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Sample records for attending sexually transmitted

  1. Sexual behaviour in adolescents and young people attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic, Ile Ife, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olasode Olayinka

    2007-01-01

    WHO estimates that 20% of persons living with HIV/AIDS are in their 20s and one out of twenty adolescents contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD) each year. A total of 303 adolescents and youths (10-24 years of age) attending an STD clinic were subjected to a questionnaire to assess sexual behavioural patterns that predisposed them to STD. Scope of the questions included age at initiation of sexual intercourse, partner at first exposure, number of sexual partners, use of condoms,...

  2. Sexual behaviour in adolescents and young people attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic, Ile Ife, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasode Olayinka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available WHO estimates that 20% of persons living with HIV/AIDS are in their 20s and one out of twenty adolescents contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD each year. A total of 303 adolescents and youths (10-24 years of age attending an STD clinic were subjected to a questionnaire to assess sexual behavioural patterns that predisposed them to STD. Scope of the questions included age at initiation of sexual intercourse, partner at first exposure, number of sexual partners, use of condoms, exposure to commercial sex workers (CSWs, previous infection with STDs and role of alcohol. Their diagnosis was based on history, clinical findings and laboratory confirmation. Adolescents and youths accounted for 30% of the total number of patients attending the STD clinic during this period. The male to female ratio was 1:0.95. Ninety-six percent (290 were single while 4% (13 were married. Seventy-two percent (217 were students. Age at onset of sexual activity was 10-20 years in 80%, 85% practiced risky sexual behaviour, patronising casual partners was frequent especially after alcohol use, 10% had been exposed to CSWs, condom use was poor, number of sexual partners varied between 1 and 5 and previous infections were not professionally treated. Adolescents and young people are sexually active and practice risky sexual behavioural patterns. Adolescents and youths account for a high percentage of patients patronising the STD clinic. Sexual education and youth friendly reproductive health services are urgently needed to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS/STDs.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening of patients attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; Fennema, JSA; Postma, MJ

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal HIV screening of patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Amsterdam. Design: Cost effectiveness analysis. Methods: A Bernoulli model for the secondary transmission of HIV was linked with epidemiological data on

  4. HIV prevalence among clients attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Amsterdam: the potential risk for heterosexual transmission.

    OpenAIRE

    Fennema, J S; van Ameijden, E J; Coutinho, R A; van Doornum, G J; Henquet, C J; van den Hoek, J A

    1993-01-01

    INTRODUCTION--Patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in general have engaged in at risk sexual behaviour. Therefore they are at increased risk of acquiring HIV through sexual contact. OBJECTIVE--To determine the HIV prevalence among patients attending a STD clinic in Amsterdam. METHODS--An anonymous cross sectional study was conducted in two 5-week periods in Spring and Autumn 1991. RESULTS--Of the 2362 patients attending the clinic during the study period, 2292 (...

  5. Routine HIV screening of sexually transmitted disease clinic attenders has favourable cost-effectiveness ratio in low HIV prevalence settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; van der Meijden, WI; Swart, W; Postma, MJ

    2002-01-01

    HIV screening for attenders of clinics for sexually transmitted disease (STD) may identify individuals with high-risk sexual behaviour and avert HIV infections in partners. Extending our previous analysis in AIDS, we performed an economic evaluation of HIV screening of STD-clinic attenders in Rotter

  6. Factors associated with anxiety in patients attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic: qualitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkell, J; Osborn, D P J; Ivens, D; King, M B

    2006-05-01

    We used qualitative methods to explore factors, which might explain increased anxiety in patients attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Twenty patients, who scored significantly for anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) attended a 20-minute interview. This explored factors contributing to their current psychological symptoms. Transcripts revealed three main themes. First were factors related to possible STIs and the clinic visit. These included health anxieties about HIV or fertility and clinic factors, including staff attitudes and clinic location. Second were factors unrelated to the clinic, including previous emotional difficulties or substance misuse. Third were issues concerning stigma, embarrassment and shame. The origins of anxiety in STI patients are multifactorial and difficult to identify during brief appointments. Despite modern clinics and attitudes, stigma and embarrassment remain prominent. Interventions to address these factors could improve psychological health in this patient group. PMID:16643678

  7. HIV-1 seroprevalence among women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in California. California Family of Surveys and Sentinel Surveillance Consortia.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, M. J.; Marelich, W. D.; Lemp, G F; Ascher, M S; Kerndt, P; Kizer, K W

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the distribution of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic among California women, we analyzed HIV-1 seroprevalence and risk factors among women attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in 21 local health jurisdictions. Using standardized protocols developed by the Centers for Disease Control, we tested unlinked serum specimens from women attending participating STD clinics in 1989. We analyzed demographic characteristics, HIV risk exposure groups, an...

  8. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in the Colombo district, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasekera Henadira Appuhamilage Kamani Mangalika; Silva Koththigoda Cankanamge; Dhammike Priyadarshana; Prathapan Shamini; Mananwatte Sujatha; Weerasinghe Geeganage; Abeygunasekera Nalaka

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Sri Lanka little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection. Objective was to determine the prevalence of CT in female patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in the Colombo district. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out for the prevalence of CT in all female patients (n = 168) more than 18 years of age, attending two STD clinics in the Colombo district from January to May 2012. Endocervical ...

  9. Human papillomavirus infection in a male population attending a sexually transmitted infection service.

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    Marta Elena Álvarez-Argüelles

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection in men may produce cancer and other major disorders. Men play an important role in the transmission of the virus and act as a reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the HPV-genotypes and their prevalence in a group of men attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection service. PATIENTS AND SAMPLES: Between July 2002 and June 2011, 1392 balanopreputial, 435 urethral, 123 anal, and 67 condyloma lesions from 1551 men with a mean age of 35.8±11.3 years old (range: 17-87 were collected for HPV-DNA testing. METHODS: A fragment of the L1-gene and a fragment of the E6/E7-genes were amplified by PCR. Positive samples were typed by hybridization. RESULTS: The HPV genome was detected in 36.9% (486/1318 balanopreputial and in 24.9% (101/405 urethral (p35. HPV was found in 59.4% (104 of 165 men with lesions (macroscopic or positive peniscopy, and in 22.8% (61/267 without clinical alterations. HPV was also detected in 71.4% (40/56 men with condylomata and in 58.7% (64/109 of men with positive peniscopy. CONCLUSIONS: HPV prevalence in men was high and decreased with age. HPV was found more frequently in balanopreputial than in urethral swabs. There was a low rate of co-infections. Low-risk HPV vaccine genotypes were the most recurrent especially in younger. Although HPV has been associated with clinical alterations, it was also found in men without any clinical presentation. Inclusion of men in the national HPV vaccination program may reduce their burden of HPV-related disease and reduce transmission of the virus to non-vaccinated women.

  10. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among women attending antenatal clinics in Tanga, north eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiduo, M; Theilgaard, Z P; Bakari, V;

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Tanga, Tanzania. Retrospective data on syphilis and HIV status during 2008-2010 were collected from antenatal clinic (ANC) records. Prospective data were...

  11. Knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among women attending primary health care clinics in Moshi, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Untreated STIs may have serious complications. Knowledge of STIs is important in order to prevent this, and to promote care seeking and treatment. Previous studies have found knowledge to be associated with sexual behavior and socioeconomical factors. The aim of our study was to describe the knowledge of STIs among women attending primary health care clinics in Moshi, Tanzania, to identify their sources of knowledge and evaluate if the level of knowledge is associated with soc...

  12. Sexually transmitted organisms in sexually abused children

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, A.; WATKEYS, J.; Ridgway, G

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To establish the prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms and other genital organisms in potentially sexually abused children.
DESIGN—Prospective study of children attending an inner London department of community paediatrics for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.
SUBJECTS—Children under 16 referred for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.
OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms in relation to age, symptoms, and type of abuse.
RESULTS—Sw...

  13. Mediators of the Relation Between Community Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adults Attending a Public Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective. PMID:27000155

  14. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in the Colombo district, Sri Lanka

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    Gunasekera Henadira Appuhamilage Kamani Mangalika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Sri Lanka little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection. Objective was to determine the prevalence of CT in female patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics in the Colombo district. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out for the prevalence of CT in all female patients (n = 168 more than 18 years of age, attending two STD clinics in the Colombo district from January to May 2012. Endocervical swabs were collected and tested for CT using the Amplicor CT/NG polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: Prevalence of CT in females attending the STD clinics in the Colombo district was 8.3%. Mean age of those infected with CT was 32.9 years (SD ± 8.2. Majority of females with CT infections were Sinhalese and married. There was no significant association with age, ethnicity or being married or not. Females who did not attend school, or had their education only up to Grade 5 were significantly found to have six times the risk of having CT infection (95% CI = 1.8-22.6. A significant association was found with number of sexual partners but not with commercial sex work or past history of STD. Conclusions: Prevalence of CT was moderately high in this population.

  15. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in women attending antenatal care in Tete province, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Luján, Jhonny; Arrázola de Oñate, Wouter; Delva, Wim; Claeys, Patricia; Sambola, Fulgencia; Temmerman, Marleen; Fernando, Joaquim; Folgosa, Elena

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and syphilis in pregnant women. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among women attending antenatal care clinics (ANCs). Blood samples were tested for syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and treponemal haemagglutination (TPHA) tests; CT and NG were diagnosed using a manual polymerase chain reaction assay on first-void urine samples. A socio-demographic questionnaire was com...

  16. The Etiology of Genital Ulcer Disease among Patients Attending Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jin(谷进); ZENG Zhirong(曾志荣); CHEN Rongzhang(陈荣章); ZHU Huilan(朱慧兰); QIU Xiaoshan(邱晓珊)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the etiology of genital ulcerdisease (GUD) among patients attending sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) clinics in Guangzhou, China.Methods: Between September 8, 1998, and August 9,2001, 267 patients with a genital ulcer were clinicallyassessed. Clinical etiology of GUD was dependent onphysical appearance and microbiologic examination,including the following: dark field microscopy and serologyfor Treponema pallidum (TP), swabs of genital ulcer forHerpes simplex virus (HSV), processed quantitativefluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) forsimultaneous detection of HSV, TP, Haemophilus ducreyi(HD), Human papillomavirus (HPV), and serology for HIVinfection.Results: Two hundred thirty men and thirty-sevenwomen with a median age of 33.4 (range 16-74 years) wereanalyzed. The etiology of GUD was syphilis (26.59%)(71/267), genital herpes (17.60%) (47/267), condylomataacuminata (4.87%) (13/267), candidiasis (3.37%) (9/267),bacterial infection (3.75%) (10/267), and multiple infection(6.74%) (18/267). The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.75%(2/267). No etiology was identified in 50.56% (135/267).Conclusion: The etiology of GUD among STD patients inour area was multifactorial with a predominance of syphilisand genital herpes. Based on this limited data obtained atSTD clinics, HIV infection was not common.

  17. Sexually transmitted diphtheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Anja; Lensing, Carmen; Konrad, Regina; Huber, Ingrid; Hogardt, Michael; Sing, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Diphtheria is caused by diphtheria toxin-producing Corynebacterium species. While classical respiratory diphtheria is transmitted by droplets, cutaneous diphtheria often results from minor trauma. This report concerns the first case of sexually transmitted diphtheria in a patient with non-gonococcal urethritis after orogenital contact. PMID:22628666

  18. Male circumcision as strategy for HIV prevention and sexually transmitted diseases: the potential role of traditional birth attendants in neonatal male circumcision

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    Catia Dini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, it would be advisable to give priority to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention strategies, because of the high mortality caused by the rapid spread of the pandemic. Furthermore, HIV prevention could contribute to the mitigation of tuberculosis (TB propagation, which is tightly correlated to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. As demonstrated, male circumcision (MC confers protection against HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD. The suggested strategy considers the neonatal MC advantageous, since it is safer, feasible, culturally more acceptable and less costly than adult MC. This approach is based on the assumption that, if newborn males are circumcised, within the next 15-20 years the sexually active population will be almost entirely circumcised and, consequently, the HIV transmission will be reduced. The employment of retrained traditional birth attendants is considered in order to implement the MC after the child birth and to facilitate its acceptance in those contexts where it is not traditionally performed.

  19. Sexually transmitted proctitis

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    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Proctitis caused by sexually transmitted agents is usually taken for inflammatory bowel diseases, because of similar complaints, such as pain, bleeding and mucopurulent discharge, as well as the histopathology. Thus, its treatment is postponed and, sometimes, complications appear. The most common etiologic agents are Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum and Herpes simplex. In order to avoid dissemination and complications, laboratory tests are essential for diagnosis and proper therapy. The objective of this article was to raise awareness to sexually transmitted diseases in proctitis etiology, as well as their diagnosis and treatment.As retites provocadas por agentes sexualmente transmissíveis são frequentemente confundidas com doenças inflamatórias intestinais, uma vez que as queixas mais comuns, que incluem dor, sangramento e secreção mucopurulenta, e o padrão histopatológico são semelhantes. Dessa maneira, o tratamento é postergado e, algumas vezes, as complicações aparecem. Os agentes mais comuns incluem a Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a Chlamydia trachomatis, o Treponema pallidum e o Herpes simplex. Exames laboratoriais sensíveis e específicos para confirmação diagnóstica são essenciais para o tratamento correto, evitando a disseminação e as sequelas. O objetivo deste artigo foi chamar a atenção para as doenças sexualmente transmissíveis na etiologia das retites, bem como seu diagnóstico e tratamento.

  20. Epidemiology of Anal HPV Infection in High-Risk Men Attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Colón-López, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth; Clatts, Michael Craig; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies in Puerto Rico have reported an increasing incidence of anal cancer in Puerto Rican men. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among men attending an STI clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 205 men 18 years and older. A comprehensive survey was administered that included a demographic and a behavioral assessment. Separate logistic regres...

  1. Exploration of knowledge, attitudes and percepions regarding sexually transmitted infections among patients attending a primary health care clinic in Gauteng - Part 1

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    T.J. Molapo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections are a major public health problem in South Africa. The high incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in South Africa pose a serious threat to public health for two main reasons. Firstly, the long-term consequences of these infections are a major cause of loss of health or life, and secondly, sexually transmitted infections are important co-factors in driving the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic. The control and prevention of sexually transmitted infections has become an urgent priority. At a primary health care clinic, the nursing personnel experienced an increasing number of persons daily seeking treatment for sexually transmitted infections. The purpose of the study was therefore to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of people seeking treatment at Stanza Bopape Clinic regarding sexually transmitted infections. The study was a contextual, quantitative survey. The population was all patients (15 years and older who visited the clinic for a health-related problem during November 2004 to January 2005. The sampling method was convenient. The data gathering method was self-report using a structured questionnaire basic on current knowledge. The data analysis was done with descriptive statistics.

  2. Awareness and knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection among high-risk men of Hispanic origin attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic

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    Colón-López Vivian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the most commonly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infection (STIs in men and women. Knowledge about HPV infection among men is limited. This study aims to determine correlates of adequate knowledge of HPV infection among men who attend an STI clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 206 men was conducted at an STI clinic in San Juan, PR. Adequate knowledge was defined as a score of at least 70% of correct responses among those men who reported having ever heard of HPV. Variables that achieved statistical significance in the bivariate analysis (p Results Although 52.5% of men reported having heard of HPV infection before the survey, only 29.3% of this sub-group had an adequate knowledge of HPV. Most men did not know that HPV is a risk factor for anal (38.7%, penile (50.0% and oral (72.6% cancer. Factors associated with adequate knowledge of HPV in age-adjusted models were being men who have sex with men (MSM (OR=2.6;95%CI=1.1-6.1, self-report of genital warts (OR=3.2;95%CI=1.3-7.9 and herpes (OR=7.4;95% CI=2.2-25.1. MSM was marginally associated with adequate knowledge (OR=2.3;95% CI=0.9-5.9 and self-report of herpes remained significantly associated (OR=5.0;95%CI=1.3-18.4 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Awareness and knowledge of HPV was very low in this group of men. Interventions to increase knowledge and awareness in this group are necessary to promote preventive practices for HPV-related cancers in high-risk groups.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from patients attending a public referral center for sexually transmitted diseases in Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ligia Maria Bedeschi Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a public referral center for sexually transmitted diseases and specialized care services (STD/SCS in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Methods Between March 2011 and February 2012, 201 specimens of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were consecutively obtained from men with symptoms of urethritis and women with symptons of cervicitis or were obtained during their initial consultation. The strains were tested using the disk diffusion method, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of azithromycin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin, tetracycline and spectinomycin were determined using the E-test. Results The specimens were 100% sensitive to cefixime, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin and exhibited resistances of 4.5% (9/201, 21.4% (43/201, 11.9% (24/201, 22.4% (45/201 and 32.3% (65/201 to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. Intermediate sensitivities of 17.9% (36/201, 4% (8/201, 16.9% (34/201, 71.1% (143/201 and 22.9% (46/201 were observed for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. The specimens had plasmid-mediated resistance to penicillin PPNG 14.5% (29/201 and tetracycline TRNG 11.5% (23/201. Conclusions The high percentage of detected resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin indicates that these antibiotics are not appropriate for gonorrhea treatment at the Health Clinic and possibly in Belo Horizonte. The resistance and intermediate sensitivity of these isolates indicates that caution is recommended in the use of azithromycin and emphasizes the need to establish mechanisms for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance for the effective control of gonorrhea.

  4. [Sexually transmitted infections and spermicides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driák, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of sexually transmitted infections (diseases) has been already increasing again for more than one decade; the world number of 125-340 millions of new cases a year is estimated. Fifteen thousands of new HIV-positive persons daily present a substantial contribution to the total amount. Besides an increasing number of unplanned pregnancies, the huge spreading of sexually transmitted infections predominantly of the second generation is the main reason for a renewed interest in search of local contraceptives, i.e. spermicides. An urgent need for a new, non-detergent, synthetic or natural spermicide emerged to replace the traditional nonoxynol-9. New preparation of microbicidal spermicide should offer dual protection against both unplanned conception and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23256629

  5. Survey of human immunodeficiency virus infection and sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual and bisexual men attending genitourinary medicine clinics in the UK during 1986-88. The British Cooperative Clinical Group.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    A multicentre investigation was made into the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection amongst homosexual/bisexual (HS/BS) men attending genitourinary medicine clinics in the UK during the final quarters of 1986, 1987, and 1988. The results from individual clinics have been collated into regional groupings in order to assess geographical and temporal trends. A statistical analysis has also been performed on the data from 19 large teaching hospital clinics which contribute...

  6. Sexually transmitted diseases in Africa

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    A. De Schryver

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STD are defined as a group of communicable diseases which have in common that they are transmitted predominantly by sexual contact. The number of agents now known to be sexually transmitted include some 20 pathogens. Some of these agents (such as Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, hepatitis B-virus, human immunodeficiency virus tend to replace the classical "venereal diseases" both in importance and frequency as these agents are often more difficult to detect, treat, and control. Sexually transmitted diseases are a major public health problem in most African countries on account of their frequency, their associated morbidity and mortality, their impact on paternal and infant health, as well as their economic costs in terms of health expenditure and lost productivity, and, last but not least, because of their social consequences. Recent epidemiological studies using sophisticated diagnostic technologies greatly extend our knowledge on the true spectrum of complications and sequelae associated with these infections. Nongonococcal urethritis - caused to 40% by Chlamydia trachomatis - and gonococcal infections are together the most frequent sexually transmitted diseases. The increasing importance of chlamydial infections, in contrast to a gradual decrease of gonococcal infections, is related to the fact that these infections frequently cause asymptomatic or mild disease and do not motivate patients to seek medical care, resulting in an extended period of infectivity and high risk of developing complications. Untreated gonorrhoea and chlamydial infections are the most common causes of epididymitis in males under the age of 35 years and may lead to decreased fertility. In some parts of sub-saharan Africa where urethritis often goes untreated, epididymitis is the leading course of male infertility. Also urethral strictures still from a large part of urogenital practice in some African

  7. Clinical features and sociodemographic factors affecting Trichomonas vaginalis infection in women attending a central sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Sri Lanka

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    Sumadhya D Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trichomoniasis is a relatively neglected area of research in Sri Lanka. Given the number of infections observed, an analysis of sociodemographic characteristics of patients would be valuable in prevention. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 359 newly registered women at a tertiary level sexually transmitted diseases clinic over a period of 18 months. Trichomoniasis was diagnosed by culture of vaginal swabs collected from the posterior fornix. Results: The prevalence of trichomoniasis in the sample was 7.2%. Of those who tested positive for trichomoniasis, 76% were in the age group of 21-45 years, 68% were married and living with a spouse and 60% were unemployed. A diagnosis of Trichomoniasis was associated with being married (OR, 1.6; CI, 0.56-4.41, age over 33 years (OR=1.3, CI, 0.55-2.9, being employed (OR, 1.3; CI, 0.56 - 2.94, having an education of less than ten years at school (OR, 3.0; CI 1.28-7.26 and not using condoms during the last sexual act (OR 2.0, CI 0.84-4.86. The risk was less among commercial sex workers (OR, 0.3, CI: 0.14-0.85, those with multiple sexual partners (OR, 0.2; CI; 0.073-0.408 and women reporting extramarital sexual relationships (OR, 0.3; CI, 0.128-0.733. Conclusions: Education on safe sex and recognition of symptoms is currently targeted at high risk groups such as commercial sex workers. Extending these programmes to the rest of the community will further reduce the risk of transmission of trichomonas.

  8. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in female clinic attendees in Honiara, Solomon Islands.

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, M; H Kako; Butcher, R.; Lauri, B; Puiahi, E; Pitakaka, R; Sokana, O; Kilua, G; Roth, A.; Solomon, AW; Mabey, DC

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine the prevalence of common bacterial sexually transmitted infections, including Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, in women attending clinics in the Solomon Islands. Methods We conducted a sexual health survey among women attending three nurse-led community outpatient clinics in August 2014, to establish the prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections in female clinic attenders in Honiara, Solomon Islands. Vaginal swab samples ...

  9. Sexually transmitted infections in primary care: a need for education.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherrard, J.; Shakespeare, J

    2001-01-01

    General practitioners and practice nurses require the clinical skills that will enable them to detect sexually transmitted infections in the context of a shift to having no, or insidious symptoms. They need to be able to confirm the diagnosis and have clear models for management and referral. Primary care and genitourinary medicine need to work more closely together to increase mutual understanding and clarify the issues which surround referral and attendance. Sexual health risk assessment th...

  10. Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.

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    Shujie Huang

    Full Text Available Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010.The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing.Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone, no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81, 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74, 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99 and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04, respectively.Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.

  11. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico,...

  12. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico,...

  13. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2014: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD on Facebook Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Syphilis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Background Syphilis, ... Table 36B ). Interpreting Rates of Reported Cases of Syphilis Left untreated, infection with syphilis can span decades. ...

  14. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Syphilis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This web ... MSM accounted for 75% of P&S syphilis cases. Syphilis—All Stages (P&S, Early Latent, Late, Late Latent, ...

  15. The Office Management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Crombie, Fionnella S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The family physician plays an important role in controlling the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Accurate identification, diagnosis and treatment are essential in exercising this control. In addition, attention must be paid to educating patients and to treating their sexual contacts. This paper will review the management of some of the more common diseases including urethritis, vaginitis, cervicitis, herpes, genital warts and molluscum contagiosum.

  16. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Canada: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Marion; Elmslie, Kimberly; Paulson, Eleanor; Jessamine, A. G.

    1987-01-01

    At least 26 sexually transmissible infections have been identified to date. Only five of these, however, are currently reportable on a national basis. While the true incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is underrestimated because of the number that are non-notifiable, it has become increasingly clear that these non-reportable STDs are at least as common as those that are reportable.

  17. Syndromes Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Excellent technologies have been developed to identify the specific microbial agents of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, chancroid, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus and HIV infection. However, it is also crucial to recognize syndromes that may be caused by one or more sexually transmitted pathogens. When laboratory services are lacking or are inadequate to provide timely results to enable appropriate treatment, some patients must be managed and treated syndromically. Most Canadian laboratories should be able to provide diagnostic services to determine the etiology of syndromes such as cervicitis, urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis, genital ulcers, sexually transmitted infection (STI-related enteric infections, epididymitis, hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, vulvovaginitis and vaginosis.

  18. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES: INCIDENCE AND DISTRIBUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王千秋

    1996-01-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases(STDs) increased from 26. 04 per 10000O in 1987 to 104. 81 per 100 000 in 1993 in selected areas of the country. Gonorrhea is by far the most common STD but its constituent ratio declined because of a rapid increase of nongonococcal uretheritis and genital warts during most recent years. The incidence of syphilis is relatively low and cases of congenital infection are noted. The wide spread of resistant Neisseria gonorrhaeae infection gives a challenge to the therapeutical and control strategies of STDs. Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infections, an important cause of urethritis, cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease, is becoming common in uur country. Attention has been drawn on viral hepatitis in their means of transmission by sexually behaviors, and also, on the homosexuals, assumed to be the high risk group to catch STDs. Coordinated national efforts to control STDs in China have been taken.

  19. Sexually transmitted diseases in children in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhawan Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in children are not uncommon in India, though systematic epidemiological studies to determine the exact prevalence are not available. STDs in children can be acquired via sexual route or, uncommonly, via non-sexual route such as accidental inoculation by a diseased individual. Neonatal infections are almost always acquired intrauterine or during delivery. Voluntary indulgence in sexual activity is also an important factor in acquisition of STDs in childhood. Sexual abuse and sex trafficking remain the important problems in India. Surveys indicate that nearly half of the children are sexually abused. Most at risk children are street-based, homeless or those living in or near brothels. Last two decades have shown an increase in the prevalence of STDs in children, though most of the data is from northern part of the country and from major hospitals. However, due to better availability of antenatal care to majority of women, cases of congenital syphilis have declined consistently over the past two-three decades. Other bacterial STDs are also on decline. On the other hand, viral STDs such as genital herpes and anogenital warts are increasing. This reflects trends of STDs in the adult population. Concomitant HIV infection is uncommon in children. Comprehensive sex education, stringent laws to prevent sex trafficking and child sexual abuse, and antenatal screening of all the women can reduce the prevalence of STDs in children.

  20. Viral hepatitis: a sexually transmitted disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, M

    1996-03-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are often discussed in the context of herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and AIDS. Viral hepatitis, specifically hepatitis B, is also an STD often omitted from these discussions. The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is variable throughout the world. In North America, the highest incidence occurs in patients who are between the ages of 15 and 25 years. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV infection, which has an associated increased risk of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in the carrier state. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a newly identified hepatotrophic virus that may also be sexually transmitted. There are no vaccines for the prevention of HCV infection and the majority of those who are infected become chronic carriers with chronic liver disease. Discussions focused on the prevention of STDs must include counseling for the prevention of HBV and HCV. PMID:8788658

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases in rape victims.

    OpenAIRE

    Estreich, S; Forster, G E; Robinson, A.

    1991-01-01

    From 1 January 1986 to 1 September 1989 124 women presented to the Ambrose King Centre (the department of genitourinary medicine of the London Hospital) alleging rape. Sexually transmitted diseases were found in 36 (29%) women (excluding candidosis and bacterial vaginosis). The commonest organisms detected were Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis, each being present in 15 patients. Eleven women had genital warts. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated in six patients, two had herpes s...

  2. Family Practitioners and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Steben, Marc

    1991-01-01

    The family practitioner's role has traditionally been to maintain health with periodic examinations and to restore health in times of illness and injuries. Today. family practitioners are expected to play a more proactive role by assessing unexpressed patient needs. This new approach focuses on global knowledge of the patient, including lifestyle and workplace history. When assessing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in particular, it is important for the family practitioner to recognize t...

  3. Syndromes Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Max Chernesky; David Patrick; Rosanna Peeling

    2005-01-01

    Excellent technologies have been developed to identify the specific microbial agents of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, chancroid, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus and HIV infection. However, it is also crucial to recognize syndromes that may be caused by one or more sexually transmitted pathogens. When laboratory services are lacking or are inadequate to provide timely results to enable appropriate treatment, some patients must be managed and treated syndromically. Most Canadian ...

  4. Sexually transmitted diseases in Sabah and Sarawak.

    OpenAIRE

    Catterall, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    Despite being part of one of the few remaining primitive areas of the world, both Sabah and Sarawak are provided with adequate, though simple, urban and rural general medical services. At present no reliable data on the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in these areas have been collected and no organised treatment services are available. Gonorrhoea appears to be the commonest notifiable infectious disease in Sarawak, and beta-lactamase-producing strains have been isolated. Because of...

  5. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumayne Fernandes Vieira Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000, alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026, history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003, and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006. CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can

  6. Confronting Ebola as a Sexually Transmitted Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, William A; Wohl, David A

    2016-05-15

    The unprecedented Ebola outbreak that devastated West Africa evolved within months from a regional outbreak to a global public health emergency. While the rate of confirmed cases declined dramatically, sporadic clusters of Ebola virus disease (EVD) continue well beyond the double incubation period of 42 days used to declare a nation Ebola-free. At the same time, evidence that the virus persists in genital fluids and can be sexually transmitted, along with the potential for lingering virus in other body compartments to permit recrudescence of EVD, has shaken our thinking of what it takes to achieve lasting control of an Ebola epidemic. A comprehensive response to the threat of persistence and sexual transmission of Ebola is required and should build on accessible longitudinal medical care of survivors and accurate genital fluid testing for Ebola. Control of this and future Ebola outbreaks will depend on our ability to recognize and respond to this persistence of the virus in those who survive. PMID:26936667

  7. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Human Papillomavirus in Female Attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalzan Davaajav

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of syphilis, gonorrhea and trichomoniasis has increased in both urban and rural areas of Mongolia. These data are primarily substantiated by notifications of cases of clinically apparent disease in both rural and urban areas, plus laboratory diagnoses from the AIDS/STD Reference Center,Ulaanbaatar. In the past 5 years, however, there has been a marked decline in the total number of patients being screened for sexually transmitted infections (STIs. An assessment of true prevalence of STIs in a female population attending an urban sexually transmitted diseases (STD clinic was therefore commenced.

  8. Sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rita Teixeira Dutra; Lorenza Nogueira Campos; Mark Drew Crosland Guimaraes

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are still highly prevalent worldwide and represent an important public health problem. Psychiatric patients are at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases but there are scarce published studies with representative data of this population. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among patients with mental illnesses under care in a national representative sample in Brazil (n = 2145). More than one q...

  9. Sexually transmitted diseases in sexually abused children: medical and legal implications

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerschlag, M R

    1998-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may be transmitted during sexual assault. In children, the isolation of a sexually transmitted organism may be the first indication that abuse has occurred. Although the presence of a sexually transmissible agent from a child beyond the neonatal period is suggestive of sexual abuse, exceptions do exist. In this review I discuss the issues of the transmissibility and diagnosis of STDs in the context of child sexual abuse. Rectal or genital infection w...

  10. Contexts of risk and networks of protection: NYC West Indian immigrants’ perceptions of migration and vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Susie; Higgins, Jenny A.; Beckford-Jarrett, Sharlene T.; Augenbraun, Michael; Bylander, Kimberly E.; Mantell, Joanne E.; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2011-01-01

    To generate insights into how migration shapes sexual risk and protection, we interviewed 36 female and 20 male West Indian (WI) immigrants attending a public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Brooklyn, NY between 2004 and 2005. Migration theory suggests that shifts in sexual partnership patterns, bi-directional travel, and changes in sexual norms may alter risk. We found evidence of sexual mixing across ethnic groups: a large proportion of participants’ partners were not born in t...

  11. Sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Teixeira Dutra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases are still highly prevalent worldwide and represent an important public health problem. Psychiatric patients are at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases but there are scarce published studies with representative data of this population. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among patients with mental illnesses under care in a national representative sample in Brazil (n = 2145. More than one quarter of the sample (25.8% reported a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with a lifetime sexually transmitted disease history were older, had history of homelessness, used more alcohol and illicit drugs, suffered violence, perceived themselves to be at greater risk for HIV and had high risk sexual behavioral: practised unprotected sex, started sexual life earlier, had more than ten sexual partners, exchanged money and/or drugs for sex and had a partner that refused to use condom. Our findings indicate a high prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil, and emphasize the need for implementing sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs in psychiatric settings, including screening, treatment, and behavioral modification interventions.

  12. Pregnancy and sexually transmitted viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections in pregnancy are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for both mother and fetus. Viral STIs occur as surface infection and then gradually infect immunologically protected sites. Therefore, these are asymptomatic, hidden and hence underdiagnosed, persistent and difficult to treat. HSV, HPV, HBV, HIV and CMV (cytomegalovirus are the common ones. Most of these are transmitted during intrapartum period. Proper screening, identification and treatment offered during prenatal period may help in preventing their complications. Twenty five percent of women with a history of genital herpes have an outbreak at some point during the last month of pregnancy. Acyclovir is the accepted efficacious and safe therapy for HSV in pregnancy. Globally, HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Neonatal transmission can occur in the absence of clinically evident lesions. HPV 6 or 11 may lead to Juvenile Onset Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (JORRP. TCA, liquid nitrogen, laser ablation or electrocautery can be used to treat external genital HPV lesions at any time during pregnancy. Cesarean section is recommended only if the lesions are obstructing the birth canal. Mother to child transmission (MTCT in HIV accounts for 15-30% during pregnancy and delivery, and a further 5-20% of transmission occurs through breastfeeding. HBV infection during pregnancy does not alter the natural course of the disease. In women who are seropositive for both HBsAg and HBeAg, vertical transmission is approximately 90%. Pregnancy is not a contraindication for HBV vaccination. Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most common intrauterine infection. Cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID is the most severe form of congenital CMV infection. Treatment is supportive.

  13. Global epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos T. Da Ros; Caio da Silva Schmitt

    2008-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are among the first ten causes of unpleasant diseases in young adult males in developing countries and the second major cause of unpleasant diseases in young adult women. Adolescents and new acquired STDs. In general, STDs are epidemics and present an enormous health and economic consequences.An adequate screening for STDs should be done on a routine basis in every part of the world. Many STDs are asymptomatic and therefore can difficult to control. The purpose of reporting of STDs is to ensure that persons who are infected will be quickly diagnosed and appropriately treated to control the spread of infection and also so that partners are notified, tested and appropriately treated. It is estimated that reported cases of STDs represent only High-risk sexual behavior is a highly contributive factor of this process as it often leads to teenage pregnancies and HIV/AIDS. One possible explanation for this behavior is that people do not have enough information about the transmission of STDs or ignore the precautions required for safe sex. Approximately 60% of new HIV infections worldwide occur in young people. The frequency of high-risk behaviors among youths may also be influenced by opportunity to engage in them, particularly the amount of time that they are unsupervised by adults. However, in diagnosing and treating these patients, we can effectively prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. Individuals infected with STDs are of the genital tract lining or skin creates a portal of entry for HIV and, hence, HIV-infected individuals with other STDs are more likely to shed HIV in their genital secretions. To date, the condom is the most effective method available for males for protection against STDs. It is important to control STDs, and prevention can be the key of this process. Prevention can be achieved through education of the population, identification of symptomatic and asymptomatic people, and effective diagnosis and treatment of these

  14. Depression Among Sexually Transmitted Disease Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄长征; 李碧芳; 涂亚庭; 刘志香; 林能兴

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the depression status of patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).Methods: The depression status of fifty-one hospitalized STD patients was evaluated in a randomized control study using Zung's Quantitative Table. 18 healthy control patients with similar demographic backgrounds were randomly chosen as controls. Patients with scores above or equal to 40 were considered to be suffering from depression.Results: The prevalence rate of depression in the patient group was obviously higher than that of in the control (X2=16.456,P<0.01). Prevalence of depression was found to be significantly related to occupation (P<0.05). Though the prevalence was not found to differ significantly between those with a treatment course less than 2 months and those with one longer or equal to 2 months (X2=0.041, P>0.05), the mean depression scores of the former group were significantly higher than those of the latter (P<0.01). No significant differences were found between new versus relapsing disease, married versus non-married, male versus female, or differing educational backgrounds.Conclusion: STD patients showed significant prevalence of depression.

  15. The association between sexually transmitted pathogens and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia in a developing community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharsany, A B; Hoosen, A A; Moodley, J; Bagaratee, J; Gouws, E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the association of sexually transmitted pathogens in women with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). SETTING--An urban tertiary referral hospital serving a large indigent developing community. PARTICIPANTS--48 women attending a colposcopy clinic and 49 women attending a family planning clinic. METHODS--Vaginal, endocervical, rectal swab specimens and sera were collected for the detection of sexually transmitted pathogens. Cervical cytology was performed on all patients. Women attending the colposcopy clinic had confirmation of abnormal cervical cytology by colposcopic directed biopsy. RESULTS--The mean age of women with CIN (33 years) was significantly greater than that of the women without CIN (28 years) and that of the family planning group (26 years). There was a high prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens in all women. A significantly higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was found in women with CIN compared to those without (50% vs 20%; p = 0.034). The human papilloma virus (HPV) was detected in 46% of women with CIN and 65% of those without CIN. Chlamydia trachomatis (21%) and Trichomonas vaginalis (39%) were detected frequently in women with CIN. C. trachomatis (14%-21%) was detected more frequently than Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3-5%) in all asymptomatic women studied. CONCLUSION--This study demonstrates a high prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens in women with and without CIN as well as family planning clinic attenders. Bacterial vaginosis was a significant finding in women with CIN. C. trachomatis was detected in a high proportion of all women studied and found more commonly than N. gonorrhoeae. We therefore recommend that all women attending gynaecological services in a developing community be investigated and treated for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:8244352

  16. Draft genome sequence of the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlton, Jane M.; Hirt, Robert P.; Silva, Joana C.;

    2007-01-01

    We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the approximately 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion...

  17. [Sexually transmitted infections among transgender individuals and other sexual identities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toibaro, Javier J; Ebensrtejin, Juan E; Parlante, Angel; Burgoa, Patricia; Freyre, Alejandro; Romero, Marcela; Losso, Marcelo H

    2009-01-01

    Few data are available regarding the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI), including HIV-1 infection, and risk behaviors of transgender individuals. Previous reports indicate that this community has a high prevalence of HIV and STIs. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of HIV-1 infection, STI and risk behaviors of transgender people versus non transgender people. We used a cross sectional design study. Patients who received services at our testing site between November 2002 and April 2006, and provided written informed consent, were included in the analysis. Socio-demographic data, sexual behaviour, recreational drug use, condom use, concurrent or previous STI and HIV-1 infection diagnosis and partner serologic status, were collected. We used descriptive statistics and chi 2 for comparisons of proportions. In the period of the study, 105 transgender individuals were identified in a population of 4118 patients tested. The prevalence of HIV infection in the transgender group was 27.6% (29/105), while in the non transgender group was 6.2% (247/4013) p:0.0000. Low level of formal instruction, alcohol consumption, drug abuse, previous history of STI and sex work (100% transgenders and 2.3% of non-transgenders) were significantly more frequent in the transgender. The referred correct use of condom was similar in both groups. The prevalence of syphilis was 42.3% in transgender group and 18.1% in non-transgender individuals. These data show that this population has a very high prevalence of HIV-1 and STI. This information could be instrumental to design targets for intensive HIV prevention strategies in this particular high risk population. PMID:19622481

  18. Human ecology and behavior and sexually transmitted bacterial infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, K K

    1994-01-01

    The three direct determinants of the rate of spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are sexual behaviors, the mean duration of infectiousness, and the mean efficiency of sexual transmission of each STD. Underlying ecological and behavioral factors that operate through one or more of these direct determinants lie on a continuum, ranging from those most proximate back to those more remote (in time or mechanism) from the direct determinants. Most remote and least modifiable are the histo...

  19. Risk perception of sexually transmitted diseases and teenage sexual behaviour: attitudes towards in a sample of Italian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bergamini, M.; A. Cucchi; Guidi, E; Stefanati, A; BONATO, B.; Lupi, S.; P. Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    Summary The aim of the study is to determine awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their prevention in people aged 14-19 of Ferrara and province. The study was carried out using a self-administered standardised anonymous questionnaire in a sample of students attending to three upper secondary schools. Total number of collected questionnaires was 2695, the average age of interviewed was 17.1. Only 52.3% of respondents correctly recognized STD definition. Over 95% of subjects...

  20. Influence of sexually transmitted infections in a horse breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent problems in horses reproduction are generally divided into those of infectious and non infectious etiology. Common causes of infectious diseases are usual­ly viruses and bacteria, and less frequently protozoa, mykoplasma and fungi. In this work there are presented the most important fact about sexually transmitted diseases, their clinical picture, risk factors, preventive measures as well as measures to prevent and eradicate the diseases. The biggest risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases in horses are breeding stallions, both in natural mating and in artificial insemination. Therefore, in order to prevent genital infections in horses, it is essential that the stallions used for breeding are healthy (non-infected. That can be determined with certainty only if the stallions are examined (tested just before the breeding season on most frequent sexually transmitted diseases (CEM,EAV. It is well known that in most cases the clinical picture of sexually transmitted diseses is not manifested on genitals. As well, variations in clinical picture can be expected also in mares, depending on the stage of the disease and its etiology. Harms arising from sexually transmitted diseases can be divided into direct and indirect. Direct damage occurs in the form of endometritis, miscarriage, stillbirths and births of weak foals, and indirect in restricting the traffic of infected and suspicios animals, isolation of the infected ones as well as medical treatment and interrupting mating.

  1. Pregnancy and sexually transmitted viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal P; Naswa S; Marfatia Y

    2009-01-01

    Viral infections in pregnancy are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for both mother and fetus. Viral STIs occur as surface infection and then gradually infect immunologically protected sites. Therefore, these are asymptomatic, hidden and hence underdiagnosed, persistent and difficult to treat. HSV, HPV, HBV, HIV and CMV (cytomegalovirus) are the common ones. Most of these are transmitted during intrapartum period. Proper screening, identification and treatment offered during prenatal p...

  2. Helicobacter pylori: a sexually transmitted bacterium?

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriadi, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Oral sex (fellatio) is a very common sexual activity. H. pylori is mainly a gastric organism, but studies have reported that infected individuals may permanently or transiently carry H. pylori in their mouth and saliva. Material and methods A Pubmed search was conducted using the words infection, oral sex and urethritis. Results The existing studies support the hypothesis that H. pylori could be a causative agent of non–gonococcal urethritis. Conclusions It is possible that H. py...

  3. Measuring the transmission dynamics of a sexually transmitted disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, Jonathan J.; Webberley, K. Mary; Boots, Michael; Knell, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occur throughout the animal kingdom and are generally thought to affect host population dynamics and evolution very differently from other directly transmitted infectious diseases. In particular, STDs are not thought to have threshold densities for persistence or to be able to regulate host population density independently; they may also have the potential to cause host extinction. However, these expectations follow from a theory that assumes that the rate...

  4. Risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases among crack users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0.Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9 reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0 and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8, alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3, antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2 were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases.Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases.

  5. Risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases among crack users 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafael Alves; da Silva, Leandro Nascimento; França, Divânia Dias da Silva; Del-Rios, Nativa Helena Alves; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; Teles, Sheila Araujo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users. Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0. Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9) reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0) and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8), alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3), antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9) and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2) were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:26444164

  6. Molecular epidemiology of selected sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Hamid; Delaney, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Sonnex, Christopher; Carne, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are established pathogens for human genital tract. However, the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in genital pathology is poorly unerstood. A prospective study to investigate the prevalence of above infections was performed on a cohort of 1,718 consecutive patients attending a Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) clinic. A previously published in-house real-time PCR assay, for the detection of CT DNA in genital swabs, was modified for this study. Two amplification reactions detected the DNAs of TV, NG, MG, CT, UU and UP in genital swabs from 4 (0.2%), 11 (0.6%), 17 (1%), 129 (8%), 282 (16%) and 636 (37%) patients, respectively. 594 (70%) of 848 women and 333 (38%) of 870 men were infected with at least one type of microorganism. Among 594 infected females, 485 (82%) had a single infection, 97 (16%) had a double infection, and 12 (2%) had a triple infection. Of the 333 infected men, 304 (91%) had a single infection, 27 (8%) had a double infection, and 2 (1%) had a triple infection. The prevalence of infection in both genders decreased with increasing age. The prevalence proportion of UP was significantly higher in women (54%) compared with men (18%). The high prevalence of UU and UP suggests that these bacteria are commensals of genital tract. PMID:24046809

  7. Behavior assessment of women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Vitória, Brazil Práticas comportamentais em mulheres atendidas em clínica de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em Vitória, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Espinosa Miranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies about sexual risk behaviors can provide information to support design strategies to control the spread of HIV infection. OBJECTIVE: To assess sexual risk behaviors among women attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Vitória, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among women attending an STD/AIDS reference center. Enrolled participants were interviewed and provided a blood sample to determine HIV status. RESULTS: A total of 276 women participated. among 284 selected; 109 (39.5% were HIV-positive and 167 (60.5% HIV-negative. Median age was 31 years (interquartile range (IQR24-36 and 69% of women were between 18 and 34 years of age. Women reported high access to information about STD (87% and AIDS (90% but information about sexuality was less common (55%. HIV-positive women asked their partners to use condoms more often than HIV-negatives (31% vs. 5%, p=0.02, and were more likely to have used a condom at last intercourse (65% vs. 33%, pFUNDAMENTOS: Estudos sobre comportamentos sexuais de risco fornecem informações para programar estratégias para o controle da expansão da infecção pelo HIV/AIDS. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os comportamentos de risco sexual entre mulheres atendidas em clínica de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em Vitória, Brazil. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte-transversal foi realizado com mulheres atendidas no Centro de Referência para DST/Aids. As pacientes selecionadas foram entrevistadas e autorizaram a coleta de uma amostra de sangue para determinar sorologia para HIV. RESULTADOS: Um total de 276 mulheres participou, entre as 284 selecionadas; 109 (39,5% eram HIV-positivas e 167 (60,5% HIV-negativas. A mediana de idade foi 31 anos (distância interquartil 24-36 e 69% das mulheres tinham entre 18 e 34 anos de idade. As mulheres relataram alto grau de acesso a informações sobre doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (87% e Aids (90%, mas as informações sobre saúde sexual foram

  8. The Silent Epidemic. Teens and Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Susan

    1998-01-01

    One-quarter of the 3 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) each year occur in teenagers. Teens are at high risk because of biological, age, and behavioral factors. Education is the best weapon against STDs. As their children's first sex educators, parents must make every effort to promote STD education at home and school. (SM)

  9. Draft genome sequence of the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlton, Jane M.; Hirt, Robert P.; Silva, Joana C.; Delcher, Arthur L.; Schatz, Michael; Zhao, Qi; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Bidwell, Shelby L.; Alsmark, U. Cecilia M.; Besteiro, Sebastien; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Noel, Christophe J.; Dacks, Joel B.; Foster, Peter G.; Simillion, Cedric; Van de Peer, Yves; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Westrop, Gareth D.; Mueller, Sylke; Dessi, Daniele; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Ren, Qinghu; Paulsen, Ian; Zhang, Hanbang; Bastida-Corcuera, Felix D.; Simoes-Barbosa, Augusto; Brown, Mark T.; Hayes, Richard D.; Mukherjee, Mandira; Okumura, Cheryl Y.; Schneider, Rachel; Smith, Alias J.; Vanacova, Stepanka; Villalvazo, Maria; Haas, Brian J.; Pertea, Mihaela; Feldblyum, Tamara V.; Utterback, Terry R.; Shu, Chung-Li; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; de Jong, Pieter J.; Hrdy, Ivan; Horvathova, Lenka; Zubacova, Zuzana; Dolezal, Pavel; Malik, Shehre-Banoo; Logsdon, John M.; Henze, Katrin; Gupta, Arti; Wang, Ching C.; Dunne, Rebecca L.; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.; Upcroft, Peter; White, Owen; Salzberg, Steven L.; Tang, Petrus; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lee, Ying-Shiung; Embley, T. Martin; Coombs, Graham H.; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Tachezy, Jan; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the similar to 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion, in conjunction wi

  10. Sexually transmitted infection incidence among adolescents in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Martin P

    2014-10-01

    The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland.

  11. Gender Differences in HIV-Related Perceptions, Sexual Risk Behaviors, and History of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Chinese Migrants Visiting Public Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bo; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; LIANG, GUOJUN; Liu, Hui; Lin, Danhua; Yang, Hongmei

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore gender difference in HIV-related perceptions according to a social cognitive theory and sexual risk behaviors and to examine associations between mobility, sexual risk, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male and female migrants visiting STD clinics. A cross-sectional study among migrants visiting STD clinics in three large cities in China assessed HIV-related perceptions, sexual activity, condom use, and history of STDs was used. A...

  12. Perception of health care providers about sexually transmitted infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexually transmitted infections represent a global health problem leading to social stigma and early morbidity and mortality. Prior to this study, different health care providers were dealing with sexually transmitted infections with various parameters and were not following the standard regime given by the WHO. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of health care providers about sexually transmitted infections and its treatment guidelines. Methods: Cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted from health care providers(specialists, family physicians, homeopaths and others )of Lahore from Jan 2014 to December 2014. Data was collected with consent through convenience purposive sampling of randomly selected 100 specialists, 200 family physicians, 100 homeopaths and 100 others. Trained investigators pre-tested the validity and reliability of the questionnaire before use. Data of response was coded, entered and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Out of 500 practitioners 475 (95%) completed the questionnaire. Those excluded were due to insufficient data in questionnaire. Almost all respondents were aware of STIs and the guidelines and claimed to have decent knowledge. Apart from some disagreement on the user- friendliness and communication facilitating properties, the health care provider's attitude were positive. Conclusion: Overall, all the health care providers knew about sexually transmitted infections. It was the treatment according to the guidelines, in which they differed. Specialists and Family physician in Lahore, Pakistan knew and followed the STIs guidelines while managing the patients. Homeopaths and others were receiving patients and treating most of these infections but were not aware of the standard guidelines yet somehow their patients were treated and satisfied. Enhancing the familiarity of the guidelines among users can result in a positive outcome on the treatment of STIs. (author)

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases in modern China: a historical survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Dikötter, F

    1993-01-01

    This paper points to the congruence between political and social variables and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in modern China. STDs became a major health problem after the fall of the empire in 1911 and were only reluctantly addressed by a weak nationalist government during the 1930s. During the 1950s and 60s, the communist regime brought STDs under control, but problems have reappeared since reforms were implemented during the 1980s. Cultural values and social attit...

  14. Knowledge socially constructed about sexually transmitted disease: Representations of teenagers.

    OpenAIRE

    Washington da Silva Santos; Alba Benemérita Alves Vilela; Adriana Alves Nery; Patrícia Anjos Lima de Carvalho; Zulmerinda Meira Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) has a strong impact on society by affecting a significant number of individuals and it is among the top five causes of seeking health services. This research aimed to understand the representations of teenagers in municipal public schools on knowledge about STDs. This is an exploratory and descriptive study, with quantitative and qualitative approach by using the Theory of the Central Core. The sample was composed of 114 teenagers placed in public schools in...

  15. HIV seroprevalence surveys in sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    Onorato, I M; McCray, E.; Pappaioanou, M; Johnson, R.; Aral, S; Hardy, A M; Dondero, T J

    1990-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control, in cooperation with State and local health departments, is conducting human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV), seroprevalence surveys, using standard protocols, in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in selected metropolitan areas throughout the United States. The surveys are blinded (serologic test results not identified with a person) as well as nonblinded (clients voluntarily agreeing to participate). STD clinics are important sentinel sites for t...

  16. Knowledge of university professors and vulnerability male sexually transmitted diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Gurgel Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The male population has high morbidity and mortality rates and lower life expectancy, despite these male rates assume a significant burden of morbidity and mortality in the profiles in relation to infectious diseases, especially Sexually Transmitted Diseases/HIV/SIDA, it is observed that the presence of men in services of primary health care is also lower than that of women. In this sense, the present work aims to analyze the knowledge and the vulnerability of male teachers in the face of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and identify barriers to condom use. This is a qualitative descriptive study, conducted in the month from March to May 2012 in a private university in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, recorded post- consent with 12 male university professors. The analysis occurred categorization using step thematic analysis resulting in three categories: behavior and risk, multiple partners and unsafe sex and motivation for not using condoms. Participants knowledge about the vulnerability to different types of risk behaviors that are inserted, forms of prevention and unsafe sex. The main form of prevention mentioned by participants was the use of condoms, but some barriers listed were not to use them, as the issue of confidence in a steady partner, the influence of liquor and miss the pleasure. It can be considered that the professors know the Sexually Transmitted Diseases preventive practices, but this knowledge does not confer protection by placing them in a vulnerable situation

  17. Knowledge socially constructed about sexually transmitted disease: Representations of teenagers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington da Silva Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD has a strong impact on society by affecting a significant number of individuals and it is among the top five causes of seeking health services. This research aimed to understand the representations of teenagers in municipal public schools on knowledge about STDs. This is an exploratory and descriptive study, with quantitative and qualitative approach by using the Theory of the Central Core. The sample was composed of 114 teenagers placed in public schools in a city in the interior of Bahia. It had the objective of understand the representational structure, and the subjects of this study underwent stimulus inducing Sexually Transmitted Infections / Sexually Transmitted Diseases for building of a framework of four houses, from free evocations. The data were analyzed using the software EVOC 2000. The results showed that the structure of social representations of knowledge about STDs built by teenagers is associated with biological elements when observing the central core and closely linked to AIDS, its main form of transmission and prevention, when checking the peripheral system. It is concluded that the school environment should be taken as the center stage in the discussion of the themes that permeate the universe of their students related to the importance of sex education with emphasis on prevention of risky behaviors.

  18. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Drago; Giulia Ciccarese; Francesca Zangrillo; Giulia Gasparini; Ludovica Cogorno; Silvia Riva; Sanja Javor; Emanuele Cozzani; Francesco Broccolo; Susanna Esposito; Aurora Parodi

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 137...

  19. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel: From Boudoir to Bordello.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Ann K; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Travel has historically been an important risk factor for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Travel is often associated with a sense of adventure, periods of loneliness, and exploration away from one's home environment-which often form a milieu in which sexual activity can occur with new partners. Survey data clearly demonstrate that out-of-country travel is associated with recruitment of new sex partners and increased STI risk. Pretravel counseling to prevent STI risk is variable, and there is little evidence that it modifies risk behavior. Some travel occurs specifically for sexual purposes, such as the sexual tourism junkets to Southeast Asian destinations which became popular during the 1980s or the more recent rise in the popularity of circuit parties for men who have sex with men. Some travel situations pose particularly high risks. For example, military deployments and assignments to work camps such as those for oil extraction occur in the context of large groups of individuals of reproductive age, often predominantly males, exposed to high levels of stress in unfamiliar environments. Additionally, over the past decade, the Internet has dramatically changed the ability to identify sexual partners while traveling. PMID:26542045

  20. [Analysis of spreading the sexually transmitted disorders in Georgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiokadze, Sh; Galdava, G; Kvlividze, O; Durglishvili, G

    2014-03-01

    According statistical data in Georgia sexually transmitted disorders represent one of the most important medical and social problems. Main causes of this are hard social and economic condition of the country, changing sexual-behavioral stereotypes, drugs and alcohol abuse, political perturbation, as well as unprecedented decrease in financing prevention programs of STD by government. The purpose of given research is statistical analysis of spread of sexually transmitted disorders in Georgia, in particular, among the people included in risk group; finding trends and in accordance with this, working out recommendations for improvement of situation in given field of medicine. Essays showed that through 2000-2012 years among STD revealed in the group of increased risk chlamidiosis was the most common. There is an objective trend of increasing the level of morbidity with chlamidiosis and trichomoniasis, however the speed of increasing morbidity with trichomoniasis probably does not correspond the reality. In the same time morbidity with gonorrhea and syphilis is decreasing, however in the result of significant decrease in STD prevention program scale data validity concerning syphilis might be doubtful. Coming out of this in the field of health care related to STD optimization of laboratory diagnostics management is essential; perfection of methods of epidemiologic control; increasing the scales of prevention programs as well as initiation of researches related to antimicrobial resistance of gonococci. Authors consider essential taking steps for optimization of management of laboratory diagnostics and perfection of methods of epidemiologic control and increasing scales of preventive programs. PMID:24743123

  1. A study on sexually transmitted diseases in patients in a STD clinic in a district hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a global health problem of great magnitude. The pattern of STDs differs from country to country and from region to region. The increased risk of the transmission of HIV is known to be associated with the presence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and despite the presence of the National STD Control Program in India the number of people with STDs remains high. Aim: The aim of our study was to study the profile of patients in a STD clinic in North India and to study various sexually transmitted infections in both male and female patients. Material and Methods: A prospective study of the patients attending STD clinic in a district hospital in North India from December 2009 to December 2012 was done. A total of 2700 patients attending the STDclinic in three years from December 2009 to December 2012 were taken up for the study. Results: The commonest sexually transmitted infection in males was herpes genitalis (30% followed by 20% cases of genital warts. 10% patients had gonorrhoea, genital molluscum contagiosum, syphilis and genital scabies each and 5% patients had nongonococcal urethritis. Only 5% of the total patients had chancroid, donovanosis and LGV. The commonest sexually transmitted infection in females was vaginal discharge seen in 40% patients, lower abdominal pain in 20% patients, herpes genitalis in 15% patients followed by 20% cases of genital warts and syphilis each. Genital molluscum contagiosum was seen in 5% patients only. Conclusions: The treatment of STD’s is important as both non-ulcerative and ulcerative STDs increase the susceptibility to or transmissibility of HIV infection and as such, an increase in STD prevalence as revealed by clinic attendance in this study was bound to facilitate the spread of HIV/AIDS. Perhaps it is high time health planners adopted a more aggressive and result oriented HIV/AIDS/STD awareness campaign strategy.

  2. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Lolekha, Rangsima; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Wiratchai, Amornpan; Kaoiean, Surasak; Suksripanich, Orapin; Chalermchockcharoenkit, Amphan; Ausavapipit, Jaruensook; Srifeungfung, Somporn; Pattanasin, Sarika; Katz, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC ...

  3. Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. A female perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, M

    2012-02-03

    Sexually transmitted diseases have the greatest impact on the health of women. They are frequently asymptomatic, so screening for infection is important in preventing the long-term sequelae which include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. HIV continues to increase in the female population and the gynecologic complications associated with it are unique to this population. Use of zidovudine in pregnant HIV-infected women has substantially decreased the rate of vertical transmission of HIV infection. The epidemiologic synergy between HIV and STDs is well recognized and prevention of one is dependent on prevention of the other.

  4. The effect of abortion legalization on sexual behavior: evidence from sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klick, Jonathan; Stratmann, Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Unwanted pregnancy represents a major cost of sexual activity. When abortion was legalized in a number of states in 1969 and 1970 (and nationally in 1973), this cost was reduced. We predict that abortion legalization generated incentives leading to an increase in sexual activity, accompanied by an increase in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Using Centers for Disease Control data on the incidence of gonorrhea and syphilis by state, we test the hypothesis that abortion legalization led to an increase in sexually transmitted diseases. We find that gonorrhea and syphilis incidences are significantly and positively correlated with abortion legalization. Further, we find a divergence in STD rates among early legalizing states and late legalizing states starting in 1970 and a subsequent convergence after the Roe v. Wade decision, indicating that the relation between STDs and abortion is casual. Abortion legalization accounts for about one-fourth of the average disease incidence. PMID:15457623

  5. HIV in Kenya: Sexual behaviour and quality of care of sexually transmitted diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Voeten, Hélène

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes three important determinants of HIV spread in Kenya: 1. Sexual behaviour of female sex workers, their clients, and young adults 2. Health care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 3. Quality of STD care in the public and private health sector The first determinant was studied in urban and rural areas of Nyanza, the province in the west of Kenya which has the highest HIV prevalence. The latter two determinants were studied in the capital o...

  6. Sexually transmitted diseases in children in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richens, J

    1994-08-01

    The populations of developing countries have younger age structures than the populations of more developed, Western countries. That is, children, adolescents, and youth constitute a far greater proportion of the populations of developing countries than in developed countries. These young people experiment with sex and sexual intercourse or have coitus on a regular basis depending upon their individual personalities and circumstances. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among younger age groups in developing countries is not well documented. It may, however, be inferred on the basis of reported experience of STD in surveys of adolescents and young adults that many children are infected with STDs. Some young people have sex consensually, some are coaxed into it, and others are coerced. On the one hand, young children have been thought to contract STD by sitting on the laps of infected, scantily-clad adults where such limited attire is the norm. Close contact between youngsters such as communal sleeping, for example, could then facilitate the spread of the STD among children. Sex, consensual or otherwise, is not involved in such infection and transmission beyond the index adult. On the other hand, however, many children and adolescents are forced to have sexual relations and/or intercourse either directly against their will or as a result of the primal need to ensure their individual survival. For example, there are an estimated 100-200 million street children worldwide; many have little alternative but to sell sex to survive. When having sex, they may not use condoms because they are unaware of the STD risk they face, they have no access to free condoms, clients/employers/peers prevent them from using condoms, or due to a myriad of other reasons. Struggling to survive, many such kids place condom use very low on their list of priorities. Children and adolescents can also become infected and transmit STDs to others by engaging in sexual intercourse

  7. Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. Part I: HSV, HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Majewska, Anna; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Majewski, Slawomir

    2013-11-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world and important cause of morbidity and mortality. Especially STDs of viral etiology are difficult to cure. In many cases the antiviral therapy can relieve the symptoms but not eliminate the virus. During the past decades, considerable progress has been made in the development of antiviral drugs. One of the oldest antiviral medications is acyclovir (ACV). It is approved to treat initial and recurrent genital herpes and as a suppressive therapy in severe recurrent genital infections as well. Drug resistance to ACV and related drugs is seen among immunocompromised hosts, including human immunodeficiency virus HIV-infected patients. Resistant infections can be managed by second-line drugs - foscarnet or cidofovir- but they are more toxic than ACV. In case of HPV there is not known specific target for the medication and that is why the substances used in human papilloma virus HPV infection therapy are either antimitotics or immunomodulators. The Part I review focuses on mechanisms of actions and mechanisms of resistance to antiviral agents used in a treatment of the genital herpes and genital HPV infection. In Part II we will show the therapeutic options in other sexually transmitted infections: hepatitis B, C and HIV. PMID:24032509

  8. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Philibert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infection. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to prospectively detect the prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis (CT, neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV, and syphilis in a population of asymptomatic sexually active MSM. Methods: Rectal, pharyngeal, and urine samples for CT, NG, MG, and HR-HPV were analyzed in 116 MSM patients attending the clinic for their routine follow-up during the period the study was conducted: 99 patients were issued from the clinic routine follow-up for their HIV infection, and 17 attended the clinic because they were sexual partners of an HIV infected male. Results: An STI was found in 16% of the patients (19/116, with at least one bacterial strain (CT, NG, or MG found in one site (the pharynx, rectum, or urine. Conclusions: In this study, 16% of the MSM reporting recent RAI were asymptomatic carriers of rectal CT, NG, or MG. According to the high prevalence of asymptomatic STIs found in our MSM population and in other studies, prevention efforts in the form of counseling about the risk of STI need to be done in the population of MSM.

  9. [Awareness and education regarding sexually transmitted diseases among undergraduate students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eneida Lazzarini de; Caldas, Tânia Alencar de; Morcillo, André Moreno; Pereira, Elisabete Monteiro de Aguiar; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the main global cause of acute illness and death and represent a high socioeconomic cost. Undergraduate students are highly exposed to STDs. The research developed at UNICAMP sought to quantify and generate self-perception of knowledge(or lack thereof) about STDs, as well as evaluate the interest of the students in a course on the topic. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire sent electronically to students about to graduate at the end of 2011 and to freshmen in 2012. The questionnaire was answered by 1,448 seniors and 371 freshmen. Twenty percent of seniors and 38% of freshmen had no sexual activity. Among sexually active students, 26.9% had no regular partner and 28.2% more than two partners per year. The condom was used by 99% of students, but less than 20% used them appropriately. About 80% were unaware that condoms do not provide protection outside the barrier area; they intended to read more about STDs and learnt something about the subject. Nearly half of the students considered that a course should be offered to all undergraduates. These findings will be of use in defining strategies for prevention and the teaching tool could be used in other learning environments. PMID:27276546

  10. Monitoring knowledge among family, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual partnership characteristics of African American adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Riley J; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2014-10-01

    Among 284 African American girls aged 14 to 17 years, frequent family monitoring knowledge was associated with a reduced likelihood of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and having a casual sex partner but was not associated with other partnership characteristics. Family monitoring may offer an additional STI prevention opportunity for this vulnerable population. PMID:25211255

  11. Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Systematic Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Goesling; Silvie Colman; Christopher Trenholm; Mary Terzian; Kristin Moore

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an ongoing systematic review of research on teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention programs, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to help support evidence-based approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the analysis.

  12. Sexual Assault and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adults, Adolescents, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seña, Arlene C; Hsu, Katherine K; Kellogg, Nancy; Girardet, Rebecca; Christian, Cindy W; Linden, Judith; Griffith, William; Marchant, Anne; Jenny, Carole; Hammerschlag, Margaret R

    2015-12-15

    Survivors of sexual assault are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted literature reviews and invited experts to assist in updating the sexual assault section for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases (STD) treatment guidelines. New recommendations for STI management among adult and adolescent sexual assault survivors include use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by vaginal swabs; NAATs for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis from pharyngeal and rectal specimens among patients with a history of exposure or suspected extragenital contact after sexual assault; empiric therapy for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis based on updated treatment regimens; vaccinations for human papillomavirus (HPV) among previously unvaccinated patients aged 9-26 years; and consideration for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis using an algorithm to assess the timing and characteristics of the exposure. For child sexual assault (CSA) survivors, recommendations include targeted diagnostic testing with increased use of NAATs when appropriate; routine follow-up visits within 6 months after the last known sexual abuse; and use of HPV vaccination in accordance with national immunization guidelines as a preventive measure in the post-sexual assault care setting. For CSA patients, NAATs are considered to be acceptable for identification of gonococcal and chlamydial infections from urine samples, but are not recommended for extragenital testing due to the potential detection of nongonococcal Neisseria species. Several research questions were identified regarding the prevalence, detection, and management of STI/HIV infections among adult, adolescent, and pediatric sexual assault survivors. PMID:26602623

  13. Bile Salts: Natural Detergents for the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Herold, Betsy C.; Kirkpatrick, Risa; Marcellino, Daniel; Travelstead, Anna; Pilipenko, Valentina; Krasa, Holly; Bremer, James; Dong, Li Jin; Cooper, Morris D.

    1999-01-01

    The development of new, safe, topical microbicides for intravaginal use for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases is imperative. Previous studies have suggested that bile salts may inhibit human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, their activities against other sexually transmitted pathogens have not been reported. To further explore the potential role of bile salts in preventing sexually transmitted diseases, we examined the in vitro activities and cytotoxicities of select b...

  14. The Sexually Transmitted Insect Virus, Hz-2V

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John P. Burand

    2009-01-01

    Hz-2V is one of only a very few sexually transmitted viruses currently known in insects. Replication of this insect pathogenic virus results in sterility of infected moths rather than mortality. The sterility of the infected host is a consequence of virus directed malformation of adult reproductive tissues, which in females results in cellular proliferation and hypertrophy of these tissues. Virus replication has additional ramifications in infected females. Infected females produce more mating pheromones and attract more mates than healthy females, ultimately facilitating virus transmission and enhancing viral fitness. The molecular mechanisms used by the virus to manipulate the host to enhance its fitness are yet to be determined. Unraveling the underlying principles of these mechanisms promises to enhance our understanding of insect reproductive physiology, as well as provide molecular tools for use in novel approaches in sterile insect control programs.

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis - an indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal B

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases and 68 men counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female SID cases′ and in 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 216 cases of T.vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with infection with Candida species; 29 (23% with Neisseria gonorrhoea. 18 cases (14.3% with Haemophilus ducreyi and 11 cases (8.7%, Chlamydia trachomatis. Treponema pallidum was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constituted a low percentage. Present study highlighted the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-third cases which suggested that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  16. Drug resistance in the sexually transmitted protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REBECCA L DUNNE; LINDA A DUNN; PETER UPCROFT; PETER J O'DONOGHUE; JACQUELINE A UPCROFT

    2003-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common, sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Symptoms include vaginitis and infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality, as well as predisposing to HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. Trichomoniasis has the highest prevalence and incidence of any sexually transmitted infection. The 5-nitroimidazole drugs, of which metronidazole is the most prescribed, are the only approved,effective drugs to treat trichomoniasis. Resistance against metronidazole is frequently reported and crossresistance among the family of 5-nitroimidazole drugs is common, leaving no alternative for treatment, with some cases remaining unresolved. The mechanism of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis from treatment failures is not well understood, unlike resistance which is developed in the laboratory under increasing metronidazole pressure. In the latter situation, hydrogenosomal function which is involved in activation of the prodrug, metronidazole, is down-regulated. Reversion to sensitivity is incomplete after removal of drug pressure in the highly resistant parasites while clinically resistant strains, so far analysed, maintain their resistance levels in the absence of drug pressure. Although anaerobic resistance has been regarded as a laboratory induced phenomenon, it clearly has been demonstrated in clinical isolates. Pursuit of both approaches will allow dissection of the underlying mechanisms. Many alternative drugs and treatments have been tested in vivo in cases of refractory trichomoniasis, as well as in vitro with some successes including the broad spectrum anti-parasitic drug nitazoxanide. Drug resistance incidence in T. vaginalis appears to be on the increase and improved surveillance of treatment failures is urged.

  17. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Overlooked Sexually Transmitted Pathogen in Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ona, Samsiya; Molina, Rose L; Diouf, Khady

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a facultative anaerobic organism and a recognized cause of nongonococcal urethritis in men. In women, M. genitalium has been associated with cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and adverse birth outcomes, indicating a consistent relationship with female genital tract pathology. The global prevalence of M. genitalium among symptomatic and asymptomatic sexually active women ranges between 1 and 6.4%. M. genitalium may play a role in pathogenesis as an independent sexually transmitted pathogen or by facilitating coinfection with another pathogen. The long-term reproductive consequences of M. genitalium infection in asymptomatic individuals need to be investigated further. Though screening for this pathogen is not currently recommended, it should be considered in high-risk populations. Recent guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control regarding first-line treatment for PID do not cover M. genitalium but recommend considering treatment in patients without improvement on standard PID regimens. Prospective studies on the prevalence, pathophysiology, and long-term reproductive consequences of M. genitalium infection in the general population are needed to determine if screening protocols are necessary. New treatment regimens need to be investigated due to increasing drug resistance. PMID:27212873

  18. Reflection on care in recurrent sexually transmitted co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparello, Joel Zamora; Beyers, Carl; Por, Jitna

    Reflection is a skill that nurses are expected to practise to help them continually re-evaluate their personal effectiveness in problem solving. This skill is necessary when caring for patients who are experiencing the complex challenges linked to psychosexual and psychosociological behavioural changes associated with HIV infection and recurrent sexually transmitted co-infections (STC-I). The Johns model of structured reflection was used in the reflection described here to aid the critical thinking process in helping a nurse to manage and deliver up-to-date, effective care and to develop a strong nurse-patient therapeutic relationship. A holistic approach is key to delivering care to patients with recurrent STC-I. This involves taking a sexual health history and establishing the correct diagnosis, followed by the administration of pharmaceutical and psychotherapeutic treatments to facilitate psychosexual, psychosocial, and psychological changes. This article uses a reflective learning experience in caring for a patient with recurrent STC-I to give insights on psychosexual and psychosociological behavioural strategies. Used with a diagnosis and pharmacological intervention, these strategies can be put into nursing practice and enhance the quality of nursing care. PMID:23193640

  19. Sexually transmitted infections-microbial infections, 2007 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Human sexual behavior required for the continuation of humankind nevertheless has its downsides, among them sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The treatment of microbial STIs is challenging but not in itself essentially very difficult. Controlling STIs, on the other hand, is like the task of Sisyphus, a king in Greek mythology who was forced forever to roll a block of stone to the top of a steep hill, only to see it roll back to the valley, where he started the toilsome task again. This is how many a venereologist must view the day's practice, supervising patients with STIs. Yes, there are newcomers, many of them very young, but there are many others, the recidivists, whom the physician and health care staff know only too well. "You don't mind seeing me again, doc. You (collectively) were so good to me last time"--as though catching a chlamydial infection 3 or 4 times, gonorrhea 20 or 30 times, and syphilis on occasion were badges of virility or part of life's natural progression. This is the pattern of STIs in 2007. PMID:17786104

  20. HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriyo Jacqueline

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654, attending primary health clinics for routine antenatal care were interviewed, examined and biological samples collected for diagnosis of HIV and other sexually transmitted/reproductive tract infections. Results The prevalence of HIV was 6.9%. The risk for HIV was greater among women whose male partner; had other sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 15.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.39–27.20, traveled frequently (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.22–2.65 or consumed alcohol daily (AOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06–2.67. Other independent predictors of HIV were age, number of sex partners, recent migration, and presence of bacterial vaginosis, genital ulcer, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2. Conclusion Development of programs that actively involve men in HIV prevention is important in reducing transmission of HIV in this population. Further, interventions that focus on STI control, the mobile population, sexual risk behavior and responsible alcohol use are required.

  1. Recreational Drug Use During Sex and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Clients of a City Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligenberg, Marlies; Wermeling, Paulien R.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Urbanus, Anouk T.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Heijman, Titia; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). Methods: During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009,

  2. Hepatitis B as a Sexually Transmitted Disease: Effective measures against this common STD

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Brian A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a serious, common, viral, sexually transmitted disease. It is unique among the sexually transmitted diseases in that a safe, effective, proven vaccine is available. Increased recognition of hepatitis B as an important STD, appropriate counseling, and wise use of vaccination may well reduce the prevalence of this disease.

  3. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools. PMID:27089354

  4. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Drago

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD. Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy. For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  5. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools. PMID:27089354

  6. Risk Factors And Impacts Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Adult Females In Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. El-Moselhy; H. O. Khalifa ; K. M. Abd-Allah; F. A. Hassan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on ninety sexually transmitted disease (STD adult female patients, attending Dermato-Venereology and Gynaecology Clinics, Al-Hussein University Hospital and an equal number of females as controls. The aim of the study was to determine sociodemographic, sexual and health care behaviours risk factors for STDs and to determine their impacts on the studied females. A retrospective, case-control, clinic based study was chosen to perform this research. Vaginal, cervical and urethral swabs and smears were taken. Also, scrapes from any suspicious lesions together with blood samples were taken from STD patients for various laboratory examinations. The most common STD was candidiasis (35.6%. Shared house and unskilled occupations were the most important sociodemographic risk markers, odds ratio (OR =11.62 and 2.92, respectively. While, vaginal douche use and divorce were the most important gynaecological and reproductive risk factors, OR=7.16 and 4.06, respectively. Furthermore, premarital sexual practice and non-vaginal sexual practice were the most important sexual behaviours risk factors, OR=13.40 and 10.97, respectively. Also, previous infection with STDs and no partner referral were the most important health care behaviours risk factors, OR=6.45 and 4.93, respectively. Moreover, no religious obligation and drugs and/or alcohol use were the most important life style risk markers, OR=12.89 and 6.77, respectively. Lastly, history of pelvic inflammatory disease (18.9% and pregnancy wastage (17.8% were the most important impacts of STDs.

  7. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs among young adult in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Salfa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs include a large group of widespread infectious diseases, which may cause acute symptoms, chronic infections and severe long term complications.The control and prevention of these infections are public health priorities for several reasons: • the large number of people that acquire an STI per year; • the major proportion of asymptomatic infected individuals; • the high circulation in patients with sexual risk behavior (young adults, pluripartner, men who have sex with men, foreigners, commercial sex workers; • increased biological susceptibility of some subjects, such as young adults (immature genital tissues and more receptive to pathogens, women (genital apparatus more complex and extended in which pathogens are more likely to settle, or individuals carrying states of severe immunodeficiency; • the serious complications in the event of failure or incorrect diagnosis and treatment (chronic disease, infertility, oncogenic transformation, synergy with HIV infection; • the possibility of preventing and treating many of these infections. Therefore, recent guidelines from international agencies have recommended countries from the European Union to improve epidemiological STI surveillance systems in order to standardize data collection to facilitate their comparability between different geographical areas and to improve the information flow for faster tracking of the impact; furthermore, to extend surveillance to widespread, but often asymptomatic, disease (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis, to conduct behavioural surveillance in patients with STIs, to increase public awareness of the role of STIs in the transmission/acquisition of HIV, and to increase the commitment of institutions in the prevention and control of STIs.

  8. An overview on sexually transmitted infections in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Janghorban

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs cause a large proportion of the global burden of ill-health, disability, and death. This paper reviews the status of STIs in Iran in the three groups of infections are caused by bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens and then focuses on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. This review was carried out in the period of 1977-2015 by searching in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of sciences, Google scholar, the Iranian databases such as MagIran, IranMedex and SID using relevant English and Persian key words. Articles, reports, fact sheets, and official publications of World Health Organization (WHO, the United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS, The United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF, and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME of Iran were reviewed. Data on the prevalence of STIs in Iran is sparse with very limited generalizability to the general population. But studies show that these infections are concentrated in high risk sub-groups of the population. Iran has a low national HIV prevalence, but an increased prevalence among people who inject drugs, shifting the country from low prevalence to a concentrated prevalence. It seems that the more improvement of HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment programs in Iran need to more attention toward controlling HIV/AIDS through sexual health, proper linkage among HIV/AIDS, STIs, and SRH programs, reduction of stigma and discrimination toward people living with HIV/AIDS, and increase to access at risk populations. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 585-595

  9. Young adults knowledge regarding Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs and condom use as a means of protection against STD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifanti E.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ιntroduction: Sexually Transmitted Diseases prevention is a substantial component of sexual health education Aim : It is to investigate young adults’ knowledge on sexual health issue and STD prevention. Material and method: Α questionnaire with closed –type questions was used. 85 young volunteers adults attending a private gym center in a provincial town were enrolled in the study. Results: The research showed that fifty-nine persons were women (69.4% and 26 persons were men (30.6%. 55.2% reported they were in a permanent relation or were married. One out of five reported no condom use or use it in less than half times.39% did not know that B and C hepatitis belong to STD, while 93% knew that AIDS is an STD. Men more frequently had sexual intercourse without condom, experience sexual partners changing and “one night stands”. Age was found negatively related to condom use frequency. Conclusion: a considerable percentage of young adults do not use condom during sexual intercourse, while men exhibit less safe sexual behavior in comparison with women. A discrepancy is noted between level of knowledge about STD and sexual behavior of young adults. This fact poses a question about success of the existing STD prevention programs.

  10. Voluntary vaccination strategy and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Cressman, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the spread and control of sexually transmitted diseases when a game-theory based vaccination strategy is involved. An individual's decision on vaccination uptake may follow a cost-benefit analysis since the individual obtains immunity against the disease from the vaccination and, at the same time, may have some perceived side effects. Evolutionary game theory is integrated into the epidemic model to reveal the relationship between individuals' voluntary decisions on vaccination uptake and the spread and control of such diseases. We show that decreasing the perceived cost of taking vaccine or increasing the payoff from social obligation is beneficial to controlling the disease. It is also shown how the "degree of rationality" of males and females affects the disease spread through the net payoff of the game. In particular, individual awareness of the consequences of the disease on the infectives also contributes to slowing down the disease spread. By analyzing an asymmetric version of our evolutionary game, it is shown that the disease is better controlled when individuals are more sensitive to fitness differences when net payoff is positive than when it is negative. PMID:26877073

  11. Male circumcision, HIV and sexually transmitted infections: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larke, Natasha

    Three randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that circumcision reduces the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men by approximately 60%. In this paper, we review the evidence that male circumcision protects against infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men and their female partners. Data from the clinical trials indicate that circumcision may be protective against genital ulcer disease, Herpes simplex type 2, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papillomavirus infection in men. No evidence exists of a protective effect against Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhea. There is weak evidence that circumcision has a direct protective effect on HIV infection in women, although there is likely to be an indirect benefit, since HIV prevalence is likely to be lower in circumcised male partners. Although there is little evidence from the trials of serious adverse events from the procedure and of behavioural risk compensation among circumcised men, essential operational research is being conducted to evaluate these key issues outside the trial setting as circumcision services are expanded. Following the publication of the clinical trial results in early 2007, the World Health Organization/UNAIDS has advised that promotion of male circumcision should be included as an additional HIV strategy for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men in areas of high HIV prevalence. As circumcision services are expanded in settings where resources are limited, non-physician providers including nurses will play an important role in the provision of services. PMID:20622758

  12. Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infection Pathogens in Semen Samples

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    RW Peeling

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum -- the causative agent of syphilis -- may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear.

  13. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L Guthrie

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples. METHODS: HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI. RESULTS: Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11% females and 30 (7% males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9% and syphilis (2.6%. Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01, and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01 and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01. Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519.

  14. Prevention and control of Zika fever as a mosquito-borne and sexually transmitted disease

    OpenAIRE

    GAO, DAOZHOU; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C.; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic poses a major global public health emergency. It is known that ZIKV is spread by \\textit{Aedes} mosquitoes, recent studies show that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact and cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV have been confirmed in the U.S., France, and Italy. How sexual transmission affects the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We presented a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual ...

  15. [Child sexual abuse and sexually transmitted infections in sub-saharan Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitche, P

    2005-11-01

    Recently there has been increasing public concern regarding escalating child sexual abuse (CSA) in the sub-Saharan Africa. Medical consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) include sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immune virus (HIV) infection. The purpose of the study was to review literature on CSA and associated STI/HIV in the sub-Saharan Africa. The study covered the 23-year period from 1980 to 2003. The mean age of the child victims was 8 years. The incidence of penetrative sex in the studies ranged from 70 to 97%. Physical signs of CSA included genital or anal injuries, perineal trauma, and vesico-vaginal or recto-vaginal fistula. The incidence of STD varied according to whether the study was retrospective or prospective. Ten percent to 67% of children with STD had been sexually abused while 15 to 30% of sexual abuse incidents were associated with STD. The prevalence of HIV ranged from 3% in Togo to 37.5% in Cameroon. Most alleged child abusers were adult males known by the child, i.e., family members (30-60%), instructors or teachers, household personnel or neighbours. Some acts were motivated by traditional practices such as early, forced marriage and beliefs such as presumed benefits of sex with virgin children (cure for STI/HIV/STD, magic powers or wealth). This study shows that CSA is widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Most problem involving CSA in sub-Saharan Afica have not been documented. Knowledge about the extent and special aspects of CSA in Africa can be useful for implementation of suitable management measures. PMID:16555518

  16. Spatial analysis and mapping of sexually transmitted diseases to optimise intervention and prevention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Law, D.; Serre, M; Christakos, G.; Leone, P; Miller, W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We analysed and mapped the distribution of four reportable sexually transmitted diseases, chlamydial infection/non-gonococcal urethritis (chlamydial infection), gonorrhoea, primary and secondary syphilis (syphilis), and HIV infection, for Wake County, North Carolina, to optimise an intervention.

  17. Gender inequities in sexually transmitted infections: implications for HIV infection and control in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga Adeyemi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and gender-related potential risks of HIV heterosexual transmission. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multi-stage random sampling procedure was employed in administration of 1358 questionnaires. For qualitative data, four focus group discussions (FGD were conducted to collect information from stakeholders within the study population, while In-depth interview was employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the State. The data collected were subjected to basic demographic analytical techniques. Combination of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were employed. Information from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were transcribed and organized under broad headings that depict different aspects of the discussions. Majority of the respondents interviewed did not inform their partners about their infection in the study area. It was also discovered that stigmatization did not allow some women to disclose their status to their sexual partners. Some of the HIV-positive patients interviewed agreed that they did not attend the health facilities to treat the STI’s before they were finally confirmed positive. The study hypothesis revealed that communication between partners about STI’s was associated with an increase in risk reduction behaviour. The paper concluded that there is need for more information and education on communication about STI’s between the sexual partners; to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted diseases within the nation.

  18. An Attributional Analysis of Stigma Associated with Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Its Relationship with Communication Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    People typically attribute more responsibility to those individuals who are infected with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) than other diseases. This study tested how different routes (i.e., sexually transmitted or foodborne) of transmission have an impact on individuals’ general perception on stigma/shame and the attributions of responsibility, when controlling for symptoms/conditions of the hypothetical virus infection. Two hundreds and ninety eight college students were recruited for the...

  19. Measuring patient satisfaction in sexually transmitted infection clinics: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Weston, Rachel L; Dabis, Rasha; Ross, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Measuring patient satisfaction is an important aspect of making services attractive to patients and improving service delivery, and outpatient based clinics are increasingly assessing service quality using patient based outcome measures. No systematic review of patient satisfaction in sexually transmitted infection clinics has previously been performed. The objectives of the review were: ? To establish how patient satisfaction with sexual health servic...

  20. Study of sexual behaviour in relation to sexually transmitted infections (STIs)among Nigerian undergraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agan TU; Ekabua JE; Nyong PP; Ndifon WO; Itam HI

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To determine their reproductive health behaviour concerning fidelity and psychosocial intimacy in the face of current trends in sexually transmitted infections (STIs)and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndromes (AIDS)pandemic.Methods:A cross-sectional comparative male /fe-male cohort study using a semi-structured questionnaire to interview sexually activity of undergraduates in Uni-versity of Calabar (UNICAL)was conducted over a three (3)month period in 2007.Markers used were num-ber of sexual partners,frequency of sexual intercourse in the 6 months preceding,knowledge of last menstrual period (LMP),methods of self-protection against STIs,number of unwanted pregnancies terminated,and con-traceptive use.Results:Of the 1 337 respondents,648 out of 684 males (94.7 %)and 543 out of 653 females (83.2 %)had multiple sex partners.The gender difference was statistically significant (P 0.05).While 275 (42.0 %)of the females could state the exact last menstrual period (LMP),only 14 (2.1 %)males could remember their mates LMP,and 496 (72.5 %)of males did not know anything about mates'menstrual habits.There was no statistical significance difference (P >0.05)between both groups in their safe sex prac-tices.One hundred and sixty three (23.8 %)male and one hundred and forty one (22.8 %)females used condoms,while 347 (50.7 %)of male and 337 (51.6 %)of females did nothing.Two hundred and seventy six (40.0 %)of males'mates had terminated pregnancies and three hundred and forty eight (53.3 %)of fe-male respondents admitted doing so.Thirty (4.60%)females terminated pregnancy more than six times.Fe-males had more knowledge of contraceptives but males used condoms more.Respondents expressed need for sexuality education.Conclusion:Sexual behaviour of UNICAL undergraduates does not conform to current trends of safe-sex.There is need for more information,education and communication.

  1. A six-year follow-up survey of sexually transmitted diseases in Brasilia, the capital of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões-Barbosa Augusto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The notification of sexually transmitted diseases (STD is a prime component of well-designed public health policy. However, peculiar aspects of STD must be taken into account for the correct management of surveillance activities. Here, we describe the distribution of the most common sexually transmitted diseases among patients attended by the gynecological clinics of the principal public hospitals of Brasilia and the Federal District, Brazilian capital, during six years. A total of 142,158 patients had their cervicovaginal samples collected for Papanicolaou preparations and eventual biopsies. Diagnosis was made according to cytological and histological alterations, distinguishing among vaginal infections, and pre-cancerous and cancerous cervical lesions. We also looked at the annual prevalence of the various types of infections and alterations. There was a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and candidiasis, with suggestive changes over the years. Pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions increased 2.2 fold during the six years. A large proportion of the cases involved late stages of cervical cancer, indicating the necessity of prompt attendance of the population in a routine gynecological prevention program.

  2. Sexually transmitted infections in travelers: Implications for prevention and control

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, ASM; Ebrahim, SH; Fielding, R.; Morisky, DE

    2004-01-01

    Sexually transmissible diseases (STDs), the most common notifiable infectious conditions, remain major threats to reproductive and public health worldwide. Travelers are particularly vulnerable to STDs, because of voluntary or involuntary sexual behavior while abroad, and are significant vectors who introduce new pathogens and resistant strains to unaffected parts of the world. This article outlines some key issues that travel medicine specialists and other clinicians should revisit when prov...

  3. Sexuality education policies and sexually transmitted disease rates in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, M; Chesson, H; Aral, S O

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to test for relationships between state-level sex educational policies and sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates. We analysed US case reports of gonorrhoea and chlamydial infection for 2001-2005 against state policies for abstinence coverage in sexuality education, using the proportion of the population per state who identified as black (aged 15-24 years) as a covariate. We also tested for effects on 15-19 year olds versus 35-39 year olds and tuberculosis rates (the latter to ensure findings applied only to STD). States with no mandates for abstinence had the lowest mean rates of infection among the overall population and among adolescents. States with mandates emphasizing abstinence had the highest rates; states with mandates to cover (but not emphasize) abstinence fell in between. Rates in some states covering abstinence changed faster than in others, as reflected in sharper declines (gonorrhoea) or slower increases (chlamydial infection). These effects were not shown for tuberculosis or 35-39 year olds. Having no abstinence education policy has no apparent effect on STD rates for adolescents. For states with elevated rates, policies mandating coverage may be useful, although policies emphasizing abstinence show no benefit. PMID:20378905

  4. Preliminary development of a scale to measure stigma relating to sexually transmitted infections among women in a high risk neighbourhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick David M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As stigma is a socially constructed concept, it would follow that stigma related to sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections would carry with it many of the gender-based morals that are entrenched in social constructs of sexuality. In many societies, women tend to be judged more harshly with respect to sexual morals, and would therefore have a different experience of stigma related to sexual behaviours as compared to men. While a variety of stigma scales exist for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in general; none incorporate these female-specific aspects. The objective of this study was to develop a scale to measure the unique experience of STI-related stigma among women. Methods A pool of items was identified from qualitative and quantitative literature on sexual behaviour and STIs among women. Women attending a social evening program at a local community health clinic in a low-income neighbourhood with high prevalence of substance use were passively recruited to take part in a cross-sectional structured interview, including questions on sexual behaviour, sexual health and STI-related stigma. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify stigma scales, and descriptive statistics were used to assess the associations of demographics, sexual and drug-related risk behaviours with the emerging scales. Results Three scales emerged from exploratory factor analysis – female-specific moral stigma, social stigma (judgement by others and internal stigma (self-judgement – with alpha co-efficients of 0.737, 0.705 and 0.729, respectively. In this population of women, internal stigma and social stigma carried higher scores than female-specific moral stigma. Aboriginal ethnicity was associated with higher internal and female-specific moral stigma scores, while older age (>30 years was associated with higher female-specific moral stigma scores. Conclusion Descriptive statistics indicated an important influence of

  5. Risk Factors for Sexually Transmitted Disease Among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China: Implications for HIV/Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Liu, Hui; LIANG, GUOJUN; Chen, Xinguang (Jim); Yang, Hongmei; Hong, Yan

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify risk factors associated with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing in 2002. Migrants with STDs consisted of 432 migrants who sought STD care in two public STD clinics. Migrants without STDs included 892 migrants recruited from 10 occupational clusters. Multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Compared to migrants without STDs, migrants with STDs were more likely to report having engaged in comme...

  6. Prevention and Control of Zika as a Mosquito-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Disease: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Daozhou Gao; Yijun Lou; Daihai He; Porco, Travis C.; Yang Kuang; Gerardo Chowell; Shigui Ruan

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. W...

  7. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, and risk factor for sexual health of adolescents, Medellín, Colombia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas-Castaño, Aracelly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in a group of adolescents in Medellín, Colombia, and the most frequent risk factors for acquiring them. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study, between 2010 and 2013, in 569 students who had started sexual intercourse. A questionnaire was applied, and screening was done for the following infections: hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, HPV, gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and nongonococcal urethritis in men. Results: Women had the following frequencies of infections: HPV 28.1 %; Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4 %; bacterial vaginosis 42.7 %; candidiasis 14.1 %. Nongonococcal urethritis was found in 6.2 % of men. Hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, and gonococcal infections were not found. The most frequent risk factors were as follows: to have started sexual relations before the age of 15 (59.9 %; not to use condom (58.2 %; not to have utilized condom in the last sexual intercourse (41.7 %; to lack adequate knowledge on sexual health (39.1 %; to have had three or more sexual partners (30.6 %; to have had sexual partners 10 or more years older than themselves (20.4 %, and to have sexual relations with persons different from the formal partner (18.8 %. Conclusions: The high prevalence of STIs in teenagers that are just starting sexual life must be an alert to implement high impact sexual health programs.

  8. Home screening for sexually transmitted diseases in high-risk young women: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). AIM: To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high-risk sample of young women. METHODS: In this......OBJECTIVE: Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). AIM: To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high-risk sample of young women. METHODS...

  9. Sociodemographic profile of blind people: associations with knowledge, attitude and practice about sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Kaline Ferreira Araújo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze associations among sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge, attitude and practice ofblind people about sexually transmitted infections. Methods: descriptive transversal study with a quantitative approach.Participants were 36 blind individuals. The questionnaire Knowledge, attitude and practice about sexually transmittedinfections was used. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. There were Chi-square test and chi-square Exact.Results: most participants are elderly, unmarried, with elementary school and not working. Knowledge, attitude andpractice about sexually transmitted infections are inadequate (p<0.05. Religion (p<0.001, work (p<0.001, not workingreason (p<0.001 and education (p=0.003 had associations with the attitude about sexually transmitted infections. Gender(p<0.001, marital status (p=0.019 and education (p=0.020 had associations with practice. There was no associationbetween sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge. Conclusion: sociodemographic characteristics may interferewith the attitude and practice of blind people about sexually transmitted infections, and the nurse should consider thesecharacteristics in professional practice with those subjects.

  10. Reappraisal of sexually transmitted infections in children: A hospital-based study from an urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhu Mendiratta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in children can be acquired either by sexual, or non-sexual route. Sexually transmitted infection (STI in children reflect the pattern of STI in adult population and the knowledge, attitude and practices of the society. They also serve as an indicator of STI control strategies. Aims: A retrospective study spanning over a period of 5 years from 2007 to 2011 was undertaken to make a detailed analysis of demographic, behavioral, epidemiological and clinical profile of STD among children (16 years of age. Homosexuality was present in 33.3% of males. History of sexual abuse was given by 4 children. 2 children were seropositive for HIV by ELISA technique. Viral STIs (Cyanea acuminata, molluscum contagiosum, herpes genitalis were 1.5 times more common than bacterial infections. Conclusion: The societal sexual practices have undergone tremendous changes, which is reflected in a steady rise in STIs (predominantly viral, sexual abuse and homosexuality in children. There is an urgent need for strengthening of school health programs aiming at adolescent sexual health.

  11. Sexual violence: characterization of the victims attended at a hospital in taubaté, sao paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Aparecida Aguiar de Araújo1, Ana Lucia De Faria, Mariana Valobra Prado, Neiliana Aquélica Soares, Tânia Saemi Miura

    2008-01-01

    Sexual violence represents an important parcel of violence cases in our society, and exerts great impact over the victims’ health, such as, physical and psychological traumatism, transmissible sexually diseases and unwanted pregnancy. The objective of this study was to identify victims’ characteristics of sexual violence attended at a hospital of Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil. The research was a retrospective, documental, descriptive and quantitative study, from January 2004 to June 2007. Most o...

  12. Laws Requiring Parental Involvement to Obtain Abortion and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Minors.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvie Colman; Ted Joyce; Thomas S. Dee

    2011-01-01

    Report evaluates whether policies requiring parental involvement in minors' decision to obtain an abortion can alter their sexual behavior and help reduce the rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among teens. Using data from the STI surveillance system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia, the findings offer little evidence of a link between parental involvement laws and teen STI rates.

  13. Medical and Legal Implications of Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.; Guillén, Christina D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in children presents a number of problems for the practitioner that are not usually faced when testing adults for the same infections. The identification of an STI in a child can have, in addition to medical implications, serious legal implications. The presence of an STI is often used to support the presence or allegations of sexual abuse, and conversely, the identification of an STI in a child will prompt an investigation of possib...

  14. Domestic violence and sexually transmitted diseases: the experience of prenatal care patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S L; Matza, L S; Kupper, L L; Thomas, J C; Daly, M.; Cloutier, S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The authors analyzed interview responses of patients at a prenatal care clinic to explore whether women who had been victims of sexual and physical abuse were more likely than non-victimized women to have experienced a sexually transmitted disease (STD). METHODS: A consecutive sample of 774 prenatal patients of a large health department in North Carolina were interviewed concerning a variety of health issues, including violence and STDs. Logistic regression analysis was used to mo...

  15. KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS, PRACTICE AMONG ADOLESCENTS REGARDING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN URBAN SLUMS

    OpenAIRE

    Tushar Rai; Pradeep Aggarwal; S D Kandpal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are very important health challenges for adolescents. Many national and international governmental and nongovernmental health agencies are running programmes to reduce the incidence of these diseases. We can provide an insight to the reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents by assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice about these diseases. Research Question: What is the level of knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents rega...

  16. Demographic and Behavioural Factors in Tanzanian and Norwegian Patients with Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Arvid; Mwakagile, Davis; Chalamila, Guerino; Langeland, Nina; Matre, Roald; Haarr, Lars

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate whether differences in demographic or behavioural factors might explain differences in reported or diagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STI), we have compared data from 1097 Tanzanian and Norwegian STI patients. Most demographic data were similar, whereas some behavioural data differed. Norwegian patients reported significantly higher numbers of sexual partners than Tanzanian. Thirty-three percent of Tanzanian patients tested positive for HIV antibodies, females more often (...

  17. Extensive genetic diversity, unique population structure and evidence of genetic exchange in the sexually transmitted parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D Conrad

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes.Here we utilize a panel of T. vaginalis-specific genetic markers to genotype 235 isolates from Mexico, Chile, India, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Italy, Africa and the United States, including 19 clinical isolates recently collected from 270 women attending New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics. Using population genetic analysis, we show that T. vaginalis is a genetically diverse parasite with a unique population structure consisting of two types present in equal proportions world-wide. Parasites belonging to the two types (type 1 and type 2 differ significantly in the rate at which they harbor the T. vaginalis virus, a dsRNA virus implicated in parasite pathogenesis, and in their sensitivity to the widely-used drug, metronidazole. We also uncover evidence of genetic exchange, indicating a sexual life-cycle of the parasite despite an absence of morphologically-distinct sexual stages.Our study represents the first robust and comprehensive evaluation of global T. vaginalis genetic diversity and population structure. Our identification of a unique two-type structure, and the clinically relevant phenotypes associated with them, provides a new dimension for understanding T. vaginalis pathogenesis. In addition, our demonstration of the possibility of genetic exchange in the parasite has important implications for genetic research and control of the disease.

  18. Brief intervention for alcohol misuse in people attending sexual health clinics: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanatinia Rahil

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last 30 years the number of people who drink alcohol at harmful levels has increased in many countries. There have also been large increases in rates of sexually transmitted infections. Available evidence suggests that excessive alcohol consumption and poor sexual health may be linked. The prevalence of harmful alcohol use is higher among people attending sexual health clinics than in the general population, and a third of those attending clinics state that alcohol use affects whether they have unprotected sex. Previous research has demonstrated that brief intervention for alcohol misuse in other medical settings can lead to behavioral change, but the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of this intervention on sexual behavior have not been examined. Methods We will conduct a two parallel-arm, randomized trial. A consecutive sample of people attending three sexual health clinics in London and willing to participate in the study will be screened for excessive alcohol consumption. Participants identified as drinking excessively will then be allocated to either active treatment (Brief Advice and referral for Brief Intervention or control treatment (a leaflet on healthy living. Randomization will be via an independent and remote telephone randomization service and will be stratified by study clinic. Brief Advice will comprise feedback on the possible health consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, written information about alcohol and the offer of an appointment for further assessment and Brief Intervention. Follow-up data on alcohol use, sexual behavior, health related quality of life and service use will be collected by a researcher masked to allocation status six months later. The primary outcome for the study is mean weekly alcohol consumption during the previous three months, and the main secondary outcome is the proportion of participants who report unprotected sex during this period. Discussion Opportunistic

  19. A comparison of Internet search trends and sexually transmitted infection rates using Google trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy K; Mehta, Supriya D

    2014-01-01

    Google Trends was used to determine the relationship between sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related search engine trends and STI rates. Trends seem to be similar to the relative rates of STIs and to regional differences in rates. Search engine trends are an innovative tool to integrate into STI surveillance. PMID:24326584

  20. Integrating the Perspective of Vulnerable Heterosexual Male Adolescents to Prevent Premature Paternity and Sexually Transmitted Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manseau, Helene; Blais, Martin; Engler, Kim; Bosse, Marie-Andre

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the perspective of vulnerable Canadian (Quebecker) adolescents defined as such on account of their numerous experiences with potential or actual fatherhood or exposure to sexually transmitted infection. The interviews allowed youth to talk about their experiences with paternity, their sex lives and their views on sex education.…

  1. Likelihood of Condom Use When Sexually Transmitted Diseases Are Suspected: Results from a Clinic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Yarber, William L.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Charnigo, Richard; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the event-level associations between perceived risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition/transmission and condom use during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) among STD clinic attendees. Method: A convenience sample (N = 622) completed daily electronic assessments. Two questions were proxies of perceived risk:…

  2. Recruitment Strategies and Motivations for Sexually Transmitted Disease Testing among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Zenilman, Jonathan; Nanda, Joy P.; Mark, Hayley

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated procedures for recruiting college students for sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing as part of a research study examining the impact of HSV serologic testing. Participants: A convenience sample of 100 students was drawn from students aged 18 to 35 years enrolled at one university in a mid-Atlantic state…

  3. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk Transmission through Friends and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with…

  4. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases: educational intervention among teenagers in a technical-professional teaching center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dair García de la Rosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sexually transmitted diseases are among the leading health problems of humankind. They are highly prevalent diseases that cause distress, disability and significant severe complications. These infections do not have high mortality rates in general, with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, and Hepatitis B that cause a significant number of deaths. Objective. To improve the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among a group of teenagers of Bernabé Boza Technical School, county of Camagüey, and assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Methods. Knowledge assessments were conducted before and after the intervention in Bernabé Boza Technical School between January and June 2012. The sample universe was 120 students who comprised the complete second year enrollment. Results. There was a predominance of female sixteen-year-old teenagers. The knowledge level about features of sexually transmitted diseases increased significantly after the intervention among the teenagers in the study (71.7% versus 95.8% p<0.0001, route of infection (74.2% versus 100% p<0.0001, and prevention (20% versus 91.7% p<0.0001. Conclusion. The educational intervention increased significantly the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among the teenagers, Thus, this is an important educational tool in this age group.

  6. An attributional analysis of stigma associated with sexually transmitted diseases and its relationship with communication efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jina H; Jang, Suahn

    2012-07-01

    People typically attribute more responsibility to those individuals who are infected with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) than other diseases. This study tested how different routes (i.e., sexually transmitted or foodborne) of transmission have an impact on individuals' general perception on stigma/shame and the attributions of responsibility, when controlling for symptoms/conditions of the hypothetical virus infection. Two hundreds and ninety eight college students were recruited for the study. As predicted, people who were attributed with control over contracting the virus (i.e., sexually transmitted route) were likely to be assigned a greater level of personal responsibility and were more likely to receive blame from others than people who were attributed relatively less control over contracting the virus (i.e., foodborne). The relationship between the attribution of responsibility and communication efficacy was also assessed. The results supported our prediction that there was a significant association between the attribution of responsibility and communication efficacy, in that the perceived controllability of the situation, perceived responsibility for the situation, and blame were all significantly correlated with communication efficacy in a negative direction. Practical applications by evaluating the effectiveness of the actual Merck's Gardasil advertisement were discussed that the Gardasil advertisement appears to reduce the perceived shame and stigma associated with the sexually transmitted nature of the virus by not revealing the true nature of the virus upfront. PMID:22980337

  7. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, covering the following topics (1) Health Education; and…

  8. Does Funding for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Matter? Evidence from Panel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Harrison, Paul; Scotton, Carol R.; Varghese, Beena

    2005-01-01

    Since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has allocated several billion dollars for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. Using state-level data from 1981 to 1998, the authors found that greater amounts of prevention funding in a given year are…

  9. American College Health Association Annual Pap Test and Sexually Transmitted Infection Survey: 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. Davis; Roberts, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the cervical cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing patterns of US college health centers. Participants and Methods: A total of 128 self-selected US college health centers--representing more than 2 million college students--completed an online survey during February and March 2007. Results: Almost…

  10. Prospective analysis of the transition to sexual experience and changes in sexual self-esteem among adolescents attending therapeutic schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Rebecca R; Houck, Christopher D; Barker, David; Zeanah, Paula D; Brown, Larry K

    2012-02-01

    Given increased sexual risk-taking among youth with mental health problems, this study sought to understand the developmental trajectory of sexual self-esteem (SSE) among this vulnerable population and how it is impacted by sexual experiences. Participants were 185 adolescents who attended therapeutic/alternative schools in southern New England. Changes in five domains of SSE identified by Zeanah and Schwarz (1996) were examined across adolescents who either: 1) were sexually active at baseline, 2) transitioned to activity during the study, and 3) remained inexperienced at follow-up. In support of the hypothesis that changes in SSE precede onset of experience, youth who transitioned reported higher baseline scores in the Skills domain than those who remained inexperienced. SSE was subsequently impacted by sexual activity, with differences in several domains found at baseline and follow-up across level of experience. Changes in SSE following sexual experience depended, in part, on the percentage of casual partners teens reported. PMID:21726896

  11. Correlates of prevalent sexually transmitted infections among participants screened for an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, Fredrick Odhiambo; Ndivo, Richard; Oswago, Simon; Pals, Sherri; Chen, Robert; Thomas, Timothy; Kunneke, Ernesta; Mills, Lisa A; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor

    2015-03-01

    We determined the prevalence of four sexually transmitted infections and the demographic and behavioural correlates associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections among participants in an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, western Kenya. Participants were enrolled from a convenience sample and underwent aetiologic sexually transmitted infection investigation. Demographic and behavioural information were collected and basic clinical evaluation performed. Multiple regression analysis was done to determine variables associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections. We screened 846, 18- to 34-year-olds. One-third had at least one sexually transmitted infection with specific prevalence being: syphilis, 1.6%; gonorrhoea, 2.4%; herpes simplex virus type-2, 29.1%; chlamydia, 2.8%; and HIV, 14.8%. Odds of having any sexually transmitted infection were higher among participants who were women, were aged 20-24 or 30-34 years compared to 18-19 years, had secondary or lower education compared to tertiary education, were divorced, widowed or separated compared to singles, reported having unprotected sex compared to those who did not, reported previous sexually transmitted infection treatment, and tested HIV-positive. Multiple strategies are needed to address the overall high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections as well as the gender disparity found in this Kenyan population. Structural interventions may be beneficial in addressing educational and socio-economic barriers, and increasing the uptake of health-promoting practices. PMID:24810218

  12. Systematic review of interventions to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, among young people in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Sihvonen-Riemenschneider, Henna; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich;

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union.......To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union....

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Emer

    2009-10-29

    BACKGROUND: There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. METHODS: All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were

  14. Body mass index, sexual behaviour, and sexually transmitted infections : an analysis using the NHANES 1999–2000 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernsen Roos MD

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors determining human sexual behaviour are not completely understood, but are important in the context of sexually transmitted disease epidemiology and prevention. Being obese is commonly associated with a reduced physical attractiveness but the associations between body mass index, sexual behaviour and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections has never been studied. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES files of 1999–2000 were used. Linear regression was used to relate the reported number of sex partners in the last year and lifetime to Body Mass Index (BMI. Logistic regression was used to relate Herpes Simplex Virus type II (HSV-2 antibodies to BMI and other variables. Results Data on 979 men and 1250 women were available for analysis. Obese (mean number of partners for men:1.12, women: 0.93 and overweight (mean for men: 1.38, women: 1.03 individuals reported fewer partners than individuals of normal BMI (mean for men:2.00, women: 1.15 in the last year (p Conclusion Obese and overweight individuals, especially men, self report fewer sex partners than individuals of normal weight, but surprisingly this is not reflected in their risk of HSV-2 infection. HSV-2 antibodies provide information not contained in self-reported number of partners and may better estimate sexual risk than self-reported behaviour.

  15. Using Sexually Transmitted Infection Biomarkers to Validate Reporting of Sexual Behavior within a Randomized, Experimental Evaluation of Interviewing Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hewett, Paul C.; Mensch, Barbara S.; de A. Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S.; Jones, Heidi E.; Sheri A. Lippman; Montgomery, Mark R; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the reporting of sexual and other risk behaviors within a randomized experiment using a computerized versus face-to-face interview mode. Biomarkers for sexually transmitted infection (STI) were used to validate self-reported behavior by interview mode. As part of a parent study evaluating home versus clinic screening and diagnosis for STIs, 818 women aged 18−40 years were recruited in 2004 at or near a primary care clinic in São Paulo, Brazil, and were randomized to a face...

  16. The Effectiveness of Sex Education Programs in Virginia Schools: Teenage Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Disease Rates: A Comparison of Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Valimont, Amanda Story

    2005-01-01

    There has been little scientific evidence to suggest that abstinence-only-until-marriage education programs are effective in preventing or reducing teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease. There is also little scientific evidence to suggest that comprehensive sex education programs are as or more effective in preventing or reducing teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease than their abstinence-only counterpart. The following study compares the teenage pregnancy and sexual...

  17. Role of occupation as a risk factor for sexually transmitted disease: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shendre Mohan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a major public health problem. The epidemiology of STDs is distinctive because of common behavioral and biological features. Occupation is one of the socio-demographic factors, which not only act as a risk factor for acquiring STDs but also as a factor for the spread of the acquired infection. The information was collected about the nature of the occupation and it was categorized as unskilled, semi-skilled, skilled, professional and housewives. Most of the subjects belonged to sexually active group. Male to female ratio was found to be 10.9:1. The majority of the cases of sexually transmitted diseases belonged to unskilled profession and most of these were unemployed. They also had twice higher risk of having STDs as compared to controls (OR=2; 95% CI= 1.01-3.95. The analysis of statistical parameters suggested that in this study 28% of the total cases of STD could be attributed to the unskilled profession and 50% to the job requiring frequent travel. Similarly, 15% of the total STD in population can be attributed to the unskilled profession; while only 5% can be attributed to the job requiring frequent travel. It can be concluded that occupation can be considered as a significant risk factor for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. The unskilled and unemployed on one hand and those employed in occupations, which require frequent travel outside the place of residence, constitute the high-risk groups.

  18. KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS, PRACTICE AMONG ADOLESCENTS REGARDING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN URBAN SLUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Rai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are very important health challenges for adolescents. Many national and international governmental and nongovernmental health agencies are running programmes to reduce the incidence of these diseases. We can provide an insight to the reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents by assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice about these diseases. Research Question: What is the level of knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases?  Objectives: To assess the knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases in an urban slum in Dehradun. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Settings and Participants: Adolescents belonging to registered families of Chandreshwar Nagar urban slum under the field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences. Sample Size: 166 Adolescents i.e. Males-88 and Females-78. Study Period: May 2009 to October 2009 Study Variable: A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting information on Age, Sex, Knowledge and awareness regarding STDs, etc. Statistical Analysis: Standard statistical package i.e. SPSS, Microsoft Excel.  Results: 51.2% of the adolescents were having knowledge about STD’s. Majority of (91.4% the adolescents knew about AIDS as a type of STD. Their attitude cum practice towards prevention of STD was found to be 72.9% by use of condoms. Conclusions: Appropriate health care seeking behaviour and Information Education and Communication (IEC activities should be promoted. 

  19. Sexually transmitted infections based on the syndromic approach in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moges Beyene

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections are among the most common causes of illnesses in the world and have far reaching health, social and economic consequences. They are important because of their magnitude, potential complications and interactions with HIV/AIDS. Though the problem may be generally similar to other developing countries, there is scarce information on the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in Ethiopia. This study was then aimed to determine the magnitude of sexually transmitted infections among patients visiting a clinic in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Medical records of patients who visited the clinic from January 2011 to December 2011 were reviewed. Sociodemographic and clinical data were extracted using data extraction form. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical package. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were carried out. Results A total of 1071 clients visited the clinic during the study period. Among these, 383 (35.8% had complained symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. The mean (SD age of the patients was 26.8 ± 7.4 years. The commonest chief complaints were vaginal discharge (38.4% and urethral discharge (13.6%. Seventy seven percent of the cases did not bring their sexual partners for treatment. Conclusion There was a high magnitude of STIs in the clinic according to the syndromic approach. However, the actual prevalence of STIs and the associated factors in the community need to be determined through further studies. The results of this study also urge the need for evaluation of the syndromic approach and test for antimicrobial resistance.

  20. Acceptance of Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections for Stable Sexual Partners by Female Sex Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanja, Yunia; Mukose, Aggrey David; Nakubulwa, Susan; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Providing treatment to the affected FSWs is a challenge, and more so to their stable sexual partners. There is scanty research information on acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs. We conducted a study to assess acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs, and to identify factors associated with acceptance. Methods We enrolled 241 FSWs in a cross sectional study; they were aged ≥ 18 years, had a stable sexual partner and a diagnosis of STI. Factors associated with acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners were analysed in STATA (12) using Poisson regression. Mantel-Haenszel tests for interaction were performed. Results Acceptance of partner treatment was 50.6%. Majority (83.8%) of partners at the last sexual act were stable partners, and 32.4% of participants had asymptomatic STIs. Factors independently associated with acceptance were: earning ≤ $4 USD per sexual act (aPR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49–0.94) and a clinical STI diagnosis (aPR 1.95; 95% CI: 1.30–2.92). The effect of low income on acceptance of partner treatment was seen in those with less education. Conclusion Acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners was lower than that seen in other studies. Interventions to improve economic empowerment among FSWs may increase acceptance of partner treatment. PMID:27171270

  1. Risks and Realities: Rochester Area Lesbians' Perceived Risk of Acquiring Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Singh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There was limited information available in the clinical and public health communities about Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs among lesbians and bisexual women. This study intends to investigate perceived risks of acquiring STIs among lesbians in Rochester, New York. This research concludes that Rochester area lesbians do not perceive themselves at significant risk of acquiring STIs. A gap exists in the sexual health dialogue between health providers and their lesbian patients. And while there was a broad range of safer sex practices documented in the literature, there seems to be little consensus and few guidelines available as far as motivations to practice safer sex.

  2. Risk of sexually transmitted infections among Mayan women in rural Guatemala whose partners are migrant workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, JM; Schaffer, JR; Ixcot, MLS; Page, K; Hearst, N

    2014-01-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) are of concern in Mayan districts of Guatemala in which labor migration is common. This study assessed whether the migration status of men is associated with reported STI symptoms among their female primary partners. In a multivariate analysis of survey data taken from a larger Mayan sexual health study, the odds of reporting STI symptoms were twofold higher among women who reported that their partner migrated (OR 2.08, 95 % CI, 1.16-3.71), compare...

  3. Predictors for casual sex and/or infection among sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, F.; Jia, Y.; Bin, S; C Li; Limei, S; Kristensen, S.; X. Sun; Xiao, Y.; Liu, J; Li, D.; Qu, S.; Vermund, S H

    2009-01-01

    To assess the risk factors for casual sex and infections among the sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attendees in two disparate Chinese cities, an STD clinic-based cross-sectional study was conducted to provide demographic and sexual behaviour information. Participants were recruited from nine STD clinics selected by mapping strategy. STD prevalence was 69.4% (68.6% of men and 65.2% of women). The most common diagnoses were non-gonococcal urethritis (22.2%), genital warts (13.2%), syp...

  4. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections among Male Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Yıldız

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the patients who have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and the healthy individuals in terms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections (BTIs prevalences. Methods: This study is a prospective, single-center, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. There were two groups in the study. The patient group consistsed of 100 males who were diagnosed as ASPD with a clinical interview form. The control group consisted of 98 healthy males who did not have any psychiatric disorder. Dermatologic examination was performed, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 21.96±2.40 (range 20-37 years. The mean age of the control group was 24.20±2.88 (21-36 years. The most common disease was gonorrhea (25% followed by genital wart (11%, molluskum contagiosum (5%, HBsAg (4%, and HSV-2 seropositivity (4% in the patients group. In the control group, HSV-2 seropositivity (4.08%, genital wart (3.06%, molluskum contagiosum (3.06%, and gonorrhe (1.02% were commonly seen in the control group. STDs and/or BVTIs were found more common in the patients group (82% than that in the control group (45.91% (X2=30.62, p=0.000. Conclusions: The patients with ASPD are at greater risk than normal population to catch a STDs or BTIs because of their lower educational levels and riskier behaviors. This condition entertains a risk in the general population and the patients themselves.

  5. European guideline for the organization of a consultation for sexually transmitted infections, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, K W; Flew, S; Poder, A; Cusini, M

    2012-09-01

    This guideline is intended to serve as a framework for those working in any location where sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are managed. It offers recommendations which will need to be adapted depending on local facilities and policies, and is not intended to be all encompassing. This guideline should be read in conjunction with other European guidelines on the management of specific infections (see http://www.iusti.org/). PMID:23033510

  6. Utility of syndromic approach in management of sexually transmitted infections:public health perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava; Jegadeesh Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that are mainly transmitted from person-to-person through sexual contact. Untreated or inadequately treated STIs can have significant impact on the maternal and newborn health. An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was made using library sources including PubMed, Medline and World Health Organization website for a period of one month. Relevant documents, technical publication series, systematic reviews, research articles focusing on the practice of syndromic management in treatment of STIs published in the period 1995-2013 were included in the review. The identified articles were then re-grouped into different sections for better understanding. Keywords used in the search include syndromic management, sexually transmitted infections, women, reproductive age-group and pregnancy. There is an immense need for implementation of prevention and control of STIs because of the associated morbidity/mortality, association with HIV and adverse outcomes of pregnancy and burdening of the health system. Multiple socio-demographic determinants have been identified, which usually precipitates STIs. In addition, some of the barriers have been recognized which is hampering with the expected utilization of the health care services. To counter the high prevalence of reproductive tract infection/STI, especially in countries with limited resources, syndromic diagnostic approach has been adopted by countries for the standardized management of sexually transmitted disease cases. The aim of syndromic management is to identify a syndrome and treat it accordingly with combination therapy which will cover the main pathogens that cause it. Strategies have been suggested to overcome the limitations of the syndromic approach and bring the problem under control. To conclude, syndromic management is a rapid and cost-effective approach in reducing the transmission of STIs.

  7. Quality of care for patients with sexually transmitted diseases in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Faxelid, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    QUALITY OF CARE FOR PATIENTS WITH SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASESIN ZAMBIA Elisabeth Faxelid Factors which have implications for STD care in Zambia have been described andanalysed in order to find strategies for quality improvements. A total of 684 patients with STD were interviewed about health seeking behaviour,sex partners, and satisfaction with quality of care. The male patients had had moresex partners than the female patients, but both groups knew the identity pa...

  8. Transformation of Sexually Transmitted Infection-Causing Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis Using Blasticidin for Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Honglei Ding; Siqi Gong; Yingxin Tian; Zhangsheng Yang; Robert Brunham; Guangming Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using β-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI)-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, ...

  9. Control of sexually transmitted diseases: view from the United States of America.

    OpenAIRE

    Cates, W; Parra, W C; Brown, S T

    1984-01-01

    Past sexually transmitted disease (STD) control efforts in the United States of America have generally permitted a timely response to changes in intervention technology, antibiotic resistance, public funding, and media interest. Today, however, the expansion of STD organisms and syndromes at logarithmic rates has taxed our traditional labour intensive control approaches. We describe briefly the history of STD control strategies in the United States, discuss the seven components upon which cur...

  10. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among New Female Drug Abusers in a Rehabilitation Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Nordin, Rusli Bin; Rahman Bin Isa, Abdul; Rusli Bin Abdullah, Mohamed

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among female drug abusers was studied by screening 130 new inmates of a rehabilitation centre. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire, physical examination and specimen collection for laboratory investigation at the Community Medicine Clinic of HUSM. The majority (64.6%) were Malays and self-confessed sex workers (77.7%). A high prevalence of syphilis (50.8%), hepatitis B (52.2%), moniliasis (23.8%), trichomoniasis (19.2%) and...

  11. The epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in the United Kingdom: impact of behaviour, services and interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, G.; Field, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major public health concern. The United Kingdom (UK) has some of the most advanced STI surveillance systems globally. This review uses national surveillance data to describe remarkable changes in STI epidemiology in the UK over the last century and explores behavioural and demographic shifts that may explain these trends. The past ten years have seen considerable improvements in STI service provision and the introduction of national public health i...

  12. Serological test results of sexually transmitted diseases in patients with condyloma acuminata

    OpenAIRE

    Ünal, Emine; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Çakmak, Seray; Yalçınkaya Iyidal, Ayşegül; Kılıç, Arzu; Gül, Ülker; Doner, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The incidence of condyloma acuminata (CA) has increased in recent years. Aim To determine demographical features and serological test results of STD in patients with CA. Material and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 94 patients presenting to a dermatology clinic in Ankara, Middle Anatolia, Turkey. Dermatological examinations were made and the patients completed a q...

  13. Public Health benefits of partner notification for sexually transmitted infections and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; Low, N; Martin Hilber, Adriane; Redmond, S; Scott, Paul; Cassell, Jackie A; Herrmann, B; Uüskula, A

    2013-01-01

    system characteristics, such as governance structures, public-private mix, models of service provision, resource allocation, financing - including payment for care and reimbursement of clinicians, and access to care, also influence practice. Differences in the microbiological and clinical characteristics......Background European countries have used partner notification as one of a range of measures to control sexually transmitted infections (STI) since the early 1900s. Besides clinical benefits, public health benefits are also recognised such as controlling the spread of STI, reducing STI...

  14. Prevention of sexual transmitted diseases in biology textbooks from different countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Sandie; Clément, Pierre; De Carvalho, Graça Simões

    2007-01-01

    We present a comparative analysis in textbooks of different 17 countries on the topic “Human Reproduction and Sex Education” by using a specific constructed grid of analysis. The focus is on two sub-topics associated to pupils’ development of responsible behaviour: the control of reproduction and the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs).. Results showed important differences from one country to an other, even if AIDS is presented in all textbooks analysed. Some countries textbooks, but not al...

  15. Role of occupation as a risk factor for sexually transmitted disease: A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Shendre Mohan; Tiwari Rajnarayan

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major public health problem. The epidemiology of STDs is distinctive because of common behavioral and biological features. Occupation is one of the socio-demographic factors, which not only act as a risk factor for acquiring STDs but also as a factor for the spread of the acquired infection. The information was collected about the nature of the occupation and it was categorized as unskilled, semi-skilled, skilled, professional and housewives. Most of...

  16. Irish child sexual abuse victims attending a specialist centre

    OpenAIRE

    O'Riordan, Beth; Carr, Alan.; Turner, Rhonda

    2003-01-01

    We profiled a cohort of CSA cases referred for assessment to a specialist child sexual abuse (CSA) centre in a national paediatric hospital in Ireland. Historical and clinical data were drawn from records of 171 cases. The majority of cases were referred by social workers following purposeful disclosure of CSA. Three quarters of the cases were female with a mean age of 9 years. They were from a wide spectrum of socioeconomic groups and many had suffered a range of family adversities. In most ...

  17. Knowledge of and attitudes towards sexually transmitted diseases among secondary school students in Fako District Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafany, N M; Mati, J K; Nasah, B T

    1990-10-01

    This study examines the level of knowledge, attitude and practice in matters concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among secondary school students in Fako-District, Cameroon. A substantial proportion of the respondents are sexually active and doing so with multiple sexual partners. Although 70% of respondents claimed they knew about STDs, not more than 16.1% of them could name any one common STD and give its signs or symptoms. Knowledge about prevention and complications of STDs was equally poor. The school teacher was the principal source of information followed by magazines/books. Among the respondents who had had an STD, only 8% had consulted in an STD clinic, 13.6 and 15.4% respectively to a Doctor and in Hospital, 43% received no treatment and another 19% had gone to chemist shops. The implication of these results together with the needs of the students are discussed. PMID:2282892

  18. Heteronormativity hurts everyone: experiences of young men and clinicians with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira

    2013-09-01

    Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexual men (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexual men are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexually transmitted infection testing. The sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexual men as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexually transmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexual men by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses. PMID:23117592

  19. Awareness of school students on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and their sexual behavior: a cross-sectional study conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi Keivan; Sulaiman Syed; Anwar Mudassir; Khan Tahir M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexually transmitted Infections (STIs) rank among the most important health issues for the people especially the young adults worldwide. Young people tend to engage in sexual activity at younger ages in the past decade than in the 1970s, and 1980s. Knowledge is an essential precursor of sexual risk reduction. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, to produce the baseline information about school students' awareness and perception about sexually tr...

  20. Motivational brief intervention for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections in travelers: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdoz Didier

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are among the frequent risks encountered by travelers. Efficient interventions are needed to improve the understanding of the risks of STIs. We investigated the potential benefits of a motivational brief intervention (BI and the provision of condoms on the engagement in unprotected casual sex. Methods 3-arm randomized controlled trial performed among single travelers aged 18-44 years visiting a travel clinic in Switzerland. The main outcomes were the prevalence of casual unprotected sexual intercourse and their predictors. Results 5148 eligible travelers were seen from 2006 to 2008. 1681 agreed to participate and 1115 subjects (66% completed the study. 184/1115 (17% had a casual sexual relationship abroad and overall 46/1115 (4.1% had inconsistently protected sexual relations. Women (adjusted OR 2.7 [95%CI 1.4-5.6] and travelers with a history of past STI (adjusted OR 2.8 [95%CI 1.1-7.4] had more frequent casual sexual relationships without consistent protection. Regarding the effect of our intervention, the prevalence of subjects using condoms inconsistently was 28% (95%CI16-40 in the motivational BI group, 24% (95%CI10-37 in the condoms group and 24% (95%CI14-33 in the control group (p = 0.7. Conclusion This study showed that a motivational brief intervention and/or the provision of free condoms did not modify risky sexual behavior of young travelers. The rate of inconsistently protected sexual relationships during travel was however lower than expected Trial Registration Number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01056536

  1. VULNERABILITY TO ACQUISITION OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN PROFESSIONAL TRUCK DRIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Jonas Rauber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The truckers live in constant geographical displacement and have a lifestyle itself, which seems to facilitate the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and this factor precludes the articulation of health policies. Thus the aim of this is the vulnerability of truckers Evidence sexually transmitted diseases and the influence of the profession as a risk factor for acquiring these diseases. This is a qualitative study, conducted with three truckers on the banks of the BR 163, in the urban area of the municipality of Sinop in Mato Grosso, the data collection was conducted through semi-structured interview, and the speeches were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed by the method of content analysis. This study has a favorable ethical opinion by the Committee for Ethics and Research of the University Hospital Julio Muller. The results suggested that the profession of truck driver is susceptible to the individual to acquire STDs, since it remains for long hours away from their homes and live in a way that fosters sexual practices with casual partners and unprotected.

  2. THE CHALLENGE TO PREVENTION OF SELF-MEDICATION IN PATIENTS WITH SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. S. Mendes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-medication is the practice of ingesting medicines on our own account and risk. This research aimed to identify the profile of the population treated in the public health network from a municipality in the northern state of Mato Grosso who had Sexually Transmitted Diseases, as well as their behavior in response to these diseases and the practice of self-medication. The samples were composed of 72 volunteers from the Family Health Strategy (FHS and 99 individuals of the Specialized Service of Sexual Transmitted Disease DST/AIDS. The results showed a high prevalence of self-medication among the population. The DST carriers have shown reluctance to seek health care due to embarrassment of exposing their sexuality, thus contributing to the acquisition of family medicine through sharing or surrounding or the use of leftover drugs and reusing old prescriptions. And Brazil takes the fifth position in the world ranking of drug consumption, ranking first in consumption in Latin America and the ninth in the world market in financial volume

  3. Modelling the spread of sexually transmitted diseases on scale-free networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Mao-Xing; Ruan Jiong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a new model for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is presented. The dynamic behaviors of the model on a heterogenous scale-free (SF) network are considered, where the absence of a threshold on the SF network is demonstrated, and the stability of the disease-free equilibrium is obtained. Three immunization strategies, uniform immunization, proportional immunization and targeted immunization, are applied in this model.Analytical and simulated results are given to show that the proportional immunization strategy in the model is effective on SF networks.

  4. Unintended Pregnancy and Its Correlates among Female Attendees of Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics in Eastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Kihara; Masako Ono-Kihara; Yun Xu; Jiezhe Yan; Gaofeng Cai; Xiaohong Pan; Qiaoqin Ma

    2013-01-01

    This study is to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and its risk factors among the female attendees of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Zhejiang Province, China. A self-administered questionnaire survey of a cross-sectional design was administered to attendees at four STD clinics in 2007. Of the 313 female STD clinic attendees, 42.5% reported that they had at least one unintended pregnancy; the induced abortion rate was 39.0%. Over their lifetime, 12.1% responded “u...

  5. Dynamic analysis of a sexually transmitted disease model on complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Xin-Peng; Xue Ya-Kui; Liu Mao-Xing

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,a sexually transmitted disease model is proposed on complex networks,where contacts between humans are treated as a scale-free social network.There are three groups in our model,which are dangerous male,non-dangerous male,and female.By mathematical analysis,we obtain the basic reproduction number for the existence of endemic equilibrium and study the effects of various immunization schemes about different groups.Furthermore,numerical simulations are undertaken to verify more conclusions.

  6. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D.; Grayson, Cary T.; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction.…

  7. Gender Differences in Associations between Exposure to School HIV Education and Protective Sexual Behaviors and Sexually Transmitted Disease/HIV Diagnosis among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Murray, Jessica E.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess associations between school HIV education and protective sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV diagnosis with a representative sample of male and female high school students. Data from male and female adolescent participants in the 1999, 2001 and 2003 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n =…

  8. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M; Cohen, Elijah L; LeClerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12-29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD=2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p=0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p=0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p=0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p=0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all prisk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to understanding sexual risk in transgender adolescents

  9. Chlamydial partner notification in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) 2011 UK national audit against the BASHH Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, H; Carne, C A; Sullivan, A K; Radcliffe, K W; Ahmed-Jushuf, I

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on chlamydial partner notification (PN) performance in the 2011 BASHH national audit against the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health (MedFASH) Sexually Transmitted Infection Management Standards (STIMS). There was wide regional variation in level 3 clinic PN performance against the current standard of index case-reported chlamydial PN, with 43% (regional range 0-80%) of clinics outside London meeting the ≥0.6 contacts seen per index standard, and 85% of clinics (regional range 82-88%) in London meeting the ≥0.4 standard. For level 2 clinics, 39% (regional range 0-100%) of clinics outside London met the ≥0.6 standard, and 43% (regional range 40-50%) of clinics in London met the ≥0.4 standard. Performance for health-care worker (HCW)-verified contact attendance is also reported. New standards for each of these performance measures are proposed for all level 3 clinics: ≥0.6 contacts seen per index case based on index case report, and ≥0.4 contacts seen per index case based on HCW verification, both within four weeks of the first partner notification interview. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of standards by commissioners of services, relevance to national quality agendas, and the need for development of a national system of PN quality assurance measurement and reporting. PMID:23104751

  10. Prevalence and Assessment of Clinical Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers in Two Cities of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs among female sex workers (FSWs is an important strategy to reduce HIV transmission. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and assess the current clinical management of STIs in India. Methods. FSWs attending three clinics for regular checkups or symptoms were screened for study eligibility. A behavioral questionnaire was administered, clinical examination performed, and laboratory samples collected. Results. 417 study participants reported a mean number of 4.9 (SD 3.5 commercial clients in the last week. 14.6% reported anal sex in the last three months. Consistent condom use with commercial and regular partners was 70.1% and 17.5%, respectively. The prevalence of gonorrhea was 14.1%, chlamydia 16.1%, and trichomoniasis 31.1% with a third of all infections being asymptomatic. Syphilis seropositivity was 10.1%. Conclusions. At study sites, presumptive treatment for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis screening should continue. Presumptive treatment for trichomoniasis should be considered. Consistent condom use and partner treatment need to be reemphasized.

  11. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of the sexually-transmitted parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adao, Davin Edric V; Rivera, Windell L

    2016-01-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect the sexually-transmitted parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swabs. The presence of T. vaginalis was detected from 121 female sex workers attending a social hygiene clinic in Balibago, Angeles City, Pampanga, Philippines using culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the developed LAMP assay. The high analytical sensitivity of LAMP detected a higher prevalence of T. vaginalis (42.06%) compared to culture (8.26%) and PCR (7.44%). Additionally, this assay did not cross-react with DNAs of other trichomonads that can infect humans such as Trichomonas tenax and Pentatrichomonas hominis as well as the pathogens, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. The LAMP assay developed had a limit of detection (0.036 ng/μl) lower than that of PCR using the primers TvK3 and TvK7 (0.36 ng/μl). Prevalence of T. vaginalis in female sex workers in this area of the Philippines may be higher than previously estimated. Discordant results of PCR and LAMP may be due to different reactions to different kinds of inhibitors in the vaginal swabs. PMID:27262954

  12. Health Care Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes About Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Legal Aspects of Medical Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpak Yaşam Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate healthcare professionals’ (HCPs general level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, their attitudes towards these patients and legal aspects of medical services. Materials and Methods: This was a multi-centered study. The participants were given 28 questions that mainly asked their level of knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs patients, their attitudes towards such patients, and their legal as well as ethical views on them. Results: A total of 234 HCPs, 124 (53% female and 110 (47% male, participated in the study. The majority of married HCPs have reported monogamy as the most reliable protection method, whereas single participants have marked "condoms." The most commonly known STD has been reported as AIDS in all groups. Even though HCPs find it medically unethical not to offer a medical intervention to patients with STDs, more than one-third of the participants believe that HCPs should have the right not to do so. Conclusion: It has been concluded that HCPs need further education on STDs. Nevertheless, such high level of care and attention on HCPs’ part does not necessarily decrease their need for proper medico legal regulations on such issues.

  13. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of non-sexually transmitted strains of Haemophilus ducreyi.

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    Jordan R Gaston

    Full Text Available Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA, serum resistance protein (dsrA, and a collagen adhesin (ncaA contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts.

  14. Factors Affecting Appropriate Management of Patients with Sexually Transmitted Infections in Japan

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    Kodama,Tomoe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicians should educate patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs on measures to prevent reinfection and should also undertake human immunodeficiency virus (HIV testing after diagnosis of STIs. These preventive measures are important, but it is not known to what extent these procedures are followed in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the proportion of patients with STIs who received appropriate management from physicians, namely recommendation of HIV testing, encouragement of condom use and examination and/or treatment of sexual partners, to elucidate the factors affecting institution of each measure. From a mailshot of 566 physicians, 409 (72.3% responded, with 176 diagnosing an STI in 967 patients. The proportions applying the 3 measures were low (recommendation of HIV testing:27.0;encouragement of condom use:64.8%;examination of sexual partners:17.5%, and were related to the sex of the patients and numbers of patients diagnosed by the physicians. Female patients received better care than male patients, particularly with respect to recommendation of HIV testing (odds ratio:2.82. Physicians who diagnosed more than 20 STI patients tended not to provide appropriate management. These findings suggest the necessity for better physician management of patients for effective prevention of STIs.

  15. Reproductive health for refugees by refugees in Guinea II: sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekirapa Akaco

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing reproductive and sexual health services is an important and challenging aspect of caring for displaced populations, and preventive and curative sexual health services may play a role in reducing HIV transmission in complex emergencies. From 1995, the non-governmental "Reproductive Health Group" (RHG worked amongst refugees displaced by conflicts in Sierra Leone and Liberia (1989–2004. RHG recruited refugee nurses and midwives to provide reproductive and sexual health services for refugees in the Forest Region of Guinea, and trained refugee women as lay health workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1999 to assess sexual health needs, knowledge and practices among refugees, and the potential impact of RHG's work. Methods Trained interviewers administered a questionnaire on self-reported STI symptoms, and sexual health knowledge, attitudes and practices to 445 men and 444 women selected through multistage stratified cluster sampling. Chi-squared tests were used where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors (to adjust for the cluster sampling design was used to assess if factors such as source of information about sexually transmitted infections (STIs was associated with better knowledge. Results 30% of women and 24% of men reported at least one episode of genital discharge and/or genital ulceration within the past 12 months. Only 25% correctly named all key symptoms of STIs in both sexes. Inappropriate beliefs (e.g. that swallowing tablets before sex, avoiding public toilets, and/or washing their genitals after sex protected against STIs were prevalent. Respondents citing RHG facilitators as their information source were more likely to respond correctly about STIs; RHG facilitators were more frequently cited than non-healthcare information sources in men who correctly named the key STI symptoms (odds ratio (OR = 5.2, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.9–13.9, and in men and

  16. Prevention and Control of Zika as a Mosquito-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Disease: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We introduce a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV and calibrate the model to ZIKV epidemic data from Brazil, Colombia, and El Salvador. Parameter estimates yielded a basic reproduction number 0 = 2.055 (95% CI: 0.523-6.300), in which the percentage contribution of sexual transmission is 3.044% (95% CI: 0.123-45.73). Our sensitivity analyses indicate that 0 is most sensitive to the biting rate and mortality rate of mosquitoes while sexual transmission increases the risk of infection and epidemic size and prolongs the outbreak. Prevention and control efforts against ZIKV should target both the mosquito-borne and sexual transmission routes. PMID:27312324

  17. Prevention and Control of Zika as a Mosquito-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Disease: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C.; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We introduce a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV and calibrate the model to ZIKV epidemic data from Brazil, Colombia, and El Salvador. Parameter estimates yielded a basic reproduction number 0 = 2.055 (95% CI: 0.523–6.300), in which the percentage contribution of sexual transmission is 3.044% (95% CI: 0.123–45.73). Our sensitivity analyses indicate that 0 is most sensitive to the biting rate and mortality rate of mosquitoes while sexual transmission increases the risk of infection and epidemic size and prolongs the outbreak. Prevention and control efforts against ZIKV should target both the mosquito-borne and sexual transmission routes. PMID:27312324

  18. A Phenomenological Study of Sexual Harassment and Violence among Girls Attending High Schools in Urban Slums, Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Sagwe, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, 31% of young Kenyan women ages 15-24 reported sexual harassment and violence (SHV), with a majority experiencing sexual debut due to coercion (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Data were obtained from a sample of 20 girls attending school in Kamu and Lafamu (pseudonyms used for the study sites), 10 girls who had dropped out of school,…

  19. Problems of adolescents sexuality.

    OpenAIRE

    Whatley, J.; Thin, N; B. Reynolds; Blackwell, A

    1989-01-01

    Recent discussions highlighted adolescents' sexual behaviour, but published studies concentrate on specific problems or subgroups of patients without addressing factors related to sexuality. To obtain a broad picture we studied two groups of adolescents attending genito-urinary medicine/sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in contrasting areas of Britain, inner London and Swansea. These were evaluated for referral pattern, sexual partner, contraception, obstetric history, sexually trans...

  20. Sexually-Transmitted/Founder HIV-1 Cannot Be Directly Predicted from Plasma or PBMC-Derived Viral Quasispecies in the Transmitting Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frange, Pierre; Meyer, Laurence; Jung, Matthieu; Goujard, Cecile; Zucman, David; Abel, Sylvie; Hochedez, Patrick; Gousset, Marine; Gascuel, Olivier; Rouzioux, Christine; Chaix, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Objective Characterization of HIV-1 sequences in newly infected individuals is important for elucidating the mechanisms of viral sexual transmission. We report the identification of transmitted/founder viruses in eight pairs of HIV-1 sexually-infected patients enrolled at the time of primary infection (“recipients”) and their transmitting partners (“donors”). Methods Using a single genome-amplification approach, we compared quasispecies in donors and recipients on the basis of 316 and 376 C2V5 env sequences amplified from plasma viral RNA and PBMC-associated DNA, respectively. Results Both DNA and RNA sequences indicated very homogeneous viral populations in all recipients, suggesting transmission of a single variant, even in cases of recent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in donors (n = 2) or recipients (n = 3). In all pairs, the transmitted/founder virus was derived from an infrequent variant population within the blood of the donor. The donor variant sequences most closely related to the recipient sequences were found in plasma samples in 3/8 cases and/or in PBMC samples in 6/8 cases. Although donors were exclusively (n = 4) or predominantly (n = 4) infected by CCR5-tropic (R5) strains, two recipients were infected with highly homogeneous CXCR4/dual-mixed-tropic (X4/DM) viral populations, identified in both DNA and RNA. The proportion of X4/DM quasispecies in donors was higher in cases of X4/DM than R5 HIV transmission (16.7–22.0% versus 0–2.6%), suggesting that X4/DM transmission may be associated with a threshold population of X4/DM circulating quasispecies in donors. Conclusions These suggest that a severe genetic bottleneck occurs during subtype B HIV-1 heterosexual and homosexual transmission. Sexually-transmitted/founder virus cannot be directly predicted by analysis of the donor’s quasispecies in plasma and/or PBMC. Additional studies are required to fully understand the traits that confer the capacity to transmit and

  1. [Sexually transmitted diseases and other risks in the adult film industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, N

    2014-02-01

    The adult film industry nowadays represents a legal multi-billion dollar business. The main health risks of adult performers are well known. They mainly include the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, herpes and papillomavirus. However, despite regular follow-up, the frequency of STD remains significant in this high-risk population since a large part of the industry continues to reject systematic use of condoms. Besides, performers are also exposed to other physical and mental health issues often not known to the public. This article provides a comprehensive review of what is known about STD and other risks among the community of performers in the adult film industry. PMID:24507206

  2. Diagnostic challenges of sexually transmitted infections in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Ronald, Allan

    2009-12-01

    The global burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is highest in the developing world where access to laboratory services is limited. Sophisticated laboratory diagnostic tests using noninvasive specimens have enabled developed countries to screen and diagnose curable STIs in a variety of settings, but control programs in resource-limited settings continue to struggle to find simple rapid tests that can provide adequate performance in the absence of laboratory services. While recent technological advances and investments in research and development may soon yield improved STI tests that can make an impact, these tests will need to be deployed within a health system that includes: regulatory oversight, quality assurance, good supply-chain management, effective training, information systems and a sound surveillance system to monitor disease trends, inform policy decisions and assess the impact of interventions. PMID:19995188

  3. Drug Resistance Mechanisms in Bacteria Causing Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Associated with Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaskolskiy, Boris; Dementieva, Ekaterina; Leinsoo, Arvo; Runina, Anastassia; Vorobyev, Denis; Plakhova, Xenia; Kubanov, Alexey; Deryabin, Dmitrii; Gryadunov, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Here, we review sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) caused by pathogenic bacteria and vaginal infections which result from an overgrowth of opportunistic bacterial microflora. First, we describe the STDs, the corresponding pathogens and the antimicrobials used for their treatment. In addition to the well-known diseases caused by single pathogens (i.e., syphilis, gonococcal infections, and chlamydiosis), we consider polymicrobial reproductive tract infections (especially those that are difficult to effectively clinically manage). Then, we summarize the biochemical mechanisms that lead to antimicrobial resistance and the most recent data on the emergence of drug resistance in STD pathogens and bacteria associated with vaginosis. A large amount of research performed in the last 10–15 years has shed light on the enormous diversity of mechanisms of resistance developed by bacteria. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of antimicrobials action and the emergence of resistance is necessary to modify existing drugs and to develop new ones directed against new targets. PMID:27242760

  4. Trichomonas vaginalis-An indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal B

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases (STD and 68 male counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female STD cases and 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 126 (58.3% out of 216 cases of T. vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with candida species; 29 cases (23% were associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N gonorrhoeae; Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi 18 cases (14.3% and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis 11 cases (8.7%. Treponema pallidium (T. pallidium was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constitutes a low percentage. The present study highlights the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-thirds of the STD cases which suggests that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  5. The global roadmap for advancing development of vaccines against sexually transmitted infections: Update and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Deal, Carolyn D; Giersing, Birgitte; Rees, Helen; Bolan, Gail; Johnston, Christine; Timms, Peter; Gray-Owen, Scott D; Jerse, Ann E; Cameron, Caroline E; Moorthy, Vasee S; Kiarie, James; Broutet, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization, the US National Institutes of Health, and global technical partners published a comprehensive roadmap for development of new vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Since its publication, progress has been made in several roadmap activities: obtaining better epidemiologic data to establish the public health rationale for STI vaccines, modeling the theoretical impact of future vaccines, advancing basic science research, defining preferred product characteristics for first-generation vaccines, and encouraging investment in STI vaccine development. This article reviews these overarching roadmap activities, provides updates on research and development of individual vaccines against herpes simplex virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Treponema pallidum, and discusses important next steps to advance the global roadmap for STI vaccine development. PMID:27105564

  6. Emerging Technologies to Prevent Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Dominika; Hemmerling, Anke; Smith-McCune, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide, there continues to be a large unmet need for family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention methods. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) is a general term encompassing any single prevention methodology targeting more than one STI (including HIV) and/or pregnancy. While innovation has been slow over the past several decades, recent scientific advances have resulted in new products entering clinical trials. This review focuses primarily on multipurpose technologies that are designed to prevent pregnancy and HIV. To examine the current state of MPTs, we outline key discoveries of biologic mechanisms that influence susceptibility of the female genital tract to HIV and STIs, and review the effects of hormonal contraception on HIV susceptibility. We discuss the state of currently available HIV prevention strategies for women, and their interactions with hormonal contraceptive products. Finally, we describe MPTs currently in preclinical and clinical trials and propose ongoing questions requiring research to help advance the field. PMID:26956691

  7. Incidence of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 infection among HIV-uninfected individuals at high risk for sexually transmitted infections

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    Palamara Guido

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of, and risk factors for, HHV-8 infection have yet to be definitively determined, particularly among heterosexual individuals with at-risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections (STI. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence and determinants of HHV-8 infection among HIV-uninfected individuals repeatedly attending an urban STI clinic. Methods Sera from consecutive HIV-uninfected individuals repeatedly tested for HIV-1 antibodies were additionally tested for HHV-8 antibodies using an immunofluorescence assay. To identify determinants of HHV-8 infection, a nested case-control study and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Sera from 456 HIV-uninfected individuals (224 multiple-partner heterosexuals and 232 men who have sex with men (MSM] were identified for inclusion in the study. The HHV-8 seroprevalence at enrollment was 9.4% (21/224; 95% C.I.: 6.0–14.2% among heterosexuals with multiple partners and 22.0% (51/232; 95% C.I.: 16.9–28.0% among MSM. Among the 203 multiple-partner heterosexuals and 181 MSM who were initially HHV-8-negative, 17 (IR = 3.0/100 p-y, 95% C.I.: 1.9 – 4.8 and 21 (IR = 3.3/100 p-y, 95% C.I:.2.1 – 5.1 seroconversions occurred, respectively. HHV-8 seroconversion tended to be associated with a high number of sexual partners during the follow-up among MSM (> 10 partners: AOR = 3.32 95% CI:0.89–12.46 and among the multiple-partner heterosexuals (> 10 partner; AOR = 3.46, 95% CI:0.42–28.2. Moreover, among MSM, HHV-8 seroconversion tended to be associated with STI (AOR = 1.80 95%CI: 0.52–7.96. During the study period the HIV-1 incidence was lower than that of HHV-8 among both groups (0.89/100 p-y among MSM and 0.95/100 p-y among multiple-partner heterosexuals. Conclusion The large difference between the incidence of HHV-8 and the incidence of HIV-1 and other STIs may suggest that the circulation of HHV-8 is sustained by practices

  8. Aminomethyl spectinomycins as therapeutics for drug-resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, David F; Waidyarachchi, Samanthi L; Madhura, Dora B; Shcherbakov, Dimitri; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Jiuyu; Abdelrahman, Yasser M; Singh, Aman P; Duscha, Stefan; Rathi, Chetan; Lee, Robin B; Belland, Robert J; Meibohm, Bernd; Rosch, Jason W; Böttger, Erik C; Lee, Richard E

    2015-05-20

    The antibiotic spectinomycin is a potent inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis with a unique mechanism of action and an excellent safety index, but it lacks antibacterial activity against most clinically important pathogens. A series of N-benzyl-substituted 3'-(R)-3'-aminomethyl-3'-hydroxy spectinomycins was developed on the basis of a computational analysis of the aminomethyl spectinomycin binding site and structure-guided synthesis. These compounds had ribosomal inhibition values comparable to spectinomycin but showed increased potency against the common respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, and Moraxella catarrhalis, as well as the sexually transmitted bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Non-ribosome-binding 3'-(S) isomers of the lead compounds demonstrated weak inhibitory activity in in vitro protein translation assays and poor antibacterial activity, indicating that the antibacterial activity of the series remains on target against the ribosome. Compounds also demonstrated no mammalian cytotoxicity, improved microsomal stability, and favorable pharmacokinetic properties in rats. The lead compound from the series exhibited excellent chemical stability superior to spectinomycin; no interaction with a panel of human receptors and drug metabolism enzymes, suggesting low potential for adverse reactions or drug-drug interactions in vivo; activity in vitro against a panel of penicillin-, macrolide-, and cephalosporin-resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates; and the ability to cure mice of fatal pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Together, these studies indicate that N-benzyl aminomethyl spectinomycins are suitable for further development to treat drug-resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections. PMID:25995221

  9. Sexually transmitted infections among transgender people and men who have sex with men in Port Vila, Vanuatu

    OpenAIRE

    Veronese, Vanessa; van Gemert, Caroline; Bulu, Siula; Kwarteng, Tamara; Bergari, Isabel; Badman, Steven; Vella, Alyce; Stoové, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Despite high sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence in the Pacific, there are limited data on STIs and risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG). In 2011, an Integrated Bio-Behavioural Survey recruited self-identified MSM and TG in Port Vila, Vanuatu. Descriptive findings were stratified by sexuality. Among 28 (55%) MSM and 23 (45%) TG, recent anal sex with male partners was more common among MSM (94% vs 71%; P 

  10. EXPERIENCE OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AS A PREDICTOR OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AMONG MARRIED WOMEN IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sigbeku, O.A.; Fawole, O I; Ogunniyan, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue that is associated with adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs have recently gained more recognition worldwide because they increase the risk for HIVinfection. However, there is dearth of information on the association between IPV and STIs particularly among married women in Nigeria. Objective: To determine the association between IPV and STIs among m...

  11. Systematic Review of Interventions to Prevent the Spread of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV, Among Young People in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Sihvonen-Riemenschneider, Henna; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich; Wong, Fiona; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    Aim To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union. Methods For this systematic review, we examined interventions that aimed at STI risk reduction and health promotion conducted in schools, clinics, and in the community for reported effectiveness (in changing sexual behavior and/or knowledge) between 1995 and 2005. We also reviewed study de...

  12. Early initiation of sexual activity: a risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection, and unwanted pregnancy among university students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravari Shahrzad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3% completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Results Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners, multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexually transmitted disease (STD, partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Conclusion Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.

  13. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE CONTROL IN CHINA (1949-1994) (1949--1994)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵长庚; 徐文严; 叶干运

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the historical experiences in venereal disease control in China during the 1950s.Venereal diseases had been all but eliminated in the whole country till 1964. However, along with the im-plementation of open-door policy and economic reform in the 1980s, the social environmerlt was changed toa great extent in this country. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were re-lntroduced in the Chinesemainlatld and new loci of infeetinn emablished themselves in some cities. During the receslt 8 yeaxs the na-tional STD cose reposing and sentinel surveillance systems have been set up. The sults off surveillanceshow that the annual incidence of STD has been on the increase. The existing factors asso:iated with theincreasing incidence of STD mainly are population movement, increasing affluence in a part of population,the availability of multiple sexual partners (including the prostitution)and asymptomatic STD increased.Firally, the strategies for STD control are discussed in detail.

  14. Sex, lies, and gastrointestinal tract biopsies: a review of selected sexually transmitted proctocolitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Ali, M Aamir; Singhi, Aatur D; Arnold, Christina A

    2014-03-01

    There are many insults that result in gastrointestinal tract inflammation. Infections can be particularly challenging because (1) only a limited number of organisms provoke a specific endoscopic and/or histologic appearance; and (2) although some organisms may be present on biopsies, the findings may be so subtle or organisms so few that they are easily missed if the reviewer is not performing a specific search for the offender. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are rarely a consideration at the time of GI biopsy examination and clinicians rarely inquire about sexual behavior at the time of initial patient interview. Although establishing a definitive STI diagnosis is not possible on histology alone, these infections are associated with inflammatory patterns that may help raise this diagnostic possibility. Becoming familiar with these patterns is necessary as worldwide outbreaks of these infections are being reported. This review aims to provide the pathologist with histologic clues associated with the most frequently encountered bacterial pathogens in the setting of STI proctitis, namely, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Treponema pallidum. PMID:24508691

  15. THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS ABOUT SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela de Souza Marques

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The purpose of this research was to verify the knowledge of the school adolescents, of a public school in Goiânia – Goiás, about STD/Aids. The research is characterized as descriptive and was made from 2003 January to October, with students of the related school 7th and 8th classes’ and 2nd and 3rd high school classes. The data had been collected by structuralized questionnaire. The research had evaluated 113 students and 46% of them were male and 54% were female. The age goes to 12 to 19 years old. 15% of the students told that they already had sexual relations. It was observed that, although 90,43% of the students have showed previous knowledge of the subject, when they were asked about how much they knew about DST/AIDS, many of them had answered incorrectly. The research suggests an effective implementation of educative programs about the theme in all the schools and school levels. KEYWORDS: Public Health Nursing; Teen Health; Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

  16. [Microbiological diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STI): Part 1. Non-viral STI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M Angélica T

    2009-12-01

    Non-viral sexually transmitted infections (STI) are an important cause of physical, psychological and social distress, have severe consequences for women's reproductive health and may be transmitted to the newborn child. These infections are also risk factors for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and other STI, and for premature labor. In the last years we have observed a gradual decrease in the national incidence of gonorrhea. The implementation of a screening program in our country for Chlamydia trachomatis is necessary, since up to 80% of infections in women are asymptomatic. Due to medical, psychosocial and legal reasons, laboratory diagnosis of STI has to be certain. This offers a great challenge to laboratories. Since etiological agents are susceptible to environmental conditions, present a high adaptation to their human host and have particular physiological characteristics, their laboratory diagnosis is more difficult than diagnosis of conventional microorganisms. Otherwise, the diagnostic techniques currently available for non-viral STI are characterized by their excellent sensitivity and specificity, which result of great interest given the curable nature of these infections. Clinical specimens obtained for diagnosis of STI and other genital infections, such as bacterial vaginosis or Candidiasis represent a large proportion of specimens processed by clinical laboratories. Thus, the creation of norms and quality control guidelines for laboratories which diagnose these infections, and also the epidemiologic and genetic surveillance of circulating sex transmitted microorganisms should be considered a priority in our country. The objective of this study is to review current literature on accurate diagnostic procedures especially for three non-viral STI agents: C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. PMID:20098788

  17. IT TAKES TWO: PARTNER ATTRIBUTES ASSOCIATED WITH SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AMONG ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Brown, Jennifer L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Sales, Jessica M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify partner attributes associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents and summarize implications for research and prevention. Design Systematic review. Methods We identified peer-reviewed studies published 1990–2010 which assessed ≥1 partner attribute in relation to a biologically-confirmed STI among adolescents (15–24 years) by searching MEDLINE and included articles. Studies which included adolescents but >50% of the sample or with mean or median age ≥25 years were excluded. Results Sixty-four studies met eligibility criteria; 59% were conducted in high-income countries; 80% were cross-sectional; 91% enrolled females and 42% males. There was no standard “partner” definition. Partner attributes assessed most frequently included: age, race/ethnicity, multiple sex partners and STI symptoms. Older partners were associated with prevalent STIs but largely unrelated to incidence. Black race was associated with STIs but not uniformly. Partners with multiple partners and STI symptoms appear to be associated with STIs predominantly among females. Although significant associations were reported, weaker evidence exists for: other partner sociodemographics; sexual and other behaviors (sexual concurrency, sex worker, intimate partner violence, substance use, travel) and STI history. There were no apparent differences by STI. Conclusions Partner attributes are independently associated with STIs among male and female adolescents worldwide. These findings reinforce the importance of assessing partner attributes when determining STI risk. Prevention efforts should continue to promote and address barriers to condom use. Increased efforts are needed to screen and treat STIs and reduce risky behavior among men. A standard “partner” definition would facilitate interpretation of findings in future studies. PMID:23588126

  18. Prevalence and etiology of sexually transmitted infections in a gynecologic unit of a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusi-Ngwa Catherine Kesah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite enormous sensitization and management options available for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in the last 2 decades, these infections remain highly endemic in certain parts of Cameroon. This is a descriptive study of genital hygiene and predisposition to STIs in some women in Dschang, West Region, Cameroon. Materials and Methods: A total of 2172 consenting women seeking gynecological care at the Dschang District Hospital from 2009 to 2010 were interviewed, examined, cervical/blood specimens collected, and analyzed. Results: Inadequate healthcare systems; lack of reproductive health knowledge; vaginal washing with contaminated water or chemicals; contaminated sanitary towels or gynecologic equipment; unsterile sharps; dirty and damp lavatories; synthetic and tight underwear; multiple or concurrent sex partners; primitive traditions; myths; polygamous and inherited marriages; asymptomatic carriage of pathogens; self-medication; antibiotic abuse; traditional therapy; reinfections; poverty; poor sanitation; and illiteracy were related to genital conditions identified in 1466 (67% study subjects, excluding 41 (2% cases with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS only. In total, 1353 (62% patients were infectious cases, 113 (5% had noninfectious vaginitis, 171 (8% were positive for HIV/AIDS serology, with 6% having concurrent genital infections. Of the 1507 patients diagnosed with STIs, 62% were symptomatic and 7% asymptomatic comprising 5% convalescent and 2% healthy carriers. Bacterial vaginosis 24%, vaginal candidiasis 18%, chlamydia 15%, and active syphilis 11% predominated over trichomonas, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, herpes, and warts with rates ≤1%. Conclusion: In mitigation, hand washing, clean toilets, sexual behaviors that contribute to STIs, delay sexual debut, condom usage, rational employment of examination methods, improved medical diagnostics testing both men and women, attitude

  19. Sexual behavior and knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus/aids and sexually transmitted infections among women inmates of Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Fageeh, Wafa MK

    2014-01-01

    Background To reduce the incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is necessary to target high-risk populations such as prison inmates. This study aims to explore the range of knowledge on HIV and STIs, sexual behaviors, and adoption of preventive measures among women inmates. Methods This was a survey conducted between July 1, 2012 and July 29, 2012 among women inmates at Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The author gave an educational lecture on STIs in a conference...

  20. Infecciones de transmisión sexual en personas transgénero y otras identidades sexuales Sexually transmitted infections among transgender individuals and other sexual identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier J. Toibaro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Existen pocos datos disponibles acerca del comportamiento de riesgo y la prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS, incluyendo HIV-1, en personas transgénero. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar las características demográficas, factores de riesgo, prevalencia de HIV-1 e ITS en personas transgénero versus personas no transgénero que consultan al Centro de Prevención, Asesoramiento y Diagnóstico del Hospital General de Agudos J.M. Ramos Mejía. Se utilizó el diseño de estudio de corte transversal y se incluyeron pacientes asistidos en nuestro centro que firmaron consentimiento informado entre noviembre de 2002 y abril de 2006. Se obtuvieron datos sociodemográficos, uso de drogas, utilización de preservativos, nivel de educación alcanzado, diagnóstico de ITS y estado actual de la pareja. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y chi² para comparar proporciones. En la población estudiada (n: 4118 se identificaron a 105 personas transgénero. La prevalencia de infección por HIV-1 fue del 27.6% (29/105, mientras que en personas no transgénero (n: 4013 fue de 6.2% (247/4013; p:0.0000. El bajo nivel educativo, el consumo de alcohol, el abuso de drogas, los antecedentes de ITS y el trabajo sexual (100% en transgénero y 2.3% en no transgénero fueron más frecuentes en personas transgénero. La prevalencia de sífilis fue del 42% en personas transgénero y del 18% en personas no transgénero. Estos datos demuestran que las personas transgénero que consultan en nuestro centro tienen alta prevalencia de infección por HIV-1 e ITS. Esta información podría contribuir al diseño de estrategias de prevención necesarias en esta población.Few data are available regarding the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI, including HIV-1 infection, and risk behaviors of transgender individuals. Previous reports indicate that this community has a high prevalence of HIV and STIs. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of

  1. Sexually transmitted infections associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity Infecciones de transmisión sexual asociadas a síntomas vulvovaginales en adolescentes que niegan vida sexual activa

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Velarde-Jurado; Elizabeth Estrada-Reyes; Luis Eraña-Guerra; Atlántida Raya-Rivera; E Yadira Velázquez-Armenta; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic evidence of a probable sexually transmitted infection associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of female adolescents, aged 10-18 years were reviewed. These women received first-time medical care for vulvovaginitis, between 1995 and 1999 at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, (Children's Hospital). Comparisons between groups were performed, as ...

  2. Initial assessment of scaled-up sexually transmitted infection intervention in Himachal Pradesh under National AIDS Control Program - III

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    Sunite A Ganju

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To assess the impact of scaled-up sexually transmitted infection (STI intervention under National AIDS Control Program (NACP III and to examine the profile of STI/RTI clinic (now named Suraksha Clinic attendees. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study by data analysis was done from April 2008 to March 2010. The scaled-up intervention comprised of (i adopting enhanced syndromic approach, (ii capacity building by appointing counselors and trainings of staff, (iii strengthening STI/RTI clinics by provision of logistics and privacy by civil works, and (iv supervisory support. The outcome which directly influenced service delivery was evaluated within this framework. Results : Sixteen "Suraksha Clinics" have been remodeled, equipped with supplies and laboratory set up. A total of 64,554 clinic visits were reported of which 27,317 [42%] attended the clinics for index STI/RTI complaint(s. Majority of the clients (44% were young, 25-44 years old. Male to female ratio was 1:1.8. In females, the commonest complaint was lower abdominal pain (25% and vaginal discharge (33%, the commonest syndrome. Amongst laboratory-confirmed STIs, 305 (1.4% attendees were positive for trichomoniasis, while bacterial vaginosis was corroborated in 230 (1.07% patients with clue cells. Amongst antenatal women, 251 were reactive for syphilis (≥1:8 dilutions. 10,579 partners of index STI/RTI patients were notified and partner management was attained to the level of 99%. Conclusion : Preliminary results show increased utilization of STI clinical services, though laboratory services need further strengthening. Continued supportive supervision and capacity building will enable skill development and quality monitoring.

  3. Comparison of Sexual Risky Factors of Men Who Have Sex With Men and Sex-buying Men as Groups Vulnerable to Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Minsoo; Lee, Joongyub; Kwon, Dong Seok; Park, Byung-Joo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives It is necessary to examine groups carrying out sexually risky behavior because the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is high among them. In this study, the prevalence of STDs among homosexuals and sex-buying men in South Korea was investigated, along with their sexual risk factors. Methods Men who have sex with men (MSMs, n=108) were recruited in Seoul and Busan by applying the time location sampling method, while sex-buying men (n=118) were recruited from a john s...

  4. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young married women in Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu state in India

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    Rejoice Puthuchira Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are now recognized as a serious global threat to the health of population. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young married scheduled castes women in Thiruvarur district of Tamilnadu state in India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 28 villages selected using multistage sampling technique for selecting 605 women in the age group of 15-24 years during July 2010-April 2011. Data analysis was by use of SPSS version-17, with statistical significance set at p-value of 0.05. Results: Around 8.8% of women experienced sexually transmitted infections among the study population. The proportion of women who experienced STIs was seven times higher among illiterates (46.9% than women who completed secondary education (6%. The women in households in the high standard of living index (SLI were less likely to experience STIs (1.7% than women in low SLI (15.6%. The agricultural laborers were 1.145 times more likely to experience STIs than non-agricultural workers (OR=0.251. Conclusions: The main causes for sexual health problems were found to be the less education and lowest SLI among women. It is recommended that policy makers should be introduce community intervention programs to increase the awareness regarding sexual health issues among rural population. 

  5. Alaska Native and Rural Youths' Views of Sexual Health: A Focus Group Project on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV/AIDS, and Unplanned Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…

  6. Relative Efficacy of a Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infection, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention--Focused Intervention on Changing Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Wynne E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Amico, K. Rivet; Dovidio, John F.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Despite findings suggesting that young adults are more concerned about experiencing an unplanned pregnancy or contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) than becoming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, no empirical work has investigated whether the specific focus of an intervention may be more or less efficacious at…

  7. Higher variability in the number of sexual partners in males can contribute to a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2009-01-01

    on the probability of disease transmission. We note that in addition to humans, the variance phenomenon described here is likely to play a role for sexually transmitted diseases in other species also. We also show, again by examining published, empirical data, that the female to male prevalence ratio...

  8. Treatment-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted infections in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheck, Rachel; Ngilangwa, David; Manongi, Rachael; Kapiga, Saidi

    2010-11-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 340 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur every year, while 33 million individuals are estimated to be living with HIV. The AIDS and STI epidemics are not independent with untreated STIs increasing HIV acquisition and transmission. Female sex workers have increased prevalence of untreated STIs and have been hypothesized to affect the health and HIV incidence of the general population. This paper aims to investigate why some female sex workers who experience symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers seek treatment while others do not. Data were collected from a cohort study conducted between 2002 and 2005 among female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Tanzania. Study subjects were recruited from 7 out of 15 administrative wards in Moshi as part of the Moshi's Women's Health Project. Data were restricted to women self-reporting symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers (n=459) within the past year. Logistic regression was performed with SAS 9.1. Qualitative analysis was performed using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions among a convenience sample (n=42) of women already enrolled in the study. All interviews and focus group discussions were tape-recorded and transcribed, and data were analyzed thematically. Sixty-four percent of the sample sought treatment for either ailment. Multivariate analysis identified relationship to man of last sexual intercourse, ever experiencing a pregnancy, and age as significant predictors to seeking treatment. Four salient themes of threats to fertility, stigma correlated with prostitution, discomfort with the physical exam, and perceived views of clients were revealed as predictors to why women seek or intentionally ignore symptoms. Understanding the motivations and barriers for seeking treatment of STIs has far ranging public health implications that could help curtail the unnecessary associated morbidity and mortality and curtail

  9. Internet treatment of sexually transmitted infections – a public health hazard?

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    Schelenz Silke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the stigma associated with sexually transmitted infections, patients may prefer to keep their illness private, and choose instead to try self-treatment remedies from the internet. However, such remedies may prove hazardous if the sellers do not provide detailed advice on adverse effects, or on avoiding transmission and re-infection. We conducted an internet search to determine the availability of treatments for STIs and the nature of information provided by vendors of these treatments. Methods We conducted a systematic internet search using five different search engines in February 2007. The search term included the words "self treatment" and the name of six different common STIs. We visited the vendors' websites and recorded any information on the formulation, adverse effects, cautions, and prevention of infection. Results We identified a total of 77 treatments from 52 different companies, most of which were sold from the UK and US. The available remedies were predominantly for topical use and consisted mainly of homeopathic remedies. Only a small proportion of the web-listed products gave details on adverse effects, contraindications and interactions (22%, 25% and 9% respectively. Similarly, web vendors seldom provided advice on treatment of sexual contacts (20% of chlamydia and 25% of gonorrhea treatments or on preventive measures (13%. Conversely, evidence of effectiveness was claimed for approximately 50% of the products. Conclusion While treatments for certain STIs are widely available on the internet, purchasers of such products may potentially suffer harm because of the lack of information on adverse effects, interactions and contra-indications. Moreover, we consider the paucity of preventive health advice to be a serious omission, thereby leading to patients being needlessly exposed to, and potentially re-infected with the causative pathogens.

  10. Infecciones de transmisión sexual: epidemiología y control Sexually transmitted infections: epidemiology and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Díez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS comprenden un grupo de patologías, de etiología infecciosa diversa, en las que la transmisión sexual es relevante desde el punto de vista de salud pública. La carga de enfermedad que suponen las ITS globalmente se desconoce, ya que las infecciones asintomáticas son frecuentes, las técnicas diagnósticas no siempre están disponibles y la vigilancia epidemiológica es inexistente o muy deficiente en muchos países. La Organización Mundial de la Salud estimó que en 1999 se produjeron en el mundo 340 millones de casos nuevos de sífilis, gonorrea, clamidiasis y tricomoniasis. En la Unión Europea, al igual que en España, ITS como la gonococia o la sífilis muestran en los últimos años una tendencia ascendente. La co-infección entre distintas ITS es muy frecuente. Por ello, en cualquier persona que presente una de ellas debe descartase la presencia de otras, en particular la infección por VIH y la infección por clamidia; esta última es la ITS más común en Europa y frecuentemente es asintomática. La prevención y el control de las ITS se basa en la educación sanitaria, el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz, la detección de las infecciones asintomáticas, el estudio de los contactos y la inmunización cuando se dispone de vacuna.Sexually transmitted infections (STI include a group of diseases of diverse infectious etiology in which sexual transmission is relevant. The burden of disease that STI represent globally is unknown for several reasons. Firstly, asymptomatic infections are common in many STI; secondly, diagnostic techniques are not available in some of the most affected countries; finally, surveillance systems are inexistent or very deficient in many areas of the world. The Word Health Organization has estimated that in 1999 there were 340 million new cases of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia infection and trichomoniasis. An increasing trend in the incidence of gonorrhoea and

  11. Facilitating the Implementation of Sexually Transmitted Infection Syndromic Management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王千秋; 邵长庚

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the current status ofimplementing sexually transmitted infection (STIs)syndromic management in China. Methods: Data were collected and analyzed from the literature. Possiblesolutions were suggested for the obstacles encountered inthe implementation process. Results: Validation of revised flowcharts for themanagement of three syndromes (urethritis, vaginaldischarge, and genital ulcers) has been conducted in China.The feasibility, effectiveness and acceptance of using asyndromic STI approach were investigated in a large studyin Hainan, Zhejiang and Hubei Provinces. Chief obstaclesto implementation included the following: lack of supportfrom government authorities; negative reaction by hospitals;lack of critical thinking and innovation; perceivedover-emphasis on treatment at the expense of prevention;and lack of coverage for several important pathogens withintreatment algorithms. Possible solutions may include policyadvocacy, adopting syndromic management into a Chinesecontext, dissemination and promotion, training of providers,encouraging use of syndromic approach, and conductingoperational research. Conclusions: Syndromic STI management provides afeasible approach for the diagnosis and treatment of STIs inChina. Further efforts should be made for scaling up itsapplication in clinical settings.

  12. Hearing consumer voices: planning HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention in alcohol detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brems, Christiane; Dewane, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The literature has provided ample evidence that individuals abusing or dependent upon alcohol are at high risk for contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Despite the documented need of this vulnerable group for targeted HIV/STI prevention efforts, no prior research has explored the efficacy and feasibility of HIV/STI prevention for individuals in alcohol detoxification. The current study sought the voices of consumers of such services to get their guidance about successful and necessary features of HIV/STI prevention programs targeted to their needs. Two focus groups conducted yielded exceptionally helpful information. Consumers clearly want to be educated about HIV/STI, seeing this as crucial to their physical well-being and safety. They voiced preferences for nonjudgmental counselors who meet with them on an individual basis in contexts that protect consumer privacy. A clear set of guidelines emerged for an intervention structure that, if carefully honored, has strong likelihood of success in protecting individuals in alcohol detoxification from HIV/STI. PMID:17338982

  13. Sexually transmitted infections treatment and care available to high risk populations in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimtoola, Minal; Hussain, Hamidah; Khowaja, Saira N; Khan, Aamir J

    2008-01-01

    Limited literature exists on the quality and availability of treatment and care of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Pakistan. This article aims to document existing services for the care and treatment of STIs available in Pakistan's public and private sectors to high risk groups (HRG), particularly the transgendered population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to document STI services in Lahore, Karachi, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, and Quetta. Seventy-three interviews were administered with health service providers at the 3 largest public sector hospitals in each city, as well as with general physicians and traditional healers in the private sector. Twenty-five nongovernmental organizations (NGO) providing STI services were also interviewed. Fewer than 45% of private and public sector general practitioners had been trained in STI treatment after the completion of their medical curriculum, and none of the traditional healers had received any formal training or information on STIs. The World Health Organization (WHO) syndromic management guidelines were followed for STI management by 29% of public and private sector doctors and 5% of traditional healers. STI drugs were available at no cost at 44% of NGOs and at some public sector hospitals. Our findings show that although providers do treat HRGs for STIs, there are significant limitations in their ability to provide these services. These deterrents include, but are not limited to, a lack of STI training of service providers, privacy and adherence to recommended WHO syndromic management guidelines, and costly diagnostic and consultation fees. PMID:19856743

  14. Transformation of sexually transmitted infection-causing serovars of chlamydia trachomatis using Blasticidin for selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Ding

    Full Text Available Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using β-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, in the current study, we modified the pGFP::SW2 plasmid by fusing a blasticidin S deaminase gene to the GFP gene to establish blasticidin resistance as a selectable marker and replacing the β-lactamase gene with the Sh ble gene to eliminate the penicillin resistance. The new vector termed pGFPBSD/Z::SW2 was used for transforming plasmid-free C. trachomatis serovar D organisms. Using blasticidin for selection, stable transformants were obtained. The GFP-BSD fusion protein was detected in cultures infected with the pGFPBSD/Z::SW2-trasnformed serovar D organisms. The transformation restored the plasmid property to the plasmid-free serovar D organisms. Thus, we have successfully modified the pGFP::SW2 transformation system for studying the biology and pathogenesis of other STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis.

  15. Analysis of the Genome of the Sexually Transmitted Insect Virus Helicoverpa zea Nudivirus 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sexually transmitted insect virus Helicoverpa zea nudivirus 2 (HzNV-2 was determined to have a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 231,621 bp coding for an estimated 113 open reading frames (ORFs. HzNV-2 is most closely related to the nudiviruses, a sister group of the insect baculoviruses. Several putative ORFs that share homology with the baculovirus core genes were identified in the viral genome. However, HzNV-2 lacks several key genetic features of baculoviruses including the late transcriptional regulation factor, LEF-1 and the palindromic hrs, which serve as origins of replication. The HzNV-2 genome was found to code for three ORFs that had significant sequence homology to cellular genes which are not generally found in viral genomes. These included a presumed juvenile hormone esterase gene, a gene coding for a putative zinc-dependent matrix metalloprotease, and a major facilitator superfamily protein gene; all of which are believed to play a role in the cellular proliferation and the tissue hypertrophy observed in the malformation of reproductive organs observed in HzNV-2 infected corn earworm moths, Helicoverpa zea.

  16. In sickness and in health: same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrew M; Mialon, Hugo M; Peng, Handie

    2012-10-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections in the United States using state-level data from 1981 to 2008. We hypothesize that same-sex marriage laws may directly affect risky homosexual behavior; may affect or mirror social attitudes toward gays, which in turn may affect homosexual behavior; and may affect or mirror attitudes toward non-marital sex, which may affect risky heterosexual behavior. Our findings may be summarized as follows. Laws banning same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea rates, which are a proxy for risky heterosexual behavior. They are more closely associated with syphilis rates, which are a proxy for risky homosexual behavior. However, these estimates are smaller and less statistically significant when we exclude California, the state with the largest gay population. Also, laws permitting same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea or syphilis, but variation in these laws is insufficient to yield precise estimates. In sum, the findings point to a modest positive association--if any at all--between same-sex marriage bans and syphilis. PMID:22789462

  17. Perinatal Outcomes in HIV Positive Pregnant Women with Concomitant Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Burnett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate whether HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant sexually transmitted infection (STIs are at increased risk of adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Methods. We conducted a cohort study of HIV positive women who delivered at an inner-city hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, from 2003 to 2013. Demographics, presence of concomitant STIs, prenatal care information, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected. The outcomes examined were the association of the presence of concomitant STIs on the risk of preterm birth (PTB, postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, small for gestational age, low Apgar scores, and neonatal intensive care admission. Multiple logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. HIV positive pregnant women with concomitant STIs had an increased risk of spontaneous PTB (odds ratio (OR 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12–3.97. After adjusting for a history of preterm birth, maternal age, and low CD4+ count at prenatal care entry the association between concomitant STIs and spontaneous PTB persisted (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.01–3.78. Conclusions. HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant STIs relative to HIV positive pregnant women without a concomitant STI are at increased risk of spontaneous PTB.

  18. Nurse-led sexually transmitted disease clinics: staff perceptions concerning the quality of the service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindel, A; Fennema, J S A; Christie, E; van Leent, E

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate staff perception of a nurse-led sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinical service. The staff at the Amsterdam STI clinic were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. A series of eight questions was designed to determine the perceived advantages or disadvantages of nurse-led clinics, based on personal experience, using a Likert scale. After completion of the structured interview, the staff were offered the opportunity of providing comments. All 36 members of staff completed the survey. Twenty-seven (75%) agreed or strongly agreed that nurse-led clinics provided more time with patients. Sixty-four percent agreed or strongly agreed that such a service provided greater confidentiality and 94% agreed or strongly agreed that 'nurse-led clinics provided a high level of job satisfaction for nurses.' In contrast, only 64% agreed or strongly agreed that nurse-led clinics provided a high level of job satisfaction for doctors. When staff comments were evaluated, four common themes emerged. First, that this was an efficient way of providing services; second, that the clinic was a pleasant environment, there was excellent teamwork and greater job satisfaction; third, that a good deal of rivalry existed between doctors and nurses and finally, that there was a need for and importance of protocols, rules and staff training and development. In conclusion, there was a high level of staff satisfaction with the service. Nurse-led STI clinics may be a useful adjunct to existing STI facilities. PMID:19854883

  19. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center in Kermanshah

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Teimouri; Nourosadat Karima; Feizollah Mansouri; Mansour Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    Background: Drug addiction is one of the social health problems at the present century. The high risk sexual behaviors as well as drug abusing are factors of sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center. Methods: In this descriptive study, 76 women who have referred to Niloofar de-addiction center in Kermanshah-Western Iran, were recruited using co...

  20. Man up Monday: An Integrated Public Health Approach to Increase Sexually Transmitted Infection Awareness and Testing among Male Students at a Midwest University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth A.; Eastman-Mueller, Heather P.; Henderson, Scott; Even, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This campaign sought to (a) increase awareness of sexual health and chlamydia testing; (b) motivate students, particularly sexually active men who do not pursue regular sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing, to get tested; and (c) improve the capacity of the student health center to provide free chlamydia testing and treatment…

  1. Sexual behavior and awareness of Chinese university students in transition with implied risk of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Qiaoqin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vulnerability of young people to HIV and the recent emergence of the HIV epidemic in China have made it urgent to assess and update the HIV/STD risk profile of Chinese young people. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey with cross-sectional design was conducted among 22,493 undergraduate students in two universities in Ningbo, China. Bivariate trend analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare sexual behaviors and awareness between grades. Results Of respondents, 17.6% of males and 8.6% of females reported being sexually active. Condom was reported never/rarely used by 35% of sexually active students in both genders in the previous year. Pregnancy and induced abortion had each been experienced by about 10% of sexually active female students and the female partners of male students, and about 1.5% of sexually active students of both genders reported being diagnosed with an STD. Multivariate analysis revealed that students in lower grades, compared to those in higher grades, were more likely to have become sexually active before university, to have become aware of sex before high school, and to have been exposed to pornographic media before the age of 17 years, and for sexually active respondents of both genders, to have engaged in sex without using a condom. Conclusion Sexual behaviors of Chinese university students are poorly protected and sexual behaviors and awareness may have been undergoing rapid change, becoming active earlier and more risky. If this trend continues, vulnerable sexual network will grow among them that allow more expansion of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV.

  2. Sexually transmitted infections among transgender people and men who have sex with men in Port Vila, Vanuatu

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Veronese; Caroline van Gemert; Siula Bulu; Tamara Kwarteng; Isabel Bergari; Steven Badman; Alyce Vella; Mark Stoové

    2015-01-01

    Despite high sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence in the Pacific, there are limited data on STIs and risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG). In 2011, an Integrated Bio-Behavioural Survey recruited self-identified MSM and TG in Port Vila, Vanuatu. Descriptive findings were stratified by sexuality. Among 28 (55%) MSM and 23 (45%) TG, recent anal sex with male partners was more common among MSM (94% vs 71%; P < 0.1), including with casual (47% vs 35%), ...

  3. Pattern of Sexual Offences Attended at Accident and Emergency Department of HUSM from Year 2000 to 2003: A Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Mohammed Nasimul; See, Khoo Lay; Ting, Lai Chin; Khan, Jesmine

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of sexual offence cases attended at the One Stop Crisis Center (OSCC) of the Accident and Emergency Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan. A total of 439 reported sexual offence cases were examined over a period of 4 years from 2000 to 2003. Sexual offence constituted by male partner or boyfriend in 18.9%, by relatives in 27.3% and by “others” in 53.8% of cases. Only 0.7% of victims did not attempt to lodge a police report. There i...

  4. O conhecimento das adolescentes sobre questões relacionadas ao sexo Adolescent females' knowledge about pregnancy prevention methods and sexually transmitted diseases

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    Kelencristina T. Romero

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento sobre sexualidade, métodos contraceptivos e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST entre adolescentes do sexo feminino, das zonas rural e urbana, de uma escola pública. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, realizado com 506 meninas, com idades entre 10 e 16 anos, da Escola Dr. Roberto Feijó, em Guararema, SP. Utilizou-se questionário semi-estruturado, contendo perguntas gerais sobre sexualidade e métodos de prevenção de gravidez e DST. O teste do Qui-quadrado foi usado para verificar a associação entre as variáveis. RESULTADOS: A média de idade da população adolescente da escola proveniente da área rural foi 13 anos e 11 meses e da área urbana foi 13 anos e 7 meses, não havendo diferença estatística entre as médias. Trinta e um por cento eram provenientes da zona rural e 69% da urbana. As jovens da zona rural buscaram mais informações sobre a sexualidade (81,2%, comparadas com as da zona urbana (72,2 % (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate knowledge about sexuality, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases (STD by female adolescents from both rural and urban zone attending public school. METHODS: A cross sectional study was made with 506 teenagers, 10 to 16 years old, attending Dr. Roberto Feijó Public School in Guararema, São Paulo. A semi-structured questionnaire with general questions about sexuality, contraceptive methods and STD was administered. The Chi-square test was used to verify the association between variables. RESULTS: Mean age of the girls from the rural zone was13 years and 11 months and from the urban zone age was 13 years and 7 months, with no statistical difference. Of all the girls, 31% came from the rural and 69% from the urban zone. Adolescents from the rural zone looked for more information about sexuality (81.2% when compared to those from the urban zone (72.2 % (p<0.0568. Parents were the main source of information for both zones. The condom was the most familiar

  5. Perceptions of unmarried young women regarding family size, sexually transmitted diseases at residential regional institutes in northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, N C; Mahanta, J

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to assess the knowledge and attitudes of young unmarried women regarding family size and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, in three residential regional institutes of northeastern India. The data is expected to help in reinforcing various methods of Information, Education and Communication (IEC) implementation. A representative sample of 574 female students, 16-25 years of age, were interviewed by a pretested questionnaire to assess their knowledge of the determinants of family size and sexually transmitted diseases. Of the participants, 48.43% stated that the suitable age for marriage is > 18 years old for women. More than half the respondents stated that the interval between child birth should be 3-5 years. Most of the respondents (96.17%) were of the opinion that both parents are responsible for determining the number of children. Knowledge of STDs and HIV was found in 91.8% and 74.04% of respondents, respectively. PMID:15906675

  6. Awareness of school students on sexually transmitted infections (STIs and their sexual behavior: a cross-sectional study conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Keivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted Infections (STIs rank among the most important health issues for the people especially the young adults worldwide. Young people tend to engage in sexual activity at younger ages in the past decade than in the 1970s, and 1980s. Knowledge is an essential precursor of sexual risk reduction. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, to produce the baseline information about school students' awareness and perception about sexually transmitted Infections (STIs and their sexual activity to help establish control and education programmes. Methods Students from form 4 (aged between 15 to 16 years, form 5 (aged between 16 to 17 years and form 6 (aged between 18 to 20 years in their class rooms were approached and asked to complete self administered and anonymous pre-validated questionnaires. SPSS for windows version 13 was used to analyze the results statistically and results were presented in tabular form. Results Data was collected from 1139 students aged between 15 to 20 years, 10.6% of which claimed that they never heard about STIs. Sexual experience related significantly with gender, race, and education level. Approximately 12.6% claimed to have sexual experience of which 75.7% had their sexual debut at 15-19 years and 38.2% were having more than 3 partners. Sexual experience was found to be significantly associated with gender (p = 0.003, ethnicity (p = 0.001 and education level (p = 0.030. However, multiple partner behaviour was significantly associated only with gender (p = 0.010. Mean knowledge score was 11.60 ± 8.781 and knowledge level was significantly associated with religion (p = 0.005 education level (p = 0.000, course stream (p = 0.000, socioeconomic class (p = 0.000 and sexual experience (p = 0.022. Conclusions It was concluded that school students have moderate level of knowledge about STIs although they are sexually active. Interventions such as reinforcing the link

  7. Female sex workers incarcerated in New York City jails: prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and associated risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Parvez, Farah; Katyal, Monica; Alper, Howard; Leibowitz, Ruth; Venters, Homer

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are an important cause of morbidity among incarcerated women and female sex workers (FSW). Little is known about FSW incarcerated in New York City (NYC) jails. We reviewed jail health records to identify the STI and HIV prevalence among newly incarcerated FSW in NYC jails. We also examined the relationship of demographics and self-reported clinical and risk behaviour history with FSW status and compared FSW with non-FSW incarcerated women to i...

  8. Risk reduction counselling for prevention of sexually transmitted infections: how it works and how to make it work

    OpenAIRE

    Rietmeijer, C A

    2006-01-01

    Prevention research in the past decade has proved the efficacy of risk reduction counselling in reducing the risks for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The question currently facing STI service providers is therefore not so much whether counselling should be part of the standard of STI care but rather how this intervention can be implemented given the logistical and resource constraints of a busy practice setting. After a brief introduction of the history and an overview of the models ...

  9. Sexually-transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk Transmission through Friends and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Data from 1087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually-transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends’ attitudes and behavior were assessed with friends’ reports. Among males, there was evidence for selection effects on STI diagnoses and socialization effects on reports of unintended pregnancy, both i...

  10. THE KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OF A GROUP OF STUDENTS IN CELAL BAYAR UNIVERSITY ABOUT FAMILY PLANNING AND SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar ERBAY DUNDAR; Mujde SERIFHAN ILGUN; Yakup Gokhan DOÐRAMACI; Akin DALCI; Gokhan GURGEN

    2005-01-01

    Young adulthood is a period when concepts like family planning (FP) and sexually transmitted diseases (STD?s) become important. This cross-sectional study was performed to measure the knowledge level of Biology and Turkish Language / Literature students of Manisa Celal Bayar University about FP and STD?s. The questionnaire measures knowledge level of FP-STD?s and sociodemographic variables was performed to 299 students (73 % of the population) undar observation. The data is evaluated by chi s...

  11. Utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) among sexually transmitted disease clinics attendees with coexisting drinking problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xingdi; Dodd, Virginia J.; Oliverio, James C; Cook, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse remains a major risk factor for contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) not typically addressed in STD clinic settings. Information and communication technology (ICT) can offer new avenues to deliver evidence-based screening and treatment for problematic drinking, however, few data exists regarding the utilization of ICT among STD clinic attendees with coexisting drinking problems. The objectives of this study are to identify STD clinics attendees with hazar...

  12. Denial of Risk Behavior Does Not Exclude Asymptomatic Anorectal Sexually Transmitted Infection in HIV-Infected Men

    OpenAIRE

    Cachay, Edward R.; Amy Sitapati; Joseph Caperna; Kellie Freeborn; Lonergan, Joseph T; Edward Jocson; Mathews, William C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control recommend screening for asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection (STI) among HIV-infected men when there is self-report of unprotected anal-receptive exposure. The study goals were: (1) to estimate the validity and usefulness for screening policies of self-reported unprotected anal-receptive exposure as a risk indicator for asymptomatic anorectal infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and/or Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). (2) to estimate the numb...

  13. Eating sweets without the wrapper: perceptions of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among street youth in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Embleton, Lonnie; Wachira, Juddy; Kamanda, Allan; Naanyu, Violet; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Street-connected youth in Kenya are a population potentially at-risk of HIV transmission, yet little is known about their perceptions and experiences of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), despite being an HIV endemic region. We sought to elucidate the language and sociocultural factors rooted in street life that impact on street-connected young people’s knowledge of and perceptions about the prevention and transmission of STIs, and their diagnosis and treatment, using qualitative methods...

  14. Prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Kisumu, Western Kenya, 1997 and 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenhoudt, H. M.; Langat, L.; Menten, J.; Odongo, F.; Oswago, S.; Luttah, G.; Zeh, C.; Crucitti, T; Laserson, K; Vulule, J.; Buvé, A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1997, a survey in Kisumu found a prevalence of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSW) of 75%. Only 50% reported using a condom with the last client. In 2008, we conducted another survey to collect data to inform an intervention targeting FSW in Kisumu. METHODS: In 2008 FSW were recruited by respondent-driven sampling. Women completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to...

  15. Preparing patients to travel abroad safely. Part 4: Reducing risk of accidents, diarrhea, and sexually transmitted diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, R E

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present evidence-based recommendations on traveling abroad safely so family physicians can advise travelers on how to reduce risk of accidents, diarrhea, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and how to treat diarrhea themselves if medical care is unavailable. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from 1990 to November 1998 found 163 articles on travel and accidents, 504 on travel and diarrhea, and 42 on travel and STDs. Titles and abstracts were reviewed, and randomized cont...

  16. Causative Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Development of Chronic Cystitis Complicated with Leukoplakia of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander I. Neymark, PhD, ScD; Yuliya S. Kondratyeva, PhD

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was the investigation of the influence of chlamydial, mycoplasmal and trichomonas infection on the development of urinary bladder leukoplakia. The article presents the results of the examination of women with chronic cystitis complicated with leukoplakia of the bladder, and associated with concomitant sexually transmitted infections, including the results of culture analysis of the cervical canal content and urinary bladder biopsy samples, as well as molecular-biol...

  17. Mobile Phone Applications for the Care and Prevention of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Muessig, Kathryn E.; Pike, Emily C.; LeGrand, Sara; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile phone applications (apps) provide a new platform for delivering tailored human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and care. Objective To identify and evaluate currently available mobile phone apps related to the prevention and care of HIV and other STDs. Methods We searched the Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores for HIV/STD-related apps, excluding apps that exclusively targeted industry, providers, and researchers. Each el...

  18. Group Sex and Prevalent Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cara E; Lynch, Courtney D; Norris, Alison H; Davis, John A; Fields, Karen S; Ervin, Melissa; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the direct relation between group sex and prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a cross-sectional study of men who have sex with men (MSM) presenting at an urban STI clinic in the Midwestern US. Among 231 men who enrolled and reported that they have sex with men, we collected behavioral data using a combination of interviewer and self-administered surveys and extracted STI data from electronic health records. We used modified Poisson regression to examine the unadjusted and adjusted associations between group sex participation and prevalent STI. One-quarter of participants (n = 58) reported group sex participation in the last 3 months. Eighteen percent of participants (n = 42) had gonorrhea and 19 % (n = 45) had chlamydial infection. Men who reported recent group sex were more likely to be HIV-positive, to report recent drug use, and to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past 3 months. After adjustment for age, race, and recent drug use, recent participation in group sex was associated with prevalent gonorrhea infection (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.11, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = [1.13, 3.95]) but not chlamydia infection (PR = 1.03, 95 % CI = [0.58, 1.84]). We performed a sensitivity analysis in which we also adjusted for unprotected receptive anal intercourse and the results were not substantively changed. In summary, participation in group sex in the past 3 months was associated with a more than twofold increased prevalence of gonorrhea, but not with chlamydia. These findings support group sex participation as a potential contributor to increased STI prevalence. PMID:26392187

  19. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Frances; Diala, Fitz Gerald I.; Chen, Yi-Pei; Molgora, Brenda M.; Ng, Shek Hang; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells. PMID:27529696

  20. Risk Factors of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections in China: A Systematic Review of Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Zhao

    Full Text Available Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs are a global challenge. China, once said to have eradicated STIs, is now facing a rapid rise in the prevalence of HIV/STIs. This review of reviews aims to map HIV/STI risk factors among the Chinese population, with the objective of identifying risk factors to inform the formulation of effective prevention strategies.A systematic search using key terms related to HIV/STIs, risk factors and the Chinese population in both English and Chinese databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library; Wanfang data, CNKI, VIP and SINOMED was conducted, and peer-reviewed systematic reviews on the topic from 1991 to 2014 were selected. Identified risk factors were grouped into different level determinants based on the HIV Social Epidemiology Model, and then evaluated and reported based on the PRISMA checklist.Of the twenty-eight reviews included, the majority were focused on well-established, individual level risk factors within key populations, with some highlighting the complexity of interacting factors (e.g., alcohol use and higher income in male migrants. While twenty-two reviews covered individual factors, only ten mentioned social factors and five had contents on structural factors. There are gaps in the evidence on social and structural level impacts of HIV/STIs, such as on stigma, discrimination, health policy, access to care, and illicit drug control policies. Migration and social expectation appear to pose a significant threat in aggravating the HIV/STI situation in China; for example, incarceration patterns indicated a significant risk of HIV/STIs for female sex workers.Since international guidelines recommend an integrated and multi-level approach to HIV/STI prevention, a comprehensive approach targeting interventions at all levels along the continuum of care is needed to effectively curtail HIV/STI transmission in China. More research is needed to better understand the impact of socio-political interventions

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with sexually transmitted infections among HIV positive women opting for intrauterine contraception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Kakaire

    Full Text Available Women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA are a high risk group for sexually transmitted infections (STIs. However, the majority of women with STIs are asymptomatic. Data on prevalence of STIs among WLHA in Uganda are limited. The objective of the study was to determine prevalence and factors associated with STIs among WLHA opting for intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD.Three hundred fifty one WLHA deemed free of STIs using a syndromic logarithm were enrolled into the study. Endo-cervical swabs were taken before IUD insertion and PCR test for Nisseria gonorrhea (NG, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infections conducted.Participants' mean age was 29.4 ± 6.2 years, 83% were under 35years, 50% had secondary education and 73% were married. The majority (69% had disclosed their HIV sero status to their spouses, 82% used Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, 70% were on antiretroviral therapy, 90% had CD4 count greater than 350, about 60% reported condoms use and 70% were of parity 2-4. Over 50% of the participants' spouses were older than 35 years and 72% had attained secondary education. STIs prevalence was 11.1%, (95% CI 7.8-14.4 and individual prevalence for TV, NG, and CT was 5.9%, 5.4% and 0.9% respectively. Factors independently associated with STI were having primary or less education (OR= 2.3, 95% CI: 1.09 - 4.85 having a spouse of primary or less education (OR= 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6 - 6.78 and muslim faith (OR= 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04 - 0.78.STI prevalence was 11.1%. TV and NG were the commonest STIs in this population. Having primary or less education for both participant and spouse was associated with increased risk while being of muslim faith was associated with reduced risk of STI.

  2. Young adults with depression are at increased risk of sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Wiley D; Botchway, Albert

    2016-07-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and depression impact millions of individuals each year in the United States, with direct medical costs exceeding $41 billion. While the interactions of these conditions are poorly understood, they are increasingly addressed in primary care whereas historically they have been addressed separately. We analyzed data associated with the 18-25year age group from the 2014 National Survey of Drug Use and Health, a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population aged ≥12years for factors associated with past year diagnosis of STD (STDy). Independent variables included participant demographics; lifetime diagnosis of major depressive episode (MDE); participant behaviors associated with STD risk (patient-provided); and medical record data associated with mental illness treatment (clinically-observed). Of 18,142 participants, the prevalence of MDE and STD was 15.3% and 2.4%, respectively, with significant differences by gender and race. MDE was associated with increased risk of STDy among females (odds ratio [OR]=1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.18-2.20), males (OR=2.32; CI=1.15-4.70), those of white race (OR=3.02; CI=2.02-4.53), and lower income levels and insurance status. Univariate modeling found that receiving mental health treatment, and use of marijuana, alcohol, and illegal drugs were each associated with significantly increased STDy. In a multivariate logistic regression, receiving mental health treatment became protective for STDy (AOR=0.55; CI=0.32-0.95]). Individuals with a history of depression are at increased risk of STDy, with this risk modified by factors readily ascertained within primary care. As depression treatment is increasingly incorporated into primary care there are means to more effectively target intervention resources. PMID:27058942

  3. Sexually transmitted infections among Pakistani pregnant women and their husbands in Norway

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    Soen Eng Yap Bjerke

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soen Eng Yap Bjerke1,2, Ellen Holter3, Siri Vangen2,4, Babill Stray-Pedersen1,21Medical Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Women and Children’s Division, 3Department of Microbiology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; 4National Resource Centre for Women’s Health, Oslo, NorwayAim: To assess frequency and determine the factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus type 2, and hepatitis B seropositivity among Pakistani pregnant women and their husbands in Norway.Methods: All together 112 couples of Pakistani origin living in Norway participated in our study. Blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies against C. trachomatis, herpes simplex virus type 2, and hepatitis B.Results: Pakistani women had significantly lower age, education level, and years of residence in Norway compared to their male partners. Among the men, 12% had positive chlamydial IgG antibodies in contrast to 1% of the women. These couples were discordant, meaning that the 13 wives of positive men were not infected with C. trachomatis, and the husband of one positive woman was not infected either. Four percent of women and 2% of men were positive for herpes simplex type 2. Only one couple was concordantly positive for herpes simplex type 2, the remaining four couples were discordant. Twelve percent of women and 21% of men were, or had been, infected with hepatitis B.Conclusion: Sexually transmitted infections did not seem to be prevalent in Pakistani immigrant couples in Norway. However, it was striking that most couples were discordant. Pakistani immigrants should be offered hepatitis B vaccine.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus type 2, hepatitis B, Pakistan, Norway

  4. Pattern of Sexual Offences Attended at Accident and Emergency Department of HUSM from Year 2000 to 2003: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed Nasimul; See, Khoo Lay; Ting, Lai Chin; Khan, Jesmine

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of sexual offence cases attended at the One Stop Crisis Center (OSCC) of the Accident and Emergency Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan. A total of 439 reported sexual offence cases were examined over a period of 4 years from 2000 to 2003. Sexual offence constituted by male partner or boyfriend in 18.9%, by relatives in 27.3% and by "others" in 53.8% of cases. Only 0.7% of victims did not attempt to lodge a police report. There is a significant relationship between occupation and the risk of experiencing sexual violence. Students were mostly targeted by the perpetrator throughout the study period. Among the offences, rape cases were the highest in number, among those who attended at the OSCC, HUSM with a total of 72.7%; followed by 27.3% of incest; 26.4% of child sexual abuse; 4.8% of sodomy and lastly 1.6% of gerontophilia cases. Only 70% of the specimens obtained from sexual offences victims were sent for laboratory analysis. The result remained negative in 82.4% specimens and thus the laboratory analysis result is merely functioning as a supportive evidence for sexual offence cases attended at OSCC. The studies showed that most of the sexual assault perpetrators were known to the victims. The place of crime was also known to the perpetrators. Health sectors of various levels should be working in conjunction to promote a societal changes to improve more of the women's right and thus to reduce the violence crime. PMID:22589588

  5. Response of religious groups to HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection in Trinidad

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    Genrich Gillian L

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are significant determinants of HIV transmission in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T, where the adult HIV/AIDS prevalence is 2.5%. T&T is a spiritually-aware society and over 104 religious groups are represented. This religious diversity creates a complex social environment for the transmission of a sexually transmitted infection like HIV/AIDS. Religious leaders are esteemed in T&T's society and may use their position and frequent interactions with the public to promote HIV/AIDS awareness, fight stigma and discrimination, and exercise compassion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHA. Some religious groups have initiated HIV/AIDS education programs within their membership, but previous studies suggest that HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatized infection in many religious organizations. The present study investigates how the perception of HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection impacts religious representatives' incentives to respond to HIV/AIDS in their congregations and communities. In correlation, the study explores how the experiences of PWHA in religious gatherings impact healing and coping with HIV/AIDS. Methods Between November 2002 and April 2003, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 religious representatives from 10 Christian, Hindu and Muslim denominations. The majority of respondents were leaders of religious services, while two were active congregation members. Religious groups were selected based upon the methods of Brathwaite. Briefly, 26 religious groups with the largest followings according to 2000 census data were identified in Trinidad and Tobago. From this original list, 10 religious groups in Northwest Trinidad were selected to comprise a representative sample of the island's main denominations. In-depth interviews with PWHA were conducted during the same study period, 2002–2003. Four individuals were selected from a care and support

  6. Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a London sexually transmitted infection clinic not fully sensitive to quinolones: are isolates imported and how effective is ciprofloxacin as a first-line therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivens, D; Martin, I; Ison, C

    2000-12-01

    Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae not fully sensitive to ciprofloxacin from a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in London and where the isolates were acquired from. Data of antibiotic sensitivities of N. gonorrhoeae from 292 patients were reviewed over a 6-month period at St Mary's Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) Clinic, London. Isolates which exhibited reduced susceptibility (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 0.03-0.12 mg/l) and high level resistance (MIC>0.12 mg/l) to ciprofloxacin represented 10% and 1.3% of the total respectively. All patients infected with a high level resistant isolate to ciprofloxacin had had a recent sexual partner from abroad but 18 of the 28 patients infected with a reduced susceptibility isolate denied recent travel. None of the 20 patients with a non-sensitive isolate who re-attended for post treatment cultures had persistant gonococcal infection. From this study we concluded that although N. gonorrhoeae resistant to ciprofloxacin was rare and probably always acquired abroad, isolates exhibiting reduced susceptibility were more common and were mainly as a result of infection from the UK. A stat dose of ciprofloxacin 500 mg and doxycycline 100 mg twice a day for one week was effective treatment. PMID:11138910

  7. Sexual Behavior and Network Characteristics and Their Association with Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States.

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    Hyman M Scott

    Full Text Available Black men who have sex with men (MSM have a high prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and individual risk behavior does not fully explain the higher prevalence when compared with other MSM. Using the social-ecological framework, we evaluated individual, social and sexual network, and structural factors and their association with prevalent STIs among Black MSM.The HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 was a multi-site cohort study designed to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component intervention for Black MSM in six US cities. Baseline assessments included demographics, risk behavior, and social and sexual network questions collected information about the size, nature and connectedness of their sexual network. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of having any prevalent sexually transmitted infection (gonorrhea, chlamydia, or syphilis.A total of 1,553 Black MSM were enrolled in this study. In multivariate analysis, older age (aOR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.49-0.66, p<0.001 was associated with a lower odds of having a prevalent STI. Compared with reporting one male sexual partner, having 2-3 partners (aOR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.08-2.81, p<0.024 or more than 4 partners (aOR = 2.29; 95% CI 1.43-3.66, p<0.001 was associated with prevalent STIs. Having both Black and non-Black sexual partners (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.45-0.99, p = 0.042 was the only sexual network factor associated with prevalent STIs.Age and the number and racial composition of sexual partners were associated with prevalent STIs among Black MSM, while other sexual network factors were not. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of the individual, network, and structural factors on prevalent STIs among Black MSM to inform combination interventions to reduce STIs among these men.

  8. Sexual Behavior and Network Characteristics and Their Association with Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hyman M.; Irvin, Risha; Wilton, Leo; Van Tieu, Hong; Watson, Chauncey; Magnus, Manya; Chen, Iris; Gaydos, Charlotte; Hussen, Sophia A.; Mannheimer, Sharon; Mayer, Kenneth; Hessol, Nancy A.; Buchbinder, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Black men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and individual risk behavior does not fully explain the higher prevalence when compared with other MSM. Using the social-ecological framework, we evaluated individual, social and sexual network, and structural factors and their association with prevalent STIs among Black MSM. Methods The HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 was a multi-site cohort study designed to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component intervention for Black MSM in six US cities. Baseline assessments included demographics, risk behavior, and social and sexual network questions collected information about the size, nature and connectedness of their sexual network. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of having any prevalent sexually transmitted infection (gonorrhea, chlamydia, or syphilis). Results A total of 1,553 Black MSM were enrolled in this study. In multivariate analysis, older age (aOR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.49–0.66, p<0.001) was associated with a lower odds of having a prevalent STI. Compared with reporting one male sexual partner, having 2–3 partners (aOR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.08–2.81, p<0.024) or more than 4 partners (aOR = 2.29; 95% CI 1.43–3.66, p<0.001) was associated with prevalent STIs. Having both Black and non-Black sexual partners (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.45–0.99, p = 0.042) was the only sexual network factor associated with prevalent STIs. Conclusions Age and the number and racial composition of sexual partners were associated with prevalent STIs among Black MSM, while other sexual network factors were not. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of the individual, network, and structural factors on prevalent STIs among Black MSM to inform combination interventions to reduce STIs among these men. PMID:26720332

  9. An epidemiological Study of Domestic Violence Against Women and its Association with Sexually Transmitted Infections in Bangalore Rural

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    Vaishali Gaikwad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender-based violence is universal, differing only in scope from one society to the other. The most common form of violence against women is domestic violence or violence within families. Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence and different forms of domestic violence perpetrated by intimate partner against married women. 2. To study socio economic and demographic factors which affect the victimization of woman for domestic violence. 3.To study prevalence of sexually transmitted infection and its association with domestic violence in the study group. Methods: Based on a pilot study results, a sample size of 257 was determined. Total 257 currently married women in the reproductive age group (15-49 yrs were interviewed by systematic random sampling with prior consent using a well designed, pre- tested questionnaire . All the women were screened for sexually transmitted infections as per the WHO guidelines by syndromic approach. The data was analyzed by percentages and chi-square test. Results: Prevalence of domestic violence was found to be 29.57% in the study group. Verbal abuse was reported by 81.58% of the women, Physical abuse by 31.58% of the women ,Psychological abuse by 27.63% of the women and Sexual abuse by 10.53% of the women. Among the 76 victimized women none of them reported to the police. Interpretation and conclusions: The vulnerability to domestic violence was found significantly associated with age at marriage, duration of marriage and addiction of husband to alcohol. The association between domestic violence and sexually transmitted infections was also found significant.

  10. Risk Factors for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, JL; Konda, KA; Segura, ER; Salvatierra, HJ; Leon, SR; Hall, ER; Caceres, CF; Klausner, JD; Coates, TJ

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), frequency of sexual risk behaviors, and relationship between knowledge of HIV infection status and sexual risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending an STI clinic in Peru. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 559 MSM from a municipal STI clinic in Lima, Peru. Participants completed a survey and provided blood for HIV, Syphilis, and HSV-2 antibody testing, and urine for gonorrhea and chlamydia nucleic acid testing. Results Among 124 HIV-infected MSM, 72.6% were aware of their HIV-infected status. Active syphilis (RPR≥1:8) was diagnosed in 21.0% of HIV-infected participants, HSV-2 in 79.8%, urethral gonorrhea in 1.6%, and chlamydia in 1.6%. Among 41 participants reporting insertive anal intercourse with their last sex partner, 34.2% did not use a condom. Of 86 participants reporting receptive anal intercourse, 25.6% did not use a condom. At least one episode of insertive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with an HIV-uninfected partner during the previous six months was reported by 33.6% (35/104) of participants, and receptive UAI with an HIV-uninfected partner by 44.6% (45/101). No difference in frequency of UAI, with HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected partners, was observed between men who knew their serostatus compared with those who were previously undiagnosed (all p-values >0.05). Conclusions HIV-infected MSM in Peru engaged in high-risk behaviors for spreading HIV and STIs. Knowledge of HIV-infected status was not associated with a decreased frequency of unprotected anal intercourse. Additional efforts to reduce risk behavior after the diagnosis of HIV infection are necessary. PMID:19028945

  11. Modelling the Impact of Condom Distribution on the Incidence and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in an Adult Male Prison System

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Scott; Emma McBryde; Amy Kirwan; Mark Stoové

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the effects of 1) a condom distribution program and 2) a condom distribution program combined with opt-out sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening on the transmission and prevalence of STIs in a prison system. Methods Using data from an implementation evaluation of a state-wide prison condom program and parameter estimates from available literature, a deterministic model was developed to quantify the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted HIV, hepatitis B, c...

  12. Substance use, sexual behaviour and prevention strategies of Vancouver gay and bisexual men who recently attended group sex events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Ashleigh J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Lal, Allan; Birch, Robert; Montaner, Julio; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Group sex events are an epidemiologically important part of some gay and bisexual men's sexual culture in Canada. Associated with condomless anal intercourse and polysubstance use, such events have been cited as disproportionally contributing to HIV infection rates. We analysed questionnaire data from the Momentum Health Study in Vancouver, Canada, to understand substance use, sexual behaviour, psychosocial variables (Sexual Sensation Seeking, Sexual Escape Motivation, Treatment Optimism) and HIV prevention strategies (sero-sorting, strategic positioning, avoiding anal sex, disclosure, treatment as prevention) of men attending such events, which were defined as group (n ≥ 4 partners) sex parties, blackout events and darkrooms. Analysis by multivariable logistic regression compared men attending group sex events within the past six months (n = 180) with non-attendees (n = 539). Results showed that attendees reported: (1) significantly higher use of sex drugs and alcohol consumption, (2) higher scores on the Sexual Sensation Scale, more anal sex partners, greater odds of any condomless anal sex with sero-discordant partners and greater odds of reporting fisting and sex toy use and (3) different prevention practices that varied by HIV-serostatus. Findings are interpreted in light of the importance of pleasure, sociality and HIV/STI prevention strategies associated with group sex events. Findings contribute to the development of appropriate education and intervention for attendees. PMID:26443295

  13. Awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs among school-going adolescents in Europe: a systematic review of published literature

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    Spallek Lena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a major health problem affecting mostly young people, not only in developing, but also in developed countries. We conducted this systematic review to determine awareness and knowledge of school-going male and female adolescents in Europe of STDs and if possible, how they perceive their own risk of contracting an STD. Results of this review can help point out areas where STD risk communication for adolescents needs to be improved. Methods Using various combinations of the terms "STD", "HIV", "HPV", "Chlamydia", "Syphilis", "Gonorrhoea", "herpes", "hepatitis B", "knowledge", "awareness", and "adolescents", we searched for literature published in the PubMed database from 01.01.1990 up to 31.12.2010. Studies were selected if they reported on the awareness and/or knowledge of one or more STD among school-attending adolescents in a European country and were published in English or German. Reference lists of selected publications were screened for further publications of interest. Information from included studies was systematically extracted and evaluated. Results A total of 15 studies were included in the review. All were cross-sectional surveys conducted among school-attending adolescents aged 13 to 20 years. Generally, awareness and knowledge varied among the adolescents depending on gender. Six STDs were focussed on in the studies included in the review, with awareness and knowledge being assessed in depth mainly for HIV/AIDS and HPV, and to some extent for chlamydia. For syphilis, gonorrhoea and herpes only awareness was assessed. Awareness was generally high for HIV/AIDS (above 90% and low for HPV (range 5.4%-66%. Despite knowing that use of condoms helps protect against contracting an STD, some adolescents still regard condoms primarily as an interim method of contraception before using the pill. Conclusion In general, the studies reported low levels of awareness and knowledge of

  14. Causative Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Development of Chronic Cystitis Complicated with Leukoplakia of the Bladder

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    Alexander I. Neymark, PhD, ScD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the investigation of the influence of chlamydial, mycoplasmal and trichomonas infection on the development of urinary bladder leukoplakia. The article presents the results of the examination of women with chronic cystitis complicated with leukoplakia of the bladder, and associated with concomitant sexually transmitted infections, including the results of culture analysis of the cervical canal content and urinary bladder biopsy samples, as well as molecular-biological analyses confirming the presence of sexually transmitted infections, pathomorphological characteristics of tissue samples from leukoplakia foci typical for different types of infectious agents. In this study, 60 women with chronic cystitis, complicated with leukoplakia of the bladder and associated with concomitant sexually transmitted infections were examined. Using PCR diagnostics, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia albicans were found to be the most frequently occurring agents, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis. The results of culture analyses demonstrated that M. hominis and U. urealyticum were prevalent in patients with chronic urinary tract inflammatory processes, followed by Tr. vaginalis. Candida fungi show practically the same frequency of occurrence. The pathomorphological examination of the foci of leukoplakia in the urinary bladder (in 30 subjects demonstrated metaplasia of the transitional epithelium to the stratified pavement squamous epithelium with inflammatory cellular infiltration of the lamina propria in all types of infections. The intensity of the urothelial transformation and stromal inflammatory processes were determined by the type of predominant infection. Pathomorphological characteristics of the foci of leukoplakia correlate with the etiology of chronic inflammation and are relevant for etiological diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Context of risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among incarcerated women in the south: individual, interpersonal, and societal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah J; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Parker, Sharon; Scheyette, Anna; Neevel, A

    2014-01-01

    Incarcerated women are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to risk factors before, during, and after imprisonment. This study assessed the behavioral, social, and contextual conditions that contribute to continuing sexual risk behaviors among incarcerated women to inform the adaptation of an evidenced-based behavioral intervention for this population. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 current and 28 former women prisoners to assess HIV/STI knowledge, perceptions of risk, intimate relationships, and life circumstances. Interviews were independently coded using an iterative process and analyzed using established qualitative analytic methods. Major themes identified in the interviews involved three focal points: individual risk (substance abuse, emotional need, self-worth, perceptions of risk, and safer sex practices); interpersonal risk (partner pressure, betrayal, and violence); and risk environment (economic self-sufficiency and preparation for reentry). These findings highlight the critical components of HIV/STI prevention interventions for incarcerated women. PMID:25204565

  16. Willingness to Disclose Sexually Transmitted Infection Status to Sex Partners Among College-Aged Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J; McGregor, Kyle A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Hardy Hansen, Cathlene; Ott, Mary A

    2016-03-01

    Disclosure of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to sexual partners is critical to the prevention, treatment, and control of STIs. We examine personal intra and interpersonal influences on willingness to disclose STI status among college-aged men. Participants (n = 1064) were aged 17 to 24 years and recruited from a variety of university and community venues. Using independent-samples t test, Pearson χ test, and binary logistic regression, we examined the relationship between willingness to disclose an STI and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, including age, masculinity values, interpersonal violence, partner cell phone monitoring, alcohol and/or drug use, condom use, number and characteristics of sex partners, and previous STI. Results reveal that among college-aged men, type of sex partner and masculinity values are significant variables in predicting whether or not an individual is willing to disclose. These data can inform STI control programs to more effectively address the complex issues associated with STI disclosure to sex partners. PMID:26859810

  17. Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Use Predict HIV Transmission Risks: Prospective Study of Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Patients, Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Simbayi, Leickness; Jooste, Sean; Vermaak, Redwaan; Cain, Demetria

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is related to HIV risk behaviors in southern Africa and these behaviors are correlated with sensation seeking personality and alcohol outcome expectancies. Here we report for the first time the associations among sensation seeking, substance use, and sexual risks in a prospective study in Africa. Sexually transmitted infection clinic patients in Cape Town South Africa (157 men and 64 women) completed (a) baseline measures of sensation seeking, sexual enhancement alcohol outcome expect...

  18. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection and new sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Noah; Davey, Dvora Joseph; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-09-10

    We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize rates of sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV versus MSM not using PrEP. Incidence rate ratios showed that MSM using PrEP were 25.3 times more likely to acquire a Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection, 11.2 times more likely to acquire a Chlamydia trachomatis infection, and 44.6 times more likely to acquire a syphilis infection versus MSM not using PrEP. PMID:27314179

  19. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers' Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Matthew B; Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations. PMID:26447911

  20. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers’ Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B.; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations. PMID:26447911

  1. Syphilis serology in patients with primary syphilis and non-treponemal sexually transmitted diseases in southern Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Sischy, A; da L'Exposto, F; Y. Dangor; Fehler, H G; Radebe, F.; Walkden, D D; Miller, S. D.; Ballard, R C

    1991-01-01

    The reactivity of a non-specific reagin (RPR) test and a specific treponemal (FTA-ABS) test were determined in 21 patients with primary syphilis, 430 patients with proven non-treponemal genital ulcerations and 719 patients with acute urethritis presenting at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in southern Africa. Excluding those 21 cases of primary syphilis, 358 of 1149 tests performed (31%) were found to be reactive by at least one test. The rate of false positive RPR tests was very l...

  2. Cost and efficiency of public sector sexually transmitted infection clinics in Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Ramesh YK

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs is an important part of the effort to reduce the risk of HIV/AIDS. STI clinics in the government hospitals in India provide services predominantly to the poor. Data on the cost and efficiency of providing STI services in India are not available to help guide efficient use of public resources for these services. Methods Standardised methods were used to obtain detailed cost and output data for the 2003–2004 fiscal year from written records and interviews in 14 government STI clinics in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The economic cost per patient receiving STI treatment was calculated, and the variations of total and unit costs across the STI clinics analysed. Multivariate regression technique was used to estimate incremental unit costs. The optimal number of STIs that could be handled by the clinics was estimated. Results 18807 STIs were diagnosed and treated at the 14 STI clinics in fiscal year 2003–2004 (range 323–2784, median 1199. The economic cost of treating each STI varied 5-fold from Indian Rupees (INR 225.5 (US$ 4.91 to INR 1201.5 (US$ 26.15 between 13 clinics, with one other clinic having a very high cost of INR 2478.5 (US$ 53.94. The average cost per STI treated for all 14 clinics combined was INR 729.5 (US$ 15.88. Personnel salaries made up 76.2% of the total cost. The number of STIs treated per doctor full-time equivalent and cost-efficiency for each STI treated had a significant direct non-linear relation (p 2 = 0.81; power function. With a multiple regression model, apart from the fixed costs, the incremental cost for each STI detected and cost of treatment was INR 55.57 (US$ 1.21 and for each follow-up visit was INR 3.75 (US$ 0.08. Based on estimates of optimal STI cases that could be handled without compromising quality by each doctor full-time equivalent available, it was projected that at 8 of the 14 clinics substantially more STI cases could be

  3. Infecciones de transmisión sexual en personas transgénero y otras identidades sexuales Sexually transmitted infections among transgender individuals and other sexual identities

    OpenAIRE

    Javier J. Toibaro; Juan F. Ebensrtejin; Ángel Parlante; Patricia Burgoa; Alejandro Freyre; Marcela Romero; Losso, Marcelo H.

    2009-01-01

    Existen pocos datos disponibles acerca del comportamiento de riesgo y la prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo HIV-1, en personas transgénero. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar las características demográficas, factores de riesgo, prevalencia de HIV-1 e ITS en personas transgénero versus personas no transgénero que consultan al Centro de Prevención, Asesoramiento y Diagnóstico del Hospital General de Agudos J.M. Ramos Mejía. Se utilizó el diseño de estudio de c...

  4. Screening wild and semi-free ranging great apes for putative sexually transmitted diseases: Evidence of Trichomonadidae infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmore, Julie; Allison, Andrew B; Edwards, Erin E; Bagal, Ujwal; Altizer, Sonia; Cranfield, Mike R; Glenn, Travis C; Liu, Hsi; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Mugisha, Lawrence; Muller, Martin N; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Wrangham, Richard; Yabsley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can persist endemically, are known to cause sterility and infant mortality in humans, and could have similar impacts in wildlife populations. African apes (i.e., chimpanzees, bonobos, and to a lesser extent gorillas) show multi-male mating behavior that could offer opportunities for STD transmission, yet little is known about the prevalence and impact of STDs in this endangered primate group. We used serology and PCR-based detection methods to screen biological samples from wild and orphaned eastern chimpanzees and gorillas (N = 172 individuals, including adults, and juveniles) for four classes of pathogens that either commonly cause human STDs or were previously detected in captive apes: trichomonads, Chlamydia spp., Treponema pallidum (syphilis and yaws), and papillomaviruses. Based on results from prior modeling and comparative research, we expected STD prevalence to be highest in females versus males and in sexually mature versus immature individuals. All samples were negative for Chlamydia, Treponema pallidum, and papillomaviruses; however, a high percentage of wild chimpanzee urine and fecal samples showed evidence of trichomonads (protozoa). Analysis revealed that females were more likely than males to have positive urine-but not fecal-samples; however, there was no evidence of age (sexual maturity) differences in infection status. Sequence analysis of chimpanzee trichomonad samples revealed a close relationship to previously described trichomonads within the genus Tetratrichomonas. Phylogenetic comparisons to archived sequences from multiple vertebrate hosts suggests that many of the chimpanzee parasites from our study are likely transmitted via fecal-oral contact, but the transmission of some Tetratrichomonas sequence-types remains unknown and could include sexual contact. Our work emphasizes that only a fraction of infectious agents affecting wild apes are presently known to science, and that further work on great

  5. Stakeholders’ perceptions of the delivery and quality of sexually transmitted infection treatment by private practitioners in Windhoek, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Pretorius

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to explore the perceptions of the community and other stakeholders regarding the delivery and quality of sexually transmitted infection (STI treatment and care provided by private general practitioners (PGPs in Windhoek, Namibia.

    The study provided a situational and contextual analysis employing qualitative methodologies using different methods of data collection. The methodology used included (1 a review of available country policy documents on STI management and surveillance, as well as the policy with regard to private primary care providers, (2 eight in-depth interviews conducted with key informants and (3three focus-group discussions held with community members attending PGP practices in Windhoek.

    The perceptions of the care received from PGPs differed from one person to the next. It emerged that some participants had good experiences and some had negative experiences of the care given.The participants believed that going to a PGP for treatment is a matter of affordability that goes hand in hand with the expectations of receiving care, whilst maintaining confidentiality. The study established that there is no real difference between the care provided to patients with medical aid or those without medical aid.

    It is recommended that interactions between the public and private sector at various levels be initiated to ensure that curable STIs are appropriately managed and that national guidelines for STI management are adhered to. Health workers should also be sensitised about their approach towards patients. It is further recommended that awareness creation amongst PGPs with regard to the public health importance of STIs needs to be raised to encourage them to participate in the STI-control programme.

    Opsomming

    Die hoofdoel van die studie was om ondersoek in te stel na die persepsies van die gemeenskap en ander belanghebbendes oor die lewering en kwaliteit van

  6. Behavioural and demographic characteristics of attenders at two genitourinary medicine clinics in England.

    OpenAIRE

    Catchpole, M; Connor, N; Brady, A.; Kinghorn, G.; Mercey, D; Band, B; Thin, N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate how attenders with sexually transmitted disease (STD) differ from the general population with respect to sexual behaviour, and to identify which attenders at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics are at particular behavioural risk for acquiring STD. DESIGN: Multicentre cross sectional survey. SETTING: Two genitourinary medicine clinics, one in London and one in Sheffield SUBJECTS: 20,516 patients attending the two clinics over an 18 month period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE...

  7. Patología infecciosa: vulvovaginitis, enfermedades de transmisión sexual, enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica, abscesos tubo-ováricos Infectious pathology: vulvovaginitis, sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, tubo-ovarian abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ibarrola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades de transmisión sexual son aquellas en las que la principal vía de infección es el contacto íntimo. Son numerosas las pacientes que acuden a urgencias por esta causa, tanto por la clínica como por las implicaciones sociales. Los síntomas más frecuentes son dolor abdominal bajo, sangrados vaginales, o flujo vaginal excesivo o molesto. Las vulvovaginitis son uno de los problemas principales en la práctica clínica diaria del ginecólogo. La úlcera genital cuya etiología principal es el herpes, seguida de la sífilis y el chancroide incrementa el riesgo para contraer la infección por el VIH y modifica el curso de otras enfermedades de transmisión sexual. La enfermedad pélvica inflamatoria engloba a las infecciones del tracto genital superior femenino. La importancia del diagnóstico precoz y su tratamiento adecuado reside tanto por las complicaciones en la fase aguda como por las secuelas, que incluyen el dolor crónico y la esterilidad.Sexually transmitted diseases are those where the principal path of infection is through intimate contact. Numerous patients attend Accidents and emergencies for this reason, both because of the clinical features and because of social implications. The most frequent symptoms are lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding or excessive or troubling vaginal flow. Vulvovaginites are one of the principal problems in the everyday clinical practice of gynaecology. A genital ulcer whose principal aetiology is herpes, followed by syphilis and chancroid, increases the risk of contracting HIV infection and alters the course of other sexually transmitted diseases. Inflammatory pelvic disease encompasses infections of the upper female genital tract. The importance of early diagnosis and suitable treatment is both due to the complications in its acute phase and to its sequels, which include chronic pain and sterility.

  8. Risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted diseases: a comparison study of cocaine-dependent individuals in treatment versus a community-matched sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Spitznagel, Edward L; Schootman, Mario; Strickland, Jaime R; Afful, Stephanie E; Cottler, Linda B; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2009-09-01

    Cocaine users routinely engage in high-risk sexual behaviors that place them at an elevated risk of contracting HIV and other blood-borne infections. The purpose of the present study was to compare trading sex for drugs and/or money, having 10 or more sexual partners in 1 year, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of cocaine-dependent individuals in treatment for their dependence across race and gender and against participants who live in their community. Cocaine-dependent individuals (n = 459) were identified through nine publicly and privately funded inpatient and outpatient chemical dependency treatment centers in the St. Louis area during 2001-2006. Community-based participants (n = 459) were matched to cocaine-dependent participants on age, ethnicity, gender, and zip code of residence. Mean age of the sample was 36 years old, 50% were Caucasians, 50% were African American, and 47% were male. Nearly half of cocaine-dependent participants in treatment had traded sex for drugs and/or money and over one-third had more than 10 sexual partners in 1 year with a risk concentrated among African Americans even after controlling for income and educational attainment. Participants recruited from the community with some exposure to cocaine reported similar rates of high risk sexual behaviors as the cocaine dependent subjects from treatment settings. It is important for clinicians to recognize that once released from treatment, cocaine-dependent individuals may be returning to high-risk environments where sexual risk behaviors are occurring in the context of cocaine use. PMID:19645618

  9. Psychological and socio-demographic variables associated with sexual risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections/HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludgleydson Fernandes de Araújo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La población adulta es un grupo ascendente en los nuevos diagnósticos de las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS y el VIH. El objetivo principal es analizar si el conocimiento sobre el ITS/VIH, la preocupación por las ITS/VIH y el embarazo y la autoeficacia para rechazar relaciones sexuales son predictoras de las conductas sexuales de riesgo en jóvenes y adultos españoles. Participaron 1.106 jóvenes y adultos de ambos sexos, entre los 17 y los 55 años. Los resultados mostraron que ser soltero, homosexual, haberse hecho la prueba del VIH, haber tenido una ITS, tener estudios universitarios e ingresos económicos mensuales de 900 a más de 1.200 euros tenían las puntuaciones más altas en el conocimiento sobre el ITS/VIH. La autoeficacia predijo gran parte de las conductas sexuales vaginales y anales (la edad de inicio del sexo vaginal y anal y el número de parejas con las que se ha mantenido sexo vaginal. Además, se halló que a mayor conocimiento sobre ITS/VIH, mayor edad de inicio del sexo vaginal y mayor uso del preservativo en la primera relación sexual vaginal. Se espera que estos resultados sean útiles para el desarrollo de programas de prevención de ITS/VIH. © 2013 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L. Todos los derechos reservados.

  10. Using process data to understand outcomes in sexual health promotion: an example from a review of school-based programmes to prevent sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J; Harden, A; Barnett-Page, E; Kavanagh, J; Picot, J; Frampton, G K; Cooper, K; Hartwell, D; Clegg, A

    2014-08-01

    This article discusses how process indicators can complement outcomes as part of a comprehensive explanatory evaluation framework, using the example of skills-based behavioural interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections and promote sexual health among young people in schools. A systematic review was conducted, yielding 12 eligible outcome evaluations, 9 of which included a process evaluation. There were few statistically significant effects in terms of changes in sexual behaviour outcomes, but statistically significant effects were more common for knowledge and self-efficacy. Synthesis of the findings of the process evaluations identified a range of factors that might explain outcomes, and these were organized into two overarching categories: the implementation of interventions, and student engagement and intervention acceptability. Factors which supported implementation and engagement and acceptability included good quality teacher training, involvement and motivation of key school stakeholders and relevance and appeal to young people. Factors which had a negative impact included teachers' failure to comprehend the theoretical basis for behaviour change, school logistical problems and omission of topics that young people considered important. It is recommended that process indicators such as these be assessed in future evaluations of school-based sexual health behavioural interventions, as part of a logic model. PMID:24488650

  11. HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections

    OpenAIRE

    Uriyo Jacqueline; Hussain Akhtar; Mbizvo Elizabeth; Msuya Sia E; Sam Noel E; Stray-Pedersen Babill

    2006-01-01

    Background Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654), attending primary health clinics for routine antenatal care were interviewed, examined and biological samples collected for diagnos...

  12. Incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates negative by Syva direct fluorescent-antibody test but positive by Gen-Probe accuprobe test in a sexually transmitted disease clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, J L; Rau, M P; Flageolle, S; Calhoon, B; Knapp, J S

    1993-09-01

    To determine the accuracy of the Syva (Palo Alto, Calif.) direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) test in comparison with the Gen-Probe (San Diego, Calif.) Accuprobe culture confirmation test, we tested 395 isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from cultures obtained from patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic from 1 July 1991 through 30 June 1992. All isolates were tested for DFA reactivity with a polyclonal reagent (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) and a monoclonal reagent (Syva, Inc., direct specimen test) and for specific molecular probe reactivity by the Gen-Probe Accuprobe culture confirmation test for N. gonorrhoeae. The 395 isolates gave positive results for the Gen-Probe culture confirmation test and the Difco polyclonal direct specimen test. However, 18 (4.6%) of the isolates were negative for N. gonorrhoeae by the Syva DFA test. With the exception of six beta-lactamase-positive isolates, all isolates that were negative by Syva DFA were sensitive to penicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, and ceftriaxone by disk-diffusion susceptibility testing. Auxotyping and serotyping studies indicated that strains negative by Syva DFA consisted of several variants. The frequency of N. gonorrhoeae isolates showing negative results by Syva DFA in this patient population ranged from 0 to 11.5%/month. Laboratories using only the Syva DFA test for confirmation of N. gonorrhoeae may incur a significant risk of misidentification. PMID:8408585

  13. Self-administered sample collection for screening of sexually transmitted infection among reservation-based American Indian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, Lauren; Strom, Rachel; Hastings, Ranelda; Parker, Anthony; Barlow, Allison; Rompalo, Anne; Gaydos, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    American Indians suffer a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infection, particularly adolescents. Screening access barriers in rural and reservation-based communities necessitate alternatives to clinic-based options. Self-administered screening for three sexually transmitted infections was piloted among 32 American Indian adolescents aged 18 to 19. Participants self-collected in a private location; specimens were processed by trained, American Indian paraprofessionals and analysis was conducted by an outside laboratory. Participants testing positive were treated by a Public Health Nurse from the Indian Health Service. Results suggest high overall acceptability: 69% preferred a self-administered method over clinic-based screening, 75% would encourage their friends to use this method and 100% would use it again. A self-administered screening method has the ability to reach this and other high-risk populations that might not otherwise access screening, with added potential within the Indian Health Services system for uptake and dissemination in rural, reservation communities facing significant screening barriers. PMID:25228666

  14. Family-Based HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Reduction for Drug-Involved Young Offenders: 42-Month Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Cynthia L; Alberga, Linda; Dakof, Gayle A; Henderson, Craig E; Ungaro, Rocio; Liddle, Howard A

    2016-06-01

    This study tested a family-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention approach integrated within an empirically supported treatment for drug-involved young offenders, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT). A randomized, controlled, two-site community-based trial was conducted with 154 youth and their parents. Drug-involved adolescents were recruited in detention, randomly assigned to either MDFT or Enhanced Services as Usual (ESAU), and assessed at intake, 3, 6, 9, 18, 24, 36, and 42-month follow-ups. Youth in both conditions received structured HIV/STI prevention in detention and those in MDFT also received family-based HIV/STI prevention as part of ongoing treatment following detention release. Youth in both conditions and sites significantly reduced rates of unprotected sex acts and STI incidence from intake to 9 months. They remained below baseline levels of STI incidence (10%) over the 42-month follow-up period. At Site A, adolescents who were sexually active at intake and received MDFT showed greater reduction in overall frequency of sexual acts and number of unprotected sexual acts than youth in ESAU between intake and 9-month follow-ups. These intervention differences were evident through the 42-month follow-up. Intervention effects were not found for STI incidence or unprotected sex acts at Site B. Intensive group-based and family intervention in detention and following release may reduce sexual risk among substance-involved young offenders, and a family-based approach may enhance effects among those at highest risk. Site differences in intervention effects, study limitations, clinical implications, and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26879671

  15. Collecting data for sexually transmitted infections (STI surveillance: what do patients prefer in Flanders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peremans Lieve

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background STI surveillance systems are subject to qualitative and quantitative underreporting. General practitioners (GPs, who are key subjects in case reporting, explain their underreporting partly by their observation that taking a sexual history is embarrassing for patients, and that patients are reluctant to disclose information on their sexual practices. In this study we examine patients' willingness to provide data for STI surveillance. Methods A questionnaire-based survey in a stratified population sample of 300 patients aged 18–60 years. Results The large majority of respondents stated to be willing to give information on their sexual practices for the purpose of STI surveillance. They preferred to answer sexual history questions to their GP; filling in a form on the internet was the second best option. Conclusion Based on these results, it is unlikely that the cooperation of patients would be a weak link in STI surveillance strategies. This observation, together with the fact that the majority of patients at risk for STIs have regular access to general practice services, justify renewed efforts to enliven primary care-based STI surveillance strategies.

  16. Random Behaviour or Rational Choice? Family Planning, Teenage Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, David

    2006-01-01

    Rational choice models of teenage sexual behaviour lead to radically different predictions than do models that assume such behaviour is random. Existing empirical evidence has not been able to distinguish conclusively between these competing models. I use regional data from England between 1998 and 2001 to examine the impact of recent increases in…

  17. Profile Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In A Clinic In The Suburb Of Kolkata (West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal A K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Records of new STD patients attending the Base Hospital, Barrackpore, near Kolkata between 1991 and 2000 were analysed to examine the pattern of STDs among them. Among 567 new STD patients examined, syphilis predominated, followed by gonorrhoea, chancroid, genital warts, lymphogramuloma venereum and herpes genitalis. Non- gonococcal urethritis constituted 4.2% of study population. The overall HIV seropositivity showed a rising treads in the recent past.

  18. Differences in Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior towards HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections between Sexually Active Foreign and Chinese Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Martin; Huang, Qiao; Rashid, Abid; Ma, Xiu Lan; Yuan, HongFang; Escalera Antezana, Juan Pablo; Yeltay, Rakhmanov; Rao, Meng; He, Qian; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased in the last decade worldwide, the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases including syphilis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis had dramatically increased in developing countries. Education and behavior are incredibly important factors to prevent these diseases' spread. This study highlights the range of differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 434 sexually active medical students towards HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Because the surveyed population constitutes the forefront of healthcare providers and was originated from different area of the world, this is the first time a study sought to investigate the behavioral attitude of this group of population irrespective of the three levels of their academic and professional knowledge. Several factors including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and STIs related patterns play a key role in medical student attitude and behavior towards people infected with HIV/AIDS and STIs. Our findings add consistent value in prior studies which aimed to stop new infections and also imply further investigations on the management of the studied infections by medical students. The present study arouses much interest among participants and provides evidence of reinforcing medical students' education on HIV/AIDS and STIs. PMID:27195287

  19. Identification Of Risk Factors In Sexually Transmitted Diseases : Role Of Health Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaubey D

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at STD clinic and Department of Dermatology, safdarjang hospital, New Delhi. It included 150 newly diagnosed STD cases and 150 patients with minor skin ailments who were age and sex matched. The Analysis on “multiple Logistic Regressio” package showed the following risk factors as significantly associated with acquisition of STDs in descending order of strength of association; extra-material sexual contacts, disharmonious relations with spouse, pre-marital contacts, multiple partners and exposures, homosexuality, non-usage of condoms, alcoholism, delayed sex hygiene, contact with prostitutes, severe depression, unaware about STDs and symptoms, sharing of personal items and psychological morbidity. Health education is vital to change/ modify high risk sexual behaviour and to educate people about the mode of transmission, treatment available and complications. Individual psychological assessment and psychological therapy are also essential whenever applicable.

  20. Structural factors associated with an increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection transmission among street-involved youth

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    Shoveller Jean A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among street-involved youth greatly exceed that of the general adolescent population; however, little is known regarding the structural factors that influence disease transmission risk among this population. Methods Between September 2005 and October 2006, 529 street-involved youth were enroled in a prospective cohort known as the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS. We examined structural factors associated with number of sex partners using quasi-Poisson regression and consistent condom use using logistic regression. Results At baseline, 415 (78.4% were sexually active, of whom 253 (61.0% reported multiple sex partners and 288 (69.4% reported inconsistent condom use in the past six months. In multivariate analysis, self-reported barriers to health services were inversely associated with consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.25 – 1.07. Structural factors that were associated with greater numbers of sex partners included homelessness (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.11 – 2.14 and having an area restriction that affects access to services (aIRR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.28 – 4.18. Being searched or detained by the police was significant for males (aIRR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.02 – 1.81. Conclusion Although limited by its cross-sectional design, our study found several structural factors amenable to policy-level interventions independently associated with sexual risk behaviours. These findings imply that the criminalization and displacement of street-involved youth may increase the likelihood that youth will engage in sexual risk behaviours and exacerbate the negative impact of resultant health outcomes. Moreover, our findings indicate that environmental-structural interventions may help to reduce the burden of these diseases among street youth in urban settings.

  1. Identification Of Risk Factors In Sexually Transmitted Diseases : Role Of Health Education

    OpenAIRE

    Chaubey D; Sharma A. K.; Singh R.K

    1993-01-01

    The study was conducted at STD clinic and Department of Dermatology, safdarjang hospital, New Delhi. It included 150 newly diagnosed STD cases and 150 patients with minor skin ailments who were age and sex matched. The Analysis on â€multiple Logistic Regressio†package showed the following risk factors as significantly associated with acquisition of STDs in descending order of strength of association; extra-material sexual contacts, disharmonious relations with sp...

  2. Students for Safer Sexuality: A Peer Education Program Addressing the Postponement of Sexual Involvement and the Prevention of Unwanted Pregnancy, HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Pam; Vaughan, David

    Students for Safer Sexuality is a peer education program designed to train 11th and 12th graders to be key agents in the delivery of sexuality education, HIV prevention, and communication skills programs. There were 15 students involved in the first year and 20 students currently involved. Participants are trained to lead discussion groups,…

  3. Sexually transmitted infections and use of contraceptives in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Storgaard, Merete;

    2016-01-01

    criteria were HIV-1 infection and ≥ 18 years of age. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, alcohol- or drug abuse impeding adherence to the protocol. At entry, participants were tested (and where appropriate, treated according to guidelines) for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis, and...... six (2 %) tested positive for HSV-2 by PCR. None were positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, HSV-1 or had active syphilis. At follow-up, 252 (76 %) participated; 168 (70 %) were sexually active. Contraceptives were used by 124 (75 %); condoms were preferred (62 %). Having an HIV-negative partner...

  4. Vulnerable Women’s Self-Care Needs in Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Baghersad, Zahra; Boroumandfar, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vulnerable women are prone to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) due to their special conditions and poor knowledge about these diseases in the society. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the vulnerable women’s self-care needs in knowledge, attitude and practice concerning STD. Methods: This is a cross-sectional-descriptive study conducted in 2014. The data collection was carried out using a self-administered structured questionnaire. 120 vulnerable women referring to centers affiliated to health and well-being center in Isfahan participated in this study. They were selected through proportional rationing sampling and filled out a researcher developed questionnaire containing information on personal characteristics, self-care knowledge, attitude, and practice needs toward the STD. The data were analyzed using statistical methods including Spearman & Pearson correlation co-efficient, independent t-test and ANOVA. All analyses were carried out using SPSS, 20. Results: Based on the results, most of the subjects mentioned that their priorities of self-care needs in domains of knowledge, attitude and practice were “familiarization with the types and contamination ways of sexually transmitted diseases” (57.9%); “diagnosis of STD only makes us anxious” (24.8), and “the method of washing the genital area before and after intercourse” 41.3%), respectively. There was a significant association among marital status, education, history of addiction, and self-care needs in domains of knowledge, attitude and practice (Peducational programs should be designed and administrated by the experts, based on vulnerable women’s self-care needs concerning their knowledge, attitude and practice to prevent and control STD in vulnerable individuals.

  5. How social representations of sexually transmitted infections influence experiences of genito-urinary symptoms and care-seeking in Britain: mixed methods study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Mapp, Fiona; Hickson, Ford; Mercer, Catherine H; Wellings, Kaye

    2016-01-01

    Background Social understandings of sexually transmitted infections and associated symptoms and care-seeking behaviour continue to lag behind advancements in biomedical diagnostics and treatment, perpetuating the burden of disease. There is a lack of research linking perceptions, experiences and care-seeking for sexual health issues, especially research conducted outside of medical settings. We aim to explore lay perceptions of STIs and how these influence experiences of genito-urinary sympto...

  6. Sexually transmitted infections among transgender people and men who have sex with men in Port Vila, Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Vanessa; van Gemert, Caroline; Bulu, Siula; Kwarteng, Tamara; Bergari, Isabel; Badman, Steven; Vella, Alyce; Stoové, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Despite high sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence in the Pacific, there are limited data on STIs and risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG). In 2011, an Integrated Bio-Behavioural Survey recruited self-identified MSM and TG in Port Vila, Vanuatu. Descriptive findings were stratified by sexuality. Among 28 (55%) MSM and 23 (45%) TG, recent anal sex with male partners was more common among MSM (94% vs 71%; P < 0.1), including with casual (47% vs 35%), regular (59% vs 29%) and paying partners (28% vs 12%). MSM more commonly reported lifetime (P < 0.01) and recent sex with female partners (P < 0.01). Reported condom use with any partner type was low. More MSM (35%) than TG (24%) were diagnosed with an STI; previous treatment-seeking behaviour when symptomatic was lower among TG (P < 0.1). Tailored strategies acknowledging differences between MSM and TG are required to reduce STI vulnerability in Vanuatu. PMID:25960923

  7. Sexually transmitted infections among transgender people and men who have sex with men in Port Vila, Vanuatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Veronese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite high sexually transmitted infection (STI prevalence in the Pacific, there are limited data on STIs and risk among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender people (TG. In 2011, an Integrated Bio-Behavioural Survey recruited self-identified MSM and TG in Port Vila, Vanuatu. Descriptive findings were stratified by sexuality. Among 28 (55% MSM and 23 (45% TG, recent anal sex with male partners was more common among MSM (94% vs 71%; P < 0.1, including with casual (47% vs 35%, regular (59% vs 29% and paying partners (28% vs 12%. MSM more commonly reported lifetime (P < 0.01 and recent sex with female partners (P < 0.01. Reported condom use with any partner type was low. More MSM (35% than TG (24% were diagnosed with an STI; previous treatment-seeking behaviour when symptomatic was lower among TG (P < 0.1. Tailored strategies acknowledging differences between MSM and TG are required to reduce STI vulnerability in Vanuatu.

  8. Incidence of HCV and sexually transmitted diseases among hiv positive msm in antwerp, belgium, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apers, L; Koole, O; Bottieau, E; Vandenbruaene, M; Ophoff, D; Van Esbroeck, M; Crucitti, T; Florence, E

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are an indication of unsafe sexual practices and may be associated with HCV-infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. In a retrospective study we analysed the laboratory data of 99 HIV-positive MSM who acquired HCV during the observation period (cases) and 176 HIV-positive MSM who remained HCV negative during the observation period (controls), all followed at the HIV/STI-clinic in Antwerp, Belgium. All laboratory confirmed STI-episodes were recorded since the date of first consultation at our clinic, until the date of HCV-diagnosis of the cases. The HCV incidence varied between 0.24 (2001) and 1.36 (2011) new cases per hundred person-years, with a peak of 2.93 new cases per hundred person-years in 2009. The number of STI-episodes per person-year follow-up was significantly higher for the cases as compared to the controls for syphilis, non-LGV and LGV Chlamydia infections (p HCV conversion, all laboratory confirmed STIs remained more frequent among cases, but only the difference in syphilis incidence was statistically significant (p HCV and should lead to intensified screening for HCV and counselling of the patient. PMID:24635329

  9. Genital hygiene practices of fishermen targeted for a topical microbicide intervention against sexually transmitted infections in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwena, Z A; Bukusi, E A; Gorbach, P; Sharma, A; Sang, N M; Holmes, K K

    2010-06-01

    Research on hygiene has been relatively limited in the current era of rigorous observational studies and clinical trials. We set out to investigate the perception and practices of genital hygiene among fishermen working on the beaches along Lake Victoria, targeted for a topical male microbicide hygiene intervention. We conducted 12 focus group discussions involving fishermen (n = 130), recording the discussions in Dholuo (the local language) and transcribing them verbatim before translating into English. Transcripts were double-coded and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Despite easy access to lake water and recognition of a link that may exist between poor genital hygiene and the risk of penile infection and poor sexual relationships, few fishermen regularly washed their genitalia due to fear/embarrassment from cleaning their genitalia in public, traditional Luo beliefs such as that washing with soap would reduce the fish catch, lack of time because of their busy schedules, laziness and lack of responsibility, and excessive consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs. Hygiene practices of the fishermen were poor and could contribute to genital infections including sexually transmitted infections. Given the fishermen's poor genital hygiene practices, they may benefit from hygiene intervention, including that provided by penile microbicides, which can be applied in the privacy of their bedrooms. PMID:20606226

  10. Eating sweets without the wrapper: perceptions of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among street youth in western Kenya.

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    Embleton, Lonnie; Wachira, Juddy; Kamanda, Allan; Naanyu, Violet; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Street-connected youth in Kenya are a population potentially at risk of HIV transmission, yet little is known about their perceptions and experiences of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), despite their living in an HIV endemic region. We sought to elucidate the language and sociocultural factors rooted in street life that impact on street-connected young people's knowledge of and perceptions about the prevention and transmission of STIs, and their diagnosis and treatment, using qualitative methods in western Kenya. We conducted a total of 25 in-depth interviews and 5 focus-group discussions with 65 participants aged 11-24 years in Eldoret, Kenya. Thematic analysis was conducted and data were coded according to themes and patterns emergent until saturation was reached. In general, street-connected young people knew of STIs and some of the common symptoms associated with these infections. However, there were many misconceptions regarding transmission and prevention. Gender inequities were prominent, as the majority of men described women as individuals who spread STIs due to unhygienic practices, urination and multiple partners. Due to misconceptions, gender inequity and lack of access to youth-friendly healthcare there is an urgent need for community-based organisations and healthcare facilities to introduce or augment their adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes for vulnerable young people. PMID:26394208

  11. Eating sweets without the wrapper: perceptions of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among street youth in western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embleton, Lonnie; Wachira, Juddy; Kamanda, Allan; Naanyu, Violet; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Street-connected youth in Kenya are a population potentially at-risk of HIV transmission, yet little is known about their perceptions and experiences of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), despite being an HIV endemic region. We sought to elucidate the language and sociocultural factors rooted in street life that impact on street-connected young people’s knowledge of and perceptions about the prevention and transmission of STIs, and their diagnosis and treatment, using qualitative methods in western Kenya. We conducted a total of 25 in-depth interviews and 5 focus group discussions with 65 participants aged 11–24 years in Eldoret, Kenya. Thematic analysis was conducted and data were coded according to themes and patterns that emerged until saturation was reached. In general, street-connected young people knew of STIs and some of the common symptoms associated with these infections. However, there were many misconceptions regarding transmission and prevention. Gender inequities were prominent, as the majority of men described women as individuals who spread STIs due to unhygienic practices, urination, and multiple partners. Due to misconceptions, gender inequity, and lack of access to youth-friendly healthcare there is an urgent need for community-based organisations and healthcare facilities to introduce or augment their adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes for vulnerable young people. PMID:26394208

  12. Social marketing to promote HPV vaccination in pre-teenage children: talk about a sexually transmitted infection.

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    Cates, Joan R; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2015-01-01

    A significant barrier to the delivery of HPV vaccine is reluctance by both healthcare providers and parents to vaccinate at age 11 or 12, which may be considered a young age. This barrier has been called "vaccine hesitancy" in recent research. In this commentary, we suggest using social marketing strategies to promote HPV vaccination at the recommended preteen ages. We emphasize a critical public health message of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) as preventable and vaccination against HPV as a way to protect against its consequences. The message tackles the issue of vaccine hesitancy head on, by saying that most people are at risk for HPV and there is a way to prevent HPV's serious consequences of cancer. Our approach to this conversation in the clinical setting is also to engage the preteen in a dialog with the parent and provider. We expect our emphasis on the risk of STI infection will not only lead to increased HPV vaccination at preteen ages but also lay important groundwork for clinical adoption of other STI vaccines in development (HIV, HSV, Chlamydia, and Gonorrhea) as well as begin conversations to promote sexual health. PMID:25692313

  13. Structural approaches for prevention of sexually transmitted HIV in general populations: definitions and an operational approach

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    Justin O Parkhurst

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although biomedical HIV prevention efforts have seen a number of recent promising developments, behavioural interventions have often been described as failing. However, clear lessons have been identified from past efforts, including the need to address influential social, economic and legal structures; to tailor efforts to local contexts; and to address multiple influencing factors in combination. Despite these insights, there remains a pervasive strategy to try to achieve sexual behaviour change through single, decontextualized, interventions or sets of activities. With current calls for structural approaches to HIV as part of combination HIV prevention, though, there is a unique opportunity to define a structural approach to HIV prevention as one which moves beyond these past limitations and better incorporates our knowledge of the social world and the lessons from past efforts. Discussion: A range of interlinked concepts require delineation and definition within the broad concept of a structural approach to HIV. This includes distinguishing between “structural factors,” which can be seen as any number of elements (other than knowledge which influence risk and vulnerability, and “structural drivers,” which should be reserved for situations where an empirically established relationship to a target group is known. Operationalizing structural approaches similarly can take different paths, either working to alter structural drivers or alternatively working to build individual and community resilience to infection. A “structural diagnostic approach” is further defined as the process one undertakes to develop structural intervention strategies tailored to target groups. Conclusions: For three decades, the HIV prevention community has struggled to reduce the spread of HIV through sexual risk behaviours with limited success, but equally with limited engagement with the lessons that have been learned about the social realities

  14. The project “D.E.A.Th. by Eros to Thanatos AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases”. A multimedia exhibition as a means of prevention of sexually transmitted infections

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    Maria Ferrara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: An educational intervention on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs accompanied by a multimedia exhibition was proposed in order to verify the effectiveness of an exhibition as a tool for prevention, to increase awareness in youth and to evaluate whether it yielded changes in the sexual behaviour of its’ visitors. The Target population were high schools and university students.

    Methods: The Exhibition consisted of a historical overview and four other sections: biological and clinical aspects, epidemiology, prevention and a section called the Red Zone with clear and explicit images relating to STDs. The exhibition was supported by three observational studies carried out on about2000 students of two High Schools and the university in the city of Cassino, Italy. Data collection took place through three different types of “ad hoc” questionnaires. The Statistical analysis carried out was that typical of cross-sectional surveys. We utilized the statistical program Epi-Info 3.5.

    Results: Regarding survey 1, 48% of 529 students taking part said that the exhibition had contributed “enough” for them to acquire new knowledge, 75.2% had already had sexual intercourse and 37.7% of them did not change their sexual habits. Relative to survey 2, 583 responded to the pre test and 403 posttests returned. Regarding knowledge, data obtained from processing of pre-tests showed how 63.9% of the sample did not know how many STDs existed, whilst this value dropped in post test answers to 49.2% . AIDS was the best known disease (96% whilst other STDs were little known. The educational intervention partly increased these percentages. With regard to sexual practices although 43% of the sample claimed to have already had sexual intercourse (66% male and 34% female. The family doctor is seen by a high percentage of young people (70% - 68.6% as the first figure which should address an

  15. Toxoplasmosis can be a sexually transmitted infection with serious clinical consequences. Not all routes of infection are created equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, J; Klapilová, K; Kaňková, S

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects about 30% of the human population. Common sources of infection are oocysts in cat faeces contaminating drinking water or unwashed vegetables, undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, and organ transplants from infected donors containing tissue cysts. However, very often, it is not possible to identify any potential source of infection in mothers of children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Here we present a hypothesis suggesting that toxoplasmosis is transmitted from infected men to noninfected women during unprotected sexual intercourse, which can result in the most serious form of disease, congenital toxoplasmosis. Arguments for the hypothesis: (1) Toxoplasma tachyzoites are present in the seminal fluid and tissue of the testes of various animals including humans. In some species infection of females by artificial insemination with semen from infected males has been observed. (2) Up to two thirds of Toxoplasma infections in pregnant women cannot be explained by the known risk factors. (3) Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in women in child-bearing age covaries with the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in particular countries. (4) In some countries, an increased incidence of toxoplasmosis has been reported in women (but not men) aged 25-35 years. This second peak of infection could be associated with women having regular unprotected sex after marriage. (5) Toxoplasmosis triggers schizophrenia in predisposed subjects. Onset of schizophrenia is about 2-3 years earlier in men than in women. However, this difference in the onset can be found only between Toxoplasma-infected patients. The increased onset of schizophrenia in infected women could be associated with the already mentioned second peak of toxoplasmosis incidence. (6) The prevalence of toxoplasmosis decreases in developed countries in last 20 years. This trend could be a result of decrease in promiscuity and increase in safe sex practices, both associated with the AIDS pandemics

  16. Sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual and bisexual males from a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus negative volunteers (Project Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

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    L Lignani Jr

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STD are very frequent in the whole world. Males who do not use a condom during their sexual relations are at great risk. We report cases of STD during six months of observation, among homosexual/bisexual males who participate in the Project Horizonte. There were 16 cases of genital warts, 6 cases of human immunodeficiency virus infection, 24 cases of unspecific urethritis, 28 cases of herpes simplex virus infection, 30 cases of syphilis, 58 cases of gonorrhea and 84 cases of pediculosis. We concluded that a condom must be used in all sexual relations and new counseling techniques are needed, to avoid this situation.

  17. Sexually transmitted infections associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity Infecciones de transmisión sexual asociadas a síntomas vulvovaginales en adolescentes que niegan vida sexual activa

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    Elizabeth Velarde-Jurado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic evidence of a probable sexually transmitted infection associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of female adolescents, aged 10-18 years were reviewed. These women received first-time medical care for vulvovaginitis, between 1995 and 1999 at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, (Children's Hospital. Comparisons between groups were performed, as appropriate, by the unpaired Student's t-test, the Z test or the chi-square test; statistically significant differences were set at a two-tailed pOBJETIVO: Identificar datos clínicos, de laboratorio y ultrasonográficos que permitan el diagnóstico de una infección de transmisión sexual asociada a síntomas vulvovaginales en las pacientes adolescentes que niegan vida sexual activa. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisaron los expedientes de las adolescentes de 10 a 18 años de edad que requirieron atención médica de primera vez por vulvovaginitis entre 1995 y 1999 en el Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Las comparaciones entre grupos se llevaron a cabo con la prueba t de Student, la prueba de Z, o la de ji-cuadrada. Se utilizó un valor de p<0.05 para establecer diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Se calcularon razones de momios con intervalos de confianza de 95%. RESULTADOS: De 258 adolescentes, en 53 (20.5% se identificó un microrganismo de transmisión sexual y 52 de ellas negaron tener vida sexual activa. No hubo diferencias estadísticas entre los dos grupos de adolescentes en cuanto a la edad, los años de estudio, el nivel socioeconómico, la maduración sexual y la presencia de menarquia. El dolor abdominal en los cuadrantes inferiores, la coloración anormal de la secreción vaginal, un cultivo urinario positivo y un estudio ultrasonográfico abdominal compatible con enfermedad pélvica inflamatoria estuvieron asociados con

  18. The Role of Condom Motivation Education in the Reduction of New and Reinfection Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Inner-City Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. B.; Weinman, M. L.; Parrilli, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effectiveness of small group condom motivation education in reducing new and reinfection rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among urban female teenagers was evaluated. Teens (N=205) were followed for six months. Findings are presented and health education opportunities are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  19. Source Preferences and the Displacement/Supplement Effect between Internet and Traditional Sources of Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV/AIDS Information

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    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examines the source preferences and the displacement/supplement effect of traditional and new channel usage as Taiwanese college students search for information about sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS from the Internet. The study involved 535 junior and senior college students from four universities. Analytical results…

  20. Effectiveness of Health Education Teachers and School Nurses Teaching Sexually Transmitted Infections/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Knowledge and Skills in High School

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    Borawski, Elaine A.; Tufts, Kimberly Adams; Trapl, Erika S.; Hayman, Laura L.; Yoder, Laura D.; Lovegreen, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We examined the differential impact of a well-established human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) curriculum, Be Proud! Be Responsible!, when taught by school nurses and health education classroom teachers within a high school curricula. Methods: Group-randomized intervention study of 1357 ninth and…

  1. Demographic and Behavioral Determinants of Self-Reported History of Sexually-Transmitted Diseases (STDs) among Young Migrant Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Liu, Yingjie; Jiang, Shulin; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sexually-transmitted disease (STD) is a facilitating cofactor that contributes to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Previous studies indicated a high prevalence of STDs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. To date, limited data are available for correlates of STD infection among young migrant MSM in China. The…

  2. The knowledge and attitudes of a female at-risk population towards the prevention of AIDS and sexually transmitted infections in Tehran

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    Ali-Asghar Kolahi

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Knowledge towards sexually transmitted infections (STIs and condom use is still inadequate, especially regarding risky behaviors such as anal sex, and attitudes are mainly negative. Identifying at-risk populations, HIV-positive sex workers, education and campaigns to change the attitudes towards AIDS should be regarded a high priority in Iran.

  3. Assessing the vulnerability of women to sexually transmitted diseases STDS/ HIV: construction and validation of markers

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    Mónica Cecilia De la Torre Ugarte Guanilo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To construct and validate markers of vulnerability of women to STDs/HIV, taking into consideration the importance of STDs/HIV. Method Methodological study carried out in three stages: 1 systematic review and identification of elements of vulnerability in the scientific production; 2 selection of elements of vulnerability, and development of markers; 3 establishment of the expert group and validation of the markers (content validity. Results Five markers were validated: no openness in the relationship to discuss aspects related to prevention of STDs/HIV; no perception of vulnerability to STDs/HIV; disregard of vulnerability to STDs/ HIV; not recognizing herself as the subject of sexual and reproductive rights; actions of health professionals that limit women’s access to prevention of STDs/HIV. Each marker contains three to eleven components. Conclusion The construction of such markers constituted an instrument, presented in another publication, which can contribute to support the identification of vulnerabilities of women in relation to STDs/HIV in the context of primary health care services. The markers constitute an important tool for the operationalization of the concept of vulnerability in primary health care and to promote inter/multidisciplinary and inter/multi-sectoral work processes.

  4. Violencia sexual y problemas asociados en una muestra de usuarias de un centro de salud Sexual violence and related problems in women attending a healthcare center

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    Luciana Ramos-Lira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la frecuencia de diferentes formas de violencia sexual y su asociación con sintomatología depresiva, ideación e intento suicida, y uso de alcohol y otras drogas alguna vez en la vida. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal, hecho en un centro de salud oficial de México, D.F., México, entre febrero y marzo de 1998. La muestra estuvo constituida por 345 mujeres usuarias del establecimiento asistencial las cuales, en el momento del estudio, vivían con pareja. Se calcularon proporciones para observar la frecuencia de tres diferentes formas de violencia sexual, y ji cuadrada para compararlas en cuanto a los problemas mencionados. Resultados. De las mujeres, 19% señaló haber sido objeto de tocamientos sexuales contra su voluntad al menos alguna vez en su vida, en tanto 11% habían sido violadas y 5% fueron forzadas a tocar los órganos sexuales de otra persona contra su voluntad. Una de cada cinco mujeres reportó haber experimentado alguna violencia sexual dentro de la relación de pareja. Se encontró una asociación significativa entre algunas formas de violencia sexual y la depresión, la ideación e intento suicida y el uso de psicofármacos. Conclusiones. La violencia sexual es un problema grave de salud pública que requiere implementar programas de capacitación para obtener una respuesta especializada de los proveedores de salud. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To estimate the frequency of different forms of sexual violence and its association with mental health problems, such as depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempt, and alcohol and drug use. Material and methods. From February to March 1998, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 345 women attending a healthcare center in Mexico City. All women were living with a partner/spouse at the time of the study. The proportions of three different types of sex life were

  5. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center in Kermanshah

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    Fariba Teimouri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug addiction is one of the social health problems at the present century. The high risk sexual behaviors as well as drug abusing are factors of sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center. Methods: In this descriptive study, 76 women who have referred to Niloofar de-addiction center in Kermanshah-Western Iran, were recruited using convenience sampling method. Questionnaire was completed by all subjects and blood sample were taken to determine Hepatitis B, Syphilis, and Herpes simplex virus infection. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t- test, Chi-2 and the Fisher exact test. Results: The mean age of women was 35.22±0.99 year. 51.3% of subjects were illiterate and 48.7% were supported by social welfare system. There were not common needle using and multiple sexual contacts in the subjects. None of the subjects had positive test for hepatitis B and syphilis but HSV antibody was determined in 91.6% of subjects.Conclusion: In this study, high-risk behaviors and sexually transmitted diseases were less than expected. This study was carried out in a state governmental clinic, future studies in different populations of addicted women referred to prison and private sectors are recommended.

  6. Empowering sex workers in India to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted diseases.

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    Swendeman, Dallas; Basu, Ishika; Das, Sankari; Jana, Smarajit; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2009-10-01

    The Sonagachi Project was initiated in Kolkata, India in 1992 as a STD/HIV intervention for sex workers. The project evolved to adopt strategies common to women's empowerment programs globally (i.e., community mobilization, rights-based framing, advocacy, micro-finance) to address common factors that support effective, evidence-based HIV/STD prevention. The Sonagachi model is now a broadly diffused evidence-based empowerment program. We previously demonstrated significant condom use increases among female sex workers in a 16 month replication trial of the Sonagachi empowerment intervention (n=110) compared to a control community (n=106) receiving standard care of STD clinic, condom promotion, and peer education in two randomly assigned rural towns in West Bengal, India (Basu et al., 2004). This article examines the intervention's impacts on 21 measured variables reflecting five common factors of effective HIV/STD prevention programs to estimate the impact of empowerment strategies on HIV/STD prevention program goals. The intervention which was conducted in 2000-2001 significantly: 1) improved knowledge of STDs and condom protection from STD and HIV, and maintained STD/HIV risk perceptions despite treatment; 2) provided a frame to motivate change based on reframing sex work as valid work, increasing disclosure of profession, and instilling a hopeful future orientation reflected in desire for more education or training; 3) improved skills in sexual and workplace negotiations reflected in increased refusal, condom decision-making, and ability to change work contract, but not ability to take leave; 4) built social support by increasing social interactions outside work, social function participation, and helping other sex workers; and 5) addressed environmental barriers of economic vulnerabilities by increasing savings and alternative income, but not working in other locations, nor reduced loan taking, and did not increase voting to build social capital. This study

  7. Sensitive Simultaneous Detection of Seven Sexually Transmitted Agents in Semen by Multiplex-PCR and of HPV by Single PCR

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    de Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta; Irie, Mary Mayumi Taguti; Esquiçati, Isis Baroni; Malagutti, Natália; Vasconcellos, Vinícius Rodrigo Bulla; Discacciati, Michele Garcia; Bonini, Marcelo Gialluisi; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV) −1 and −2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV) and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR) in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%), sensitivity (100.00%), specificity (99.70%), positive (96.40%) and negative predictive values (100.00%) and accuracy (99.80%). The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%). Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks. PMID:24921247

  8. Sexually transmitted diseases and native American/span>s: trends in reported gonorrhea and syphilis morbidity, 1984-88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, K E; Oberschelp, A G; Greenspan, J R

    1989-01-01

    Native Americans experienced higher reported gonorrhea and syphilis morbidity than did non-Native Americans from 1984 through 1988 in 13 States with large Native American populations. Gonorrhea rates among American Indians and Alaska Natives were approximately twice the rates for non-Indians. The highest gonorrhea rate was reported among Alaska Natives, with a 5-year average of 1,470 cases per 100,000, more than five times the average non-Native rate in Alaska. The average primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis rate from 1984 through 1988 was more than two times higher among Native Americans, largely due to high syphilis morbidity in Arizona and New Mexico. In Arizona the average American Indian P&S syphilis case rate was seven times higher than the non-Indian rate. True rates for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among Native Americans may be higher than those reported due to racial misclassification of Native American cases, particularly in nonreservation areas. Improved recognition and reporting of STD cases among Native Americans are needed to target STD prevention and education more effectively. PMID:2511589

  9. THE KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OF A GROUP OF STUDENTS IN CELAL BAYAR UNIVERSITY ABOUT FAMILY PLANNING AND SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

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    Pinar ERBAY DUNDAR

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Young adulthood is a period when concepts like family planning (FP and sexually transmitted diseases (STD?s become important. This cross-sectional study was performed to measure the knowledge level of Biology and Turkish Language / Literature students of Manisa Celal Bayar University about FP and STD?s. The questionnaire measures knowledge level of FP-STD?s and sociodemographic variables was performed to 299 students (73 % of the population undar observation. The data is evaluated by chi square test and Student?s t test in SPSS 10.0 statistics program. The mean age of the study group is 21.3±1.9, 31.8% get informed about FP by friends, 95.4% of girls know about oral contraseptives (oc?s and 88.3% of girls know about IUD?s; 96.1% of boys know about oc?s and 79.4% of them know about condom. The mean knowledge point of FP is 11.2±3.7 of girls, 9.0±3.9 of boys (p0.05. The effective variables of STD?s knowledge is age group.Medico-social section of universities is a very important places for consulting FP and STD?s to the students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000: 66-78

  10. Sensitive simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in semen by multiplex-PCR and of HPV by single PCR.

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    Fabrícia Gimenes

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV -1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%, sensitivity (100.00%, specificity (99.70%, positive (96.40% and negative predictive values (100.00% and accuracy (99.80%. The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%. Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks.

  11. Acceptability and Feasibility of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing and Treatment among Pregnant Women in Gaborone, Botswana, 2015

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    Adriane Wynn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV are curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs that can cause adverse maternal and birth outcomes. Most countries do not conduct routine testing during antenatal care. We present data on the acceptability and feasibility of testing and treating pregnant women for STIs in an antenatal clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. Materials and Methods. We offered CT, NG, and TV testing using self-collected vaginal swabs to eligible pregnant women. Participants received same-day test results. Those who tested positive were given treatment. Results. Among the 225 women who were eligible and recruited, 200 (89% agreed to participate. The median age of our study sample was 30 years; most were unmarried (77%, with a median gestational age of 27 weeks and a 23% HIV prevalence. All participants received their results with at least 72% (n=143 on the same day. Thirty participants (15% tested positive for an STI, all were treated, and 24 (80% were treated on the same day. Conclusion. The acceptability of STI testing was high, and the intervention was feasible. This study provides support for continued research into STI prevalence, cost-effectiveness, and the association of STIs with adverse maternal and infant outcomes.

  12. Non-Sexual Transmission of Trichomonas vaginalis in Adolescent Girls Attending School in Ndola, Zambia

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    Crucitti, T; Jespers, V.; Mulenga, C.; Khondowe, S.; Vandepitte, J.; Buvé, A

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for trichomoniasis among young women in Ndola, Zambia. METHOD: The study was a cross-sectional study among adolescent girls aged 13-16 years in Ndola, Zambia. Study participants were recruited from schools in selected administrative areas that represented the different socio-economic strata in town. Consenting participants were interviewed about their socio-demographic characteristics; sexual behaviour; and hygiene practices. Self-administered vaginal swab...

  13. Are obligatory apomicts invested in the pollen tube transmitting tissue? Comparison of the micropyle ultrastructure between sexual and apomictic dandelions (Asteraceae, Lactuceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Świątek, Piotr; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Majeský, Ľuboš; Marciniuk, Jolanta; Stolarczyk, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    With the exception of the sunflower, little information concerning the micropyle ultrastructure of the family Asteraceae is available. The aim of our study was to compare the micropyle structure in amphimictic and apomictic dandelions. Ultrastructural studies using buds and flowers during anthesis have been done on the micropyle of the sexual and apomictic Taraxacum. In all of the species that were examined, the micropylar canal was completely filled with ovule transmitting tissue and the matrix that was produced by these cells. The ovule transmitting tissue was connected to the ovarian transmitting tissue. The micropyle was asymmetrical because the integument epidermis that forms the transmitting tissue was only on the funicular side. There was a cuticle between the obturator cells and epidermal cells on the other side of integument. The micropylar transmitting tissue cells and theirs matrix reached the synergid apex. The cytoplasm of the transmitting tissue cells was especially rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), dictyosomes, and mitochondria. No major differences were detected between the micropyle structure of the amphimictic and apomictic species; thus, a structural reduction of obturator does not exist. The ovule transmitting tissue is still active in apomictic dandelions despite the presence of the embryo and endosperm. Differences and similarities between the micropyle structure in the Asteraceae that have been studied to date are discussed. PMID:25652809

  14. Biological impact of recurrent sexually transmitted infections on HIV seroconversion among women in South Africa: results from frailty models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Wand

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Understanding the impact of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs on HIV transmissibility is essential for effective HIV prevention programs. Investigating the impact of longitudinally measured recurrent STIs on HIV seroconversion is the interest of the current paper. Methods: In this prospective study, data from a total of 1456 HIV-negative women who enrolled in a HIV biomedical trial were used. It was hypothesized that women who had recurrent STI diagnoses during the study share a common biological heterogeneity which cannot be quantified. To incorporate this “unobserved” correlation in the analysis, times to HIV seroconversion were jointly modelled with repeated STI diagnoses using Cox regression with random effects. Results and discussion: A total of 110 HIV seroconversions were observed (incidence rate of 6.00 per 100 person-years. In a multivariable model, women who were diagnosed at least once were more likely to seroconvert compared to those who had no STI diagnosis [hazard ratio (HR: 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.04, 2.57]; women who had recurrent STI diagnoses during the study were 2.5 times more likely to be at increased risk of HIV infection (95% CI: 1.35, 4.01 with an estimated frailty variance of 1.52, with p<0.001, indicating strong evidence that there is a significant correlation (heterogeneity among women who had recurrent STIs. In addition to this, factors associated with incidence of STIs, namely not being married and having a new sexual partner during the study follow-up, were all significantly associated with increased risk for HIV seroconversion (HR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.76, 5.01 and HR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.63, 3.83 respectively. Conclusions: The results indicated that women who were at risk for STIs were also at risk of HIV infection. In fact, they share the similar risk factors. In addition to this, repeated STI diagnoses also increased women's susceptibility for HIV infection significantly

  15. Potential impact and acceptability of Internet partner notification for men who have sex with men and transgender women recently diagnosed as having sexually transmitted disease in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L; Segura, Eddy R; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Reisner, Sari L; Peinado, Jesus; Salvatierra, Hector J; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the potential impact of Internet partner notification among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Peru recently diagnosed as having sexually transmitted disease. Use of Internet partner notification was anticipated for 55.9% of recent partners, including 43.0% of partners not currently expected to be notified, a 20.6% increase in anticipated notification outcomes. PMID:24326581

  16. Factors associated with forced sex among women accessing health services in rural Haiti: implications for the prevention of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases☆

    OpenAIRE

    Fawzi, M C Smith; Lambert, W; Singler, J.M.; Tanagho, Y.; Léandre, F.; Nevil, P; Bertrand, D.; Claude, M.S.; Bertrand, J; Louissaint, M.; Jeannis, L.; Mukherjee, J.S.; Goldie, S.; Salazar, J J; Farmer, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of forced sex among women accessing services at a women’s health clinic in rural Haiti; and (2) examine factors associated with forced sex in this population. Based on data from a case-control study of risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), a cross-sectional analysis to examine factors associated with forced sex was performed. A number of factors related to gender inequality/socioeconomic vulnerability placed ...

  17. Prevalence of 7 sexually transmitted organisms by multiplex real-time PCR in Fallopian tube specimens collected from Saudi women with and without ectopic pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Ashshi, Ahmed Mohamed; Batwa, Sarah Abdullah; Kutbi, Seham Yahia; Malibary, Faizah Ahmed; Batwa, Mohamed; Refaat, Bassem

    2015-01-01

    Background Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is associated with maternal morbidity and occasionally mortality during the first trimester. A history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and pelvic inflammatory disease have been implicated as major risk factors for EP. Our aim was to measure the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Ureaplasma parvum/urealyticum, Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis and herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1&2 in Fal...

  18. Avatars using computer/smartphone mediated communication and social networking in prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among North-Norwegian youngsters

    OpenAIRE

    Gabarron Elia; Serrano J.; Wynn Rolf; Armayones Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Chlamydia trachomatis bacterial infection, a common cause of infertility, are highly prevalent in developed countries, and a worrying problem in North Norway, where the incidence of chlamydia twice the Norwegian average. Seventy percent of reported chlamydia cases are found in people below 25 years of age, and although its spread could be controlled with proper prevention, young people are more aware of the risks of unwa...

  19. The practice and prevalence of dry sex among men and women in South Africa: a risk factor for sexually transmitted infections?

    OpenAIRE

    Beksinska, M. E.; Rees, H. V.; Kleinschmidt, I; McIntyre, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of "dry sex" practice in a South African periurban population. To investigate the reasons for and factors influencing the practice of dry sex and to evaluate dry sex practice as a risk factor for sexually transmitted disease (STD). DESIGN: Cross sectional sample survey. METHODS: A random community sample of men and women aged between 16 and 35 in Gauteng Province, South Africa, were interviewed regarding the practice of dry sex using a structured ...

  20. Awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among school-going adolescents in Europe: a systematic review of published literature

    OpenAIRE

    Spallek Lena; Samkange-Zeeb Florence N; Zeeb Hajo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major health problem affecting mostly young people, not only in developing, but also in developed countries. We conducted this systematic review to determine awareness and knowledge of school-going male and female adolescents in Europe of STDs and if possible, how they perceive their own risk of contracting an STD. Results of this review can help point out areas where STD risk communication for adolescents needs to be improved. Me...

  1. Risk Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Transgender Women and Men Undergoing Community-Based Screening for Acute and Early HIV Infection in San Diego

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Nella; Hoenigl, Martin; Morris, Sheldon; Little, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The transgender community represents an understudied population in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare risk behavior, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates between transgender women and transgender men undergoing community-based HIV testing. With this retrospective analysis of a cohort study, we characterize HIV infection rates as well as reported risk behaviors and reported STI in 151 individual transgender women and 30 individual transgender ...

  2. Knowledge, perceived stigma, and care-seeking experiences for sexually transmitted infections: a qualitative study from the perspective of public clinic attendees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cunnigham Shayna D; Strathdee Steffanie A; Bastos Francisco I; Malta Monica; Pilotto Jose; Kerrigan Deanna

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background An estimated 12 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are documented in Brazil per year. Given the scope of this public health challenge and the importance of prompt treatment and follow-up counseling to reduce future STI/HIV-related risk behavior, we sought to qualitatively explore STI clinic experiences among individuals diagnosed with STIs via public clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study focused on eliciting the perspective of clinic users with regard to...

  3. The risk of success: cultural determinants of chronic disease and sexually transmitted infections among urban Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretsky, Elanah

    2011-06-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, the People's Republic of China successfully waged a series of public health campaigns to control the infectious diseases that were ravaging them as a nation. This included a campaign that targeted the social roots of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). China is now facing a new disease profile that includes emerging epidemics of chronic disease as well as reemerging epidemics of STIs. Many of these diseases are strongly associated with gender and occupation, suggesting need for a critical model of health literacy that recognizes the role of social risk in promoting risky behaviors rather than focusing on a simple model that disseminates knowledge about biomedical risk. Such a model is useful for explaining why people armed with knowledge about biomedical risk continue to engage in risky behaviors. This article focuses on the social risks that wealthy Chinese businessmen and government officials negotiate on a daily basis. It highlights the concept of guanxi that is so central to building relationships in China and explains the traditional process of yingchou used to establish and maintain relationships among this cadre of men who depend on one another for political and economic success. This process, which has become pervasive in China's era of market reform, requires men to engage in frequent practices of smoking, drinking, eating and female-centered entertainment that are contributing both to their success and to their increasing vulnerability to chronic disease and STIs. The paper concludes by offering some alternative approaches to addressing this emerging disease pattern among this particular segment of China's population. PMID:21097473

  4. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among healthy Korean women: implications of multiplex PCR pathogen detection on antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Juwon; Lee, Kyung-A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using multiplex real-time PCR assay in healthy Korean women. We also evaluated the risk factors of STIs, and compared the various factors between the STI-positive and the STI-negative groups. A total of 799 endocervical swab samples from healthy Korean women who visited our hospital for general medical check-ups during January 2012 to October 2012 were included. Eight STIs including Human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Ureaplasma parvum (UP), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) were detected using Anyplex II STI-7 Detection assay Detection (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) and Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA test (Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) according manufacture's protocols. Ninety-seven (12.1%) subjects were positive for HPV. Of 393 (49.2%) subjects were infected with at least one microorganism and a total of 499 STIs were identified. Among the 393 STI-positive subjects, the proportion of single, double and triple infection was 76.3%, 20.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The median age of the STI-positive group (47 years, range 42-52) was younger than the STI-negative group (49 years, range 43-56; P < 0.001). The infection rate of HPV was significantly higher in the STI-positive group (15.8%, 62/393) than the STI-negative group (8.6%, 35/406) (P = 0.002). PMID:24462432

  5. The Influence of Sexual Scripts and the "Better than Average" Effect on Condom Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Bailey, Lindsey L.; Moring, John; Angiola, Julie; Bowen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Young adults attending college are especially susceptible to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to high rates of risky sexual behaviour. Many college students are aware of the disease risks involved in vaginal and anal intercourse with heterosexual partners; however, only 35% of sexually active students reported condom use. Data from this…

  6. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gonorrhea fact sheet HIV/AIDS Human papillomavirus (HPV) Pap test fact sheet Pelvic inflammatory disease fact sheet ... hepatitis B and human papillomavirus (HPV). Does a Pap test screen for STIs? No. Pap testing is ...

  7. Impact of HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing on risky sexual behaviors among men who have sex with men in Langfang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; WU Zun-you; SONG Ai-jun; Katharine Poundstone

    2013-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) in China remain at high risk for HIV infection,the proportion of reported HIV/AIDS cases that occurred among MSM rose greatly from 2005 to 2011.HIV testing and counseling is a critical HIV prevention strategy among HIV related high-risk population,including MSM in China.This article aimed to assess the association between receiving HIV testing and high-risk sexual behaviors among MSM in Langfang,Hebei Province,China.Methods Between September and November 2007,233 MSM were recruited to receive an HIV testing intervention.Face-to-face interviews were conducted before HIV testing and 3 months later HIV-related risk behaviors were assessed.Serological testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed.Results Of the recruited 233 MSM,200 completed follow-up.Baseline prevalence was 7.8% for HIV,21.0% for syphilis,15.8% for gonorrhea,and 5.0% for chlamydia.Multivariate analysis indicated that inconsistent condom use (OR=7.9,95% CI:0.9-66.7,P=-0.059) and bleeding during anal sex (OR=5.9,95% CI:1.3-26.2,P=0.019) were risk factors for HIV infection,and group sex (OR=6.6,95% Cl:2.2-19.7,P=-0.001) was a risk factor for syphilis infection at baseline.At 3 months follow-up,among STI-positive MSM,self-reported anal sex fell from 73.1% to 38.5% (P <0.001); group sex fell from 19.2% to 5.8% (P <0.001); and bleeding during anal sex fell from 23.1% to 5.8% (P <0.001).Among STI-negative MSM,the frequency of one-night stands fell from 32.5% to 17.2% (P <0.001),and oral sex rose from 57% to 78.5% (P <0.001).STI-positive MSM were less likely to engage in anal sex compared to STI-negative MSM (x2=5.189,P=0.023).Conclusions HIV testing is an important intervention strategy among MSM.HIV testing services among MSM need to be scaled up,along with comprehensive,tailored interventions including condom promotion and STI treatment.

  8. UK national audit against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, H; Sullivan, A K; Carne, C A; Warwick, Z; Menon-Johansson, A; Clutterbuck, D

    2012-10-01

    A national audit of practice performance against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health Standards for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) was conducted in 2011. Approximately 60% and 8% of level 3 and level 2 services, respectively, participated. Excluding partner notification performance, the five lowest areas of performance for level 3 clinics were the STI/HIV risk assessment, care pathways linking care in level 2 clinics to local level 3 services, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs, information governance and receipt of chlamydial test results by clinicians within seven working days (the worst area of performance). The five lowest areas of performance for level 2 clinics were participating in audit, having an audit plan for the management of STIs for 2009-2010, the STI/HIV risk assessment, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs and information governance. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of the standards by commissioners of services because of their relevance to other national quality assurance drivers, and the need for development of a national system of STI management quality assurance measurement and reporting. PMID:23104750

  9. Early initiation of sexual activity: a risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection, and unwanted pregnancy among university students in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ravari Shahrzad; Zamani Saman; Pan Xiaohong; Xu Guozhang; Cong Liming; Ono-Kihara Masako; Ma Qiaoqin; Zhang Dandan; Homma Takayuki; Kihara Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3%) completed the item for timing of the initiation ...

  10. Denial of risk behavior does not exclude asymptomatic anorectal sexually transmitted infection in HIV-infected men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R Cachay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control recommend screening for asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection (STI among HIV-infected men when there is self-report of unprotected anal-receptive exposure. The study goals were: (1 to estimate the validity and usefulness for screening policies of self-reported unprotected anal-receptive exposure as a risk indicator for asymptomatic anorectal infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC and/or Chlamydia trachomatis (CT. (2 to estimate the number of infections that would be missed if anal diagnostic assays were not performed among patients who denied unprotected anorectal exposure in the preceding month. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Retrospective analysis in HIV primary care and high resolution anoscopy (HRA clinics. HIV-infected adult men were screened for self-reported exposure during the previous month at all primary care and HRA appointments. Four sub-cohorts were defined based on microbiology methodology (GC culture and CT direct fluorescent antibody vs. GC/CT nucleic acid amplification test and clinical setting (primary care vs. HRA. Screening question operating characteristics were estimated using contingency table methods and then pooled across subcohorts. Among 803 patients, the prevalence of anorectal GC/CT varied from 3.5-20.1% in the 4 sub-cohorts. The sensitivity of the screening question for self-reported exposure to predict anorectal STI was higher in the primary care than in the HRA clinic, 86-100% vs. 12-35%, respectively. The negative predictive value of the screening question to predict asymptomatic anorectal STI was > or = 90% in all sub-cohorts. In sensitivity analyses, the probability of being an unidentified case among those denying exposure increased from 0.4-8.1% in the primary care setting, and from 0.9-18.8% in the HRA setting as the prevalence varied from 1-20%. CONCLUSION: As STI prevalence increases, denial of unprotected anal-receptive exposure leads to an increasingly

  11. Increasing condom use: evaluation of a theory-based intervention to prevent sexually transmitted diseases in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, A D; Aiken, L S; West, S G

    1996-09-01

    A multicomponent intervention to increase condom use in sexually active young women was designed, implemented, and evaluated in a randomized experiment. Participants were 198 unmarried female college students (mean age = 18.6 years) who received a 1-session condom promotion intervention or a control (stress management) intervention. The condom promotion intervention led to increased self-reported condom use up to 6 months following intervention as well as positive changes in perceived benefits of condom use, affective attitudes toward condom use and condom users, perceived acceptance of sexuality, control over the sexual encounter, perceived self-efficacy for condom use, and intentions to use condoms. Mediational analysis illustrated the mechanisms of the condom promotion intervention effects, linking psychological constructs affected by the intervention (perceived benefits, acceptance of sexuality, control over the sexual encounter, attitudes toward condoms, and self-efficacy for condom use) to condom use intentions. PMID:8891716

  12. Assessment of sexual risk behaviors and perception of vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in women, 1999–2012: a population based survey in a medium-sized Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Arndt Mesenburg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is a key factor for susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. An evaluation of the sexual behavior of women at reproductive age was conducted in 1999. A replication of this study aims to evaluate the current situation and identify changes in sexual behavior, 13 years later. This is a population-based cross-sectional study, conducted with 1071 women in Pelotas, Brazil. Compared to the 1999 study, a 14% increase in early sexual debut and an 8% decrease in the non-use of condoms were observed in 2012. The proportion of women who reported anal sex doubled between these periods. There was no trend of increase or decrease in the prevalence of behaviors with distinct patterns being observed for each of them. Reduction of non-use of condoms may be an indicator of the effectiveness of campaigns to promote safe sex. However, the increased prevalence of early sexual debut and anal sex indicates the need for campaigns to continue and to expand their focus, especially among vulnerable groups.

  13. Nationwide survey of contraceptive and sexually transmitted infection knowledge, attitudes and skills of university students in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Reis; Lúcia Ramiro; Margarida Gaspar de Matos; José Alves Diniz

    2013-01-01

    Infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) y embarazos no deseados suponen una preocupación actual del sistema de salud pública. Entender los factores (ej. conocimiento, actitudes y habilidades) que influyen la conducta sexual de estudiantes universitarios es crucial para el desarrollo de intervenciones hechas a medida y enfocadas a reducir los riesgos de esta vulnerable población. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: describir conductas sexuales y analizar diferencias entre géneros en cuanto a...

  14. Risk Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Transgender Women and Men Undergoing Community-Based Screening for Acute and Early HIV Infection in San Diego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nella; Hoenigl, Martin; Morris, Sheldon; Little, Susan J

    2015-10-01

    The transgender community represents an understudied population in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare risk behavior, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates between transgender women and transgender men undergoing community-based HIV testing.With this retrospective analysis of a cohort study, we characterize HIV infection rates as well as reported risk behaviors and reported STI in 151 individual transgender women and 30 individual transgender men undergoing community based, voluntary screening for acute and early HIV infection (AEH) in San Diego, California between April 2008 and July 2014.HIV positivity rate was low for both, transgender women and transgender men undergoing AEH screening (2% and 3%, respectively), and the self-reported STI rate for the prior 12 months was 13% for both. Although transgender women appeared to engage in higher rates of risk behavior overall, with 69% engaged in condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) and 11% engaged in sex work, it is important to note that 91% of transgender women reported recent sexual intercourse, 73% had more than 1 sexual partner, 63% reported intercourse with males, 37% intercourse with males and females, and 30% had CRAI.Our results indicate that in some settings rates of HIV infection, as well as rates of reported STIs and sexual risk behavior in transgender men may resemble those found in transgender women. Our findings support the need for comprehensive HIV prevention in both, transgender women and men. PMID:26469928

  15. A relação entre as características sociais e comportamentais da adolescente e as doenças sexualmente transmissíveis Comparative study between female adolescents with and without sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella R. Taquette

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer algumas características sociais e comportamentais das adolescentes do sexo feminino com DST e compará-las com as adolescentes sem DST atendidas no NESA-UERJ (Núcleo de Estudos da Saúde do Adolescente da Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro para identificação de possíveis fatores de risco às DST. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo observacional, transversal, através de entrevistas semi-estruradas com adolescentes que procuraram atendimento no NESA entre agosto/01 e julho/02. Na análise dos dados, computamos a freqüência das variáveis e fizemos comparações entre os dois grupos de adolescentes, com e sem DST, aplicando-se o teste Qui-quadrado com nível de signficância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Entrevistamos 251 adolescentes, sendo 78 (31,1% sexualmente ativas portadoras de DST, 83 (33,1% sexualmente ativas sem DST e 90 (35,8% ainda virgens. O primeiro coito ocorreu em média aos 15 anos em ambos os grupos de sexualmente ativas e o diagnóstico de vulvovaginite revelou-se com mais freqüência. Comparando as jovens com DST com as que não tinham, observou-se, respectivamente, atraso escolar em 41% e 23,1% (pOBJECTIVES: To learn about some social and behavioral characteristics of female adolescents with Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD, to compare them with adolescents without STD attended at NESA-UERJ (Adolescent Health Study Center of the State University of Rio de Janeiro and to identify possible risk factors related to STD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed by interviewing adolescents that sought care at NESA between August/2001 and July/2003. For data analysis, we computed the frequency of variables and compared the two groups of adolescents, with and without STD, performing chi-square test, with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: We interviewed a group of 251 adolescents of which 78 (31.1% were sexually active and had STD, 83 (33.1% were sexually active and did not have STD and 90 (35.8% had never

  16. Social support, self-esteem and depression: Relationship with risk for sexually transmitted infections/HIV transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS y el VIH son importantes problemas de salud que afectan a los adolescentes. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar las relaciones entre depresión, autoestima, apoyo social percibido y el riesgo en las relaciones sexuales en función del sexo. En este estudio ex post facto participaron 1.005 adolescentes de ambos sexos, de edades comprendidas los 14 y 18 años. Los adolescentes cumplimentaron en las aulas de los centros de enseñanza secundaria un conjunto de cuestionarios que evaluaban depresión, autoestima, apoyo social percibido, conducta sexual y aspectos sociodemográficos. Los resultados mostraron que en los varones, la autoestima predecía un mayor riesgo vaginal, la depresión se relacionaba con un mayor riesgo sexual vaginal, anal y oral y el apoyo percibido de la familia predecía un menor riesgo vaginal y anal. En mujeres, se halló que la autoestima se asociaba con un menor riesgo en el sexo anal y el apoyo percibido de los amigos predecía un menor riesgo sexual anal y oral. Se destaca la importancia de la familia y los amigos en la prevención de las ITS/VIH así como la consideración de las diferencias sexuales.

  17. Perceptions of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and acceptability of HPV vaccine among men attending a sexual health clinic differ according to sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Massimo; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; Donà, Maria Gabriella; Latini, Alessandra; Frasca, Mirko; Colafigli, Manuela; Farinella, Massimo; Rezza, Giovanni; Cristaudo, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to gain a better understanding of the knowledge about Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and attitudes toward the HPV vaccine among men at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI). A self-administered questionnaire was completed by attendees of the largest STI Center in Rome, Italy, from April to June 2013. Determinants of vaccine acceptability were investigated using a Structured Equation Model. A total of 423 males participated in the survey: 296 (70.0%) men who have sex with men (MSM) and 127 (30.0%) men who have sex with women (MSW). Only one half of the participants knew that HPV is the cause of genital warts (56.9% of MSM vs. 49.5% of MSW, p=0.28). Even less were aware that HPV causes cancer in men (37.2% vs. 27.3%, p=0.08). MSW were more likely to indicate HPV as a cause of cervical cancer (80.8% vs. 69.3%, p=0.03) and to have heard about the vaccine (58.3 vs. 43.6%, p=0.01). Moreover, 72.1% of MSM and 70.3% of MSW were willing to be vaccinated. A rise of one-unit in the HPV awareness score increased the OR of vaccine acceptability among MSM by 25% (OR 1.25, 95%CI: 1.05-1.49; p=0.013). Differently, only attitudes had a relevant effect on willingness to be vaccinated among MSW (OR 3.32, 95%CI: 1.53-7.17; p=0.002). Efforts should be made to maximize awareness of HPV, especially as a causative agent of genital warts and male cancers, and to reinforce positive attitudes toward vaccination among men visiting STI centers. PMID:26752151

  18. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center

    OpenAIRE

    Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M.; Cohen, Elijah L.; Leclerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12–29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confir...

  19. 性传播寄生虫病的流行病学分析%Epidemiological analysis on the sexually transmitted parasitosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨维平

    2005-01-01

    性传播寄生虫病(Sexually transmitted parashosis,STP)是指以寄生虫为病原体,可以通过性接触、类似性行为等方式传播的多种寄生虫病的总称。然而,性接触或类似性行为并非这类疾病的唯一传播途径,所以绝大多数STP既属于性传播疾病(Sexually transmitted disease,STD)范畴,又属于医学寄生虫病范畴。STP的病原体包括阴道毛滴虫、疥螨、耻阴虱、溶组织内阿米巴和蓝氏贾第鞭毛虫等。由前4种病原体引起的阴道毛滴虫病、疥疮、阴虱病和阿米巴病较多见,已被列为重点防治和监测的STD。近年来,随着艾滋病(获得性免疫缺陷综合征,

  20. Prevalence and associated factors of behavioral intention for risk compensation following voluntary medical male circumcision among male sexually transmitted diseases patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixin; Feng, Tiejian; Lau, Joseph T F

    2016-10-01

    Risk compensation was an important concern of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) promotion campaigns. No study investigated risk compensation following VMMC among male sexually transmitted diseases patients (MSTDP). A cross-sectional survey interviewed 308 uncircumcised MSTDP in Shenzhen, China. 26.9% of them intended to perform at least one of the five types of risk compensation behaviors following VMMC. In the summary stepwise model, provision of incorrect response to HIV/sexually transmitted diseases knowledge items (multivariate odds ratios (ORm) = 2.30), genital herpes infection (ORm = 3.19), Risk Reduction Score for Unprotected Sex, and Negative Condom Attitudes Scale (ORm = 1.13) were significantly associated with behavioral intention to perform at least one type of risk compensation behavior following VMMC. The results provided a framework for developing related interventions. Prevention of risk compensation should be an essential component of VMMC promotion for all MSTDP, irrespective of their intention for VMMC. PMID:27120407

  1. Sexually transmitted infections and HIV in self reporting men who have sex with men: A two-year study from India.

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    Aggarwal, Prabhav; Bhattar, Sonali; Sahani, Satyendra K; Bhalla, Preena; Garg, Vijay K

    2016-01-01

    Homosexuality is not legally and socially accepted in India. Thus, this area of research has largely been ignored by Indian authors, resulting in dearth of knowledge, particularly with respect to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in this high-risk group. Over a period of two years (2013-2014), 738 males sought care at skin and venereal diseases clinics, 52 (7.05%, 95% CI=5.4-9.14%) of who identified themselves as MSM and were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical presentation and laboratory testing, wherever indicated. Thirty six percent of MSM had only homosexual preferences, while 64% were bisexual. The most common sexually transmitted infection was genital warts (23.08%, 95% CI=13.58-36.28%). Fourteen patients (26.92%, 95% CI=16.67-40.35%) were VDRL and TPHA positive (two, five and four with primary syphilis, secondary syphilis and latent syphilis, respectively). These were followed by genital herpes (11.54%, 95% CI=5.03-23.34%), genital molluscum contagiosum (9.62% 95% CI=3.75-21.04%), and gonorrhea (5.77%, 95% CI=1.38-16.25%). Of those tested, 23.08% (95% CI=13.58-36.28%) of patients were reactive for HIV serology. Thus, MSM is a high-risk group with high prevalence of HIV and other STIs in this group, mandating greater focus, education and counseling. PMID:26776704

  2. Social support, self-esteem and depression: Relationship with risk for sexually transmitted infections/HIV transmission

    OpenAIRE

    María Teresa Ramiro; Inmaculada Teva; María Paz Bermúdez; Gualberto Buela-Casal

    2013-01-01

    Las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) y el VIH son importantes problemas de salud que afectan a los adolescentes. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar las relaciones entre depresión, autoestima, apoyo social percibido y el riesgo en las relaciones sexuales en función del sexo. En este estudio ex post facto participaron 1.005 adolescentes de ambos sexos, de edades comprendidas los 14 y 18 años. Los adolescentes cumplimentaron en las aulas de los centros de enseñanza secundaria un...

  3. Correlates of sexual satisfaction among Iranians women attending South Tehran health centers: A cross-sectional study

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    Zeinab Tavakol

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity not only is a crucial physiologic need, but also it has been associated with religious, mystical, and historical concepts. The aim of this study was to assess Iranian women’s sexual satisfaction and its correlating factors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study at South Tehran health centers (STHCs, which were affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran. A convenience sample consist of 405 women who were married, had at least sixth-grade literacy level, were not addicted to opioids or alcohol, had no history of infertility, psychiatric, and physical disorders, and referred to STHCs to receive Primary Health Care services. Main outcome measures were women’s demographics, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction were assessed by a questionnaire. Results: Most women (58.2% had moderate sexual satisfaction. A significant direct association was shown between sexual satisfaction and couple’s educational level (P < 0.001, partner’s higher income (P = 0.037, regular menstruation (P = 0.005, and degree of woman’s love toward her partner (P < 0.001. There was a significant indirect association between sexual satisfaction and gravidity number (P = 0.029, and number of offspring (P = 0.006. Having sexual intercourse at least once a week (P = 0.003, equal sex request (P = 0.028, accepting partner’s request pleasingly (P < 0.001, experiencing sexual arousal (P < 0.001, and lubrication (P < 0.001 was directly associated with sexual satisfaction. Dyspareunia (P < 0.001 and difficulty to reach orgasm (P < 0.001 showed significant indirect association. Conclusion: Women sexual satisfaction associates with interpersonal and sexual factors. Creating opportunity for midwives in health centers to consult with couples, assess their quality of sexual function, educate them, and refer them to specialists if needed, is strongly recommended for healthcare systems of Iran.

  4. Chlamydia detection during the menstrual cycle: a cross-sectional study of women attending a sexual health service.

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    Dana S Forcey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the detection of chlamydia at different stages of the menstrual cycle. METHODS: Electronic medical records for women attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2011 and 31(st December 2012, who were tested for chlamydia by nucleic acid amplification of high vaginal, cervical, or urinary samples, and who recorded a date of last normal menstrual period (LNMP between 0-28 days were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the association of chlamydia with menstrual cycle adjusted by demographics and behavioural variables. Chlamydia and beta globin load were determined on those with stored samples. RESULTS: Of the 10,017 consultations that included a test for chlamydia and a valid LNMP, there were 417 in which chlamydia was detected. The proportion of samples with chlamydia was greater in the luteal phase (4.8%, 184/3831 than in the follicular phase (3.4%, 233/6816 both in the crude (OR 1.29 95%CI 1.1-1.6, p = 0.01 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.4 (95%CI 1.1-1.8, p = 0.004. Among women using hormonal contraception, there was no significant association with the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (aOR 1.3, 95%CI 0.9, 1.8, p = 0.18. Among women not using hormonal contraception, there was a significant association with the luteal phase (aOR 1.6, (95% CI 1.1-2.3, p = 0.007. The chlamydia load was not significantly different in the 329 positive stored samples in weeks 3 and 4 vs weeks 1 and 2 for any site (P>0.12. CONCLUSIONS: The higher detection of chlamydia detection in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in only those not taking hormonal contraception suggest that hormonal factors influence chlamydia detection. The absence of a significantly highly chlamydia load in women during the luteal phase raises questions about the mechanism.

  5. Contraception matters: indicators of poor usage of contraception in sexually active women attending family planning clinics in Victoria, Australia

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    Ong Jason

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintended pregnancy (mistimed or unwanted remains an important health issue for women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with risk of unintended pregnancy in a sample of Victorian women attending family planning clinics. Methods This cross-sectional survey of three Family Planning Victoria Clinics from April to July 2011 recruited women aged 16-50 years with a male sexual partner in the last 3 months, and not intending to conceive. The questionnaire asked about contraceptive behaviours and important factors that influence contraception use (identified from a systematic literature review. Univariate analysis was calculated for the variables of interest for associations with contraceptive use. An overall multivariate model for being at risk for unintended pregnancy (due to inconsistent or ineffective contraceptive use or non-use was calculated through backward elimination with statistical significance set at Results 1006 surveys were analyzed with 96% of women reporting contraception use in the last 3 months. 37% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy due to imperfect use (61% inconsistent users; 31% ineffective methods or never using contraception (8%. On multivariate analysis, women at risk for unintended pregnancy compared with women not at risk were 1 partner in the last 3 months (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.6. These women were dissatisfied with current contraception (OR 2.5, 95% 1.8-3.5; felt “vulnerable” to pregnancy (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-3.0; were not confident in contraceptive knowledge (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.8; were unable to stop to use contraception when aroused (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9 but were comfortable in speaking to a doctor about contraception (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.1. Conclusion Despite reported high contraceptive usage, nearly 40% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy primarily due to inconsistent contraceptive use and use of ineffective

  6. Avatars using computer/smartphone mediated communication and social networking in prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among North-Norwegian youngsters

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    Gabarron Elia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, especially the Chlamydia trachomatis bacterial infection, a common cause of infertility, are highly prevalent in developed countries, and a worrying problem in North Norway, where the incidence of chlamydia twice the Norwegian average. Seventy percent of reported chlamydia cases are found in people below 25 years of age, and although its spread could be controlled with proper prevention, young people are more aware of the risks of unwanted pregnancy than their risk of acquiring a STD. Information and Communication Technologies, including, the Internet, social media and/or smartphones, should be valued for sexual health promotion for their potential to engage young audiences. And in these media, avatars guarantee anonymity to users when handling sensitive information. The main objective of this project is to achieve that North Norwegian youngsters become more aware of STDs through the use of popular technologies among young people. Methods A Virtual Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (VCSTD will be developed. The VCSTD will provide early guidance and reliable information sources concerning reproductive health, delivered in a novel and innovative way to the younger population. The VCSTD consists of an “avatar” supported intervention in a serious gaming and e-learning environment, which will bypass direct physical access (in person to reliable medical information, as well as allowing the youngsters to share that information in social media, and thus helping the VCSTD to be disseminated to more people. Data analyses will be conducted on publically available health data relevant to STDs in Troms and Finnmark, like the absolute number of chlamydia tests, the amount of emergency contraception medication sold, and the number of abortions. Also, usage data of the system and experiences of usefulness will be explored through participants’ voluntary responses to a feedback form available

  7. Prevalence of antibodies to Hepatitis C virus in populations at low and high risk for sexually transmited diseases in Rio de Janeiro

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    M. Edelenyi-Pinto

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the sexual transmission of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV, the prevalence of specific antibodies in populations at high and low risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs was evaluated. The population at low risk for STDs was composed of persons who voluntarity donated blood at the Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF between July and November, 1990 (n = 2494. The population at high risk for STDs was drawn from an ongoing study on the natural history of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection (n = 210, 187 with sexual risk factors for HIV infection. All samples were screened using a first generation ELISA. Repeat reactive samples were then tested in a second generation RIBA. For all ELISA positive samples, two sex and age-matched ELISA negative controls were selected. Data pertaining to the presence of antibodies to the Hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBC antibodies and to Treponema pallidum were abstracted from the medical records. The prevalence of RIBA 2 confirmed HCV infection among the blood donors was 2.08%, which is well above the reported prevalence in similar populations from developed western countries. Among the HIV infected homosexuals, the encountered prevalence was 7.96% (p < 0.0005. For the whole group with sexually acquired HIV infection, the prevalence was 8.02% (p < 0.000005. Anti-HBc antibodies were more frequently present in anti-HCV RIBA-2 confirmed positive blood donors than in controls (p < 0.001. 33.3% of the HCV-positive blood donors and 11.04% controls were found to be anti-HBc positive (p < 0.0005. As for the FTA-ABs, 17.6% HCV-positive donors and 4,9% controls were positive (p < 0.01. 5.9% samples from blood donors were both anti-HBc and FTA-ABS positive, whereas none of the controls reacted in both tests (p < 0.05. The association between HCV, Hepatitis B infection and syphilis in individuals at low risk for parenterally transmitted diseases suggests that sexual transmission

  8. Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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    Marcos Noronha Frey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade, e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5, e, raramente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, assim como corrimento uretral e ocular, sugestivas de terem sido causadas pelo Streptococcus agalactie, e adquiridas através do contato sexual (doenças sexualmente transmissíveis.Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile(1-5 and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

  9. Intervención educativa sobre infecciones de transmisión sexual en adolescentes Educative intervention about sexually transmitted infections in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Fernández Borbón; Víctor Cuní González

    2010-01-01

    Introducción: Las infecciones de transmisión sexual en general y de manera especial el VIH/SIDA en los adolescentes y jóvenes constituyen un serio problema de salud. Objetivo: modificar nivel de conocimiento sobre las infecciones de transmisión sexual. Método: se realizó una intervención educativa en adolescentes de un área escolar del policlínico Hermanos Cruz, durante el período junio a noviembre de 2008. Del universo constituido por 452 adolescentes dispensarizados, se tomó una muestra de ...

  10. Uso del condón entre adolescentes mexicanos para la prevención de las infecciones de transmisión sexual Condom use among Mexican adolescents to prevent sexually transmitted infections

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    Cecilia Gayet

    2003-01-01

    first sexual intercourse. RESULTS: Males and residents of urban areas reported greater sexual activity and condom use. Typically, adolescents who used condoms during the first sexual intercourse were male, older, resided in urban areas, non-speakers of an indigenous language, and with higher schooling. CONCLUSIONS: New policies should be framed to prevent sexually transmitted infections to span the gap between knowledge and practice, targeting adolescents starting sexual activity earlier, those who speak an indigenous language, living in rural areas, with less schooling, and females.

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Cervical Neoplasia in Women from a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique

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    Clara Menéndez

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors associated with the presence of some of the STIs were being divorced or widowed, having more than one sexual partner and having the partner living in another area. A higher prevalence was observed in the reproductive age group and some of the STIs were more frequently diagnosed in pregnant women. STI control programs are a priority to reduce the STIs burden, including HIV and cervical neoplasia.

  12. Home sampling for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in men who have sex with men: a prospective observational study.

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    Martin Fisher

    Full Text Available To determine uptake of home sampling kit (HSK for STI/HIV compared to clinic-based testing, whether the availability of HSK would increase STI testing rates amongst HIV infected MSM, and those attending a community-based HIV testing clinic compared to historical control. Prospective observational study in three facilities providing STI/HIV testing services in Brighton, UK was conducted. Adult MSM attending/contacting a GUM clinic requesting an STI screen (group 1, HIV infected MSM attending routine outpatient clinic (group 2, and MSM attending a community-based rapid HIV testing service (group 3 were eligible. Participants were required to have no symptomatology consistent with STI and known to be immune to hepatitis A and B (group 1. Eligible men were offered a HSK to obtain self-collected specimens as an alternative to routine testing. HSK uptake compared to conventional clinic-based STI/HIV testing in group 1, increase in STI testing rates due to availability of HSK compared to historical controls in group 2 and 3, and HSK return rates in all settings were calculated. Among the 128 eligible men in group 1, HSK acceptance was higher (62.5% (95% CI: 53.5-70.9 compared to GUM clinic-based testing (37.5% (95% CI: 29.1-46.5, (p = 0.0004. Two thirds of eligible MSM offered an HSK in all three groups accepted it, but HSK return rates varied (highest in group 1, 77.5%, lowest in group 3, 16%. HSK for HIV testing was acceptable to 81% of men in group 1. Compared to historical controls, availability of HSK increased the proportion of MSM testing for STIs in group 2 but not in group 3. HSK for STI/HIV offers an alternative to conventional clinic-based testing for MSM seeking STI screening. It significantly increases STI testing uptake in HIV infected MSM. HSK could be considered as an adjunct to clinic-based services to further improve STI/HIV testing in MSM.

  13. Home sampling for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in men who have sex with men: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Martin; Wayal, Sonali; Smith, Helen; Llewellyn, Carrie; Alexander, Sarah; Ison, Catherine; Parry, John V; Singleton, Garth; Perry, Nicky; Richardson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    To determine uptake of home sampling kit (HSK) for STI/HIV compared to clinic-based testing, whether the availability of HSK would increase STI testing rates amongst HIV infected MSM, and those attending a community-based HIV testing clinic compared to historical control. Prospective observational study in three facilities providing STI/HIV testing services in Brighton, UK was conducted. Adult MSM attending/contacting a GUM clinic requesting an STI screen (group 1), HIV infected MSM attending routine outpatient clinic (group 2), and MSM attending a community-based rapid HIV testing service (group 3) were eligible. Participants were required to have no symptomatology consistent with STI and known to be immune to hepatitis A and B (group 1). Eligible men were offered a HSK to obtain self-collected specimens as an alternative to routine testing. HSK uptake compared to conventional clinic-based STI/HIV testing in group 1, increase in STI testing rates due to availability of HSK compared to historical controls in group 2 and 3, and HSK return rates in all settings were calculated. Among the 128 eligible men in group 1, HSK acceptance was higher (62.5% (95% CI: 53.5-70.9)) compared to GUM clinic-based testing (37.5% (95% CI: 29.1-46.5)), (p = 0.0004). Two thirds of eligible MSM offered an HSK in all three groups accepted it, but HSK return rates varied (highest in group 1, 77.5%, lowest in group 3, 16%). HSK for HIV testing was acceptable to 81% of men in group 1. Compared to historical controls, availability of HSK increased the proportion of MSM testing for STIs in group 2 but not in group 3. HSK for STI/HIV offers an alternative to conventional clinic-based testing for MSM seeking STI screening. It significantly increases STI testing uptake in HIV infected MSM. HSK could be considered as an adjunct to clinic-based services to further improve STI/HIV testing in MSM. PMID:25848769

  14. Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy. PMID:16716846

  15. Sexually transmitted infections and viral hepatitides in patients presenting for non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis: results of a prospective cohort study

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    Nirojini Sivachandran

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Data evaluating the screening practices for viral hepatitides and sexually transmitted infections (STIs in patients presenting for non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP care are limited. Screening practices and prevalences of viral hepatitides and STIs were evaluated in 126 patients presenting to a dedicated HIV prevention clinic for HIV nPEP. Three patients (2.4% were diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C infection, 28 (22.2% did not have surface antibodies in sufficient quantity to confer immunity to hepatitis B, and six (4.8% were diagnosed with an STI. A multivariate regression model did not predict any demographic or clinical features predictive of HBV non-immunity. Beyond screening for HIV infection, evaluation for viral hepatitides and STIs is an important feature in the care of patients presenting for HIV nPEP.

  16. Sexually transmitted infections and viral hepatitides in patients presenting for non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis: results of a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivachandran, Nirojini; Siemieniuk, Reed A C; Murphy, Pauline; Sharp, Andrea; Walach, Christine; Placido, Tania; Bogoch, Isaac I

    2015-11-01

    Data evaluating the screening practices for viral hepatitides and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in patients presenting for non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) care are limited. Screening practices and prevalences of viral hepatitides and STIs were evaluated in 126 patients presenting to a dedicated HIV prevention clinic for HIV nPEP. Three patients (2.4%) were diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C infection, 28 (22.2%) did not have surface antibodies in sufficient quantity to confer immunity to hepatitis B, and six (4.8%) were diagnosed with an STI. A multivariate regression model did not predict any demographic or clinical features predictive of HBV non-immunity. Beyond screening for HIV infection, evaluation for viral hepatitides and STIs is an important feature in the care of patients presenting for HIV nPEP. PMID:26616402

  17. Human Papillomavirus and Genital Warts: A Review of the Evidence for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ina U; Introcaso, Camille; Dunne, Eileen F

    2015-12-15

    To provide updates for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines on human papillomavirus (HPV) and anogenital warts (AGWs), a review of the literature was conducted in key topic areas: (1) epidemiology and burden of disease; (2) transmission and natural history; (3) diagnosis and management of AGWs; (4) occupational exposure of healthcare workers; (5) anal cancer screening among men who have sex with men (MSM); and (6) HPV vaccine recommendations. Most sexually active persons will have detectable HPV at least once in their lifetime; 14 million persons are infected annually, and 79 million persons have prevalent infection. HPV is transmitted frequently between partners; more frequent transmission has been reported from females to males than from males to females. A new formulation of imiquimod (3.75% cream) is recommended for AGW treatment. Appropriate infection control, including performing laser or electrocautery in ventilated rooms using standard precautions, is recommended to prevent possible transmission to healthcare workers who treat anogenital warts, oral warts, and anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias (eg, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia). Data are insufficient to recommend routine anal cancer screening with anal cytology in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS or HIV-negative MSM. An annual digital anorectal examination may be useful for early detection of anal cancer in these populations. HPV vaccine is recommended routinely for 11- or 12-year-olds, as well as for young men through age 21 years and young women through age 26 years who have not previously been vaccinated. HPV vaccine is also recommended for MSM, people living with HIV/AIDS, and immunocompromised persons through age 26 years. PMID:26602622

  18. Modelling the Impact of Condom Distribution on the Incidence and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in an Adult Male Prison System.

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    Nick Scott

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of 1 a condom distribution program and 2 a condom distribution program combined with opt-out sexually transmitted infection (STI screening on the transmission and prevalence of STIs in a prison system.Using data from an implementation evaluation of a state-wide prison condom program and parameter estimates from available literature, a deterministic model was developed to quantify the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted HIV, hepatitis B, chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea across 14 Victorian prisons. The model included individual prison populations (by longer (>2 years or shorter sentence lengths and monthly prisoner transfers. For each STI, simulations were compared: without any intervention; with a condom distribution program; and with a combined condom and opt-out STI screening at prison reception intervention program.Condoms reduced the annual incidence of syphilis by 99% (N = 66 averted cases; gonorrhoea by 98% (N = 113 cases; hepatitis B by 71% (N = 5 cases; chlamydia by 27% (N = 196 cases; and HIV by 50% (N = 2 cases every 10 years. Condom availability changed the in-prison epidemiology of gonorrhoea and syphilis from self-sustaining to levels unlikely to result in infection outbreaks; however, condoms did not reduce chlamydia prevalence below a self-sustaining level due to its high infectiousness, high prevalence and low detection rate. When combined with a screening intervention program, condoms reduced chlamydia prevalence further, but not below a self-sustaining level. The low prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B in Australian prisons meant the effects of condoms were predicted to be small.Condoms are predicted to effectively reduce the incidence of STIs in prison and are predicted to control syphilis and gonorrhoea transmission, however even combined with a screening on arrival program may be insufficient to reduce chlamydia prevalence below self-sustaining levels. To control chlamydia transmission

  19. “I AM PROUD OF MYSELF, JUST THE WAY I AM” (MWEN FYÈ DE TÈT MWEN, JAN MWEN YE YA): A QUALITATIVE STUDY AMONG YOUNG HAITIAN WOMEN SEEKING CARE FOR SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS (STIS) IN HAITI

    OpenAIRE

    Severe, Linda; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Deschamps, Marie M.; Reif, Lindsey; Post, Kendall; Johnson, Warren D; Pape, Jean W.; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Haitian women are twice as likely as men to have HIV/AIDs. Factors underlying the feminization of HIV are complex. Self-esteem is an important correlate of sexual behavior. However, its meaning and impact on health behaviors may be influenced by cultural factors. This qualitative study took place in Haiti 4 months after the 2010 earthquake and examines the meaning of self-esteem among young Haitian women seeking treatment for a recurrent sexually transmitted infection (STI). The meaning of se...

  20. Assessing risk behaviors and prevalence of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections among female crack cocaine users in salvador - Bahia, Brazil

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    Ceuci L.X. Nunes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Crack cocaine use is associated with risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, including HIV. We investigated sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics and infection rates in female crack cocaine users from impoverished communities of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. A sample of 125 female crack cocaine users was recruited. Overall, the interviewees had low educational level and high rate of unemployment (close to 90%. One-third (37% reported having traded sex for money or drugs, and 58% reported that they had not used condoms during intercourse in the last 30 days. The prevalence of infections was low: HIV-1.6%; HCV-2.4%; HBV- 0.8%; HTLV I/II-4.0%; and syphilis-4.0%. The combination of dire poverty and high prevalence of risk behaviors turn such populations a preferential target of initiatives aiming to reduce drug-related harm and promote social development. Low infection rates should not be viewed with complacency, but as a window of opportunity to implement prevention initiatives and reduce social marginalization.

  1. Is sexually transmitted fungal infection evidence for size-related mating success in Neotropical guava fruit flies?

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    Ingemar Hedström

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of wing length on mate preference was examined in natural populations of the Neotropical guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata Schiner, at two locations in Costa Rica. Based on evidence that the fungi are transmitted during mating, site-specific infection by Laboulbeniales fungi on the body surface was used to assess mating history. Males and females that carried fungi on the legs and/or on the ventral part of the thorax (males, and on both sides of the notum and/or the dorsal base of the abdomen (females, had significantly longer wings than males and females without fungi. This suggests that individuals of both sexes with longer wings (i.e. larger individuals enjoy higher mating success. Fungus infection is more frequent in the wet than in the seasonally dry forest, possibly because hosts are available year-round in the wet forest.

  2. Predictors of unsafe sexual behavior among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS attending antiretroviral therapy center in Western India

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    Mehta, Kedar G.; Baxi, Rajendra; Chavda, Parag; Patel, Sangita; Mazumdar, Vihang

    2016-01-01

    Background: As more and more people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) live longer and healthier lives because of antiretroviral therapy (ART), an increasing number of sexual transmissions of HIV may arise from these people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Hence, this study is conducted to assess the predictors of unsafe sexual behavior among PLWHA on ART in Western India. Materials and Methods: The current cross-sectional study was carried out among 175 PLWHAs attending ART center of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Western India. Unsafe sex was defined as inconsistent and/or incorrect condom use. A total of 39 variables from four domains viz., sociodemographic, relationship-related, medical and psycho-social factors were studied for their relationship to unsafe sexual behavior. The variables found to be significantly associated with unsafe sex practices in bivariate analysis were explored by multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression in SPSS 17.0 version. Results: Fifty-eight percentage of PLWHAs were practicing unsafe sex. 15 out of total 39 variables showed significant association in bivariate analysis. Finally, 11 of them showed significant association in multivariate analysis. Young age group, illiteracy, lack of counseling, misbeliefs about condom use, nondisclosure to spouse and lack of partner communication were the major factors found to be independently associated with unsafe sex in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Appropriate interventions like need-based counseling are required to address risk factors associated with unsafe sex.

  3. Predictors of unsafe sexual behavior among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS attending antiretroviral therapy center in Western India

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    Kedar G Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As more and more people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV live longer and healthier lives because of antiretroviral therapy (ART, an increasing number of sexual transmissions of HIV may arise from these people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Hence, this study is conducted to assess the predictors of unsafe sexual behavior among PLWHA on ART in Western India. Materials and Methods: The current cross-sectional study was carried out among 175 PLWHAs attending ART center of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Western India. Unsafe sex was defined as inconsistent and/or incorrect condom use. A total of 39 variables from four domains viz., sociodemographic, relationship-related, medical and psycho-social factors were studied for their relationship to unsafe sexual behavior. The variables found to be significantly associated with unsafe sex practices in bivariate analysis were explored by multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression in SPSS 17.0 version. Results: Fifty-eight percentage of PLWHAs were practicing unsafe sex. 15 out of total 39 variables showed significant association in bivariate analysis. Finally, 11 of them showed significant association in multivariate analysis. Young age group, illiteracy, lack of counseling, misbeliefs about condom use, nondisclosure to spouse and lack of partner communication were the major factors found to be independently associated with unsafe sex in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Appropriate interventions like need-based counseling are required to address risk factors associated with unsafe sex.

  4. Is sexually transmitted fungal infection evidence for size-related mating success in Neotropical guava fruit flies?

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    Ingemar Hedström

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of wing length on mate preference was examined in natural populations of the Neotropical guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata Schiner, at two locations in Costa Rica. Based on evidence that the fungi are transmitted during mating, site-specific infection by Laboulbeniales fungi on the body surface was used to assess mating history. Males and females that carried fungi on the legs and/or on the ventral part of the thorax (males, and on both sides of the notum and/or the dorsal base of the abdomen (females, had significantly longer wings than males and females without fungi. This suggests that individuals of both sexes with longer wings (i.e. larger individuals enjoy higher mating success. Fungus infection is more frequent in the wet than in the seasonally dry forest, possibly because hosts are available year-round in the wet forest.Se estudió poblaciones naturales de la mosca frutera Anastrepha striata Schiner, en dos lugares de Costa Rica. Los hongos Laboulbeniales se transmiten en éstas durante la cópula. Hembras y machos con hongos en las patas y/o parte ventral del tórax (machos, y en ambos lados del noto y/o base dorsal del abdomen (hembras, tenían alas significativamente más largas que los individuos no parasitados. Esto sugiere que los individuos más grandes logran más apareamientos.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for female sexual dysfunction in women attending a medical clinic in south India

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    Singh J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reports from India on the prevalence and determinants of female sexual dysfunction (FSD are scant. Aims: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for FSD. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey in a medical outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: We administered a Tamil version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI to 149 married women. We evaluated putative risk factors for FSD. We elicited participant′s attributions for their sexual difficulties. Statistical Analysis: We estimated the prevalence of possible FSD and sexual difficulties from published FSFI total and domain cut-off scores. We used logistic regression to identify risk factors for possible FSD. Results: FSFI total scores suggested FSD in two-thirds of the 149 women (73.2%; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 65.5% to 79.6%. FSFI domain scores suggested difficulties with desire in 77.2%; arousal in 91.3%; lubrication in 96.6%; orgasm in 86.6%, satisfaction in 81.2%, and pain in 64.4%. Age above 40 years (odds ratios [OR] 11.7; 95% CI 3.4 to 40.1 and fewer years of education (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.3 were identified by logistic regression as contributory. Women attributed FSD to physical illness in participant or partner, relationship problems, and cultural taboos but none had sought professional help. Conclusions: Sexual problems suggestive of dysfunction, as suggested by FSFI total and domain scores, are highly prevalent in the clinic setting, particularly among women above 40 and those less educated, but confirmation using locally validated cut-off scores of the FSFI is needed.

  6. The Frequency of Sexual Intercourse without Condom with Female Sex Workers [FSW] is not Related to the Level of Sexual Satisfaction of the Husband, But Related to the Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections [STIS

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    Ainun Sajidah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disharmonious sexual life often create many problems. When the sexual function of the wives is not optimum, the sexual satisfaction of the husbands, or both husband and wife, will be disturbed. These will lead husbands to do sexual intercourses with FSW without condoms. Such intercourse may cause of STIs. The aims of this study were to identify the frequency of sexual intercourse without condom with FSW related to the level of sexual satisfaction of the husband and the risk of STIs. Methods:The study applied observational analytic with cross sectional design. The accidental sampling technique, the 196 samples, comprise of husband with the following criteria: having non-menopause legal wives, regularly having sex with wives without condoms within 6 months, having sex with FSW without condom at least once in 6 months, in the family stage II standard, healthy and willing to be respondents. Data on the level of sexual satisfaction and frequency of sexual intercourse without condom was collected through interviews, data on the risk of STIs was collected with physical and laboratory check-up by medical staff. The laboratory check-up for gonorrhea was done with the Gram’s coloring, syphilis with T. Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay (TPHA and Veneral Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL, genital herpes and acuminate condyloma with clinical symptoms. The result was analysed descriptively and data normality was tested with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the correlaton test was done with the Spearman’s rho and Chi-Square tests. Results:The result showed there was the frequency of sexual intercourse without condom with FSW the most 1 time/week 57 persons (29.10%, with STIs 10 persons (5,10% the level of sexual satisfaction that was quite satisfied 97 persons (49.50%, and the STIs 41 persons (20,90%. The frequency of sexual intercourse without condom with FSW not related to the level of sexual satisfaction of the husbands p = 0.146 (p

  7. The denominator problem: Estimating MSM-specific incidence of sexually transmitted infections and prevalence of HIV using population sizes of MSM derived from Internet surveys

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    Marcus Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections in hard to reach populations like men who have sex with men (MSM is hampered by unknown size and regional distribution of this population. Community sample – and study-based measurements are often fraught with participation biases and do not allow generalization of the results for other regions or the whole population group of MSM. Methods We used the proportional regional distribution of participants of large internet-based surveys among MSM from Germany together with a general population survey-derived estimate of the MSM population to estimate regional population sizes. Based on transmission group category from surveillance data and regional MSM population size we calculated regional population-specific incidence rates of newly diagnosed HIV infection and syphilis. For HIV prevalence we compared estimates of prevalent HIV infections in MSM from a surveillance data-based model with a mixed model in which we used the proportional regional distribution of HIV positive participants from surveys and the estimated total number of prevalent HIV infections from the surveillance based model. Results Assuming a similar regional distribution of survey participants and the MSM population as a whole, the regional proportion of MSM in the general population can be estimated. Regional incidence calculated with the estimated MSM population as denominator and national surveillance data as numerator results in regional peak incidence rates of 7–8 per 1,000 MSM for newly diagnosed HIV infection and syphilis. The gradient between metropolitan and rural areas narrows considerably compared with calculations which use the total (male population as denominator. Regional HIV prevalence estimates are comparable in the two models. Conclusion Considering the difficulties to obtain regionally representative data by other sampling methods for MSM, in Western post

  8. Effect of Physical Violence on Sexually Transmitted Infections and Treatment Seeking Behaviour among Female Sex Workers in Thane District, Maharashtra, India.

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    Ravi Prakash

    Full Text Available Violence against sex workers can heighten their vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Evidence suggests the risk of acquiring STI/HIV infections among female sex workers (FSWs who have experienced violence to be almost three-times higher than FSWs, who have not experienced violence. Moreover, an experience of physical and sexual violence makes it difficult for them to negotiate safer sex with their partners and often act as a barrier to utilization of prevention services.This study utilizes data from 2785 FSWs aged 18 years and above who participated in a cross-sectional behavioural study conducted during 2013-14 in Thane district, Maharashtra. A probability-based two-stage cluster sampling method was used for data collection. This study assesses the effect of physical violence on self-reported STI symptoms (any STI and multiple STIs and treatment seeking for the last STI symptom using propensity score matching method.About 18% of sampled FSWs reported physical violence at the time of the survey. The likelihood of experiencing such violence was significantly higher among FSWs who solicited clients at public places, engaged in other economic activities apart from sex work, had savings, and reported high client volume per week. FSWs experiencing violence were also inconsistent condom users while engaging in sex with regular partners and clients. The average adjusted effect of violence clearly depicted an increase in the risk of any STI (11%, p<0.05 and multiple STIs (8%, p<0.10 and reduction in treatment seeking (10%, p<0.05.This study demonstrates a significant effect of physical violence on reporting of any STI symptom and treatment seeking. Findings call for the immediate inclusion of strategies aimed to address violence related challenges in HIV prevention program currently being provided at Thane district. Such strategies would further help in enhancing the access to tailored STI prevention and care services

  9. Prevalence and correlates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-USA border cities.

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    Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Rangel, M Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-08-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) acquire HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) through unprotected sex with commercial and non-commercial (intimate) male partners. Little research has focused on FSWs' intimate relationships, within which condom use is rare. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV/STIs within FSWs' intimate relationships in Northern Mexico. From 2010 to 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. Eligible FSWs and their verified male partners were aged ≥18 years; FSWs reported lifetime use of heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine and recently exchanged sex (past month). Participants completed baseline questionnaires and testing for HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. We determined the prevalence and correlates of individuals' HIV/STI positivity using bivariate probit regression. Among 212 couples (n = 424), prevalence of HIV was 2.6 % (n = 11). Forty-two (9.9 %) tested positive for any HIV/STIs, which was more prevalent among women than men (12.7 % vs. 7.1 %, p < 0.05). FSWs with regular sex work clients were less likely to test positive for HIV/STIs than those without regular clients. Similarly, male partners of FSWs who had regular clients were 9 % less likely to have HIV/STIs. Higher sexual decision-making power was protective against HIV/STIs for women. Men who recently used methamphetamine or reported perpetrating any conflict within steady relationships were more likely to test positive for HIV/STIs. Within FSWs' intimate relationships in two Mexican-US border cities, nearly one in ten partners tested positive for HIV/STIs. Couple-based prevention interventions should recognize how intimate relationship factors and social contexts influence HIV/STI vulnerability. PMID:24488651

  10. Low HIV testing uptake following diagnosis of a sexually transmitted infection in Spain: implications for the implementation of efficient strategies to reduce the undiagnosed HIV epidemic.

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    Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; Hoyos, Juan; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Nardone, Anthony; Vallejo, Fernando; Ruiz, Mónica; Sánchez, Romina; Belza, María José; Indave, Blanca Iciar; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Álvarez, Jorge; Sordo, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are recognized as one of the conditions in which HIV testing is most clearly indicated. We analyse whether people diagnosed with an STI are being tested for HIV according to the experience of participants in an outreach rapid testing programme in Spain. Between 2008 and 2010, 6293 individuals underwent rapid testing and completed a self-administered questionnaire. We calculated the percentage of individuals that were diagnosed with an STI in the last 5 years and identified the setting where the last episode occurred. We then determined the percentage not receiving an HIV test after the last STI diagnosis and estimated the associated factors. Overall, 17.3% (N = 959) of participants reported an STI diagnosis in the last 5 years, of which 81.5% occurred in general medical settings. Sixty-one percent reported not undergoing HIV testing after their last STI diagnosis, 2.2% of whom reported they had refused the test. Not receiving an HIV test after the last STI diagnosis was independently associated with not being a man who has sex with men (MSM), having had fewer sexual partners, being diagnosed in general medical settings and having received a diagnosis other than syphilis. An unacceptably large percentage of people diagnosed with STI are not being tested for HIV because healthcare providers frequently fail to offer the test. Offering routine HIV testing at general medical settings, regardless of the type of STI diagnosed and population group, should be a high priority and is probably a more efficient strategy than universal screening in general healthcare settings. PMID:26837210

  11. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study

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    Fabíola Araújo Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI, bacterial vaginosis (BV, and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR for human papillomavirus (HPV, ligase chain reaction (LCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592. The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7, chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6, trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1, gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6, syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1, and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6 and 12.5% (10.0-15.5, respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic.

  12. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study

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    Shaw Souradet Y

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among a sample of clients in south India. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional biological and behavioural survey of FSW clients from six districts in Karnataka State, India. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, chlamydia (CT and gonorrhoea (NG among clients was examined. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and sex-work related characteristics related to the prevalence of each pathogen. Sampling weights and appropriate survey methods were utilized in regression models to account for complex sampling design. Results The total sample size was 2,745. The average age of clients was 30.4 (SE:0.3. Across the total sample, the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis and CT/NG was 5.6%, 28.4%, 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV/STIs varied substantially across districts, reaching statistical significance for HIV (p Conclusions This study fills in important gaps in knowledge regarding clients in southern India. The strong association between HIV and HSV-2 infections highlights the complications in designing effective prevention, intervention and management programs of this well-hidden population.

  13. Role of Individual, Family, and Peers in Sexual Initiation Among Late Adolescents Attending Institutions of Higher Learning in Malaysia.

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    Abdul Samad, Shazimah; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Ismail, Maslinor

    2016-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with sexual initiation among the late adolescents in 6 institutions of higher learning in Malaysia. A total of 1572 students completed self-administered questionnaires between April and September 2013. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses stratified by gender were employed to identify the correlates of sexual initiation. The analyses were further adjusted by sampling weights. The overall prevalence of sexual initiation was 9.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.3-11.6), 18.1% (95% CI = 15.1-21.5) among males, and 4.1% (95% CI = 2.9-5.9) among females. The risk factors identified in this study supported the influence of the individual, family, and peer factors in the social-ecological model on adolescents' behaviors. The findings suggest the need for risk-reduction strategies aimed at the individual, family, and peer levels as well as the importance of gender-specific focus in assuring better outcomes. PMID:27122624

  14. Low frequency of male circumcision and unwillingness to be circumcised among MSM in Buenos Aires, Argentina: association with sexually transmitted infections

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    María A Pando

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of male circumcision among men who have sex with men (MSM in Buenos Aires, Argentina; the association between circumcision and sexually transmitted infections (STIs; and, among those uncircumcised, the willingness to be circumcised. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 MSM recruited through the respondent-driven sampling (RDS technique. Participants underwent a consent process, responded to a Web-based survey that included questions on demographic information, sexual behaviour, and circumcision and provided biological samples. HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, Treponema pallidum, and human papiloma virus (HPV diagnoses were performed using standard methodologies. For all analyses, data were weighted based on participants’ network size. Results: Only 64 (13% of the 500 MSM in our study reported being circumcised. Among uncircumcised men (n=418, 302 (70.4% said that they would not be willing to get circumcised even if the procedure could reduce the risk of HIV infection. When considering all participants, circumcision status was not significantly associated with HIV, HBV, HCV, T. pallidum or HPV infections. However, when we restricted the sample to men who do not practice receptive anal intercourse (RAI and compared circumcised to uncircumcised men, the former (N=33 had no cases of HIV infection, while 34 of 231 (14.8% uncircumcised men were HIV positive (p=0.020. Regarding HPV, uncircumcised men had a significantly larger number of different HPV types compared with circumcised men (mean 1.83 vs. 1.09, p<0.001 and a higher frequency of high-risk-HPV genotypes (47.6% vs. 12.5%, p=0.012. Conclusions: Consistent with international evidence, male circumcision appears to have a partial protective effect among MSM. The efficacy of circumcision in reducing risk of HIV infection among MSM appears to be correlated with sexual practices. Given the

  15. Frecuencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual y factores relacionados en Pweto, República Democrática del Congo, 2004 Frequency of sexually transmitted infections and related factors in Pweto, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2004

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    Miguel Ángel Luque Fernández

    2008-02-01

    .6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30-49 for urethral discharge and 33% (95%CI, 24-42 for genital ulcer. Soldiers were identified as a risk group independently of age, the number of sexual partners during the previous year, and marital status. The multivariate analysis showed an adjusted OR of 3.25 (95%CI, 1.10-9.95 (p < 0.05 for the frequency of urethral discharge in soldiers compared with other professions. Conclusions: The high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in Pweto and the associated factors identified prompted the initiation of a controlled condom donation program for soldiers. In conflict situations with a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and lack of health services, humanitarian aid organizations should implement prevention activities focused on risk groups.

  16. Things ain't what they ought to be: social forces underlying racial disparities in rates of sexually transmitted diseases in a rural North Carolina county.

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    Thomas, J C; Thomas, K K

    1999-10-01

    Social forces shaping a region can also affect behaviors that facilitate the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. We sought to understand the social forces underlying high rates of infection, particularly among blacks, in a rural county of North Carolina in which 40% of the county is black. In the context of ongoing research on STDs we collected information from archival data on the county since the 1940s and interviewed local residents knowledgeable about the county's history. We present local data in the context of national economic and demographic trends. Successive changes in the national economy and farming policies disproportionately affected black farmers. A rural ghetto formed when poor blacks left their farms to seek work in the central town of the county. Segregationist housing policies and race-based differentials in employment opportunities exacerbated the concentration of poverty. Migration to northern industrial cities, predominantly by skilled black men, decreased the social capital of the community and lowered the ratio of men to women. Poverty, income disparity, social capital and the ratio of men to women can all affect the behaviors that facilitate transmission of STDs. Knowledge of social forces and their effects is critical for designing and evaluating interventions to prevent STDs and to decrease extreme racial disparities in rates of disease. PMID:10475671

  17. Vulnerability to Sexually Transmitted Infections in women who sell sex on the route of prostitution and sex tourism in Central Brazil

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    Marcos André de Matos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, STD-related risk behaviors, and signs/symptoms of STDs among female sex workers (FSWs. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was conducted with a probabilistic sample comprising 395 women recruited using a respondent-driven sampling method between 2009 and 2010. The data were collected during face-to-face interviews. RESULTS: most of the participants were young adults, had a low educational level, and had poor knowledge on the transmission paths of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Over one-third of the participants were not able to describe the signs/symptoms of STDs. The prevalence rates of vaginal discharge and wounds/ulcers were 49.0% and 8.6%, respectively, but 41.7% of the women had not sought treatment. CONCLUSION: the results indicate the need for public health policies focusing on the control and prevention of STDs in this population, especially for the FSWs who are active in an important prostitution and sex tourism route in central Brazil.

  18. Knowledge and Practice of Clinicians regarding Syndromic Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Public Health Facilities of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

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    Addisu Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs are the leading causes of morbidity among young adults. This study assessed the knowledge and practice of clinicians regarding syndromic management of STIs in public health facilities of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study with mixed methods of data collection was conducted in public health facilities of Gamo Gofa Zone. The study included 250 clinicians and 12 health facilities, 26 mystery clients were hired, and 120 STI patient cards were reviewed. Data was entered in EPI info version 7.0.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results. Of the participated clinicians, 32 (12.8% were trained on syndromic management of STIs. Highest knowledge of clinicians was for urethral discharge (27.2%. Professional category of clinicians and type of health facility (AOR = 0.194; 95% CI = 0.092, 0.412 were determinants of urethral discharge knowledge. Of the cards reviewed, only in 8.3% of cards and 19.23% of mystery clients did the clinicians correctly follow the guideline. Conclusion. Knowledge and practice of clinicians regarding syndromic management of STIs in study area were poor. Efforts should be made to increase the knowledge of clinicians by providing training on syndromic management of STIs and supportive supervision should be regular.

  19. Social factors related to risk for violence and sexually transmitted infections/HIV among Asian massage parlor workers in San Francisco.

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    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Wong, Serena; Le, Mai Nhung; Operario, Don

    2004-12-01

    Asian women who work at massage parlors in San Francisco have high levels of risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, and being victims of violence, which jeopardizes their health and wellbeing. On the basis of mapping, the targeted districts in San Francisco where massage parlors were located, 23 massage parlors were identified where commercial sex activity took place. Using snowball-sampling methods, 43 Asian female massage parlor workers were recruited for focus groups; 21 participants were Vietnamese and 22 were Thai. Qualitative analyses revealed frequent exposure to violence including verbal or physical abuse from customers and gang members, as well as persistent HIV risk behaviors associated with multiple daily sex partners, inconsistent condom use with customers, and forced sex. Social factors related to gender, immigration status, and socioeconomic status appeared to be closely tied to the health and wellbeing of Asian masseuses. Study findings suggest that individualized as well as community-level interventions are necessary to improve these women's health and decrease their prolonged exposure to risks for STIs and violence. PMID:15690120

  20. Relações afetivo-sexuais e prevenção contra infecções sexualmente transmissíveis e aids entre mulheres do município de Vitória - ES Rrelaciones afectivo-sexuales y prevención contra infecciones sexualmente transmisibles y sida entre mujeres del municipio de Vitoria-ES Sexual relationships and infections sexually transmitted and aids prevention among women in Vitória-ES, Brazil

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    Melissa Mattos Amorim

    2006-08-01

    preventivas. Se observó que tales percepciones también estaban estrechamente vinculadas a sus relaciones e implicaciones de género.The aim of this study was to understand how women deal with Infections Sexually Transmitted (IST and Aids prevention within the context of relationships. Two discussion groups and 12 individual interviews were carried out with women aged 20-35. One of the groups was formed by five participants, who attended school for a period inferior or equivalent to eight years (Group 1 and, the other, by seven university students or graduates (Group 2. Only three participants (two from Group 1 and one from Group 2 reported consistent use of condom as a preventive measure against IST/Aids. Sexual exclusivity between partners was the main explanation given for the inconsistent use of condom. Values and beliefs related to factors such as, knowing the sexual partners well and trust invested in them, guided participants' perceptions regarding the circumstances in which adhesion to preventive measures is necessary. Results also suggest that those perceptions were associated to the type of relationship and other implications regarding that.

  1. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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    ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ...

  2. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India

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    Isac Shajy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves. The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma

  3. Randomized questionnaire based cross-sectional research study on awareness of sexually transmitted diseases amongst the general population between those who completed their high school education and those who have not

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimhalu, C.R.V.; Jegadeesan Muhilan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a very important health challenge for adolescents. Educational level, especially sex education in school, prevents the adolescents falling prey to these diseases. Objective: To compare the awareness of STDs among general population with below and above high school qualification. Materials and Methods: A simple randomized, cross-sectional, questionnaire based study on the awareness of STDs on out-patients and in-patients of Saveetha Medica...

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections among health care providers in Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a global problem of extraordinary dimensions and has so far resulted in nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) are considered to play a pivotal role in the provision of preventive and curative services to individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. Pakistan, which was previously categorised as having a low-prevalence, high-risk HIV epidemic, is now facing a concentrated HIV epidemic among its most at-risk populations such as injecting drug users. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and reported practices relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs among private and public sector health care providers providing clinical services in areas where women sell sex. This was an exploratory quantitative study, where a structured questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews with 200 HCPs from the public and private sectors. Knowledge about AIDS and correct diagnosis of STIs were defined as according to the national guidelines of NACP. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed to test associations between predictors and level of knowledge of STIs in each group separately. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to indicate predicting factors for correct management of STIs. Forty-five percent of the HCPs had correct knowledge about the transmission and prevention of HIV, whereas 21% had seen a patient with advanced HIV infection, only two HCPs had been trained to manage such cases and 82% were not aware of syndromic management of STIs. Only 10% could cite the 'correct treatment' of gonorrhoea, syphilis and vaginal discharge. The odds of having the 'correct knowledge' of diagnosing gonorrhoea and syphilis were 2.1 (CI 95%, 1.2-3.8) if the HCP was a female medical doctor working in public sector. Further intensive training is needed to improve the ability of relevant HCPs to correctly diagnose and effectively treat patients

  5. What qualities are most important to making a point of care test desirable for clinicians and others offering sexually transmitted infection testing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiang Hsieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the possible effects of different levels of attributes of a point-of-care test (POCT on sexually transmitted infection (STI professionals' decisions regarding an ideal POCT for STI(s. METHODS: An online survey was designed based on a large-scale in-depth focus discussion study among STI experts and professionals. The last section of the survey "build your own POCT" was designed by employing the discrete choice experiment approach. Practicing clinicians from two venues, STI-related international conference attendees and U.S. STD clinic clinicians were invited to participate in the survey. Conditional logistical regression modeling was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 256 subjects took the online survey with 218 (85% completing it. Most of the participants were STD clinic clinicians who already used some POCTs in their practice. "The time frame required" was identified as a major barrier that currently made it difficult to use STI POCTs. Chlamydia trachomatis was the organism chosen as the top priority for a new POCT, followed by a test that would diagnose early seroconversion for HIV, and a syphilis POCT. Without regard to organism type selected, sensitivity of 90-99% was always the most important attribute to be considered, followed by a cost of $20. However, when the test platform was prioritized for early HIV seroconversion or syphilis, sensitivity was still ranked as most important, but specificity was rated second most important. CONCLUSIONS: STI professionals preferred C. trachomatis as the top priority for a new POCT with sensitivity over 90%, low cost, and a very short completion time.

  6. Investigation on Biovars and Serotypes of Ureaplasma Urealyticum in Cervix in Chinese Gynecologic Check-up Population,Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic Clients and Sex Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yi(任翊); ZHAO Chunhui(赵春慧); ZHU Xuejun(朱学骏)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize the distribution pattern of biovars and serotypes of Ureaplasma urealyticum in normalhealthy women, sexually transmitted infections clinic clientsand in sex workers. Methods: We cultured cervical swabs taken from 261physical check-up clients, 599 STI clinic outpatients and 98sex workers using commercial selective medium. Somepositive cultures were further biotyped and serotyped byPCR.Results: (1) Biovar 1 of U. urealyticum (95.0%), especiallysingle infection of serotype 1, 3, and 6 of biovar 1, iscommonly found in healthy women. (2) U. urealyticum ismore commonly isolated in sex workers (90.8%) than inphysical check-up group (60.9%) and STI outpatients group(61.3%) (P< 0.001). (3) Biovar 2 infection of U. urealyticumis more prevalent in sex workers (28.1%) and STIoutpatients group (26.6%) than that in physical check-upgroup (4.9%) (P < 0.001). (4) Mixed infection caused bymore than one serotype of U. urealyticum is increasing fromphysical check-up group (8.6%) to STI outpatients (12.4%)and to sex workers (23.9%) (P < 0.01). (5) There is nostatistic difference in the distribution of serotype 1, 3, and 6of biovar 1 among these three groups (P=0.763). (6) ThePCR method described here is relatively simple, rapid andspecific for the biotyping and serotyping of biovar 1 of U.urealyticum.Conclusion: we should pay more attention to biovar 2and mixed infection than single infection of biovar 1 of U.urealyticum in clinic practice. PCR is a good method inbiotyping and serotyping.

  7. Biovars and Serotypes of Ureaplasma Urealyticum among Chinese Women Undergoing Routine Gynecologic Exam, Women with Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Female Sex Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任翊; 赵春慧; 朱学骏

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize the distribution pattern ofbiovars and serotypes of Ureaplasma urealyticum in normalhealthy women, sexually transmitted infections clinic clients,and in sex workers. Methods: We cultured cervical swabs taken from 261physical check-up clients, 599 STI clinic outpatients and 98 sexworkers using commercial selective medium. Some positivecultures were further biotyped and serotyped by PCR. Results: (1) U. urealyticum is more commonly isolated in sexworkers (90.8%) than in the physical check-up group (60.9%)or the STI outpatient group (61.3%) (P < 0.001). (2) Biovar 1of U. urealyticum (95.0%), especially single infection ofserotype 1, 3, and 6 of biovar 1, is commonly found in healthywomen. (3) Biovar 2 infection of U. urealyticum is moreprevalent in sex workers (28.1%) and STI outpatients group(26.6%) than that in the physical check-up group (4.9%) (P <0.001). (4) Mixed infection caused by more than one serotypeof U. urealyticum increased from physical check-up group(8.6%) to STI outpatients (12.4%) to sex workers (23.9%) (P <0.01). (5) There is no statistically significant difference in thedistribution of serotype 1, 3, and 6 of biovar 1 among thesethree groups (P=0.763). (6) The PCR method described here isrelatively simple, rapid and specific for the biotyping andserotyping of biovar 1 of U. urealyticum. Conclusion: We should pay more attention to biovar 2 andmixed infections of U. urealyticum than single infection ofbiovar 1 in clinic practice. PCR is a good method for biotypingand serotyping.

  8. Psychological research on patients with sexually transmitted diseases%关于性传播疾病患者心理问题的质性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金霞; 黄蕊

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:To understand the true feelings and psychology problems in the treatment of patients with sexually transmitted disease (STD)so as to provide relevant nursing evidence for the treatment of STD pa-tients.Methods:The phenomenological qualitative research methods and semi -structured in -depth interviews were used to collect data of patients in face -to -face,and the colaizzi 7 -step analysis method was used to refine interview subject.Results:The STD patients had different degrees of psychological problems at different stages dur-ing the treatment of patients with STD.Conclusions:Specific targeted psychological nursing method should be taken considering the various psychology problems of STD patients.%目的:真实地了解性病患者的心理感受及存在的心理问题,为性病患者的心理护理提供依据。方法:采用质性研究中的现象学研究方法,与患者以面对面,半结构式深度访谈的方式全面收集资料,运用 Claizzi 现象学分析法提炼访谈主题。结果:性病患者在患病过程的不同阶段均存在不同程度的心理问题,将发现的心理问题的主题列出来。结论:面对性传播疾病患者存在的不同心理问题,寻找临床解决方案,有针对性地采取心理护理方法。

  9. Co-morbidity of HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis among victims of sexual assault in the Transkei region, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Banwari L. Meel

    2009-01-01

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis B and syphilis have a common mode of transmission, which is through sexual intercourse. These are also transmitted percutaneously and by blood transfusion. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis among victims of sexual assault by analysing serology results.Method: This is a record review of victims of sexual assault who attended the Sina...

  10. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ...

  11. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Essentials of STD Supervision I Tailored Training Continuing Education Online Self-Study STD Curriculum Modules for Clinicians Ready-to-Use Curriculum for Clinical Educators SASSI - SAS Training STD 101 in a Box Home Script for Sex in the City Video STD Clinical Slides STD ...

  12. Cultural adaptation of an intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors among patients attending a STI clinic in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Lauretta E; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Kozlov, Andrei P; Abdala, Nadia

    2013-08-01

    Cultural adaptation is an important step in the process of implementing health promotion interventions that, having been proven to be effective in one culture, are being applied in another. This study describes the results of a formative investigation to culturally adapt a STI/HIV risk reduction intervention for use in St. Petersburg, Russia. Analyses of data from brief elicitation interviews, focus groups, community experts, and a pilot test of the adapted intervention identified environmental, cognitive-information processing, and affect-motivation factors that needed to be addressed during the adaptation process. The participant/counselor relationship was adapted to reflect a hierarchical (cf. collaborative) relationship in order to accommodate Russian expectations about patient interactions with healthcare experts. Key skills building activities (e.g., identification of personal risk behaviors, role-playing) were approached gradually or indirectly in order to maintain participants' engagement in the intervention, and close-ended questions were added to assist participants in understanding unfamiliar concepts such as "triggers" and self-efficacy. Information about the prevalence of HIV/STI infections and alcohol use included data specific to St. Petersburg to increase the personal relevance of these materials and messages. Intervention components were tailored to participants' risk reduction and informational needs. No gender differences that would have justified adaptation of the intervention approach or content were noted. Examples of specific adaptations and the key issues to attend to when adapting behavioral interventions for use in Russian clinical settings are discussed. PMID:23322231

  13. Condiciones sociolaborales, conductas de riesgo y prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual en mujeres inmigrantes que ejercen la prostitución en Madrid Social and work conditions, risk behavior and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among female immigrant prostitutes in Madrid (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Belza

    2004-06-01

    (HBV, and hepatitis C (HCV infection and of other sexually transmitted infections among a group of female immigrant prostitutes in Madrid. Methods: We performed a descriptive study of a group of immigrant women who worked as prostitutes and who attended a sexually transmitted diseases (STD clinic in Madrid in 1999 and 2000. Information was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, work conditions, use of injected drugs, and sexual practices with their clients and in their private lives. The services provided included screening for the main STDs and serological studies for HIV, HBV and HCV. Results: A total of 579 female immigrants were analyzed. The mean age was 28.7 years. Ninety-six percent were from Latin America. None reported having consumed injected drugs. They began to work as prostitutes at a mean age of 27.4 years and 93.3% of them began in Spain. In the previous month, 98% had always used condoms for vaginal and anal penetrations with their clients and 17.6% had used them in their private sexual relations. Thirty percent reported condom breakage during intercourse. The prevalence of HIV and HCV infection was 0.2 and 0.9%, respectively; 8.1% showed HIV anticore antibodies and 0.5% showed surface antigens. An ulcerative STD was diagnosed in 2.1% and a non-ulcerative STD was diagnosed in 16%. Conclusions: Condoms are generally used with clients although the frequency of breakage is high. Condom use in prostitutes' personal lives is dramatically lower. The prevalence of markers for HIV, HBV and HCV is low and the frequency of STD is moderate.

  14. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...

  15. The Effect of The Reproductive Health and Family Planning Education Given in TAF on the Attitudes of Recruits about Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Tunga Kokcu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In this study, the effect of the reproductive health and family planning (RHFP education given to recruits in Turkish Armed Forces (TAF on the attitudes of the recruits towards the sexually transmitted infections (STIs has been investigated. METHOD: The population of this cross sectional research comprises 1218 recruits assigned in 1st Gendarmerie Training Battalion Command in Kutahya in the third training term of the year 2009. A separate sample was not selected; the all population of survey were included in the study. 1109 recruits were contacted in the research and the rate of response elicited had been 91%. In the gathering of the data; an attitude scale prepared in the likert type was used before and after the training. The sociodemographic properties of the participants were identified separately with a form. The data derived were analyzed with nonparametric tests, and SPSS 15.0 statistics program was used for this purpose. RESULTS: The recruits involved in the research had an age range of 20 to 30, and the average age was 20,8(±1,8. The participants were from various parts of Turkey and the degrees of their education also varied. While the average attitude score was 4,00(±0,50 before the training, it increased to 4,32(±0,47 after the training and a significant %8 increase in score was achieved(P<0,001. The education was seen to eliminate the differences in attitudes drived from geographical locations but not the differences caused by different levels of education. The economic and marital status of the recruits have been determined to have no impact on their attitudes. CONCLUSION: In this research it has been revealed that the RHFP training program in process has positively affected the attitudes of the recruits towards the ethical issue titled as STIs. In conclusion, it has been assessed that the RHFP training that leads to a change in attitudes and accordingly to a positive and effective change in behaviors with the knowledge it

  16. More safer sex intervention needed for HIV-positive MSM with higher education level for prevention of sexually transmitted hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Wai Chi Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV infections in Chinese HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM remains obscure. More data is required to understand the epidemic and set up preventive strategy. Materials and Methods: Baseline and annual testing of anti-HCV was in place for all HIV-infected MSM in the largest HIV clinic in Hong Kong. Logistic regression was used to compare those with HCV seroconversion (seroconverters with those remained tested anti-HCV negative (non-seroconverters to identify factors associated with incident HCV. Results: From 1999 to 2013, 1311 patients were tested for anti-HCV seroconversion, contributing to 6295 patient-years of observation. Fourteen (1.1% patients seroconverted, with genotype 3 being most commonly detected. The overall incidence rate of HCV infection was 0.22 per 100 patient-years (PY in the cohort. The incidence rate increased from 0.13 per 100PY before 2002 to 0.19 per 100PY in 2002–2007 and 0.47 per 100PY in 2008–2013. All the seroconverters were Chinese, with median age of anti-HCV seroconversion at 38 years (range: 28–53 years. None of them were injecting drug users. As compared with the non-seroconverters, seroconverters were of higher education level (85.7% vs 50.7% tertiary education or above, OR 5.28, p=0.021 and had prior history of sexually transmitted infection (92.9% vs 60.9%, OR 8.34, p=0.041. More seroconverters were found to have history of syphilis infection (57.1% vs 37.2%, p=0.134 but the difference was not statistically significant. Baseline CD4 count and HIV viral load, proportion on antiretroviral therapy and duration of antiretroviral therapy were not different between two groups. Conclusions: The incidence of HCV has been increasing among HIV-infected MSM non-injecting drug users in Hong Kong. More education and intervention on safer sex is required to be targeted on those with higher education level.

  17. Estrategias educativas para la prevención de las infecciones de trasmisión sexual en jóvenes Educational strategies for the prevention of sexually-transmitted diseases in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha González Valcárcel

    2010-12-01

    identify the strategies developed in Cuba for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases in the young people. Methods Documentary review and in-depth interviews made to those who implement the national programs. Results The programs for young people were aimed at developing knowledge and healthy sexual behaviors. The most used strategies were education, training, counseling and campaigns; aid means were prepared such as manuals, multimedia, games and accessories. Training was systematic, however, advisers and facilitators, once trained, not always stayed in their posts, but the situation was not the same in peer educators and facilitators at schools. The surveyed teenagers exhibited good level of knowledge on ways of transmission and of reducing HIV risk. However, these pieces of knowledge did not influence the use of condom regularly. Conclusions The Cuban young people benefit from the National Program of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control with educational orientation and intersectoral involvement, leading to several educational strategies. It was confirmed that despite their good level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS, the young people do not use condom on a regular basis. It is suggested that reflection and analysis techniques be emphasized in the training and education activities, taking into account that the young people are sensitive to the opinions of their peers and this may have an effect on their behaviors.

  18. Recursos diagnósticos para las infecciones de transmisión sexual en los laboratorios de Cataluña (España Diagnostic resources for sexually-transmitted infections in laboratories in Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Calmet

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la capacidad y organización de los laboratorios de Cataluña (España para el diagnóstico de infecciones de transmisión sexual. Para ello, entre noviembre de 2005 y marzo de 2006 se realizó un estudio transversal incluyendo 140 laboratorios. Resultados: 98 realizan alguna prueba diagnóstica, 45 reciben más de 50 muestras vaginales al mes, 42 diagnostican Chlamydia trachomatis, pero solo 6 mediante amplificación de ácidos nucleicos. Ninguno diagnostica el linfogranuloma venéreo. 80 detectan la Neisseria gonorrhoeae (n 1/4 80, 76 de ellos mediante cultivo y 63 analizan su sensibilidad antimicrobiana. En total 23, 22, 22 y 14 laboratorios reciben más de 500 peticiones al mes, respectivamente de hepatitis B, hepatitis C, VIH y sífilis. 84 disponen de pruebas no treponémicas parala sífilis y 51 disponen de pruebas treponémicas. Conclusiones: La actividad de los laboratorios cubre prácticamente todo el espectro patológico, pero es necesario introducir nuevas técnicas y mejorar la eficiencia de los circuitos de muestras.Objective: With the aim of describing both the capacity and organization of the laboratories in Catalonia to diagnose sexually transmitted infections, a cross-sectional study was performed between November 2005 and March 2006, which included 140 laboratories. Results: Ninety-eight laboratories performed some STI tests, 45 received more than 50 vaginal swabs per month, 42 diagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis, but only six used polymerase chain reaction techniques. None diagnosed venereal lymphogranuloma. Eighty were able to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 76 by means of culture and 63 analyzed its antibiotic resistance. A total of 23, 22, 22 and 14 laboratories received more than 500 blood samples for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis, respectively. Non-treponemic and treponemic tests were available in 84 and 52 laboratories, respectively. Conclusions: In Catalonia, most STIs can be diagnosed but

  19. Factors associated with non-attendance, opportunistic attendance and reminded attendance to cervical screening in an organized screening program: a cross-sectional study of 12,058 Norwegian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Tormod

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer incidence and mortality may be reduced by organized screening. Participant compliance with the attendance recommendations of the screening program is necessary to achieve this. Knowledge about the predictors of compliance is needed in order to enhance screening attendance. Methods The Norwegian Co-ordinated Cervical Cancer Screening Program (NCCSP registers all cervix cytology diagnoses in Norway and individually reminds women who have no registered smear for the past three years to make an appointment for screening. In the present study, a questionnaire on lifestyle and health was administered to a random sample of Norwegian women. The response rate was 68%. To address the predictors of screening attendance for the 12,058 women aged 25-45 who were eligible for this study, individual questionnaire data was linked to the cytology registry of the NCCSP. We distinguished between non-attendees, opportunistic attendees and reminded attendees to screening for a period of four years. Predictors of non-attendance versus attendance and reminded versus opportunistic attendance were established by multivariate logistic regression. Results Women who attended screening were more likely than non-attendees to report that they were aware of the recommended screening interval, a history of sexually transmitted infections and a history of hormonal contraceptive and condom use. Attendance was also positively associated with being married/cohabiting, being a non-smoker and giving birth. Women who attended after being reminded were more likely than opportunistic attendees to be aware of cervical cancer and the recommended screening interval, but less likely to report a history of sexually transmitted infections and hormonal contraceptive use. Moreover, the likelihood of reminded attendance increased with age. Educational level did not significantly affect the women's attendance status in the fully adjusted models. Conclusions The

  20. Prevalence and health-seeking behavior of reproductive tract infection/sexually transmitted infections symptomatics: A cross-sectional study of a rural community in the Hooghly district of West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Amrita Samanta; Santanu Ghosh; Shuvankar Mukherjee

    2011-01-01

    A community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Purushottampur village of the Singur block, Hooghly, using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, to find out the prevalence of RTI / STI symptomatics among the general population aged 15 to 49 years, and to assess their profiles and health-seeking behaviors. Prevalence of (Reproductive tract infection) RTI / STI (Sexually transmitted infections) symptoms in the last 12 months was found to be 13.9 and 13.6% among mal...

  1. Câncer anal e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis: qual a correlação? Anal cancer and sexually transmitted diseases: what is the correlation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Castro Durães

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O Câncer Anal é um tumor raro, cuja incidência é influenciada pelo comportamento sexual. O objetivo do trabalho é verificar a correlação entre o Câncer Anal e as Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis, como HPV, HIV, Infecção Gonocócica, Infecção por Clamídia, Sífilis e outras. MÉTODOS: Foram pesquisadas no site do Datasus as internações por Câncer Anal, HPV, HIV, Infecção Gonocócica, Infecção por Clamídia, Sífilis e outras DSTs, no SUS no Brasil, entre 1998 e 2007. O teste de correlação de Pearson foi aplicado. RESULTADOS: Há uma correlação positiva muito alta entre as internações por Câncer Anal e HPV (r = 0,98, pOBJECTIVE: Anal Cancer is a rare tumor, which incidence is influenced by sexual behavior. The purpose of this paper is to verify the correlation between Anal Cancer and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, such as HPV, HIV, Gonococci Infection, Chlamydia Infection, Syphilis and others. METHODS: All the internments due to Anal Cancer, HIV, HPV, Syphilis, Gonococci Infection, Chlamydia Infection and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases in public healthy in Brazil were collected at Datasus site between 1998 and 2007. The Pearson correlation test was done. RESULTS: There was a high correlation between Anal Cancer and HPV admissions (r=0,98, p<0,001. There was negative correlation between Anal Cancer and Gonococci Infection admissions (r=-0,81, p=0,005 and Anal Cancer and Chlamydia Infection (r=-0,74, p=0,014. There was not statistic significant correlation between Anal Cancer and HIV admissions (r=0,40, p=0,245, between Anal Cancer and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (r=0,55, p=0,1, and between Anal Cancer and Syphilis (r=-0,61, p=0,059. CONCLUSION: There was a high positive correlation between Anal Cancer and HPV admissions in Brazil. There were negative correlations between Anal Cancer and Gonococci Infection and between Anal Cancer and Chlamydia Infection admissions.

  2. Conocimientos sobre prevención de infecciones de transmisión sexual en las adolescentes del Policlínico Universitario Reynold García. Versalles. Enero-marzo, 2008 Knowledge on the prevention of sexually transmitted infections in teenagers in the University Policlinic "Reynold García". Versalles. January-March, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca María Martín Churchman; Lázaro García León

    2010-01-01

    We carried out a longitudinal, descriptive type study with the objective of showing the knowledge teenagers have on the prevention of sexually transmitted infections in the Teaching Polyclinic Reynold García, of Versalles, applying an anonymous survey to a group of 60 female 12-to-19 years-old teenagers. Data were processed and the results are shown in tables and graphics. It was significant that most of the teenagers had lack of knowledge on the methods for protecting against sexually transm...

  3. Analysis on Epidemic Situation of Sexually Transmitted Disease in Heping District of Tianjin during 2008-2010%天津市和平区208-2010年性病疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解天津市和平区2008-2010年性传播疾病的流行态势,并为进一步开展性病的预防控制工作提供依据.方法 用描述流行病学方法对资料进行分析.结果 2008-2010年,本辖区共报告性病病例1034例,6个街区均有分布,其中男性640例,女性394例,男女比例为1.62:1;年龄最大的73岁,最小的不到1岁,其中20~49岁年龄组占83.75%.职业主要以家务及待业(18.76%)、商业服务(18.76%)和工人(12.77%)为主.3年的发病率分别为106.27/10万,96.92/10万,59.10/10万,各种性病报告发病率由高到低依次为梅毒(51.22/10万)、生殖道沙眼衣原体感染(16.20/10万)、尖锐湿疣(10.21/10万)、淋病(6.24/10万)、生殖器疱疹(1.69/10万)和人类免疫缺陷病毒/艾滋病(HIV/AIDS)感染(1.69/10万).结论 该地区2008-2010年性病年发病率呈逐年下降趋势,主要病种梅毒下降明显,但是出现了母婴垂直传播病例,造成了二代传播.应当根据本区性病发病的特点和趋势,完善相关防治策略.%[Objective]To understand the epidemic posture of sexually transmitted diseases ( STD) in Heping district of Tianjin during 2008 -2010, provide the scientific basis for further prevention and control of STD. [Methods]The data were analyzed with descriptive epidemiologic method. [ Results]During 2008 -2010, there were 1034 cases of STD in this district, and STD cases were reported in all of 6 street blocks. There were 640 male cases and 394 female cases, and the male to female ratio was 1.62 : 1. The oldest patient was 73 years old, the youngest was less than 1 years old, and people aged 20-40 years accounted for 83.75%. Most patients were housework and unemployment(18.76% ), attendants(18.76% )and workers( 12.77% ). From 2008 to 2010, the annual incidence was 106.27/lakh, 96.92/lakh and 59.10/lakh, respectively. The reported incidence rates arranged in descending order were syphilis (51.22/lakh), genital Infection by Chlamydia

  4. Sexual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Christine Boyce

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This month two general practitioners (GPs describe their approach to sexual health consultations.The issue of a sexually active adolescent demonstrates some differences in legislation pertaining tothe requirement to involve the authorities, although in essence the young person can expect thesame response from these practitioners in two different health care systems. On the other hand apatient at risk of sexually transmitted infections is more likely to be referred to a specialistGenitourinary clinic in the UK although the protocols for screening and education are largely similar.Equally patients who are HIV positive can expect to receive the bulk of their care from specialistclinics in both countries.Midwives are the main stay of antenatal services in Australia and the UK with general practitionersminimally involved in routine cases. Also home births are a negigible proportion of all deliveries ineither country. When patients opt for a home birth our authors expressed the view that GPsgenerally do not have the skills or experience to be the main health professional in attendance.Therefore such births are primarily managed by midwives as the key health care professional. Thefocus of General practitioners is primarily to ensure that the patient is making an informed decisionabout delivering her baby at home. The GP is therefore still in an influential position to assist thewoman in making a decision about where to give birth. As a point of difference in Australia a homebirth would result in out of pocket expences for the mother.The views expressed below are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect health policy orpractice elsewhere in their countries. However we believe they offer an interesting perspective ontheir health care systems and commend the article to our readers.Please

  5. Seroprevalence of syphilis in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia; Khan; Godfred; Antony; Menezes; Rahul; Dhodapkar; Belgode; Narasimha; Harish

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To report our experience with two tests,anti-cardiolipin antibody test[venereal disease reasearch laboratory(VDRL) test]and specific treponemal test(Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay),used for screening antenatal,high risk cases and cases from sexually transmitted infection in a tertiary care hospital from January 2006 till December 2008.Methods:A total of 14639 samples received from various patient groups including antenatal cases,patients attending sexually transmitted disease(STD) clinic,blood donors and HIV positive patients were screened.Results:Among the 14639 samples collected,103 were positive by VDRL test.Of these 89 cases were confirmed by quantitative VDRL test and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay.The cumulative seroprevalence over two years was found to be 0.61%in this study.The syphilis seroprevalence reduced from 0.88%in 2006 to 0.40%in 2008.Among the various sub-populations studied,patients attending the sexually transmitted infection clinic showed a seroprevalence of 2.62%.The seroprevalence decreased significantly from 4.00%in 2006 to1.39%in 2008.Conclusions:Our study showed a statistically significant declining rate of syphilis in STD clinics as well as the overall seroprevalence.These findings could be interpreted as indicators of improved programmes for prevention and management of STDs.

  6. Seroprevalence of syphilis in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia Khan; GodfredAntony Menezes; Rahul Dhodapkar; Belgode Narasimha Harish

    2014-01-01

    To report our experience with two tests, anti-cardiolipin antibody test [venereal disease reasearch laboratory (VDRL) test] and specific treponemal test (Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay), used for screening antenatal, high risk cases and cases from sexually transmitted infection in a tertiary care hospital from January 2006 till December 2008. Methods: A total of 14639 samples received from various patient groups including antenatal cases, patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, blood donors and HIV positive patients were screened. Results: Among the 14639 samples collected, 103 were positive by VDRL test. Of these 89 cases were confirmed by quantitative VDRL test and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay. The cumulative seroprevalence over two years was found to be 0.61% in this study. The syphilis seroprevalence reduced from 0.88% in 2006 to 0.40% in 2008. Among the various sub-populations studied, patients attending the sexually transmitted infection clinic showed a seroprevalence of 2.62%. The seroprevalence decreased significantly from 4.00% in 2006 to 1.39% in 2008. Conclusions: Our study showed a statistically significant declining rate of syphilis in STD clinics as well as the overall seroprevalence. These findings could be interpreted as indicators of improved programmes for prevention and management of STDs.

  7. Intervención de salud sobre infecciones de transmisión sexual en una institución cerrada, 2005-2006 Health intervention on sexually transmitted infections in a closed institution, 2005-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Mailyn Nápoles Pérez; Miriam Belkis Díaz de la Hoz; Osvaldo Miranda Gómez

    2008-01-01

    Por el alza en la incidencia de casos de infecciones de transmisión sexual en una institución cerrada, se realizó un ensayo comunitario de intervención educativa a un grupo de adolescentes, con el objetivo de evaluar el impacto de esta sobre las infecciones de transmisión sexual en el nivel de conocimientos y conducta. Se aplicó una encuesta inicial, se realizaron actividades de educación para la salud y se repitió la encuesta; ambos resultados fueron comparados. La conducta sexual "buena" se...

  8. Core group approach to identify college students at risk for sexually transmitted infections "Core group" para identificar universitários em risco para infecções sexualmente transmissíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Sánchez-Alemán

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the core group for sexually transmitted infections (STI among college students. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out in a convenience sample comprising 711 college students of the public university of Morelos, Mexico, between 2001 and 2003. Sociodemographic and sexual behavior information were collected using self-applied questionnaires. Herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2 infection was tested in the blood. The number of sexual partners in the last year and cocaine consumption were used as indicators to construct the dependent variable "level of STI risk" in three categories: low, medium and high risk (core group. A multinomial analysis was conducted to evaluate whether different sex behaviors were associated with the variable "level of STI risk". RESULTS: There was significant association between HSV-2 seroprevalence and the variable "level of STI risk": 13%, 5.6% and 3.8% were found in high (core group, medium and low categories, respectively. There were gender differences regarding the core group. Men started having sexual intercourse earlier, had more sex partners, higher alcohol and drug consumption, higher frequency of sex intercourse with sex workers, exchanging sex for money, occasional and concurrent partners compared to women. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest existing contextual characteristics in the study population that affect their sex behavior. In Mexico, the cultural conception of sexuality is determined mainly by gender differences where men engage in higher risky sexual behavior than women.OBJETIVO: Identificar al grupo core de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS en una población de estudiantes universitarios mexicanos. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal en una muestra por conveniencia que incluyó 711 estudiantes de una universidad pública de Morelos, México, entre 2001 y 2003. Las características sociodemográficas y de comportamiento sexual se obtuvieron mediante un cuestionario auto

  9. Sexually acquired hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current knowledge of sexually transmitted viral hepatitis in relation to epidemiology, clinical presentation, management, and diagnosis with particular reference to resource-poor settings.

  10. Scleroderma and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alternatives to intercourse such as massage, cuddling, and oral sex. CONTRACEPTION If you are concerned about contraception or protection from sexually transmitted infections, you and your partner ...

  11. Prevalence and correlates of HIV-risky sexual behaviors among students attending the Medical and Social Welfare Center of the University of Maroua, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Ndoula, Shalom Tchokfe; Wang, Binhuan; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Bigna, Jean Joel R; Aminde, Leopold N.; Youmbi, Rosette Amélie; Fokom-Domgue, Joël

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on sexual behaviors in Cameroonian youths are needed to design and implement effective preventive strategies against HIV/AIDS. This study aimed at assessing sociodemographic and religious factors associated with sexual behaviors among university students in Cameroon. Methods In 2011, 411 university students were surveyed by a self-administered questionnaire at the Medical and Social Welfare Center of the University of Maroua. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine...

  12. Disclosure to sexual partner and condom use among HIV positive clients attending ART clinic at a tertiary health facility in South West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, Ayodeji Matthew; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Omotoso, Bridget Ama; Ayodeji, Oladele Olufemi; Kareem, Adesola Olawumi; Alele, Faith Osaretin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Condom use and disclosure of HIV status increase the safety of sexual activity. Its extent will determine the need for appropriate interventions. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of condom use and disclosure to sexual partners among individuals receiving Antiretroviral Therapy at a tertiary health facility in South West Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study of 578 clients enrolled in the ART program of Federal Medical Centre Owo, Ondo State Nigeria, was...

  13. Summary of CDC consultation to address social determinants of health for prevention of disparities in HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis. December 9-10, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Tanya Telfair; Harrison, Kathleen McDavid; Dean, Hazel D

    2010-01-01

    In December 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a meeting of national public health partners to identify priorities for addressing social determinants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB). The consultants were divided into four working groups: (1) public health policy, (2) data systems, (3) agency partnerships and prevention capacity building, and (4) prevention research and evaluation. Groups focused on identifying top priorities; describing activities, methods, and metrics to implement priorities; and identifying partnerships and resources required to implement priorities. The meeting resulted in priorities for public health policy, improving data collection methods, enhancing existing and expanding future partnerships, and improving selection criteria and evaluation of evidence-based interventions. CDC is developing a national communications plan to guide and inspire action for keeping social determinants of HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, STDs, and TB in the forefront of public health activities. PMID:20626189

  14. Expressão epidemiológica de outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis entre portadores de AIDS Epidemiological expression of other sexually transmitted diseases among AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elucir Gir

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a freqüência de outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST em pacientes portadores de AIDS, identificando-se suas associações epidemiológicas e possíveis relações com as categorias de exposição ao vírus. Os dados foram coletados dos prontuários médicos, identificando-se as DST com base em dados de anamnese, exame físico e exames laboratoriais. Dos portadores de HIV/AIDS, atendidos no hospital estudado, de janeiro de 1986 a janeiro de 1992, 207 constituíram a amostra estudada. Dos pacientes estudados, 88 (42,5% apresentaram alguma DST e 119 (57,5% não, resultando proporção de pacientes com DST/pacientes sem DST igual a 0,7. As DST mais prevalentes foram hepatite B (33, 3%, sífilis (30, 3% e gonorréia (12, 9%. Quanto às categorias de exposição dos indivíduos ao HIV, a mais prevalente foi a sangüínea (44,9%, seguida pela sexual (21,3%, sexual e sangüínea (17, 9% e indeterminada em 15, 9%. Comparando particularmente as categorias de transmissão sexual e sangüínea do HIV e a presença de outras DST, estas foram significativamente mais freqüentes nos casos cuja categoria de exposição referida foi a sexual.This study was carried out in order to estimate the frequence of other sexually transmitted diseases (STD among AIDS patients and to identify their epidemiological association and possible relations to the groups most exposed to the virus. The data were collected from the medical case histories and the STD were identified on the basis of data provided by anamnesis, physical examination and laboratory examinations. Of the total of HIV/AIDS patients assisted at the hospital studied (S.Paulo State, Brazil, between January 1986 and January 1992, 207 were included as sample subjects for this survey. Of the patients studied, 88 (42.5% had some other STD and 119 (57.5% had no other STD, equivalent to a proportion of 0.7 STD patients-STD to each non-STD patient. The most prevalent STD identified

  15. Evaluation of Skill-oriented Training on Enhanced Syndromic Case Management (ESCM) of Reproductive Tract Infections / Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTI/STIs) of Care Providers from Three-tier Health-care System of Gujarat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rashmi; Prajapati, Shailesh; Patel, Brijesh; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enhanced syndromic case management (ESCM) deals with reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections. Capacity building of service providers not only boosts the program but also inputs from them improve the quality of services. Objectives: To (1) identify problem areas from providers' perspectives and the gaps in knowledge and application and (2) assess the gains (if any) through pre and post-training evaluation. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 participants (medical/para medical) from various medical colleges, district/sub-district hospitals/ community health centers, and urban dispensaries across Gujarat were trained at a teaching institute. Trainings were of 2-3 days duration involving different learning methodology. Pre- and post-training evaluation were done on a designed pro forma and data were entered in MS office Excel 2007. Gains in knowledge/skills if any were assessed by comparing pre-/post-evaluation responses and applying test of significance (x2 test). Observations: Out of total 121 participants, half (60) were doctors and the rest were paramedics [staff nurse (SN) and lab technicians (LT)]. Doctors revealed significant gain in basics of reproductive tract infections (RTI) and sexually transmitted infections (STI), syndrome identification, STI/HIV co-infection, and ESCM and less gain in asymptomatic STI/ complications, vulnerability, male reproductive organs, causes of vaginal/urethral discharge, STI complications, cervical cancer screening, and limitation of syndromic management. Gain was statistically significant in basics of RTI/STI amongst adolescent in paramedics; lab technicians showed significant gain in knowledge of laboratory-related areas. Conclusion: Assessment revealed (1) poor baseline knowledge and (2) gains following training sometimes significant and other times not significant even in core areas. Quality monitoring and contents/ methodologies modification are essential for robust trainings. Gains in skills

  16. Sexually transmitted infection screening and reproductive health counseling in adolescent renal transplant recipients: Perceptions and practice patterns. A study from the Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Isa F; Dharnidharka, Vikas R

    2015-11-01

    We wanted to identify practice patterns and perceived barriers among pediatric nephrologists regarding STI screening and reproductive health counseling in adolescent renal transplant recipients. We created an online Likert-scaled survey. Response rate was 54%. The majority (83%) believed STI risk in their patients was similar to or higher than healthy teens. Interestingly, while 67% felt moderately or very confident in asking about sexual activity and counseling about safer sex, only 43% routinely or always inquired about sexual activity, and only 42% routinely or always counseled about safer sex. Fifty-four percent routinely or always discussed contraceptive options and implications of unintentional pregnancy. Fifty-one percent routinely or always referred patients to a gynecologist or adolescent provider for contraception prescription. The most common counseling mechanism was informal discussions in clinic (87%). Ten percent had no mechanism in place. Major barriers included time limitations, adolescents' fear regarding confidentiality, and lack of professional training. This is the first report of perceptions and practice patterns of pediatric nephrologists regarding STI screening and reproductive health counseling. Providers seem to recognize the importance of counseling; however, translation into practice remains low. Professional training in this area and increased encounter time could improve counseling delivery and thereby reduce risk in this population. PMID:26260626

  17. High-risk sexual behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS attending tertiary care hospitals in district of Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mukesh; Agarwal, Monica; Singh, Jai Vir; Tripathi, Anil Kumar; Srivastava, Anand Kumar; Singh, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Prevention with a positive approach has been advocated as one of the main strategies to diminish the new instances of HIV and the target are those who are engaged in high-risk sexual behavior. Therefore, understanding the risky behaviors of the HIV-infected individual is important. Aims: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and the predictors of high-risk sexual behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Settings and Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at antiretroviral therapy centers of two tertiary care hospitals in Lucknow. Materials and Methods: A total of 322 HIV-positive patients were interviewed about their sexual behaviors during last 3 months using a pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Probability (p) was calculated to test for statistical significance at 5% level of significance. Association between risk factors and high-risk sexual behavior was determined using bivariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression. Results: Prevalence of high-risk sexual behavior was 24.5%. Of these patients, multiple sexual partners were reported by 67.3% whereas about 46.9% were engaged in unprotected sex. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that high-risk sexual behavior was significantly associated with nonsupporting attitude of spouse (odds ratio [OR]: 18; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–225.5; P = 0.02) and alcohol consumption (OR: 9.3; 95% CI: 2.4–35.4; P = 0.001). Conclusions: Specific intervention addressing alcohol consumption and encouragement of spouse and family support should be integrated in the routine HIV/AIDS care and treatment apart from HIV transmission and prevention knowledge.

  18. Intervención educativa sobre infecciones de transmisión sexual en adolescentes de la secundaria Fructuoso Rodríguez An educational intervention about sexual transmitting infections to Fructuoso Rodríguez secondary school adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Idania Castro Abreu; Yelena Rizo Montero; Yudisai Reyes Pelier; Yanis Vázquez Adán

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: En los últimos años se ha notado un incremento de las infecciones de transmisión sexual principalmente en los jóvenes, y dentro de ellos, los adolescentes son el grupo etáreo más severamente afectado. Objetivo: Determinar y modificar el nivel de conocimientos y comportamiento sexual en los adolescentes. Método: Se realizó una intervención educativa en adolescentes de la Secundaria Básica Fructuoso Rodríguez, del municipio La Lisa, en el período de diciembre 2009 a junio 2010. La...

  19. Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV, Among Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Published and Gray Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamar, Amanda M; Bayer, Angela M; Hindin, Michelle J

    2016-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, are prevalent among adolescents and can have lasting adverse health consequences. The objective of this review is to identify high-quality interventions and evaluations to decrease STI transmission and related risky behaviors among young people in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Cinahl Plus, Popline, and the Cochrane Databases were searched without language limitations for articles published through November 2015. Gray literature was searched by hand. Reference tracing was utilized, as well as the unpacking of systematic reviews. Retained articles were those that were evaluated as having high-quality interventions and evaluations using standardized scoring. Twenty-one high-quality interventions and evaluations were abstracted. Three reported declines in STI diagnoses, three reported declines in STI symptoms, six showed declines in risky sexual behavior, seven reported increases in abstinence, 11 found increases in condom use, and five reported increases in health care utilization. There is a wide range of rigorously evaluated high-quality interventions included in this review that can inform researchers, donors, and policy makers about where to make strategic investments to decrease the spread of STIs, including HIV. With the recent advent of biomarkers, researchers can use a gold standard measure to assess intervention impact. The diversity of interventions can allow decision makers to tailor interventions to the context, age range, and gender of the target population. PMID:27562450

  20. Female genital tract secretions and semen impact the development of microbicides for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Betsy C; Mesquita, Pedro M; Madan, Rebecca P; Keller, Marla J

    2011-03-01

    Pharmacologic strategies for the prevention of HIV include vaccines, post-exposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral therapy, and topical microbicides. Vaginal microbicides have the potential to augment innate defenses in the genital tract but may also disrupt endogenous protection and increase HIV acquisition risk, as observed in clinical trials of nonoxynol-9. The initially disappointing results of microbicide clinical trials stimulated the development of more sensitive and comprehensive pre-clinical safety studies, which include dual-chamber culture systems to model the epithelial barrier and post-coital studies to evaluate the effects of semen and sexual intercourse on microbicide efficacy. This review discusses the key factors that contribute to a healthy female genital tract environment, the impact of semen on mucosal defense, and how our understanding of these mediators informs the development of effective vaginal microbicides. PMID:21143689

  1. Sexual Knowledge among Norwegian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Pal

    1993-01-01

    Studied sexual knowledge among Norwegian adolescents (n=1,855) aged 17-19 years. Found knowledge gaps among adolescents on sexual physiology and anatomy, sexually transmitted diseases, and fecundation/contraception. Level of sexual knowledge was higher among girls than boys and increased with increasing age. Sexual knowledge did not predict…

  2. Uso del condón entre adolescentes mexicanos para la prevención de las infecciones de transmisión sexual Condom use among Mexican adolescents to prevent sexually transmitted infections

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Gayet; Fátima Juárez; Laura A. Pedrosa; Carlos Magis

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Investigar el comportamiento sexual actual y el uso de condón en la primera relación sexual de adolescentes de 12 a 19 años de edad, la variación en distintos contextos y la influencia de factores sobre el uso del condón en esa primera relación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utiliza la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000, y se consideran adolescentes a jovenes de 12 a 19 años de edad, de ambos sexos (n=16 285). Se presenta en primer lugar un análisis descriptivo básico y luego una regresión lo...

  3. Analysis of clinical characteristics of sexually transmitted parasitosis%性传播寄生虫病临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩

    2010-01-01

    @@ 性传播寄生虫病(Sexually trammitted parasitosis,STP)是由寄生虫作为病原体,以性行为或性接触作为传播方式的疾病.STP的病原体主要是阴道毛滴虫、疥螨、耻阴虱、溶组织内阿米巴和蓝氏贾第鞭毛虫.近年来随着艾滋病在全球的迅速蔓延,过去认为对人类危害不明显的寄生虫病,如隐孢子虫病、弓形虫病、卡氏肺孢子虫、等孢球虫、微孢子虫、棘阿米巴和粪类圆线虫病等可成为这类患者的严重并发症和死亡原因,从而引起了人们的重视.

  4. An integrated model of care to counter high incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases in men who have sex with men – initial analysis of service utilizers in Zurich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwappach David LB

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As other countries, Switzerland experiences a high or even rising incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI among men who have sex with men (MSM. An outpatient clinic for gay men ("Checkpoint" was opened in 2006 in Zurich (Switzerland in order to provide sexual health services. The clinic provides counselling, testing, medical treatment and follow-up at one location under an "open-door-policy" and with a high level of personal continuity. We describe first experiences with the new service and report the characteristics of the population that utilized it. Methods During the 6-month evaluation period, individuals who requested counselling, testing or treatment were asked to participate in a survey at their first visit prior to the consultation. The instrument includes questions regarding personal data, reasons for presenting, sexual behaviour, and risk situations. Number and results of HIV/STI tests and treatments for STI were also recorded. Results During the evaluation period, 632 consultations were conducted and 247 patients were seen by the physician. 406 HIV tests were performed (3.4% positive. 402 men completed the entry survey (64% of all consultations. The majority of respondents had 4 and more partners during the last 12 months and engaged in either receptive, insertive or both forms of anal intercourse. More than half of the responders used drugs or alcohol to get to know other men or in conjunction with sexual activity (42% infrequently, 10% frequently and 0.5% used drugs always. The main reasons for requesting testing were a prior risk situation (46.3%, followed by routine screening without a prior risk situation (24.1% and clarification of HIV/STI status due to a new relationship (29.6%. A fifth of men that consulted the service had no history of prior tests for HIV or other STIs. Conclusion Since its first months of activity, the service achieved high levels of recognition, acceptance and demand in

  5. Infecciones de transmisión sexual en féminas. Centro de Diagnóstico Integral. Biruaca. Venezuela Sexually transmitted infections in female patients. Comprehensive Diagnosis Center in Biruaca, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Antonio Chirino Acosta; Joaquín Pérez Labrador; Nuvia Soto Páez; Nelsa Gutiérrez Álvarez

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, con enfoque cualitativo y cuantitativo.Objetivo: describir el comportamiento de las infecciones de transmisión sexual en pacientes femeninas de 15 a 40 años que fueron atendidas en el Centro Diagnóstico Integral Manuel Laya, Municipio Biruaca, Estado Apure, República Bolivariana de Venezuela en el período comprendido de enero a julio de 2012. Motivó la realización de este estudio la alta incidencia de infecciones de transmisión sexu...

  6. Patología infecciosa: vulvovaginitis, enfermedades de transmisión sexual, enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica, abscesos tubo-ováricos Infectious pathology: vulvovaginitis, sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, tubo-ovarian abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ibarrola; Benito, J; B. Azcona; N. Zubeldía

    2009-01-01

    Las enfermedades de transmisión sexual son aquellas en las que la principal vía de infección es el contacto íntimo. Son numerosas las pacientes que acuden a urgencias por esta causa, tanto por la clínica como por las implicaciones sociales. Los síntomas más frecuentes son dolor abdominal bajo, sangrados vaginales, o flujo vaginal excesivo o molesto. Las vulvovaginitis son uno de los problemas principales en la práctica clínica diaria del ginecólogo. La úlcera genital cuya etiología principal ...

  7. Estrategias educativas para la prevención de las infecciones de trasmisión sexual en jóvenes Educational strategies for the prevention of sexually-transmitted diseases in young people

    OpenAIRE

    Bertha González Valcárcel; Maria Regla Bolaños Gutiérrez; Noria Liset Pupo Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Introducción La epidemia del VIH/sida en Cuba, se caracteriza por un aumento lento y sostenido, con mayor incidencia en el último quinquenio y en jóvenes entre 15 a 29 años. Objetivo Identificar las estrategias que se desarrollan en Cuba para la prevención de las infecciones de trasmisión sexual en los jóvenes. Métodos Revisión documental y entrevistas en profundidad a los ejecutores de los programas nacionales. Resultados Los programas dirigidos a los jóvenes estuvieron encaminados al desarr...

  8. Sexual partners and sexually transmitted infection incidence:a survey of 2250 men who have sex with men%2250例男男性接触者性伴与性传播感染率相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 张北川; 李秀芳; 安全平; 汪宁; 汪照国; 周生建

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between sexual partner status and sexually transmitted infection(STI)incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM)in China.Methods Anonymous questionnaires were designed and delivered to survey 2265 MSM in 9 Chinese cities,including Harbin,Shenyang,Nanjing,Shanghai,Zhengzhou,Wuhan,Xi'an,Chongqing and Chengdu.Collected data were analyzed by SPSS 11.0.Results Totally,2250 valid questionnaires were returned,with a response rate of 99.3%.STI occurred in 17.7% (399/2250)of the participants.The number of male sexual partners of MSM、with STI was greater than those without STI(81.29±9.17 vs 67.15±6.65,t=2.611,P<0.05).MSM whose sexual partners had fewer sexual partners showed a lower STI incidence compared with those whose sexual partners had more(P<0.05).STI incidence increased in MSM who got acquainted with sexual partners in public lavatory,park and bathroom in comparison with those who met sexual partners through classmates,friends and neighbors.MSM who had single fixed sexual partner had a lower STI incidence than those who had more than one fixed sexual partners(P<0.01).A higher STI incidence was also observed in MSM who were in marriage versus those out of marriage(P<0.05),and in MSM who separated with their wives versus those who cohabited(P<0.05).Condusions The decrease in male sexual partners may facilitate the reduction in STI incidence.Meeting sexual partners in public lavatory,park and bath may be an important transmission route of STI/HIV.Heterosexual behavior is a risk for STI transmission in MSM.%目的 探讨我国男男性接触者(MSM)性伴状况与性传播感染(STI)感染率相关关系.方法 采用匿名自填问卷方式对9城市MSM进行调查,用SPSS 11.0软件处理.结果 STI组男性伴数量多于非STI组(P<0.05),自身性伴为较少性伴者的STI感染率低于有较多性伴者(P<0.05).通过公厕、公园或浴池结识性伴者的STI感染率,高于通过同学朋友邻居结识性伴者(P<0

  9. Características Demográficas e Intervalo para Atendimento em Mulheres Vítimas de Violência Sexual Demographic Characteristics and the Interval between Occurrence and the Search for Attendance by Women Victims of Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Rosires Pereira de Andrade; Ana Cecília Pedriali Guimarães; Álvaro Fagotti Filho; de Carvalho, Newton S; José Sória Arrabal; Denise Munhoz da Rocha; Juarez M. Medeiros

    2001-01-01

    Objetivos: analisar as características sociodemográficas das mulheres vítimas de violência sexual, avaliar a experiência sexual prévia, pesquisar a utilização de métodos anticoncepcionais por ocasião da violência e observar o período de tempo desde a agressão até o atendimento hospitalar. Métodos: foram analisados os dados de 117 fichas pré-codificadas, de um total de 134 atendimentos. As fichas foram utilizadas no atendimento de mulheres vítimas de violência sexual na Maternidade do Hospital...

  10. A soft systems approach to designing an information system model to be used as a tool support in the prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases in a health jurisdiction of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Chapula, C A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present the preliminary results of research in progress on the design of an information system model that is capable of supporting prevention and control activities related to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in a Mexican health jurisdiction. The project is being developed in the following five phases: 1) informetric indicators on the prevention and control of STD; 2) information flow models representing the access and use of information by the actors involved in the activities; 3) system analysis; 4) system design; and 5) implementation. Bibliometric/scientometric techniques have been applied to conduct the first phase of the project. A soft systems approach is to be conducted throughout phases 2-5. Austin and Kendall and Kendall criteria are to be used for system analysis, design, and implementation. Expected products and benefits include: a) a bibliographic database on the prevention and control of STD in Mexico; b) science policy indicators to improve decision making; c) an information system model/prototype; and d) the development of the soft systems methodology, as applied to improving information-problem-situations in a health system. PMID:8591247

  11. A study of prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections & response to syndromic treatment among married women of reproductive age group in rural area of Parol Primary Health Centre under Thane district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha V. Gosalia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To study prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs - symptomatic, clinical & laboratorial& response to syndromic treatment in among STI groups. Design Community based interventional study Setting Rual area-Parol Primary Health Centre(PHC, District Thane, Maharashtra state. Poulation Women of reproductive age groups 15 -45 years Methods Present Community based interventional study was conducted among representative group of 415 women of reproductive age groups who were selected by simple random sampling technique in Parol PHC, District Thane, Maharashtra state. All symptomatic & asymptomatic women were counseled for examination & investigations & given syndromic treatment. Follow-up done to assess impact of syndromic treatment. Main Outcome Prevalence of STI symptomatically was 39%, clinically 32.3% & Laboratorial 26%. After syndromic treatment, prevalence of STIs was significantly reduced. Statistical Analysis Z test Results Of the surveyed women (415, prevalence of STI symptomatically was 39%, clinically 32.3% & Laboratorial 26%. The most common presenting symptom was vaginal discharge (36.4% followed by Burning Micturition (24.7%, Vulval itching (17.3%, Lower abdominal pain (13% & Genital ulcer (8.6%. Clinically, 55.2% women were diagnosed as cervicitis & 44.8% as PID. Laboratorial diagnosed STIs were - vaginal candidiasis 46.3%, Bacterial vaginosis 25%, Trichmoniasis 19.4 %, Genital Herpes 7.4% & HIV 1.9%. After syndromic treatment, prevalence of STIs has statistically significantly reduced. Conclusion Syndromic Rx & health education can definitely reduce STIs.

  12. A study of prevalence of sexually transmitted infections & response to syndromic treatment among married women of reproductive age group in rural area of Parol Primary Health Centre under Thane district, Mahrashtra , India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar Mehul Tribhovandas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To study prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs - symptomatic, clinical & laboratorial & response to syndromic treatment in among STI groups. Design Community based interventional study Setting Rual area-Parol Primary Health Centre(PHC, District Thane, Maharashtra state. Poulation Women of reproductive age groups 15 -45 years Methods Community based interventional study, conducted among representative group of 415 women of reproductive age groups, by simple random sampling technique in Parol PHC, District Thane, Maharashtra state. All symptomatic & asymptomatic women were counseled for examination & investigations & given syndromic treatment. Follow-up done to assess impact of syndromic treatment. Main Outcome Prevalence of STI symptomatically was 39%, clinically 32.3% & Laboratorial 26%. After syndromic treatment, prevalence of STIs has statistically significantly reduced. Statistical Analysis Z-test Results Of the surveyed women (415, prevalence of STI symptomatically was 39%, clinically 32.3% & Laboratorial 26%. The most common presenting symptom was vaginal discharge (36.4% followed by Burning Micturition (24.7%, Vulval itching (17.3%, Lower abdominal pain (13% & Genital ulcer (8.6%. Clinically, 55.2% women were diagnosed as cervicitis & 44.8% as PID. Laboratorial diagnosed STIs were - vaginal candidiasis 46.3%, Bacterial vaginosis 25%, Trichmoniasis 19.4 %, Genital Herpes 7.4% & HIV 1.9%. After syndromic treatment, prevalence of STIs has statistically significantly reduced. Conclusion: Syndromic Rx & health education can definitely reduce STIs.

  13. Textbook Sexual Inadequacy? A Review of Sexuality Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettsch, Stephen L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews eight current human sexuality textbooks for both their general organization and substantive content. Addresses specifically the content areas of sexual response cycle; sexual disfunction; acquaintance rape; AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases; extramarital sex; abortion; homosexuality; and pornography. Identifies as a recurring fault…

  14. 美沙酮维持治疗门诊服药人员的不安全性行为及其相关因素%Unsafe sexual behaviors and associated factors among clients attending methadone maintenance treatment clinics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欢; 陈涛; 庞琳; 刘恩武; 柔克明; 张洪波; 吴尊友

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解目前美沙酮维持治疗(MMT)门诊服药人员的不安全性行为状况及相关因素.方法 在重庆、广东、江苏三省(直辖市)6个MMT门诊,选取符合条件的服药人员进行问卷调查及尿液检测,收集研究对象的一般情况、性行为状况、美沙酮服药情况及多药滥用信息.结果 共调查1 202人,平均年龄(39.7±6.8)岁;其中男性占75.7%(910人),平均吸食海洛因年限(15.6±4.8)年.758人(63.1%)过去6个月有过性行为,其中10.2%(77/758)存在不安全性行为.男性、未婚单身/离异丧偶、与家人关系差、存在药物滥用、HIV阳性与不安全性行为的发生存在正向的统计学关联(P<0.05).结论 不安全性行为普遍存在于所调查的MMT门诊服药人员中,针对服药人员不安全性行为的健康教育和行为干预需要进一步加强.%Objective To understand the unsafe sexual behaviors among heroin addicts attending methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics and to analyze the associated factors. Methods A total of 1 202 clients from 6 MMT clinics from Chongqing, Guangdong and Jiangsu were included in the study. The information of social demographics, sexual behaviors, multi drug use-related behaviors was collected by a questionnaire survey and urine samples were tested to identify if heroin or methamphetamine or ecstasy or benzodiazepine or buprenorphine had been used. Results The average age of the 1 202 clients was (39.7 ± 6.8) years. Among them, 75.7% were males, the average year of using heroin was (15. 6 ± 4. 8)years. Among all the participants, 758(63. 1%) had sexual behavior in the last 6 months, and 10. 2%(77/758) had unsafe sexual behavior. In males, who were unmarried, divorced or widowed, or had a bad relationship with their families, or used multi drugs, HIV positive status was positively correlated with unsafe sexual behavior (P<0. 05). Conclusion The clients of MMT also have a high percentage of unsafe sexual

  15. Factores que Influencian la Adquisición de Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual y VIH en Mujeres Jóvenes Chilenas que Participaron en la Intervención Online I-STIPI (Factors That Influence the Acquisition of Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV in Chilean Young Women Who Participated in the Online Intervention I-STIPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Natalia; Cianelli, Rosina; Santisteban, Daniel; Lara, Loreto; Vargas, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to investigate the following factors associated with sexually transmitted infections and human immunodeficiency virus prevention: (a) knowledge, (b) attitudes, (c) self-efficacy, (d) vulnerability, (e) risky behaviors, (f) preventive behaviors, and (g) internet use among 40 Chilean women between 18 and 24 years who participated in the pilot of an Internet based STI/HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI). A structured questionnaire available in a secure website was used for data collection and it included questions related to STI and HIV prevention. The results of the study indicated that young women are at risk of acquiring STIs and HIV and have special needs for prevention. Familiarity and frequency of use of internet in this population can be used for STIs and HIV prevention. PMID:27257190

  16. Barriers to HIV testing and characteristics associated with never testing among gay and bisexual men attending sexual health clinics in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian P Conway

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV diagnoses among gay and bisexual men have increased over the past decade in Australia. HIV point-of-care testing (POCT was introduced in Australia in 2011 as a strategy to increase HIV testing by making the testing process more convenient. We surveyed gay and bisexual men undergoing POCT to assess barriers to HIV testing and characteristics associated with not having previously tested for HIV (never testing. Methods: During 2011 and 2012, gay and bisexual men who were undergoing POCT at four Sydney sexual health clinics self-completed questionnaires assessing testing history and psychological and structural barriers to HIV testing. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and never testing. Results: Of 1093 participants, 981 (89.9% reported ever testing for HIV and 110 (10.1% never testing. At least one barrier to testing was reported by 1046 men (95.7%, with only 47 men (4.3% not reporting any barrier to testing. The most commonly reported barriers to testing were annoyance at having to return for results (30.2%, not having done anything risky (29.6%, stress in waiting for results (28.4%, being afraid of testing positive (27.5% and having tested recently (23.2%. Never testing was independently associated with being non-gay-identified (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–3.2, being aged less than 25 years (AOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.6–3.8, living in a suburb with few gay couples (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.0, being afraid of testing HIV-positive (AOR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4, not knowing where to test (AOR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.3–11.2 and reporting one or no sexual partners in the last six months (AOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–6.2. Conclusions: Barriers to HIV testing were commonly reported among the clinic-based gay and bisexual men in this study. Our findings suggest further health promotion and prevention strategies are needed to address the

  17. Barriers to HIV testing and characteristics associated with never testing among gay and bisexual men attending sexual health clinics in Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Damian P; Holt, Martin; Couldwell, Deborah L; Smith, Don E; Davies, Stephen C; McNulty, Anna; Keen, Phillip; Cunningham, Philip; Guy, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV diagnoses among gay and bisexual men have increased over the past decade in Australia. HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) was introduced in Australia in 2011 as a strategy to increase HIV testing by making the testing process more convenient. We surveyed gay and bisexual men undergoing POCT to assess barriers to HIV testing and characteristics associated with not having previously tested for HIV (never testing). Methods During 2011 and 2012, gay and bisexual men who were undergoing POCT at four Sydney sexual health clinics self-completed questionnaires assessing testing history and psychological and structural barriers to HIV testing. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and never testing. Results Of 1093 participants, 981 (89.9%) reported ever testing for HIV and 110 (10.1%) never testing. At least one barrier to testing was reported by 1046 men (95.7%), with only 47 men (4.3%) not reporting any barrier to testing. The most commonly reported barriers to testing were annoyance at having to return for results (30.2%), not having done anything risky (29.6%), stress in waiting for results (28.4%), being afraid of testing positive (27.5%) and having tested recently (23.2%). Never testing was independently associated with being non-gay-identified (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–3.2), being aged less than 25 years (AOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.6–3.8), living in a suburb with few gay couples (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.0), being afraid of testing HIV-positive (AOR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4), not knowing where to test (AOR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.3–11.2) and reporting one or no sexual partners in the last six months (AOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–6.2). Conclusions Barriers to HIV testing were commonly reported among the clinic-based gay and bisexual men in this study. Our findings suggest further health promotion and prevention strategies are needed to address the

  18. The relevance of social network analysis on the epidemiology and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases Importância da análise de redes sociais na epidemiologia e na prevenção das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis

    OpenAIRE

    André Reynaldo Santos Périssé; José Augusto da Costa Nery

    2007-01-01

    Historically, the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) has been based on individual attributes and behavior. However, STD constitute a good example of diseases that depend on personal contacts for dissemination. Social network analysis is a relatively new technique that studies the interactions among people. Since 1985 when it was first used for STD, some studies have been done using the technique, especially in the last 10 years. The two network-based designs, sociocentric or ...

  19. Assessment of reactivity of three treponemal tests in non-treponemal non-reactive cases from sexually transmitted diseases clinic, antenatal clinic, integrated counselling and testing centre, other different outdoor patient departments/indoor patients of a tertiary care centre and peripheral health clinic attendees

    OpenAIRE

    Bala, M; Singh, V; Muralidhar, S; Ramesh, V

    2013-01-01

    In India, many state reference centres for sexually transmitted infections perform only a single screening assay for syphilis diagnosis. In this study, Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA) was performed on 1115 Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL)/rapid plasma regain (RPR) non-reactive and 107 reactive sera out of 10,489 tested by VDRL/RPR according to the National AIDS Control Organisation syphilis testing protocol. A total of 47 Specimens reactive in TPHA and non-reactive with...

  20. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ...

  1. Sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as the baby passes through the birth canal. HIV can cross the placenta during pregnancy and infect the baby during delivery. Yes. Some ... as the baby passes through the birth canal. HIV can cross the placenta during pregnancy and infect the baby during delivery. What are ...

  2. Diagnostic Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical history, herpes virus blood test and culture. Syphilis Physical examination, including pelvic exam, and thorough medical history, plus one or more of the following blood tests: VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) blood test or RPR (Rapid Plasma Reagin) blood test, (FTA-ABS) Fluorescent ...

  3. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of gonorrhea cases reported to the state or city health department from all reporting sources. This project provides more complete estimates of case characteristics often missing on routine case reports— such as gender of sex partners—which is essential for better targeting of ...

  4. Ethical Information Transparency and Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Shared decision making is intended to help protect patient autonomy while satisfying the demands of beneficence. In shared decision making, information is shared between health care professional and patient. The sharing of information presents new and practical problems about how much information to share and how transparent that information should be. Sharing information also allows for subtle paternalistic strategies to be employed to "nudge" the patient in a desired direction. These problems are illustrated in two experiments. Experiment 1 (N = 146) suggested that positively framed messages increased the strength of judgments about whether a patient with HIV should designate a surrogate compared to a negatively framed message. A simple decision aid did not reliably reduce this effect. Experiment 2 (N = 492) replicated these effects. In addition, Experiment 2 suggested that providing some additional information (e.g., about surrogate decision making accuracy) can reduce tendencies to think that one with AIDS should designate a surrogate. These results indicate that in some circumstances, nudges (e.g., framing) influence judgments in ways that non-nudging interventions (e.g., simple graphs) do not. While non-nudging interventions are generally preferable, careful thought is required for determining the relative benefits and costs associated with information transparency and persuasion. PMID:26149163

  5. How to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a latex condom every time you have vaginal, oral, or anal sex decreases the chances of infection. Condoms lubricated with spermicides do not offer extra protection. Frequent use of some spermicides can increase the ...

  6. 2004-2011年上海口岸国际旅行者性传播疾病分析%Analysis on sexually transmitted disease among international travelers at Shanghai port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惟信; 何莓; 华羚

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估上海口岸出入境旅行者中性传播疾病的流行趋势及危险因素.方法 回顾性分析2004-2011年上海口岸国际旅行者中性传播疾病(艾滋病和梅毒)监测结果,对感染者进行流行病学调查,分析人群特征及危险因素.结果 共调查国际旅行者523731人次,检出性传播疾病感染者613例.艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染平均检出率为27.30/10万,大部分为境外输入性病例.梅毒平均检出率为93.94/10万,超过半数为本地出境人员.检出率呈上升趋势.感染者中以男性20至49岁性活跃人群为主,≤19岁女性和≥50岁男性所占比例近年有所增加,平均年龄有增高趋势.性接触尤其是与商业性工作者及男性同性接触仍是主要传播途径.共发现22例HIV/梅毒双重感染病例.结论 上海口岸出入境国际旅行者中性传播疾病感染率有所上升,在旅行医学工作中应该重视采取提倡安全性行为,筛查高危人群及宣传教育等干预措施.%Objective To assess the trends and risk factors of sexually transmitted disease (STD) among entry-exit international travelers at Shanghai port. Methods A retrospective review of STD (HIV and syphilis) surveillance results among international travelers during 2004 to 2011 was conducted. Patients diagnosed with STD were interviewed to analyze the characteristics and risk factors of STD infection. Results A total of 523 731 international travelers were enrolled. Among participants, 613 STD cases were identified. The average detection rate of HIV infection was 27.30 per 100 000. Most of them were travelers from overseas. The detection rate of syphilis was 93.94 per 100 000. More than half of them were outgoing travelers. Assessment of annual detection rate revealed an increasing trend. The predominant characteristics were male gender, sexually active age (20-49). There was an increasing trend of teenager girl and old age male infection. Casual sexual activities and men who have

  7. Sexual assault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M-L; Hilden, M; Lidegaard, Ø

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the victims of sexual assault and the circumstances in which the assaults occur. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault (CVSA), Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: A total of 2541 women attending CVSA from 2001......) the relationship between victim and perpetrator. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the victims were aged 15-24 years. Seventy-five percent had met the perpetrator before the sexual assault and 70% reported the assault to the police. A physical injury was found in 53, and 27% sustained an anogenital lesion. Alcohol...... was involved in 60% of the cases. One-third of the victims had experienced a previous sexual assault(s). Women were more likely to report to the police when they were assaulted by a stranger (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3-2.6) and sustained a physical injury (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1...

  8. Sexuality and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

  9. Doenças sexualmente transmissíveis na gestação: uma síntese de particularidades Sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy: a synthesis of particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carvalho Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DSTs apresentam prevalência significativa tanto na população geral quanto nas gestantes. Nestas, em especial, devem-se considerar as alterações fisiológicas em seu organismo que podem, inclusive, alterar o curso dessas doenças. Complicações obstétricas e neonatais podem ocorrer em decorrência delas, acarretando aumento da morbimortalidade materno-infantil. Abordam-se, neste artigo, as particularidades da história natural e terapêutica no período gestacional das principais DSTs: cancro mole, donovanose, gonorreia, clamidíase, hepatites virais, herpes genital, infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV, linfogranuloma venéreo, sífilis e vulvovaginites. As DSTs devem ser enfrentadas com extrema atenção e conscientização por parte dos profissionais de saúde, principalmente, no tocante ao diagnóstico, que deve ser o mais precoce possível, e ao tratamento, que apresenta limitações na terapêutica durante a gestação, pela toxicidade de muitos dos medicamentos comumente empregados. A prevenção e o tratamento do parceiro são importantes para que as ações sejam efetivas.Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs have a significant prevalence in both the general population and pregnant women. Accordingly, we consider the physiological changes of the maternal organism that can alter the clinical course of these diseases. In addition, obstetric and neonatal complications may occur, resulting in increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. We explore features of the natural course and treatment during pregnancy of the major STDs: soft chancre, donovanosis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, viral hepatitis, genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV infection, lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, and vulvovaginitis. We believe that health professionals should pay careful attention to STDs, particularly in relation to early diagnosis and precautions on the use of drugs during pregnancy. Prevention

  10. Sexuality Education for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuner, Cora C; Mattson, Gerri

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this clinical report is to provide pediatricians updated research on evidence-based sexual and reproductive health education conducted since the original clinical report on the subject was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2001. Sexuality education is defined as teaching about human sexuality, including intimate relationships, human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, gender identity, abstinence, contraception, and reproductive rights and responsibilities. Developmentally appropriate and evidence-based education about human sexuality and sexual reproduction over time provided by pediatricians, schools, other professionals, and parents is important to help children and adolescents make informed, positive, and safe choices about healthy relationships, responsible sexual activity, and their reproductive health. Sexuality education has been shown to help to prevent and reduce the risks of adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections for children and adolescents with and without chronic health conditions and disabilities in the United States. PMID:27432844

  11. Conhecimento, atitudes e práticas de mulheres brasileiras atendidas pela rede básica de saúde com relação às doenças de transmissão sexual Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Brazilian women treated in the primary health care system concerning sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete Maria dos Santos Fernandes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem-se observado aumento na prevalência da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana entre mulheres brasileiras. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de determinar conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas de prevenção com relação às doenças de transmissão sexual (DST no que se refere a mulheres atendidas na rede primária de saúde de Campinas, São Paulo, para implementar futuras ações. Entre 249 mulheres entrevistadas, 10% disseram usar a camisinha e 7,6% relataram uso consistente. Apesar de a maioria das mulheres (87,6% referir a televisão como fonte de informação, a qualidade desta foi pobre para sensibilizá-las do risco das DST. A totalidade das mulheres expressou confiança no médico. Concluiu-se que as mulheres não optam pelo uso da camisinha para prevenção de DST/AIDS, utilizando-o, em geral, com a intenção de contracepção. É preciso implementar a adoção do diálogo informativo a respeito das DST/AIDS durante a consulta e inovar a forma e a qualidade das informações, de modo a viabilizar maior aderência da população às práticas do comportamento sexual seguro.An increase has been observed in the prevalence of HIV infection among Brazilian women in recent years. This study focused on women's knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in the primary health care system in Campinas, São Paulo. Of the 249 women interviewed, 10% reported condom use, while consistent use was reported by 7.6%. Although most women reported receiving information from television (87.6%, the quality of such information was insufficient to sensitize women as to their risk of exposure to STD. Most of the women reported physician confidence as an important factor. We conclude that women do not opt for condoms to prevent STD/AIDS, but as a contraceptive method. An instructive dialogue on STD/AIDS should be adopted during physician consultation, and the kind and quality of

  12. Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health STDs Home Page Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).* Sexual risk behaviors place adolescents at risk for HIV infection, other sexually transmitted ...

  13. Conhecimentos de adolescentes sobre Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis: subsídios para prevenção Conocimientos de adolescentes sobre Enfermedades Sexualmente Transmisibles: subsidios para la prevención Teenagers' knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: strategies for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto da Silva Brêtas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar o conhecimento de adolescentes sobre as formas de transmissão e prevenção das Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis. Metodos: envolveu 920 adolescentes entre 10 e 19 anos de idade eos dados foram obtidos por meio de um questionário estruturado. Resultado: os resultados demonstraram que a principal fonte para obtenção de informações sobre o assunto foi o professor; as Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis não são totalmente desconhecidas para os adolescentes do estudo, sendo a AIDS a mais conhecida.Objetivo: Identificar el nivel de conocimiento de adolescentes sobre las formas de transmisión y prevención de las EST. Métodos: Envolvió 920 adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años de edad, los datos fueron obtenidos por medio de un cuestionario estructurado. Resultados: Los resultados demostraron que la principal fuente para obtención de informaciones sobre el asunto fue el profesor; las Enfermedades Sexualmente Transmisibles no son totalmente desconocidas para los adolescentes del estudio, siendo el SIDA la más conocida.Objective: To identify teenager's knowledge of transmission and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD. Methods: A sample of children and teenagers aged between 10 and 19 years participated in the study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire developed for the study. Results: The findings suggested that the main source of information on Sexually Transmitted Diseases was the participants' school teacher. Sexually transmitted diseases are not entirely unknown by the participants in the study, with AIDS the most notorious.

  14. Attenders at young people's clinics in Southampton: variations in contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, L; Ingham, R

    1998-10-01

    This paper presents findings from a survey of 424 people attending nine young people's clinics within the Southampton Community Health NHS Trust. In addition to recording some descriptive background data on the people attending the clinics, one major aim of the study was to investigate whether talking to the sexual partner about contraception before their first intercourse together and delaying this first intercourse influenced contraceptive use. Overall, 40 per cent of people attending the clinics were aged 16 or under, although there was some variation between clinics in the age groups attracted. Most clients were female (88 per cent), had ever had sexual intercourse (92 per cent), reported four or more lifetime partners (42 per cent) but only one partner within the last six months (73 per cent) and were currently in a relationship (75 per cent). Potential for contraception and sexually transmitted infection was widespread; 46 per cent (of non-virgins) had had intercourse without contraception at least 'a few times' and 18 per cent used condoms 'rarely' or 'never'. In terms of first intercourse with current/most recent partner, 17 per cent had not used any contraception and 32 per cent had failed to use condoms. The most important findings from this study were that use of contraception (and condoms in particular) on the occasion of first intercourse with the current or most recent partner was significantly associated with the following; if partners had talked to each other about contraception before having intercourse together for the first time (p<0.001), and also if this first intercourse was delayed beyond four weeks as opposed to over a few days of first 'going-out' together (p<0.001). Suggestions for further in-depth research are made. PMID:9855715

  15. 性传播疾病混合感染对生殖影响的研究%Study on influence of sexually transmitted diseases mixed infection on reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晶晶; 王霞

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) mixed infection on reproduction in order to direct the clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods All cases from the dermatology and gynecology out-patient clinic in recent two years were studied. According to the patients' condition, five common genital tracts STD were selected and disease-related pathogen were detected. Results 29 cases of 776 males who were infected by one kind of pathogen had infertility and the prevalence was 3.7% 24 cases of 206 males who had mixed infection of two or more kinds of pathogen had infertility and the prevalence was 11.7%; 43 cases of 1223 females who were infected by one kind of pathogen had infertility (3.5%); 46 cases of 295 females who had mixed infection of two or more kinds of pathogen had infertility (15.6%). The age stage of male and female infertility caused by STD mixed infection was mainly between 20 and 30 years old. Conclusions The probability of infertility caused by male and female STD mixed infection was obviously higher than the STD single infection. Clinical symptom should be analyzed carefully and the detection of disease-related pathogen could raise the STD detection rate and cure rate.%目的 调查本地区性传播疾病(STD)混合感染对生殖的影响,为临床的诊治提供参考.方法 所有病例均来自近2年木院皮肤科和妇科门诊,其中男18~45岁,女17~45岁,根据患者病情对5种常见生殖道STD进行适当的组检.结果 检查1905例男性中只有一种病原体感染的患者776例,引发不孕症的有29例,占患病率的3.7%;而有2种以上病原体混合感染的患者206例,引发不孕症的有24例,占患病率的11.7%.检查的2 875例女性中只有一种病原体感染患者1 223例,引发不孕症的有43例,占患病率的3.5%;而有2种以上病原体混合感染的患者295例,引发不育症的有46例,占患病率的15.6%.男性和女性由STD混合感染引

  16. Analysis on 498 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Cases from the Hospital of Weihai%威海市某医院498例性传播疾病临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕飞; 刘卫兵; 陈洪晓; 王婷; 李美力

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解威海市性传播疾病(简称性病)的发病情况,为制定防控策略提供科学依据.方法 对威海市某医院2006-2010年报告的498例性病疫情资料进行临床分析.结果 5年间报告梅毒、淋病、非淋菌性尿道炎、生殖器疱疹及尖锐湿疣共498例,男356例,女142例,33例患两种以上性病;发病构成比先增高后降低,由2006年的14.26/万,先上升至2009年的28.11/万,后降至2010年的21.08/万.梅毒和非淋茵性尿道炎、生殖器疱疹发病比例逐年增高,尖锐湿疣最高,平均为32.60%,淋病逐年下降;21 ~29岁年龄组为高发人群(44.18%),50岁以上年龄组构成比逐年增高;职业以待业者为主.结论 梅毒等发病比例呈上升趋势,高年龄组性病发病比例逐年增高,因此性病的预防与控制工作应有针对性的加大力度.%Objective To investigate the situation of sexual transmitted diseases in surveillance sites in Weihai City during 2006 -2010 and provide scientific evidence for the development of preventive strategies. Methods , The epidemiology data of the STDs in the period of 2006 - 2010 was analyzed. Results A total of 498 STDs cases including syphilis,gonorrhea,nongonococcal urethritis,genital herpes,condyloma acuminatum were reported , with 356 males and 142 females. 33 cases have more than 2 kinds of STDs. Proporation of STDs appeared to be first ascending then descending, from 14. 26/100 000 in 2006 to 28. 11/100 000 in 2009 and 21.08/100 000 in 2010. The proportion of syphilis and NGU is increasing year by year. Condyloma acuminatum was the most frequently seen STDs which constituting 32. 60% of the 5 kinds of STDs on average while gonorrhea was descending. Proporation in group 21 ~ 29 was higher (44. 18% ) than in other groups, while in group 50 was increased yearly. Most cases were job-waiting. Conclusion Proporation of syphilis is increasing year by year,so was high age group. STDs have become a serious public health

  17. Investigation and analysis of the sexually transmitted disease situation among 812 female sex workers%812名女性性工作者患性病情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞莺

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To understand the incidence of sexually transmitted disease (STD)among female sex workers in Wuxi city,so as to take appropriate intervention measures.Methods:Six kinds of STD testing were conducted on the 812 female sex workers adopted in Re -educational Detention Center of Wuxi in 2012,and the re-sults were statistically analyzed through the chi -square test.Results:438 (53.94%)female sex workers investi-gated had STD,including 247 cases (30.42%)of syphilis,22 cases (2.71%)of condyloma acuminate and 169 cases (20.81%)of genital tract chlamydia trachomatis infection,and 61 cases (7.51%)had 2 types of STD.No gonorrhea,genital herpes and HIV /AIDS was found.Conclusion:Since female sex workers are the main carrier of all sorts of STD,STD prevention and control and behavioral intervention targeted at such people can effectively re-duce the spread of STD by cutting off the source of infection.%目的:了解无锡市女性性工作者性病发病情况,并采取相应的干预措施。方法:对无锡市2012年收容教育所收教的812名学员进行6种性病检测,并通过卡方检验对结果进行统计分析。结果:812例收教学员入所时患性病的438例,占53.94%,其中梅毒247例,占30.42%;尖锐湿疣22例,占2.71%;生殖道沙眼衣原体感染169例,占20.81%;同时患2种性病的61例,占7.51%。检查中未发现淋病、生殖器疱疹和艾滋病。出所时梅毒和尖锐湿疣分别下降到3.45%和1.6%,169例生殖道沙眼衣原体感染者全部治愈。结论:女性性工作者是传播各种性病的主要载体,因此做好这类人群的性病防治和行为干预,切断传染源,可以有效降低性病的传播速度。

  18. Syphilis and HIV infection status in outpatients with sexually transmitted diseases in Shantou, 2004-2011%汕头市性病门诊2004-2011年梅毒及HIV感染状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方小娴; 廖胡君; 林贤娜

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解汕头地区性病门诊患者梅毒及艾滋病感染情况.方法 对皮肤性病防治院2004年1月至2011年12月性病门诊患者进行梅毒、艾滋病血清学检测,并对检测结果及临床资料进行统计分析.结果 14 491例性病门诊患者中,共确认梅毒阳性666例,阳性率4.60%.其中男性患者感染率为3.76 %(384/10 214),女性患者感染率为6.59%(282/4 277),两者差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).确认HIV阳性者20例,阳性率0.14%.其中男性患者HIV阳性率0.14%(14/10 214),女性患者阳性率0.14%(6/4 277),两者差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).有6例HIV阳性者合并感染梅毒.结论 汕头地区性病门诊就诊患者梅毒及HIV感染率近年虽未见明显增长,但还应继续做好性病高危人群HIV及梅毒的防治工作,争取早发现、早治疗,防范HIV及梅毒向一般人群的传播.%Objective To investigate syphilis and HIV infection status in outpatients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Shantou. Method Patients in out-patient department of STDs,Shantou Hospital from January 2004 to December 2011 were serologically tested for syphilis and HIV infectton and data were statistically analyzed. Results Totally, 14 491 STDs outpatients were tested for syphilis and HIV,and 666 (4. 60%) of them were diagnosed as syphilis positive. The positive rate in males was 3. 76% (384/10 214) and 6. 59% (282/4 277) in females. The infection rate of female STDs patients for syphilis was obviously higher than that of male STDs patients (P0. 05). Among those syphilis and HIV infected patients, six were positive in both syphilis and HIV. Conclusion Syphilis and HIV infection rates in STDs outpatients did not increase obviously in Shantou. However, more work should be done for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of syphilis and HIV infection in STD high risk groups, so that the transmission of syphilis and HIV to the general populations may be prevented.

  19. A vulnerabilidade da adolescente às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis: contribuições para a prática da enfermagem La vulnerabilidad del adolescente a las enfermedades de transmisión sexual: contribuciones a la práctica de enfermería Contributions to the practice of nursing: the vulnerability of adolescents to sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Mateus Barreto

    2009-12-01

    conceptos de vulnerabilidad y resiliencia para estar aptos para estimular y aumentar la auto-estima de las adolescentes, y consecuentemente disminuir su vulnerabilidad a las enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles.The present study is a research of qualitative nature. The method used was the Life History method. The main purpose of this research was to analyze the vulnerability of adolescents to sexually transmitted diseases (STD. The objectives were to identify the vulnerable conditions of adolescents under care at maternity wards of public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro and to describe the strategies adopted by adolescents to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. This was done by obtaining the life history of adolescents and analyzing their vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases. According to this study, adolescents with unstable family backgrounds are less resilient, and therefore more vulnerable to being infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The study emphasizes the importance of nurses taking ownership of the concepts of vulnerability and resilience to be able to stimulate and enhance self-esteem in adolescents and reduce their vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases.

  20. A theoretical model of the evolution of virulence in sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS Modelo teórico da evolucão da virulência do HIV/AIDS transmitido sexualmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAB Coutinho

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The evolution of virulence in host-parasite relationships has been the subject of several publications. In the case of HIV virulence, some authors suggest that the evolution of HIV virulence correlates with the rate of acquisition of new sexual partners. In contrast some other authors argue that the level of HIV virulence is independent of the sexual activity of the host population. METHODS: Provide a mathematical model for the study of the potential influence of human sexual behaviour on the evolution of virulence of HIV is provided. RESULTS: The results indicated that, when the probability of acquisition of infection is a function both of the sexual activity and of the virulence level of HIV strains, the evolution of HIV virulence correlates positively with the rate of acquisition of new sexual partners. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that in the case of a host population with a low (high rate of exchange of sexual partners the evolution of HIV virulence is such that the less (more virulent strain prevails.INTRODUÇÃO: A evolução da virulência na relação hospedeiro-parasita tem sido objeto de várias publicações. No caso do HIV, alguns autores sugerem que a evolução da virulência do HIV correlaciona-se com a taxa de aquisição de novos parceiros sexuais. Por outro lado, outros autores argumentam que o nível de virulência do HIV é independente da atividade sexual da população hospedeira. MÉTODOS: Propõe-se um modelo matemático para estudar a influência potencial que o comportamento sexual humano possa ter na evolução da virulência do HIV. RESULTADOS: Os resultados indicam que, quando a probabilidade de aquisição da infecção pelo HIV é uma função tanto da atividade sexual da população humana quanto da virulência das cepas de HIV, a evolução da virulência do HIV correlaciona-se positivamente com a taxa de aquisição de novos parceiros sexuais. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que no caso de uma popula

  1. Assessment of reactivity of three treponemal tests in non-treponemal non-reactive cases from sexually transmitted diseases clinic, antenatal clinic, integrated counselling and testing centre, other different outdoor patient departments/indoor patients of a tertiary care centre and peripheral health clinic attendees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, many state reference centres for sexually transmitted infections perform only a single screening assay for syphilis diagnosis. In this study, Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA was performed on 1115 Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL/rapid plasma regain (RPR non-reactive and 107 reactive sera out of 10,489 tested by VDRL/RPR according to the National AIDS Control Organisation syphilis testing protocol. A total of 47 Specimens reactive in TPHA and non-reactive with VDRL test were subjected to fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption and enzyme-immunoassay. Seroprevalence considering both VDRL and TPHA positivity was highest (4.4% in sexually transmitted diseases clinic attendees than in other subject groups. Positivity by two treponemal tests in 24 (2.2% cases non-reactive by VDRL/RPR was representative of the fully treated patients or latent or late syphilis cases. The findings highlight that a suitable treponemal confirmatory test should be performed in all the diagnostic laboratories.

  2. Gender, Religiosity, Sexual Activity, Sexual Knowledge, and Attitudes Toward Controversial Aspects of Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümer, Zeynep Hatipoğlu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion. PMID:24510128

  3. Vulnerabilidade à Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/AIDS e uso de drogas psicoativas por caminhoneiros Vulnerabilidad a las Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/SIDA y uso de drogas psicoativas por conductores de camiones Vulnerability to Sexually Transmitted Diseases/AIDS and use of psychoactive drugs by truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Aparecida Masson

    2010-02-01

    .A cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study with the purpose of identify the demographic characteristics, health aspects and life style, vulnerability to Sexually Transmitted Diseases/AIDS amongst long distance truck drivers were applied to 50 drivers from supply center of Campinas (fruit, vegetable, product wholesale market. The outcomes showed that almost all drivers interviewed were men, the majority were married, had kids, low study level and fewer than 40 years old. 70% reported abuse psychoactive drugs. The majority was aware of the importance of using condoms with casual partners; 94% reported relationship with casual partners and just 6% never used condoms. Although the small sample analyzed, the results suggests that must be implemented health promotion actions and illness prevention public politics, including the development of customized educational interventions with in this professional group.

  4. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime E. Barrientos; Michel Bozon; Edith Ortiz; Anabella Arredondo

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW ...

  5. Some Models for Epidemics of Vector-Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, Fred; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Mubayi, Anuj; Towers, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Vector-transmitted diseases such as dengue fever and chikungunya have been spreading rapidly in many parts of the world. The Zika virus has been known since 1947 and invaded South America in 2013. It can be transmitted not only by (mosquito) vectors but also directly through sexual contact. Zika has developed into a serious global health problem because, while most cases are asymptomatic or very light, babies born to Zika - infected mothers may develop microcephaly and other very serious birt...

  6. Healthy Sexuality

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Sexuality Sexuality is the experience and/or expression of a person as a sexual being. Sexuality ... and explanations. Sexuality is the experience and/or expression of a person as a sexual being. It ...

  7. Human sexual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The human sexual response to sexually arousing stimuli is a motivational incentive-based cycle comprising subjective experience and physiologic changes. Clinical and empirical data support a circular model of overlapping phases of variable order. Brain imaging data of sexual arousal identify areas of cerebral activation and inhibition reflecting a complex network of cognitive, motivational, emotional, and autonomic components. Psychologic and biologic factors influence the brain's appraisal and processing of sexual stimuli to allow or disallow subsequent arousal. The sexual and non-sexual outcomes influence motivation to future sexual intimacy. Variability is marked both between individuals and within a person's sexual life, influenced by multiple factors, including stage of life cycle, mental health, and relationship happiness. Neurologic disease can interrupt the cycle at many points: by limiting motivation, reducing ability to attend to and feel sexual stimuli, and accomplishing the movements needed to stimulate and experience intercourse. Impairments to genital congestion, penile erection, and orgasm may also occur. Disease-associated changes to the interpersonal relationship and self-image plus frequently comorbid depression will tend to lessen motivation and temper the brain's appraisal of sexual stimuli, so precluding arousal. Therapy begins by explaining the sexual response cycle, clarifying the points of interruption in the patient's own cycle so as to guide treatment. PMID:26003236

  8. Normative Beliefs and Sexual Risk in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Ding, Ying Ying; Wu, Zunyou; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Guo, Sam; ,

    2010-01-01

    We examined normative beliefs about multiple sexual partners and social status in China and their association with risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Self-reported and biological markers of sexual risk were examined among 3,716 market vendors from a city in eastern China. Men who were older or with less education believed having multiple sexual partners was linked to higher social status. Adjusting for demographic characteristics, normative beliefs were signifi...

  9. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...

  10. 浙江省台州市男男性行为者艾滋病病毒/性传播感染的危险行为与性关系网络调查%Human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection,risk behavior and sexual networks among men who have sex with men in Taizhou city,Zhejiang province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炜明; 林海江; 章亚夫; 裘丹红; 冯济富; 高眉扬; 何纳

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus(Hiv),sexually transmitted infection(Sti),risk behavior and the sexual neworks among men who have sex with men (MSM)in Taizhou city,Zhejiang province.Methods cross-sectional Astudy was applied with venue-based sampling in 2 MSM gathering sites in Taizhou.'Informed Consent'principle was applied and MSM were studied through a structured questionnaire.Blood samples were collected from thee who accepted free and confidential HIV/STI counseling and then tested for HIV,syphilis,HCV and HsV-2 antibodies with ELISA.HIV positive sera were certified with western blot.Results 106 MSM were investigated and 97 qualified questionnaires were collected.25.0%(23/92)of these MSM have ever had l female sex partner while 47.8%(44/92)had 2 or more.14.3%(13/91)of them reported having had 1 male partner who had engaged in anal sex and 80.2%(73/91)had 2 or more.22.1%(19/86)of therh had partieipated in group sex but 62.5%(55/88)of them did not always use condom when having analintercourse.15.1%(14/93) of them had l orfll sex partner while 75.3%(70/93)having 2 or more.38.9%(37/95)of them had sex with female sex worker,and 35.5%(33/93)had sex with male-to-male sex worker.15.3%(13/85)0f them had once been male-to-male sex worker themselves.3.9%(3/77)of them were found HIV positive in blood tests,with 24.7%(18/73)positive of syphilis,15.1%(11/73)positive ofHSV-2 but HCV appeared to be negative.46 csses reported their egocentric recognition networks,with mean degree of 5.91(ranging0-10),and mesa density of 0.548(ranging 0.000-1.000).43 sexual networks were identified,with mean degree of 2.70(ranging 0-10),and mean density of 0.246(ranging 0.000-1.000).Conclusion Risk behaviors,such as multiple sex partners,IOW proportion of condom use and commercial sex engagement both with heterosexuals and homosexuals,were extensively existed among MSM in Taizhou,and the prevalence of HIV/STI was

  11. Estrategias novedosas de prevención de embarazo e ITS/VIH/sida entre adolescentes escolarizados mexicanos A novel school-based strategy for the prevention of HIV/AIDS, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STDs, and teen pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Torres

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir el diseño de un estudio en escuelas preparatorias para evaluar una intervención de prevención de VIH/sida y embarazos no planeados, y presentar los resultados de su encuesta basal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se implementó una intervención sobre VIH/sida/ITS, dirigida a adolescentes, incluyendo anticoncepción de emergencia (AE, y se diseñó una evaluación prospectiva aleatorizada controlada para medir la efectividad de la misma. Se llevó a cabo una encuesta basal, de la que se deriva un diagnóstico de los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos sexuales de la población objetivo. RESULTADOS: De las 40 escuelas participantes, 11 177 estudiantes de primero de preparatoria (52% mujeres; edad media de ambos sexos de 15.5 años participaron en la encuesta basal. De ellos, 10% de las mujeres y 24% de los hombres dijeron tener experiencia sexual, y únicamente 39% reportó haber usado condón en la primera relación. De los sexualmente activos, un tercio de los hombres y la quinta parte de las mujeres reportaron haber experimentado zafadura o rotura del condón. La mayor parte de los participantes había escuchado previamente sobre la AE. CONCLUSIONES: La baja proporción del uso de condón, aunado al hecho de que se reportan problemas para su uso efectivo, refuerza la idea del diseño de este estudio: proponer un método anticonceptivo de respaldo al condón, como la AE, razonablemente conocida y con disposición para su uso.OBJECTIVE: To introduce the study design of an HIV/AIDS and unplanned pregnancy prevention program targeting high school students, and to present the results from the baseline survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A school curriculum was developed to inform adolescent students about HIV/AIDS/STD prevention, which included information on emergency contraception (EC for adolescent students. A randomized controlled study was conducted to simultaneously evaluate the effect of this intervention. The baseline survey

  12. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. ...

  13. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in Southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian

  14. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, X.; Hawk, S.T.; Winter, S.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian

  15. Characteristics of sexual behavior among teenagers in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjekić Milan D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The risks associated with teenage sex include pregnancy and a high rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Material and methods The study compared female teenagers: 32 with STDs and 90 with fungal skin infections who were treated in the City Center for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade from January 2000 to June 2001. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data and an univariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results The mean age of participants was 18.2 years. About 40% of respondents reported to have their first sexual intercourse at the age of 14-16 years. The majority of cases and controls had one or two partners, but a greater percentage of cases had six or more partners compared to controls (12.5% vs. 3.3%. Adolescents with STDs frequently had sexual intercourse on the first date (p<0.05, and more frequently reported previous STDs in their personal history (p<0.05. Consistent use of condoms was less frequent among cases than among controls, both with steady (9.4% vs. 27.8% and irregular partners (30.0% vs. 70.6%. The majority of teenagers (95% thinks that sexual education at schools should be better. Discussion According to the results obtained, which are in agreement with literature data, teenagers should change their behavior, especially with respect to condom use both during vaginal and anal sex. Health education at schools could probably influence future sexual behavior, and counseling for STDs should be offered to all teenagers attending STD clinics. Conclusion The best way to avoid unwanted pregnancy and STDs is to delay the first sexual experience, reduce the number of sexual partners and increase the protection by condom use.

  16. Sex Partner with No Zika Symptoms Transmits Virus: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_160643.html Sex Partner With No Zika Symptoms Transmits Virus: CDC New report also highlights ties between Zika ... HealthDay News) -- U.S. health officials report that the Zika virus can be spread sexually even when a partner ...

  17. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  18. Violência sexual contra criança no meio intrafamiliar atendidos no SAMVVIS, Teresina, PI Violencia sexual contra niño en el medio intrafamiliar asistidos en el SAMVVIS, Teresina, PI Sexual violence against children in a family environment attended by SAMVVIS, Teresina, PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Ferreira de Souza Monteiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo se trata da caracterização da violência sexual em crianças atendidas no Serviço de Atendimento às Mulheres Vítimas de Violência Sexual (SAMVVIS no período de 2004 a 2007, em Teresina, PI. Dados levantados em 229 registros indicam que a idade das crianças vai de menores de 1 ano até os 12 anos. A identificação do agressor apresenta o vizinho (29,7%, padrasto (11,4%, pai (9,4% e tio com 8,4%. Com relação à ocupação do agressor, 20,35% são estudantes, desempregados (26,85% e aposentados (3,89%. Conclui-se da necessidade de mais efetividade na política de proteção à criança, assim como de campanhas de alerta às mães quando da escolha do guardador de suas filhas.El estudio trata de la caracterización de la violencia sexual en niños asistidos en el Servicio de Asistencia a las Mujeres Víctimas de Violencia Sexual (SAMVVIS en el periodo de 2004 a 2007, en Teresina, PI. Datos verificados en 229 registros cuyos resultados indican que la edad de los niños va de menores de año hasta los 12 anos. La identificación del agresor presenta el vecino (29,7%, padrastro (11,4%, padre ( 9,4% y tío con 8,4% . Con relación a la ocupación del agresor 20,35% son estudiantes, desempleado (26,85% y jubilado (3,89%. Se concluye la necesidad de más efectividad en la política de protección al niño y de campañas de alerta a las madres cuanto a la elección del guardián de sus hijas.This study deals with the characterization of sexual violence in children seen at the Services for the Assistance of Women Victims of Sexual Violence (SAMVVIS from 2004 to 2007 in Teresina, PI. Data collected from 229 charts indicate that the age of the children varies from less than one year up to 12 years of age. The identification of the aggressor was the neighbor (29.7%, stepfather (11.4%, father (9.4% and uncle with 8.4%. In regards to the occupation of the aggressor, 20.35% are students, unemployed (26.85% and retired (3.89%. It follows that

  19. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet Updated March 2016 Key facts Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species ...

  20. Câncer anal e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis: qual a correlação? Anal cancer and sexually transmitted diseases: what is the correlation?

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo de Castro Durães; João Batista de Sousa

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O Câncer Anal é um tumor raro, cuja incidência é influenciada pelo comportamento sexual. O objetivo do trabalho é verificar a correlação entre o Câncer Anal e as Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis, como HPV, HIV, Infecção Gonocócica, Infecção por Clamídia, Sífilis e outras. MÉTODOS: Foram pesquisadas no site do Datasus as internações por Câncer Anal, HPV, HIV, Infecção Gonocócica, Infecção por Clamídia, Sífilis e outras DSTs, no SUS no Brasil, entre 1998 e 2007. O teste de correlaçã...