopaminergic functioning. Presentation of hypotheses 1 Color perception of blue-yellow (but not red-green stimuli is impaired in ADHD as a result of deficient retinal dopamine; 2 Impairments in the blue-yellow color mechanism in ADHD contribute to poor performance on speeded color naming tasks that include a substantial proportion of blue-yellow stimuli; and 3 Methylphenidate increases central dopamine and is also believed to increase retinal dopamine, thereby normalizing blue-yellow color perception, which in turn improves performance on the speeded color naming tasks. Testing the hypothesis Requires three approaches, including:1 direct assessment of color perception in individuals with ADHD to determine whether blue-yellow color perception is selectively impaired; 2 determination of relationship between performance on neuropsychological tasks requiring speeded color processing and color perception; and 3 randomized, controlled pharmacological intervention with stimulant medication to examine the effects of enhancing central dopamine on color perception and task performance Implications of hypothesis If substantiated, the findings of color perception problems would necessitate a re-consideration of current neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, guide psycho-education, academic instruction, and require consideration of stimulus color in many of the widely used neuropsychological tests.

  19. Zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in a group of Egyptian children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Magdy M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a behavioral syndrome of childhood characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. There were many etiological theories showed dysfunction of some brain areas that are implicated in inhibition of responses and functions of the brain. Minerals like zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper may play a role in the pathogenesis and therefore the treatment of this disorder. Objective This study aimed to measure levels of zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comparing them to normal. Methods This study included 58 children aged 5-15 years with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder attending Minia University Hospital from June 2008 to January 2010. They were classified into three sub-groups: sub-group I included 32 children with in-attentive type, sub-group II included 10 children with hyperactive type and sub-group III included 16 children with combined type according to the DSM-IV criteria of American Psychiatric Association, 2000. The control group included 25 apparently normal healthy children. Results Zinc, ferritin and magnesium levels were significantly lower in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder than controls (p value 0.04, 0.03 and 0.02 respectively, while copper levels were not significantly different (p value 0.9. Children with inattentive type had significant lower levels of zinc and ferritin than controls (p value 0.001 and 0.01 respectively with no significant difference between them as regards magnesium and copper levels (p value 0.4 and 0.6 respectively. Children with hyperactive type had significant lower levels of zinc, ferritin and magnesium than controls (p value 0.01, 0.02 and 0.02 respectively with no significant difference between them as regards copper levels (p value 0.9. Children with combined type had significant lower levels of zinc and magnesium than controls (p value 0

  20. Quality of life of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Anne F

    2005-02-01

    To review the results of studies of quality of life in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, three databases were searched and quality of life findings were reviewed. Comparisons were made with population norms for four studies that used the 50-item parent-reported Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50). Effect sizes were computed to estimate the clinical importance of differences in quality of life. In total, ten publications were identified representing 1382 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Five different quality of life measures were used and compared with norms for the CHQ-PF50. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had more problems in all psychosocial domains and family activities. Effect sizes for aspects of physical health domains were small in size. Pooled effect sizes for the CHQ-PF50 psychosocial domains and family activities were as follows: mental health = -0.55; self-esteem = -0.75; parental impact - time = -0.85; role emotional/behavioral = -1.22; behavior = -1.44; parental impact - emotions = -1.45 and family activities = -1.67. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have a poorer quality of life than children in the general population. Quality of life is an important outcome that is starting to receive attention in studies of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The use of tools such as the CHQ-PF50 shows how additional and useful information can be obtained that is relevant to a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their family.

  1. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  2. Investigation of children with attention and disruptive behavior disorder in Cangtai town, Henan provlnce%河南苍台镇儿童注意和破坏性行为障碍调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐改玲; 王长虹; 杨桂伏; 徐广明; 甄龙

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the current occurrence state of rural children with attention and disruptive behavior disorder (ADBD) in Cangtai town, Henan province. Method:l 550 children were assessed using screening scales and the subjects over the cut-off point were reviewed in terms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ,oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD)criteria of DSM-4 diagnostic and statistical manual of meutal disorders . ADBD and matched healthy children were compared in demographic and related factors. Results:The prevalence rate of ADBD, ADHD, ODD and CD was 10.71%,6.68% ,6.21% and 2.64% ,respectively. There were more boys than girls of the ADHD children ( x2 = 9.060,P =0. 003 ). ADHD children were inferior on academic performance to healthy children ( x2 = 10. 241 ,P = 0.006). Conclusion: Attention and disruptive behavior disorder remains significantly in rural areas, which should be paid attention to.%目的:探讨农村儿童注意和破坏性行为障碍(ADBD)的发生状况及特征.方法:用量表对1 550名儿童进行筛查,阳性者进行当面会谈,按美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版诊断出注意缺陷/多动障碍(ADHD)、对立违抗性障碍(ODD)及品行障碍(CD)儿童;同时随机抽查相匹配的正常儿童作为对照,比较一般人口学资料表.结果:ADBD、ADHD、ODD、CD患病率分别为10.71%、6.68%、6.21%、2.64%.ADHD儿童男性多于女性(X2=9.060,P=0.003).ADHD儿童学习成绩差于正常儿童(X2=10.241,P=0.006).结论:农村儿童破坏性行为障碍明显存在,应给予关注.

  3. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Chi-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Yen-Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and epilepsy in clinical settings. We assessed 64 children with ASD, 64 with ADHD, 64 with epilepsy, and 64 typically developing children without any neuropsychiatric disorders by using a sex-and age-matched…

  4. Neuropsychological Functioning in Childhood-Onset Psychosis and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Kimberly; Willcutt, Erik G.; Davalos, Deana B.; Ross, Randal G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset psychosis (COP) are chronic, heterogeneous disorders with symptoms that frequently co-occur, but the etiology of their comorbidity is unknown. Studies of each disorder indicate that both ADHD and COP are associated with a range of neuropsychological weaknesses, but few…

  5. An Evaluation of a Self-Management Intervention to Increase On-Task Behavior with Individuals Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Lindsey; Crosland, Kimberly; Iovannone, Rose

    2016-01-01

    "Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder" (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders in school-age children. Children with ADHD often have difficulty at school and at home. Medication is a common treatment for children with ADHD; however, it has been shown to be more effective when combined with behavioral interventions.…

  6. Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, McKenzie L.; Guo, Wei; Samuels, Jack F.; Wang, Ying; Nestadt, Paul S.; Krasnow, Janice; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Fyer, Abby J.; McCracken, James T.; Geller, Daniel A.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Knowles, James A.; Grados, Marco A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; McLaughlin, Nicole C.; Nurmi, Erika L.; Askland, Kathleen D.; Cullen, Bernadette; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L.; Bienvenu, Joseph; Stewart, Evelyn; Goes, Fernando S.; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Qian, Ji; Nestadt, Gerald; Shugart, Yin Yao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify any potential genetic overlap between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that since these disorders share a sub-phenotype, they may share common risk alleles. In this manuscript, we report the overlap found between these two disorders. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted between ADHD and OCD, and polygenic risk scores (PRS) were calculated for both disorders. In addition, a protein-protein analysis was completed in order to examine the interactions between proteins; p-values for the protein-protein interaction analysis was calculated using permutation. Conclusion: None of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reached genome wide significance and there was little evidence of genetic overlap between ADHD and OCD. PMID:28386217

  7. A Possible Coexistence between Restless Leg Syndrom and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tilma, Jørgen; Thomsen, Per Hove; Ostergaard, John R

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have consistently been found to coexist frequently. The cause for the relationship of these co-morbid disorders is contradicting, but both disorders are associated with a common dopaminergic dysfunction, low iron...

  8. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  9. Will working memory training generalize to improve off-task behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chloe T; Long, Debra L; Green, David; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Dixon, J Faye; Miller, Meghan R; Fassbender, Catherine; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2012-07-01

    Computerized working memory and executive function training programs designed to target specific impairments in executive functioning are becoming increasingly available, yet how well these programs generalize to improve functional deficits in disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), beyond the training context is not well-established. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which working memory (WM) training in children with ADHD would diminish a core dysfunctional behavior associated with the disorder, "off-task" behavior during academic task performance. The effect of computerized WM training (adaptive) was compared to a placebo condition (nonadaptive) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design in 26 children (18 males; age, 7 to 14 years old) diagnosed with ADHD. Participants completed the training in approximately 25 sessions. The Restricted Academic Situations Task (RAST) observational system was used to assess aspects of off-task behavior during the completion of an academic task. Traditional measures of ADHD symptoms (Conners' Parent Rating Scale) and WM ability (standardized WM tests) were also collected. WM training led to significant reductions in off-task ADHD-associated behavior on the RAST system and improvement on WM tests. There were no significant differences between groups in improvement on parent rating scales. Findings lend insight into the generalizability of the effects of WM training and the relation between deficits in WM and off-task behavioral components of ADHD. These preliminary data suggest WM training may provide a mechanism for indirectly altering academic performance in children with ADHD.

  10. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786

  11. Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakou, A; Murphy, C M; Chantiluke, K; Cubillo, A I; Smith, A B; Giampietro, V; Daly, E; Ecker, C; Robertson, D; Murphy, D G; Rubia, K

    2013-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often comorbid and share behavioural-cognitive abnormalities in sustained attention. A key question is whether this shared cognitive phenotype is based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies. To elucidate this question, we compared 20 boys with ADHD to 20 age and IQ matched ASD and 20 healthy boys using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a parametrically modulated vigilance task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention. ADHD and ASD boys had significantly reduced activation relative to controls in bilateral striato-thalamic regions, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal cortex. Both groups also displayed significantly increased precuneus activation relative to controls. Precuneus was negatively correlated with the DLPFC activation, and progressively more deactivated with increasing attention load in controls, but not patients, suggesting problems with deactivation of a task-related default mode network in both disorders. However, left DLPFC underactivation was significantly more pronounced in ADHD relative to ASD boys, which furthermore was associated with sustained performance measures that were only impaired in ADHD patients. ASD boys, on the other hand, had disorder-specific enhanced cerebellar activation relative to both ADHD and control boys, presumably reflecting compensation. The findings show that ADHD and ASD boys have both shared and disorder-specific abnormalities in brain function during sustained attention. Shared deficits were in fronto-striato-parietal activation and default mode suppression. Differences were a more severe DLPFC dysfunction in ADHD and a disorder-specific fronto-striato-cerebellar dysregulation in ASD.

  12. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  13. Neural correlates of visuospatial working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, Hanneke; Weeda, Wouter D.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Luman, Marjolein; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Impaired visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is suggested to be a core neurocognitive deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the underlying neural activation patterns are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent age and gender effects may play a role in VS

  14. Tourette syndrome associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The impact of tics and psychopharmacological treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwabusi, Olumide O; Parke, Susan; Ambrosini, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Several studies describe the association between TS and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty percent of children diagnosed with ADHD have comorbid tic disorder. ADHD related symptoms have been reported in 35% to 90% of children with TS. Since ADHD is the most prevalent comorbid condition with TS and those with concomitant TS and ADHD present with considerable psychosocial and behavioral impairments, it is essential for clinicians to be familiar with these diagnoses and their management. This paper highlights the association between treating ADHD with stimulants and the development of tic disorders. The two cases discussed underscore the fact that children with TS may present with ADHD symptomatology prior to the appearance of any TS related symptoms. Appropriate management of TS in a patient diagnosed with ADHD can lead to quality of life improvements and a reduction in psychosocial impairments.

  15. [Neurobiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Lepagnol-Bestel, Aude-Marie; Grosbellet, Edith; Gorwood, Philip; Simonneau, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent and disabling condition in school children, with cognitive and behavioral symptoms persisting into adulthood in a majority of patients. Etiology of ADHD is considered multifactorial and heterogenous, with an important contribution of genetic factors. Apart from genetic risk factors, emphasis has been put on the early environment, and prenatal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with subsequent ADHD symptoms. This article reviews recent findings in neurobiology, genetics and neuroimaging of ADHD. Despite their clinical heterogeneity and frequent comorbidities, key symptoms of ADHD, such as impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention are regularly improved by dopaminergic agonists, leading to consider dopaminergic dysfunction a possibly contributing factor in ADHD. Norepinephrine agonists also have clinical efficacy on ADHD symptoms and several other neurotransmission systems are likely involved in the etiology of ADHD. Dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems have been related to impairments of sustained attention, inhibitory control and working memory. Cognitive tasks focusing on reaction time and verbal working memory fit certain criteria for ADHD endophenotypes, offering a pathway to bridge the gap between observed traits and genetic vulnerability. Despite ADHD being a highly heritable disorder, most candidate genes with replicated findings across association studies only account for a small proportion of genetic variance. Neuroimaging studies using treatment effect or cognitive tasks show differential activation patterns in ADHD patients, with trends towards normalization under treatment. Further insight into neurobiological mechanisms involved in ADHD will arise from collaborative networks and combination of imaging, genetic and neurobiological techniques with consideration of the developmental aspects of ADHD.

  16. Identification of neuromotor deficits common to autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and imitation deficits specific to autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaldi, Monica; Rauh, Reinhold; Müller, Cora; Irion, Lisa; Saville, Christopher W N; Schulz, Eberhard; Klein, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in motor and imitation abilities are a core finding in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but impaired motor functions are also found in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given recent theorising about potential aetiological overlap between the two disorders, the present study aimed to assess difficulties in motor performance and imitation of facial movements and meaningless gestures in a sample of 24 ADHD patients, 22 patients with ASD, and 20 typically developing children, matched for age (6-13 years) and similar in IQ (>80). Furthermore, we explored the impact of comorbid ADHD symptoms on motor and imitation performance in the ASD sample and the interrelationships between the two groups of variables in the clinical groups separately. The results show motor dysfunction was common to both disorders, but imitation deficits were specific to ASD. Together with the pattern of interrelated motor and imitation abilities, which we found exclusively in the ASD group, our findings suggest complex phenotypic, and possibly aetiological, relationships between the two neurodevelopmental conditions.

  17. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  18. The Relationship between Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Adulthood Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mashhadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a risk factor for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD during adulthood. Studying the relationship between childhood ADHD disorder symptoms and depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms among students was the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 291 students, who were studying in Shiraz and Tabriz universities inThe academic year of 2010-2011, were selected from three groups of Humanities, Basic Sciences, and Technical-Engineering Sciences using simple sampling method. They participated in the study through completing Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS, Borderline Personality Scale (STB and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. Pearsons correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between childhood ADHD and borderline Personality Disorder (BPD in adulthood and childhood ADHD is able to predict BPD in adulthood (p<0.01. Similarly, the relationship between symptoms of childhood ADHD and depression was positive and significant (p<0.01. Conclusion: There is a relationship between symptoms of childhood ADHD, BPD and depression in students. It is recommended to pay due attention to the comorbidity disorders such as BPD and depression in the treatment of ADHD disorder.

  19. Impulsive choice behavior in four strains of rats: evaluation of possible models of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have examined impulsive choice behavior in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) as a possible pre-clinical model for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, this strain was not specifically selected for the traits of ADHD and as a result their appropriateness as a model has been questioned. The present study investigated whether SHRs would exhibit impulsive behavior in comparison to their control strain, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. In addition, we evaluated a strain that has previously shown high levels of impulsive choice, the Lewis (LEW) rats and compared them with their source strain, Wistar (WIS) rats. In the first phase, rats could choose between a smaller-sooner (SS) reward of 1 pellet after 10 s and a larger-later (LL) reward of 2 pellets after 30 s. Subsequently, the rats were exposed to increases in LL reward magnitude and SS delay. These manipulations were designed to assess sensitivity to magnitude and delay within the choice task to parse out possible differences in using the strains as models of specific deficits associated with ADHD. The SHR and WKY strains did not differ in their choice behavior under either delay or magnitude manipulations. In comparison to WIS, LEW showed deficits in choice behavior in the delay manipulation, and to a lesser extent in the magnitude manipulation. An examination of individual differences indicated that the SHR strain may not be sufficiently homogeneous in their impulsive choice behavior to be considered as a viable model for impulse control disorders such as ADHD. The LEW strain may be worthy of further consideration for their suitability as an animal model.

  20. Fluoxetine Monotherapy in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Non-Bipolar Mood Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Humberto; Butterbaugh, Grant J.; Purnell, William; Layman, Ann K.

    2007-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for developing comorbid non-bipolar mood disorders. Fluoxetine monotherapy is an established treatment for pediatric mood disorders; however its efficacy in ADHD and comorbid mood disorder is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated 30 children who met DSM-IV criteria for…

  1. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of AD

  2. Evaluating reading and metacognitive deficits in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Jesús Ma; Puente, Aníbal; Jiménez, Virginia; Arrebillaga, Lorena

    2011-05-01

    The reading achievement of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has scarcely been explored in research conducted in the Spanish language and when it has, the results have been contradictory. The focus of the present research is to analyze participants' reading competency and metacognitive strategies as they carry out reading comprehension tasks. The sample was comprised of 187 Argentine schoolchildren aged 9 to 13 years old. 94 constituted the control group and the clinical group consisted of 93 schoolchildren diagnosed with ADHD. The metacognitive assessment was made up of two metacognitive tests, the Reading Awareness Scale (ESCOLA; acronym in Spanish) and a Spanish adaptation of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), and one test of reading comprehension, the Evaluation of Reading Processes for Secondary Education Students (PROLEC-SE; acronym in Spanish). Students with ADHD had lower achievement on tests o reading comprehension compared to the control group. Nevertheless, our results suggest their difficulties did not stem from readin comprehension problems, but rather from alterations in their Executive Functions, because when subjects' reading comprehensio was equalized, students with ADHD still exhibited a lower level of Metacognition, particularly when it came to planning.

  3. Study of Attention Deficit in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Kafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Attention deficit has significant effect on the life of patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the attention deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: In the present post-hoc study, 132 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected via non-randomized sampling at Shafa Hospital (Rasht, Iran and then divided into four equal groups: chronic schizophrenia patients, first-episode patients, chronic bipolar patients, and first-episode bipolar patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals were selected as the control group. Subjects were evaluated by Stroop color-word test. The gathered Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Attention deficit among chronic schizophrenics and patients suffering from bipolar disease was higher than the control group (p <1. Chronic schizophrenic patients compared with schizophrenia bipolar disease and first round schizophrenia showed more attention deficit. There was no significant difference among the first bipolar disease and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as the first round schizophrenia (p<0.05. Conclusion: Attention deficit is more severe in schizophrenic patients than bipolar disorder, and chronicity is more effective in schizophrenic patients. Key words: Attention, Schizophrenia, Chronicity

  4. Parenting Practices and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: New Findings Suggest Partial Specificity of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Brandi; Nigg, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The relation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and parenting practices is examined by assessing 182 children for ADHD and non ADHD status through parent semistructured clinical interview. Results show that maternal inconsistent discipline and paternal low involvement is associated with the disorder.

  5. Persistence of Sleep Problems in Children with Anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Skirbekk, Benedicte; Oerbeck, Beate; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Kristensen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the persistence of sleep problems over 18 months in 76 referred children with anxiety disorders and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and 31 nonreferred controls, and explores predictors of sleep problems at follow-up (T2) in the referred children. Diagnoses were assessed at initial assessment (T1) using the…

  6. Atypical outcome in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Freidson, S

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the course of psychiatric illness in two boys. Both presented with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in midchildhood; after puberty, one boy developed a schizophrenic illness while the other boy developed a major affective illness. Although the major ADHD outcome studies have found no link between the childhood occurrence of ADHD and psychosis in adulthood, occasionally such a link may exist. The theoretical and practical implications of this finding are discussed. It should be noted, however, that such outcome is highly atypical and very rare.

  7. NEUROMYOPATHIES IN THE CORRECTION OF ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER AND HYPERACTIVITY IN SCHOOLCHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Jafarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed correction procedure in educational technology for children suffering from attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. The analysis of the correlation of the results of psychological testing of the properties of attention and the dynamics of EEG with the efficiency of the educational process.

  8. Does Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predict Risk-Taking and Medical Illnesses in Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Olazagasti, Maria A.; Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Belsky, Erica Roizen; Hutchison, Jesse A.; Lashua-Shriftman, Erin C.; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test whether children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), free of conduct disorder (CD) in childhood (mean = 8 years), have elevated risk-taking, accidents, and medical illnesses in adulthood (mean = 41 years); whether development of CD influences risk-taking during adulthood; and whether exposure to…

  9. Examining the Comorbidity of Language Impairment and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Language impairment (LI) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are 2 relatively common developmental disorders that have been shown to have high rates of co-occurrence in a number of studies, and this phenomenon is also commonplace in the experience of many clinicians. Understanding this comorbidity, therefore, is central to building…

  10. Economic Impact of Childhood and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Jalpa A.; Hodgkins, Paul; Kahle, Jennifer; Sikirica, Vanja; Cangelosi, Michael J.; Setyawan, Juliana; Erder, M. Haim; Neumann, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in children in the United States and often persists into adulthood with associated symptomatology and impairments. This article comprehensively reviews studies reporting ADHD-related incremental (excess) costs for children/adolescents and…

  11. Executive Functions and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications of Two Conflicting Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    While increasing numbers of articles and books refer to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a disorder of "executive function" of the mind, two conflicting views have emerged about how ADHD and executive function are related. In one view it is argued that some, but not all, who meet the fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and…

  12. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  13. Comorbidity and confounding factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang YS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Wen Jan1,2, Chien-Ming Yang1,3, Yu-Shu Huang4,51Department of Psychology, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei; 2Sleep Center of Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei; 3The Research Center for Mind Brain and Learning, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei; 4Department of Child Psychiatry and Sleep Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan; 5College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, TaiwanAbstract: Sleep problems are commonly reported in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms. Research data regarding the complex and reciprocal relationship between ADHD and sleep disturbances has now accumulated. This paper is focused on the types of sleep problems that are associated with ADHD symptomatology, and attempts to untangle confounding factors and overlapping symptoms. The goal is also to present an updated overview of the pathophysiology of and treatment strategies for sleep problems in children with ADHD. The review also points out that future research will be needed to clarify further the other psychiatric comorbidities and side effects of medication in order to improve treatment outcomes and prevent misdiagnosis in clinical practice.Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, sleep, children 

  14. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Neurobiology, Diagnostic Problems and Clinical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Tuglu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic, lifelong neurobeha-vioral disorder with childhood-onset, which seriously impairs the affected adults in a variety of daily living functions like academic, social and occupational functioning. Prevalence of ADHD declines with age in the general population. The approximate prevalence rates of ADHD is 8% in childhood, 6% in adolescence and 4% in adulthood. The unclear validity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for this condition can lead to reduced prevalence rates by underestimation of the prevalence of adult ADHD. The disorder is characterized by behavioral symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity across the life cycle and is associated with considerable morbidity and disability. Although its etiology remains unclear, considerable evidence documents its strong neurobiological and genetic underpinnings. ADHD is associated with a high percentage of comorbid psychiatric disorders in every lifespan. In adulthood between 65-89% of all patients with ADHD suffer from one or more additional psychiatric disorders, above all mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders and personality disorders, which complicate the clinical picture in terms of diagnostics, treatment and outcome issues. The high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, the resulting deficits in social competences and risky health behavior that often go along with a diminished life quality must be stressed in these patients. Preventive and therapeutic interventions should be taken at an early stage to counteract the possible negative influences of ADHD on functioning and relationships. In this paper, we reviewed the historical aspects, epidemiology, neurobiology, comorbidity, diagnostic difficulties and clinical features of adult ADHD.

  15. Gene x Environment Interactions in Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.; McGrath, Lauren M.; Rosenberg, Jenni; Barnard, Holly; Smith, Shelley D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Friend, Angela; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines Gene x Environment (G x E) interactions in two comorbid developmental disorders--reading disability (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--as a window on broader issues on G x E interactions in developmental psychology. The authors first briefly review types of G x E interactions, methods for detecting…

  16. In vivo occupancy of dopamine D3 receptors by antagonists produces neurochemical and behavioral effects of potential relevance to attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, V; Need, A B; Tzavara, E T; Giros, B; Overshiner, C; Gleason, S D; Wade, M; Johansson, A M; Perry, K; Nomikos, G G; Witkin, J M

    2013-02-01

    Dopamine D(3) receptors have eluded definitive linkage to neurologic and psychiatric disorders since their cloning over 20 years ago. We report a new method that does not employ a radiolabel for simultaneously defining in vivo receptor occupancy of D(3) and D(2) receptors in rat brain after systemic dosing using the tracer epidepride (N-[[(2S)-1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl]methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide). Decreases in epidepride binding in lobule 9 of cerebellum (rich in D(3) receptors) were compared with nonspecific binding in the lateral cerebellum. The in vivo occupancy of the dopamine D(3) receptors was dose dependently increased by SB-277011A (trans-N-[4-[2-(6-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl]cyclohexyl]-4-quinolinecarboxamide) and U99194 (2,3-dihydro-5,6-dimethoxy- N,N-dipropyl-1H-inden-2-amine). Both antagonists increased extracellular levels of acetylcholine (ACh) in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats and modified brain-tissue levels of ACh and choline. Consistent with these findings, the D(3) receptor antagonists enhanced the acquisition of learning of rats either alone or in the presence of the norepinephrine uptake blocker reboxetine as with the attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug methylphenidate. Like reboxetine, the D(3) receptor antagonists also prevented deficits induced by scopolamine in object recognition memory of rats. Mice in which the dopamine transporter (DAT) has been deleted exhibit hyperactivity that is normalized by compounds that are effective in the treatment of ADHD. Both D(3) receptor antagonists decreased the hyperactivity of DAT(-/-) mice without affecting the activity of wild type controls. The present findings indicate that dopamine D(3) receptor antagonists engender cognition-enhancing and hyperactivity-dampening effects. Thus, D(3) receptor blockade could be considered as a novel treatment approach for cognitive deficits and hyperactivity syndromes, including those observed in ADHD.

  17. Inattention symptoms and the diagnosis of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among youth with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, R Meredith; Carpenter, Aubrey L; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-12-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occur in childhood. Inattention symptoms can be hallmarks of both conditions, however assessment tools of inattention may not effectively distinguish between the two conditions. The present study used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses to examine the high-end specificity of the Attention Problems Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for detecting comorbid ADHD among youth with GAD (N=46). Results support the utility of the Attention Problems Scale for accurately distinguishing between the two groups (AUC=.84, SE=.06). Specifically, a cut score of 63 achieved the most favorable values across diagnostic utility indices; 74% of GAD youth with ADHD scored above this cutoff and 91% of GAD youth without ADHD scored below this cutoff. Findings provide support for the use of the CBCL Attention Problems Scale to supplement diagnostic interviews and identify inattention associated with ADHD among GAD youth.

  18. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of undetec

  19. Growth and change in attention problems, disruptive behavior, and achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread interest in children's adjustment problems, existing research does not provide conclusive evidence regarding the direction of the associations of achievement with classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior over the course of elementary school. Using a nationally representative sample of 16,260 kindergarteners, this study examined the temporal sequence of achievement, classroom attention problems, and disruptive behavior, focusing on how changes in skills and problems unfold across key periods between kindergarten and fifth grade. Results indicate that improvements in attention during the earliest years of schooling predict achievement gains through third grade. However, changes in disruptive behavior do not predict subsequent changes in achievement. Evidence linking changes in achievement to changes in classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior was less consistent. These findings point to the need to develop and examine early interventions that can improve attention skills as a mechanism for improving children's academic trajectories in elementary school.

  20. Psychiatric comorbidity distribution and diversities in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüce M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Murat Yüce,1 Süleyman Salih Zoroglu,2 Mehmet Fatih Ceylan,3 Hasan Kandemir,4 Koray Karabekiroglu5 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical Faculty of Istanbul, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Dr Sami Ulus Children's Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 4Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey; 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey Objective: We aimed to determine distribution and diversities of psychiatric comorbidities in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in terms of age groups, sex, and ADHD subtype. Materials and methods: The sample included 6–18 year old children and adolescents from Turkey (N=108; 83 boys, 25 girls diagnosed with ADHD. All comorbid diagnoses were determined based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version assessment. Results: 96.3% of the cases were found to have at least one psychiatric comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent psychiatric comorbid disorder was oppositional defiant disorder (69.4% followed by anxiety disorders (49% and elimination disorders (27.8%. Disruptive behavior disorders were more common in ADHD-combined type. Depression and anxiety disorders were more common in girls. Separation anxiety disorder and elimination disorder were more common in children, whereas depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and social phobia were more common in the adolescents. Conclusion: According to our results, when a diagnostic tool was used to assess the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, almost all cases had at least one

  1. Stigmatization in teachers towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Müller, Kathi; Koerts, Janneke; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is understood as a developmental disorder which shares common characteristics between childhood, adolescence and adulthood. However, ADHD is widely associated with misconceptions and misbeliefs which can lead to stigmatization. Teachers hav

  2. Facial Mimicry in 6-7 Year Old Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder and ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, Peter; Munsters, Nicolette; Kenemans, Leon; Schutter, Dennis; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age.

  3. What causes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam; Jefferies, Rachel; Stergiakouli, Evangelia

    2012-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects around 1-3% of children. There is a high level of comorbidity with developmental and learning problems as well as with a variety of psychiatric disorders. ADHD is highly heritable, although there is no single causal risk factor and non-inherited factors also contribute to its aetiology. The genetic and environmental risk factors that have been implicated appear to be associated with a range of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric outcomes, not just ADHD. The evidence to date suggests that both rare and multiple common genetic variants likely contribute to ADHD and modify its phenotype. ADHD or a similar phenotype also appears to be more common in extreme low birth weight and premature children and those exposed to exceptional early adversity. In this review, the authors consider recent developments in the understanding of risk factors that influence ADHD.

  4. Creativity and Working Memory in Gifted Students with and without Characteristics of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: Lifting the Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, C. Matthew; Zentall, Sydney S.; Gentry, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    There have been some behavioral indicators and some types of task performance that suggest greater creativity in students with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). This evidence would appear counterintuitive given that lower working memory (i.e., holding information in mind for novel recombinations) has often been documented in students…

  5. Inattentiveness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ariane Sroubek; Mary Kelly; Xiaobo Li

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a long-term impact on functioning,productivity and quality of life of patients.This impact is largely due to the symptoms of inattentiveness.However,despite its impairing role in the lives of ADHD patients,inattentiveness has been studied relatively less frequently than have symptoms of impulsivity/hyperactivity and problems with executive function.This review therefore seeks to integrate the neuropsychological theories and current findings in the research fields of neuropsychology,neurophysiology,and neuroimaging,in an attempt to gain a more complete understanding of the role that inattentiveness plays in ADHD,as well as to suggest directions for future studies.The need for a more comprehensive understanding of inattentiveness and ADHD,which integrates findings from each of the three disciplines mentioned above,is emphasized.

  6. A controlled study of Tourette syndrome. I. Attention-deficit disorder, learning disorders, and school problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comings, D E; Comings, B G

    1987-11-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common, hereditary, neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. To determine the frequency of various behavioral manifestations, we have compared 47 random normal controls to 246 patients with TS, 17 with attention-deficit disorder (ADD), and 15 with ADD secondary to a TS gene (ADD 2(0) TS). All subjects were examined prospectively with a 425-item questionnaire based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III). The TS patients were divided into grade 1 (too mild to treat [17.5%]), grade 2 (requiring treatment [58.9%]), and grade 3 (severe [23.6%]). Patients in all three grades of TS were significantly different from controls for DSM III symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Sixty-two percent of TS patients had ADD, compared with 6.3% of controls; and 48.8% had ADD with hyperactivity (ADDH), compared with 4.2% of controls. In the majority of TS patients, the natural history of the disease was to start with ADDH and 2.4 years later develop motor and vocal tics. Among TS patients, 39% had previously received medication for ADDH or behavior problems, compared with 2% of the controls. Although stimulants can occasionally exacerbate tics, there was no evidence that stimulants cause TS and they are often a valuable adjunct to the treatment of TS. It is estimated that 10%-30% of ADDH is due to or associated with the presence of a TS gene. TS patients had a significantly increased frequency of (1) attending classes for the educationally handicapped, (2) placement in classes for the severely emotionally disturbed, (3) attending any special classes, (4) severe test anxiety, (5) stuttering, (6) letter, number, or word reversal, (7) reading very slowly, and (8) poor retention of material read. A reading-problem score (dyslexia) greater than or equal to 3 was present in 26.8% of TS patients, compared with 4.2% of controls. Number reversal, word reversal, and poor retention

  7. Behavioral Parent Training as an Adjunct to Routine Care in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : Moderators of Treatment Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J.; Nauta, Maaike H.; van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Sytema, Sjoerd; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate predictors and moderators of outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT) as adjunct to ongoing routine clinical care (RCC), versus RCC alone. Methods We randomly assigned 94 referred children (4-12 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to BPT plus RCC o

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and severity of substance use: the role of comorbid psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Michelle; Darke, Shane; Kaye, Sharlene

    2012-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly comorbid disorder, and, as such, there is much confusion surrounding the exact role it plays in increasing susceptibility to harmful behaviors. To date, no studies have examined the impact of adult ADHD on severity of substance use, while controlling for comorbid psychiatric disorders. Using a structured cross-sectional survey of 269 regular polysubstance users in Sydney, Australia, this study aimed to determine whether ADHD was a risk factor for more severity of substance use, and whether this effect remained when Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) diagnoses were controlled for. Rates of psychiatric disorders were high, with 45% meeting criteria for ADHD, 47% for BPD, and 64% for CD. While bivariate analyses showed that adult ADHD was significantly associated with all indicators of drug use severity, this effect did not remain once confounding factors were controlled. While ADHD accounted for very few differences in drug use severity, CD was found to independently predict all drug use severity indicators, including earlier onset, greater polydrug use, more frequent stimulant use, and greater risk for stimulant dependence. These results suggest that CD, rather than ADHD, is the strongest predictor of differences in patterns of drug use severity. The extensive comorbidity among this sample highlights the great potential for misattributing drug use risks to ADHD, and that it is important to account for psychiatric comorbidity to properly discern what underlying variables account for differences in harmful drug use behaviors.

  9. Atomoxetine induced hypomania in a patient with bipolar disorder and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BD with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is frequent. The management of comorbid ADHD and BD is complicated by the risk of induction of (hypo mania by the medications used for ADHD treatment. Earlier reports in children and adolescents with ADHD-BD suggest that the possibility of (hypo mania induction is low when atomoxetine is used along mood stabilizers or antipsychotics. Here, we report induction of hypomania by atomoxetine when used for the treatment of comorbid ADHD in a BD patient while on prophylactic treatment with mood stabilizers. This report indicates that atomoxetine carries the risk of induction of (hypo mania even in stabilized BD patients. Clinicians should closely monitor such patients for (hypo mania symptoms.

  10. Atomoxetine Induced Hypomania in a Patient with Bipolar Disorder and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijaya; Varambally, Shivarama

    2017-01-01

    Comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BD) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequent. The management of comorbid ADHD and BD is complicated by the risk of induction of (hypo) mania by the medications used for ADHD treatment. Earlier reports in children and adolescents with ADHD-BD suggest that the possibility of (hypo) mania induction is low when atomoxetine is used along mood stabilizers or antipsychotics. Here, we report induction of hypomania by atomoxetine when used for the treatment of comorbid ADHD in a BD patient while on prophylactic treatment with mood stabilizers. This report indicates that atomoxetine carries the risk of induction of (hypo) mania even in stabilized BD patients. Clinicians should closely monitor such patients for (hypo) mania symptoms.

  11. Depression and Anxiety as Possible Mediators of the Association between Smoking and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Gilat L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Hossain, Shahadut; Johnson, Joy L.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between depression and anxiety and adolescents' smoking status, and to determine whether depression or anxiety mediate the association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and smoking. A cross-sectional survey of tobacco use was conducted in regional school districts…

  12. Learning and Memory Impairments in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Per N.; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2013-01-01

    There are relatively few studies on learning and delayed memory with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of the present study was to examine acquisition, free delayed memory, and recognition skills in medication naive children and adolescents aged 8-16 years with ADHD combined subtype (36 participants) and inattentive…

  13. Incremental Validity of Test Session and Classroom Observations in a Multimethod Assessment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Harder, Valerie S.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Gordon, Michael; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Dumenci, Levent

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the incremental validity of behavioral observations, over and above parent and teacher reports, for assessing symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children ages 6 to 12, using the Test Observation Form (TOF) and Direct Observation Form (DOF) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment. The…

  14. Fever and infections in pregnancy and risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Julie Werenberg; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hvolby, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fever and infections are common events during pregnancy, and have been shown to be associated with neurodevelopmental impairment in the offspring. The evidence in relation to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is, however, nonexistent for fever and limited for infections...

  15. Epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : Is methylphenidate safe and effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GrossTsur, [No Value; vanderMeere, J; Joseph, A; Shalev, RS

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To study the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate in children with the dual diagnosis of epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study design: Thirty children, aged 6.4 to 16.4 years, with epilepsy and ADHD were studied during a 4-month period. During the initial 2

  16. Epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : Is methylphenidate safe and effective? (vol 130, pg 40, 1997)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GrossTsur, [No Value; Manor, O; VanderMeere, J; Joseph, A; Shalev, RS

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To study the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate in children with the dual diagnosis of epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study design: Thirty children, aged 6.4 to 16.4 years, with epilepsy and ADHD were studied during a 4-month period. During the initial 2

  17. Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of medications alone. Treatment should include structured classroom management, parent education (to address discipline and limit-setting), ... use of medications alone. Treatment should include structured classroom management, parent education (to address discipline and limit-setting), ...

  18. [The effect of parent training program on children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders and/or pervasive developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Kazunori; Matsuzaka, Tetsuo; Nagaoka, Tamao; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro

    2012-07-01

    Mothers of 18 children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD) and 6 with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) underwent a parent training (PT) program. After the program, the Beck Depression Inventory- II (BDI - II) score, which indicates parenting stress, significantly decreased from 15 to 8 (p=0.036). A total of 22 mothers had increased parenting self-esteem, and better parent-child relationships were noted in these cases. An analysis of children's behavior by using Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist showed that introversion tendency, physical failure, aggressive behavior, and extroversion score improved significantly after PT (pchildren and continued in 5. We conclude that PT for mothers of children with AD/HD and/or high-functioning PDD is effective in improving both the parenting skills of mothers and adaptive behaviors of children.

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorder, and Allergy: Is There a Link? A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder usually co-occur in the same individuals, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Previous evidence has shown that a frequent coexistence of allergic diseases was noted in patients with ADHD or tic disorder. We attempted to investigate the possible link among ADHD,…

  20. Face Scanning in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Human Versus Dog Face Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszkat, Mauro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; Muñoz, Patricia de Oliveira Lima; Lucci, Tania Kiehl; David, Vinicius Frayze; Siqueira, José de Oliveira; Otta, Emma

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to explore attention allocation to human and dog faces in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD). Significant differences were found among the three groups. TD participants looked longer at the eyes than ASD and ADHD ones, irrespective of the faces presented. In spite of this difference, groups were similar in that they looked more to the eyes than to the mouth areas of interest. The ADHD group gazed longer at the mouth region than the other groups. Furthermore, groups were also similar in that they looked more to the dog than to the human faces. The eye-tracking technology proved to be useful for behavioral investigation in different neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26557097

  1. Face Scanning in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Human Versus Dog Face Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszkat, Mauro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; Muñoz, Patricia de Oliveira Lima; Lucci, Tania Kiehl; David, Vinicius Frayze; Siqueira, José de Oliveira; Otta, Emma

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to explore attention allocation to human and dog faces in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD). Significant differences were found among the three groups. TD participants looked longer at the eyes than ASD and ADHD ones, irrespective of the faces presented. In spite of this difference, groups were similar in that they looked more to the eyes than to the mouth areas of interest. The ADHD group gazed longer at the mouth region than the other groups. Furthermore, groups were also similar in that they looked more to the dog than to the human faces. The eye-tracking technology proved to be useful for behavioral investigation in different neurodevelopmental disorders.

  2. Face scanning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD: human versus dog face scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro eMuszkat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study used eye-tracking to explore attention allocation to human and dog faces in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and typical development (TD. Significant differences were found among the three groups. TD participants looked longer at the eyes than ASD and ADHD ones, irrespective of the faces presented. In spite of this difference, groups were similar in that they looked more to the eyes than to the mouth areas of interest. The ADHD group gazed longer at the mouth region than the other groups. Furthermore, groups were also similar in that they looked more to the dog than to the human faces. The eye tracking technology proved to be useful for behavioral investigation in different neurodevelopmental disorders.

  3. Psychotherapy in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: implications for treatment and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Alexandra

    2012-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for co-occurring psychiatric disorders and negative psychosocial consequences in adulthood. Previous trials of psychotherapeutic programs for adult ADHD were based on cognitive behavioral psychotherapeutic approaches and showed significant effects. Targets of psychotherapeutic interventions include not only coping with the core symptoms and associated problems such as depression and anxiety, but also probable consequences such as low self-esteem. Improvements in ADHD symptomatology and associated symptoms have been reported after psychotherapeutic treatment. The support of other participants is strongly regarded as helpful by patients in group therapy. This manuscript provides an overview of psychotherapy approaches and results of studies evaluating programs developed to treat adults with ADHD. Finally, the specific requirements of psychotherapy for adult ADHD as well as further research questions will be discussed.

  4. Development of Planning in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and/or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrainer, Josef M; Rauh, Reinhold; Rahm, Benjamin; Hardt, Jochen; Kaller, Christoph P; Klein, Christoph; Paschke-Müller, Mirjam; Biscaldi, Monica

    2016-07-01

    Planning impairment is often observed in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but attempts to differentiate planning in ASD from children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing children (TD) have yielded inconsistent results. This study examined differences between these groups by focusing on development and analyzing performance in searching ahead several steps ("search depth") in addition to commonly used global performance measures in planning. A cross-sectional consecutive sample of 83 male patients (6-13 years), subgrouped as ASD without (ASD-, n = 18) or with comorbid ADHD (ASD+, n = 23), ADHD only (n = 42) and n = 42 TD children (6-13 years) were tested with the Tower-of-London-task. For global performance, ASD+ showed the lowest accuracy in younger children, but similar performance as TD at older ages, suggesting delayed development. Typically, a prolongation of planning time with increasing problem difficulty is observed in older children as compared to younger children. Here, this was most pronounced in ASD-, but under-expressed in ADHD. In contrast to global performance, effects of search depth were independent of age. ASD-, but not ASD+, showed increased susceptibility to raised demands on mentally searching ahead, along with the longest planning times. Thus, examining both global and search depth performance across ages revealed discernible patterns of planning between groups. Notably, the potentially detrimental impact of two diagnosed disorders does not add up in ASD+ in this task. Rather, our results suggest paradoxical enhancement of performance, ostensibly attributable to disruption of behavioral rigidity through increased impulsivity, which did not take place in ASD-. Autism Res 2016, 9: 739-751. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Motor preparation, motor execution, attention, and executive functions in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkeit, Ester I; Mattingley, Jason B; Sheppard, Dianne M; Lee, Paul; Bradshaw, John L

    2005-04-01

    Attention and executive functions were investigated in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD combined type using a novel selective reaching task. This task involved responding as rapidly as possible to a target while at times having to ignore a distractor. Results indicated that unmedicated children with ADHD showed slow and inaccurate responding. Slow responding reflected problems at the stage of movement preparation but not movement execution. An attentional impairment, rather than a motor planning problem per se, appeared to underlie the slow movement preparation. Inaccurate responding reflected problems with response inhibition and selective attention, impulsivity, set-shifting, and difficulties in maintaining vigilance. Although medicated children with ADHD did not show slow movement preparation, they did show some response inaccuracy, resulting especially from impulsive responding. These findings suggest that ADHD is characterized by slow motor preparation (but not motor execution), and deficits in selective attention, vigilance, and executive functions. Preliminary results suggest that stimulant medication may resolve some of these motor, attentional and executive function deficits.

  6. Stroop interference and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a review and meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansbergen, M.M.; Kenemans, J.L.; Engeland, H. van

    2007-01-01

    Previous reviews and meta-analyses that addressed abnormal Stroop interference in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) yielded mixed results. The authors of the present study argue that the inconsistencies may reflect the problematic nature of 2 frequently used methods to quantify Stroop

  7. Biomarkers and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scassellati, Catia; Bonvicini, Cristian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gennarelli, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether peripheral biochemical markers (biomarkers) might differentiate patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from non-ADHD individuals. Method: We conducted a systematic search and a series of meta-analyses of case-control studies comprising studies from 1969 to 2011. Results: We identified 210…

  8. The Relationship Between Problem Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluk, O R; Youssef, G J; Dowling, N A

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that treatment-seeking problem gamblers display elevated rates of ADHD and that adolescents who screen positive for ADHD are more likely to engage in gambling, develop gambling problems, and experience a greater severity in gambling problems. This study aimed to (a) compare the prevalence of ADHD in treatment-seeking problem gamblers to the general population; (b) investigate the relationships between ADHD and problem gambling severity, cluster B personality disorders, motor impulsivity, alcohol use, substance use, gender, and age; and (c) investigate the degree to which these factors moderate the relationship between ADHD and problem gambling severity. Participants included 214 adults (154 males, 58 females, 2 unspecified) who sought treatment for their gambling problems at a specialist gambling agency in Melbourne, Australia. Almost one-quarter (24.9 %) of treatment-seeking problem gamblers screened positively for ADHD, which was significantly higher than the 14 % prevalence in a community sample. ADHD was significantly positively correlated with problem gambling severity, motor impulsivity, and cluster B personality disorders, but was not associated with alcohol and substance use, gender or age. None of the factors significantly moderated the relationship between ADHD and problem gambling severity. These findings suggest that a considerable proportion of treatment-seeking problem gamblers report ADHD and that their clinical profile is complicated by the presence of high impulsivity and cluster B personality disorders. They highlight the need for specialist gambling agencies to develop screening, assessment, and management protocols for co-occurring ADHD to enhance the effectiveness of treatment.

  9. Treatment Programs for Students With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mihandoost, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Context: The aim of this study was to determine the experimental evidence of treatment/intervention programs for deficits in social skills, attention, and behavioral disorder in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence Acquisition: Meta-analysis procedures were employed to investigate whether children and adolescents with ADHD exhibit deficits in attention and social skills. A total of 17 empirical research studies published between 2000 and 2013...

  10. Six week open-label reboxetine treatment in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabgol F

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common psychiatric disorder among children and adolescents. This disorder causes difficulties in academic, behavioral, emotional, social and family performance. Stimulants show robust efficacy and a good safety profile in children with this disorder, but a significant percent of ADHD children do not respond adequately or cannot tolerate the associated adverse effects with stimulants. Such difficulties highlight the need for alternative safe and effective medications in the treatment of this disorder. This open-label study assessed the effectiveness of reboxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD."nMethods: Fifteen child and adolescent outpatients, aged 7 to 16 (Mean± SD=9.72±2.71 years, diagnosed with ADHD were enrolled in a six open-label study with reboxetine 4-6 mg/d. The principal measure of the outcome was the teacher and parent Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD Rating Scale. Patients were assessed by a child psychiatrist at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 weeks of the medication started. Side effects questionnaire was used to detect side effects of reboxetine. Repeated measures Analysis of variance (ANOVA was done for comparison of Teacher and Parent ADHD Rating Scale scores during the intervention."nResults: Twelve of 15 (80% participants completed the treatment protocol. A significant decrease in ADHD symptoms on teacher (p=0.04 and parent (p=0.003 ADHD rating scale was noted. Adverse effects were mild to moderate in severity. The most common adverse effects were drowsiness/sedation and appetite decrease."nConclusion: The results of the current study suggest the effectiveness of reboxetine in the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies and larger sample size with long duration of intervention are indicated to rigorously

  11. Collicular dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by (inter alia) an increase in distractibility. The current front-line pharmacotherapies for the treatment of ADHD, namely the psychostimulants methylphenidate and amphetamines, have clear abuse potential, hence there is a strong need to develop new drug treatments for this disorder. Central to this process is the identification of the pathophysiological changes which underlie ADHD. Given the heterogeneity of the disorder, multiple loci are probably involved, providing multiple potential therapeutic targets. Here, we hypothesise (Hypothesis 1) that one such locus is the superior colliculus (SC), a sensory structure intimately linked with distractibility and the production of eye and head movements. It is proposed that in ADHD, the colliculus is hyper-responsive, leading to the core symptom of increased distractibility. Hypothesis 1 is supported by: 1. ADHD patients show increased distractibility in tasks which are sensitive to collicular function; 2. ADHD patients have a general problem inhibiting saccades, the generation of which involves the SC; 3. Saccadic deficits in ADHD include defects in the production of saccadic types (anti-saccades and express saccades) which are particularly associated with the colliculus; 4. Covert shifts in attention (which also have been argued to involve the SC) are also impaired in ADHD; 5. Reading disorders are frequently co-morbid with ADHD; dyslexia (which is associated with eye movement problems) is linked to a specific visual perceptual deficit in the M pathway, a major recipient of which is the colliculus. Whether or not the SC is indeed hyper-responsive in ADHD as Hypothesis 1 suggests, the SC may well represent an important therapeutic target for drugs. In fact current psychostimulant therapies, which reduce distractibility, may already work at that level (Hypothesis 2), a contention which is supported by: 1. The

  12. Predictive coding in autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Chennu, Srivas; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Rattazzi, Alexia; Beraudi, Ana; Tripicchio, Paula; Moyano, Beatriz; Soffita, Yamila; Steinberg, Laura; Adolfi, Federico; Sigman, Mariano; Marino, Julian; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2015-11-01

    Predictive coding has been proposed as a framework to understand neural processes in neuropsychiatric disorders. We used this approach to describe mechanisms responsible for attentional abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We monitored brain dynamics of 59 children (8-15 yr old) who had ASD or ADHD or who were control participants via high-density electroencephalography. We performed analysis at the scalp and source-space levels while participants listened to standard and deviant tone sequences. Through task instructions, we manipulated top-down expectation by presenting expected and unexpected deviant sequences. Children with ASD showed reduced superior frontal cortex (FC) responses to unexpected events but increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to expected events. In contrast, children with ADHD exhibited reduced cortical responses in superior FC to expected events but strong PFC activation to unexpected events. Moreover, neural abnormalities were associated with specific control mechanisms, namely, inhibitory control in ASD and set-shifting in ADHD. Based on the predictive coding account, top-down expectation abnormalities could be attributed to a disproportionate reliance (precision) allocated to prior beliefs in ASD and to sensory input in ADHD.

  13. Caffeine regulates frontocorticostriatal dopamine transporter density and improves attention and cognitive deficits in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Pablo; Machado, Nuno J; Köfalvi, Attila; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2013-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) likely involves dopaminergic dysfunction in the frontal cortex and striatum, resulting in cognitive and motor abnormalities. Since both adenosine and dopamine modulation systems are tightly intertwined, we tested if caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) attenuated the behavioral and neurochemical changes in adolescent spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, a validated ADHD animal model) compared to their control strain (Wistar Kyoto rats, WKY). SHR were hyperactive and had poorer performance in the attentional set-shifting and Y-maze paradigms and also displayed increased dopamine transporter (DAT) density and increased dopamine uptake in frontocortical and striatal terminals compared with WKY rats. Chronic caffeine treatment was devoid of effects in WKY rats while it improved memory and attention deficits and also normalized dopaminergic function in SHR. Additionally, we provide the first direct demonstration for the presence of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) in frontocortical nerve terminals, whose density was increased in SHR. These findings underscore the potential for caffeine treatment to normalize frontocortical dopaminergic function and to abrogate attention and cognitive changes characteristic of ADHD.

  14. Attentional Performance in Children and Adolescents with Tic Disorder and Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder: New Insights from a 2 x 2 Factorial Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimel, Ellen; Wanderer, Sina; Rothenberger, Aribert; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Roessner, Veit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of both tic disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on attentional functions. N = 96 children and adolescents participated in the study, including n = 21 subjects with TD, n = 23 subjects with ADHD, n = 25 subjects with TD+ADHD, and n = 27 controls. Attentional…

  15. Time Perception: Modality and Duration Effects in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Time perception performance was systematically investigated in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, the effects of manipulating modality (auditory and visual) and length of duration (200 and 1000 ms) were examined. Forty-six adolescents with ADHD and 44 controls were administered four duration…

  16. Family-genetic study of executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence for an endophenotype?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats-Willemse, D.I.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.J.; Sonneville, L.M. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined familiality of attentional control and mental flexibility in multiplex attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) families. The authors hypothesized that siblings of ADHD probands, although not behaviorally expressing ADHD, have deficits in these executive functions and that

  17. Stimulants and Cardiovascular Events in Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Huang, Cecilia; Gerhard, Tobias; Winterstein, Almut G.; Crystal, Stephen; Allison, Paul D.; Marcus, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between stimulant use and risk of cardiovascular events and symptoms in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and compared the risks associated with methylphenidate and amphetamines. Method: Claims were reviewed of privately insured young people 6 to 21 years old without known…

  18. Resilient Adolescent Adjustment among Girls: Buffers of Childhood Peer Rejection and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Examined a risk-resilience model of peer rejection and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a 5-year longitudinal study of 209 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls aged 6-13 at baseline and 11-18 at follow-up. Risk factors were childhood ADHD diagnosis and peer rejection; hypothesized protective factors were childhood…

  19. The Developmental Trajectories of Executive Function of Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ying; Shuai, Lan; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Qian, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Yufeng

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of executive function (EF) of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Han Chinese. Five hundred and fifteen children and adolescents with ADHD and 249 healthy controls took part in this study. All of them were administered four EF tests capturing…

  20. Interaction of Parenting Styles and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Iranian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Andries, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships between parenting styles and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), utilizing a sample of Iranian parents of children with and without ADHD. Results indicate significant relationships between ADHD and parenting styles. There is a negative relationship between having an ADHD child and applying authoritative…

  1. Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Rights Reserved. Press Privacy Attention Magazine Archives Advertise with CHADD Contact Us Site Map Report a Problem For help call: 800-233-4050 Follow CHADD on Facebook Follow CHADD on Twitter

  2. Identifying Demographic and Language Profiles of Children with a Primary Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Irene P.; Scullion, Mary; Burns, Sarah; MacEvilly, Deirdre; Brosnan, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    As the language presentation of children with attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (ADHD) is highly complex, this study aims to delineate the profile of a cohort of 40 children with ADHD, aged between 9 and 12 years, attending a child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS). Speech and language therapists (SLTs) assessed the children on…

  3. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders among Students in Christian Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jacob J.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores current research, diagnosis, and common problems of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among Christian college and university students. For years, ADHD was believed to dissipate as children mature, but current research contradicts that belief. Proctor (2009) and others detail the continuance of ADHD into…

  4. The Association of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Socioeconomic Disadvantage: Alternative Explanations and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ginny; Ford, Tamsin; Rosenberg, Rachel; Kelly, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies throughout Northern Europe, the United States and Australia have found an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and family socioeconomic disadvantage. We report further evidence for the association and review potential causal pathways that might explain the link. Methods: Secondary…

  5. White Matter Microstructure in Subjects with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Katherine E.; Levitt, Jennifer G.; Loo, Sandra K.; Ly, Ronald; Yee, Victor; O'Neill, Joseph; Alger, Jeffry; Narr, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous voxel-based and regions-of-interest (ROI)-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have found above-normal mean diffusivity (MD) and below-normal fractional anisotropy (FA) in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, findings remain mixed, and few studies have examined the contribution of ADHD…

  6. Study of Anxiety in Parents and Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jose Juan Castro; Bermúdez, M. Olga Escandell; Sevilla, M. del Sol Fortea; Hernán-Pérez, Alejandra Sanjuán

    2015-01-01

    The identification of factors that influence attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will help to develop intervention strategies for the personal and social adjustment of these individuals. The goal of the study is to assess the perception of anxiety in a group of children and adolescents with ADHD and the anxiety that their parents…

  7. Can Executive Functions Explain the Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda; McBurnett, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the ability of executive functions (EF) to account for the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) status and social adjustment as indexed by parent and teacher report and by performance on a standardized observational "chat room" task. Children with the Combined subtype (ADHD-C; n = 23), the…

  8. [A survey on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiviger, S; Caci, H

    2014-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in international classifications and thought to affect about 5% of school-aged children and 3% of adults in the general population. In France, most clinicians are not formally trained in assessing and treating ADHD, leading to underdiagnosis of the disorder. ADHD impacts all the aspects of these children's daily life (school performance, family and social life) and later their adult life. We invited all the private-practice pediatricians in the east of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region (southeast France) to participate in a survey: 57 out of 81 accepted. The results show that their knowledge on ADHD could be improved, and that their a priori conception of the etiology of the disorder (neurodevelopmental syndrome versus societal syndrome) guides their clinical approach. We recommend pediatricians be trained to improve screening, diagnosis, and ADHD treatment monitoring in children. This recommendation might also apply to general practitioners for children and parents/adults.

  9. Essential Fatty Acids and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Raanan; Gabis, Lidia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Essential fatty acids (EFAs), also known as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, have been claimed to have beneficial effects as a treatment for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Animal experiments have provided information about the role of EFA in the brain, and several mechanisms of EFA activity are well known. The current review…

  10. What Knowledge and Conceptions Do Irish Primary Schoolteachers Hold on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Victoria Ann

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis rates have increased significantly in recent times. A teacher's role is crucial in determining if a child will be referred for an ADHD assessment. Teachers' opinions and observations are also required for and play a huge role in the actual assessment process. For this reason, their…

  11. Clinical Reasoning in the Assessment and Intervention Planning for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climie, Emma A.; Mah, Janet W. T.; Chase, Cheryl Y.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with insight into the clinical reasoning involved in the assessment and intervention planning for a child with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The reader will be guided through the authors' conceptualization of this case, and suggestions for intervention in the classroom will be…

  12. Knowledge of and Attitude towards Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Teachers in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…

  13. Efficacy of Methylphenidate among Children with Autism and Symptoms of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Lubetsky, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen children (ages 5-11) with autism and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of methylphenidate. Eight subjects responded positively, decreasing their hyperactivity. Ratings of stereotypy and inappropriate speech also decreased, however, no changes were found…

  14. Attention-Deficit/Hperactivity Disorder Symptom Levels and Romantic Relationship Quality in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Michael R.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Whitton, Sarah W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom levels in college undergraduates are associated with poorer romantic relationship quality, and to test whether emotion regulation difficulties, perceived stress, and hostile relationship conflict mediate this association.…

  15. What Knowledge and Conceptions Do Irish Primary Schoolteachers Hold on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Victoria Ann

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis rates have increased significantly in recent times. A teacher's role is crucial in determining if a child will be referred for an ADHD assessment. Teachers' opinions and observations are also required for and play a huge role in the actual assessment process. For this reason,…

  16. Latent Class Subtyping of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Maria T.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Bolton, Kelly L.; Balog, Joan Z.; Eagen, Patricia; Nee, Linda; Jones, Janet; Palacio, Luis; Sarampote, Christopher; Russell, Heather F.; Berg, Kate; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Muenke, Maximilian

    2008-01-01

    The study attempts to carry out latent class analysis (LCA) in a sample of 1010 individuals, some with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and others normal. Results indicate that LCA can feasibly allow the combination of externalizing and internalizing symptoms for future tests regarding specific genetic risk factors.

  17. Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and atopic diseases : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Schans, Jurjen; Pleiter, Janine C; De Vries, Tjalling W.; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C.M.; Bos, Jens H.J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hak, Eelko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data on the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and atopic diseases have been inconclusive. We assessed whether children using ADHD medication are more likely to receive drug treatment for asthma, allergic rhinitis, and/or eczema than children not using AD

  18. Examining Relationships between Executive Functioning and Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalunas, Sarah L.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.

    2011-01-01

    Although motivation and cognition are often examined separately, recent theory suggests that a delay-averse motivational style may negatively impact development of executive functions (EFs), such as working memory (WM) and response inhibition (RI) for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; Sonuga-Barke, 2002). This model…

  19. Clonidine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: II. ECG Changes and Adverse Events Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Patel, Nick C.; Robb, Adelaide S.; McDermott, Michael P.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Palumbo, Donna; Harris, Peter; Sallee, Floyd R.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the safety and tolerance of clonidine, alone or with methylphenidate as a form of treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) is conducted. Results conclude that clonidine used alone or in combination with methylphenidate were safe and well tolerated in children with ADHD.

  20. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  1. Neuregulin 3 is associated with attention deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sandra; Strohmaier, Jana; Breuer, Rene; Mattheisen, Manuel; Degenhardt, Franziska; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Schulze, Thomas G; Nöthen, Markus M; Cichon, Sven; Rietschel, Marcella; Wüst, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Linkage and fine mapping studies have established that the neuregulin 3 gene (NRG3) is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. Association studies of this disorder have implicated NRG3 variants in both psychotic symptoms and attention performance. Psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits are also frequent features of bipolar disorder. The aims of the present study were to extend analysis of the association between NRG3 and psychotic symptoms and attention in schizophrenia and to determine whether these associations also apply to bipolar disorder. A total of 358 patients with schizophrenia and 111 patients with bipolar disorder were included. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated using the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT) and attention performance was assessed using the Trail Making Test (TMT). Symptoms and performance scores were then tested for association with the NRG3 variant rs6584400. A significant association was found between the number of rs6584400 minor alleles and the total OPCRIT score for psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, minor allele carriers of rs6584400 outperformed homozygous major allele carriers in the TMT. The results suggest that rs6584400 is associated with psychotic symptoms and attention performance in schizophrenia. The finding of a significant association between rs6584400 and attention performance in bipolar disorder supports the hypothesis that this NRG3 variant confers genetic susceptibility to cognitive deficits in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  2. Comorbidity of Learning Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Sample of Omani Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watfa S. Al-Mamari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The estimated worldwide prevalence of learning disorders (LDs is approximately 2‒10% among school-aged children. LDs have variable clinical features and are often associated with other disorders. This study aimed to examine the comorbidity of LDs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD among a sample of schoolchildren in Oman. Methods: This study was conducted between January 2014 and January 2015 at the Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. The Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI and the 28- item version of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale was completed by classroom teachers to determine the existence of LD and ADHD symptoms in 321 children in grades 1‒4 who had been referred to a learning support unit for LDs from elementary schools in Muscat. Results: The mean age of the students was 8.5 years. Among the cohort, 30% were reported to have symptoms of ADHD, including conduct problems (24%, hyperactivity (24% and inattentivepassive behaviours (41%. Male students reportedly exhibited greater conduct problems and hyperactivity than females. However, there were no gender differences noted between LDDI scores. Conclusion: This study suggests that Omani schoolchildren with LDs are likely to exhibit signs of ADHD. The early identification of this disorder is essential considering the chronic nature of ADHD. For interventional purposes, multidisciplinary teams are recommended, including general and special educators, clinical psychologists, school counsellors, developmental or experienced general paediatricians and child psychiatrists.

  3. Social skills deficits and their association with Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Min; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims The aims of this study were to examine the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the moderators for this association. Methods A total of 300 adolescents, aged between 11 and 18 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their Internet addiction levels, social skills deficits, ADHD, parental characteristics, and comorbidities were assessed. The various Internet activities that the participants engaged in were also examined. Results The associations between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities and the moderators of these associations were examined using logistic regression analyses. Social skills deficits were significantly associated with an increased risk of Internet addiction after adjustment for the effects of other factors [odds ratio (OR) = 1.049, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.030-1.070]. Social skills deficits were also significantly associated with Internet gaming and watching movies. The maternal occupational socioeconomic levels of the participants moderated the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction. Conclusions Social skills deficits should be considered targets in prevention and intervention programs for treating Internet addiction among adolescents with ADHD.

  4. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  5. [Prevention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, J; Martin, M; Alcindor, P; Perez-Templado, J

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins at an early age and can be present until adulthood. Subjects with ADHD not only have symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity or hyperactivity but also have their social and emotional areas affected. In addition, they have an associated increased risk for presenting comorbilities with other psychiatric disorders, overshadowing the development. Considering ADHD as a evolutionary risk factor, prevention should be considered as a primary goal. Most preventive actions on ADHD have been focused on tertiary prevention. The present review aims to study the factors involved in the development of ADHD in order to form a prevention model beyond tertiary prevention. This research focuses on models of primary prevention (early detection of disease) and secondary prevention (to prevent or delay the disease), trying to incorporate them into daily practice. This study reviews risk factors that affect ADHD. Through actions aimed to pursue an early detection, development of the disorder could be improved, and by identifying population at risk, efforts could be concentrated on developing a true primary prevention (perinatal period and early childhood) that eventually could contribute to reduce the incidence of ADHD.

  6. Fine motor skills and effects of methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit - Hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, Boudien C.T.; Houwen, Suzanne; Schoemaker, Marina M.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate fine motor skills of children with both attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those of a control group, and to examine the effects of methylphenidate on these skills. A group of 12 children with AD

  7. Inverse associations between cord vitamin D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Mats H; Aaby, Jens B; Dalgård, Christine

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D2+3 (25(OH)D) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers, using Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5. METHOD: In a population-based birth cohort, a Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5 questionnai......)D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers was found, suggesting a protective effect of prenatal vitamin D.......OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D2+3 (25(OH)D) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers, using Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5. METHOD: In a population-based birth cohort, a Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5 questionnaire...... was returned from parents of 1233 infants with mean age 2.7 (standard deviation 0.6) years. Adjusted associations between cord 25(OH)D and Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problems were analysed by multiple regression. RESULTS: The median cord 25(OH)D was 44.1 (range: 1...

  8. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and childhood autism in association with prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S

    2015-01-01

    . OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. METHODS: Among 83,389 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301...

  9. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  10. Association between medication prescription for atopic diseases and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Pleiter, Janine C.; de Vries, Tjalling W; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C M; Bos, Jens H.J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hak, Eelko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on the association between atopic diseases and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether children with drug-treated ADHD are more likely to receive treatment for asthma, allergic rhinitis, or eczema before the start of ADHD

  11. Swimming and Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: A Winning Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dail, Teresa; Smith, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of swimming for children with disabilities include improved motor skills, physical fitness, executive brain function and improved social skills. Swimming can also be an activity that provides a positive environment for children suffering from attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). This article provides an overview of ADHD and…

  12. Parental age and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolgaard Mikkelsen, Susanne; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer

    2016-01-01

    population-based cohort including all singletons born in Denmark from 1 January 1991 through 31 December 2005 was followed from birth until 30 April 2011. Data were available for 94% (N = 943 785) of the population. Offspring ADHD was identified by an ICD-10 diagnosis of Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD). We used...

  13. Quantitative EEG neurofeedback for the treatment of pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, learning disorders, and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Elizabeth; Arnold, L Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas

    2014-07-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) using surface electroencephalographic signals has been used to treat various child psychiatric disorders by providing patients with video/audio information about their brain's electrical activity in real-time. Research data are reviewed and clinical recommendations are made regarding NF treatment of youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, learning disorders, and epilepsy. Most NF studies are limited by methodological issues, such as failure to use or test the validity of a full-blind or sham NF. The safety of NF treatment has not been thoroughly investigated in youth or adults, although clinical experience suggests reasonable safety.

  14. Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ODD or CD, and well-planned classroom behavioral techniques in his mainstream classroom have been ineffective, this may lead to a decision to place him in a special classroom at school that is set up for more intensive behavior management. However, schools are mandated to educate your child ...

  15. Sleep Problems as Predictors in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Causal Mechanisms, Consequences and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Um, Yoo Hyun; Hong, Seung-Chul; Jeong, Jong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is notorious for its debilitating consequences and early age of onset. The need for early diagnosis and intervention has frequently been underscored. Previous studies have attempted to clarify the bidirectional relationship between ADHD and sleep problems, proposing a potential role for sleep problems as early predictors of ADHD. Sleep deprivation, sleep-disordered breathing, and circadian rhythm disturbances have been extensively studied, yield...

  16. [Neurobiology of autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by means of neuroimaging techniques: convergences and divergences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proal, Erika; González-Olvera, Jorge; Blancas, Áurea S; Chalita, Pablo J; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2013-09-01

    In the clinical area, some symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also present in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Research has shown that there are alterations in brain circuits that have an impact upon specific cognitive and behavioural failures in each of these disorders. Yet, little research has been conducted on the brain correlates underlying both the similarities and the differences in the symptoms. In this review, the structural and functional meta-analytical studies that have been carried out to date on ADHD and ASD have been analysed. On the one hand, there are convergences in the attentional dorsal, executive functions, visual, somatomotor circuits and the default activation circuit. These similarities can account for the comorbid manifestations between the disorders, such as failure in the integration of information, fine motor control and specific attention processes. On the other hand, specifically in ADHD, there is a deficit in the reward circuit and in the attentional ventral, which are systems involved in the measurement of the effects of reinforcement and monitoring of attention. In ASD, the circuits that are most strongly affected are those involved in social cognition and language processes. In conclusion, there are neuronal correlates in both disorders that explain both the convergent and divergent clinical and behavioural manifestations.

  17. Stigmatization and self-perception of youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Regina Bussing, Anuja S Mehta Department of Psychiatry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: Increasing numbers of families must learn to manage their child's attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) through multimodal interventions that may include psychosocial, educational, and medication treatments. Like others with mental disorders, youth with ADHD face significant stigma in its various forms, including public (expressed as prejudice and discrimination), c...

  18. Evaluation of Planning Dysfunction in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorders Using the Zoo Map Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Marin, M. D.; Moreno-Granados, J. M.; Ruiz-Veguilla, M.; Ferrin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorders (ADHD) and Autistic-Spectrum-Disorders (ASD) share overlapping clinical and cognitive features that may confuse the diagnosis. Evaluation of executive problems and planning dysfunction may aid the clinical diagnostic process and help disentangle the neurobiological process underlying these conditions. This…

  19. Support for Learning Goes beyond Academic Support: Voices of Students with Asperger's Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the experiences of support at school among young adults with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and also to examine what support they, in retrospect, described as influencing learning. Purposive sampling was used to enroll participants. Data were collected through…

  20. The Relationships between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Problematic Drug Use (PDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alastair

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD) and problematic drug use (PDU). The review considers the main debates around the structure and aetiology of ADHD and the main theoretical frameworks offered to explain the…

  1. Prevention of cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Alan D

    2014-05-01

    This hypothesis states that cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are all caused by an exaggerated central nervous system inflammatory response to a prenatal insult. This prenatal insult may be one or more episodes of ischemia-reperfusion, an infectious disease of the mother or the fetus, or other causes of maternal inflammation such as allergy or autoimmune disease. The resultant fetal inflammatory hyper-response injures susceptible neurons in the developing white matter of the brain in specific areas at specific gestational ages. The exaggerated neuroinflammatory response is theorized to occur between about 19 and 34 post-conception weeks for CP, about 32 and 40 weeks for ADHD, and about 36 and 48 weeks (i.e. 2 months after delivery) for ASD. The exaggerated inflammatory response is hypothesized to occur because present diets limit intake of effective antioxidants and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids while increasing intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oxidation products of the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) limit neuroinflammation while oxidation products of the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid exacerbate inflammation. Preventative treatment should begin in all pregnant women during the first trimester and should include both DHA and an effective antioxidant for prevention of neuroinflammation. The suggested antioxidant would be N-acetylcysteine, though melatonin could be chosen instead. Combined DHA and NAC therapy is theorized to decrease the incidence of the three disorders by more than 75%.

  2. Narrative review of scales assessing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Evangelina Herrán Paz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral disorder in school-age population and is a major driver of mental health consultation. Diagnosis is hindered by the difficulty of objectively assessing subjective aspects such as inattention or impulsivity. Purpose. To briefly describe the most widely used rating scales as tools for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, subtypes and comorbidities, based on a review of information available in MEDLINE, Medic America, Academic Search Complete and Mendeley databases. Analysis. This disorder is poorly understood in the family and school environment, which hampers detection and timely treatment. Rating scales have advantages and disadvantages, but they are undoubtedly important for an initial approach to the clinical manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Conclusion. There is a need for better diagnostic tools or scales that take into account the stage of neurodevelopment, other developmental stages, gender differences, sociocultural aspects and diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition.

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Anxiety in İstanbul Heavy Metal Bar Patrons

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    Özalp Ekinci

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to examine the heavy metal bar patrons in Istanbul by means of self-reported questionnaires for psychiatric disorder symptoms.Material and Methods: Seventy-one volunteers from 4 popular heavy metal bars were included to the study. The Beck Depression Inventory, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, the Adult Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD Scale and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST were administered to the participants. Results: One fourth of the participants (25.4% were under high risk for a depressive episode (BDI>17, 22 (32.3% reported significant social anxiety (LSAS>30, and 41 (57.7% showed moderate ADHD symptoms (Adult ADD/ADHD scale: 20-59. According to BDI score participants who were under the risk for depression showed higher scores in Adult ADD/ADHD scale scores than that of participants who were not under a risk for depression (p=0.001 for attention deficit; p=0.003 for hyperactivity; p=0.002 for impulsivity; p=0.001 for total score. In the study group, ADD/ADHD scale attention deficit score was positively correlated with the total fear, total avoidence and the total scores of LSAS (r=.359 p<0.01; r=.332 p<0.01; r=.358 p<0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Heavy metal bar patrons appear to be a particular social group with an increased risk of psychopathology.

  4. A Comparison of Neuropsychological Test Profiles of Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and/or Learning Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Marit; Pesonen, Aino-Elina

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of eight-year-old children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=21), learning disorder (LD) (n=12), or both (n=27) on neuropsychological measures found that ADHD children were impaired in control and inhibition of impulses; children with LD in phonological awareness, verbal memory span, storytelling, and verbal IQ;…

  5. Sleep Problems as Predictors in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Causal Mechanisms, Consequences and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Yoo Hyun; Hong, Seung-Chul; Jeong, Jong-Hyun

    2017-02-28

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is notorious for its debilitating consequences and early age of onset. The need for early diagnosis and intervention has frequently been underscored. Previous studies have attempted to clarify the bidirectional relationship between ADHD and sleep problems, proposing a potential role for sleep problems as early predictors of ADHD. Sleep deprivation, sleep-disordered breathing, and circadian rhythm disturbances have been extensively studied, yielding evidence with regard to their induction of ADHD-like symptoms. Genetic-phenotypic differences across individuals regarding the aforementioned sleep problems have been elucidated along with the possible use of these characteristics for early prediction of ADHD. The long-term consequences of sleep problems in individuals with ADHD include obesity, poor academic performance, and disrupted parent-child interactions. Early intervention has been proposed as an approach to preventing these debilitating outcomes of ADHD, with novel treatment approaches ranging from melatonin and light therapy to myofunctional therapy and adjustments of the time point at which school starts.

  6. Sleep Problems as Predictors in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Causal Mechanisms, Consequences and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Yoo Hyun; Hong, Seung-Chul; Jeong, Jong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is notorious for its debilitating consequences and early age of onset. The need for early diagnosis and intervention has frequently been underscored. Previous studies have attempted to clarify the bidirectional relationship between ADHD and sleep problems, proposing a potential role for sleep problems as early predictors of ADHD. Sleep deprivation, sleep-disordered breathing, and circadian rhythm disturbances have been extensively studied, yielding evidence with regard to their induction of ADHD-like symptoms. Genetic-phenotypic differences across individuals regarding the aforementioned sleep problems have been elucidated along with the possible use of these characteristics for early prediction of ADHD. The long-term consequences of sleep problems in individuals with ADHD include obesity, poor academic performance, and disrupted parent-child interactions. Early intervention has been proposed as an approach to preventing these debilitating outcomes of ADHD, with novel treatment approaches ranging from melatonin and light therapy to myofunctional therapy and adjustments of the time point at which school starts. PMID:28138105

  7. Executive Dysfunctions: The Role in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Post-traumatic Stress Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Lía; Prada, Edward; Satler, Corina; Tavares, Maria C. H.; Tomaz, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) is an umbrella term for various cognitive processes controlled by a complex neural activity, which allow the production of different types of behaviors seeking to achieve specific objectives, one of them being inhibitory control. There is a wide consensus that clinical and behavioral alterations associated with EF, such as inhibitory control, are present in various neuropsychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between executive dysfunction, frontal-subcortical neural circuit changes, and the psychopathological processes associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A revision on the role of frontal-subcortical neural circuits and their presumable abnormal functioning and the high frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms could explain the difficulties with putting effector mechanisms into action, giving individuals the necessary tools to act efficiently in their environment. Although, neuronal substrate data about ADHD and PTSD has been reported in the literature, it is isolated. Therefore, this review highlights the overlapping of neural substrates in the symptomatology of ADHD and PTSD disorders concerning EFs, especially in the inhibitory component. Thus, the changes related to impaired EF that accompany disorders like ADHD and PTSD could be explained by disturbances that have a direct or indirect impact on the functioning of these loops. Initially, the theoretical model of EF according to current neuropsychology will be presented, focusing on the inhibitory component. In a second stage, this component will be analyzed for each of the disorders of interest, considering the clinical aspects, the etiology and the neurobiological basis. Additionally, commonalities between the two neuropsychiatric conditions will be taken into consideration from the perspectives of cognitive and emotional inhibition. Finally, the implications and future

  8. Executive Dysfunctions: The role in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Post-traumatic Stress neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Martínez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EFs is an umbrella term for various cognitive processes controlled by a complex neural activity, which allow the production of different types of behaviors seeking to achieve specific objectives, one of them being inhibitory control. There is a wide consensus that clinical and behavioral alterations associated with EF, such as inhibitory control, are present in various neuropsychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between executive dysfunction, frontal-subcortical neural circuit changes, and the psychopathological processes associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. A revision on the role of frontal-subcortical neural circuits and their presumable abnormal functioning and the high frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms could explain the difficulties with putting effector mechanisms into action, giving individuals the necessary tools to act efficiently in their environment. Although neuronal substrate data about ADHD and PTSD has been reported in the literature, it is isolated. Therefore, this review highlights the overlapping of neural substrates in the symptomatology of ADHD and PTSD disorders concerning EFs, especially in the inhibitory component. Thus, the changes related to impaired EF that accompany disorders like ADHD and PTSD could be explained by disturbances that have a direct or indirect impact on the functioning of these loops. Initially, the theoretical model of EF according to current neuropsychology will be presented, focusing on the inhibitory component. In a second stage, this component will be analyzed for each of the disorders of interest, considering the clinical aspects, the etiology and the neurobiological basis. Additionally, commonalities between the two neuropsychiatric conditions will be taken into consideration from the perspectives of cognitive and emotional inhibition. Finally, the

  9. A controlled trial of methylphenidate in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, P.J.B.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Verbrugge, C.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common among adult patients with substance use disorders. The benefits of treating ADHD in these patients are uncertain and the prescription of psychostimulants is disputed, because of the risk of abuse. This study examined the short-term effe

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep disordered breathing in pediatric populations: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedky, Karim; Bennett, David S; Carvalho, Karen S

    2014-08-01

    A relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children and adolescents has been suggested by some authors. Yet, this topic remains highly controversial in the literature. A meta-analysis was conducted in order to examine the extent of relationship between SDB and ADHD symptoms in pediatric populations and whether there are differences in ADHD symptoms pre- versus post-adenotonsillectomy in pediatric populations. PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo and Cochrane databases were searched using the key words "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" or "ADHD" and "obstructive sleep apnea" or "OSA" or "sleep disordered breathing" (SDB) or "SDB". English language publications through September 2012 were surveyed. Meta-analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between SDB and ADHD symptoms in the first part of the study, and the extent of change in ADHD symptoms before and after adenotonsillectomy in the second part. Eighteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria for the first part of the study. This represented 1113 children in the clinical group (874 diagnosed with SDB who were examined for ADHD symptoms; 239 diagnosed with ADHD who were examined for SDB) and 1405 in the control-group. Findings indicate that there is a medium relationship between ADHD symptoms and SDB (Hedges' g = 0.57, 95% confidence interval: 0.36-0.78; p = 0.000001). A high apnea hypopnea index (AHI) cutoff was associated with lower effect sizes, while child age, gender and body mass index did not moderate the relationship between SDB and ADHD. Study quality was associated with larger effect sizes. In the second part of the study, twelve studies were identified assessing pre- versus post-surgery ADHD symptoms. Hedges' g was 0.43 (95% confidence interval = 0.30-0.55; p < 0.001; N = 529) suggesting a medium effect, as adenotonsillectomy was associated with decreased ADHD symptoms at 2-13 months post-surgery. The findings of this meta

  11. Increased Neural Responses to Reward in Adolescents and Young Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Rhein, Daniel; Cools, Roshan; Zwiers, Marcel P.; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Franke, Barbara; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; van Rooij, Daan; van Dongen, Eelco V.; Lojowska, Maria; Mennes, Maarten; Buitelaar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disorder associated with abnormal reward processing. Limited and inconsistent data exist about the neural mechanisms underlying this abnormality. Furthermore, it is not known whether reward processing is abnor

  12. Adult Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Disorder in Finland--Project DyAdd: WAIS-III Cognitive Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The project Adult Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Disorder in Finland (Project DyAdd) compares adults (n = 119, 18-55 years) with dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia together with ADHD (comorbid), and healthy controls with neuropsychological, psychophysical, and biological methods. The focus of this article is on the…

  13. Comparing tomographic EEG neurofeedback and EMG biofeedback in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizio, Stefano; Liechti, Martina Daniela; Heinrich, Hartmut; Jäncke, Lutz; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Walitza, Susanne; Brandeis, Daniel; Drechsler, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Two types of biofeedback (BF), tomographic electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback (NF) and electromyographic biofeedback (EMG-BF), both with phasic and tonic protocols, were compared for treatment effects and specificity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thirteen children with ADHD trained their brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and twelve trained activity of arm muscles involved in fine motor skills. In each training session, resting state 24-channel EEG and training performances were recorded. Both groups showed similar behavioral improvements and artifact reduction in selected conditions, with no significant advantages despite medium effect sizes on primary outcomes for NF. Only the EMG-BF group, however, showed clear improvement in training regulation performance, and specific motor coordination effects. The NF group tended to present individual normalization of trained frequency bands in the ACC during rest across training. The results provide evidence for some specific effects in our small sample, albeit only to a small extent.

  14. Pediatric Loss of Control Eating Syndrome: Association with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinblatt, Shauna P.; Mahone, E. Mark; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Lee-Winn, Angela E.; Yenokyan, Gayane; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S.; Moran, Timothy H.; Guarda, Angela S.; Riddle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite data linking Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and adult binge eating, there are limited data in children with loss of control eating. We examined inhibitory control in children with loss of control eating syndrome (LOC-ES) and its association with ADHD. Method 79 children (8–14 years) over the 5th weight percentile were recruited, irrespective of LOC eating or ADHD status. The Eating Disorder Examination for Children and the Standard Pediatric Eating Episode Interview assessed LOC-ES. ADHD diagnosis was determined by the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for children and Conners-3 (Parent Report) DSM-IV Scales of Inattention and/or Hyperactivity (T score>65). The Go/No-Go Task and the Behavior Regulation Inventory of Executive Function parent report (BRIEF) assessed impulse control. Results Odds of LOC-ES were increased 12 times for children with ADHD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =12.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] =3.11, 51.64, p<0.001), after adjusting for BMI z-score and relevant covariates. Children had 1.17 times higher odds of reporting LOC-ES with every 5% increase in Go/No-Go Commission Rate (aOR= 1.17, CI=1.01, 1.36, p<0.05) and 1.25 times higher odds of reporting LOC-ES with every 5 unit T-score increase in BRIEF Inhibit Scale (aOR=1.25, CI=1.04, 1.50, p<0.05). Discussion Children with ADHD had significantly greater odds of LOC-ES compared to children without ADHD. Children with LOC-ES had significantly greater impulse control deficits on performance-based neuropsychological assessments and on parent reports than children without LOC-ES. These findings suggest a need to investigate possible shared mechanisms such as impulse control deficits, among children with LOC-ES and ADHD. PMID:25855370

  15. Tourette's and comorbid syndromes: obsessive compulsive and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A common etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, D M; Bradshaw, J L; Purcell, R; Pantelis, C

    1999-08-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS), a neuropsychiatric movement disorder that manifests itself in childhood, is often associated with comorbid symptomatology, such as obsessions, compulsions, hyperactivity, distractibility, and impulsivity. Epidemiological studies suggest that a substantial number of TS patients develop clinical levels of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review aims to provide an integrated account of the three disorders in terms of their comorbidity. Neuroimaging studies suggest that all three disorders involve neuropathology of the basal-ganglia thalamocortical (BGTC) pathways: TS in the sensorimotor and limbic BGTC circuits; OCD in the prefrontal and limbic BGTC pathways; and ADHD in the sensorimotor, orbitofrontal, and limbic BGTC circuits. The pattern of comorbidity and other evidence indicates that the TS gene(s) may be responsible for a spectrum of disorders, including OCD and ADHD, but also that the disorders OCD and ADHD can exist in their own right with their own etiologies.

  16. Development and applications of the SWAN rating scale for assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, C; Salgado-Azoni, C A; Ferreira, T L; Lima, R F; Ciasca, S M

    2015-11-01

    This study reviewed the use of the Strengths and Weaknesses of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-symptoms and Normal-behaviors (SWAN) rating scale in diagnostic and evolutive approaches to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in correlational studies of the disorder. A review of articles published in indexed journals from electronic databases was conducted and 61 articles on the SWAN scale were analyzed. From these, 27 were selected to a) examine use of SWAN in research on attention disorders and b) verify evidence of its usefulness in the areas of genetics, neuropsychology, diagnostics, psychiatric comorbidities, neuroimaging, pharmacotherapy, and to examine its statistical reliability and validity in studies of diverse populations. This review of articles indicated a growing use of the SWAN scale for diagnostic purposes, for therapy, and in research on areas other than ADHD, especially when compared with other reliable scales. Use of the scale in ADHD diagnosis requires further statistical testing to define its psychometric properties.

  17. Development and applications of the SWAN rating scale for assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brites

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed the use of the Strengths and Weaknesses of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-symptoms and Normal-behaviors (SWAN rating scale in diagnostic and evolutive approaches to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and in correlational studies of the disorder. A review of articles published in indexed journals from electronic databases was conducted and 61 articles on the SWAN scale were analyzed. From these, 27 were selected to a examine use of SWAN in research on attention disorders and b verify evidence of its usefulness in the areas of genetics, neuropsychology, diagnostics, psychiatric comorbidities, neuroimaging, pharmacotherapy, and to examine its statistical reliability and validity in studies of diverse populations. This review of articles indicated a growing use of the SWAN scale for diagnostic purposes, for therapy, and in research on areas other than ADHD, especially when compared with other reliable scales. Use of the scale in ADHD diagnosis requires further statistical testing to define its psychometric properties.

  18. Developmental course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasova, Mariya; Sulla, Erin M; Dalena, Kara L; Pondé, Milena P; Hechtman, Lily

    2013-02-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Cette revue entend présenter les principales caractéristiques de la progression développementale du trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH) et examiner les influences les plus dominantes du cours développemental et des résultats du TDAH. MÉTHODES: Cette revue sélective porte principalement sur les études prospectives de suivi. Les publications pertinentes ont été choisies par une recherche dans les bases de données MEDLINE et PubMed, à l’aide des mots clés: TDAH, développement, préscolaire, adolescent, adulte, suivi, résultat, long terme, prédicteurs, et traitement. Des publications additionnelles ont ensuite été repérées dans les bibliographies des articles sélectionnés. RÉSULTATS: La présentation du TDAH et les déficiences qui y sont associées évoluent durant le développement, tout comme les prédicteurs de résultat. En début de développement, outre la génétique, certaines formes d’adversité prénatale accroissent le risque du TDAH. Dans les années préscolaires, la gravité des symptômes, la fonction cognitive, et les facteurs familiaux deviennent des prédicteurs significatifs des résultats à l’âge scolaire. Ces facteurs continuent de prédire les résultats à long terme des enfants d’âge scolaire; la comorbidité apparaît comme étant un autre prédicteur significatif des résultats à long terme à ce stade. CONCLUSIONS: La présentation du TDAH et les facteurs de risque d’adversité ultérieure évoluent au cours du développement, ce qui requiert des pratiques cliniques éclairées en matière de développement.

  19. Does Child Temperament Play a Role in the Association Between Parenting Practices and Child Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullsperger, Josie M; Nigg, Joel T; Nikolas, Molly A

    2016-01-01

    Ineffective parenting practices may maintain or exacerbate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and shape subsequent development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD's) in youth with ADHD. Recent theoretical models have suggested that parenting may exert effects on ADHD via its role in child temperament. The current study aimed to evaluate the indirect effects of parenting dimensions on child ADHD symptoms via child temperament. Youth ages 6-17 years (N = 498; 50.4 % ADHD, 55 % male) completed a multi-stage, multi-informant assessment that included parent, child, and teacher report measures of parenting practices, child temperament, and ADHD symptoms. Statistical models examined the direct and indirect effects of maternal and paternal involvement, poor supervision, and inconsistent discipline on inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity via child temperament and personality traits. Results indicated differential patterns of effect for negative and positive parenting dimensions. First, inconsistent discipline exerted indirect effects on both ADHD symptom dimensions via child conscientiousness, such that higher levels of inconsistency predicted lower levels of conscientiousness, which in turn, predicted greater ADHD symptomatology. Similarly, poor supervision also exerted indirect effects on inattention via child conscientiousness as well as significant indirect effects on hyperactivity-impulsivity via its impact on both child reactive control and conscientiousness. In contrast, primarily direct effects of positive parenting (i.e., involvement) on ADHD emerged. Secondary checks revealed that similar pathways may also emerge for comorbid disruptive behavior disorders. Current findings extend upon past work by examining how parenting practices influence child ADHD via with-in child mechanisms and provide support for multi-pathway models accounting for heterogeneity in the disorder.

  20. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.

  1. Association Between Childhood Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Evelyn; Low, Nancy C P; Dugas, Erika; Karp, Igor; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and disruptive behavior disorders in 605 children participating in a population-based cohort study. Nineteen percent of children snored (sometimes or often) and 10% had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms. Thirteen percent had an ADHD diagnosis or symptoms and 5-9% had behavioral problems or a conduct disorder. Snoring or OSA symptoms were associated with a twofold difference in the odds of ADHD diagnosis or symptoms. OSA symptoms were associated with a threefold to fourfold difference in the odds of behavioral problems or conduct disorder. Clinicians should consider inquiring about SDB in children with disruptive behavior disorders and should also consider disruptive behavior disorders as potential sequelae of SDB.

  2. Psychopathology, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and risk factors in juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margari F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Margari,1 Francesco Craig,2 Lucia Margari,2 Emilia Matera,2 Anna Linda Lamanna,2 Paola Alessandra Lecce,2 Donatella La Tegola,3 Felice Carabellese3 1Psychiatry Unit, 2Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs of the Aldo Moro University of Bari, 3Section of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed.Methods: The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes.Results: Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01 and conduct problems (P=0.034. Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18% and conduct problems (20% than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement.Conclusion: These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. Keywords: juvenile offenders

  3. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...

  4. Face Scanning in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Human Versus Dog Face Scanning

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro eMuszkat; Claudia Berlim De Melo; Patricia de Oliveira Lima Muñoz; Tania Kiehl Lucci; Vinicius Frayze David; José de Oliveira Siqueira; Emma eOtta

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to explore attention allocation to human and dog faces in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD). Significant differences were found among the three groups. TD participants looked longer at the eyes than ASD and ADHD ones, irrespective of the faces presented. In spite of this difference, groups were similar in that they looked more to the eyes than to the mouth are...

  5. Frontal dysfunctions of impulse control – a systematic review in borderline personality disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eSebastian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are characterized by impulsive behaviors. Impulsivity as used in clinical terms is very broadly defined and entails different categories including personality traits as well as different cognitive functions such as emotion regulation or interference resolution and impulse control. Impulse control as an executive function, however, is neither cognitively nor neurobehaviorally a unitary function. Recent findings from behavioral and cognitive neuroscience studies suggest related but dissociable components of impulse control along functional domains like selective attention, response selection, motivational control and behavioral inhibition. In addition, behavioral and neural dissociations are seen for proactive versus reactive inhibitory motor control. The prefrontal cortex with its sub-regions is the central structure in executing these impulse control functions. Based on these concepts of impulse control, neurobehavioral findings of studies in BPD and ADHD were reviewed and systematically compared. Overall, BPD patients exhibited prefrontal dysfunctions across impulse control components rather in orbitofrontal, dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, whereas ADHD patients displayed disturbed activity mainly in ventrolateral and medial prefrontal regions. Prefrontal dysfunctions, however, varied depending on the impulse control component and from disorder to disorder. This suggests a dissociation of impulse control related frontal dysfunctions in BPD and ADHD, although only few studies are hitherto available to assess frontal dysfunctions along different impulse control components in direct comparison of these disorders. Yet, these findings might serve as a hypothesis for the future systematic assessment of impulse control components to understand differences and commonalities of prefrontal cortex dysfunction in impulsive disorders.

  6. Language disorders and attention deficit disorders in young children referred for psychiatric services: analysis of prevalence and a conceptual synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, A J; Thompson, M G

    1988-01-01

    Nearly two-thirds of a group of preschool children referred for psychiatric outpatient services were found to have language disorders when assessed by standardized procedures, a higher number than reported in previous studies. Significant interrelationships between language disorders and attention deficit disorders were found. Analyses of prevalence rates, gender ratios, and selected psychosocial factors led to reformulation of approaches to assessment and treatment of young children with severe psychiatric problems.

  7. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T. Mattfeld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity.

  8. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Fried, Ronna; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity.

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and dual disorders. Educational needs for an underdiagnosed condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Raga, Jose; Szerman, Nestor; Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of comorbid psychiatric disorders overlap with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the life span. There is a robust and complex link between ADHD and substance use disorders (SUD). The aim of this report was to review the neurobiological and other vulnerability factors explaining the comorbidity of ADHD and an addictive disorder, as well as the key aspects of the assessment and diagnosis of dually diagnosed ADHD patients. A comprehensive and systematic search of relevant databases (PubMed, Embase, and PsychINFO) was conducted to identify studies published in peer-reviewed journals until July 31, 2012, with the aim of exploring the association of ADHD and SUD with postgraduate training and residency education. Across the life span, ADHD is associated with significant impairment and comorbidity. Data from epidemiological, clinical and epidemiological studies show a very solid link between ADHD and SUD. Therefore, it is very important to carefully and systematically assess for any substance use in patients with suspected ADHD coming to initial assessment, and vice versa. While there are various valid and reliable rating and screening scales, diagnosis cannot solely rely on any of the instruments available for both SUD and ADHD in adult patients with dual pathology. The most important and effective tool in the assessment of dually diagnosed patients with ADHD and SUD is a full and comprehensive clinical and psychosocial assessment. Hence, it is essential to actively incorporate training opportunities on the assessment, diagnosis, and management of adult ADHD and dually diagnosed ADHD patients during postgraduate education residency or specialist training.

  10. Exclusion from school and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fintan O’Regan

    2010-01-01

    The exclusion of children from school, either on a fixed-term or a permanent basis, is a disciplinary tool used in primary and secondary schools throughout the United Kingdom. Students with special educational needs (SEN) are more likely to be permanently excluded than pupils without SEN (Department for Children, Schools and Families 2009). In this review paper, I will examine the role of underlying behavioural difficulties in school exclusion and specifically explore the potential role of AD...

  11. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu;

    2006-01-01

    of the hippocampus and amygdala in children with ADHD. DESIGN: A cross-sectional case-control study of the hippocampus and amygdala using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. SETTINGS: University research institute. PATIENTS: One hundred fourteen individuals aged 6 to 18 years, 51 with combined-type ADHD and 63...... healthy controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Volumes and measures of surface morphology for the hippocampus and amygdala. RESULTS: The hippocampus was larger bilaterally in the ADHD group than in the control group (t = 3.35; P hippocampus further localized...... these differences to an enlarged head of the hippocampus in the ADHD group. Although conventional measures did not detect significant differences in amygdalar volumes, surface analyses indicated the presence of reduced size bilaterally over the area of the basolateral complex. Correlations with prefrontal measures...

  12. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Madsen, Anders; Bikic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    modulated by dopamine are involved in the development of addiction. Methylphenidate is the most commonly used pharmacological treatment for ADHD and, although this prescribed drug potentially can be abused, it actually seems to reduce the risk of SUD in patients with ADHD, rather than to increase the risk...

  13. Psychological distress in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Cairney, John; Pollock, Nancy; Campbell, Wenonah; Russell, Dianne J; Macdonald, Kathryn; Schmidt, Louis; Heath, Nancy; Veldhuizen, Scott; Cousins, Martha

    2014-05-01

    This study explored whether or not a population-based sample of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), with and without comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), experienced higher levels of psychological distress than their peers. A two-stage procedure was used to identify 244 children: 68 with DCD only, 54 with ADHD only, 31 with comorbid DCD and ADHD, and 91 randomly selected typically developing (TD) children. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured by child and parent report. Child sex and caregiver ethnicity differed across groups, with a higher ratio of boys to girls in the ADHD only group and a slightly higher proportion of non-Caucasian caregivers in the TD group. After controlling for age, sex, and caregiver ethnicity, there was significant variation across groups in both anxiety (by parent report, F(3,235)=8.9, pdisorder groups had significantly higher levels of symptoms than TD children, but most pairwise differences among those three groups were not significant. The one exception was the higher level of depressive symptoms noted by parent report in the ADHD/DCD group. In conclusion, children identified on the basis of motor coordination problems through a population-based screen showed significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than typically developing children. Children who have both DCD and ADHD are particularly at heightened risk of psychological distress.

  14. The Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children and Arabic Speech Sound Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Ruaa Osama

    2016-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficiency/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) often have co-existing learning disabilities and developmental weaknesses or delays in some areas including speech (Rief, 2005). Seeing that phonological disorders include articulation errors and other forms of speech disorders, studies pertaining to children with ADHD symptoms who…

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual giftedness: a study of symptom frequency and minor physical anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Minahim; Rohde, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the presence of symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in intellectually gifted adults and children. Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were performed in children and adults whose intelligence quotient (IQ) had been previously evaluated using Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. Seventy-seven adults displaying IQ scores above the 98th percentile were assessed using the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS-18) for signs of ADHD and a modifi...

  16. Correlation between sleep disorder screening and executive dysfunction in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zambrano-Sanchez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare frequency of sleep disorders (SD and executive dysfunction (ED in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and a control group. Method We studied 156 children with ADHD with a mean age of 8.5 years, and a control group with 111 children with a mean age of 8.3 years. We utilized the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ to screen SD and the working memory measurement from the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV to screen ED. Results We did not observe an increased frequency of SD in children with ADHD compared with the controls. However, we did identify ED in children with ADHD; additionally a significant correlation was observed between the type of ADHD and SD and among ED, WISC-IV measurements, and type of SD in children with ADHD. Conclusion An increase of SD frequency in children with ADHD was not observed, but we did identify ED in children with ADHD. Additionally, a correlation among ADHD types, SD, ED, and WISC-IV measurements was observed in children with ADHD.

  17. Emotional Face Identification in Youths with Primary Bipolar Disorder or Primary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Young, Matthew; Dickstein, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid or confounded; therefore, we evaluated emotional face identification to better understand brain/behavior interactions in children and adolescents with either primary BD, primary ADHD, or typically developing controls (TDC). Method: Participants…

  18. Executive function profile of Chinese boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: different subtypes and comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Lan; Chan, Raymond C K; Wang, Yufeng

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the executive function (EF) profile of Chinese boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using a large sample. Executive function performance within the ADHD subtypes and the effects of comorbidity were also investigated. Five hundred Chinese boys (375 with ADHD and 125 controls) aged 6-15 completed a battery of EF tests. Boys with all types of ADHD performed worse in all of the EF tests than age- and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls. The boys with the inattention ADHD subtype and the combined subtype showed similar impairments across different EF tasks, whereas the boys with the hyperactive-impulsive ADHD subtype primarily displayed deficits in theory of mind and visual memory. Comorbid oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder had no additional influence on the EF characteristics of the boys with ADHD only, whereas comorbid learning disorder increased the severity of inhibition and shifting impairments.

  19. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and the shifting sands of psychiatric nosology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-08-01

    Larsson et al provide epidemiological evidence for a genetic association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and Hamshere and colleagues confirm the latter association with genome-wide data. Although a genetic link between ADHD and bipolar disorder has been hypothesised for over a decade, the association with schizophrenia fills a notable gap in the literature. This editorial discusses the implications of these findings for clinicians, who must address psychiatric comorbidity in their treatment formulations, and researchers who are learning that the discrete categorical diagnoses of our diagnostic systems may not be up to the task of clarifying the causes and cures of psychopathology.

  20. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R; Taylor, Michele M; Shalat, Stuart L; Guillot, Thomas S; Caudle, W Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M; Mathews, Tiffany A; Jones, Sara R; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Miller, Gary W

    2015-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8-12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6-15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.

  1. Use of Digital Console Game for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tsung-Yen; Lee, I-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chih

    2010-01-01

    ADHD or ADD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) is one of the most frequently diagnosed mental and behavioral disorders of children. Children with ADHD are characterized by poor attention and distractibility and/or hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Although there is no "cure" for ADHD, there are accepted treatments that…

  2. The nursing student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Martha J; Salzer, Judith Schurr

    2003-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in college-age students presents a complex challenge of coping with academic coursework, refining life skills, and addressing self-limitations. Behaviors that characterize ADHD are particularly problematic for nursing students, especially when the student has difficulty with behaviors that exemplify executive functioning. The authors discuss symptoms and treatments associated with the diagnosis of ADHD and evaluation and interventions for college students, based on guidelines from the Americans With Disabilities Act. Nursing faculty can facilitate academic success by recognizing the problem in nursing students and implementing strategies useful for self-management of ADHD.

  3. Dyscalculia and Attention Deficit Subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The association of specific academic deficits with attention deficit disorder (ADD) subtypes was determined in 20 students (ages 8-12) with ADD with hyperactivity (ADD/H) compared to 20 with ADD without hyperactivity (ADD/noH), at the Department of Educational Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, TX.

  4. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders across the lifespan: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Rivka L; Rawana, Jennine S

    2016-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders are common and concerning mental health disorders. There is both empirical and theoretical support for an association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. This systematic review aims to summarize the extant literature on the comorbidity of ADHD and eating disorders across the lifespan, including the influences of sex, age, eating disorder diagnosis, and potential mediators. A total of 37 peer-reviewed studies on diagnosed ADHD and eating disturbances were identified through key research databases. Twenty-six studies supported a strong empirical association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. The systematic review findings suggest that children with ADHD are at risk for disordered eating, while adolescents, emerging adults, and adults are at risk for both eating disorders and disordered eating. Methodological considerations, future research, and clinical implications are discussed.

  5. The Relationship between Attention, Executive Functions and Reading Domain Abilities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Reading Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bental, Barbara; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2007-01-01

    Background: Co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disorder (RD) is frequent. The objective of this investigation was to assess the potential uniqueness of co-morbid ADHD + RD and extend existing findings to the Hebrew language. Method: A parallel group design with post-hoc analysis of group differences was…

  6. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological approaches to study of variants of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveyeva E. Yu.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review carries out analysis of empirical studies concerning neuropsychological and neurophysiological mechanisms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. The current data, regarding malfunctions of brain systems at various levels of aetiopathogenesis (genetic, neurotrasmitting, functioning of separate brain structure, are discussed. The article regards the character of deficit in various components of psychic activity in people with ADHD, namely, executive functions and temporary storage (working memory, activating and neurodynamic components of activity, separate operational characteristics, and motivational impairments of patients with ADHD. The possibility of disclosing some clinical variants of the ADHD syndrome, differing in mechanisms, is also discussed in the article.

  7. Functional connectivity of child and adolescent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients: correlation with IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-yong Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control, and 28 adolescent normal control. We used group independent component analysis (ICA and weighted degree values to identify interaction effects of age (child and adolescent and symptom (ADHD and NC in brain networks. The frontoparietal network showed significant interaction effects (p = 0.0068. The frontoparietal network is known to be related to hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Intelligence quotient (IQ is an important factor in ADHD, and we predicted IQ scores using the results of our connectivity analysis. IQ was predicted using degree centrality values of networks with significant interaction effects of age and symptom. Actual and predicted IQ scores demonstrated significant correlation values, with an error of about 10%. Our study might provide imaging biomarkers for future ADHD and intelligence studies.

  8. Driving characteristics of teens with attention deficit hyperactivity and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Sherrilene; Monahan, Miriam; Wang, Yanning

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death among teens. Teens with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), or both (ADHD-ASD) may have a greater crash risk. We examined the between-groups demographic, clinical, and predriving performance differences of 22 teens with ADHD-ASD (mean age = 15.05, standard deviation [SD] = 0.95) and 22 healthy control (HC) teens (mean age = 14.32, SD = 0.72). Compared with HC teens, the teens with ADHD-ASD performed more poorly on right-eye visual acuity, selective attention, visual-motor integration, cognition, and motor performance and made more errors on the driving simulator pertaining to visual scanning, speed regulation, lane maintenance, adjustment to stimuli, and total number of driving errors. Teens with ADHD-ASD, compared with HC teens, may have more predriving deficits and as such require the skills of a certified driving rehabilitation specialist to assess readiness to drive.

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder genomics: update for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Josephine; Sackett, Jillan; Turner, Terri; Schardt, Martin; Tang, Shih-Ching; Kurtz, Nicole; Dunfey, Maura; McFarlane, Nadia A; Susi, Aita; Danish, David; Li, Alice; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Borgmann-Winter, Karin

    2012-10-01

    Attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is familial and highly heritable. Several candidate genes involved in neurotransmission have been identified, however these confer minimal risk, suggesting that for the most part, ADHD is not caused by single common genetic variants. Advances in genotyping enabling investigation at the level of the genome have led to the discovery of rare structural variants suggesting that ADHD is a genomic disorder, with potentially thousands of variants, and common neuronal pathways disrupted by numerous rare variants resulting in similar ADHD phenotypes. Heritability studies in humans also indicate the importance of epigenetic factors, and animal studies are deciphering some of the processes that confer risk during gestation and throughout the post-natal period. These and future discoveries will lead to improved diagnosis, individualized treatment, cures, and prevention. These advances also highlight ethical and legal issues requiring management and interpretation of genetic data and ensuring privacy and protection from misuse.

  10. A cross-sectional analysis of video games and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rabinowitz Terry; Chan Philip A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Excessive use of the Internet has been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the relationship between video games and ADHD symptoms in adolescents is unknown. Method A survey of adolescents and parents (n = 72 adolescents, 72 parents) was performed assessing daily time spent on the Internet, television, console video games, and Internet video games, and their association with academic and social functioning. Subjects were high school students...

  11. Case–Control Study of Blood Lead Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui-Li; Chen, Xiang-Tao; Yang, Bin; Ma, Fang-Li; Wang, Shu; Tang, Ming-liang; Hao, Ming-Gao; Ruan, Di-Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lead exposure are high-prevalence conditions among children. Objective Our goal was to investigate the association between ADHD and blood lead levels (BLLs) in Chinese children, adjusting for known ADHD risk factors and potential confounding variables. Methods We conducted a pair-matching case–control study with 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD controls 4–12 years of age, matched on the same age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The ...

  12. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  13. Disrupted reward circuits is associated with cognitive deficits and depression severity in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liang; Yin, Yingying; He, Cancan; Ye, Qing; Bai, Feng; Yuan, Yonggui; Zhang, Haisan; Lv, Luxian; Zhang, Hongxing; Xie, Chunming; Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that major depressive disorder (MDD) patients show blunted activity responses to reward-related tasks. However, whether abnormal reward circuits affect cognition and depression in MDD patients remains unclear. Seventy-five drug-naive MDD patients and 42 cognitively normal (CN) subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. The bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAc) were selected as seeds to construct reward circuits across all subjects. A multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to investigate the neural substrates of cognitive function and depression severity on the reward circuits in MDD patients. The common pathway underlying cognitive deficits and depression was identified with conjunction analysis. Compared with CN subjects, MDD patients showed decreased reward network connectivity that was primarily located in the prefrontal-striatal regions. Importantly, distinct and common neural pathways underlying cognition and depression were identified, implying the independent and synergistic effects of cognitive deficits and depression severity on reward circuits. This study demonstrated that disrupted topological organization within reward circuits was significantly associated with cognitive deficits and depression severity in MDD patients. These findings suggest that in addition to antidepressant treatment, normalized reward circuits should be a focus and a target for improving depression and cognitive deficits in MDD patients.

  14. Orbitofrontal reward sensitivity and impulsivity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbertz, Gregor; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Delgado, Mauricio R; Maier, Simon; Feige, Bernd; Philipsen, Alexandra; Blechert, Jens

    2012-03-01

    Impulsivity symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as increased risk taking have been linked with impaired reward processing. Previous studies have focused on reward anticipation or on rewarded executive functioning tasks and have described a striatal hyporesponsiveness and orbitofrontal alterations in adult and adolescent ADHD. Passive reward delivery and its link to behavioral impulsivity are less well understood. To study this crucial aspect of reward processing we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) combined with electrodermal assessment in male and female adult ADHD patients (N=28) and matched healthy control participants (N=28) during delivery of monetary and non-monetary rewards. Further, two behavioral tasks assessed risky decision making (game of dice task) and delay discounting. Results indicated that both groups activated ventral and dorsal striatum and the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) in response to high-incentive (i.e. monetary) rewards. A similar, albeit less strong activation pattern was found for low-incentive (i.e. non-monetary) rewards. Group differences emerged when comparing high and low incentive rewards directly: activation in the mOFC coded for the motivational change in reward delivery in healthy controls, but not ADHD patients. Additionally, this dysfunctional mOFC activity in patients correlated with risky decision making and delay discounting and was paralleled by physiological arousal. Together, these results suggest that the mOFC codes reward value and type in healthy individuals whereas this function is deficient in ADHD. The brain-behavior correlations suggest that this deficit might be related to behavioral impulsivity. Reward value processing difficulties in ADHD should be considered when assessing reward anticipation and emotional learning in research and applied settings.

  15. Perceived parenting style and self-perception in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: there is a growing interest in the study of the self-perceptions of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the bias in their self-concept. Goal: to explore how ADHD children’s perception of parenting style predicts their selfperception and the bias in self-concept. Method: Participants: children between 7 and 13 years old diagnosed with ADHD, children assisting to psychotherapy without an ADHD diagnose, and children not assisting to psychotherapy. It ...

  16. Perceived parenting style and self-perception in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: there is a growing interest in the study of the self-perceptions of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the bias in their self-concept. Goal: to explore how ADHD children’s perception of parenting style predicts their self-perception and the bias in self-concept. Method: Participants: children between 7 and 13 years old diagnosed with ADHD, children assisting to psychotherapy without an ADHD diagnose, and children not assisting to psychotherapy. It al...

  17. Genetic and neurobiological aspects of attention deficit hyperactive disorder: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Hechtman, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews key studies that have addressed genetic and neurobiological aspects in attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Genetic studies can be divided into three distinct types: twin, adoption, and family studies. Evidence for a particular mode of inheritance and the possible specific genetic abnormalities are also explored. There is strong evidence of genetic involvement in this condition, although a clear-cut mode of inheritance and specific genetic abnormalities are yet to be det...

  18. Behavioral and drug treatments of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschool children%学龄前注意缺陷多动障碍儿童的行为治疗和药物治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路腾飞; 帅澜; 张劲松

    2015-01-01

    注意缺陷多动障碍(attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD)是儿童期最常见的神经精神疾病,表现为多动、 冲动、 注意力不集中, 学龄前ADHD儿童主要表现为多动. ADHD可影响儿童生活的各个方面, 早期干预极为重要. 学龄前ADHD儿童主要依靠行为治疗. 文章对学龄前ADHD儿童的行为治疗和药物治疗研究进行综述.%Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in childhood, which is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattention as core symptoms. In preschoolers, the main manifestation of ADHD is hyperactivity. ADHD can affect virtually each area of a child's life, so it is important to interfere in early childhood. Behavioral treatment is the main treatment for preschoolers with ADHD. This paper reviews the research progress of behavioral and drug treatments of ADHD in preschool children.

  19. Sleep Lab Adaptation in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Typically Developing Children

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith Bessey; Jennifer Richards; Penny Corkum

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Research has shown inconsistencies across studies examining sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is possible that these inconsistencies are due to sleep lab adaptation. The goal of the current study was to investigate the possibility that children with ADHD adapt differently to the sleep lab than do typically developing (TD) children. Patients and Methods. Actigraphy variables were compared between home and the sleep lab. Sleep lab ad...

  20. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  1. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among primary school students in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjasuwantep, Banchaun; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Visudhiphan, Pongsakdi

    2002-11-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an important disorder because it is the most prevalent chronic health condition affecting school aged children. Children with ADHD are at risk for academic and behavior problems. There are several studies in many countries worldwide. In Thailand, there have been a few published papers about ADHD. Most of them were studies in a clinically referred population. Four hundred and thirty-three first to sixth grade students from Wat Samiennaree School were included in this study. All children were administered Raven's progressive matrices test for estimation of intellectual functioning and were observed for their behavior in the classrooms by one researcher. Their demographic data was collected by questionnaires. The revised Conners rating scales were scored for each student. Students whose parents did not score the Conners parent rating scale were excluded. The parents of students, whose scores were positive for ADHD, were interviewed according to DSM IV criteria. 353 (81.5%) students from 433 were enrolled in this study. 23 students were diagnosed with ADHD making a prevalence of 6.5 per cent. There were 11 boys and 12 girls. The ratio of male to female was 1:1.09. The ADHD students had lower scores in mathematics than the group without this diagnosis with statistical significance (p = 0.006).

  2. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  3. Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder features in adult mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Kyu Young; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Kim, Se Hyun; Song, Joo Youn; Bang, Yang Weon; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2012-04-01

    A significant overlap between childhood mood disorders and many aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been established. High rates of co-occurrence, familial aggregation, and more severe clinical manifestations of the illnesses when they are comorbid suggest that common genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the development of both disorders. Research on the co-occurrence of childhood ADHD and mood disorders in childhood has been conducted. We retrospectively investigated childhood ADHD features in adults with mood disorders. Childhood ADHD features were measured with the Korean version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). The sample consisted of 1305 subjects: 108 subjects were diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, 41 with bipolar disorder type II, 101 with major depressive disorder, and 1055 served as normal controls. We compared total WURS scores as well as scores on 3 factors (impulsivity, inattention, and mood instability and anxiety) among the 4 different diagnostic groups. The 4 groups differed significantly from one another on all scores. The group with bipolar disorder type II obtained the highest total scores on the WURS. The impulsivity and inattention associated with childhood ADHD were more significantly related to bipolar disorder type II than with bipolar disorder type I. The mood instability and anxiety associated with childhood ADHD seem to be significantly related to major depressive disorder in adulthood. In conclusion, multifactorial childhood ADHD features were associated with mood disorders of adulthood.

  4. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case study and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel CS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Sílvia Miguel, Tiffany M Chaim-Avancini, Maria Aparecida Silva, Mario Rodrigues LouzãAdult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Program (PRODATH, Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: The cognitive profile of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has been well characterized, but few studies have evaluated the cognitive abilities of adults with NF1 and ADHD.Objectives: We investigated 1 the cognitive profile of an adult patient with NF1 and inattention problems, 2 changes in his cognition after 14 months of follow-up, and 3 whether the patient exhibited comorbid NF1 and ADHD or secondary ADHD-like symptoms.Methods: We administered neuropsychological tests of executive function, attention, verbal and visual memory, visuospatial function, and language during two evaluations separated by 14 months.Results: We found no changes in sustained attention, language, or verbal memory. Visual memory, verbal learning, selective attention inhibitory control, and problem solving declined over time, whereas visual search, psychomotor speed, visuospatial function, and mental flexibility improved.Conclusion: Our patient exhibited a cognitive profile characteristic of both NF1 and ADHD, leading to the hypothesis that the patient had comorbid ADHD instead of secondary ADHD-like symptoms. More studies are necessary to characterize the cognition of patients with NF1 and ADHD.Keywords: ADHD, executive function, NF1, low-grade pontine glioma, cognition

  5. The effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on intrinsic functional brain networks in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Cao, Qingjiu; Wang, Jinhui; Wu, Zhaomin; Wang, Peng; Sun, Li; Cai, Taisheng; Wang, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious psychological treatment for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the neural processes underlying the benefits of CBT are not well understood. This study aims to unravel psychosocial mechanisms for treatment ADHD by exploring the effects of CBT on functional brain networks. Ten adults with ADHD were enrolled and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired before and after a 12-session CBT. Twelve age- and gender-matched healthy controls were also scanned. We constructed whole-brain functional connectivity networks using graph-theory approaches and further computed the changes of regional functional connectivity strength (rFCS) between pre- and post-CBT in ADHD for measuring the effects of CBT. The results showed that rFCS was increased in the fronto-parietal network and cerebellum, the brain regions that were most often affected by medication, in adults with ADHD following CBT. Furthermore, the enhanced functional coupling between bilateral superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the improvement of ADHD symptoms following CBT. Together, these findings provide evidence that CBT can selectively modulate the intrinsic network connectivity in the fronto-parietal network and cerebellum and suggest that the CBT may share common brain mechanism with the pharmacology in adults with ADHD.

  6. South African Teachers' Attitudes toward Learners with Barriers to Learning: Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and Little or No Functional Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, Juan; Donohue, Dana K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' attitudes toward learners with two types of barriers to learning: a learner with attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and a learner with little or no functional speech (LNFS). The results indicated that although teachers reported that the learner with ADHD would be more disruptive in class and have a…

  7. Guanfacine for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Simona; Clavenna, Antonio; Reale, Laura; Capuano, Annalisa; Rossi, Francesco; Bonati, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    To review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the safety and efficacy of guanfacine in pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a bibliographic search up to May 2014 was performed using the Cochrane Library׳s Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Embase, PsycINFO, and Medline databases, and clinical trials registers. The search terms used were: ["guanfacine"] and ["child" or "adolescent" or "pediatrics"] and ["randomized controlled trial"] and ["Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity" or "Attention Deficit Disorder" or "Attention Hyperactivity Disorder" or "Hyperactivity" or "ADHD"]. A meta-analysis was performed using response, defined as a score ≤ 2 on the Clinical Global Impression Improvement score, as the outcome measure. In all, 7 out of 48 studies were included, for a total of 1752 participants. All studies compared guanfacine versus placebo, with a duration ranging from 6 to 16 weeks. In all, the Clinical Global Impression Improvement score was reported as a secondary measure. Overall, 694/1177 (59.0%) participants in the guanfacine group benefited from the treatment compared to 192/575 (33.3%) in the placebo group (pooled OR 3.2; 95%CI 2.4-4.1). The participants with at least one adverse event were 948 (82.4%) in the guanfacine and 376 (67.9%) in the placebo group (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.6-4.4). Somnolence (OR 4.9), sedation (OR 2.8), and fatigue (OR 2.2), were the adverse events with the greatest risk of occurrence in the guanfacine versus the placebo group. On the basis of seven randomized, placebo controlled trials guanfacine resulted safe and effective in treating children and adolescents with ADHD.

  8. Neural markers of social and monetary rewards in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luz Gonzalez-Gadea; Mariano Sigman; Alexia Rattazzi; Claudio Lavin; Alvaro Rivera-Rei; Julian Marino; Facundo Manes; Agustin Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of decision making propose a shared value-related brain mechanism for encoding monetary and social rewards. We tested this model in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and control children. We monitored participants’ brain dynamics using high density-electroencephalography while they played a monetary and social reward tasks. Control children exhibited a feedback Error-Related Negativity (fERN) modulation ...

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A review for family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande Sunil

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic behavioral disorder characterized by persistent hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention that impairs educational achievement and/or social functioning. Its diagnosis is made by ascertaining whether the child′s specific behaviors meet the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-revised criteria. Its etiology is still unclear but recent studies suggest that genetics plays a major role in conferring susceptibility. Comorbidity with psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorder, depression, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder; and with specific learning disability is not uncommon. Although medication works well in most cases of ADHD, optimal treatment requires integrated medical and behavioral treatment. Methylphenidate (MPH and atomoxetine are the two drugs being currently prescribed and their efficacy in decreasing the symptoms of ADHD is well documented. Pyschoeducational interventions in school can help increase the successful functioning of affected children and improve their academic performance. Almost half of affected children continue to show significant symptoms of the disorder into adolescence and young adulthood. The family physician can play an important role in detecting this condition early, coordinating its assessment and treatment, counseling the parents and classroom teacher, and monitoring the child′s academic and psychosocial progress on a long-term basis.

  10. Actigraphic and parental reports of sleep difficulties in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan; Bilenberg, Niels

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe actigraphically detected and parent-reported sleep problems in nonmedicated children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); to clarify whether or not comorbid oppositional defiant disorder contributes to sleep difficulties; and to compare objectively measured...... (psychiatric control group), and 97 healthy control subjects (reference group). Intervention Sleep was monitored by parent-completed sleep diaries and 5 nights of actigraphy. We used a semistructured interview to diagnose psychiatric disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders...... subjects. Average sleep onset latencies were 26.3 minutes in the ADHD group, 18.6 minutes in the psychiatric control group, and 13.5 minutes in the healthy reference group. There was no apparent relationship between sleep problems and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. We found discrepancies between...

  11. DSM-V and the future diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, James M; Wigal, Timothy; Lakes, Kimberley

    2009-10-01

    In general, recommendations for the DSM-V and future diagnoses of psychiatric disorders include a dimensional approach to complement the standard categorical approach. For the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dimensional approaches to supplement the rigid categorical approach of the DSM-IV abound. Historically, dimensions based on severity of symptoms of ADHD and severity of general psychopathology have been used. General dimensional approaches described by a workgroup organized by the American Psychiatric Association are reviewed to provide background and context for a discussion of old and new dimensional approaches to complement future categorical diagnosis of ADHD in the DSM-V.

  12. An adolescent with 48,xxyy syndrome with hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder and renal malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Katulanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 48,XXYY is a rare sex chromosome aneuploidy affecting 1 in 18,000 to 50,000 male births. They present with developmental delay, hypogonadism, gynecomastia, intention tremors, and a spectrum of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. At one time this condition was considered a variant of Klinefelter syndrome. In clinically suspected cases, 48,XXYY syndrome can be diagnosed by chromosome culture and karyotyping. This patient presented with hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, and renal malformatons. Klinefelter syndrome was clinically suspected. The karyotype confirmed the diagnosis of 48,XXYY syndrome. This is the first reported case of 48,XXYY syndrome from Sri Lanka.

  13. An adolescent with 48,XXYY syndrome with hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder and renal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katulanda, Prasad; Rajapakse, J Rasika D K; Kariyawasam, Jayani; Jayasekara, Rohan; Dissanayake, Vajira H W

    2012-09-01

    48,XXYY is a rare sex chromosome aneuploidy affecting 1 in 18,000 to 50,000 male births. They present with developmental delay, hypogonadism, gynecomastia, intention tremors, and a spectrum of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. At one time this condition was considered a variant of Klinefelter syndrome. In clinically suspected cases, 48,XXYY syndrome can be diagnosed by chromosome culture and karyotyping. This patient presented with hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, and renal malformatons. Klinefelter syndrome was clinically suspected. The karyotype confirmed the diagnosis of 48,XXYY syndrome. This is the first reported case of 48,XXYY syndrome from Sri Lanka.

  14. Relationship between acne vulgaris and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of women*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Bilgic, Özlem; Çolak, Rukiye Sivri; Altınyazar, Hilmi Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris has recently been reported to be associated with elevated rates of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in epidemiological studies. This report examines childhood and current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of female adults. Ninety-one women with acne vulgaris and 53 controls were included in this study. The aforementioned symptoms were measured in participants. No significant differences were found between patients and controls in any of the measurements. Contrary to the findings of epidemiological studies, this study did not uncover a link between acne vulgaris and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder PMID:27192533

  15. Understanding the Covariation among Childhood Externalizing Symptoms: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Danielle M.; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common childhood externalizing disorders that frequently co-occur. However, the causes of their comorbidity are not well understood. To address that question, we analyzed data from >600 Finnish twin pairs, who completed standardized…

  16. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Inattention, working memory, and academic achievement in adolescents referred for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Maria; Hwang, Heungsun; Toplak, Maggie; Weiss, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of inattention and working memory in predicting academic achievement in 145 adolescents aged 13 to 18 referred for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Path analysis was used to examine whether auditory-verbal and visual-spatial working memory would mediate the relationships between classroom inattention symptoms and achievement outcomes. Results provide support for the mediational model. Behavioral inattention significantly predicted both auditory-verbal and visual-spatial working memory performance. Auditory-verbal working memory was strongly associated with adolescents' achievement in reading and mathematics, while visual-spatial working memory was only associated with achievement in mathematics. The path from inattention symptoms to reading was partially mediated by the working memory variables, but the path from inattention to mathematics was not mediated by working memory. The proposed model demonstrated a good fit to the data and explained a substantial amount of variance in the adolescents' achievement outcomes. These findings imply that working memory is a risk factor for academic failure for adolescents with attentional problems.

  18. Onset and Progression of Disruptive Behavior Problems among Community Boys and Girls: A Prospective Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Jaelyn R.; Nicholson, Jody S.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder are the most common forms of psychopathology seen among community youth. This study investigated prospective symptomatology of these disruptive behavior disorders from ages 5 though 14 in an at-risk community-based sample of 170 boys and girls born to…

  19. Functional neuroimaging of visuospatial working memory tasks enables accurate detection of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubi Hammer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding neurobiological markers for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, is a major objective of clinicians and neuroscientists. We examined if functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data from a few distinct visuospatial working memory (VSWM tasks enables accurately detecting cases with ADHD. We tested 20 boys with ADHD combined type and 20 typically developed (TD boys in four VSWM tasks that differed in feedback availability (feedback, no-feedback and reward size (large, small. We used a multimodal analysis based on brain activity in 16 regions of interest, significantly activated or deactivated in the four VSWM tasks (based on the entire participants' sample. Dimensionality of the data was reduced into 10 principal components that were used as the input variables to a logistic regression classifier. fMRI data from the four VSWM tasks enabled a classification accuracy of 92.5%, with high predicted ADHD probability values for most clinical cases, and low predicted ADHD probabilities for most TDs. This accuracy level was higher than those achieved by using the fMRI data of any single task, or the respective behavioral data. This indicates that task-based fMRI data acquired while participants perform a few distinct VSWM tasks enables improved detection of clinical cases.

  20. Depressive symptomatology in child and adolescent twins with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piek, Jan P; Rigoli, Daniela; Pearsall-Jones, Jillian G; Martin, Neilson C; Hay, David A; Bennett, Kellie S; Levy, Florence

    2007-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and depression. The present study utilized a monozygotic (MZ) differences design to investigate differences in depressive symptomatology between MZ twins discordant for ADHD or DCD. This extends previous research as it controls for genetic effects and shared environmental influences and enables the investigation of nonshared environmental influences. In addition, children and adolescents with comorbid ADHD and DCD were compared on their level of depressive symptomatology to those with ADHD only, DCD only, and no ADHD or DCD. The parent-rated Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior, Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire, and Sad Affect Scale were used to assess ADHD, DCD, and depressive symptomatology respectively. The results revealed higher levels of depressive symptomatology in MZ twins with ADHD or DCD compared to their nonaffected co-twins. In addition, children and adolescents with comorbid ADHD and DCD demonstrated higher levels of depressive symptomatology compared to those with ADHD only, DCD only, and no ADHD or DCD. The implications of these findings are discussed with emphasis on understanding and recognizing the relationship between ADHD, DCD, and depression in the assessment and intervention for children and adolescents with these disorders.

  1. The Influence of Health Behaviours in Childhood on Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children and adolescents is a global public health burden. Identification of health-related behavioral risk factors including diet quality and physical and sedentary activities for ADHD is important for prioritizing behavioral intervention strategies to improve mental health. This study aimed to examine the association of diet quality, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in childhood with ADHD throughout adolescence. We linked data from grade five students aged primarily 10 and 11 years old who participated in a population-based lifestyle survey in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia with their administrative health care data. We applied negative binomial regression methods to examine the associations between health behaviours and ADHD. Of the 4875 students, 9.7% had one or more diagnoses of ADHD between the ages of 10/11 and 18 years. The number of primary diagnoses with ADHD was statistically significantly lower among students with better diet quality, higher levels of physical activity, and those that spent less time playing computers and video games (p < 0.05. These findings suggest that health promotion programs aiming to improve children’s diets and active lifestyles may also reduce the public health burden of ADHD.

  2. Anxiety and methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a double-blind placebo-drug trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshe, Keren; Karni, Avi; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship between attention and anxiety and the response to methylphenidate in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a total of 57 boys, between the ages of 7-12 years, were assessed for their attention and level of anxiety. Methylphenidate was administered for a week in a randomized double-blind drug/placebo-drug cross-over design. The levels of anxiety were evenly distributed between the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive types. Anxiety was significantly correlated with the attention as reported by both teachers and parents. The response to methylphenidate was inversely correlated with the reported anxiety level only in boys with the hyperactive/impulsive and combined types. The higher the level of anxiety, the lower level of response to methylphenidate was observed. In the assessment and treatment of children with ADHD, the level of anxiety should be evaluated and taken into account while planning and monitoring treatment regiment.

  3. Disrupted response inhibition toward facial anger cues in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köchel, Angelika; Leutgeb, Verena; Schienle, Anne

    2014-04-01

    This event-related potential study focused on neural correlates of inhibitory affective control in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sixteen boys with ADHD and 16 healthy boys underwent an emotional Go/NoGo task with pictures of facial expressions from the categories anger, sadness, happiness, and neutral. The participants were instructed to execute or withhold a motor response to specific emotions. Patients relative to controls displayed a severe impairment in response inhibition toward anger cues, which was accompanied by a reduced P300 amplitude (positive voltage deflection about 300 ms after picture onset). The control group showed a P300 differentiation of the affective categories that was absent in the ADHD group. The pronounced anger-processing deficit in ADHD patients might be linked to their interpersonal difficulties and should be addressed in psychotherapy.

  4. Preschool attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review of prevalence, diagnosis, neurobiology, and stimulant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F

    2002-02-01

    The clinical use of stimulant medications for 3- to 6-year-old preschool children who meet diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is becoming more common. A systematic computerized literature search extending back to 1970 identified nine controlled studies of stimulant treatment and two controlled trials of stimulant side effects in preschool ADHD children. Treatment benefits are reported for eight of nine (89%) controlled stimulant trials involving a total of 206 preschool subjects. In comparison with school-aged ADHD youth, there may be a greater variability of stimulant response in ADHD preschoolers. Domains assessing cognition, interpersonal interactions, and hyperactive-impulsive behavior are noted to improve on drugs relative to placebos. Side effects in this age range are generally reported as mild. ADHD preschool children may experience slightly more and different types of stimulant-induced side effects compared with older children. High rates of behavior reported as stimulant side effects are found for children receiving a placebo, necessitating a baseline evaluation for medication side effects before stimulants are initiated. Despite the lack of research assessing stimulant effects on the very young and developing brain and the need for more controlled medication trials in this age range, this review of the extant literature finds stimulants to meet evidence based criteria as beneficial and safe for carefully diagnosed ADHD preschool children aged 3 years and older.

  5. Living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Britt; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet; Jørgensen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This systematic review is aimed to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on parenting experiences of living with a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, including their experiences of healthcare and other services. METHODS: A meta-synthesis was conducted following...... multiple challenges, it is not all bad. CONCLUSION: The findings illustrate the complexity of parental experiences that are influenced by guilt, hope, blame, stigmatization, exhaustion, reconciliation, and professional collaboration. The findings address the impact that attention-deficit hyperactivity...... disorder has on everyday family life, and how parents seem to adapt to their life situation in the process of accepting their child's disorder....

  6. Impact of executive function deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on academic outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C; Doyle, Alysa E; Seidman, Larry J; Wilens, Timothy E; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L; Faraone, Stephen V

    2004-10-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as at least 2 executive function measures impaired. Significantly more children and adolescents with ADHD had EFDs than did control participants. ADHD with EFDs was associated with an increased risk for grade retention and a decrease in academic achievement relative to (a) ADHD alone, (b) controlled socioeconomic status, (c) learning disabilities, and (d) IQ. No differences were noted in social functioning or psychiatric comorbidity. Children and adolescents with ADHD and EFDs were found to be at high risk for significant impairments in academic functioning. These results support screening children with ADHD for EFDs to prevent academic failure.

  7. Hyperresponsiveness to social rewards in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herpertz-Dahlmann Beate

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current research suggests that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is associated with larger behavioral sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies. However, most studies have focused thus far on the enhancing effects of tangible rewards such as money, neglecting that social-emotional stimuli may also impact task performance in ADHD patients. Methods To determine whether non-social (monetary and social (positive facial expressions rewards differentially improve response inhibition accuracy in children and adolescents with ADHD, we applied an incentive go/no-go task with reward contingencies for successful inhibition and compared ADHD subjects with typically developing individuals. Results Both social and monetary contingencies improved inhibition accuracy in all participants. However, individuals with ADHD displayed a particularly higher profit from social reward than healthy controls, suggesting that cognitive control in ADHD patients can be specifically improved by social reinforcement. By contrast, self-rated motivation associated with task performance was significantly lower in ADHD patients. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence for hyperresponsiveness to social rewards in ADHD patients, which is accompanied by limited self-awareness. These data suggest that social reward procedures may be particularly useful in behavioral interventions in children with ADHD.

  8. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  9. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Halder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  10. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Susmita Halder; Akash Kumar Mahato

    2009-01-01

    Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  11. Childhood Factors Affecting Persistence and Desistence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Adulthood : Results From the MTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Arunima; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L. Eugene; Sibley, Margaret H.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Swanson, James M.; Howard, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine childhood factors that predict attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persistence and desistence in adulthood. Method: Regression analyses were used to determine associations between childhood factors and adult ADHD symptom persistence in 453 participants (mean age,

  12. Intellectual performance and school failure in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, S V; Biederman, J; Lehman, B K; Spencer, T; Norman, D; Seidman, L J; Kraus, I; Perrin, J; Chen, W J; Tsuang, M T

    1993-11-01

    We made psychiatric and intellectual assessments of 140 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 120 normal controls, and their 303 siblings. The index children were white, non-Hispanic boys. ADHD children were more likely to have had learning disabilities, repeated grades, been placed in special classes, and received academic tutoring. They also did worse on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised (WISC-R). Among ADHD probands, comorbid conduct, major depressive, and anxiety disorders predicted school placement more than school failure or WISC-R scores. However, the neuropsychological disability of all ADHD children could not be attributed to comorbid disorders because those without comorbidity had more school failure and lower WISC-R scores than normal controls. Intellectual impairment was also increased among siblings of ADHD children. This provides converging evidence that the ADHD syndrome is familial.

  13. Association of attention-deficit disorder and the dopamine transporter gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E.H. Jr.; Stein, M.A.; Krasowski, M.D.; Cox, N.J.; Olkon, D.M.; Kieffer, J.E.; Leventhal, B.L. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be familial and heritable, in previous studies. As with most psychiatric disorders, examination of pedigrees has not revealed a consistent Mendelian mode of transmission. The response of ADHD patients to medications that inhibit the dopamine transporter, including methylphenidate, amphetamine, pemoline, and bupropion, led us to consider the dopamine transporter as a primary candidate gene for ADHD. To avoid effects of population stratification and to avoid the problem of classification of relatives with other psychiatric disorders as affected or unaffected, we used the haplotype-based haplotype relative risk (HHRR) method to test for association between a VNTR polymorphism at the dopamine transporter locus (DAT1) and DSM-III-R-diagnosed ADHD (N = 49) and undifferentiated attention-deficit disorder (UADD) (N = 8) in trios composed of father, mother, and affected offspring. HHRR analysis revealed significant association between ADHS/UADD and the 480-bp DAT1 allele (X{sup 2} 7.51, 1 df, P = .006). When cases of UADD were dropped from the analysis, similar results were found (X{sup 2} 7.29, 1 df, P = .007). If these findings are replicated, molecular analysis of the dopamine transporter gene may identify mutations that increase susceptibility to ADHD/UADD. Biochemical analysis of such mutations may lead to development of more effective therapeutic interventions. 36 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  15. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Signs Treating ADHD Reprints For More Information Share Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order ... daily life, it could be a sign of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a disorder that makes it ...

  16. Response inhibition in Attention deficit disorder and neurofibromatosis type 1 – clinically similar, neurophysiologically different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluschke, Annet; von der Hagen, Maja; Papenhagen, Katharina; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2017-01-01

    There are large overlaps in cognitive deficits occurring in attention deficit disorder (ADD) and neurodevelopmental disorders like neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). This overlap is mostly based on clinical measures and not on in-depth analyses of neuronal mechanisms. However, the consideration of such neuronal underpinnings is crucial when aiming to integrate measures that can lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Inhibitory control deficits, for example, are a hallmark in ADD, but it is unclear how far there are similar deficits in NF1. We thus compared adolescent ADD and NF1 patients to healthy controls in a Go/Nogo task using behavioural and neurophysiological measures. Clinical measures of ADD-symptoms were not different between ADD and NF1. Only patients with ADD showed increased Nogo errors and reductions in components reflecting response inhibition (i.e. Nogo-P3). Early perceptual processes (P1) were changed in ADD and NF1. Clinically, patients with ADD and NF1 thus show strong similarities. This is not the case in regard to underlying cognitive control processes. This shows that in-depth analyses of neurophysiological processes are needed to determine whether the overlap between ADD and NF1 is as strong as assumed and to develop appropriate treatment strategies. PMID:28262833

  17. Validity of DSM-IV attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom dimensions and subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcutt, Erik G; Nigg, Joel T; Pennington, Bruce F; Solanto, Mary V; Rohde, Luis A; Tannock, Rosemary; Loo, Sandra K; Carlson, Caryn L; McBurnett, Keith; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2012-11-01

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) specify two dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms that are used to define three nominal subtypes: predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-H), predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I), and combined type (ADHD-C). To aid decision making for DSM-5 and other future diagnostic systems, a comprehensive literature review and meta-analysis of 546 studies was completed to evaluate the validity of the DSM-IV model of ADHD. Results indicated that DSM-IV criteria identify individuals with significant and persistent impairment in social, academic, occupational, and adaptive functioning when intelligence, demographic factors, and concurrent psychopathology are controlled. Available data overwhelmingly support the concurrent, predictive, and discriminant validity of the distinction between inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, and indicate that nearly all differences among the nominal subtypes are consistent with the relative levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms that define the subtypes. In contrast, the DSM-IV subtype model is compromised by weak evidence for the validity of ADHD-H after first grade, minimal support for the distinction between ADHD-I and ADHD-C in studies of etiological influences, academic and cognitive functioning, and treatment response, and the marked longitudinal instability of all three subtypes. Overall, we conclude that the DSM-IV ADHD subtypes provide a convenient clinical shorthand to describe the functional and behavioral correlates of current levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, but do not identify discrete subgroups with sufficient long-term stability to justify the classification of distinct forms of the disorder. Empirical support is stronger for an alternative model that would replace the subtypes with dimensional

  18. Developmental Coordination Disorder and Other Motor Control Problems in Girls with Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Svenny; Beckung, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Examine the rate, predictors, and effect on daily life skills of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and other motor control difficulties in school age girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in preschool age girls with ASD referred to a neuropsychiatric clinic, and in a community…

  19. Self-Esteem Reactivity Among Mothers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: The Moderating Role of Depression History

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study examined self-esteem reactivity to a variety of contextual cues in a sample of women prone to depression. Participants were 49 mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Across a 9-month time-period, participants completed weekly measures of self-esteem, perceived stress, positive and negative affect, and child disruptive behavior. Results indicated that mothers reported lower self-esteem during weeks they experienced greater stress, lower positive affect, h...

  20. Neuropsychological differences among children with Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Christopher, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Confusion is present as to possible diagnostic differences between Asperger syndrome (AS) and Nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) and the relation of these disorders to attentional difficulties. Three-hundred and forty-five children participated in this study in 5 groups; NLD, AS, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Combined type, ADHD: Inattentive type, and controls. The NLD group showed particular difficulty on visual-spatial, visual-motor, and fluid reasoning measures compared to the other groups. There was also a significant verbal-performance IQ split in this group related to difficulty in social functioning. This study extends the findings from previous studies and extends these findings to differences between AS and NLD groups.

  1. Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Ramstad, Erica; Krogh, Helle B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated psychiatric disorders in childhood. Typically, children with ADHD find it difficult to pay attention, they are hyperactive and impulsive.Methylphenidate is the drug most often prescribed...... to treat children and adolescents with ADHD but, despite its widespread use, this is the first comprehensive systematic review of its benefits and harms. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with ADHD. SEARCH METHODS: In February 2015 we......-adjusted intervention effect was RR 0.91 (CI 0.02 to 33.2). SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Among those prescribed methylphenidate, 526 per 1000 (range 448 to 615) experienced non-serious adverse events, compared with 408 per 1000 in the control group. This equates to a 29% increase in the overall risk of any non-serious adverse...

  2. Parenting behaviors during risky driving by teens with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Nicole K; Fabiano, Gregory A; Morris, Karen L; Shucard, Jennifer M; Leo, Brittany A; Bieniek, Courtney

    2014-03-01

    Parenting practices for teen drivers with ADHD were observed via a video monitor installed in vehicles. All teens had recently completed a driver education course and were in the driving permit stage of a graduated driver-licensing program. Parent behaviors were coded during drives when teens were driving safely and during drives when teens engaged in risky driving. The overall frequency of positive parenting strategies was low, regardless of whether teens drove safely or engaged in risky driving. Although the rate of negative feedback was also low, parents engaged in significantly more criticism and were rated by an observer to appear angrier when teens were driving in a risky manner. No other differences in parent behaviors associated with the quality of teen driving were observed. The inconsistencies between observed parenting behaviors and those parenting practices recommended as effective with teens with ADHD are discussed. The need for further research addressing effective strategies for teaching teens with ADHD to drive is highlighted.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in Korean college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwak YS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Young-Sook Kwak, Young-Eun Jung, Moon-Doo Kim Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, South Korea Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD persists into adulthood in a high proportion of cases, causing social difficulties and affective problems. We evaluated the prevalence of symptoms of ADHD and the correlates thereof in Korean college students. Methods: A total of 2,172 college students, stratified to reflect geographical differences, were asked to complete self-report questionnaires on ADHD symptoms, depression, and related factors. Results: ADHD symptoms were found in 7.6% of college students. Univariate analysis revealed that younger students had higher rates of ADHD symptoms than did older students. We found significant associations between ADHD symptoms and problematic alcohol use, depression, and lifetime suicidal behavior. Multivariate analysis revealed that ADHD symptoms in adults were significantly associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] =4.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.23–6.80; P<0.001 and overweight or obesity (OR =1.50; 95% CI 1.02–2.22; P=0.040, after controlling for sex and age. Conclusion: These results have implications in terms of the mental health interventions required to assess problems such as depression, alcohol use, obesity, and suicidality in young adults with ADHD symptoms. Keywords: depression, adult ADHD, alcohol problem, obesity  

  4. Empathy dysfunction in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wied, Minet; Gispen-de Wied, Christine; van Boxtel, Anton

    2010-01-10

    In this essay, we focus on empathy in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), based on the assumption that lack of empathy is a risk factor for the development of DBD. We reflect on the heterogeneity of DBD, the complex nature of the empathy construct, discuss empathy's role in aggression, and review recent findings from studies on empathic skills in children and adolescents with DBD. Research suggests that the mechanisms underlying empathy problems may be different for DBD subtypes. Individuals with psychopathic tendencies may show a selective impairment in empathy with sadness and fear due to abnormalities in neural circuits connected with the amygdala. Individuals without these tendencies may show little empathy for a variety of reasons, such as hostile attributions, anxiety and/or poor regulatory skills. Understanding more about the nature and causes of empathy dysfunction in DBD could aid in identifying subtypes and help to improve prevention and intervention programs. Suggestions for future research are made.

  5. DCLK1 variants are associated across schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håvik, Bjarte; Degenhardt, Franziska A; Johansson, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    that have neuro-cognitive dysfunctions: schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar affective disorder (BP) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We mined six genome wide association studies (GWASs) that were available publically or through collaboration; three for BP, two for SCZ and one for ADHD. We also......Doublecortin and calmodulin like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is implicated in synaptic plasticity and neurodevelopment. Genetic variants in DCLK1 are associated with cognitive traits, specifically verbal memory and general cognition. We investigated the role of DCLK1 variants in three psychiatric disorders...... with disease phenotypes in the different samples. The main effect was observed for rs7989807 in intron 3, which was strongly associated with SCZ alone and even more so when cases with SCZ and ADHD were combined (P-value = 4 × 10(-5) and 4 × 10(-6), respectively). Associations were also observed with additional...

  6. Cognitive Training in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikic, Aida

    Background: Many individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continue to experience impaired cognitive functions despite medical treatment. Inadequate medical compliance and uncertain long-term effects of treatment make it necessary to explore supplementary treatments for ADHD...... attention, while the active placebo had significant, beneficial effects on working memory, both with large effect sizes. In the second trial, we found no significant differences on our primary or secondary outcome measures indicating no effects on sustained attention, ADHD symptoms or executive functions....... Lately, several trials have shown that training with cognitive computer programs can reduce severity of symptoms and improve cognitive functions. Method: This dissertation investigates the effects of cognitive training conducted at home in children and adolescents with ADHD. The effect of cognitive...

  7. Automatic brain caudate nuclei segmentation and classification in diagnostic of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igual, Laura; Soliva, Joan Carles; Escalera, Sergio; Gimeno, Roger; Vilarroya, Oscar; Radeva, Petia

    2012-12-01

    We present a fully automatic diagnostic imaging test for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosis assistance based on previously found evidences of caudate nucleus volumetric abnormalities. The proposed method consists of different steps: a new automatic method for external and internal segmentation of caudate based on Machine Learning methodologies; the definition of a set of new volume relation features, 3D Dissociated Dipoles, used for caudate representation and classification. We separately validate the contributions using real data from a pediatric population and show precise internal caudate segmentation and discrimination power of the diagnostic test, showing significant performance improvements in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods.

  8. A simple behavioral paradigm to measure impulsive behavior in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor Dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive "control" strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more "drinking attempts" and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD.

  9. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Krogh, Helle B; Ramstad, Erica

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate...... group trials (n=5111, median treatment duration 49 days) and 147 crossover trials (n=7134, 14 days). The average age across all studies was 9.7 years. The analysis suggested a beneficial effect of methylphenidate on teacher rated symptoms in 19 parallel group trials (standardised mean difference (SMD...

  10. Infrequent, but Not Frequent, Reinforcers Produce More Variable Responding and Deficient Sustained Attention in Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aase, Heidi; Sagvolden, Terje

    2006-01-01

    Background: The underlying behavioral/psychological processes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are unclear. Motivational factors, related to dopamine dysfunction, may play an important role in the development of the behavioral symptoms. Particularly, infrequent, but not frequent, reinforcers have been suggested to be associated with…

  11. Cognitive and neuropsychological characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children receiving stimulant medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, M G; Bowers, T G

    1993-12-01

    10 children receiving stimulant medication for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder were compared to normal children on cognitive and neuropsychological dimensions in a pilot study. When compared with 10 normal children the ADHD children showed significant differences on cognitive measures, including the Wechsler Developmental Index, the Bender Visual-motor Gestalt Test, and the Benton Revised Visual Retention Test. Elevated levels of polyspike EEG activity were also noted for these children. Analysis suggested that ADHD children receiving stimulant medications may have persisting neuropsychological difficulty. Further research on the neuropsychological correlates of ADHD seems warranted.

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder and Occurrence of Tic Disorders in Children and Adolescents-What is the Verdict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Tommi; So, Tsz-Yin

    2016-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration currently states that the use of stimulants in patients with tic disorders and/or family history of tic disorders including Tourette's syndrome is contraindicated. Patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however, are at increased risk of tics regardless of stimulants use. After evaluating the most recent literature on the incidence of tic disorders in pediatric patients treated with stimulants for ADHD, it is reasonable to say that the incidence of tics and the severity of tics are not increased by the use of these medications. For patients with pre-existing tic disorders, the usual recommended dosing of stimulants should be used because supratherapeutic doses of this class of medications, specifically dextroamphetamine, have shown to exacerbate tic disorders.

  13. Etiologic subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder : Brain imaging, molecular genetic and environmental factors and the dopamine hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanson, James M.; Kinsbourne, Marcel; Nigg, Joel; Lanphear, Bruce; Stefanatos, Gerry A.; Volkow, Nora; Taylor, Eric; Casey, B. J.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Wadhwa, Pathik D.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple theories of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been proposed, but one that has stood the test of time is the dopamine deficit theory. We review the narrow literature from recent brain imaging and molecular genetic studies that has improved our understanding of the role of

  14. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Relation to Addictive Behaviors: A Moderated-Mediation Analysis of Personality Risk Factors and Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research has shown that those with ADHD have an increased risk for addiction disorders like alcoholism and substance abuse. What is less clear is the mechanism(s whereby ADHD gives rise to increased engagement in addictive behaviors, and whether there are sex differences in the ADHD-addiction propensity. Both ADHD and addictions have also been associated with personality traits such as impulsivity, reward seeking, anxiousness, and negative affect. In this study, we tested a moderator-mediation model which predicted that both sex and ADHD-symptom status would make independent contributions to the variance in personality risk and in addictive behaviors, with males, and those with diagnosed ADHD, scoring higher on both dependent variables. Our model also predicted that the effect of sex and ADHD-symptom status on addictive behaviors would be via the mediating or intervening influence of personality risk factors. Methods: A community-based sample of young men and women took part in the study. Among these individuals, 46 had received a life-time diagnosis of ADHD. The non-diagnosed participants were dichotomized into a high-ADHD symptom group (n=83 and a low-symptom group (n=84. Results: We found that a high-risk personality profile may, in part, account for the relationship between ADHD symptomatology and the use/abuse of a broad range of addictive behaviors. However,we found no sex differences in personality risk for addiction or in the use of addictive behaviors; nor did sex moderate the relationships we assessed. Conclusions: While ADHD Status showed a strong relationship with both dependent variables in the model, we found no difference between those who had been diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulants, and their high-symptom non-diagnosed/non-treated counterparts. These results add support to claims that the treatment of ADHD with stimulant medication neither protects nor fosters the risk for substance abuse disorders.

  15. Trajectories of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms as Precursors of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists regarding the developmental links between childhood psychopathology and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. The current study addresses this gap by examining symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as potential precursors. ADHD and BPD…

  16. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life.

  17. Personal recovery in individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD) and co-occurring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronenberg, L.M.; Verkerk-Tamminga, R.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Brink, W. van den; Achterberg, T. van

    2015-01-01

    The process of personal recovery in people diagnosed with substance use disorder and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was mapped. Four general themes representing four consecutive stages in the recovery process were identified in both client

  18. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niermann, H.C.M.; Scheres, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefo

  19. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Associated Features among Children in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecendreux, Michel; Konofal, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Earlier studies point to the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be similar around the world. There is, however, a wide variety in estimates. The prevalence of ADHD in youth has never been examined in France. Method: Starting with 18 million telephone numbers, 7,912 numbers are randomly selected. Among the…

  20. Emerging association between addictive gaming and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Weizman, Abraham

    2012-10-01

    Children's and adolescent's use of computer games and videogames is becoming highly popular and has increased dramatically over the last decade. There is growing evidence of high prevalence of addiction to computer games and videogames among children, which is causing concern because of its harmful consequences. There is also emerging evidence of an association between computer game and videogame addiction and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This is indicated by the occurrence of gaming addiction as a co-morbid disorder of ADHD, common physiological and pharmacological mechanisms, and potential genetic association between the two disorders. A proper understanding of the psychological and neurotransmitter mechanisms underlying both disorders is important for appropriate diagnostic classification of both disorders. Furthermore, it is important for development of potential pharmacological treatment of both disorders. Relatively few studies have investigated the common mechanisms for both disorders. This paper reviews new findings, trends, and developments in the field. The paper is based on a literature search, in Medline and PUBMED, using the keywords addictive gaming and ADHD, of articles published between 2000 and 2012.

  1. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Kevin; Smart, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determine the prevalence and symptomatology of ADHD in postsecondary students, to examine its effects on academic achievement, and discuss appropriate management. The prevalence of ADHD symptoms among postsecondary students ranges from 2% to 12%. Students with ADHD have lower grade point averages and are more likely to withdraw from courses, to indulge in risky behaviors, and to have other psychiatric comorbidities than their non-ADHD peers. Ensuring that students with ADHD receive appropriate support requires documented evidence of impairment to academic and day-to-day functioning. In adults with ADHD, stimulants improve concentration and attention, although improved academic productivity remains to be demonstrated. ADHD negatively impacts academic performance in students and increases the likelihood of drug and alcohol problems. Affected students may therefore benefit from disability support services, academic accommodations, and pharmacological treatment.

  2. Correlation between epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ching Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study presents an evaluation of the bidirectional correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and epilepsy using 2 cohorts from the same population database. METHODS: We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to establish 2 separate cohort studies with participants <19 years old. We subdivided Cohort 1 in 2 groups: (1 2468 patients initially diagnosed with epilepsy during the period 1999-2008, and (2 9810 randomly selected sex- and age-matched non-epileptic controls. We subdivided Cohort 2 into 2 groups: (1 3664 patients with newly diagnosed ADHD and (2 14 522 sex- and age-matched non-ADHD patients. We evaluated the risk of subsequent ADHD in relationship to epilepsy and vice versa in the 2 cohorts at the end of 2008. RESULTS: The ADHD incidence in Cohort 1 was 7.76 in patients with epilepsy and 3.22 in those without epilepsy (per 1000 person-years after a median follow-up of 7-7.5 years. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR for ADHD was 2.54 (95% CI 2.02-3.18 in the epilepsy group compared to the non-epilepsy group. In Cohort 2, the incidence of epilepsy was 3.24 in patients with ADHD and 0.78 in those without ADHD (per 1000 person-years after a median follow-up of 3-3.5 years and an HR of 3.94 (95% CI 2.58-6.03. CONCLUSION: This study shows a bidirectional association between ADHD and epilepsy in the 2 cohort studies. Causative factors may be common between these 2 disorders, leading to a cascade of transcriptional changes in the brain that alter behavior or cognition prior to seizures.

  3. Behavioral Modification of Parents With the Barkley Method to Increase Resilience of Mothers of Children With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Haji Seyed Javadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Mothers of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder are faced with more stress than mothers of healthy children and this extreme stress can affect their ability to train their children effectively. Psychologists believe that there is a moderating factor between stressful events and psychological disorders that cause stressful events to have different effects on individuals. A type of this moderating factor is resiliency. Objectives To determine the efficacy of behavioral modification with Barkley method on resilience of mothers of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Patients and Methods Twenty-four mothers of children diagnosed with ADHD were randomly enrolled in this study. The mothers were selected from the 22nd of Bahman hospital of Qazvin city. Mothers with a low score in resilience with children aged between four and twelve years were assigned to experimental and control groups. In this study, a questionnaire was used to measure resilience. The data were analyzed by covariance analysis. Results The behavioral modification of mothers with the Barkley method significantly enhanced their resiliency with children of ADHD in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusions The behavioral modification was found to be effective for the resilience of mothers of children with ADHD.

  4. Hot and Cool Executive Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Tanya N; Becker, Stephen P; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2015-09-01

    While neuropsychological deficits in both "hot" and "cool" executive functions (EFs) have been documented among individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), these EF deficits are not universal across all individuals with this diagnosis. One potential moderator of executive dysfunction may be the presence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). This study examined the association between "hot" and "cool" EFs and comorbid ODD in children with ADHD. Thirty-three children with ADHD and comorbid ODD (ADHD+ODD), 67 with ADHD without ODD (ADHD-ODD), and 30 typically developing controls participated. Children were 7-12 years of age. "Cool" EFs were assessed with a spatial span task and a card sorting test. "Hot" EFs were assessed using a delay discounting task and a gambling task. ADHD-ODD and ADHD+ODD groups performed more poorly on "cool" EF tasks than controls, but did not differ from each other. Furthermore, the number of ADHD symptoms, but not ODD symptoms, was associated with "cool" EF scores. The three groups did not differ on "hot" EF tasks and the number of ADHD or ODD symptoms was unrelated to "hot" EF scores. In sum, children with ADHD presented with "cool" EF deficits which appear to be unrelated to ODD comorbidity. However, "hot" EF deficits were not present among children with ADHD, irrespective of comorbid ODD status.

  5. A Systematic Review of Parenting in Relation to the Development of Comorbidities and Functional Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deault, Louise C.

    2010-01-01

    This review synthesizes recent research evidence regarding the parenting characteristics associated with families with children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder with a range of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its behavioral expression and different developmental…

  6. Psychopharmacology of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects and Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad A; Hamzei, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children which manifests with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Several drugs are used in treatment of ADHD. Stimulants, atomoxetine, anti-depressants, and bupropion are common medications used in the treatment of ADHD. Stimulants are widely used as the first line treatment in children with ADHD. Their mechanism of action is the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in central nervous system. Methylphenidate is the most common stimulant used for the treatment of ADHD. Methylphenidate significantly reduces ADHD symptoms in children both at home and school and improves their social skills. Methylphenidate is safe in healthy children and has shown to have no cardiac side effects in these patients. Other medications include: Atomoxetine, Amphetamines, Clonidine, Melatonin, and anti-depressants. Effects, side effects, and mechanism of action these drugs have been discussed in this paper.

  7. Knowledge and Attitudes About Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Specific Learning Disorder in an Urban Indian Population.

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    Mukherjee, Sayantani; Shah, Henal R; Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Dewan, Mantosh

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific learning disorders (SLDs) are an important cause of scholastic backwardness among children and often go unrecognized. Few studies have examined knowledge and attitudes toward ADHD and SLD among school-aged children. To address this deficit, 120 school-aged children, attending a child guidance clinic in Mumbai, were interviewed using a questionnaire that examined children's knowledge and attitudes about ADHD and SLD. The results were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively with a frequently occurring medical illness, common cold. Approximately 80% to 100% of children were aware of their illness; however, a large variation was noted in the proportion of children (15%-80%) who could describe their symptoms, provide accurate attributions for their illness, and identify treatment modalities. Children with ADHD reported greater control over their illness. The study identified a significant lack of knowledge about ADHD and SLD among school-aged children in India and discusses implications of this finding.

  8. Glutamatergic and GABAergic gene sets in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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    Naaijen, J; Bralten, J; Poelmans, G

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often co-occur. Both are highly heritable; however, it has been difficult to discover genetic risk variants. Glutamate and GABA are main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain; their balance...... within glutamatergic and GABAergic genes were investigated using the MAGMA software in an ADHD case-only sample (n=931), in which we assessed ASD symptoms and response inhibition on a Stop task. Gene set analysis for ADHD symptom severity, divided into inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms......, autism symptom severity and inhibition were performed using principal component regression analyses. Subsequently, gene-wide association analyses were performed. The glutamate gene set showed an association with severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity (P=0.009), which was robust to correcting for genome...

  9. Heart Rate and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Christina; Grasmann, Dorte; Fegert, Jorg M.; Holtmann, Martin; Poustka, Fritz; Schmeck, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; hyperkinetic conduct disorder, conduct disorder, hyperkinetic disorder) characterized by low heart rate profit less from an intensive cognitive behavioral intervention aimed at reducing impulsive, oppositional and aggressive behavior problems. Method: Basal heart rate…

  10. Comparative Efficacy of Iranian and Foreign Methylphenidate in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

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    M Karahmadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Methylphenidate is one of the basic drugs in treating ADHD. According to many clinical studies, the foreign form of methylphenidate (ritalin is more efficient than the Iranian form of the drug (stimidate. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of stimidate and Ritalin in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Materials & Methods: In this double blind, randomized clinical trial, 200 children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder who referred to Isfahan psychiatric clinics were studied. For 100 of these patients ritalin was prescribed while others received stimidate. After 4 weeks, changes in severity of symptoms were evaluated with parental form of Conner's questionnaire. Results: After 4 weeks of treatment, the mean decrease of Conner's number in Ritalin group was 19.63±13.5 and in Stimidate group was 3.29±7.2. Ritalin had effectiveness in treatment of 83.3 percent of the patients ( 6 reduction in Conner's number, but Stimidate was only effective in treating 37.5 percent of the patients. Conclusion: This study showed that foreign methylphenidate (ritalin is more effective than the Iranian form of the medicine (stimidate.

  11. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogman, Martine; Bralten, Janita; Hibar, Derrek P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies...... compared with controls in the mega-analysis. There was no difference in volume size in the pallidum (p=0·95) and thalamus (p=0·39) between people with ADHD and controls. Exploratory lifespan modelling suggested a delay of maturation and a delay of degeneration, as effect sizes were highest in most...... and adults for the pallidum (p=0·79) or thalamus (p=0·89). Case-control differences in adults were non-significant (all p>0·03). Psychostimulant medication use (all p>0·15) or symptom scores (all p>0·02) did not influence results, nor did the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders (all p>0...

  12. Identity status and attachment in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuhadaroğlu Çetin, Füsun; Akdemir, Devrim; Tüzün, Zeynep; Cak, Tuna; Senses Dinç, Gülser; Taşğın Çöp, Esra; Evinç, Gülin

    2013-01-01

    Identity and attachment are two concepts of different theories that might be related and that are developmentally very important in adolescence. The aim of this study was to explore the sense of identity, attachment styles and their relation in a group of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thirty-four adolescents who were diagnosed with ADHD in childhood were reevaluated at the age of 13-16 years. The comparison group consisted of age- and gender-matched adolescents without a psychiatric disorder. The Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF) and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) were used to examine the sense of identity and attachment styles of adolescents, respectively. Compared to adolescents without a psychiatric disorder, adolescents with ADHD, independent of the presence of a comorbid psychiatric disorder, had a similar identity formation process; however, adolescents with ADHD and a comorbid psychiatric disorder experienced more preoccupied attachment styles. Comorbid psychiatric disorders seem to be related to the insecure attachment patterns in adolescents with ADHD.

  13. Deficient Attention Is Hard to Find: Applying the Perceptual Load Model of Selective Attention to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…

  14. Emotional Intelligence in Learners with Attention Deficit Disorder

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    Wootton, Carol Anne; Roets, H. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse and evaluate the nature and quality of emotional intelligence in learners with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), and to investigate whether their emotional intelligence was enhanced, and whether the symptoms and behaviour of these learners improved, after exposure to a programme on emotional intelligence.…

  15. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Successful Completion of Anesthesia Residency: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Michael G; Brookman, Jason C; Arnholz, Sarah H; Baker, Keith

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive and physical disabilities among anesthesia residents are not well studied. Cognitive disabilities may often go undiagnosed among trainees, and these trainees may struggle during their graduate medical education. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an executive function disorder that may manifest as lack of vigilance, an inability to adapt to the rapid changes associated with anesthesia cases, distractibility, an inability to prioritize activities, and even periods of hyperfocusing, among other signs. Programs are encouraged to work closely with residents with such disabilities to develop an educational plan that includes accommodations for their unique learning practices while maintaining the critical aspects of the program. The authors present the management of a case of an anesthesia resident with a diagnosis of ADHD, the perspectives of the trainee, program director, clinical competency director, and the office of general counsel. This article also provides follow-up in the five years since completion of residency.

  16. Atypical within- and between-hemisphere motor network functional connections in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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    Kevin R. McLeod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental coordination disorder (DCD and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are highly comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders; however, the neural mechanisms of this comorbidity are poorly understood. Previous research has demonstrated that children with DCD and ADHD have altered brain region communication, particularly within the motor network. The structure and function of the motor network in a typically developing brain exhibits hemispheric dominance. It is plausible that functional deficits observed in children with DCD and ADHD are associated with neurodevelopmental alterations in within- and between-hemisphere motor network functional connection strength that disrupt this hemispheric dominance. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine functional connections of the left and right primary and sensory motor (SM1 cortices in children with DCD, ADHD and DCD + ADHD, relative to typically developing children. Our findings revealed that children with DCD, ADHD and DCD + ADHD exhibit atypical within- and between-hemisphere functional connection strength between SM1 and regions of the basal ganglia, as well as the cerebellum. Our findings further support the assertion that development of atypical motor network connections represents common and distinct neural mechanisms underlying DCD and ADHD. In children with DCD and DCD + ADHD (but not ADHD, a significant correlation was observed between clinical assessment of motor function and the strength of functional connections between right SM1 and anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and regions involved in visuospatial processing. This latter finding suggests that behavioral phenotypes associated with atypical motor network development differ between individuals with DCD and those with ADHD.

  17. Atypical within- and between-hemisphere motor network functional connections in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Kevin R; Langevin, Lisa Marie; Dewey, Deborah; Goodyear, Bradley G

    2016-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders; however, the neural mechanisms of this comorbidity are poorly understood. Previous research has demonstrated that children with DCD and ADHD have altered brain region communication, particularly within the motor network. The structure and function of the motor network in a typically developing brain exhibits hemispheric dominance. It is plausible that functional deficits observed in children with DCD and ADHD are associated with neurodevelopmental alterations in within- and between-hemisphere motor network functional connection strength that disrupt this hemispheric dominance. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine functional connections of the left and right primary and sensory motor (SM1) cortices in children with DCD, ADHD and DCD + ADHD, relative to typically developing children. Our findings revealed that children with DCD, ADHD and DCD + ADHD exhibit atypical within- and between-hemisphere functional connection strength between SM1 and regions of the basal ganglia, as well as the cerebellum. Our findings further support the assertion that development of atypical motor network connections represents common and distinct neural mechanisms underlying DCD and ADHD. In children with DCD and DCD + ADHD (but not ADHD), a significant correlation was observed between clinical assessment of motor function and the strength of functional connections between right SM1 and anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and regions involved in visuospatial processing. This latter finding suggests that behavioral phenotypes associated with atypical motor network development differ between individuals with DCD and those with ADHD.

  18. MULTI DISCIPLINARY APPROACH IN TREATING A GIRL CHILD DIAGNOSED WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPER ACTIVE DISORDER AND OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER. A CASE REPORT

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    Rahul Shaik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The principle features of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. There is little evidence that confirms that Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is arising purely from child rearing methods or social factors.76 % of children with ADHD has a family history, and the similar cases can be seen in the family. The symptoms of more than 50 % of ADHD children will continue in adulthood which requires treatment. Most of the causes appear for ADHD are categorizing the condition in a group of neurobiological and genetic disorders. This does not mean to say that the influence of environmental factors on the severity of disorder, impairment and suffering the child may experience is nil, but those factors do not give rise to the condition by themselves. The chances of getting associated problems like Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD in children with ADHD is one-third to one-half and ODD is more common in boys with ADHD. These children are often non compliant, stubborn, defiant, have outbursts of temper, or become belligerent. Case description: This is a case report of a child who diagnosed as attention deficit hyper active disordered and Oppositional Defiant Disordered (ODD child, with finger contractures of right hand, which treated with medications, behavioral therapy, physiotherapy, relaxation techniques and music therapy as the means of rehabilitation. Outcome measures: The evaluation measures used are Nine-hole peg test, behavioral rating scale and a seven items temperament evaluation scale. Discussion: A holistic rehabilitation therapy increased attention, listening to suggestions, short stories and sleeping in time. Oppositional behaviors were also reduced both at home and school. Her relationships with parent, teachers and school mates were improved. Listening skills, attention, daily activities such as wake up, brushing, bathing, going to school in time were also

  19. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  20. DSM-5 Further Inflates Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible harmf

  1. Playfulness in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, Elizabeth E.; Bundy, Anita C.

    2000-01-01

    Scores on the Test of Playfulness for 25 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were significantly lower than those of 25 children without, especially on internal control, intrinsic motivation, and framing. Three items (mischief, teasing/joking, clowning) yielded unexpectedly higher scores for ADHD children. (SK)

  2. Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Benefit from Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany M.; Quintino, Olga; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Koslovsky, Gabrielle

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-eight adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were provided either massage therapy or relaxation therapy for 10 consecutive school days. The massage therapy group, but not the relaxation therapy group, self-rated as happier, and observers rated them as fidgeting less following the sessions. Teachers reported more time on…

  3. Baseline omega-3 index correlates with aggressive and attention deficit disorder behaviours in adult prisoners.

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    Barbara J Meyer

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments.To determine if the variance of the omega-3 index is correlated with aggressive and attention deficit behaviour in a prison population.136 adult male prisoners were recruited from South Coast Correctional Centre (SCCC, NSW Australia. A 7 point categorisation was used to quantify levels of aggressive behaviour (4 weeks from individual SCCC case notes, whereby higher scores correspond to increasingly aggressive behaviour. Study participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ and the Brown's Attention Deficit Disorder Scales (BADDS, provided a blood sample for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and the omega-3 index was calculated.The baseline omega-3 index ranged from 2.3% to 10.3%, indicating that some participants already had substantial omega-3 intake, however a median of 4.7% indicated a lower overall omega-3 intake than the general Australian population. Assessment of aggressive and attention deficit behaviour shows that there were negative correlations between baseline omega-3 index and baseline aggression categorisation scores (r = -0.21, P = 0.016; total AQ score (r = -0.234, P = 0.011; Anger (r = -0.222 p = 0.016; Hostility AQ (r = -0.239, P = 0.009; indirect aggression (r = -0.188 p = 0.042; total BADDS (r = -0.263, p = 0.005; Activation (r = -0.224, p = 0.016; Attention (r = -0.192, p = 0.043; Effort (r = -0.253, p = 0.007; Affect (r = -0.330, p = 0.000 and Memory (r = -0.240, p = 0.010.There is a high variability in omega-3 status of a NSW prison

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type: evidence for an association with COMT but not MAOA in a Chinese sample

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    Wang Yu-Feng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are three childhood disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, and conduct disorder (CD. The most common comorbid disorder in ADHD is ODD. DSM-IV describes three ADHD subtypes: predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-IA, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-HI, and combined type (ADHD-C. Prior work suggests that specific candidate genes are associated with specific subtypes of ADHD in China. Our previous association studies between ADHD and functional polymorphisms of COMT and MAOA, consistently showed the low transcriptional activity alleles were preferentially transmitted to ADHD-IA boys. Thus, the goal of the present study is to test the hypothesis that COMT Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR jointly contribute to the ODD phenotype among Chinese ADHD boys. Methods 171 Chinese boys between 6 and 17.5 years old (mean = 10.3, SD = 2.6 with complete COMT val158met and MAOA-uVNTR genotyping information were studied. We used logistic regression with genotypes as independent variables and the binary phenotype as the dependent variable. We used p Results Our results highlight the potential etiologic role of COMT in the ADHD with comorbid ODD and its predominately inattentive type in male Chinese subjects. ADHD with comorbid ODD was associated with homozygosity of the high-activity Val allele, while the predominantly inattentive ADHD subtype was associated with the low-activity Met allele. We found no evidence of association between the MAOA-uVNTR variant and ADHD with comorbid ODD or the ADHD-IA subtype. Conclusion Our study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type highlights the potential etiologic role of COMT for ADHD children in China. But we failed to observe an interaction between COMT and MAOA, which suggests that epistasis between COMT and MAOA genes does not

  5. Effects of methylphenidate on appetite and growth in children diagnosed with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Fatih; Gurbuz, Berrak Bilginer; Celik, Gonca Gul; Yildirim, Veli; Ucakturk, Seyit Ahmet; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Ucakturk, Eda Mengen; Topaloglu, Ali Kemal; Yuksel, Bilgin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of leptin, ghrelin, and nesfatin-1 to elucidate the causes of poor appetite and growth retardation in patients receiving methylphenidate therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The study was performed on 89 male subjects; 48 patients and 41 healthy controls, aged 7-14 years. Following treatment, patients' leptin levels increased and ghrelin levels decreased while no significant change was found in nesfatin-1 levels. Of the 48 patients, 34 developed lack of appetite. In patients who developed lack of appetite, body weight SDS, body mass index (BMI), and BMI SDS were statistically significantly reduced; moreover, height SDS was reduced, though not to a statistically significant extent. This study attempted to elucidate the mechanisms that mediate the association between methylphenidate and appetite and growth, for which no studies have yet to be published.

  6. Can executive functions explain the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and social adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda; McBurnett, Keith

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the ability of executive functions (EF) to account for the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) status and social adjustment as indexed by parent and teacher report and by performance on a standardized observational "chat room" task. Children with the Combined subtype (ADHD-C; n = 23), the Primarily Inattentive Subtype (ADHD-I; n = 33), and non-ADHD controls (n = 36) participated. EF did not mediate the relationship between ADHD status and parent or teacher report of social adjustment. EF accounted for about 40-50% of the variance between ADHD status and the ability of children to detect subtle verbal cues as well as memory for the conversation in the chat room task, but did not mediate the relationship between ADHD and the number of prosocial, hostile, or on-topic statements that were made. Results are consistent with other recent reports, and suggest that the role of EF deficits in the production of social skill deficits in ADHD may not be as prominent as is typically assumed. The implications for the development of intervention programs designed to target core cognitive etiologic factors are discussed.

  7. Iron Deficiency Parameters in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percinel, Ipek; Yazici, Kemal Utku; Ustundag, Bilal

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to compare iron deficiency parameters in patients with stimulant-naive attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls, to investigate whether there are differences among the ADHD presentations, and to evaluate the relationship between ADHD symptom severity and serum ferritin levels. In addition, ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-PI) patients with restrictive hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were evaluated as a separate group with "restrictive inattention presentation" (ADHD-Rest) and were compared with other groups. Patients with ADHD-Rest are typically defined as having six or more symptoms of inattention and fewer than three symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity. A total of 200 ADHD cases consisting of 100 ADHD-Combine (ADHD-C) and 100 ADHD-PI and a total of 100 healthy control cases were included in the study. The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version was performed in a semi-structured interview during the diagnosis. The Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale, the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised: Long Form (Parent-Teacher) (CPRSR:L, CTRS-R:L) were used for clinical evaluation. Hemogram, serum iron, iron binding capacity and serum ferritin levels were assessed. There were no significant differences between the ADHD patients and the healthy control cases in terms of iron deficiency parameters. Further, there were no significant differences among the ADHD presentations in terms of the same parameters, nor were there any significant differences when the groups were examined after the identification of the ADHD-Rest. The CPRS-R:L Hyperactivity and the CTRS-R:L Hyperactivity scores were negatively correlated with serum ferritin level in the ADHD group. To our knowledge, our current study is the first to compare serum ferritin levels in ADHD-Rest with other presentations of ADHD, and included the largest

  8. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and offspring risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Maslova, E.; Hansen, S.

    2013-01-01

    . Objective: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on offspring risk of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Methods: We used data from 397 and 654 singleton offspring of mothers who were randomized to fish oil (providing 1 g/day of DHA) or olive oil during...... of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA Background: Fish oil contains docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most abundant fatty acid in the cerebral cortex. Previous studies have suggested beneficial effects of maternal DHA intake on brain development and psychopathology in the offspring...... in the fish oil group, [OR = 0.71(95% CI: 0.38;1.33)]; whereas the OR in the FOTIP was approaching unity [OR = 1.09 (95%CI 0.53;2.25)]. Conclusions: We found no statistically significant effects of fish oil supplementation during pregnancy on ADHD or depression in the offspring up to the age of 14–20. However...

  9. Cognition in anxious children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a comparison with clinical and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Arlene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition in children with anxiety disorders (ANX and comorbid Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD has received little attention, potentially impacting clinical and academic interventions in this highly disabled group. This study examined several cognitive features relative to children with either pure condition and to normal controls. Methods One hundred and eight children ages 8–12 and parents were diagnosed by semi-structured parent interview and teacher report as having: ANX (any anxiety disorder except OCD or PTSD; n = 52, ADHD (n = 21, or ANX + ADHD (n = 35. All completed measures of academic ability, emotional perception, and working memory. Clinical subjects were compared to 35 normal controls from local schools. Results Groups did not differ significantly on age, gender, or estimated IQ. On analyses of variance, groups differed on academic functioning (Wide Range Achievement Test, p Conclusion Though requiring replication, findings suggest that ANX + ADHD relates to greater cognitive and academic vulnerability than ANX, but may relate to reduced perception of anger.

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual giftedness: a study of symptom frequency and minor physical anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Minahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the presence of symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in intellectually gifted adults and children. Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were performed in children and adults whose intelligence quotient (IQ had been previously evaluated using Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM test. Seventy-seven adults displaying IQ scores above the 98th percentile were assessed using the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS-18 for signs of ADHD and a modified Waldrop scale for minor physical anomalies (MPAs. Thirty-nine children (grades 1-5 exhibiting IQ scores above the 99th percentile, as well as an equally matched control group, were assessed for ADHD by teachers using the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham IV Rating Scale (SNAP-IV as used in the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA-SNAP-IV. Results: In gifted adults, the frequency of ADHD-positive cases was 37.8%, and the total MPA score was significantly associated with ADHD (p < 0.001. In children, the ADHD-positive case frequency was 15.38% in the gifted group and 7.69% in the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 2.18, p = 0.288. Conclusions: The high frequency of ADHD symptoms observed, both in gifted adults and in gifted (and non-gifted children, further supports the validity of this diagnosis in this population. Furthermore, the significant association between MPAs and ADHD suggests that a neurodevelopmental condition underlies these symptoms.

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disordered eating behaviour: A systematic review and a framework for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisari, Panagiota; Dourish, Colin T; Higgs, Suzanne

    2017-03-06

    Preliminary findings suggest that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be associated with disordered eating behaviour, but whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and specific types of disordered eating behaviour is unclear. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether specific features associated with ADHD are differentially associated with disordered eating behaviour. A systematic review of seventy-five studies was conducted to evaluate the potential association between ADHD symptomatology and disordered eating behaviour and to provide an estimate of the strength of evidence for any association. Overall, a moderate strength of evidence exists for a positive association between ADHD and disordered eating and with specific types of disordered-eating behaviour, in particular, overeating behaviour. There is consistent evidence that impulsivity symptoms of ADHD are positively associated with overeating and bulimia nervosa and more limited evidence for an association between hyperactivity symptoms and restrictive eating in males but not females. Further research is required to assess the potential direction of the relationship between ADHD and disordered eating, the underlying mechanisms and the role of specific ADHD symptoms in the development and/or maintenance of disordered eating behaviour. We propose a framework that could be used to guide the design of future studies.

  12. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder blame game: a study on the positioning of professionals, teachers and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is currently the most debated childhood psychiatric diagnosis. Given the circulation of competing perspectives about the 'real' causes of children's behaviour and the 'best' way to treat them, we aim to analyse the interactions of the central social actors' discourses about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children within the Italian context. Adopting a multi-method approach, we focus on the polyphonic chorus of voices surrounding the child, studying the discourses of mental health professionals, teachers and parents. These actors are representative of three contexts that are deeply engaged with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: medical institutions, schools and families. Our theoretical and methodological approach integrates positioning theory, the Bakhtinian notion of dialogical thinking and discourse analysis to study stakeholders' reflexive and interactive positioning in terms of the attribution of rights, duties, responsibilities and power issues. The results show that mutual blame is a constitutive element of relational dynamics among the key adults surrounding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children. We argue that these conflicting relationships are not merely related to the debate regarding the validity of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Rather, the mutual blame centres on questions of compliance, recognition of authority and morality. Through the blame game, adults negotiate their own and others' subjectivity in ways that simultaneously (re)produce power relationships and resistance efforts.

  13. Association between Parent Reports of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Behaviours and Child Impulsivity in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, K.; Daley, D. M.; Hastings, R. P.; Jones, R. S. P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although children with intellectual disability (ID) seemed to be at increased risk for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/hyperactivity problems when assessed with parent report questionnaires and clinical interviews, there has been little attention to the associations between parent reports and observed child behaviours.…

  14. The Use of Trauma Counseling for Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at risk for behavioral problems and so are frequently brought to the attention of counselors. The literature is limited, however, in examining specific counseling techniques for this population, and particularly in discussing counseling in a developing country where children do not…

  15. Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Functional Impairment in Clinic- and Community-Based Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lin, Yu-Ju; Shang, Chi-Yung; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Soong, Wei-Tsuen

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 268 patients and 137 community-based children with DSM-IV ADHD, and 268 school controls, aged 6-15, this study aimed to compare the emotional/behavioral problems and functional impairment between clinic- and community-based children with ADHD. Children's ADHD-related symptoms, a wide range of emotional/behavioral problems, and…

  16. Response Inhibition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K.; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with…

  17. Separation of genetic influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and reaction time performance from those on IQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, A. C.; Asherson, P.; van der Meere, J. J.; Kuntsi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows a strong phenotypic and genetic association with reaction time (RI) variability, considered to reflect lapses in attention. Yet we know little about whether this aetiological pathway is shared with other affected cognitive processes i

  18. Assisting children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to reduce the hyperactive behavior of arbitrary standing in class with a Nintendo Wii remote controller through an active reminder and preferred reward stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Hui; Wang, Yun-Ting

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies in the field of special education have shown that in combination with software technology, high-tech commercial products can be applied as useful assistive technology devices to help people with disabilities. This study extended this concept to turn a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, in order to evaluate whether two students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) could reduce their hyperactive behavior through an active reminder and stimulation in the form of the participants' preferred rewards. This study focused on one particular hyperactive behavior common to both students: standing up arbitrarily during class. The active reminder was in the form of vibration feedback provided via the built-in function of the Wii Remote Controller, which was controlled and triggered by a control system to remind participants when they were engaging in standing behavior. This study was performed according to a multiple baseline design across participants. The results showed that both participants significantly improved their control over their hyperactive behavior during the intervention phase, and retained this effective performance in the maintenance phase. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Treatment of Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Anxiety in Children : A Multiple Baseline Design Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Matthew A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study evaluated a 10-week psychosocial treatment designed specifically for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a comorbid anxiety disorder. Method: Using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design, the authors treated 8 children ages 8-12 with ADHD, combined type, and at least 1 of 3 major anxiety…

  20. Study of defensive methods and mechanisms in developmental, emotional (internalization), and disruptive behavior (externalization) disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, H R; Zamani, N; Darvishi, M; Khansari, M R

    2014-09-18

    We need to find a way for adaptation with inherent unpleasantness of being human condition and conflicts that it caused, as we did not fail. Methods that we used for adaptation are named defense. This research have performed with the aim of study and compare defensive mechanisms and methods of Developmental, Emotional (Internalization), and Disruptive behavior (Externalization) disorders. Method, sample of this research included 390 family that are by available sampling method are selected. Tools of research were structured clinical interview of forth cognitive and statistical guide of psychopathic disorders for axis I and the way used for assess defensive mechanisms is defensive method 40 question's questionnaires of Andrews (1993). The data are compared by statistical methods comparison of averages and one way variance analysis and HSD tests and results show that undeveloped defensive mechanisms in by developmental disorder family (25.2 ± 3.7) mean and standard deviation, it is most used mechanism and in disruptive behavior disorder family by (11.2 ± 1.9) mean and standard deviation is used least mechanism and in developed mechanism of emotional disorder family by (7.8 ± 3.1) mean and standard deviation is most used mechanism and in developmental disorder family by (4.3 ± 1.5) mean and standard deviation is least mechanism in neuroticism patient, social phobia affected emotional disorder family (15.6 ± 2.6) and disruptive behavior disorder family have least mean and standard deviation (9.2 ± 1.7) (p< 0.005). Recent research shows significant of study defensive mechanism in psychopathic family of disorder children that affecting on the way of life of persons and interpersonal and intrapersonal relations and method of solving problem in family of them in life, so defensive mechanisms require more attention.

  1. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and violence in the population of England: does comorbidity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A González

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and violence is explained by ADHD symptoms or co-existing psychopathology. We investigated associations of ADHD and its symptom domains of hyperactivity and inattention, among individuals reporting violence in the UK population. METHODS: We report data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (2007, a representative sample of the household population of England. A randomly selected sample of 7,369 completed the Adult Self-Report Scale for ADHD and the self-reported violence module, including repetition, injury, minor violence, victims and location of incidents. All models were weighted to account for non-response and carefully adjusted for demography and clinical predictors of violence: antisocial personality, substance misuse and anxiety disorders. RESULTS: ADHD was moderately associated with violence after adjustments (OR 1.75, p = .01. Hyperactivity, but not inattention was associated with several indicators of violence in the domestic context (OR 1.16, p = .03. Mild and moderate ADHD symptoms were significantly associated with violence repetition, but not severe ADHD where the association was explained by co-existing disorders. Stratified analyses further indicated that most violence reports are associated with co-occurring psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: The direct effect of ADHD on violence is only moderate at the population level, driven by hyperactivity, and involving intimate partners and close persons. Because violence associated with severe ADHD is explained by co-existing psychopathology, interventions should primarily target co-existing disorders.

  2. Motor Skills of Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prior to and Following Treatment with Stimulant Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…

  3. An Examination of the Relationship between Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Symptoms of Anxiety in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Stacey R.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have found significant comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders in children (e.g., Bauermeister et al., 2007; Busch et al., 2002), but limited research has examined factors that may underlie or explain this relationship (e.g., Lilienfeld, 2003; Baldwin & Dadds, 2008). This study…

  4. Neuropsychological Test Performance and the Attention Deficit Disorders: Clinical Utility of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaughency, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision (LNNB-CR) to 54 clinic-referred children aged 8-12 years. Compared children reliably diagnosed as attention deficit disorder (ADD) with hyperactivity, without hyperactivity, and control group with internalizing disorders. Findings failed to support hypothesis that ADD is…

  5. Which Kindergarten Children Are at Greatest Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Conduct Disorder Symptomatology as Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Lin, Yu-chu

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify which kindergarten children are simultaneously at risk of moderate or severe symptomatology in both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) as adolescents. These risk factor estimates have not been previously available. We conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses of multiinformant…

  6. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and locomotor activity in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus W. Lange

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most frequent behavioral disorder of childhood and is characterized by hyperactivity, attention problems and impulsivity. Pharmacological and behavioral therapies have been shown to be effective. In addition, the role of dietary compounds in the etiology and possibly the treatment of ADHD has attracted increasing attention. For example, the lack of dietary essential fatty acids has been suggested to be associated with symptoms of ADHD in humans.Objective: To investigate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs on locomotor activity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR which has been proposed as an animal model of ADHD.Methods: Two groups of randomly assigned spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed with either n-3 PUFA-deficient or n-3 PUFA-enriched food (based on AIN93G for six weeks and this was continued during the phase of behavioral testing. Locomotor activity was subsequently assessed using an open field test.Results: The results showed a marked difference in locomotor activity between the two groups of SHRs. In comparison with rats fed with n-3 deficient food, the animals on an n-3 enriched diet showed a statistically significant decrease in motor activity as assessed by the distance traveled.Conclusions: The present study demonstrates a marked reduction in locomotor activity following an n-3 PUFA-enriched diet in SHRs, i.e. the dietary enrichment with n-3 PUFAs reduced the motor activity in an established animal model of ADHD. Dietary n-3 PUFAs may therefore play a role in the pathophysiology of ADHD.Key words: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, animal model, spontaneously hypertensive rat, SHR, motor activity

  7. [Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a systematic literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bianca Del Ponte da; Anselmi, Luciana; Schmidt, Vera; Santos, Iná S

    2015-04-01

    This aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review on the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. The systematic multiple-stage literature search in PubMed, LILACS, BIREME, and PsycINFO was limited to research in human subjects and published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. A total of 373 references were retrieved. Of these, only five met the study's objectives and were kept in the review. Most of the studies employed a longitudinal design, were conducted in developed countries, and were published in the last five years. Only one study found a positive association. Studies on caffeine consumption during pregnancy and ADHD are scarce, with conflicting results and several methodological difficulties such as lack of standardized outcome measures.

  8. Sleep of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: actigraphic and parental reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Vincent; Rouleau, Nancie; Morin, Charles M

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the sleep of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), using actigraphy and parental questionnaires, and examine the potentially moderating role of psychostimulant medication and psychiatric comorbidity. Children with ADHD significantly differed from controls on parental and actigraphic measures of sleep, with parental reports indicating more severe sleep disturbances, and actigraphic recordings of longer sleep onset latency, lower sleep efficiency, and lower total sleep time. Both medicated and unmedicated ADHD subgroups differed from the control group on sleep measures, but did not differ from each other. Only the subgroup with comorbid psychiatric symptoms differed from the control group on actigraphic measures. The presence of psychiatric comorbidity, but not psychostimulant medication use, was associated with more severe sleep disturbances. The main implication of these findings is that clinicians should systematically attend to sleep disturbances in children with ADHD, particularly when other psychiatric symptoms are also present.

  9. The Speed of Visual Attention and Motor-Response Decisions in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cross-Villasana, Fernando; Finke, Kathrin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit slowed reaction times (RTs) in various attention tasks. The exact origins of this slowing, however, have not been yet established. Potential candidates are early sensory processes mediating the deployment......-related potentials (ERP) during the performance of a visual-search task to differentiate potential sources of slowing at separable levels of processing: the posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) was used to index focalattentional selection times, while the lateralized readiness potentials synchronized to stimulus...

  10. Modeling psychotic and cognitive symptoms of affective disorders: Disrupted latent inhibition and reversal learning deficits in highly stress reactive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapman, A; Heinzmann, J-M; Holsboer, F; Landgraf, R; Touma, C

    2010-09-01

    Increased stress reactivity has repeatedly been reported in patients suffering from psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia and major depression. These disorders also have other symptoms in common, such as cognitive deficits and psychotic-like behavior. We have therefore investigated if increased stress reactivity is associated with these phenotypic endpoints in an animal model of affective disorders. The stress reactivity mouse model used in this study consists of three CD-1-derived mouse lines, that have been selectively bred for high (HR), intermediate (IR) or low (LR) stress reactivity. Male mice from these three breeding lines were subjected to a reversal learning task and latent inhibition (Li) was assessed using a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Furthermore, as the dopaminergic system is involved in both Li and reversal learning, the dopamine 1 receptor (D1R), dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) and dopamine transporter (DAT) mRNA expression levels were assessed in relevant brain areas of these animals. The results demonstrate that HR mice show perseveration in the reversal learning task and have disrupted Li. Furthermore, compared to LR mice, HR mice have decreased D2R mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area, as well as decreased D1R mRNA levels in the cingulate cortex, and an increased expression of D2R mRNA in the nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the HR mice display cognitive deficits associated with psychotic-like behavior, similar to those observed in patients suffering from schizophrenia and major depression and could be utilized in the search for better treatment strategies for these symptoms of psychiatric disorders.

  11. Set shifting and working memory in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlf, Helena; Jucksch, Viola; Gawrilow, Caterina; Huss, Michael; Hein, Jakob; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the high number of studies that investigated executive functions (EF) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a little is known about the EF performance of adults with ADHD. This study compared 37 adults with ADHD (ADHD(total)) and 32 control participants who were equivalent in age, intelligence quotient (IQ), sex, and years of education, in two domains of EF--set shifting and working memory. Additionally, the ADHD(total) group was subdivided into two subgroups: ADHD patients without comorbidity (ADHD(-), n = 19) and patients with at least one comorbid disorder (ADHD(+), n = 18). Participants fulfilled two measures for set shifting (i.e., the trail making test, TMT and a computerized card sorting test, CKV) and one measure for working memory (i.e., digit span test, DS). Compared to the control group the ADHD(total) group displayed deficits in set shifting and working memory. The differences between the groups were of medium-to-large effect size (TMT: d = 0.48; DS: d = 0.51; CKV: d = 0.74). The subgroup comparison of the ADHD(+) group and the ADHD(-) group revealed a poorer performance in general information processing speed for the ADHD(+) group. With regard to set shifting and working memory, no significant differences could be found between the two subgroups. These results suggest that the deficits of the ADHD(total) group are attributable to ADHD rather than to comorbidity. An influence of comorbidity, however, could not be completely ruled out as there was a trend of a poorer performance in the ADHD(+) group on some of the outcome measures.

  12. The Association Between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Williams, Rebecca; Russell, Ginny

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review examines associations between parental socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by parental income, education, occupation and marital status. Results were mixed by measure of SES with no one aspect being differentially related to ADHD. 42 studies were included in the review, of which 35 found a significant univariate association between socioeconomic disadvantage and ADHD. Meta-analyses of dimensions of SES and their association with ADHD indicate that children in families of low SES are on average 1.85-2.21 more likely to have ADHD than their peers in high SES families. In spite of substantial between-study heterogeneity, there is evidence for an association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risk of ADHD measured in different ways. This is likely mediated by factors linked to low SES such as parental mental health and maternal smoking during pregnancy.

  13. Perceived parenting style and self-perception in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: there is a growing interest in the study of the self-perceptions of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and the bias in their self-concept. Goal: to explore how ADHD children’s perception of parenting style predicts their selfperception and the bias in self-concept. Method: Participants: children between 7 and 13 years old diagnosed with ADHD, children assisting to psychotherapy without an ADHD diagnose, and children not assisting to psychotherapy. It also participated one of their parents. Data analysis: It was used simple logistic regressions. Groups were studied separately. Results: maternal pathological control was the main predictor of ADHD children’s positive self-perceptions and bias. In the comparison groups it predicts negative self-perceptions. Results are discussed in the light of self-protection hypothesis.

  14. The behavioural profile of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder and of their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Zülli-Weilenmann, Nicole; Brandeis, Daniel; Müller, Ueli C; Valko, Lilian; Drechsler, Renate

    2012-03-01

    The behavioural profiles in N = 69 index children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),N = 32 siblings with ADHD, N = 35 siblings without ADHD, and N = 36 normal controls were compared by the use of standardized parent and teacher rating scales. The four groups were matched by age and IQ. The behavioural profiles of the two ADHD groups were very similar not only in the behavioural domains of ADHD, but also in scales measuring emotional and conduct problems. Siblings without ADHD shared more similarities with normal controls except for more emotional problems. These general trends were stronger in the parent compared to the teacher ratings. These findings indicate that not only ADHD-related but also other behaviours show a strong family aggregation. The informant differences may reflect context dependent differences in child behaviour and contrast effects particularly in parental ratings.

  15. Oculomotor Performance Identifies Underlying Cognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Yasui, Enami; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the cognitive control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder through the use of oculomotor tests reveal that this group showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. All subjects were found to have intact sensorimotor function and working memory.

  16. Parental perceptions of academic performance and attainment of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Wei, Tianlan; Parker, Sonia L; Attai, Shanna L

    2013-07-01

    We examined parental perceptions of academic performance and attainment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to both parent and child gender along with the interaction of parent and child gender. The current study adds to the body of research by examining the perceptions of parents of children with ADHD according to both parent and child gender. The results indicate that fathers, on the whole, seemed less likely to consider ADHD to have negative academic implications for their children as compared with mothers. With regard to child gender, the fathers seemed less likely to consider ADHD to have negative academic implications for their sons over their daughters. The results suggest that interventions for parents of children with ADHD should be targeted to fathers with sons with ADHD.

  17. Pharmacotherapy and academic achievement among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Brak, Victor

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the association of pharmacological treatments and academic achievement among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results examining the association of pharmacological treatments and academic achievement among children with ADHD are mixed. Our objective was to examine this association using structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques, which may be considered more sophisticated and advanced over traditional regression techniques. To achieve the purpose, we employed a sample of children with ADHD derived from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data. The ECLS-K provides a large, community-based, nationally representative sample of children to examine across time with respect to academic achievement outcomes. The present study reveals a statistically nonsignificant association between pharmacological treatment and academic achievement among children with ADHD. These results derived from a large, community-based, nationally representative sample, using SEM techniques, may be considered highly generalizable.

  18. Parenting cognitions and treatment beliefs as predictors of experience using behavioral parenting strategies in families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charlotte; Mah, Janet W T; Regambal, Marci

    2010-12-01

    We tested a model of mothers' parenting efficacy and attributions for child ADHD behaviors as predictors of experiences with behavioral treatment. The model proposed that mothers' beliefs regarding the acceptability and effectiveness of behavioral strategies would intervene between mothers' cognitions about parenting and child behavior and their treatment experiences. Participants were 101 mothers of 5- to 10-year-old children (82% male) with ADHD. Mothers reported their parenting efficacy and attributions for child behavior, and then received a single session of treatment teaching 2 behavior management strategies. Then, mothers reported their beliefs regarding the acceptability and effectiveness of these strategies. A follow-up phone interview 1 week later assessed mothers' experiences in using the behavioral strategies. The overall model fit the data. Attributions of child ADHD behavior as more pervasive, enduring, and within the child's control were related to seeing behavioral treatment as more acceptable, but neither attributions nor treatment acceptability predicted treatment experience. However, mothers with higher parenting efficacy viewed the behavioral strategies as more likely to be effective, and this pathway significantly predicted positive treatment experience. Implications for understanding the variables that contribute to parental decision-making and treatment participation for childhood ADHD are considered.

  19. Associations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity and other childhood disorders with psychotic experiences and disorders in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Timo; Jaya, Edo S; Koglin, Ute; Lincoln, Tania M

    2016-09-13

    Prodromal symptoms of psychosis are associated with an increased risk of transition, functional impairment, poor mental health, and unfavorable developmental prospects. Existing interventions targeting the prodrome are non-satisfactory. It may thus be more promising to attempt to identify risk factors in the premorbid phase preceding the prodrome to increase the chances of successful preventive approaches. Here, we investigate whether childhood mental disorders in general and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) specifically indicate a risk for subsequent psychotic experiences and disorders. We used a sample from the prospective Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N = 5528). When the participants were 7 years old, mental disorders were assigned according to the DSM-IV. In standardized interviews, psychotic experiences were assessed at age 12 and psychotic disorders at age 18. We examined the associations of each of the childhood mental disorders alone and in combination with psychotic experiences at age 12 and psychotic disorders at age 18 using logistic regression. Compared to participants without a disorder, participants with a mental disorder had a higher risk of psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 1.70, 95 % CI 1.28-2.27) and of psychotic disorders at age 18 (OR 2.31, 95 % CI 1.03-5.15). Particularly, the ADHD combined subtype at age 7 was strongly associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 3.26, 95 % CI 1.74-6.10). As expected, childhood mental disorders are risk indicators of psychotic experiences and disorders. To improve prevention, health care professionals need to screen for psychotic experiences in children with non-psychotic disorders.

  20. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Krogh, Helle B; Ramstad, Erica

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate...... group trials (n=5111, median treatment duration 49 days) and 147 crossover trials (n=7134, 14 days). The average age across all studies was 9.7 years. The analysis suggested a beneficial effect of methylphenidate on teacher rated symptoms in 19 parallel group trials (standardised mean difference (SMD......) -0.77, n=1698), corresponding to a mean difference of -9.6 points on the ADHD rating scale. There was no evidence that methylphenidate was associated with an increase in serious adverse events (risk ratio 0.98, nine trials, n=1532; TSA adjusted intervention effect RR 0.91). Methylphenidate...