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  1. Sexual behaviour in adolescents and young people attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic, Ile Ife, Nigeria

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    Olasode Olayinka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available WHO estimates that 20% of persons living with HIV/AIDS are in their 20s and one out of twenty adolescents contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD each year. A total of 303 adolescents and youths (10-24 years of age attending an STD clinic were subjected to a questionnaire to assess sexual behavioural patterns that predisposed them to STD. Scope of the questions included age at initiation of sexual intercourse, partner at first exposure, number of sexual partners, use of condoms, exposure to commercial sex workers (CSWs, previous infection with STDs and role of alcohol. Their diagnosis was based on history, clinical findings and laboratory confirmation. Adolescents and youths accounted for 30% of the total number of patients attending the STD clinic during this period. The male to female ratio was 1:0.95. Ninety-six percent (290 were single while 4% (13 were married. Seventy-two percent (217 were students. Age at onset of sexual activity was 10-20 years in 80%, 85% practiced risky sexual behaviour, patronising casual partners was frequent especially after alcohol use, 10% had been exposed to CSWs, condom use was poor, number of sexual partners varied between 1 and 5 and previous infections were not professionally treated. Adolescents and young people are sexually active and practice risky sexual behavioural patterns. Adolescents and youths account for a high percentage of patients patronising the STD clinic. Sexual education and youth friendly reproductive health services are urgently needed to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS/STDs.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening of patients attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; Fennema, JSA; Postma, MJ

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal HIV screening of patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Amsterdam. Design: Cost effectiveness analysis. Methods: A Bernoulli model for the secondary transmission of HIV was linked with epidemiological data on

  3. Routine HIV screening of sexually transmitted disease clinic attenders has favourable cost-effectiveness ratio in low HIV prevalence settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; van der Meijden, WI; Swart, W; Postma, MJ

    2002-01-01

    HIV screening for attenders of clinics for sexually transmitted disease (STD) may identify individuals with high-risk sexual behaviour and avert HIV infections in partners. Extending our previous analysis in AIDS, we performed an economic evaluation of HIV screening of STD-clinic attenders in Rotter

  4. Hepatitis B infection among patients attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ledy HS Oliveira

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV has a low endemicity in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sexual transmission must play an important role in this virus, but the prevalence and risk factors have never been properly investigated. The aim of this paper is to determine the prevalence and risk factors for HBV infection in patients attending a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In a retrospective study, HBV seroprevalence was investigated in 440 patients. Serum of each patient was assayed for antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs. Demographic and risk factor data were extracted from clinic notes. The overall seroprevalence of exposure markers for HBV (anti-HBc, HBsAg and anti-HBs were 13%, 3.4% and 8.5% respectively. Homo/bisexual behaviour, anal intercourse, HIV infection, positive serology for syphilis and blood transfusion were predictors of the HBV exposure. Among demographic data, age and place of birth were associated with the anti-HBc seropositivity.

  5. Human papillomavirus infection in a male population attending a sexually transmitted infection service.

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    Marta Elena Álvarez-Argüelles

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection in men may produce cancer and other major disorders. Men play an important role in the transmission of the virus and act as a reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the HPV-genotypes and their prevalence in a group of men attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection service. PATIENTS AND SAMPLES: Between July 2002 and June 2011, 1392 balanopreputial, 435 urethral, 123 anal, and 67 condyloma lesions from 1551 men with a mean age of 35.8±11.3 years old (range: 17-87 were collected for HPV-DNA testing. METHODS: A fragment of the L1-gene and a fragment of the E6/E7-genes were amplified by PCR. Positive samples were typed by hybridization. RESULTS: The HPV genome was detected in 36.9% (486/1318 balanopreputial and in 24.9% (101/405 urethral (p35. HPV was found in 59.4% (104 of 165 men with lesions (macroscopic or positive peniscopy, and in 22.8% (61/267 without clinical alterations. HPV was also detected in 71.4% (40/56 men with condylomata and in 58.7% (64/109 of men with positive peniscopy. CONCLUSIONS: HPV prevalence in men was high and decreased with age. HPV was found more frequently in balanopreputial than in urethral swabs. There was a low rate of co-infections. Low-risk HPV vaccine genotypes were the most recurrent especially in younger. Although HPV has been associated with clinical alterations, it was also found in men without any clinical presentation. Inclusion of men in the national HPV vaccination program may reduce their burden of HPV-related disease and reduce transmission of the virus to non-vaccinated women.

  6. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among women attending antenatal clinics in Tanga, north eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiduo, M; Theilgaard, Z P; Bakari, V

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Tanga, Tanzania. Retrospective data on syphilis and HIV status during 2008-2010 were collected from antenatal clinic (ANC) records. Prospective data were...

  7. Mediators of the Relation Between Community Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adults Attending a Public Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic.

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    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective.

  8. Epidemiological Investigation of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Hangzhou Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Hangzhou area. Methods Male subjects (n=375) aged 18-70 years,attending the STD clinic were recruited. Urethral swabs were assessed for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)with the consensus primers MY09/11. HPV genotypes of positive PCR products were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms and direct sequence analysis. Results Of the 375 swabs collected, 305 (81.3%) yielded sufficient DNA for the subsequent HPV analysis. Among the 305 subjects, the prevalence of HPV was 13.8%. Nononcogenic HPV types were found in 8.5% (26/305) of subjects, oncogenic types in 4.3% (13/305), and multiple types in 1.0% (3/305). The prevalence of HPV infection was higher in subjects from urban area than in those from rural area (P<0.05). The prevalence was also higher in those who received fewer years of education (P<0.05) and those who had more sex partners (P<0.05). Conclusions HPV infection among men at high risk is not uncommon. The detection rate of HPV DNA is significantly related to some sociodemographic factors, such as residence, educational level and the number of sex partners.

  9. A survey of genital infections in patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases.

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    Staerfelt, F; Gundersen, T J; Halsos, A M; Barlinn, C; Johansen, A G; Nørregaard, K M; Eng, J

    1983-01-01

    747 consecutive patients, 531 men and 216 women, attending the Division of Dermatovenerology, City Health Dept., Oslo, were screened for N. gonorrhoeae (14.5% and 18.5%), C. trachomatis (19.6% and 20.8%), G. vaginalis (0.2% and 6.5%), and C. albicans (1.1% and 21.3%). The prevalence is given in brackets for men and women, respectively. This study was undertaken in order to determine the relative prevalence of these microorganisms with particular reference to G. vaginalis, to determine the importance of concomitant infections, and the possible effect of contraceptive methods (oral contraceptives and IUD) on the prevalence of these microorganisms.

  10. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs ... often help with the symptoms and keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  11. The Etiology of Genital Ulcer Disease among Patients Attending Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jin(谷进); ZENG Zhirong(曾志荣); CHEN Rongzhang(陈荣章); ZHU Huilan(朱慧兰); QIU Xiaoshan(邱晓珊)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the etiology of genital ulcerdisease (GUD) among patients attending sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) clinics in Guangzhou, China.Methods: Between September 8, 1998, and August 9,2001, 267 patients with a genital ulcer were clinicallyassessed. Clinical etiology of GUD was dependent onphysical appearance and microbiologic examination,including the following: dark field microscopy and serologyfor Treponema pallidum (TP), swabs of genital ulcer forHerpes simplex virus (HSV), processed quantitativefluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) forsimultaneous detection of HSV, TP, Haemophilus ducreyi(HD), Human papillomavirus (HPV), and serology for HIVinfection.Results: Two hundred thirty men and thirty-sevenwomen with a median age of 33.4 (range 16-74 years) wereanalyzed. The etiology of GUD was syphilis (26.59%)(71/267), genital herpes (17.60%) (47/267), condylomataacuminata (4.87%) (13/267), candidiasis (3.37%) (9/267),bacterial infection (3.75%) (10/267), and multiple infection(6.74%) (18/267). The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.75%(2/267). No etiology was identified in 50.56% (135/267).Conclusion: The etiology of GUD among STD patients inour area was multifactorial with a predominance of syphilisand genital herpes. Based on this limited data obtained atSTD clinics, HIV infection was not common.

  12. Sexually transmitted diseases among randomly selected attenders at an antenatal clinic in The Gambia.

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    Mabey, D C; Lloyd-Evans, N E; Conteh, S; Forsey, T

    1984-10-01

    One hundred randomly selected women attending a free government antenatal clinic in the town of Bakau, The Gambia, were examined. Vaginal swabs were taken for microscopical examination for Trichomonas vaginalis and for culture on Sabouraud's medium. Cervical swabs were taken for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis and, in 50 cases, Herpesvirus hominis; in addition, urethral swabs were taken for culture of N gonorrhoeae. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to Treponema pallidum by the Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and T pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA), and to C trachomatis and H hominis by microimmunofluorescence. The prevalence of infection with Candida albicans was found to be 35%, T vaginalis 32%, C trachomatis 6.9%, N gonorrhoeae 6.7%, T pallidum 1%, and H hominis 0%. IgG antibodies at a titre of at least 1/16 to C trachomatis serotypes D-K were found in 29.4%, and to serotypes A-C in a further 10.6%. IgG antibodies at a titre of at least 1/16 to H hominis type I were found in 94%, and to type II in 53%, although a proportion of the latter probably represent cross reacting antibodies to type I.

  13. Healthcare-seeking preferences of patients with sexually transmitted infection attending a tertiary care center in South Kerala

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    Sabeena Jayapalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are a major public health problem in developing countries. These diseases are associated with increased risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus as well as adverse outcomes on pregnancy and reproductive health. Sexual behavior and healthcare-seeking behavior are identified as the true risk factors of STIs. Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study design was adopted. Eighty-five STI patients were studied regarding the inappropriate treatment-seeking behavior, the nature of the first point of contact with the health care, the appropriateness of treatment and the concerns of the patient regarding the services rendered by government health-care facilities. Results: Among the 85 patients studied, 55.3% were males and 44.7% were females. Inappropriate treatment-seeking behavior was seen in 29.8% of males and 36.8% of females. About 59.6% of males and 81.6% of females sought appropriate treatment from modern medicine practitioners before attending our institution. Only 7.1% of males and 3.2% of females received appropriate treatment. The government sector was the choice of treatment for 46.4% males and 93.5% females and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.00081. Lack of free medicines, issues of confidentiality, and privacy were the major service-related issues in the public sector. Conclusion: Appropriate treatment at the first point of contact with the health system is an important measure to prevent further transmission and development of complications. Health providers from both private and public sector should be given frequent periodic training regarding syndromic management of STIs and the training should stress on the need for risk reduction and condom promotion messages along with medical management. Program planners should take necessary steps to ensure adequate and continuous supply of free drugs and tackle issues of confidentiality and privacy.

  14. Digital divide: variation in internet and cellular phone use among women attending an urban sexually transmitted infections clinic.

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    Samal, Lipika; Hutton, Heidi E; Erbelding, Emily J; Brandon, Elizabeth S; Finkelstein, Joseph; Chander, Geetanjali

    2010-01-01

    We sought to describe: (1) the prevalence of internet, cellular phone, and text message use among women attending an urban sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic, (2) the acceptability of health advice by each mode of information and communication technology (ICT), and (3) demographic characteristics associated with ICT use. This study is a cross-sectional survey of 200 English-speaking women presenting to a Baltimore City STI clinic with STI complaints. Participants completed a self-administered survey querying ICT use and demographic characteristics. Three separate questions asked about interest in receiving health advice delivered by the three modalities: internet, cellular phone, and text message. We performed logistic regression to examine how demographic factors (age, race, and education) are associated with likelihood of using each modality. The median age of respondents was 27 years; 87% were African American, and 71% had a high school diploma. The rate of any internet use was 80%; 31% reported daily use; 16% reported weekly use; and 32% reported less frequent use. Almost all respondents (93%) reported cellular phone use, and 79% used text messaging. Acceptability of health advice by each of the three modalities was about 60%. In multivariate analysis, higher education and younger age were associated with internet use, text messaging, and cellular phone use. Overall rate of internet use was high, but there was an educational disparity in internet use. Cellular phone use was almost universal in this sample. All three modalities were equally acceptable forms of health communication. Describing baseline ICT access and the acceptability of health advice via ICT, as we have done, is one step toward determining the feasibility of ICT-delivered health interventions in urban populations.

  15. Sexually transmitted infections.

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    Fuchs, Wolfgang; Brockmeyer, Norbert H

    2014-06-01

    In no other medical field former rare infections of the 1980(th) and 1990(th) occur again as this is seen in the field of venerology which is as well based on the mobility of the population. Increasing rates of infections in Europe, and increasing bacteriological resistances face health professionals with new challenges. The WHO estimates more than 340 million cases of illnesses worldwide every year. Diseases caused by sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a strict sense are syphilis, gonorrhea, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, and chancroid. In a wider sense, all illnesses are included which can mainly be transmitted through sexual contact. The term "sexual contact" has to be seen widely, from close physical contact to all variants of sexual behavior. This CME article is an overview of the most common occurring sexually transmitted infections in clinical practice. Both, basic knowledge as well as recent developments are discussed below.

  16. Sexually transmitted diseases and risk factors in adolescent and young girls: data from a youth attendance center

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    Maria Isabel Sá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs have a high prevalence during adolescents and young adults, being associated with significant morbidity. Aim: To determine the prevalence of STDs in a group of young girls and to evaluate which factors are associated with higher risk of STDs. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study including 100 young girls under 27 years, divided in two subgroups: asymptomatic and with gynecologic symptoms. We collected demographic and clinical variables, vaginal and cervical swabs for Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and collected blood samples for Hepatitis B and C, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Syphilis and Herpes simplex type 2virus serologic tests. Significant associations between variables (p<0.05 were identified by chi-square test. Results: We found evidence of at least one STD in 16% of the sample. The results were: Trichomonas 1%, Chlamydia 7%, Neisseria 1%, Syphilis 1% and Herpes simplex type 2 12%. More than 5 sexual partners and cervical ectopy were associated with increased risk of laboratorial evidence of at least one STD (p=0.009 and p=0.006 respectively. Conclusions: Prevalence of STDs justifies the continued investment in young girls education towards the delay of onset of sexual intercourse and the consistent use of condom. Physicians taking care of adolescents must be aware of the importance of STD screening and treatmen,t so its late complications might be avoided.

  17. Male circumcision as strategy for HIV prevention and sexually transmitted diseases. The potential role of traditional birth attendants in neonatal male circumcision.

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    Dini, Catia

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, it would be advisable to give priority to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention strategies, because of the high mortality caused by the rapid spread of the pandemic. Furthermore, HIV prevention could contribute to the mitigation of tuberculosis (TB) propagation, which is tightly correlated to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). As demonstrated, male circumcision (MC) confers protection against HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The suggested strategy considers the neonatal MC advantageous, since it is safer, feasible, culturally more acceptable and less costly than adult MC. This approach is based on the assumption that, if newborn males are circumcised, within the next 15-20 years the sexually active population will be almost entirely circumcised and, consequently, the HIV transmission will be reduced. The employment of retrained traditional birth attendants is considered in order to implement the MC after the child birth and to facilitate its acceptance in those contexts where it is not traditionally performed.

  18. Male circumcision as strategy for HIV prevention and sexually transmitted diseases: the potential role of traditional birth attendants in neonatal male circumcision

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    Catia Dini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, it would be advisable to give priority to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention strategies, because of the high mortality caused by the rapid spread of the pandemic. Furthermore, HIV prevention could contribute to the mitigation of tuberculosis (TB propagation, which is tightly correlated to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. As demonstrated, male circumcision (MC confers protection against HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD. The suggested strategy considers the neonatal MC advantageous, since it is safer, feasible, culturally more acceptable and less costly than adult MC. This approach is based on the assumption that, if newborn males are circumcised, within the next 15-20 years the sexually active population will be almost entirely circumcised and, consequently, the HIV transmission will be reduced. The employment of retrained traditional birth attendants is considered in order to implement the MC after the child birth and to facilitate its acceptance in those contexts where it is not traditionally performed.

  19. Medications for Sexually Transmitted Infections

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    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  20. [Sexually transmitted infections].

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    De Toni, T; Fontana, I

    2002-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are quite common and observed more frequently in teens. The adolescents represent a group at particular risk for STD due to biological, sociocultural and psychological factors. Undectected infections may lead to unwanted sequelae, including pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic abdominal pain, tubal scarring and increased risk of ectopic pregnancy. This paper deals with infections by Candida albicans, Chlamidia tracomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, Tricomonas vaginalis, Herpes simplex, Papilloma virus. In regard to gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis and papilloma virus, the expectation is that improved detection will decrease sequelae by early diagnosis and treatment. Prevention programs (information, use of hormonal contraception associated with condom use) and improved access to STD diagnosis and treatment services are useful to reduce the incidence of STD among young people.

  1. Sexually transmitted proctitis

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    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Proctitis caused by sexually transmitted agents is usually taken for inflammatory bowel diseases, because of similar complaints, such as pain, bleeding and mucopurulent discharge, as well as the histopathology. Thus, its treatment is postponed and, sometimes, complications appear. The most common etiologic agents are Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum and Herpes simplex. In order to avoid dissemination and complications, laboratory tests are essential for diagnosis and proper therapy. The objective of this article was to raise awareness to sexually transmitted diseases in proctitis etiology, as well as their diagnosis and treatment.As retites provocadas por agentes sexualmente transmissíveis são frequentemente confundidas com doenças inflamatórias intestinais, uma vez que as queixas mais comuns, que incluem dor, sangramento e secreção mucopurulenta, e o padrão histopatológico são semelhantes. Dessa maneira, o tratamento é postergado e, algumas vezes, as complicações aparecem. Os agentes mais comuns incluem a Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a Chlamydia trachomatis, o Treponema pallidum e o Herpes simplex. Exames laboratoriais sensíveis e específicos para confirmação diagnóstica são essenciais para o tratamento correto, evitando a disseminação e as sequelas. O objetivo deste artigo foi chamar a atenção para as doenças sexualmente transmissíveis na etiologia das retites, bem como seu diagnóstico e tratamento.

  2. Perceptions of sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers

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    DM Diale

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available An ex p lo ra to ry d e sc rip tiv e study was u n d e rtak en , focussing on sexually transmitted diseases (STD among teenagers. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the possible reasons for the high rate of sexually transmitted diseases in teenagers. The perceptions of teenagers and community nurses regarding sexually transmitted disease among teenagers involved in the teenage clinic in a specific predominantly black area were assessed. Twenty teenagers and five community nurses were participants in the study. Two focus group interviews were conducted with teenagers and community nurses. It can be concluded that the attitudes of community nurses may have an influence on the high rate of sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers. The knowledge o f the teenagers about sexually transmitted diseases is often based on myths and misconceptions which could be intensified by the community nurse. The recommendations made are that the education standards of all community nurses should be reviewed and adapted to meet the needs of teenagers attending the teenage health services. The policy on in-service training must be reviewed and monitored. Community nurses’ intensive training on teenage health service delivery and sexually transmitted diseases services should be in accordance with the principles of Primary Health Care. Community nurses need to attend intensive courses on interpersonal skills specifically related to teenagers. Selection procedures for recruiting community nurses to attend to teenagers specifically should be researched. Teenagers should be involved in planning programs and the teenage clinic should be evaluated frequently to improve the standards. The availability of adequate teenage health services can result in a decrease in sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers.

  3. Sexually Transmitted Infections

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    LE Nicolle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs other than HIV have reappeared as an important public health problem in developed countries (1. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, research and treatment of the 'classic' STIs - gonorrhea, syphilis and chlamydia - were a major focus of infectious diseases practice and research. There were large outbreaks of syphilis in parts of Canada (2, penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae was a concern (3, and high rates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with complications of pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy were being reported (4,5. Then, HIV infection emerged, with its spectre of a wasting, early death. There was no effective treatment, and safe sexual practices were embraced and adhered to by high-risk populations as the only effective way to avoid infection. These practices effectively prevented other STIs; rates of syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia infection plummeted in developed countries (5. For at least a decade, it appeared that HIV might be an end to all STIs, at least for some parts of the world. STIs continued unabated in developing countries, as many epidemiological and therapeutic studies explored the association of STIs with HIV infection.

  4. Exploration of knowledge, attitudes and percepions regarding sexually transmitted infections among patients attending a primary health care clinic in Gauteng--part 1.

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    Molapo, T J; Maja, T M M; Wright, S C D

    2007-12-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a major public health problem in South Africa. The high incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in South Africa pose a serious threat to public health for two main reasons. Firstly, the long-term consequences of these infections are a major cause of loss of health or life, and secondly, sexually transmitted infections are important co-factors in driving the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic. The control and prevention of sexually transmitted infections has become an urgent priority. At a primary health care clinic, the nursing personnel experienced an increasing number of persons daily seeking treatment for sexually transmitted infections. The purpose of the study was therefore to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of people seeking treatment at Stanza Bopape Clinic regarding sexually transmitted infections. The study was a contextual, quantitative survey. The population was all patients (15 years and older) who visited the clinic for a health-related problem during November 2004 to January 2005. The sampling method was convenient. The data gathering method was self-report using a structured questionnaire basic on current knowledge. The data analysis was done with descriptive statistics.

  5. Exploration of knowledge, attitudes and percepions regarding sexually transmitted infections among patients attending a primary health care clinic in Gauteng - Part 1

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    T.J. Molapo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections are a major public health problem in South Africa. The high incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in South Africa pose a serious threat to public health for two main reasons. Firstly, the long-term consequences of these infections are a major cause of loss of health or life, and secondly, sexually transmitted infections are important co-factors in driving the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic. The control and prevention of sexually transmitted infections has become an urgent priority. At a primary health care clinic, the nursing personnel experienced an increasing number of persons daily seeking treatment for sexually transmitted infections. The purpose of the study was therefore to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of people seeking treatment at Stanza Bopape Clinic regarding sexually transmitted infections. The study was a contextual, quantitative survey. The population was all patients (15 years and older who visited the clinic for a health-related problem during November 2004 to January 2005. The sampling method was convenient. The data gathering method was self-report using a structured questionnaire basic on current knowledge. The data analysis was done with descriptive statistics.

  6. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

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    ... National Profile National Profile Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases Special Focus Profiles Special Focus Profiles STDs in Women and Infants STDs in Adolescents and Young Adults STDs in Racial and Ethnic ...

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from patients attending a public referral center for sexually transmitted diseases in Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ligia Maria Bedeschi Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a public referral center for sexually transmitted diseases and specialized care services (STD/SCS in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Methods Between March 2011 and February 2012, 201 specimens of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were consecutively obtained from men with symptoms of urethritis and women with symptons of cervicitis or were obtained during their initial consultation. The strains were tested using the disk diffusion method, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of azithromycin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin, tetracycline and spectinomycin were determined using the E-test. Results The specimens were 100% sensitive to cefixime, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin and exhibited resistances of 4.5% (9/201, 21.4% (43/201, 11.9% (24/201, 22.4% (45/201 and 32.3% (65/201 to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. Intermediate sensitivities of 17.9% (36/201, 4% (8/201, 16.9% (34/201, 71.1% (143/201 and 22.9% (46/201 were observed for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. The specimens had plasmid-mediated resistance to penicillin PPNG 14.5% (29/201 and tetracycline TRNG 11.5% (23/201. Conclusions The high percentage of detected resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin indicates that these antibiotics are not appropriate for gonorrhea treatment at the Health Clinic and possibly in Belo Horizonte. The resistance and intermediate sensitivity of these isolates indicates that caution is recommended in the use of azithromycin and emphasizes the need to establish mechanisms for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance for the effective control of gonorrhea.

  8. Awareness and knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection among high-risk men of Hispanic origin attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic

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    Colón-López Vivian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the most commonly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infection (STIs in men and women. Knowledge about HPV infection among men is limited. This study aims to determine correlates of adequate knowledge of HPV infection among men who attend an STI clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 206 men was conducted at an STI clinic in San Juan, PR. Adequate knowledge was defined as a score of at least 70% of correct responses among those men who reported having ever heard of HPV. Variables that achieved statistical significance in the bivariate analysis (p Results Although 52.5% of men reported having heard of HPV infection before the survey, only 29.3% of this sub-group had an adequate knowledge of HPV. Most men did not know that HPV is a risk factor for anal (38.7%, penile (50.0% and oral (72.6% cancer. Factors associated with adequate knowledge of HPV in age-adjusted models were being men who have sex with men (MSM (OR=2.6;95%CI=1.1-6.1, self-report of genital warts (OR=3.2;95%CI=1.3-7.9 and herpes (OR=7.4;95% CI=2.2-25.1. MSM was marginally associated with adequate knowledge (OR=2.3;95% CI=0.9-5.9 and self-report of herpes remained significantly associated (OR=5.0;95%CI=1.3-18.4 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Awareness and knowledge of HPV was very low in this group of men. Interventions to increase knowledge and awareness in this group are necessary to promote preventive practices for HPV-related cancers in high-risk groups.

  9. Clinical features and sociodemographic factors affecting Trichomonas vaginalis infection in women attending a central sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumadhya D Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trichomoniasis is a relatively neglected area of research in Sri Lanka. Given the number of infections observed, an analysis of sociodemographic characteristics of patients would be valuable in prevention. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 359 newly registered women at a tertiary level sexually transmitted diseases clinic over a period of 18 months. Trichomoniasis was diagnosed by culture of vaginal swabs collected from the posterior fornix. Results: The prevalence of trichomoniasis in the sample was 7.2%. Of those who tested positive for trichomoniasis, 76% were in the age group of 21-45 years, 68% were married and living with a spouse and 60% were unemployed. A diagnosis of Trichomoniasis was associated with being married (OR, 1.6; CI, 0.56-4.41, age over 33 years (OR=1.3, CI, 0.55-2.9, being employed (OR, 1.3; CI, 0.56 - 2.94, having an education of less than ten years at school (OR, 3.0; CI 1.28-7.26 and not using condoms during the last sexual act (OR 2.0, CI 0.84-4.86. The risk was less among commercial sex workers (OR, 0.3, CI: 0.14-0.85, those with multiple sexual partners (OR, 0.2; CI; 0.073-0.408 and women reporting extramarital sexual relationships (OR, 0.3; CI, 0.128-0.733. Conclusions: Education on safe sex and recognition of symptoms is currently targeted at high risk groups such as commercial sex workers. Extending these programmes to the rest of the community will further reduce the risk of transmission of trichomonas.

  10. A Study on the Prevalence of Genital Trichomoniasis among Female Outpatients Attending Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Swapna; Elangovan, Selvi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Women with high-risk sexual behavior accounts for more than half of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendees. The prevalence of trichomoniasis is as low as 5% in the general population to as high as 60% in high-risk population. This infection can pave the way to the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus and other STIs, vice versa and is even associated with cancer. Objectives: To identify, isolate and study the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in genital specimens of female outpatients. Materials and Methods: Total number of subjects involved in the study was 130, among them 85 belonged to high-risk group and 45 belonged to low-risk group. Two high vaginal swabs were collected from each patient. Saline wet mount, Giemsa stain, and culture in modified cysteine peptone liver infusion maltose medium were performed. Results were tabulated and analyzed. Results: Saline wet mount was positive for trichomoniasis in seven individuals, Giemsa detected trichomoniasis in five patients, and culture was positive in eight patients. Of these eight culture positive cases, one was wet mount negative and four were Giemsa stain negative. Conclusion: Culture is more sensitive than wet mount and Giemsa stain. PMID:28042211

  11. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Teens at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascola, Laurene

    1987-01-01

    Parents of preteens need to be aware of the rapidly increasing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers and to begin talking to their preteens to help prevent or modify risky sexual experimentation during middle adolescence. (MT)

  12. Clinical update in sexually transmitted diseases-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanfair, Robyn Neblett; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2014-02-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their associated syndromes are extremely common in clinical practice. Early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and partner management are important to ensure sexual, physical, and reproductive health in our patients.

  13. Diagnostic Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  14. Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujie Huang

    Full Text Available Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010.The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing.Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone, no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81, 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74, 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99 and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04, respectively.Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.

  15. Higher Prevalence of Sexual Transmitted Diseases and Correlates of Genital Warts among Heterosexual Males Attending Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinics (MSCs) in Jiangmen, China: Implication for the Up-Taking of STD Related Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengjun; Lu, Hekun; Tan, Xueling; Zhang, Baoyuan; Best, John; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Yueping; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing burden of STDs is one of China’s major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010. Method The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing. Results Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone), no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94–15.81), 2.26 (95% CI 1.08–4.74), 1.99 (95% CI 1.00–3.99) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00–4.04), respectively. Conclusion Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently. PMID:25811185

  16. Sexually Transmitted Infections in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Afrakhteh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs remain a public health problem of major significance in most parts of the world. This study aimed to detect the most prevalent pathogens in patients with signs and symptoms of STI referring to a group of university clinics in Tehran.Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study using randomized cluster sampling, 507 consecutive male and female patients presenting with signs and symptoms of STI referring to selected health care centers of Shahid Beheshti University were evaluated between May 2005 and May 2007. Diagnosis was made according to WHO criteria for signs and symptoms of STI in addition to microscopic study of genital discharges. Results: The most prevalent STI pathogens were Candida, Trichomona, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia with respective frequencies of 53.96%, 18.87%, 4.91% and 22.26% in women and 47.10%, 8.67%, 9.50% and 34.71% in men.Conclusion: Candida was detected in majority of cases. Chlamydia was the most prevalent STI in both sexes. Simple preventive care has crucial role in decreasing the frequency of STIs in society.

  17. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  18. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  19. Syndromes Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Excellent technologies have been developed to identify the specific microbial agents of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, chancroid, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus and HIV infection. However, it is also crucial to recognize syndromes that may be caused by one or more sexually transmitted pathogens. When laboratory services are lacking or are inadequate to provide timely results to enable appropriate treatment, some patients must be managed and treated syndromically. Most Canadian laboratories should be able to provide diagnostic services to determine the etiology of syndromes such as cervicitis, urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis, genital ulcers, sexually transmitted infection (STI-related enteric infections, epididymitis, hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, vulvovaginitis and vaginosis.

  20. Adolescent Sexuality: Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,…

  1. The Transmissibility of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…

  2. Effects of Heath Education on Life Quality of Cfients Attending a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Cfinic%健康教育对性病就诊者生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立红; 李志锋; 霍会永; 马军格

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of heath education on life quality of clients attending sexually transmitted diseases clinic. The life qualities of the patients were evaluated before and after heath education with Nottingham Health Profile ( NHP) . Methods One handred and twenty clients attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic were evaluated before and after health education ( one month later) with Nottingham Health Profile ( NHP) . Health education included STD knowledge and psychological treatment. Statistic was used to analyze the results. Results NHP score were higher in longer duration clients than shorter ones in the aspect of energy and emotion. Genital warts group had higher score in the sleeping, social life and emotion item. NHP score had no difference in different gender and education degree. Married group scored higher than unmarried in emotional reaction and social life aspect. After health education, the score of NHP in the aspect of emotion, sleeping, energy and social interaction were lower than before. The difference has statistical significance. NHP score had no difference between healed and unhealed STDs. Conclusion The life quality of STD clinic clients can be improved through health education.%目的 以诺丁汉健康量表(Nottingham Health Profile,NHP)评价性病就诊者的生活质量,比较对其健康教育前后的NHP评分的变化,了解健康教育对性病就诊者生活质量的影响.方法 对性病就诊者进行NHP评分,同时进行健康教育,内容包括性病知识宣教和心理疏导,并于健康教育后1个月再次进行NHP评分,对结果进行统计学处理.结果 病程长者较病程短者在生活质量的精力(30.20±26.94和22.25±23.37)、情感反应(41.53±16.78和33.52±18.72)维度NHP评分高(P<0.05).不同疾病种类NHP评分比较,尖锐湿疣组在睡眠、社会生活、情感反应维度评分高.已婚组较未婚组在情感反应(42.68±16.31和23.84±15.59)、社会生活维度(35

  3. Treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-19

    Information is presented on the treatment of infections associated primarily with sexual transmission. Attention is directed to the following: gonorrhea (urogenital gonorrhea, anal and pharyngeal gonorrhea, resistant infections, and gonorrhea in pregnancy); syphilis (syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis); nongonococcal urethritis and related infections (diseases of infancy and other chlamydial infections); and vaginitis (trichomoniasis, trichomoniasis in pregnancy, nonspecific vaginitis, vulvovaginal candidasis); chancroid; pediculosis pubis; venereal warts; and genital herpes simplex. 5 days of oral tetracycline HCI taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals is recommended for urogenital gonorrhea in both women and men. Anal gonorrhea in women can be treated like urogenital gonorrhea, but men should be treated with intramuscular procaine penicillin G or spectinomycin. Pregnant women can be treated with the same regimens of penicillin G, amoxicillin, or ampicillin as other patients. Parenteral penicillin G remains the drug of choice for treating all stages of syphilis. Either a tetracycline or an erythromycin taken for 7 days is usually effective against nongonococcal urethritis and related infections. Neonatal pneumonia caused by "Chlamydia" can be treated with systemic erythromycin for 14 days. Suspected infectious vaginitis is best managed by making a specific etiologic diagnosis. The important of sexual transmission in vulvovaginal candidiasis is most likely low and remains to be determined in nonspecific vaginitis. Metronidazole remains the treatment of choice for trichomoniasis unless contraindicated by pregnancy or hypersensitivity. Metronidazole is the drug of choice for nonspecific vaginitis. Several remedies are available for treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Topical antifungal drugs are effective, but recurrences are frequent. Although common in the U.S., chancroid is prevalent in other areas of the world. Resistant infections can be

  4. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES: INCIDENCE AND DISTRIBUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王千秋

    1996-01-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases(STDs) increased from 26. 04 per 10000O in 1987 to 104. 81 per 100 000 in 1993 in selected areas of the country. Gonorrhea is by far the most common STD but its constituent ratio declined because of a rapid increase of nongonococcal uretheritis and genital warts during most recent years. The incidence of syphilis is relatively low and cases of congenital infection are noted. The wide spread of resistant Neisseria gonorrhaeae infection gives a challenge to the therapeutical and control strategies of STDs. Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infections, an important cause of urethritis, cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease, is becoming common in uur country. Attention has been drawn on viral hepatitis in their means of transmission by sexually behaviors, and also, on the homosexuals, assumed to be the high risk group to catch STDs. Coordinated national efforts to control STDs in China have been taken.

  5. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic places to identify and prevent intimate partner violence.

  6. Syndromes Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Max Chernesky; David Patrick; Rosanna Peeling

    2005-01-01

    Excellent technologies have been developed to identify the specific microbial agents of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, chancroid, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus and HIV infection. However, it is also crucial to recognize syndromes that may be caused by one or more sexually transmitted pathogens. When laboratory services are lacking or are inadequate to provide timely results to enable appropriate treatment, some patients must be managed and treated syndromically. Most Canadian ...

  7. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumayne Fernandes Vieira Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000, alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026, history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003, and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006. CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can

  8. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic

  9. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workowski, Kimberly A; Berman, Stuart

    2010-12-17

    These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 18-30, 2009. The information in this report updates the 2006 Guidelines for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-11]). Included in these updated guidelines is new information regarding 1) the expanded diagnostic evaluation for cervicitis and trichomoniasis; 2) new treatment recommendations for bacterial vaginosis and genital warts; 3) the clinical efficacy of azithromycin for chlamydial infections in pregnancy; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium and trichomoniasis in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) lymphogranuloma venereum proctocolitis among men who have sex with men; 6) the criteria for spinal fluid examination to evaluate for neurosyphilis; 7) the emergence of azithromycin-resistant Treponema pallidum; 8) the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 9) the sexual transmission of hepatitis C; 10) diagnostic evaluation after sexual assault; and 11) STD prevention approaches.

  10. Sexually transmitted infections and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Beverly K

    2013-11-01

    Older adults continue to be sexually active in their later years. A range of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV have been reported among older adults. Risk factors for STIs in older populations include (a) normal sexual changes associated with aging (e.g., increased time to attain an erection, decreased vaginal lubrication, decreases in sexual hormones); (b) psychosocial changes (e.g., loss of partner or spouse and re-entering the dating scene); and (c) risky sexual behaviors, including no or infrequent use of condoms. Screening of adults for STIs should occur regardless of age based on guidelines such as those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. As discussed in this article, nurses can use assessment guides and engage in interventions such as counseling and education with older adults to reduce STI risk or refer for treatment. Numerous online resources exist for both nurses and older adults to increase knowledge of STIs.

  11. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workowski, Kimberly A; Bolan, Gail A

    2015-06-05

    These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30-May 2, 2013. The information in this report updates the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010 (MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59 [No. RR-12]). These updated guidelines discuss 1) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis C in persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection. Physicians and other health-care providers can use these guidelines to assist in the prevention and treatment of STDs.

  12. Adolescents' Sexually Transmitted Disease Protective Attitudes Predict Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…

  13. Sexually Transmitted Diseases on Bipartite Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Luo-Sheng; Zhong, Jiang; Yang, Xiao-Fan

    2009-01-01

    We study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model on bipartite graph. According to the difference of sex conception in western and oriental nations, we construct the Barabási Albert-Barabási Albert (BA-BA) model and Barabási-Albert Homogeneity (BA-HO) model for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Applying the rate equation approach, the positive equilibria of both models are given analytically. We find that the ratio between infected females and infected males is distinctly different in both models and the infected density in the BA-HO model is much less than that in the BA-BA model. These results explain that the countries with small ratio have less infected density than those with large ratio. Our numerical simulations verify these theoretical results.

  14. Sexually Transmitted Diseases on Bipartite Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Luo-Sheng; ZHONG Jiang; YANG Xiao-Fan

    2009-01-01

    We study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model on bipartite graph. According to the dif-ference of sex conception in western and oriental nations, we construct the Barabasi Albert-Barabasi Albert (BA-BA) model and Barabasi-Albert Homogeneity (BA-HO) model for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Applying the rate equation approach, the positive equilibria of both models are given analytically. We lind that the ratio between infected females and infected males is distinctly different in both models and the infected den-sity in the BA-HO model is much less than that in the BA-BA model. These results explain that the countries with small ratio have less infected density than those with large ratio. Our numerical simulations verify these theoretical results.

  15. Sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Teixeira Dutra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases are still highly prevalent worldwide and represent an important public health problem. Psychiatric patients are at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases but there are scarce published studies with representative data of this population. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among patients with mental illnesses under care in a national representative sample in Brazil (n = 2145. More than one quarter of the sample (25.8% reported a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with a lifetime sexually transmitted disease history were older, had history of homelessness, used more alcohol and illicit drugs, suffered violence, perceived themselves to be at greater risk for HIV and had high risk sexual behavioral: practised unprotected sex, started sexual life earlier, had more than ten sexual partners, exchanged money and/or drugs for sex and had a partner that refused to use condom. Our findings indicate a high prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil, and emphasize the need for implementing sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs in psychiatric settings, including screening, treatment, and behavioral modification interventions.

  16. Sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Maria Rita Teixeira; Campos, Lorenza Nogueira; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are still highly prevalent worldwide and represent an important public health problem. Psychiatric patients are at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases but there are scarce published studies with representative data of this population. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among patients with mental illnesses under care in a national representative sample in Brazil (n=2145). More than one quarter of the sample (25.8%) reported a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with a lifetime sexually transmitted disease history were older, had history of homelessness, used more alcohol and illicit drugs, suffered violence, perceived themselves to be at greater risk for HIV and had high risk sexual behavioral: practised unprotected sex, started sexual life earlier, had more than ten sexual partners, exchanged money and/or drugs for sex and had a partner that refused to use condom. Our findings indicate a high prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil, and emphasize the need for implementing sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs in psychiatric settings, including screening, treatment, and behavioral modification interventions.

  17. Global epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos T. Da Ros; Caio da Silva Schmitt

    2008-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are among the first ten causes of unpleasant diseases in young adult males in developing countries and the second major cause of unpleasant diseases in young adult women. Adolescents and new acquired STDs. In general, STDs are epidemics and present an enormous health and economic consequences.An adequate screening for STDs should be done on a routine basis in every part of the world. Many STDs are asymptomatic and therefore can difficult to control. The purpose of reporting of STDs is to ensure that persons who are infected will be quickly diagnosed and appropriately treated to control the spread of infection and also so that partners are notified, tested and appropriately treated. It is estimated that reported cases of STDs represent only High-risk sexual behavior is a highly contributive factor of this process as it often leads to teenage pregnancies and HIV/AIDS. One possible explanation for this behavior is that people do not have enough information about the transmission of STDs or ignore the precautions required for safe sex. Approximately 60% of new HIV infections worldwide occur in young people. The frequency of high-risk behaviors among youths may also be influenced by opportunity to engage in them, particularly the amount of time that they are unsupervised by adults. However, in diagnosing and treating these patients, we can effectively prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. Individuals infected with STDs are of the genital tract lining or skin creates a portal of entry for HIV and, hence, HIV-infected individuals with other STDs are more likely to shed HIV in their genital secretions. To date, the condom is the most effective method available for males for protection against STDs. It is important to control STDs, and prevention can be the key of this process. Prevention can be achieved through education of the population, identification of symptomatic and asymptomatic people, and effective diagnosis and treatment of these

  18. [Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, R; Porte, H

    1989-06-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have shown a considerable resurgence in recent years both in number of cases and in spread of new infectious agents. The spread of STDs is favored by numerous factors including the liberalization of sexual behavior made possible by reliable contraception. Information on STDs has not been widely diffused. Changes in the status of women and the development of means of communication and transportation have encouraged less rigid control of sexual behavior. STDs themselves have often escaped diagnosis or not been cured despite treatment, increasing the risk of spread. Numerous organisms cause STDs, from external parasites to life-threatening viruses. 60% of upper genital tract infections that can lead to sterility, tubal alterations, ectopic pregnancy and pain result from STDs. Chlamydia infections are insidious and chronic, and cause greater damage with each recurrence. The risk of STDs should be considered in contraceptive choice along with other indications and contraindications. Combined oral contraceptives provide protection against acute upper genital tract infections. The protective role has been explained by scanty and highly viscous cervical mucus forming a barrier against germs and by reductions of menstrual flow, myometrial activity, and inflammation. It is actually uncertain whether combined oral contraceptives protect against latent chlamydia infections, since higher rates of cervicitis caused by chlamydia have been found in pill users. In situations carrying risk of STDs, pill users should be protected by a supplementary barrier method. IUDs have been implicated in numerous studies in acute pelvic infections. Possible explanations are the local trauma and inflammations due to the physical presence of the IUD, more abundant bleeding, absence of a cervical barrier to motile sperm that could be a vector for germs, and possible ascent of the infectious agent on the string. Other risk factors are involved. Epidemiologic

  19. Depression Among Sexually Transmitted Disease Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄长征; 李碧芳; 涂亚庭; 刘志香; 林能兴

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the depression status of patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).Methods: The depression status of fifty-one hospitalized STD patients was evaluated in a randomized control study using Zung's Quantitative Table. 18 healthy control patients with similar demographic backgrounds were randomly chosen as controls. Patients with scores above or equal to 40 were considered to be suffering from depression.Results: The prevalence rate of depression in the patient group was obviously higher than that of in the control (X2=16.456,P<0.01). Prevalence of depression was found to be significantly related to occupation (P<0.05). Though the prevalence was not found to differ significantly between those with a treatment course less than 2 months and those with one longer or equal to 2 months (X2=0.041, P>0.05), the mean depression scores of the former group were significantly higher than those of the latter (P<0.01). No significant differences were found between new versus relapsing disease, married versus non-married, male versus female, or differing educational backgrounds.Conclusion: STD patients showed significant prevalence of depression.

  20. Draft genome sequence of the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlton, Jane M.; Hirt, Robert P.; Silva, Joana C.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the approximately 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion...

  1. [Sexually transmitted infections among transgender individuals and other sexual identities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toibaro, Javier J; Ebensrtejin, Juan E; Parlante, Angel; Burgoa, Patricia; Freyre, Alejandro; Romero, Marcela; Losso, Marcelo H

    2009-01-01

    Few data are available regarding the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI), including HIV-1 infection, and risk behaviors of transgender individuals. Previous reports indicate that this community has a high prevalence of HIV and STIs. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of HIV-1 infection, STI and risk behaviors of transgender people versus non transgender people. We used a cross sectional design study. Patients who received services at our testing site between November 2002 and April 2006, and provided written informed consent, were included in the analysis. Socio-demographic data, sexual behaviour, recreational drug use, condom use, concurrent or previous STI and HIV-1 infection diagnosis and partner serologic status, were collected. We used descriptive statistics and chi 2 for comparisons of proportions. In the period of the study, 105 transgender individuals were identified in a population of 4118 patients tested. The prevalence of HIV infection in the transgender group was 27.6% (29/105), while in the non transgender group was 6.2% (247/4013) p:0.0000. Low level of formal instruction, alcohol consumption, drug abuse, previous history of STI and sex work (100% transgenders and 2.3% of non-transgenders) were significantly more frequent in the transgender. The referred correct use of condom was similar in both groups. The prevalence of syphilis was 42.3% in transgender group and 18.1% in non-transgender individuals. These data show that this population has a very high prevalence of HIV-1 and STI. This information could be instrumental to design targets for intensive HIV prevention strategies in this particular high risk population.

  2. Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention: Adolescents' Perceptions of Possible Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, Lita; Ochs, Linda M.; Thomas, Catherine W.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on interviews of 48 sexually active adolescents concerning the possible secondary consequences of taking measures to reduce the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents generated 134 consequences, suggesting that considering all the relevant consequences for a rational decision about STD prevention is not…

  3. Cutaneous diphtheria masquerading as a sexually transmitted disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrichevvel T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41 year-old, sexually promiscuous, married male, an agricultural laborer by occupation, presented to our sexually transmitted diseases (STD clinic with multiple ulcers over the scrotum and genitalia of 20 days′ duration. Bacterial culture from swabs taken from the genital ulcer, grew organisms morphologically and biochemically characteristic of Corynaebacterium diphtheriae. He made a complete and uneventful recovery after two weeks of therapy with antidiphtheria serum and crystalline penicillin. This case brings into light this hitherto unreported presentation of wound diphtheria mimicking a sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease and thus, underlines the importance of considering diphtheria as differential in atypical, long-standing genital ulcers.

  4. A longitudinal examination of sexually transmitted infection/HIV prevention knowledge and sexually transmitted infections among African-American adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Tan, Kevin; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-12-01

    This study examines whether sexually transmitted infection prevention knowledge predicts the acquisition of biologically confirmed sexually transmitted infections among African-American adolescent females. A total of 715 females were recruited from public health clinics in Atlanta, Georgia, and using audio computer-assisted self-interview technology, we assessed for demographics, sexually transmitted infection prevention knowledge, risky sexual behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections. After controlling for demographics and prior risky sexual behaviors, participants with high prevention knowledge were 0.09 times less likely to report sexually transmitted infections, and those with multiple sexual partners were 1.3 times more likely to report sexually transmitted infections. Our findings suggest that the promotion of accurate sexually transmitted prevention knowledge is critical especially among females with multiple sex partners.

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases: epidemiological and clinical aspects in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusano, Salvatore; Silvestri, Tommaso; Casotto, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the first 10 causes of unpleased diseases in young adult women in the world. The concept of STDs includes a series of syndromes caused by pathogens that can be acquired by sexual intercourse or sexual activity.Adolescents and young adults are responsible for only 25% of the sexually active population and they represent almost 50% of all newly acquired STDs.In this way, we evaluated the epidemiological and clinical aspects of most relevant pathogens as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus Ducreyi, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus (HPV) with the exception of hepatitis, and HIV infections for which we suggest specific guidelines.To attain this objective, we analyzed the results of epidemiological and clinical aspects of STDs through a review of the literature using MEDLINE and PubMed database for original articles published using the terms "sexual transmitted disease, epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy" from 2005 to 2014.

  6. Influence of sexually transmitted infections in a horse breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent problems in horses reproduction are generally divided into those of infectious and non infectious etiology. Common causes of infectious diseases are usual­ly viruses and bacteria, and less frequently protozoa, mykoplasma and fungi. In this work there are presented the most important fact about sexually transmitted diseases, their clinical picture, risk factors, preventive measures as well as measures to prevent and eradicate the diseases. The biggest risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases in horses are breeding stallions, both in natural mating and in artificial insemination. Therefore, in order to prevent genital infections in horses, it is essential that the stallions used for breeding are healthy (non-infected. That can be determined with certainty only if the stallions are examined (tested just before the breeding season on most frequent sexually transmitted diseases (CEM,EAV. It is well known that in most cases the clinical picture of sexually transmitted diseses is not manifested on genitals. As well, variations in clinical picture can be expected also in mares, depending on the stage of the disease and its etiology. Harms arising from sexually transmitted diseases can be divided into direct and indirect. Direct damage occurs in the form of endometritis, miscarriage, stillbirths and births of weak foals, and indirect in restricting the traffic of infected and suspicios animals, isolation of the infected ones as well as medical treatment and interrupting mating.

  7. Do women requesting only contraception find attendance at an integrated sexual health clinic more stigmatizing than attendance at a family planning–only clinic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauer U

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike Sauer,1 Arti Singh,2 Punam Rubenstein,1 Rudiger Pittrof3 1Department of Reproductive and Sexual Health Services, Enfield Community Services, London, UK; 2University Health Services, KNUST Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana, 3Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Trust, London, UK Purpose: Both sexually transmitted infections and the genitourinary medicine clinics that patients attend for management of sexually transmitted infections are stigmatized by patients’ perceptions. The aim of this study was to assess whether women requesting contraception only find attendance at an integrated sexual health clinic (ISHC more stigmatizing than attendance at a family planning (FP–only clinic. Patients and methods: Women requesting contraception only were asked to complete a stigma assessment questionnaire in the waiting room of the clinic they attended. Ease of understanding was assessed for each item of the questionnaire prior to commencement of the survey. The questionnaire was given to women attending either an ISHC or a FP-only clinic. Results: One hundred questionnaires that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were returned. The users of FP-only services were generally older than the users of ISHCs and were more likely than the users of ISHCs to classify themselves as UK white. Stigma perception was significantly higher for the ISHC than the FP-only clinic. Conclusion: The results of this research indicate that among women who request contraception only, perceived stigma is higher when they attend an ISHC than when they attend a FP-only clinic. As this survey only enrolled clinic users, the authors were unable to assess whether integration generates sufficient stigma to deter some women from accessing contraception from integrated services. Of all stigma-related issues, disclosure concerns are likely to be the most important to the service user. Stigma is not an issue of overriding concern for most service users. Keywords: stigma, one-stop shop, sexually

  8. Risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases among crack users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0.Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9 reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0 and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8, alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3, antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2 were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases.Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases.

  9. Behavior assessment of women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Vitória, Brazil Práticas comportamentais em mulheres atendidas em clínica de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em Vitória, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Espinosa Miranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies about sexual risk behaviors can provide information to support design strategies to control the spread of HIV infection. OBJECTIVE: To assess sexual risk behaviors among women attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Vitória, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among women attending an STD/AIDS reference center. Enrolled participants were interviewed and provided a blood sample to determine HIV status. RESULTS: A total of 276 women participated. among 284 selected; 109 (39.5% were HIV-positive and 167 (60.5% HIV-negative. Median age was 31 years (interquartile range (IQR24-36 and 69% of women were between 18 and 34 years of age. Women reported high access to information about STD (87% and AIDS (90% but information about sexuality was less common (55%. HIV-positive women asked their partners to use condoms more often than HIV-negatives (31% vs. 5%, p=0.02, and were more likely to have used a condom at last intercourse (65% vs. 33%, pFUNDAMENTOS: Estudos sobre comportamentos sexuais de risco fornecem informações para programar estratégias para o controle da expansão da infecção pelo HIV/AIDS. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os comportamentos de risco sexual entre mulheres atendidas em clínica de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em Vitória, Brazil. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte-transversal foi realizado com mulheres atendidas no Centro de Referência para DST/Aids. As pacientes selecionadas foram entrevistadas e autorizaram a coleta de uma amostra de sangue para determinar sorologia para HIV. RESULTADOS: Um total de 276 mulheres participou, entre as 284 selecionadas; 109 (39,5% eram HIV-positivas e 167 (60,5% HIV-negativas. A mediana de idade foi 31 anos (distância interquartil 24-36 e 69% das mulheres tinham entre 18 e 34 anos de idade. As mulheres relataram alto grau de acesso a informações sobre doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (87% e Aids (90%, mas as informações sobre saúde sexual foram

  10. Are adolescents being screened for sexually transmitted diseases?

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen, Jonathan M.; Lane, Margo A; McCright, Jacque

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To determine the proportion of sexually experiencedAfrican American adolescents who report having been screened for sexually transmitted diseases and to determine the proportion who report having been screened for these diseases among adolescents who have had a preventive primary health care visit in the past 2 years. Methods A telephone survey of a population-based sample of African American adolescents aged 12 to17 years residing in a low-income neighborhood in San Francisco with...

  11. Olympic outreach: testing for sexually transmitted infections in construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugaratnam, S; Horne, P; Coyne, K M

    2012-09-01

    Concerns have been voiced in the national press that the surge in migrant construction workers leading up to the 2012 Olympics Games would increase the levels of sexual ill health in East London. Between 2009 and 2011, we sent a sexual health outreach team to the Olympic Park and Village. A total of 614 clients were tested, of whom 91% were men and 46% reported English/Scottish/Welsh ethnicity. The age range was 17-73 years and median age 30 years. Reported sexual risk factors were low, including use of commercial sex workers. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections was low, with Chlamydia trachomatis found in 20 clients (3%), and hepatitis B diagnosed in one client. This study, although small, did not support the image of construction workers presenting a higher than average sexual health risk.

  12. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted infections among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsuami, M. Jacques; Sanders, Ladatra S.; Taylor, Stephanie N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has not been determined conclusively whether greater knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is associated with lower rates of STIs. Purpose: This study sought to determine STI knowledge among high school students and factors associated with such knowledge, and to determine whether poor STI knowledge is associated with…

  13. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

  14. Draft genome sequence of the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlton, Jane M.; Hirt, Robert P.; Silva, Joana C.; Delcher, Arthur L.; Schatz, Michael; Zhao, Qi; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Bidwell, Shelby L.; Alsmark, U. Cecilia M.; Besteiro, Sebastien; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Noel, Christophe J.; Dacks, Joel B.; Foster, Peter G.; Simillion, Cedric; Van de Peer, Yves; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Westrop, Gareth D.; Mueller, Sylke; Dessi, Daniele; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Ren, Qinghu; Paulsen, Ian; Zhang, Hanbang; Bastida-Corcuera, Felix D.; Simoes-Barbosa, Augusto; Brown, Mark T.; Hayes, Richard D.; Mukherjee, Mandira; Okumura, Cheryl Y.; Schneider, Rachel; Smith, Alias J.; Vanacova, Stepanka; Villalvazo, Maria; Haas, Brian J.; Pertea, Mihaela; Feldblyum, Tamara V.; Utterback, Terry R.; Shu, Chung-Li; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; de Jong, Pieter J.; Hrdy, Ivan; Horvathova, Lenka; Zubacova, Zuzana; Dolezal, Pavel; Malik, Shehre-Banoo; Logsdon, John M.; Henze, Katrin; Gupta, Arti; Wang, Ching C.; Dunne, Rebecca L.; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.; Upcroft, Peter; White, Owen; Salzberg, Steven L.; Tang, Petrus; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lee, Ying-Shiung; Embley, T. Martin; Coombs, Graham H.; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Tachezy, Jan; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the similar to 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion, in conjunction wi

  15. HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Netherlands in 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer IM de; Op de Coul ELM; Koedijk FDH; Veen MG van; Sighem AI van; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2006-01-01

    The trend of increasing Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) has partly stabilised in 2005 in the STI sentinel surveillance network. Among men having sex with men (MSM), the number of STI diagnoses remained high and the HIV positivity rate has increased. Moreover, in the national HIV registry (HIV

  16. The Silent Epidemic. Teens and Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Susan

    1998-01-01

    One-quarter of the 3 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) each year occur in teenagers. Teens are at high risk because of biological, age, and behavioral factors. Education is the best weapon against STDs. As their children's first sex educators, parents must make every effort to promote STD education at home and school. (SM)

  17. Sexually transmitted infection incidence among adolescents in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Martin P

    2014-10-01

    The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland.

  18. Canadian Laboratory Standards for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Best Practice Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI continue to spread, and show no international boundaries. Diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis, which we thought were under control in Canadian populations, have increased in incidence. Sexually transmitted or associated syndromes such as cervicitis, enteric infections, epididymitis, genital ulcers, sexually related hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis and vulvovaginitis present a challenge for the physician to identify the microbial cause, treat the patient and manage contacts. During the past 10 years, new technologies developed for the diagnosis of STIs have provided a clearer understanding of the real accuracy of traditional tests for the diagnosis of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis B virus, human papillomaviruses, HIV, Haemophilus ducreyi, Trichomonas vaginalis and mycoplasmas. This has presented a major challenge to the diagnostic laboratory, namely, selecting the most sensitive and specific test matched with the most appropriate specimens to provide meaningful and timely results to facilitate optimal patient care.

  19. [Infectious pathology: vulvovaginitis, sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, tubo-ovarian abscesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola Vidaurre, M; Benito, J; Azcona, B; Zubeldía, N

    2009-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are those where the principal path of infection is through intimate contact. Numerous patients attend Accidents and emergencies for this reason, both because of the clinical features and because of social implications. The most frequent symptoms are lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding or excessive or troubling vaginal flow. Vulvovaginites are one of the principal problems in the everyday clinical practice of gynaecology. A genital ulcer whose principal aetiology is herpes, followed by syphilis and chancroid, increases the risk of contracting HIV infection and alters the course of other sexually transmitted diseases. Inflammatory pelvic disease encompasses infections of the upper female genital tract. The importance of early diagnosis and suitable treatment is both due to the complications in its acute phase and to its sequels, which include chronic pain and sterility.

  20. Knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Rahman, Azriani; Ab Rahman, Razlina; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Salleh, Halim; Ismail, Shaiful Bahri; Ali, Siti Hawa; Muda, Wan Manan Wan; Ishak, Maizun; Ahmad, Amaluddin

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school and to compare the levels of knowledge between males and females and between older and younger groups of adolescents. Across-sectional study was conducted among 1,034 secondary school students using a self administered validated questionnaire. The items with the fewest correct responses included: whether one can get pregnant after a single act of sexual intercourse (30.4%), whether sexual intercourse causes sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (12.4%) and whether washing the vagina after sexual intercourse prevents pregnancy (17.0%). Their main source of sexual information was friends (64.4%). An independent t-test revealed the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among females than males on items assessing whether the genitalia may be touched freely by family members, females having attained menarche may become pregnant if having sex, whether pregnancy will occur if there is penetration of the penis into the vagina, whether premarital sexual intercourse causes pregnancy and if there is a relationship between abandoned babies and premarital pregnancies. The mean knowledge score assessing whether pregnancy can be prevented using condoms was higher among males than females. The mean knowledge scores were significantly higher among form four and form five students than forms one, two and three students. Lack of knowledge regarding important aspects of sexual and reproductive health warrant the need to strengthen sexual and reproductive health education.

  1. HIV in Kenya: Sexual behaviour and quality of care of sexually transmitted diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes three important determinants of HIV spread in Kenya: 1. Sexual behaviour of female sex workers, their clients, and young adults 2. Health care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 3. Quality of STD care in the public and private health

  2. Update on strategies of controlling sexually transmitted infections: Taiwan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chun Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are a variety of clinical infectious conditions caused by pathogens that are transmitted through sexual activity. In recent years, the incidence of STIs has been gradually rising, according to the statistics of the World Health Organization. Although the recommended management of people who have, or are at risk, for STIs were provided by the association of Europe and the United States, the pathogens of STIs still have a great diversity of epidemiology in different ethnic communities and countries. However, to our knowledge, there have been very few studies updating the status of STIs in the Taiwan population. In this article, we focus on evaluations and announcements for common pathogens of STIs in Taiwan. The strategies for prevention and control of STIs are also discussed in this article. We hope that our experience can be shared to the neighboring countries and lead to an Asian consensus of STI.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Nutan; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Mane, Arati; Kulkarni, Roshan; Palshetker, Aparna; Singh, Kamalinder; Joshi, Swati; Risbud, Arun; Kulkarni, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using vaginal or rectal microbicide-based intervention is one of the strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Herbal products have been used for treating STIs traditionally. Herein, we present in vitro activity of 10 plant extracts and their 34 fractions against three sexually transmitted/reproductive tract pathogens - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi and Candida albicans. The plant parts were selected; the extracts/fractions were prepared and screened by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations were determined. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of selected extracts/fractions showing activity was performed. Of the extracts/fractions tested, three inhibited C. albicans, ten inhibited N. gonorrhoeae and five inhibited H. ducreyi growth. Our study demonstrated that Terminalia paniculata Roth. extracts/fractions inhibited growth of all three organisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. extracts was found to inhibit N. gonorrhoeae at lowest concentrations.

  4. A survey of current knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviour in Italian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Drago; Giulia Ciccarese; Francesca Zangrillo; Giulia Gasparini; Ludovica Cogorno; Silvia Riva; Sanja Javor; Emanuele Cozzani; Francesco Broccolo; Susanna Esposito; Aurora Parodi

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 137...

  5. Annual US Air Force Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Report, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report evaluates the 1995 US Air Force (USAF) Sexually Transmitted Diseases ( STD ) Prevention and Control Program. The report analyzes data from...88 medical treatment facilities worldwide and compares 1995 data with that from 1992-94. The 1995 USAF active duty total STD incidence rate was 7.64...cases per 1,000 personnel. This rate represents a 18.9% decline from the 1994 reported STD incidence rate of 9.41 per 1,000 personnel. Among active

  6. A social model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo

    2004-10-01

    We have introduced recently a model for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a key factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population. The social behavior is taking into account by means of two parameters: the fraction of singles ρs and the promiscuity p. The promiscuity parameter defines the per individual daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In this contribution we show that the interaction between this two parameters give rise to a non-trivial epidemic threshold condition, when going from the homogeneous case ( ρs=1) to heterogeneous cases ( ρs<1). These results can have profound implication in the interpretation of real epidemic data.

  7. A Contemporary Analysis of Sexual Trends and Transmitted Infections Among Outpatient at Two Public Hospitals in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazhmoye Crawford

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at investigating sexual behavior and assessing intervention to improve sexual and reproductive health among young adults in Jamaica has increased in recent decades. This study was carried out to assess both positive and negative sexual outcomes e.g. sexual activity and sexual satisfaction related to sexual behavior such as multiple partners and the use or non-use of condoms among young adults. As part of the Reproductive Health Survey, data on the socio-demographic characteristics, sexual activity and behavior were assessed using a 56-item questionnaire on 213 randomly selected young adults from the 14 parishes in Jamaica attending two major public hospitals. The majority of the respondents had their first sexual experience when they were 15-18 years old. Among the men, the majority achieved full sexual satisfaction (100.0% and had sex daily (49.6%. The majority of women were unable to achieve full sexual satisfaction (69.3%, χ2 =138.85, p2 = 58.05, p< 0.05. The majority of respondents had 2-3 sexual partners (51.2%, used condoms (56.7% and ranked highest among those with sexually transmitted infections (85.9%. Comprehensive behavioural interventions should target these young adults who are engaged in high sexual risk behaviors.

  8. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel: From Boudoir to Bordello.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Ann K; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Travel has historically been an important risk factor for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Travel is often associated with a sense of adventure, periods of loneliness, and exploration away from one's home environment-which often form a milieu in which sexual activity can occur with new partners. Survey data clearly demonstrate that out-of-country travel is associated with recruitment of new sex partners and increased STI risk. Pretravel counseling to prevent STI risk is variable, and there is little evidence that it modifies risk behavior. Some travel occurs specifically for sexual purposes, such as the sexual tourism junkets to Southeast Asian destinations which became popular during the 1980s or the more recent rise in the popularity of circuit parties for men who have sex with men. Some travel situations pose particularly high risks. For example, military deployments and assignments to work camps such as those for oil extraction occur in the context of large groups of individuals of reproductive age, often predominantly males, exposed to high levels of stress in unfamiliar environments. Additionally, over the past decade, the Internet has dramatically changed the ability to identify sexual partners while traveling.

  9. A study on sexually transmitted diseases in patients in a STD clinic in a district hospital in North India

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    Neerja Puri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a global health problem of great magnitude. The pattern of STDs differs from country to country and from region to region. The increased risk of the transmission of HIV is known to be associated with the presence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and despite the presence of the National STD Control Program in India the number of people with STDs remains high. Aim: The aim of our study was to study the profile of patients in a STD clinic in North India and to study various sexually transmitted infections in both male and female patients. Material and Methods: A prospective study of the patients attending STD clinic in a district hospital in North India from December 2009 to December 2012 was done. A total of 2700 patients attending the STDclinic in three years from December 2009 to December 2012 were taken up for the study. Results: The commonest sexually transmitted infection in males was herpes genitalis (30% followed by 20% cases of genital warts. 10% patients had gonorrhoea, genital molluscum contagiosum, syphilis and genital scabies each and 5% patients had nongonococcal urethritis. Only 5% of the total patients had chancroid, donovanosis and LGV. The commonest sexually transmitted infection in females was vaginal discharge seen in 40% patients, lower abdominal pain in 20% patients, herpes genitalis in 15% patients followed by 20% cases of genital warts and syphilis each. Genital molluscum contagiosum was seen in 5% patients only. Conclusions: The treatment of STD’s is important as both non-ulcerative and ulcerative STDs increase the susceptibility to or transmissibility of HIV infection and as such, an increase in STD prevalence as revealed by clinic attendance in this study was bound to facilitate the spread of HIV/AIDS. Perhaps it is high time health planners adopted a more aggressive and result oriented HIV/AIDS/STD awareness campaign strategy.

  10. A cognitive behavioural intervention to reduce sexually transmitted infections among gay men: randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Imrie, J.; Stephenson, J R; Cowan, F. M.; Wanigaratne, S; Billington, A. J. P.; Copas, A. J.; French, L.; French, P D; Johnson, A. M.; Behav Intervention Gay Men Project

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of a brief cognitive behavioural intervention in reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections among gay men.Design Randomised controlled trial with 12 months' follow up.Setting Sexual health clinic in London.Participants 343 gay men with an acute sexually transmitted infection or who reported having had unprotected anal intercourse in the past year.Main outcome measures Number of new sexually transmitted infections diagnosed during follow ...

  11. Community understanding and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumeish, Oumeish Youssef; Oumeish, Isam F

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the various attempts by health care workers to reduce the morbidity and mortality of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), more than 15 million persons acquire STDs each year in the United States. The situation is more serious in developing countries and, in particular, Africa and Southeast Asia. The causes of the increase in STDs are many, but we believe that alterations in family structures, drug and alcohol addiction, wars and mobilization of armies and movement of populations, in addition to change in sexual behaviors and lax morality are the main ones. Education, counseling, and community understanding of the risks of STDs are very essential factors in prevention and control. Physicians need to recognize the manifestations of STDSs and start the treatment as early as possible, but at the same time, more efforts are needed for prevention.

  12. Sexually transmitted diseases in men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Kenneth H

    2011-12-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have increased rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) compared with demographically matched controls. The reasons for the disproportionate infection burden are complex, including biological, behavioral, and sociocultural factors. HIV and syphilis may often be coprevalent among MSM. The use of nucleic acid amplification testing has enhanced the ability to detect frequently asymptomatic gonococcal and chlamydial infections of the rectum and other sites. Lymphogranuloma proctitis outbreaks among MSM were noted in the developed world several years ago but have not been common recently. MSM are at increased risk for viral hepatitis and anal human papillomavirus disease. Preventive interventions include vaccination for the former and anal cytologic screening for the latter. Because of the diverse ways in which MSM may be exposed to STDs, it is essential for clinicians to obtain a thorough sexual history in a culturally competent manner.

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. A female perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, M

    2012-02-03

    Sexually transmitted diseases have the greatest impact on the health of women. They are frequently asymptomatic, so screening for infection is important in preventing the long-term sequelae which include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. HIV continues to increase in the female population and the gynecologic complications associated with it are unique to this population. Use of zidovudine in pregnant HIV-infected women has substantially decreased the rate of vertical transmission of HIV infection. The epidemiologic synergy between HIV and STDs is well recognized and prevention of one is dependent on prevention of the other.

  14. Sexually transmitted diseases: reflections on metaphors and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badura-Lotter, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are probably the most tabooed diseases we know. The taboos and the related stigmata shape patients reality and influence significantly health care policies, medical research, and actual problems in medical ethics. To better understand these complex influences of ancient but still powerful taboos, related metaphors associated with illness and disease are analyzed according to their historical development and actual impact on society. It becomes obvious that research and health care policies cannot be satisfyingly successful in helping people affected by STDs as long as they do not take the mechanisms of taboos and associated metaphors into account.

  15. [Current protocols for diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, A

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the guidelines for the treatment of individuals with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) that were developed by the STD Study Group "GIRVE" of the Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Venereologia (Italian Society of Dermatology and Venerology) in accordance with those developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1998. The guidelines represent a useful tool for physicians and other health-care providers in preventing and controlling STDs. The guidelines include new recommendations for treating genital herpes and genital warts.

  16. Sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviour among young Swedish women : a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Monica

    1998-01-01

    Most epidemiologic studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are based on patients seeking help or advice at various health care settings. Because many STD:s are subclinical, epidemiologic surveys can be strengthened by a population-based approach. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence and incidence of STDs in a population of young women, and to assess associations between STDs and social background, education, previous genital infections, sexual behaviour, con...

  17. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Philibert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infection. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to prospectively detect the prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis (CT, neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV, and syphilis in a population of asymptomatic sexually active MSM. Methods: Rectal, pharyngeal, and urine samples for CT, NG, MG, and HR-HPV were analyzed in 116 MSM patients attending the clinic for their routine follow-up during the period the study was conducted: 99 patients were issued from the clinic routine follow-up for their HIV infection, and 17 attended the clinic because they were sexual partners of an HIV infected male. Results: An STI was found in 16% of the patients (19/116, with at least one bacterial strain (CT, NG, or MG found in one site (the pharynx, rectum, or urine. Conclusions: In this study, 16% of the MSM reporting recent RAI were asymptomatic carriers of rectal CT, NG, or MG. According to the high prevalence of asymptomatic STIs found in our MSM population and in other studies, prevention efforts in the form of counseling about the risk of STI need to be done in the population of MSM.

  18. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, Patrick; Khiri, Hacène; Pénaranda, Guillaume; Camus, Claire; Drogoul, Marie-Pierre; Halfon, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infection. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to prospectively detect the prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis (CT), neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), and syphilis in a population of asymptomatic sexually active MSM. Methods: Rectal, pharyngeal, and urine samples for CT, NG, MG, and HR-HPV were analyzed in 116 MSM patients attending the clinic for their routine follow-up during the period the study was conducted: 99 patients were issued from the clinic routine follow-up for their HIV infection, and 17 attended the clinic because they were sexual partners of an HIV infected male. Results: An STI was found in 16% of the patients (19/116), with at least one bacterial strain (CT, NG, or MG) found in one site (the pharynx, rectum, or urine). Conclusions: In this study, 16% of the MSM reporting recent RAI were asymptomatic carriers of rectal CT, NG, or MG. According to the high prevalence of asymptomatic STIs found in our MSM population and in other studies, prevention efforts in the form of counseling about the risk of STI need to be done in the population of MSM. PMID:26237608

  19. Knowledge, Behavior and Attitudes of University Students toward Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtuluş Didem Yazganoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: This study evaluates the knowledge, behavior and attitudes about sexually transmitted infections (STIs among university students attending faculties other than medicine. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was designed. A self-administered questionnaire comprising 37 questions was administered to students of Turkish nationality in a six-week period who attended to medico. Three hundred and eighty eight students completed the questionnaire. Results: Among students, 56.9% were female and 43.1% were male. Mean age was 21.18±2.46. Of the students, 76.9% claimed that they knew about STIs. ?Internet? (63.9% was the most common source of information, followed-by ?friends? (48%. HIV was the most common known disease as a STI (96.8%, followed-by gonorrhea, syphilis, hepatitis-B, genital herpes, genital warts, hepatitis-C. Of the respondents, 93.7% knew that STIs could be transmitted by vaginal sex, while 69% knew about transmission by blood, 48.9% by anal sex and 32% by oral sex. The rate of students who did not know any of the symptoms of STIs was 32.9%. Of the females 13.3% and of the males 51.6% stated to have sexual experience with statistically significant difference among sexes (c2=62.722, p=0.001. Females reported first sexual intercourse at an older age than males (t=3.970, p=0.001. Approximately half of the males (55.8% and nearly all of the females (95.8% who reported to have sexual activity had 2 or less sexual partners (c2=9.564, p=0.008. Both sexes showed risky sexual behavior about condom use (c2=3.210, p=0.523. Conclusion: It seems that most of the Turkish university students are not aware of STIs other than HIV. They especially lack knowledge about symptoms, complications and transmission routes of STIs. The low rate of condom use shows their risky behavior to get STI. Lack of knowledge about STIs, condom use and risky sexual behaviors among university students deserve attention to the

  20. 中国六省(区)性病门诊男性就诊者艾滋病相关行为特征及HIV感染状况影响因素研究%Study on the HIV infection status, characteristics of AIDS-related behaviors and risk factors among men attending the sexually transmitted disease clinics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许艳; 惠珊; 孟晓军; 明帅; 丁正伟; 李东民; 黑发欣; 王璐

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the status on AIDS awareness,AIDS-related behaviors,risk factors on HIV infection status among 15-90 years or older men at the sexually transmitted disease clinics.Methods Data from the 2009 and 2010 national sentinel surveillance system,regarding men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics was collected from Guangdong,Guangxi,Henan,Sichuan,Yunnan and Jiangxi provinces,where the AIDS epidemic among 15-90 years or older population was serious.Data was uploaded to National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS) through the comprehensive AIDS control and prevention information system.Data was then analyzed by SPSS 18.0.Results A total of 64 003 pieces of data were collected.Among them,8783 ( 13.7% ) were related to men at ≥ 50 years or older,and to men 15-49 years older were 55 220.The rates on the awareness of AIDS knowledge were from 69.6% vs.80.1%,on frequently having had commercial sexual contacts in the last three months were between 34.1%vs.36.6%,on having had casual sexual contact in the last three months were 18.7% vs.28.4%,on having had homosexual anal intercourse as 0.7% vs.1.4%.The rates of taking HIV antibody testing in the last year (14.3% vs.17.1% ) among this population were all significantly lower than the rate among the 15 to 49 years age group.However,the HlV-positive rate among the older age group (fifty years of age or older) was significantly higher than the rate among 15 to 49 year age group ( 1.1% vs.0.7% ).Regard the fifty years of age or older men.Data from the multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that factors as:having regular partner (OR=0.588,P=0.034),having homosexual anal intercourse (OR=5.226,P=0.006) were associated with positivities of HIV antibody.Conclusion High-risk sexual behaviors,including homosexual anal intercourse were the major risk factors for men at ≥50 years or older age,related to the infection of HIV.%目的 了解中国6

  1. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…

  2. Monitoring knowledge among family, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual partnership characteristics of African American adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Riley J; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2014-10-01

    Among 284 African American girls aged 14 to 17 years, frequent family monitoring knowledge was associated with a reduced likelihood of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and having a casual sex partner but was not associated with other partnership characteristics. Family monitoring may offer an additional STI prevention opportunity for this vulnerable population.

  3. Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Goesling; Silvie Colman; Christopher Trenholm; Mary Terzian; Kristin Moore

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an ongoing systematic review of research on teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention programs, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to help support evidence-based approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the analysis.

  4. Sexual Relationship Power as a Mediator between Dating Violence and Sexually Transmitted Infections among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…

  5. [Awareness and education regarding sexually transmitted diseases among undergraduate students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eneida Lazzarini de; Caldas, Tânia Alencar de; Morcillo, André Moreno; Pereira, Elisabete Monteiro de Aguiar; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the main global cause of acute illness and death and represent a high socioeconomic cost. Undergraduate students are highly exposed to STDs. The research developed at UNICAMP sought to quantify and generate self-perception of knowledge(or lack thereof) about STDs, as well as evaluate the interest of the students in a course on the topic. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire sent electronically to students about to graduate at the end of 2011 and to freshmen in 2012. The questionnaire was answered by 1,448 seniors and 371 freshmen. Twenty percent of seniors and 38% of freshmen had no sexual activity. Among sexually active students, 26.9% had no regular partner and 28.2% more than two partners per year. The condom was used by 99% of students, but less than 20% used them appropriately. About 80% were unaware that condoms do not provide protection outside the barrier area; they intended to read more about STDs and learnt something about the subject. Nearly half of the students considered that a course should be offered to all undergraduates. These findings will be of use in defining strategies for prevention and the teaching tool could be used in other learning environments.

  6. The social behavior and the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo

    2003-10-01

    We introduce a model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a determinant factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle, anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population, indeed, in this contribution only the homosexual case is analyzed. Different social behaviors are reflected in a distribution of sexual attitudes ranging from the more conservative to the more promiscuous. This is measured by what we call the promiscuity parameter. In terms of this parameter, we find a critical behavior for the evolution of the disease. There is a threshold below which the epidemic does not occur. We relate this critical value of promiscuity to what epidemiologists call the basic reproductive number, connecting it with the other parameters of the model, namely the infectivity and the infective period in a quantitative way. We consider the possibility of subjects to be grouped in couples.

  7. Migrant labor and sexually transmitted disease: AIDS in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C W

    1989-12-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is worldwide, but the clinical and epidemiological pattern of the disease in Africa is different from that in developed areas. "Type 1 AIDS" occurs in industrialized North America and Europe; it has a distinctive sex ratio (16:1) and risk pattern of IV drug use and sexual practices. "Type 2 AIDS" occurs in Third World countries, particularly in eastern, southern, and central Africa. It is characterized by an entirely different sex ratio (1:1) and by distinctively different risk patterns. Both epidemics are caused by the HIV-1 virus. The key concept for understanding the origins of the differences between Type 1 and Type 2 AIDS is the migratory labor system in eastern, central, and southern Africa. This system causes long absences, increased family breakdown, and increased numbers of sexual partners. Historically the organization of this labor market has created a population which suffers from epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases. These historical patterns are presented as evidence for the contemporary transmission of AIDS. When contemporary AIDS and HIV-1 seropositivity prevalence data are examined, a systematic temporal and geographic pattern emerges for the AIDS epidemic in Africa. Despite a paucity of good data, the prevalence data from eastern, central, and southern Africa support the thesis of migrant labor's role in the transmission of AIDS.

  8. Adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases: attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L S; Rozmus, C; Edmisson, K

    1999-06-01

    This study described rural adolescents' attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and values with regard to sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Rotter's Social Learning Theory (1954) provided the theoretical framework for this descriptive, correlational design. The convenience sample consisted of 170 students from one rural high school. Consistent with past studies, results included the following: participants had more correct than incorrect knowledge related to sexual intercourse and STDs; the majority had positive attitudes toward condom use and believed it was OK for peers to have sex with a "steady;" the value of an exciting life correlated positively with attitudes toward sex; knowledge of sexual intercourse correlated positively with attitudes toward condom use; and the value health correlated positively with knowledge of sex and attitudes toward condom use, and negatively with attitudes toward sex. The findings in this study suggest the need for ongoing research with adolescents in the area of sexuality and STDs. Additionally, the findings support past studies, which revealed that knowledge of sexual intercourse and STDs has little impact on attitudes toward sexual intercourse. With the serious nature of some of the undesired consequences of adolescent sexual behavior, current and accurate information on this population is needed to assist health educators in developing interventions in this area.

  9. The Sexually Transmitted Insect Virus, Hz-2V

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John P. Burand

    2009-01-01

    Hz-2V is one of only a very few sexually transmitted viruses currently known in insects. Replication of this insect pathogenic virus results in sterility of infected moths rather than mortality. The sterility of the infected host is a consequence of virus directed malformation of adult reproductive tissues, which in females results in cellular proliferation and hypertrophy of these tissues. Virus replication has additional ramifications in infected females. Infected females produce more mating pheromones and attract more mates than healthy females, ultimately facilitating virus transmission and enhancing viral fitness. The molecular mechanisms used by the virus to manipulate the host to enhance its fitness are yet to be determined. Unraveling the underlying principles of these mechanisms promises to enhance our understanding of insect reproductive physiology, as well as provide molecular tools for use in novel approaches in sterile insect control programs.

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis - an indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal B

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases and 68 men counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female SID cases′ and in 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 216 cases of T.vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with infection with Candida species; 29 (23% with Neisseria gonorrhoea. 18 cases (14.3% with Haemophilus ducreyi and 11 cases (8.7%, Chlamydia trachomatis. Treponema pallidum was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constituted a low percentage. Present study highlighted the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-third cases which suggested that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  11. Reappraisal of sexually transmitted infections in children: A hospital-based study from an urban area

    OpenAIRE

    Vibhu Mendiratta; Soumya Agarwal; Ram Chander

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in children can be acquired either by sexual, or non-sexual route. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) in children reflect the pattern of STI in adult population and the knowledge, attitude and practices of the society. They also serve as an indicator of STI control strategies. Aims: A retrospective study spanning over a period of 5 years from 2007 to 2011) was undertaken to make a detailed analysis of demographic, behavioral, epidemiological ...

  12. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Juvenile Prostitutes and Street Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Antonietta Caffaro Rouget; Mah, Jean K.; Lang, Reuben A; Joffres, Michel R

    1994-01-01

    Four groups of adolescents – 35 juvenile prostitutes, 36 street youth, 31 monogamous sexually active adolescents and 35 non-sexually active adolescents – were studied between January 1, 1988 and December 31, 1988 for the presence of sexually transmitted diseases and other genital pathogens. The high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases found in the juvenile prostitutes (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 49%; Chlamydia trachomatis, 83%) is in contrast to other studies, which document much lower ra...

  13. Drug resistance in the sexually transmitted protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REBECCA L DUNNE; LINDA A DUNN; PETER UPCROFT; PETER J O'DONOGHUE; JACQUELINE A UPCROFT

    2003-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common, sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Symptoms include vaginitis and infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality, as well as predisposing to HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. Trichomoniasis has the highest prevalence and incidence of any sexually transmitted infection. The 5-nitroimidazole drugs, of which metronidazole is the most prescribed, are the only approved,effective drugs to treat trichomoniasis. Resistance against metronidazole is frequently reported and crossresistance among the family of 5-nitroimidazole drugs is common, leaving no alternative for treatment, with some cases remaining unresolved. The mechanism of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis from treatment failures is not well understood, unlike resistance which is developed in the laboratory under increasing metronidazole pressure. In the latter situation, hydrogenosomal function which is involved in activation of the prodrug, metronidazole, is down-regulated. Reversion to sensitivity is incomplete after removal of drug pressure in the highly resistant parasites while clinically resistant strains, so far analysed, maintain their resistance levels in the absence of drug pressure. Although anaerobic resistance has been regarded as a laboratory induced phenomenon, it clearly has been demonstrated in clinical isolates. Pursuit of both approaches will allow dissection of the underlying mechanisms. Many alternative drugs and treatments have been tested in vivo in cases of refractory trichomoniasis, as well as in vitro with some successes including the broad spectrum anti-parasitic drug nitazoxanide. Drug resistance incidence in T. vaginalis appears to be on the increase and improved surveillance of treatment failures is urged.

  14. HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriyo Jacqueline

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654, attending primary health clinics for routine antenatal care were interviewed, examined and biological samples collected for diagnosis of HIV and other sexually transmitted/reproductive tract infections. Results The prevalence of HIV was 6.9%. The risk for HIV was greater among women whose male partner; had other sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 15.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.39–27.20, traveled frequently (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.22–2.65 or consumed alcohol daily (AOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06–2.67. Other independent predictors of HIV were age, number of sex partners, recent migration, and presence of bacterial vaginosis, genital ulcer, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2. Conclusion Development of programs that actively involve men in HIV prevention is important in reducing transmission of HIV in this population. Further, interventions that focus on STI control, the mobile population, sexual risk behavior and responsible alcohol use are required.

  15. Adolescents in The Netherlands underestimate risk for sexually transmitted infections and deny the need for sexually transmitted infection testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfers, Mireille; de Zwart, Onno; Kok, Gerjo

    2011-05-01

    Worldwide, adolescents are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI). In The Netherlands, test rates among young heterosexual people are low and knowledge on the behavioral determinants of testing is scarce. In this study, we investigated STI testing in more detail with two independent samples of 16-25 year old vocational school students (n = 756/n = 1302). The aim of this study was to examine risk perceptions in relation to STI testing among lower educated adolescents in order to inform the development of an intervention promoting STI testing. We compared multiple measures of risk perception, fear of testing, self-efficacy for testing, and risk knowledge between groups of adolescents engaging and not engaging in risk behavior. The results show that at least half of the participating students with sexual experience underestimated their susceptibility for STI and showed an optimistic bias. Students with sexual experience also considered STI very severe but lacked self-efficacy for testing. This combination can yield a defensive reaction to the threat of STI that, in turn, results in the underestimation of personal risks. However, self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between intention to test and perceived relative risk. In conclusion, our findings show underestimation of personal risks by vocational school students, a high perceived severity of STI and low self-efficacy for testing. A low level of knowledge regarding sexual risks and symptoms of STI might have contributed to low risk perceptions. Self-efficacy did not change the relation of intention-to-test to perceived risk.

  16. Measuring disparities in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Karen; Bohm, Michele; Keppel, Kenneth

    2008-12-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines a health disparity as a "[health] difference that occurs by gender, race or ethnicity, education or income, disability, geographic location, or sexual orientation." Health equity is achieved by eliminating health disparities or inequalities. Measuring health disparities is a critical first step toward reducing differences in health outcomes. To determine the methods to be used in measuring a health disparity, several decisions must be made, which include: (1) selecting a reference group for the comparison of 2 or more groups; (2) determining whether a disparity should be measured in absolute or in relative terms; (3) opting to measure health outcomes or health indicators expressed as adverse or favorable events; (4) selecting a method to monitor a disparity over time; and (5) choosing to measure a disparity as a pair-wise comparison between 2 groups or in terms of a summary measure of disparity among all groups for a particular characteristic. Different choices may lead to different conclusions about the size and direction of health disparities at a point in time and changes in disparities over time.The objective of this article is to review the methods for measuring health disparities, provide examples of their use, and make specific recommendations for measuring disparities in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

  17. The epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, William L; Bortot, Andrea T; Benjamins, Laura J; Feldmann, Jennifer M; Barratt, Michelle S; Eissa, Mona A; Risser, Jan M H

    2005-07-01

    This article addresses the epidemiology of several common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in adolescents. Chlamydia is a common occurrence in adolescents, more so than is gonorrhea, but both are of particular concern because they may cause pelvic inflammatory disease. Many experts recommend screening for chlamydia in sexually active adolescents, particularly females. Trichomonas vaginalis is significant as a marker for risk of contracting other STIs and because of its association with pregnancy complications and with increased risk of transmission of HIV. Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, which usually has been caused by HSV-2, is a common finding in adolescents, and it now is caused also by HSV-1 in some populations. Human papillomavirus (HPV), though widespread in adolescents, usually is a self-limited infection, and malignancy resulting from HPV is a rare occurrence in this age group. The least common of the diseases discussed below is syphilis, but a recent sharp increase in incidence has occurred in men who have sex with men.

  18. Sexual Behavior Latent Classes Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: Associations With Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cara E; Turner, Abigail Norris; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2016-08-12

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at disproportionate risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine patterns of sexual behavior among MSM and how those patterns are related to STIs. We examined patterns of sexual behavior using behavioral and clinical data from a cross-sectional study of 235 MSM who presented to an urban sexual health clinic for STI testing. Analyzed data were collected using a combination of interviewer- and self-administered surveys and electronic health records. We used LCA to identify underlying subgroups of men based on their sexual behavior, described the demographics of the latent classes, and examined the association between the latent classes and STI status. We identified three latent classes of sexual behavior: Unprotected Anal Intercourse (UAI) Only (67%), Partner Seekers (14%), and Multiple Behaviors (19%). Men in the Multiple Behaviors class had a 67% probability of being STI positive, followed by men in the UAI Only class (27%) and men in the Partner Seekers class (22%). Examining the intersection of a variety of sexual practices indicates particular subgroups of MSM have the highest probability of being STI positive.

  19. Risk perception of sexually transmitted diseases and teenage sexual behaviour: attitudes towards in a sample of Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, M; Cucchi, A; Guidi, E; Stefanati, A; Bonato, B; Lupi, S; Gregorio, P

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study is to determine awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their prevention in people aged 14-19 of Ferrara and province. The study was carried out using a self-administered standardised anonymous questionnaire in a sample of students attending to three upper secondary schools. Total number of collected questionnaires was 2695, the average age of interviewed was 17.1. Only 52.3% of respondents correctly recognized STD definition. Over 95% of subjects identified acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), while properly classification of Hepatitis B increased with age and lowest degree of knowledge concerned herpes infection and Candidiasis. Sex without condom (95.97%) and needle exchange in drugs abusers (94.9%) are considered high risk behaviours. 80.3% of interviewed, without distinction of school attendance, sex, and age considered lack of information as a situation of high risk. Condoms are not used by 46.4% of the subjects in case of sex with a regular partner and by 9.5% with casual partner. Majority of students declared condoms very safe in preventing STDs but an important percentage indicated also contraception methods; correct answers were higher among females and increased with age. Main sources of information were TV (21.6%), school (21.1%) and friends (14.8%) and a few sought information from family doctor (7.4%) and web (4.8%). The study suggests, as priority, to improve teenagers' awareness about risk behaviours and prevention of STDs. School can play an important role in reinforcement of sexual education programmes and directing young people to general practitioners and primary sexual health care services.

  20. Genital ulcers, other sexually transmitted diseases, and the sexual transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, P; Laga, M

    1989-03-11

    There is increasing evidence that genital ulceration, including syphilis, chancroid, and herpes simplex type 2, increases susceptibility to HIV infection. It may be that the HIV penetrates more easily through ulcerated membranes or that the lymphocytes associated with the inflammatory response present target cells for HIV infection. There is also evidence that HIV-infected women with genital ulcers are themselves more infective due to shedding of the virus in the genital tract. Nonulcerative sexually-transmitted diseases have also been associated as cofactors of HIV infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases should be strengthened and should focus on eliminating chancroid, which is easily treated with antibiotics. Patients with genital ulcer disease should receive counseling, so that they will know that untreated genital ulcers increase the risk of HIV infection.

  1. [Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, O.P.; Meijden, W.I. van der; Wittenberg, J.; Bergen, J.E. van; Boeke, A.J.; Doornum, G.J.J. van; Henquet, C.J.; Galama, J.M.D.; Postma, M.J.; Prins, J.M.; Voorst Vader, P.C. van

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes' summarises the current scientific position on the diagnosis and treatment of a great number of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and neonatal herpes. Symptomatic treatment of susp

  2. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

  3. Recreational Drug Use During Sex and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Clients of a City Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligenberg, Marlies; Wermeling, Paulien R.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Urbanus, Anouk T.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Heijman, Titia; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). Methods: During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009,

  4. Communication between Asian American Adolescents and Health Care Providers about Sexual Activity, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…

  5. Sexual practices and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among hairdressers in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhodion, F O; Balogun, M O; Klemetti, M M; Olaolorun, F M

    2015-01-01

    The environment in salons provides hairdressers the opportunity to discuss sexual exploits which may promote unhealthy sexual behaviour and increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of the study was to determine sexual practices and knowledge and experience of STIs among hairdressers. The study was carried out in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. A total of 1700 hairdressers were selected by cluster sampling technique. Predictors of risky sexual behaviour, knowledge and experience of STIs were identified. Their mean age was 27.0 ± 8.1 years, 860 (50.6%) were single. Majority of them, 1453(85.5%) had ever had sex. The mean age at sexual debut was 15.9 years. Mean knowledge score of STIs was 14.0 out of 25. Only 158(9.3%) experienced symptoms of STIs in the last 12 months. Among singles, senior secondary education was a predictor of ever had sex (odds ratio [OR]: 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53-3.13), good knowledge of STIs (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.45-2.83) and experience of STIs in the last 12 months (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.53-3.13). Hairdressers, especially singles, are a vulnerable group at risk of reproductive health morbidities. There is a need to focus reproductive health interventions on this occupational group.

  6. Gender Role Discrepancy Stress, High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Sexually Transmitted Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Gentile, Brittany; Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-02-01

    Nearly 20 million new sexually transmitted infections occur every year in the United States. Traditionally, men have demonstrated much greater risk for contraction of and mortality from STDs perhaps because they tend to engage in a number of risky sexual activities. Research on masculinity suggests that gender roles influence males' sexual health by encouraging risk-taking behavior, discouraging access to health services, and narrowly defining their roles as partners. However, despite the propensity of highly masculine men to engage in high-risk sexual behavior, there is reason to suspect that men at the other end of the continuum may still be driven to engage in similar high-risk behaviors as a consequence of gender socialization. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when men fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions (i.e., Gender Role Discrepancy). In the present study, we surveyed a national sample of 600 men via Amazon Mechanical Turk to assess perceived gender role discrepancy, experience of discrepancy stress, and the associations with risky sexual behavior and potential contraction of STDs. Results indicated that men who believe they are less masculine than the typical man (i.e., gender role discrepancy) and experience distress stemming from this discrepancy (i.e., discrepancy stress) engage in high-risk sexual behavior and are subsequently diagnosed with more STDs. Findings are discussed in relation to implications for primary prevention strategies.

  7. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas.

  8. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

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    Francesco Drago

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD. Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy. For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  9. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-04-13

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  10. Kurthia gibsonii as a sexually transmitted zoonosis: From a neglected condition during World War II to a recent warning for sexually transmitted disease units

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Context: Zoonotic sexual transmission. Aims: Identification of unknown microorganisms causing sexually transmitted zoonotic infection was a common effort of clinicians and the laboratory. Settings and Design: A male patient had recurring urethritis and balanitis after having repeated unprotected penetrative sexual intercourse with female piglets. He claimed allergy to metals and plastics. Routine microbiological tests were carried out. Materials and Methods: Specimens from the urethra, glans,...

  11. Prevention of AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (Review Paper

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    G.P. Talwar

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal vaginal discharge due to reproductive tract infections (RTIs is widely prevalent in the country. According to WHO, over 300 million new cases of sexually-transmitted infections (excluding HIV occur each year. In addition to these, HIV infection is spreading rapidly in the country with over 3.7 million sero-positive cases (from zero within 15 years.. The predominant mode of transmission of HIV is by heterosexual route. The multidrug regime for treatment is expensive (about $10,000 per year which is beyond the reach of most of the people. No viable vaccine preventing AIDS infection is in sight. Under these circumstances, safe sex is the best recourse, which demands consistent and proper use of condoms. This does not take place to the extent necessary for preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually-transmitted infections. A polyherbal tablet for intravaginal use by women has been developed and a polyherbal cream, for use by both men and women, which has a wide spectrum antimicrobial action. Amongst others, these inhibit the growth of Neisseria gonorrhea (including strains resistant to penicillin. normal and multidrug-resistant isolates of urinary tract E. coli, Candida albicans. Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. Applied intravaginally, these prevent the transmission of Herpes simplex 2 and Chlamydia Irachomatis in progestin-sensitised mice. Studies conducted at the Institut Pasteur. Paris and Conrad Norfolk, USA, have demonstrated high virucidal action of these formulations against HIV . Both formulations have undergone phase I clinical trials in five major centres in India and abroad, which have indicated the complete safety of these products without any local or systemic side effects. The Drug Controller of India and the Institutional Ethics Committees have approved phase II clinical trials. The first of these trials was conducted in 88 women with abnormal vaginal discharge due to genital pathogens at the Postgraduate

  12. An overview on sexually transmitted infections in Iran

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    Roksana Janghorban

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs cause a large proportion of the global burden of ill-health, disability, and death. This paper reviews the status of STIs in Iran in the three groups of infections are caused by bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens and then focuses on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. This review was carried out in the period of 1977-2015 by searching in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of sciences, Google scholar, the Iranian databases such as MagIran, IranMedex and SID using relevant English and Persian key words. Articles, reports, fact sheets, and official publications of World Health Organization (WHO, the United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS, The United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF, and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME of Iran were reviewed. Data on the prevalence of STIs in Iran is sparse with very limited generalizability to the general population. But studies show that these infections are concentrated in high risk sub-groups of the population. Iran has a low national HIV prevalence, but an increased prevalence among people who inject drugs, shifting the country from low prevalence to a concentrated prevalence. It seems that the more improvement of HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment programs in Iran need to more attention toward controlling HIV/AIDS through sexual health, proper linkage among HIV/AIDS, STIs, and SRH programs, reduction of stigma and discrimination toward people living with HIV/AIDS, and increase to access at risk populations. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 585-595

  13. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs among young adult in Italy

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    Maria Cristina Salfa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs include a large group of widespread infectious diseases, which may cause acute symptoms, chronic infections and severe long term complications.The control and prevention of these infections are public health priorities for several reasons: • the large number of people that acquire an STI per year; • the major proportion of asymptomatic infected individuals; • the high circulation in patients with sexual risk behavior (young adults, pluripartner, men who have sex with men, foreigners, commercial sex workers; • increased biological susceptibility of some subjects, such as young adults (immature genital tissues and more receptive to pathogens, women (genital apparatus more complex and extended in which pathogens are more likely to settle, or individuals carrying states of severe immunodeficiency; • the serious complications in the event of failure or incorrect diagnosis and treatment (chronic disease, infertility, oncogenic transformation, synergy with HIV infection; • the possibility of preventing and treating many of these infections. Therefore, recent guidelines from international agencies have recommended countries from the European Union to improve epidemiological STI surveillance systems in order to standardize data collection to facilitate their comparability between different geographical areas and to improve the information flow for faster tracking of the impact; furthermore, to extend surveillance to widespread, but often asymptomatic, disease (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis, to conduct behavioural surveillance in patients with STIs, to increase public awareness of the role of STIs in the transmission/acquisition of HIV, and to increase the commitment of institutions in the prevention and control of STIs.

  14. Young adults knowledge regarding Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs and condom use as a means of protection against STD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifanti E.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ιntroduction: Sexually Transmitted Diseases prevention is a substantial component of sexual health education Aim : It is to investigate young adults’ knowledge on sexual health issue and STD prevention. Material and method: Α questionnaire with closed –type questions was used. 85 young volunteers adults attending a private gym center in a provincial town were enrolled in the study. Results: The research showed that fifty-nine persons were women (69.4% and 26 persons were men (30.6%. 55.2% reported they were in a permanent relation or were married. One out of five reported no condom use or use it in less than half times.39% did not know that B and C hepatitis belong to STD, while 93% knew that AIDS is an STD. Men more frequently had sexual intercourse without condom, experience sexual partners changing and “one night stands”. Age was found negatively related to condom use frequency. Conclusion: a considerable percentage of young adults do not use condom during sexual intercourse, while men exhibit less safe sexual behavior in comparison with women. A discrepancy is noted between level of knowledge about STD and sexual behavior of young adults. This fact poses a question about success of the existing STD prevention programs.

  15. Antibiotic resistance in prevalent bacterial and protozoan sexually transmitted infections

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    Karl Krupp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of multi-drug resistant sexually transmitted infections (STIs is causing a treatment crisis across the globe. While cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea is one of the most pressing issues, extensively antibiotic resistant Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis are also becoming commonplace. Experts have suggested that the failure of current treatment regimens are "largely inevitable" and have called for entirely new classes of antimicrobial agents. With the exception of several new classes of drugs primarily targeting nosocomial infections, progress has been slow. While pharmaceutical companies continue to introduce new drugs, they are based on decade-old discoveries. While there is disagreement about what constitutes new classes of antibiotics, many experts suggest that the last truly new family of antimicrobials was discovered in 1987. This review summarizes the existing literature on antibiotic resistance in common bacterial and protozoal STIs. It also briefly discusses several of the most promising alternatives to current therapies, and further examines how advances in drug delivery, formulation, concentration, and timing are improving the efficacy of existing treatments. Finally, the paper discusses the current state of pharmaceutical development for multidrug-resistant STI.

  16. DNA Microarray Characterization of Pathogens Associated with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Boyang; Wang, Suwei; Tian, Zhenyang; Hu, Pinliang; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study established a multiplex PCR-based microarray to detect simultaneously a diverse panel of 17 sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)-associated pathogens including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 54 and 58. The target genes are 16S rRNA gene for N. gonorrhoeae, M. genitalium, M. hominism, and Ureaplasma, the major outer membrane protein gene (ompA) for C. trachomatis, the glycoprotein B gene (gB) for HSV; and the L1 gene for HPV. A total of 34 probes were selected for the microarray including 31 specific probes, one as positive control, one as negative control, and one as positional control probe for printing reference. The microarray is specific as the commensal and pathogenic microbes (and closely related organisms) in the genitourinary tract did not cross-react with the microarray probes. The microarray is 10 times more sensitive than that of the multiplex PCR. Among the 158 suspected HPV specimens examined, the microarray showed that 49 samples contained HPV, 21 samples contained Ureaplasma, 15 contained M. hominis, four contained C. trachomatis, and one contained N. gonorrhoeae. This work reports the development of the first high through-put detection system that identifies common pathogens associated with STDs from clinical samples, and paves the way for establishing a time-saving, accurate and high-throughput diagnostic tool for STDs.

  17. Voluntary vaccination strategy and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Cressman, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the spread and control of sexually transmitted diseases when a game-theory based vaccination strategy is involved. An individual's decision on vaccination uptake may follow a cost-benefit analysis since the individual obtains immunity against the disease from the vaccination and, at the same time, may have some perceived side effects. Evolutionary game theory is integrated into the epidemic model to reveal the relationship between individuals' voluntary decisions on vaccination uptake and the spread and control of such diseases. We show that decreasing the perceived cost of taking vaccine or increasing the payoff from social obligation is beneficial to controlling the disease. It is also shown how the "degree of rationality" of males and females affects the disease spread through the net payoff of the game. In particular, individual awareness of the consequences of the disease on the infectives also contributes to slowing down the disease spread. By analyzing an asymmetric version of our evolutionary game, it is shown that the disease is better controlled when individuals are more sensitive to fitness differences when net payoff is positive than when it is negative.

  18. Trichomoniasis as sexually transmitted disease in sex partners

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    Parvathi C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of 30 male consorts of 30 cases of vaginal trichomoniasis with high levels of parasitic infection was undertaken to evaluate the sexually transmitted role of trichomoniasis in sex partners. There were 20 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic male partners, who revealed T. vaginalis in 80.0% and 60.0 of the cases respectively and the overall prevalence was 73.3% (22 Of 30. T. vaginalis was detected in 83.3% male with urethritis and 50.0% males with prostatitis. Detection of trichomonas in urethral discharge, morning drop secretion, urine deposit and prostatic fluid was 80.0%, 50.0% 35.7% and 21.4% in that order. It is evident from these results that the sex consorts of all cases of trichomoniasis should be considered as harbouring T. vaginalis in their genito-urinary tract as carriers and be treated to break the chain of transmission. Fontanna smear was superior to culture and wet mount in the detection of T. vaginalis, the success rates being 73.3%, 63.3% and 53.3%. A good correlation was observed between smear and culture at high levels of parasitic infection.

  19. [Microbiological diagnosis of sexually-transmitted infection (2007)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Fernando; Lepe, José Antonio; Otero, Luis; Blanco, María Antonia; Aznar, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute an important world-wide public health problem. The use of sensitive and specific laboratory methods for diagnosing this condition is crucial to reduce the transmission and sequelae of STI. The present review describes current microbiological methods for the diagnosis of STIs. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are the pathogens most frequently involved in urethral and cervical infection. Culture continues to be the gold standard for diagnosing gonorrhea. Nucleic acid amplification assays are considered the new gold standard for C. trachomatis, although culture is till the most specific technique. Genital ulcers due to Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, or herpes simplex virus have little clinical and bacteriological correlation; therefore, it is essential to establish the microbiological diagnosis. Lesions present in the primary or secondary period of syphilis can be diagnosed by dark field microscopy. Serologic diagnosis for the remaining periods is based on non-treponemal tests associated with confirmatory treponemal tests. Cell culture is considered the gold standard for herpes simplex virus although molecular methods also have a sensitivity and specificity near 100%. Currently, microbiologic diagnosis of H. ducreyi and venereal lymphogranuloma is achieved with the use of molecular methods on samples obtained from the ulceration or lymph adenopathy. The diagnosis of genital warts in immunocompetent patients is based on clinical findings in most cases because the lesions are sufficiently characteristic. Culture is considered the reference method in Trichomonas vaginalis infection.

  20. Sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in street-based female sex workers in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh

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    Nazrul Islam Mondal

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs of street-based female sex workers (SFSWs of Rajshahi city and examined their socio-demographic profiles. Among the SFSWs attending three drop-in centers (DIC named PIACT, PROVA, and Suraksha Madhumita in Rajshahi, 150 self-motivated and willing individuals were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to obtain obstetric histories and socio-demographic information. Among these SFSWs, 56.7% were infected with two or more pathogens of STDs, with gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes, syphilis, and trichomoniasis observed in 23.3, 27.3, 24.0, 17.3, and 20.0%, respectively. We found a strong association between the prevalence of STDs among SFSWs and their socio-demographic profiles. Illiterate and comparatively older SFSWs who spent very little money for health purposes, had larger numbers of children, and used condoms inconsistently were observed to be at higher risk of STDs. These results observed with bivariate analysis were also confirmed by logistic regression analysis.

  1. Perfil clínico-epidemiológico das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em crianças atendidas em um centro de referência na cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Clinical and epidemiological profile of sexually transmitted diseases in children attending a referral center in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Barros da Rocha Ribas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis em crianças permanecem um problema de saúde pública pouco estudado, sendo ainda necessários esclarecimentos sobre seu manejo e a relação destas com o abuso sexual infantil. OBJETIVOS: Descrever o perfil clínico-epidemiológico das Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis em crianças atendidas em centro de referência na cidade de Manaus. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo descritivo exploratório para verificar características clínicas, epidemiológicas e laboratoriais das Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis em crianças atendidas durante o período de janeiro/2003 a dezembro/2007. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídas no estudo 182 crianças que apresentavam DST. A maioria era do sexo feminino (65,4% e de cor parda; a média de idade foi de 8,5 anos; 89% eram procedentes da cidade de Manaus; os pais foram os principais acompanhantes na consulta; verruga genital foi o principal diagnóstico em ambos os sexos; e, 90,1% apresentavam apenas uma DST. CONCLUSÃO: As frequências e características clínicas das DST nas crianças do estudo não diferiram do encontrado na literatura. Embora, com base em sinais e sintomas referentes tão somente às DST nas crianças, não se tenham parâmetros fidedignos de confirmação de abuso, deve-se sempre estar alerta para esta possibilidade, visto que estas doenças podem ser sinalizadoras de ofensas sexuais, por vezes, dissimuladas e repetidas.BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted diseases in children remain a public health concern that is relatively ignored. Further data are required on the management of these diseases and their association with child sexual abuse. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of sexually transmitted diseases in children receiving care at a referral center in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: A descriptive, exploratory study was conducted to evaluate the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory

  2. A retrospective study of the pattern of sexually transmitted diseases during a ten-year period

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    Narayanan Beena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper knowledge of the patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in different geographical regions is necessary for evolving proper strategies for control of these diseases. Aims: To study the pattern of STDs and to analyze the changes during a ten-year period from 1990 among patients attending Medical College Hospital, Kottayam Methods: Case records of 686 patients with STDs who attended the outpatient wing of the Department of Dermatology and Venereology were studied. Results: There were 504 males and 182 females in the total of 686 patients. Marital contact alone was reported by 123 (67.6% female patients. Genital ulcer diseases (GUDs accounted for the maximum number of STDs, with 504 cases (73.5%, followed by condyloma acuminatum (17.5% and gonorrhea (10.1%. Forty-three patients had multiple infections. The total number of patients during the first year of study was 129, while it was 41 during the last year. Bacterial STDs showed a striking reduction in numbers. The decline was less marked in the case of viral STDs. Conclusion: The majority of patients had genital ulcer diseases. Spouses were the most common source of infection for female patients. There was a marked decline in the number of patients with various STDs during the ten-year period. The decline was more evident in the bacterial STDs resulting in an apparent increase of the viral STDs towards the end of the period of study.

  3. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Cases of Sexual Assault and Abuse

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    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory staff dealing with samples from victims must be aware that such patients have been psychologically traumatized and deserve special care. The help of a sexual assault care team should be sought if available, and appropriate specimens should be collected two to 10 days after an incident, preferably in a single visit. Specimens should be clearly labelled, and the laboratory should be informed. In the laboratory, all procedures need to be clearly documented. There are special requirements for the collection of forensic specimens and associated records, which may later be required for legal proceedings. The laboratory must know what the current legal status is for any test being used in that community. The present article serves as a guideline to more detailed practice standards for the investigation of individual sexually transmitted infections in assault and abuse situations.

  4. A surveillance model for sexually transmitted infections in India

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    Partha Haldar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategy for prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs in India is based on syndromic case management delivered through designated STI/reproductive tract infection (RTI centers (DSRCs situated in medical colleges, district hospitals, and STI-clinics of targeted interventions programs. Laboratory tests for enhanced syndromic management are available at some sites. To ensure country-level planning and effective local implementation of STI services, reliable and consistent epidemiologic information is required on the distribution of STI cases, rate and trends of newly acquired infections, and STI prevalence in specific population groups. The present STI management information system is inadequate to meet these requirements because it is based on syndromic data and limited laboratory investigations on STIs reported passively by DSRCs and laboratories. Geographically representative information on the etiology of STI syndromes and antimicrobial susceptibility of STI pathogens although essential for optimizing available treatment options, is deficient. Surveillance must provide high quality information on: (a prevalence of STIs such as syphilis, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among high-risk groups; syphilis in the general population and pregnant antenatal women; (b demographic characteristics such as age, sex, new/recurrent episode, and type of syndromically diagnosed STI cases; (c proportion of acute infections such as urethral discharge (UD in men and nonherpetic genital ulcer disease (GUD in men and women; (d etiology of STI syndromes; and (e gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility. We describe here a framework for an STI sentinel surveillance system in India, building on the existing STI reporting systems and infrastructure, an overview of the components of the proposed surveillance system, and operational challenges in its implementation.

  5. Identifying outbreaks of sexually transmitted infection: who cares?

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    Evans Meirion R

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current routine surveillance schemes for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in the United Kingdom (UK are not designed for outbreak identification. Recognising STI outbreaks, therefore, depends almost entirely on the alertness of health professionals. The objective of this study was to explore health professionals' knowledge of, and attitudes towards, identification and investigation of STI outbreaks in Wales. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Wales in June 2005, and sent a questionnaire to consultants of genitourinary medicine (GUM, n = 11, a consultant microbiologist from each laboratory (n = 14, all consultants in communicable disease control (n = 5, and to epidemiologists of the National Public Health Service (n = 4. Results 26 (76% of 34 survey recipients responded. Of these, 17 (65% ranked the investigation of STI outbreaks as important or very important, and 19 (73% perceived participation in the investigation of an STI outbreak as part of their responsibility. Only six (25% respondents had actively searched their computer system or patient records for a possible STI outbreak in the previous twelve months, and 15 (63% had never looked for an outbreak. Of seven GUM physicians who said they had identified at least one STI outbreak, three had never informed public health authorities. Conclusion Prompt identification and coordinated investigation of outbreaks, usually through a multidisciplinary outbreak control team, is central to the control of many infectious diseases. This does not appear to be the case for STIs, which we believe represents a lost opportunity to reduce transmission. Besides improved surveillance methods, a change in culture towards STI outbreaks is needed among health professionals in Wales.

  6. Frequency of sexually transmitted diseases and main methodological implications

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    Zaleida Napoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. High risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV persistence is the most important cervical cancer risk factor, while Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium(MG, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and parvum (UP are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs causing infertility, pregnancy complication, lung problems in newborns. Methods. 135 urine, 135 urethral swabs, 553 cervical swabs, 110 seminal fluids and 1440 Thin Prep, were tested with culture methods, Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR and multiplex SYBR Green PCR-endpoint to detect STDs. PCR- endpoint was performed to detect HPV. Results. Culture methods showed the lowest sensitivity: for MH it was only 24% (compared to RT-PCR. UP/UU were the most frequent pathogens (13% with culture, 29% with PCR-endpoint, 41,67% with RT-PCR. Turn Around Time was respectively: 48h, 6h and 2h. RT-PCR cervical frequencies for CT, MH, MG, UU, UP were: 5.42%, 11.03%, 1.81%, 11.21% and 35.08%. HPV positivity in primary and secondary screening was 17.33% and 51.14%. Highes t positivity age group was: 23-32 years for CT (17%, and 18-27 years for HPV (33%. Conclusions. RT-PCR is more sensitive, faster, less expensive than other molecular tests like PCR-endpoint and microarrays. It allows more efficient laboratory organization: pre-analytical phase is more automated and enable the implementation of further diagnostic tests for pathologies that need rapid identification, such as meningitidis and sepsis, with reduced human and instrumental resource. Regarding STDs screening, it should be performed in women: for CT at least up to 27 years; for HPV between 35-50 years, since persisting HR-HPV infection is responsible of high-grade lesions.

  7. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples.

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    Brandon L Guthrie

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples. METHODS: HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI. RESULTS: Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11% females and 30 (7% males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9% and syphilis (2.6%. Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01, and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01 and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01. Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519.

  8. Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infection Pathogens in Semen Samples

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    RW Peeling

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum -- the causative agent of syphilis -- may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear.

  9. Multiplex PCR testing for nine different sexually transmitted infections.

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    Kriesel, John D; Bhatia, Amiteshwar S; Barrus, Cammie; Vaughn, Mike; Gardner, Jordan; Crisp, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Current sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing is not optimal due to delays in reporting or missed diagnoses due to a lack of comprehensive testing. The FilmArray® (BioFire Diagnostics, LLC, Salt Lake City, Utah) is a user-friendly, fully automated, multiplex PCR system that is being developed for rapid point-of-care use. A research-use-only STI panel including multiple PCR primer sets for each organism was designed to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. Standard clinical testing included Gram stain, nucleic acid amplification, wet mount examination, herpes simplex virus culture, and syphilis IgG. Standard clinical tests were not available for all the organisms tested by the FilmArray STI panel. Two hundred and ninety-five clinical specimens from 190 subjects were directly compared to standard testing. Urine (n = 146), urethral/cervical swabs (31), oral swabs (60), rectal swabs (43), and ulcer swabs (15) were tested. Among the tested samples, FilmArray detected C. trachomatis in 39 (13%), N. gonorrhoeae in 20 (7%), T. vaginalis in nine (3%), HSV 1 in five (2%), HSV 2 in five (2%), U. urealyticum in 36 (12%), M. genitalium in eight (3%), and T. pallidum in 11 (4%). Concordance between the FilmArray STI panel and standard nucleic acid amplification testing for C. trachomatis was 98% and for N. gonorrhoeae was 97%. Multiplex PCR STI testing has the potential to improve public health by providing rapid, sensitive, and reliable results within the clinic or nearby laboratory.

  10. Screening for sexually transmitted infection pathogens in semen samples.

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    Peeling, Rw; Embree, J

    2005-03-01

    The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum - the causative agent of syphilis - may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear.

  11. A revision of sexual mixing matrices in models of sexually transmitted infection.

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    Walker, Robert; Nickson, Carolyn; Lew, Jie-Bin; Smith, Megan; Canfell, Karen

    2012-11-30

    Two sexual mixing matrices previously used in models of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are intended to calculate the probability of sexual interaction between age groups and sexual behaviour subgroups. When these matrices are used to specify multiple criteria for how people select sexual partners (such as age group and sexual behaviour class), their conditional probability structure means that they have in practice been prone to misuse. We constructed revised mixing matrices that incorporate a corrected conditional probability structure and then used one of them to examine the effect of this revision on population modelling of STIs. Using a dynamic model of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission as an example, we examined changes to estimates of HPV prevalence and the relative reduction in age-standardised HPV incidence after the commencement of publicly funded HPV vaccination in Australia. When all other model specifications were left unchanged, the revised mixing matrix initially led to estimates of age-specific oncogenic HPV prevalence that were up to 11% higher than our previous models at certain ages. After re-calibrating the model by modifying unobservable parameters characterising HPV natural history, the revised mixing matrix yielded similar estimates to our previous models, predicting that vaccination would lead to relative HPV incidence reductions of 43% and 85% by 2010 and 2050, respectively, compared with 43% and 86% using the unrevised mixing matrix formulation. Our revised mixing matrix offers a rigorous alternative to commonly used mixing matrices, which can be used to reliably and explicitly accommodate conditional probabilities, with appropriate re-calibration of unobservable model parameters.

  12. Awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among secondary school students in two German cities.

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    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Zeeb, Hajo

    2013-04-01

    Several western countries have reported increases of sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis and chlamydia since the mid-1990s, especially among teenagers 16-19 years old. We conducted a school-based survey to assess awareness and knowledge of STDs among students attending the 8th grade and above in Bremen and Bremerhaven, two cities in northern Germany. Between October and December 2011 students completed an anonymous questionnaire on awareness and knowledge of STDs in 8 different schools. To assess awareness of STDs, the students were asked to indicate which STDs they had heard of. Knowledge of STDs was assessed based on 4 general questions. Furthermore, comprehensive awareness of HPV was assessed based on 3 items. We assessed differences in HPV awareness and knowledge of STDs by key demographic variables such as age, gender and migrant background. A total of 1,148 students aged 12-20 years (response 28 %) completed the questionnaire. 31 % had a migrant background and 55 % were girls. Almost all students had heard of HIV/AIDS, but only 23 % of chlamydia and 13 % of HPV. Significantly more girls than boys had heard of HPV (18 vs. 8 %) and chlamydia (31 vs. 16 %). Generally, low levels of STD knowledge and awareness of HPV were observed. In multivariable analyses, age, gender, and ever having had sex were associated with both STD knowledge and awareness of HPV. HIV/AIDS remains the only sexually transmitted disease most students have heard of. Sex education at school needs to be broadened to include STDs other than HIV/AIDS.

  13. Service delivery through public health care system to control sexually transmitted infections in Himachal pradesh

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    Sunite A Ganju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The National AIDS Control Organization has designed multiple synergistic interventions to identify and control curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Objective: To assess the impact of services offered at designated STI clinics in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India and the profile of the attending clients. Materials and Methods: This was a two-year prospective study, conducted from April 2011 to March 2013. Training on delivering STI/RTI services was imparted to the staff of 16 designated STI clinics including recording of data. The staff in each STI clinic comprises of one doctor, one counselor, one nurse, and one laboratory technician. The clients attending these designated clinics were offered counseling, syndromic case management (SCM, and diagnostic services wherever possible. Monthly data of STI clinic attendees was collected, compiled, and analyzed. Results: A total of 65,760 clinic visits were reported, of which 32,385 (49% visits were for index STI/RTI complaint(s. The ratio of male to female attendees was 1:2. The commonest age group accessing the STI clinics was 25-44 years (n = 38,966; 59.3%. According to SCM, 52.9% clients were managed. The commonest presenting syndrome was urethral discharge (n = 4,500; 41% in males, and vaginal discharge (n = 13,305; 56% in females. Genital ulcer disease was treated in 2099 cases. Laboratory tests were performed only in 6466 patients, and 39,597 antenatal mothers were screened for syphilis. Counseling services were provided to 51,298 (f = 34,804; 68%: m = 16,494; 32% clients and of these, 48% (n = 25,056 of the clients were referred to integrated counseling and testing centers. Forty-three clients (m = 24: f = 19 were detected positive for HIV infection. Conclusion: Uniform and standardized services delivered to clients attending public health clinics can gather reliable data to monitor trends of STI infection.

  14. [Child sexual abuse and sexually transmitted infections in sub-saharan Africa].

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    Pitche, P

    2005-11-01

    Recently there has been increasing public concern regarding escalating child sexual abuse (CSA) in the sub-Saharan Africa. Medical consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) include sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immune virus (HIV) infection. The purpose of the study was to review literature on CSA and associated STI/HIV in the sub-Saharan Africa. The study covered the 23-year period from 1980 to 2003. The mean age of the child victims was 8 years. The incidence of penetrative sex in the studies ranged from 70 to 97%. Physical signs of CSA included genital or anal injuries, perineal trauma, and vesico-vaginal or recto-vaginal fistula. The incidence of STD varied according to whether the study was retrospective or prospective. Ten percent to 67% of children with STD had been sexually abused while 15 to 30% of sexual abuse incidents were associated with STD. The prevalence of HIV ranged from 3% in Togo to 37.5% in Cameroon. Most alleged child abusers were adult males known by the child, i.e., family members (30-60%), instructors or teachers, household personnel or neighbours. Some acts were motivated by traditional practices such as early, forced marriage and beliefs such as presumed benefits of sex with virgin children (cure for STI/HIV/STD, magic powers or wealth). This study shows that CSA is widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Most problem involving CSA in sub-Saharan Afica have not been documented. Knowledge about the extent and special aspects of CSA in Africa can be useful for implementation of suitable management measures.

  15. Impacts of Abstinence Education on Teen Sexual Activity, Risk of Pregnancy, and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…

  16. [Genital ulcers caused by sexually transmitted diseases: current therapies, diagnosis and their relevance in HIV pandemy].

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    Da Costa, João Borges; Domingues, Dulce; Castro, R; Exposto, Filomena

    2006-01-01

    The sexual transmitted pathogens associated with genital ulcers are Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2. Although geographic differences still exist, herpetic infections prevalence is growing worldwide as the most frequent ulcerative sexual transmitted disease. The failure of the many different used guidelines in achieving a sustained reduction in the number of new cases, in particular the WHO syndromic management, leads into an over treatment of bacterial agents and missing of viral agents. This situation is also associated with poor efficacy and wasting of economical resources. Ulcerative and non-ulcerative sexual transmitted diseases are important in the world HIV pandemy because they promote HIV transmission and are also associated with the disease evolution. Portugal had until recently the highest incidence of HIV infection in Europe and that points out to importance of treating and control of both ulcerative and non-ulcerative sexual transmitted diseases in order.

  17. Web site construction for prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

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    Maneta, Evangelia; Ponirou, Paraskevi; Bizopoulou, Zoi; Diomidous, Marianna; Mantas, John

    2013-01-01

    The sexually transmitted diseases are a group of infectious diseases with increasing incidence worldwide. In recent years, these diseases have taken epidemic proportions in many countries and huge efforts have been made to prevent them. The gonococcus infections, the HPV virus, AIDS, chlamydia, herpes genitalia, hepatitis B and C, the trichomonas and syphilis are the most common sexually transmitted diseases. This paper describes the clinical and epidemiological symptoms and the preventive measures that should be taken for each disease. lt also presents the dimensions of the sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents who are particularly a "sensitive" group. One of the most important and widely disseminated measures of prevention is the use of condoms. We can also see the importance of and other preventive measures which can be taken against sexually transmitted diseases. Finally, it is noted also the role of the state to treat these diseases, which are unfortunately quite common, and the measures taken by it to prevent and treat them.

  18. Gender inequities in sexually transmitted infections: implications for HIV infection and control in Lagos State, Nigeria

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    Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga Adeyemi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and gender-related potential risks of HIV heterosexual transmission. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multi-stage random sampling procedure was employed in administration of 1358 questionnaires. For qualitative data, four focus group discussions (FGD were conducted to collect information from stakeholders within the study population, while In-depth interview was employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the State. The data collected were subjected to basic demographic analytical techniques. Combination of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were employed. Information from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were transcribed and organized under broad headings that depict different aspects of the discussions. Majority of the respondents interviewed did not inform their partners about their infection in the study area. It was also discovered that stigmatization did not allow some women to disclose their status to their sexual partners. Some of the HIV-positive patients interviewed agreed that they did not attend the health facilities to treat the STI’s before they were finally confirmed positive. The study hypothesis revealed that communication between partners about STI’s was associated with an increase in risk reduction behaviour. The paper concluded that there is need for more information and education on communication about STI’s between the sexual partners; to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted diseases within the nation.

  19. Youth perspectives on sexually transmitted infections and sexual health in Northern Canada and implications for public health practice

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    Healey, Gwen

    2016-01-01

    Objective. High rates of sexually transmitted infections in the Arctic have been a focus of recent research, and youth are believed to be at greatest risk of infection. Little research has focused on understanding youth perspectives on sexual health. The goal of this study was to collect the perspectives of youth in Nunavut on sexual health and relationships with the intent of informing public health practice.Method. This qualitative research study was conducted within an Indigenous knowledge...

  20. Nurses’ and nursing students’ views regarding the impact of sexually transmitted diseases on their sexual behavior

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    Valari C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: It was to investigate the view of registered nurses and nursing students regarding the impact of sexually transmitted diseases (STD on their sexual behavior. Material and methods: The research sample consisted of 150 ATEI nursing students and 150 professional nurses. A questionnaire with open and closed type questionnaires was used. Contingency tables and Χ2 test were used. Statistical significant was set at p<0.05. Results: 54.6 % of students and 64.7% of nurses consider that the persons they have sex with could never be infected with AIDS. The majority of students (56.9 % believed, with a statistically significant difference from the nurses (21.3% that it is the man’s responsibility to provide the condoms. A statistically significant difference was also observed between nurses and nursing students regarding the sufficiency of their STD knowledge (75.0% vs 8.6%. Conclusions: STD have an impact on nurses’ and nursing students’ sexual behavior Nursing students’ consider they have a lack of knowledge on STD issues.

  1. Impact on practice of a British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Sexually Transmitted Infections Foundation (STIF) course: an audit of the first four years in Ireland.

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    Calamai, A; Howard, R; Kelly, R; Lambert, J

    2013-02-01

    In order to investigate the overall impact of the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) Sexually Transmitted Infections Foundation (STIF) course taught in Ireland since 2007, attendees were sent two questionnaires to investigate the overall impact of the course, its effect on clinical practice and the need for further education. Response rate was 19.4%. The majority found the course beneficial and that it did cover their practice needs (96.4%), with 83.6% saying that their confidence and technique in sexual history taking had improved. There was a 3.7% increase in the provision of HIV testing from precourse levels, although only 80% did so routinely; a 12.7% increase in syphilis testing; a 5.4% increase in testing for Chlamydia and a 12.7% increase for gonorrhoea. Some confusion seems to persist in relation to sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk factors. The second questionnaire tested STI knowledge. Most respondents scored well (average 81% correct answers); however, respondents who attended four years previously scored, on average, 7% worse than the others, suggesting the need for a periodic update in the area of STI education.

  2. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and the sexual behavior of elderly people presenting to health examination centers in Korea.

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    Choe, Hyun-Sop; Lee, Seung-Ju; Kim, Chul Sung; Cho, Yong-Hyun

    2011-08-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are diseases provoking a great social and economic burden as well as health-related problems, and with the aging of society and the extension of life expectancy sexually transmitted infections in the elderly have drawn more attention these days. For the management of sexually transmitted infections in this population, basic epidemiological data need to be established. In this study, 1,804 persons from the general population aged over 60 years visiting health examination centers were tested for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, and interviewed about the patterns of sexual behavior of elderly people through questionnaires. The prevalence rates of syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia recorded were 0.222% (4/1804), 0 (none), and 0.776% (14/1804), respectively. The results of the survey showed that the sexual life of the elderly people was currently active, and the sexual behavior of chlamydia patients was distinguished in some characteristics from that of the general participants. Political management to prevent sexually transmitted infections needs to be continued in elderly people as it is in other age groups. More detailed follow-up studies are necessary to determine the incidence and prevalence rates of the diseases in the elderly population in future, and the results of this study are considered to be useful as basic data for such studies.

  3. Urban Men's Knowledge and Perceptions regarding Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pakistan

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    Mohammad Mir, Ali; Reichenbach, Laura; Wajid, Abdul

    2009-01-01

    In a pioneering study undertaken in Pakistan, urban men's sexual behaviors, perceptions and knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS were determined by employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Focus group discussions were carried out initially and followed by a structured cross sectional survey…

  4. Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections among Adolescents: An Assessment of Ecological Approaches and Study Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoveller, Jean A.; Johnson, Joy L.; Savoy, Daphne M.; Pietersma, W. A. Wia

    2006-01-01

    Most primary prevention research has attempted to explain sexual health outcomes, such as sexually transmitted infections, by focusing on individual characteristics (e.g. age), qualities (e.g. knowledge levels), and risk behaviour (e.g. unprotected intercourse). Emerging evidence indicates that population-level health outcomes are unlikely to be…

  5. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  6. Predictors of Risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Ninth Grade Urban High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Cherrie B.; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Shafer, Mary-Ann

    1999-01-01

    Examined risk factors associated with acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among adolescents. Found that demographic factors were associated with being sexually experienced, but few demographics were associated with specific STD-related risk behaviors. Knowledge was not associated with any risk behaviors. Use of alcohol and drugs was…

  7. A six-year follow-up survey of sexually transmitted diseases in Brasilia, the capital of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões-Barbosa Augusto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The notification of sexually transmitted diseases (STD is a prime component of well-designed public health policy. However, peculiar aspects of STD must be taken into account for the correct management of surveillance activities. Here, we describe the distribution of the most common sexually transmitted diseases among patients attended by the gynecological clinics of the principal public hospitals of Brasilia and the Federal District, Brazilian capital, during six years. A total of 142,158 patients had their cervicovaginal samples collected for Papanicolaou preparations and eventual biopsies. Diagnosis was made according to cytological and histological alterations, distinguishing among vaginal infections, and pre-cancerous and cancerous cervical lesions. We also looked at the annual prevalence of the various types of infections and alterations. There was a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and candidiasis, with suggestive changes over the years. Pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions increased 2.2 fold during the six years. A large proportion of the cases involved late stages of cervical cancer, indicating the necessity of prompt attendance of the population in a routine gynecological prevention program.

  8. Prevalence of asymptomatic infections in sexually transmitted diseases attendees diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STD are a major health problem affecting mostly young people in both developing and developed countries. STD in women causes both acute morbidity and complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, low-birth weight, and prematurity. Aims: The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis among asymptomatic females attending STD outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of data collected from clinical records of 3000 female patients of age 18 to 49 over a period of 12 months (July 2014 to June 2015 was carried out at the Institute of Venereology, Madras Medical College. Complete epidemiological, clinical, and investigational data were recorded and analyzed for the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis among asymptomatic patients. Results: About 48.37% (228/470 of bacterial vaginosis patients were asymptomatic. Nearly 45.38% (116/235 of vaginal candidiasis patients were asymptomatic and 30.35% (26/87 of trichomoniasis patients were asymptomatic. The above infections were common in the age group 25–35. Conclusion: Holistic screening protocol was incorporated for all female patients attending STD clinic even if asymptomatic and should be treated accordingly to prevent the acquisition of other serious sexually transmitted infections.

  9. Study of sexual behaviour in relation to sexually transmitted infections (STIs)among Nigerian undergraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agan TU; Ekabua JE; Nyong PP; Ndifon WO; Itam HI

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To determine their reproductive health behaviour concerning fidelity and psychosocial intimacy in the face of current trends in sexually transmitted infections (STIs)and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndromes (AIDS)pandemic.Methods:A cross-sectional comparative male /fe-male cohort study using a semi-structured questionnaire to interview sexually activity of undergraduates in Uni-versity of Calabar (UNICAL)was conducted over a three (3)month period in 2007.Markers used were num-ber of sexual partners,frequency of sexual intercourse in the 6 months preceding,knowledge of last menstrual period (LMP),methods of self-protection against STIs,number of unwanted pregnancies terminated,and con-traceptive use.Results:Of the 1 337 respondents,648 out of 684 males (94.7 %)and 543 out of 653 females (83.2 %)had multiple sex partners.The gender difference was statistically significant (P 0.05).While 275 (42.0 %)of the females could state the exact last menstrual period (LMP),only 14 (2.1 %)males could remember their mates LMP,and 496 (72.5 %)of males did not know anything about mates'menstrual habits.There was no statistical significance difference (P >0.05)between both groups in their safe sex prac-tices.One hundred and sixty three (23.8 %)male and one hundred and forty one (22.8 %)females used condoms,while 347 (50.7 %)of male and 337 (51.6 %)of females did nothing.Two hundred and seventy six (40.0 %)of males'mates had terminated pregnancies and three hundred and forty eight (53.3 %)of fe-male respondents admitted doing so.Thirty (4.60%)females terminated pregnancy more than six times.Fe-males had more knowledge of contraceptives but males used condoms more.Respondents expressed need for sexuality education.Conclusion:Sexual behaviour of UNICAL undergraduates does not conform to current trends of safe-sex.There is need for more information,education and communication.

  10. Insights in public health: The hidden epidemic: sexually transmitted diseases in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    Diseases caused by sexually transmitted agents are among the most common infectious diseases in the United States. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have serious sequelae including physical pain, emotional distress, adverse reproductive outcomes, and cancer. They also pose an economic burden on society. STDs are challenging to prevent and control due to a general reluctance to address sexual health issues in an open manner. Human papillomavirus infection, chlamydia, and gonorrhea have recently been addressed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in their Grand Rounds series reflecting their high-profile status on the national prevention and control agenda. This Insights column will focus on these three STDs.

  11. Unrecognized sexually transmitted infections in rural South African women: a hidden epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D; Abdool Karim, S S; Harrison, A; Lurie, M; Colvin, M; Connolly, C; Sturm, A W

    1999-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are of major public health concern in developing countries, not least because they facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present article presents estimates of the prevalence, on any given day, of STIs among women in rural South Africa and the proportion who are asymptomatic, symptomatic but not seeking care, and symptomatic and seeking care. The following data sources from Hlabisa district were used: clinical surveillance for STI syndromes treated in health facilities, microbiological studies among women attending antenatal and family planning clinics, and a community survey. Population census provided denominator data. Adequacy of drug treatment was determined through quality of care surveys. Of 55,974 women aged 15-49 years, a total of 13,943 (24.9%) were infected on any given day with at least one of Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Treponema pallidum. Of the women investigated, 6697 (48%) were asymptomatic, 6994 (50%) were symptomatic but not seeking care, 238 (1.7%) were symptomatic and would seek care, and 14 (0.3%) were seeking care on that day. Only 9 of the 14 women (65%) were adequately treated. STIs remained untreated because either women were asymptomatic or the symptoms were not recognized and acted upon. Improved case management alone is therefore unlikely to have a major public health impact. Improving partner treatment and women's awareness of symptoms is essential, while the potential of mass STI treatment needs to be explored.

  12. Sexually transmitted infections in young pregnant women in Bangui, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankhart, D; Müller, O; Gresenguet, G; Weis, P

    1999-09-01

    In early 1996, 481 women visiting the antenatal services of the 3 major governmental health centres in the capital city of the Central African Republic (CAR) were included in the study. All study participants underwent the health centre's routine gynaecological examination, including laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis, candidiasis, gonorrhoea, syphilis and bacterial vaginosis. Cervical secretions and blood samples from study participants were sent to the National STD Reference Centre for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans, Treponema pallidum, and HIV. Overall, 34% of the study women were diagnosed with at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) (3.1% N. gonorrhoeae, 6.2% C. trachomatis, 9.9% T. vaginalis, 6.7% T. pallidum, 12.2% HIV-1). In addition, 29.1% of women were diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and 46.6% with candidiasis. Only a small proportion of these women had sought treatment during the weeks before, despite the recognition of genital symptoms. Self-reported and health worker-recognized symptoms, signs and laboratory results exhibited only low sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values in the diagnosis of STIs. These findings confirm the high vulnerability of young African women to STIs and emphasize the need for specific control interventions which should include affordable and user-friendly services. Moreover, these results call for more effective quality control in case of laboratory-based STI control strategies and question the validity of syndromic STI management strategies in women attending antenatal care services in Africa.

  13. Identifying Adolescent Patients at Risk for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Development of a Brief Sexual Health Screening Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Elizabeth C; Chung, Richard; Thompson, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the association between survey responses to health behaviors, personality/psychosocial factors, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to create a brief survey to identify youth at risk for contracting STIs. Participants included 200 racially diverse 14- to 18-year-old patients from a pediatric primary care clinic. Two sexual behavior variables and one peer norm variable were used to differentiate subgroups of individuals at risk of contracting a STI based on reported history of STIs using probability (decision tree) analyses. These items, as well as sexual orientation and having ever had oral sex, were used to create a brief sexual health screening (BSHS) survey. Each point increase in total BSHS score was associated with exponential growth in the percentage of sexually active adolescents reporting STIs. Findings suggest that the BSHS could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to quickly and accurately detect sexual risk among adolescent patients.

  14. [Information and education on sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS and human sexuality--a case report after 14 years of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gir, E; Moriya, T M; de Oliveira, M H; Pelá, N T

    1998-12-01

    The authors present their 14-year experience about Information/education on sexually transmitted diseases/Aids and human sexuality. They describe the actions implemented, emphasizing the positive and negative points. Concerning the positive results they mention the divulgation of information about preventive measures against HIV infection/Aids, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and human sexuality to several people from scientific and non scientific community. Another positive point is the transmission of knowledge gotten in such experiences at undergraduation and graduation teaching, as well as the development of research. Concerning the negative aspects, the difficult to evaluate the information actions, specially lectures was perceived, mainly because it is a communication tool basically unilateral. The authors mention some facts that historically influenced the implementation of the official actions.

  15. Brief intervention for alcohol misuse in people attending sexual health clinics: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanatinia Rahil

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last 30 years the number of people who drink alcohol at harmful levels has increased in many countries. There have also been large increases in rates of sexually transmitted infections. Available evidence suggests that excessive alcohol consumption and poor sexual health may be linked. The prevalence of harmful alcohol use is higher among people attending sexual health clinics than in the general population, and a third of those attending clinics state that alcohol use affects whether they have unprotected sex. Previous research has demonstrated that brief intervention for alcohol misuse in other medical settings can lead to behavioral change, but the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of this intervention on sexual behavior have not been examined. Methods We will conduct a two parallel-arm, randomized trial. A consecutive sample of people attending three sexual health clinics in London and willing to participate in the study will be screened for excessive alcohol consumption. Participants identified as drinking excessively will then be allocated to either active treatment (Brief Advice and referral for Brief Intervention or control treatment (a leaflet on healthy living. Randomization will be via an independent and remote telephone randomization service and will be stratified by study clinic. Brief Advice will comprise feedback on the possible health consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, written information about alcohol and the offer of an appointment for further assessment and Brief Intervention. Follow-up data on alcohol use, sexual behavior, health related quality of life and service use will be collected by a researcher masked to allocation status six months later. The primary outcome for the study is mean weekly alcohol consumption during the previous three months, and the main secondary outcome is the proportion of participants who report unprotected sex during this period. Discussion Opportunistic

  16. Point-of-Care Sexually Transmitted Infection Diagnostics: Proceedings of the STAR Sexually Transmitted Infection-Clinical Trial Group Programmatic Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristillo, Anthony D; Bristow, Claire C; Peeling, Rosanna; Van Der Pol, Barbara; de Cortina, Sasha Herbst; Dimov, Ivan K; Pai, Nitika Pant; Jin Shin, Dong; Chiu, Ricky Y T; Klapperich, Catherine; Madhivanan, Purnima; Morris, Sheldon R; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-04-01

    The goal of the point-of-care (POC) sexually transmitted infection (STI) Diagnostics meeting was to review the state-of-the-art research and develop recommendations for the use of POC STI diagnostics. Experts from academia, government, nonprofit, and industry discussed POC diagnostics for STIs such as Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Treponema pallidum. Key objectives included a review of current and emerging technologies, clinical and public health benefits, POC STI diagnostics in developing countries, regulatory considerations, and future areas of development. Key points of the meeting are as follows: (i) although some rapid point-of-care tests are affordable, sensitive, specific, easy to perform, and deliverable to those who need them for select sexually transmitted infections, implementation barriers exist at the device, patient, provider, and health system levels; (ii) further investment in research and development of point-of-care tests for sexually transmitted infections is needed, and new technologies can be used to improve diagnostic testing, test uptake, and treatment; (iii) efficient deployment of self-testing in supervised (ie, pharmacies, clinics, and so on) and/or unsupervised (ie, home, offices, and so on) settings could facilitate more screening and diagnosis that will reduce the burden of sexually transmitted infections; (iv) development of novel diagnostic technologies has outpaced the generation of guidance tools and documents issued by regulatory agencies; and (v) questions regarding quality management are emerging including the mechanism by which poor-performing diagnostics are removed from the market and quality assurance of self-testing is ensured.

  17. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: from HPV to HTLV--clinical profile and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Fabíola Suris da; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health recommends the performance of serological tests in patients with clinical signs of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. However, data are lacking to affirm the necessity of testing these patients for human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 or type 2. This is a cross-sectional study with 120 patients seen at the Sexually Transmitted Diseases unit of the Sanitary Dermatology Outpatient Clinic of Rio Grande do Sul. The serum from none of the patients was positive for human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 or type 2. Viral warts were the most frequent diagnosis. Drug use was confirmed as a risk factor and high educational levels were found to be a protective factor against Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

  18. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, and risk factor for sexual health of adolescents, Medellín, Colombia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas-Castaño, Aracelly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in a group of adolescents in Medellín, Colombia, and the most frequent risk factors for acquiring them. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study, between 2010 and 2013, in 569 students who had started sexual intercourse. A questionnaire was applied, and screening was done for the following infections: hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, HPV, gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and nongonococcal urethritis in men. Results: Women had the following frequencies of infections: HPV 28.1 %; Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4 %; bacterial vaginosis 42.7 %; candidiasis 14.1 %. Nongonococcal urethritis was found in 6.2 % of men. Hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, and gonococcal infections were not found. The most frequent risk factors were as follows: to have started sexual relations before the age of 15 (59.9 %; not to use condom (58.2 %; not to have utilized condom in the last sexual intercourse (41.7 %; to lack adequate knowledge on sexual health (39.1 %; to have had three or more sexual partners (30.6 %; to have had sexual partners 10 or more years older than themselves (20.4 %, and to have sexual relations with persons different from the formal partner (18.8 %. Conclusions: The high prevalence of STIs in teenagers that are just starting sexual life must be an alert to implement high impact sexual health programs.

  19. A Vicarious Experience of the Actions of Contraceptive Devices in Birth Control and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2002-01-01

    Describes how self-constructed models of the male and female reproductive systems are used to simulate sexual intercourse and the actions of contraceptive devices in preventing conception and sexually transmitted diseases. (Author/YDS)

  20. Sexually transmitted infections: prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices among female sex workers in a cosmopolitan city in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekoni, Adekemi O; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O; Onajole, Adebayo T; Odeyemi, Kofoworola A

    2013-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infections constitute economic burden for developing countries, exposure to causative agents is an occupational hazard for female sex workers. Targeted interventions for this population can reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus, but barriers exists which can hinder effective implementation of such programs. This descriptive cross sectional study sought to assess the prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices of sexually transmitted infections among brothel based female sex workers. Three hundred and twenty three consenting female sex workers were surveyed using pre tested, interviewer administered questionnaires. More than half of the respondents (54.2%) had poor knowledge of symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Only 13.9% were aware that sexually transmitted infections could be asymptomatic. The self reported prevalence of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections was 36.5%. About half of those with sexually transmitted infectionss sought treatment in a hospital or health centre while 32.5% from a patent medicine vendor. Most respondents (53.8%) mentioned the perceived quality of care as the main reason for seeking treatment in their chosen place. More of the respondents with good knowledge of sexually transmitted infections reported symptoms compared to those with fair and poor knowledge. The knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among these female sex workers is poor and the prevalence is relatively high. Efforts to improve knowledge promote and encourage preventive as well as effective treatment practices must be made for this population.

  1. Innovative Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention-Intervention for African-American Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringer, Brialle D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether implementation of an innovative STI prevention intervention design affects participants’ knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and sexual self-efficacy. The population this research focuses on is African-American adolescent girls. The participants included in this study are aged 13-19. This particular population is disproportionately infected by sexually transmitted diseases, so it is vital that intervention programs be tailored to fit their culture and gender-specific needs in order to achieve maximum results. However, current interventions for African-American girls could be improved. The researcher has designed an innovative STI prevention intervention that draws from current, best evidence interventions. The researcher has hypothesized that: (1 participants that complete the intervention will have increased STI knowledge; and, (2 upon completion of the intervention, participants will have greater sexual self-efficacy.

  2. A Study Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases With Application Of Syndromic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Hasan Hana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in Assam Medical College was studied for a period of one year. The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases was 1.43%. Out of 150 patients the number of patients with genitoulcerative diseases was syphilis 27 (18%, herpes genitalis 26(17.33%, condyloma acuminate 30 (20%, chancroid 11 (7.33%, donovanosis 2(1.33% and LGV 1(0.67%. Patients with urethral or vaginal discharge comprised of gonorrhoea 4(2.67% Vulvovaginitis 14 (9.33%, NGU 12(8.00%, trichomoniasis 2(1.33%, balanoposthitis 17(11.33%.

  3. Home screening for sexually transmitted diseases in high-risk young women: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). AIM: To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high-risk sample of young women. METHODS: In this......OBJECTIVE: Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). AIM: To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high-risk sample of young women. METHODS...

  4. The Use of Molecular Techniques for the Diagnosis and Epidemiologic Study of Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black; Morse

    2000-02-01

    Molecular diagnostic tests are more sensitive and, in many cases, more specific than conventional laboratory methods for the detection of sexually transmitted infections. Here, we review recently developed molecular methods for the diagnosis and subtyping of the most common sexually transmitted infections: infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus, Trichomonas vaginalis, and the agents of genital ulcer disease (Haemophilus ducreyi, herpes simplex virus, Treponema pallidum, and Calymmatobacterium granulomatis). We also provide an overview of the laboratory diagnostic tests and clinical specimens to use when infection with these agents is suspected.

  5. Kurthia gibsonii as a sexually transmitted zoonosis: From a neglected condition during World War II to a recent warning for sexually transmitted disease units

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    Valéria Kövesdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Zoonotic sexual transmission. Aims: Identification of unknown microorganisms causing sexually transmitted zoonotic infection was a common effort of clinicians and the laboratory. Settings and Design: A male patient had recurring urethritis and balanitis after having repeated unprotected penetrative sexual intercourse with female piglets. He claimed allergy to metals and plastics. Routine microbiological tests were carried out. Materials and Methods: Specimens from the urethra, glans, rectum, throat, urine, and blood were cultured. Subsequently, isolates were tested for their biochemical activity and antibiotic susceptibility. Results: Kurthia gibsonii was isolated from both urethra and glans. No other concomitant infection was detected. The patient was cured with oral cefuroxime for 15 days and topical gentamicin cream for 2 months. Conclusion: This is the first reported zoophilic infection by Kurthia spp. Fecal contamination of animals' genital tract was the possible source of infection. Immune disturbance of the patient might predispose to opportunistic Kurthia infection.

  6. Sociodemographic profile of blind people: associations with knowledge, attitude and practice about sexually transmitted infections

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    Andressa Kaline Ferreira Araújo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze associations among sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge, attitude and practice ofblind people about sexually transmitted infections. Methods: descriptive transversal study with a quantitative approach.Participants were 36 blind individuals. The questionnaire Knowledge, attitude and practice about sexually transmittedinfections was used. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. There were Chi-square test and chi-square Exact.Results: most participants are elderly, unmarried, with elementary school and not working. Knowledge, attitude andpractice about sexually transmitted infections are inadequate (p<0.05. Religion (p<0.001, work (p<0.001, not workingreason (p<0.001 and education (p=0.003 had associations with the attitude about sexually transmitted infections. Gender(p<0.001, marital status (p=0.019 and education (p=0.020 had associations with practice. There was no associationbetween sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge. Conclusion: sociodemographic characteristics may interferewith the attitude and practice of blind people about sexually transmitted infections, and the nurse should consider thesecharacteristics in professional practice with those subjects.

  7. Reappraisal of sexually transmitted infections in children: A hospital-based study from an urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhu Mendiratta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in children can be acquired either by sexual, or non-sexual route. Sexually transmitted infection (STI in children reflect the pattern of STI in adult population and the knowledge, attitude and practices of the society. They also serve as an indicator of STI control strategies. Aims: A retrospective study spanning over a period of 5 years from 2007 to 2011 was undertaken to make a detailed analysis of demographic, behavioral, epidemiological and clinical profile of STD among children (16 years of age. Homosexuality was present in 33.3% of males. History of sexual abuse was given by 4 children. 2 children were seropositive for HIV by ELISA technique. Viral STIs (Cyanea acuminata, molluscum contagiosum, herpes genitalis were 1.5 times more common than bacterial infections. Conclusion: The societal sexual practices have undergone tremendous changes, which is reflected in a steady rise in STIs (predominantly viral, sexual abuse and homosexuality in children. There is an urgent need for strengthening of school health programs aiming at adolescent sexual health.

  8. [Update on current care guidelines: diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Alanen, Anna; Heikkilä, Elina; Puolakkainen, Mirja; Reunala, Timo; Suni, Jukka; Suomalainen, Pekka; Valtonen, Kirsi; Varis, Tiina; Vuento, Risto

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of common sexually transmitted infection (STI) syndromes allows more efficient diagnosis and treatment. These evidence-based guidelines provide advice on the management of STIs, including the use of the appropriate diagnostic methods and therapeutic regimens. Early and appropriate therapy has the potential to significantly reduce the long-term complications of STIs. The prevention of further infection through the counselling and treatment of partners contributes to the sexual health of patients.

  9. Laws Requiring Parental Involvement to Obtain Abortion and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Minors.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvie Colman; Ted Joyce; Dee, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Report evaluates whether policies requiring parental involvement in minors' decision to obtain an abortion can alter their sexual behavior and help reduce the rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among teens. Using data from the STI surveillance system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia, the findings offer little evidence of a link between parental involvement laws and teen STI rates.

  10. Predictors of Self-reported Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Yoder, Kevin A.

    2000-01-01

    Path analysis was used to investigate factors associated with self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among 569 homeless and runaway adolescents in four Midwestern states. Youth were interviewed by outreach workers directly on the streets, in shelters, and in drop-in centers. Results indicated that family abuse was positively related to substance use, affiliation with friends who sold sex, and time on own. Early family abuse indirectly increased the likelihood of self-reported sexually tr...

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Emer

    2009-10-29

    BACKGROUND: There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. METHODS: All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were

  12. Extensive genetic diversity, unique population structure and evidence of genetic exchange in the sexually transmitted parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D Conrad

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes.Here we utilize a panel of T. vaginalis-specific genetic markers to genotype 235 isolates from Mexico, Chile, India, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Italy, Africa and the United States, including 19 clinical isolates recently collected from 270 women attending New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics. Using population genetic analysis, we show that T. vaginalis is a genetically diverse parasite with a unique population structure consisting of two types present in equal proportions world-wide. Parasites belonging to the two types (type 1 and type 2 differ significantly in the rate at which they harbor the T. vaginalis virus, a dsRNA virus implicated in parasite pathogenesis, and in their sensitivity to the widely-used drug, metronidazole. We also uncover evidence of genetic exchange, indicating a sexual life-cycle of the parasite despite an absence of morphologically-distinct sexual stages.Our study represents the first robust and comprehensive evaluation of global T. vaginalis genetic diversity and population structure. Our identification of a unique two-type structure, and the clinically relevant phenotypes associated with them, provides a new dimension for understanding T. vaginalis pathogenesis. In addition, our demonstration of the possibility of genetic exchange in the parasite has important implications for genetic research and control of the disease.

  13. Sexually transmitted infections among male highway coach drivers in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Wah Wah; Thant, Myo; Wai, Khin Thet; Aye, Mya Mya; Ei, Phyu Win; Myint, Thuzar; Thidar, Moe

    2013-05-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from February 2008 to December 2009 at the largest Highway Terminal, Yangon, Myanmar to determine the prevalence of curable STIs (syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infections, and trichomoniasis), to find out the associated factors for STIs, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of gonococcal infection among highway drivers. Urine and blood specimens were collected from 601 male highway coach drivers after an interview about their behavior. Standard laboratory tests were carried out to detect STIs. Multivariate analysis was used to ascertain potential risk factors for STIs. The prevalence rates of syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infections, and trichomoniasis were 4.8, 4.3, 5.7, and 9.8%, respectively. One hundred and two (17.0%) were infected with at least one of the tested four STIs, and 34 (5.7%) had STI co-infections (2STIs). Those who had multiple sexual contacts were likely to be infected with at least one STI, and those who had a history of inconsistent condom use within past two weeks and multiple sexual contacts were more likely to have STI co-infections (p < 0.05). Antimicrobial susceptibility of 21 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates showed that 85.7% were susceptible to azithromycin, 80.9% to spectinomycin, 66.7% to cefixime, 61.9% to ceftriaxone, and 38.1% to ciprofloxacin. The high prevalence of STIs in this study and the decreased susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone highlighted the role of periodic screening in early diagnosis and effective treatment of STIs among high-risk populations.

  14. Recruitment Strategies and Motivations for Sexually Transmitted Disease Testing among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Zenilman, Jonathan; Nanda, Joy P.; Mark, Hayley

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated procedures for recruiting college students for sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing as part of a research study examining the impact of HSV serologic testing. Participants: A convenience sample of 100 students was drawn from students aged 18 to 35 years enrolled at one university in a mid-Atlantic state…

  15. Education on Sexually Transmitted Infections: Finding Common Ground among Youth, Parents, Providers and Policy Advocates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R.

    2008-01-01

    Outcomes from sex education are shaped not only by the knowledge and attitudes of youth but also by groups influential in young people's lives. American youth bear one of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the industrialized world. Four constituencies with important roles in communicating about STIs are youth, parents,…

  16. Sexually transmitted diseases: educational intervention among teenagers in a technical-professional teaching center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dair García de la Rosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sexually transmitted diseases are among the leading health problems of humankind. They are highly prevalent diseases that cause distress, disability and significant severe complications. These infections do not have high mortality rates in general, with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, and Hepatitis B that cause a significant number of deaths. Objective. To improve the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among a group of teenagers of Bernabé Boza Technical School, county of Camagüey, and assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Methods. Knowledge assessments were conducted before and after the intervention in Bernabé Boza Technical School between January and June 2012. The sample universe was 120 students who comprised the complete second year enrollment. Results. There was a predominance of female sixteen-year-old teenagers. The knowledge level about features of sexually transmitted diseases increased significantly after the intervention among the teenagers in the study (71.7% versus 95.8% p<0.0001, route of infection (74.2% versus 100% p<0.0001, and prevention (20% versus 91.7% p<0.0001. Conclusion. The educational intervention increased significantly the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among the teenagers, Thus, this is an important educational tool in this age group.

  17. One Size Fits All? Promoting Condom Use for Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention among Heterosexual Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults knowledge and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use…

  18. SEEKING MEDICAL-CARE FOR A SEXUALLY-TRANSMITTED DISEASE - DETERMINANTS OF DELAY-BEHAVIOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEENAARS, PEM; ROMBOUTS, R; KOK, G

    1993-01-01

    Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is important considering the high incidence of acute infections, complications and sequelae, their social and economic impact and their role in increasing transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Unfortunately, a common response to illness is t

  19. The Adolescent Male Prostitute and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markos, A. R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adolescent male prostitutes have variable backgrounds; blend of different psychological, behavioral, social, and economic factors. Study of these factors forms basis for understanding potential risks they may be exposed to, including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Reported high incidence…

  20. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadnia, Elahe; Kharaghani, Roghieh; Maleki, Azam; Avazeh, Azar; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh; Sedaghatpisheh, Tahereh; Jalilvand, Ahmad; Molae, Behnaz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%). The use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas. PMID:27974960

  1. Likelihood of Condom Use When Sexually Transmitted Diseases Are Suspected: Results from a Clinic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Yarber, William L.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Charnigo, Richard; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the event-level associations between perceived risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition/transmission and condom use during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) among STD clinic attendees. Method: A convenience sample (N = 622) completed daily electronic assessments. Two questions were proxies of perceived risk:…

  2. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadnia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results: The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%. The use of the intrauterine device (IUD as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas.

  3. Behavioral counseling to prevent sexually transmitted infections : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calonge, Ned; Petitti, Diana B.; DeWitt, Thomas G.; Dietrich, Allen J.; Gordis, Leon; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Harris, Russell; Isham, George; Leipzig, Rosanne; LeFevre, Michael L.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Marion, Lucy N.; Moyer, Virginia A.; Ockene, Judith K.; Sawaya, George F.; Yawn, Barbara P.

    2008-01-01

    Description: New U. S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations about behavioral counseling of adolescents and adults to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of counseling. The review included studies evalu

  4. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, covering the following topics (1) Health Education; and…

  5. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk Transmission through Friends and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with…

  6. Treating curable sexually transmitted infections to prevent HIV in Africa - Still an effective control strategy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Richard G.; Orroth, Kate K.; Glynn, Judith R.; Freeman, Esther E.; Bakker, Roel; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Buve, Anne; Hayes, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Evidence regarding the effectiveness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) treatment for HIV prevention in Africa is equivocal, leading some policy makers to question whether it should continue to be promoted for HIV control. We explore whether treating curable STIs remains a cost-effe

  7. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  8. The spatial context of clinic-reported sexually transmitted infection in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Georgiana MT

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI in China has been on the rise in the past decade. Delineation of epidemiologic pattern is often hampered by its uneven distribution. Spatial distribution is often a neglected aspect of STI research, the description of which may enhance epidemiologic surveillance and inform service development. Methods Over a one month-period, all first time attendees of 6 public STI clinics in Hong Kong were interviewed before clinical consultation using a standard questionnaire to assess their demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics. A GIS (geographic information system-based approach was adopted with mapping performed. The cases attending the clinics in different locations were profiled. A comparison was made between neighbourhood cases (patients living near a clinic and distant cases (those farther off, by calculating the odds ratio for demographic, behavioural and geographic characteristics. Results Of the 1142 STI patients evaluated, the residence locations of 1029 (90.1% could be geocoded, of which 95.6% were ethnic Chinese and 63.4% male. Geographically only about a quarter lived in the same district as the clinic. STI patients aged 55 or above were more likely to be living in the vicinity of the clinic, located in the same or adjacent tertiary planning unit (a small geographic unit below district level. A majority of patients came from locations a few kilometers from the clinic, the distance of which varies between clinics. Overall, more syphilis cases were reported in patients residing in the same or adjacent tertiary planning unit, while distant cases tended to give a higher risk of inconsistent condom use. There were otherwise no significant clinical and epidemiologic differences between neighbourhood and distant STI cases. Conclusions There was no specific relationship between STI and the residence location of patients as regards their clinical and

  9. [Sexually transmitted diseases among the elderly: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas Neto, Jader; Nakamura, Amanda Sayuri; Cortez, Lucia Elaine Ranieri; Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda

    2015-12-01

    The prolongation of an active sexual life in addition to unsafe practices are reflected in the possibility of the occurrence of STDs among the elderly. The scope of this study is to analyze the evolving trend of STDs among the elderly in Brazil and in the world and also to identify the main issues addressed in the literature, providing data that can support public policies that address the health of the elderly. A systematic search was performed in the Lilacs, IBECS, Cochrane Library, Medline, SciELO and PubMed databases. Of a total of 979 studies found, 44 matched the inclusion criteria and comprised the sample of the review. Six main themes were identified: risk factors for infection (34 studies); the influence of Sildenafil as a possible factor (18); diagnosis of STDs in general (20); HIV treatment (24); comorbidities related to HIV (24); and the prevention of STDs (20). More than one theme can be found in each study. The conclusion drawn is that this age group remains out of the focus of public policies of health promotion in the STD context. Therefore, there is a need for awareness about the changes in behavior and the epidemiological profile of this population group.

  10. Systematic review of interventions to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, among young people in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Sihvonen-Riemenschneider, Henna; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union.......To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union....

  11. Where do youth in foster care receive information about preventing unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents in foster care are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. A study using a qualitative method was conducted to describe how and where foster youth receive reproductive health and risk reduction information to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Participants also were asked to describe their relationship with their primary health care provider while they were in foster care. Nineteen young adults, recently emancipated from foster care, participated in individual interviews. Using grounded theory as the method of analysis, three thematic categories were generated: discomfort visiting and disclosing, receiving and not receiving the bare essentials, and learning prevention from community others. Recommendations include primary health care providers providing a confidential space for foster youth to disclose sexual activity and more opportunities for foster youth to receive reproductive and risk prevention information in the school setting.

  12. Body mass index, sexual behaviour, and sexually transmitted infections : an analysis using the NHANES 1999–2000 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernsen Roos MD

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors determining human sexual behaviour are not completely understood, but are important in the context of sexually transmitted disease epidemiology and prevention. Being obese is commonly associated with a reduced physical attractiveness but the associations between body mass index, sexual behaviour and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections has never been studied. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES files of 1999–2000 were used. Linear regression was used to relate the reported number of sex partners in the last year and lifetime to Body Mass Index (BMI. Logistic regression was used to relate Herpes Simplex Virus type II (HSV-2 antibodies to BMI and other variables. Results Data on 979 men and 1250 women were available for analysis. Obese (mean number of partners for men:1.12, women: 0.93 and overweight (mean for men: 1.38, women: 1.03 individuals reported fewer partners than individuals of normal BMI (mean for men:2.00, women: 1.15 in the last year (p Conclusion Obese and overweight individuals, especially men, self report fewer sex partners than individuals of normal weight, but surprisingly this is not reflected in their risk of HSV-2 infection. HSV-2 antibodies provide information not contained in self-reported number of partners and may better estimate sexual risk than self-reported behaviour.

  13. Role of occupation as a risk factor for sexually transmitted disease: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shendre Mohan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a major public health problem. The epidemiology of STDs is distinctive because of common behavioral and biological features. Occupation is one of the socio-demographic factors, which not only act as a risk factor for acquiring STDs but also as a factor for the spread of the acquired infection. The information was collected about the nature of the occupation and it was categorized as unskilled, semi-skilled, skilled, professional and housewives. Most of the subjects belonged to sexually active group. Male to female ratio was found to be 10.9:1. The majority of the cases of sexually transmitted diseases belonged to unskilled profession and most of these were unemployed. They also had twice higher risk of having STDs as compared to controls (OR=2; 95% CI= 1.01-3.95. The analysis of statistical parameters suggested that in this study 28% of the total cases of STD could be attributed to the unskilled profession and 50% to the job requiring frequent travel. Similarly, 15% of the total STD in population can be attributed to the unskilled profession; while only 5% can be attributed to the job requiring frequent travel. It can be concluded that occupation can be considered as a significant risk factor for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. The unskilled and unemployed on one hand and those employed in occupations, which require frequent travel outside the place of residence, constitute the high-risk groups.

  14. KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS, PRACTICE AMONG ADOLESCENTS REGARDING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN URBAN SLUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Rai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are very important health challenges for adolescents. Many national and international governmental and nongovernmental health agencies are running programmes to reduce the incidence of these diseases. We can provide an insight to the reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents by assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice about these diseases. Research Question: What is the level of knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases?  Objectives: To assess the knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases in an urban slum in Dehradun. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Settings and Participants: Adolescents belonging to registered families of Chandreshwar Nagar urban slum under the field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences. Sample Size: 166 Adolescents i.e. Males-88 and Females-78. Study Period: May 2009 to October 2009 Study Variable: A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting information on Age, Sex, Knowledge and awareness regarding STDs, etc. Statistical Analysis: Standard statistical package i.e. SPSS, Microsoft Excel.  Results: 51.2% of the adolescents were having knowledge about STD’s. Majority of (91.4% the adolescents knew about AIDS as a type of STD. Their attitude cum practice towards prevention of STD was found to be 72.9% by use of condoms. Conclusions: Appropriate health care seeking behaviour and Information Education and Communication (IEC activities should be promoted. 

  15. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Juvenile Prostitutes and Street Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Caffaro Rouget

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Four groups of adolescents – 35 juvenile prostitutes, 36 street youth, 31 monogamous sexually active adolescents and 35 non-sexually active adolescents – were studied between January 1, 1988 and December 31, 1988 for the presence of sexually transmitted diseases and other genital pathogens. The high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases found in the juvenile prostitutes (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 49%; Chlamydia trachomatis, 83% is in contrast to other studies, which document much lower rates of infection. This could be due to the fact that there are few studies done on juvenile prostitutes as a well defined group. Despite high risk sexual behaviour, the consistent use of contraception was low. No contraceptives were used by 57% of the juvenile prostitutes and 85% of the street youth. None of the adolescents sought medical attention although 48% of the juvenile prostitutes and 53% of the street youth had genital symptoms. It appears that the present public health education and health care delivery do not reach this high risk population.

  16. Risks and Realities: Rochester Area Lesbians' Perceived Risk of Acquiring Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Singh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There was limited information available in the clinical and public health communities about Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs among lesbians and bisexual women. This study intends to investigate perceived risks of acquiring STIs among lesbians in Rochester, New York. This research concludes that Rochester area lesbians do not perceive themselves at significant risk of acquiring STIs. A gap exists in the sexual health dialogue between health providers and their lesbian patients. And while there was a broad range of safer sex practices documented in the literature, there seems to be little consensus and few guidelines available as far as motivations to practice safer sex.

  17. Reported sexually transmitted infections in Swedish Internet-using men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M W; Daneback, K; Mansson, S-A; Berglund, T; Tikkanen, R

    2008-06-01

    Although the Internet has become a forum for making sexual contacts, and has been associated with increased sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission, we have little information of history of STIs in Internet-based samples. The Internet behaviours that are associated with STI acquisition are poorly understood. We analysed STI histories reported by 904 Swedish men and 931 Swedish women who responded to an Internet-based survey on sexual behaviour in 2002: 16.6% of men and 22.5% of women reported a lifetime history of STIs, with Chlamydia being the most common for both genders. 3% of men and 5% of women who reported an STI, indicated that they had had more than one. Sources of the STI, where known, were Internet-acquired partners in only 3% of cases. There were no differences between men and women with or without an STI history regarding the kind of online sexual activities they engaged in, how they found sexual material online, and the reasons they engage in sexual activities. These rates are similar to those reported in a national random study of sexuality in Sweden. Contrary to prior research, these results suggest no relationship between STI and specific Internet characteristics usage patterns. These data suggest that the Internet is not yet a major source of STIs in Swedish men and women. Given these STI histories, the Internet may be a useful medium to include in STI prevention efforts.

  18. A review of sexually transmitted bovine trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis affecting cattle reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michi, Aubrey N; Favetto, Pedro H; Kastelic, John; Cobo, Eduardo R

    2016-03-15

    The objective is to discuss sexually transmitted diseases caused by Tritrichomonas foetus (T foetus) and Campylobacter fetus (C fetus) subsp. venerealis, with a focus on prevalence, pathogenesis, and diagnosis in cows and bulls. Diagnosis and control are problematic because these diseases cause severe reproductive losses in cows, but in bulls are clinically asymptomatic, which allows the disease to flourish, especially in the absence of legislated control programs. We review research regarding prophylactic systemic immunization of bulls and cows with antigens of T foetus and C fetus venerealis and their efficacy in preventing or clearing preexisting infections in the genital tract. Current diagnostic methods of C fetus venerealis and T foetus (microbial culture and PCR) should be improved. Review of the latest advances in bovine trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis should promote knowledge and provide an impetus to pursue further efforts to control bovine sexually transmitted diseases.

  19. Rho GTPases as pathogen targets: Focus on curable sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Cristián A; Tudela, Julián Gambarte; Damiani, María T

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved highly specialized mechanisms to infect hosts. Several microorganisms modulate the eukaryotic cell surface to facilitate their engulfment. Once internalized, they hijack the molecular machinery of the infected cell for their own benefit. At different stages of phagocytosis, particularly during invasion, certain pathogens manipulate pathways governed by small GTPases. In this review, we focus on the role of Rho proteins on curable, sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum. Despite the high, worldwide frequencies of these sexually-transmitted diseases, very little is known about the strategies developed by these microorganisms to usurp key eukaryotic proteins that control intracellular signaling and actin dynamics. Improved knowledge of these molecular mechanisms will contribute to the elucidation of how these clinically important pathogens manipulate intracellular processes and parasitize their hosts.

  20. Sexually transmitted infections and increased risk of co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, Margaret R H; Wallace, Robin R; Slatt, Lisa M; Kondrad, Elin C

    2004-12-01

    The incidence of trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis) in the United States is estimated at 5 million cases annually; chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) at 3 million; gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), 650,000; and syphilis (Treponema pallidum), 70,000. However, most sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are asymptomatic-contributing to underdiagnosis estimated at 50% or more. Diagnosis of an STI signals sexual health risk because an STI facilitates the transmission and acquisition of other STIs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In fact, comorbid STIs increase patients' susceptibility of acquiring and transmitting HIV by two- to fivefold. Several studies have shown that aggressive STI prevention, testing, and treatment reduces the transmission of HIV. The authors discuss common clinical presentations, screening, diagnosis, and treatment for trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus.

  1. Rho GTPases as pathogen targets: Focus on curable sexually transmitted infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Cristián A; Tudela, Julián Gambarte; Damiani, María T

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved highly specialized mechanisms to infect hosts. Several microorganisms modulate the eukaryotic cell surface to facilitate their engulfment. Once internalized, they hijack the molecular machinery of the infected cell for their own benefit. At different stages of phagocytosis, particularly during invasion, certain pathogens manipulate pathways governed by small GTPases. In this review, we focus on the role of Rho proteins on curable, sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum. Despite the high, worldwide frequencies of these sexually-transmitted diseases, very little is known about the strategies developed by these microorganisms to usurp key eukaryotic proteins that control intracellular signaling and actin dynamics. Improved knowledge of these molecular mechanisms will contribute to the elucidation of how these clinically important pathogens manipulate intracellular processes and parasitize their hosts. PMID:26023809

  2. Utility of syndromic approach in management of sexually transmitted infections:public health perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava; Jegadeesh Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that are mainly transmitted from person-to-person through sexual contact. Untreated or inadequately treated STIs can have significant impact on the maternal and newborn health. An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was made using library sources including PubMed, Medline and World Health Organization website for a period of one month. Relevant documents, technical publication series, systematic reviews, research articles focusing on the practice of syndromic management in treatment of STIs published in the period 1995-2013 were included in the review. The identified articles were then re-grouped into different sections for better understanding. Keywords used in the search include syndromic management, sexually transmitted infections, women, reproductive age-group and pregnancy. There is an immense need for implementation of prevention and control of STIs because of the associated morbidity/mortality, association with HIV and adverse outcomes of pregnancy and burdening of the health system. Multiple socio-demographic determinants have been identified, which usually precipitates STIs. In addition, some of the barriers have been recognized which is hampering with the expected utilization of the health care services. To counter the high prevalence of reproductive tract infection/STI, especially in countries with limited resources, syndromic diagnostic approach has been adopted by countries for the standardized management of sexually transmitted disease cases. The aim of syndromic management is to identify a syndrome and treat it accordingly with combination therapy which will cover the main pathogens that cause it. Strategies have been suggested to overcome the limitations of the syndromic approach and bring the problem under control. To conclude, syndromic management is a rapid and cost-effective approach in reducing the transmission of STIs.

  3. Anorectal sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men--special considerations for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Stephen E; Welton, Mark L

    2004-11-01

    Men who have sex with men have special health-care issues and are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections. In managing their anorectal health it is important to modify the history and physical and handle patients in a nonjudgmental fashion. It is important to understand behavioral patterns including recreational drug use, unprotected sex, and HIV infection. Screening and counseling play important roles in effective management of these patients.

  4. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections among Male Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Yıldız

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the patients who have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and the healthy individuals in terms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections (BTIs prevalences. Methods: This study is a prospective, single-center, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. There were two groups in the study. The patient group consistsed of 100 males who were diagnosed as ASPD with a clinical interview form. The control group consisted of 98 healthy males who did not have any psychiatric disorder. Dermatologic examination was performed, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 21.96±2.40 (range 20-37 years. The mean age of the control group was 24.20±2.88 (21-36 years. The most common disease was gonorrhea (25% followed by genital wart (11%, molluskum contagiosum (5%, HBsAg (4%, and HSV-2 seropositivity (4% in the patients group. In the control group, HSV-2 seropositivity (4.08%, genital wart (3.06%, molluskum contagiosum (3.06%, and gonorrhe (1.02% were commonly seen in the control group. STDs and/or BVTIs were found more common in the patients group (82% than that in the control group (45.91% (X2=30.62, p=0.000. Conclusions: The patients with ASPD are at greater risk than normal population to catch a STDs or BTIs because of their lower educational levels and riskier behaviors. This condition entertains a risk in the general population and the patients themselves.

  5. Impact of five years of peer-mediated interventions on sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King'ola Nzioki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2000, peer-mediated interventions among female sex workers (FSW in Mombasa Kenya have promoted behavioural change through improving knowledge, attitudes and awareness of HIV serostatus, and aimed to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infection (STI by facilitating early STI treatment. Impact of these interventions was evaluated among those who attended peer education and at the FSW population level. Methods A pre-intervention survey in 2000, recruited 503 FSW using snowball sampling. Thereafter, peer educators provided STI/HIV education, condoms, and facilitated HIV testing, treatment and care services. In 2005, data were collected using identical survey methods, allowing comparison with historical controls, and between FSW who had or had not received peer interventions. Results Over five years, sex work became predominately a full-time activity, with increased mean sexual partners (2.8 versus 4.9/week; P P P = 0.36. Conclusion Peer-mediated interventions were associated with an increase in protected sex. Though peer-mediated interventions remain important, higher coverage is needed and more efficacious interventions to reduce overall vulnerability and risk.

  6. Patterns of risk behaviour for patients with sexually transmitted diseases and surveillance for human immunodeficiency virus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, M S; Archibald, C; Ghazali, A A; Low, B T; Teoh, B H; Sinniah, M; Rus, S C; Singh, J; Nair, R C

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of establishing a sentinel human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance system involving patients with sexually transmitted diseases attending private clinics and a government sexually transmitted disease clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Information on risk behaviours for HIV infection were also collected. A total of 84 female and 91 male patients were interviewed and tested for HIV infection; 41.7% of the women reported working as prostitutes, other occupations included masseuses, hairdressers, waitresses, salesgirls, receptionists, factory workers, and others. The most common diagnosis was gonorrhoea. Other diagnoses included non-specific genital infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, genital herpes and syphilis. 58.3% of the women had a hundred or more sex partners during the previous month; 99% had 6 or more sex partners. Only 4.8% of female patients had their male partners using condoms most of the time, 11.9% hardly used condoms at all. Of the males, 93.3% were heterosexual, while 6.7% were bisexuals, 41.1% had between 6-20 different partners in the previous year. 78.0% of them had prostitutes as their sex partners most of the time. 41.8% had experiences in Thailand and the Philippines. 73.6% never used condoms, while 19.8% only used condoms rarely. Although all patients were tested negative for HIV antibodies, lot quality assurance sampling methods indicate that the upper limits of prevalences for females and males were 3.5% and 3.3% respectively, at a 5% type I error. The study has shown that it is feasible to carry out a sentinel surveillance programme among STD patients and provided useful baseline data for future comparisons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Retention of clinical trial participants in a study of nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), a sexually transmitted infection in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeannette Y; Lensing, Shelly Y; Schwebke, Jane R

    2012-07-01

    Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), an inflammation of the urethra not caused by gonorrhea, is the most common urethritis syndrome seen in men in the United States. It is a sexually transmitted infection commonly caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, a pathogen which occurs more frequently in African-American men compared to white men. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to retention of study participants in a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial that evaluated four treatment regimens for the treatment of NGU. After the one-week treatment period, follow-up visits were scheduled during days 15-19 and days 35-45. Participants were phoned prior to scheduled appointments to encourage attendance, and contacted after missed appointments to reschedule their clinic visits. Of the 305 male study participants, 298 (98%) were African-American, 164 (54%) were 25 years of age or younger, and 80 (31%) had a post-secondary school education. The overall retention rate was 75%. Factors associated with study completion were educational level attained and clinical center. Participants with higher levels of education were more likely to complete the study. Clinical centers with the highest retention rates also provided the highest monetary incentives for participation. The retention rate for this study suggests that strategies are needed for improving the proportion of study participants that complete a clinical trial among young men with a sexually transmitted disease. These strategies may include increasing contacts with study participants to remind them of scheduled study visits using text messaging or social media and the use of financial incentives.

  8. Doenças sexualmente transmissíveis na adolescência: estudo de fatores de risco Sexually transmitted diseases in adolescence: study of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella R. Taquette

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As doenças sexualmente transmissíveis são prevalentes na adolescência e facilitadoras da contaminação pelo HIV. A baixa idade das primeiras relações sexuais, a variabilidade de parceiros, o não uso de preservativo e o uso de drogas ilícitas são apontados como fatores de risco às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Entrevistamos 356 adolescentes que procuraram atendimento no Núcleo de Estudos da Saúde do Adolescente da Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro no período de agosto/2001 a julho/2002 com o objetivo de conhecê-los do ponto de vista da sexualidade e identificar fatores de risco às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Fizemos análises de freqüência e testes qui-quadrado dos dados coletados. Observamos associações estatisticamente significativas entre ter uma doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e as variáveis: atraso escolar, uso de álcool, tabaco e drogas, histórico de abuso sexual e a não utilização de preservativo nas relações sexuais. Os resultados indicam que os fatores de risco às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis na adolescência são múltiplos, sendo que o não uso do preservativo é o que tem possibilidade de redução sob a ação das equipes de saúde.Sexually transmitted diseases are frequent in adolescence and facilitates HIV contamination. The early age limit of the first sexual intercourse, the diversity of partners, the habit of not using condoms and illicit drug abuse are pointed out as risk factors for sexual transmitted disease. We interviewed 356 adolescents who sought medical attendance at the Adolescent Health Study Center of The State University of Rio de Janeiro between August/2001 and July/2002 regarding their sexuality and to identify risk behaviors. Periodical analysis and chi-square tests were performed on the collected data. We observed statistically significant correlations between Sexual transmitted diseases and the variables of: slow learning, alcohol, tobacco and

  9. The Effect of Peer-Education on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Safer Sexual Life Knowledge and Behaviour of Young People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evin Kirmizitoprak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effect of peer education on the knowledge and attitudes of the young about safe sexual life and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Method: In this intervention type epidemiologic study, 1100 youngs were reached at 95% level of significance by probability sampling method. These young people were given education by peer trainers; level of knowledge and attitudes of the young were evaluated before and after education. ‘Young’s Health Information Form’ prepared by the investigators and including questions about safe sexual life, family planning and STDs along with socio-demographic informations was used for data collection. In statistical analysis, ‘t test’ was used for comparison of two averages, one-way anova for three groups in independent groups, ‘coupled t test’ was used in dependent groups, ‘qui-square test’ was used for comparison of percents in independent groups, ‘McNemar qui-square test’ was used in dependent groups. Results: A total of 977 young people (females 45.1%, males 54.9% aged between 15-24 years were included in the study (response ratio 88.8%. It was determined that 15.6% of unmarried young had a relationship resulted in sexual intercourse. Boys constitute the majority of the young experienced sexual intercourse and mean age of sexual intercourse was determined as 17.6. Of the young, 43.1% had a sexual intercourse with a prostitute, 43.3% with a close friend and a girlfriend, 8.3% with a maquette or an animal. Total knowledge score increased to 32.6 from 14.6 following peer education intervention carried out based on health attitude theories (p<0.05. Significant improvements were detected in each of ‘avoidance of sexual intercourse’, ‘being monogamous’ and ‘condom use’ in the context of safe sexual life (p<0.05. While ratio of modern method use increased to 80.8% from 53.8%, using no methods decraesed to 11.8% from 28%. Conclusion: Peer education model is suggested to be

  10. Somatic symptoms after sexual behavior with fear of four sexually transmitted diseases: A proposal of novel disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kentaro; Katsuda, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) often leads to frequent doctor visit not only to psychiatrists but also to various kinds of physicians. We encountered four cases of SSD, particularly associated with sexual intercourse and fear of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). To best of our knowledge, there is no independent clinical entity assigned to this phenomenon. Here, we propose a variation of SSD called four STD as an independent clinical entity since the presentation of this disorder is very distinctive, and lack of awareness of it may lead to unnecessary laboratory workup and antimicrobial prescription as well as augmented anxiety of the patients with potential "doctor shopping." Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disorder.

  11. VULNERABILITY TO ACQUISITION OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN PROFESSIONAL TRUCK DRIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Jonas Rauber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The truckers live in constant geographical displacement and have a lifestyle itself, which seems to facilitate the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and this factor precludes the articulation of health policies. Thus the aim of this is the vulnerability of truckers Evidence sexually transmitted diseases and the influence of the profession as a risk factor for acquiring these diseases. This is a qualitative study, conducted with three truckers on the banks of the BR 163, in the urban area of the municipality of Sinop in Mato Grosso, the data collection was conducted through semi-structured interview, and the speeches were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed by the method of content analysis. This study has a favorable ethical opinion by the Committee for Ethics and Research of the University Hospital Julio Muller. The results suggested that the profession of truck driver is susceptible to the individual to acquire STDs, since it remains for long hours away from their homes and live in a way that fosters sexual practices with casual partners and unprotected.

  12. [Sexual behavior, knowledge and attitudes to AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases of students at the University of Benin (Togo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallah, E D; Grunitzky-Bekele, M; Bassabi, K; Dodzro, K; Sadzo, A; Balogou, A K; Grunitzky, E K; Gaudreau, L

    1999-01-01

    Many studies have shown that in Africa, particularly in Togo, the 20- to 29-year-old age group is the age group most frequently affected by AIDS. This age group accounts for 84% of the students of the University of Benin. We studied students, most of the age group thought to be most at risk, investigating sexual behavior, knowledge and attitudes to AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The level of knowledge about the problems of AIDS and STDs was similar for both sexes and for all ages and levels of education of the students. Students had a reasonable knowledge of AIDS, particularly concerning the transmission of HIV (88.6% of students aware), risk behavior (80.8%), AIDS treatment (57.0%) and more general information about HIV (49.4%). They were poorly informed about the transmission (42.9%) and complications (0.69%) of other STDs. Most students had positive attitudes towards HIV issues, particularly the use of preventive measures (3.41 in 5) and the acceptance of infected individuals (3.98 in 5). However, few had seriously considered that AIDS and STDs might impact on their own sex lives (1. 84 in 5) and some were even fatalistic concerning HIV infection. The students were highly sexually active, having intercourse a mean of 31 times per year. Their sexual behavior depended on age and sex. The 15- to 19-year-olds preferred occasional partners. They had sexual intercourse 1 to 3 times per month and used condoms 10 to 20% of the time. The 20- to 29-year-olds had multiple partners. They had sexual intercourse 3 to 5 times per month and used condoms more than 30% of the time. Students over the age of 30 had many partners in addition to their regular partner. They had sexual intercourse 5 to 10 times per month and used condoms 0 to 20% of the time. Significantly more women than men had high-risk sexual behavior (40. 5% of men claimed to regularly use condoms, versus only 22.7% of the women and 11.9% of the women accepted anal penetration versus only 8. 4% of

  13. Are adolescents being screened for sexually transmitted diseases? A study of low income African American adolescents in San Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen, J.; M.; Lane; McCright, J

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the proportion of sexually experienced African American adolescents who report having been screened for sexually transmitted diseased (STDs), and to determine the proportion who report having been screened for STDs among those adolescents who have had a preventive primary healthcare visit in the past 2 years.

  14. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M; Cohen, Elijah L; LeClerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12-29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD=2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p=0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p=0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p=0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p=0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all psexual risk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to understanding sexual risk in transgender

  15. Gender Differences in Associations between Exposure to School HIV Education and Protective Sexual Behaviors and Sexually Transmitted Disease/HIV Diagnosis among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Murray, Jessica E.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess associations between school HIV education and protective sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV diagnosis with a representative sample of male and female high school students. Data from male and female adolescent participants in the 1999, 2001 and 2003 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n =…

  16. Using Process Data to Understand Outcomes in Sexual Health Promotion: An Example from a Review of School-Based Programmes to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J.; Harden, A.; Barnett-Page, E.; Kavanagh, J.; Picot, J.; Frampton, G. K.; Cooper, K.; Hartwell, D.; Clegg, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how process indicators can complement outcomes as part of a comprehensive explanatory evaluation framework, using the example of skills-based behavioural interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections and promote sexual health among young people in schools. A systematic review was conducted, yielding 12 eligible…

  17. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D.; Grayson, Cary T.; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction.…

  18. Dynamic modeling and analysis of sexually transmitted diseases on heterogeneous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuping; Jin, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    Considering homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts in the course of sexual contacts, double degrees which describe the numbers of homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts are introduced, correlation coefficients about degrees based on the joint probability distribution are given, and an SIS mean-field model about sexually transmitted diseases is presented when degrees are uncorrelated. The basic reproduction number of diseases is studied by the method of next generation matrix. Results show that, when homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts all exist, once the disease is epidemic in the interior of male (female) population which is caused by male (female) homosexual transmissions, or the disease is epidemic between the two species which is caused by heterosexual transmissions, the disease must be epidemic in the whole population. Numerical simulations confirm the theoretical results.

  19. Sexually transmitted diseases in the Southeastern United States: location, race, and social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Thomas A

    2006-07-01

    Heterosexual transmission of HIV in the United States appears to be following the epidemiologic pattern of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as syphilis and gonorrhea, disproportionately affecting blacks in the Southeastern region. Nationwide, rates of syphilis and gonorrhea are nearly 30 times higher in blacks than in whites, and this racial disparity underlies most of the regional and county-level differences in rates. The racial disparity cannot be explained by traditional measures of socioeconomic differences, and it cannot be explained by individual-level determinants of sexual behavior, but rather reflects deeper group-level social and environmental factors for which race is a marker. A theoretical model based on previous ecologic studies is proposed to explain the relationship between racial discrimination and elevated rates of STDs in blacks. Key factors in the model include: 1) chronic joblessness, 2) drug and alcohol marketing, 3) social disorganization (or social capital), and 4) male incarceration.

  20. Sexually transmitted infections in adolescents: advances in epidemiology, screening, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlan, Elise D; Holland-Hall, Cynthia

    2010-08-01

    Adolescents are especially vulnerable to acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Recent national surveillance data and data from population-level studies demonstrate a high prevalence of bacterial and viral STIs in adolescents and striking racial/ethnic disparities. The long-term health consequences of these infections impact heavily on women's reproductive health. Intriguing findings are emerging, suggesting that individual behaviors contribute minimally to risk for STI, and demonstrating the importance of sexual networks for the transmission of STIs. Exciting developments in gonorrhea and chlamydia testing are making routine screening easier for the busy clinician and are acceptable to adolescents. New testing modalities are being used to screen adolescents in nontraditional venues. Recent developments in vaccination against human papillomavirus and new cytological screening recommendations are changing clinical approaches to STI prevention.

  1. Male infertility: a public health issue caused by sexually transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Fabrícia; Souza, Raquel P; Bento, Jaqueline C; Teixeira, Jorge J V; Maria-Engler, Silvya S; Bonini, Marcelo G; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2014-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by several pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and protozoa, and can induce male infertility through multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. Additionally, horizontal transmission of STD pathogens to sexual partners or vertical transmission to fetuses and neonates is possible. Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, HIV-1 and human cytomegalovirus have all been detected in semen from symptomatic and asymptomatic men with testicular, accessory gland and urethral infections. These pathogens are associated with poor sperm quality and decreased sperm concentration and motility. However, the effects of these STD agents on semen quality are unclear, as are the effects of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma spp., Treponema pallidum and Trichomonas vaginalis, because few studies have evaluated the influence of these pathogens on male infertility. Chronic or inadequately treated infections seem to be more relevant to infertility than acute infections are, although in many cases the exact aetiological agents remain unknown.

  2. Dynamic analysis of a sexually transmitted disease model on complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Xin-Peng; Xue Ya-Kui; Liu Mao-Xing

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,a sexually transmitted disease model is proposed on complex networks,where contacts between humans are treated as a scale-free social network.There are three groups in our model,which are dangerous male,non-dangerous male,and female.By mathematical analysis,we obtain the basic reproduction number for the existence of endemic equilibrium and study the effects of various immunization schemes about different groups.Furthermore,numerical simulations are undertaken to verify more conclusions.

  3. Public Health benefits of partner notification for sexually transmitted infections and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; Low, N; Martin Hilber, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    Background European countries have used partner notification as one of a range of measures to control sexually transmitted infections (STI) since the early 1900s. Besides clinical benefits, public health benefits are also recognised such as controlling the spread of STI, reducing STI......-related morbidity and mortality, reaching people with asymptomatic STI and people who do not present for diagnosis, counselling and treatment. Considerable variation in the ways of implementation exists across countries. Differences in laws, policies, regulations and clinical guidelines contribute to this. Health...

  4. Modelling the spread of sexually transmitted diseases on scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mao-Xing; Ruan, Jiong

    2009-06-01

    In this paper a new model for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is presented. The dynamic behaviors of the model on a heterogenous scale-free (SF) network are considered, where the absence of a threshold on the SF network is demonstrated, and the stability of the disease-free equilibrium is obtained. Three immunization strategies, uniform immunization, proportional immunization and targeted immunization, are applied in this model. Analytical and simulated results are given to show that the proportional immunization strategy in the model is effective on SF networks.

  5. [Market of medical services provided to patients with sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, A V

    2001-01-01

    Data are presented from an investigation designed to study market of medical services delivered to patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). A model of the purchaser's behaviour of consumers of medical services is developed, decisive factors affecting the choice of a medical institution when applying for a profile medical advice are determined. Submitted in the paper is also an algorythm of analysis of expediency of segmentation of market of medical services delivered to STD patients. The most optimal principles of market segmentation include the following--economic (solvency), territorial (place of residence), social (belonging to one or another stratum of society).

  6. Modelling the spread of sexually transmitted diseases on scale-free networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Mao-Xing; Ruan Jiong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a new model for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is presented. The dynamic behaviors of the model on a heterogenous scale-free (SF) network are considered, where the absence of a threshold on the SF network is demonstrated, and the stability of the disease-free equilibrium is obtained. Three immunization strategies, uniform immunization, proportional immunization and targeted immunization, are applied in this model.Analytical and simulated results are given to show that the proportional immunization strategy in the model is effective on SF networks.

  7. Effective Evidence-Based Programs For Preventing Sexually-Transmitted Infections: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Dafina; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2015-01-01

    Educational programs for preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have often been implemented in different settings and populations. Mathematica Policy Research and Child Trends conducted a systematic review of 289 evidence-based interventions aiming to reduce STIs and sexual risk behavior in adolescents in the United States. These interventions were published between 1989 and 2012. We conducted a meta-analysis of the interventions that assessed incidence of STIs at follow up, and we identified key characteristics of successful interventions. Results showed that on average interventions reduced incidence roughly from 7 to 6 out of 100 people (17% relative risk reduction (RRR)). Interventions focused on abstinence had no effect, while comprehensive education programs aiming to improve skills and promote safe sexual practices reduced risk by 4 percent (23% RRR). In particular, interventions teaching condom use skills or communication and negotiation skills reduced incidence of STIs by 3 to 4 percent (30% RRR). Finally, interventions decreasing frequency of intercourse or number of sexual partners and interventions increasing condom use also reduced incidence of STIs by 5 to 7 percent (28-36% RRR). Overall properly designed interventions with the above-mentioned characteristics can achieve a 30% reduction of STI incidence. Implications for designing successful interventions to prevent STIs in adolescents are discussed.

  8. Knowledge and attitudes of women regarding Sexually Transmitted Diseases, sexual health and preventive controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaggelia Voltsi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Both Greek and international literature suggest there is an increase in STDs worldwide, something that has motivated health agencies to design health promotion strategies. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess knowledge and attitudes of women regarding STDs, as well as to correlate the findings with their sexual activity and gynecologic symptoms. Materials and Methods: Our reference population comprised of women residing in the city of Corinth. A specialized, valid and anonymous questionnaire was used, that included items concerning gynecologic diseases, STDs, prevention measures and birth control methods. Data collection took place from March to May 2013 and the SPSS 17.0 was used for the statistical analysis. Results: The majority of our sample (n=214 consisted of women aged 20 or younger (40.2%, without children (65.1%. 56.7% of the participants initiated sexual relationships at age 18 or older, while 55.2% said they always used condoms. Regarding STD history, 76.40% reported no such history. 67% thought that condoms were the safest birth control method, 64.4% said that casual relationships were the main cause for STD infections, 47.1% said that Pap tests should be done after menstruation, and 65.1% that mammograms should be a routine examination after the age of 30. Also, 65.4% of the participants said they consulted their gynecologist for anything regarding prevention examinations or gynecologic conditions. Conclusions: Despite some limitations, the present study concludes that many, mainly younger, women lack important information on such subjects and adopt high-risk behaviors. Consequently, the implementation of targeted, nation-wide sexual health programs and pre-symptomatic testing is deemed necessary.

  9. Chlamydial partner notification in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) 2011 UK national audit against the BASHH Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, H; Carne, C A; Sullivan, A K; Radcliffe, K W; Ahmed-Jushuf, I

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on chlamydial partner notification (PN) performance in the 2011 BASHH national audit against the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health (MedFASH) Sexually Transmitted Infection Management Standards (STIMS). There was wide regional variation in level 3 clinic PN performance against the current standard of index case-reported chlamydial PN, with 43% (regional range 0-80%) of clinics outside London meeting the ≥0.6 contacts seen per index standard, and 85% of clinics (regional range 82-88%) in London meeting the ≥0.4 standard. For level 2 clinics, 39% (regional range 0-100%) of clinics outside London met the ≥0.6 standard, and 43% (regional range 40-50%) of clinics in London met the ≥0.4 standard. Performance for health-care worker (HCW)-verified contact attendance is also reported. New standards for each of these performance measures are proposed for all level 3 clinics: ≥0.6 contacts seen per index case based on index case report, and ≥0.4 contacts seen per index case based on HCW verification, both within four weeks of the first partner notification interview. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of standards by commissioners of services, relevance to national quality agendas, and the need for development of a national system of PN quality assurance measurement and reporting.

  10. A Phenomenological Study of Sexual Harassment and Violence among Girls Attending High Schools in Urban Slums, Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Sagwe, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, 31% of young Kenyan women ages 15-24 reported sexual harassment and violence (SHV), with a majority experiencing sexual debut due to coercion (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Data were obtained from a sample of 20 girls attending school in Kamu and Lafamu (pseudonyms used for the study sites), 10 girls who had dropped out of school,…

  11. Transdiagnostic psychopathology mediates the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latack, Jessica A; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Stohl, Malka; Blanco, Carlos; Hasin, Deborah S; Eaton, Nicholas R

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with elevated rates of mental disorders, sexual risk behavior, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in adulthood. Mental disorders themselves are associated with an increased risk for HIV/AIDs and STIs as well, and thus may mediate the association between CSA and HIV/AIDS and other STIs. The links among CSA, disorders, and STIs are unclear, however. The current study tested the hypothesis that the association of CSA with STIs is mediated by adult transdiagnostic psychopathology. We examined the potential mediating role of transdiagnostic psychopathology factors-internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT)-in the association between CSA and receiving a past-year diagnosis of HIV, AIDS, or another STI in a large, national probability sample of adults (N=34,653). Using indirect effects modeling, we found that 54.4% of the association between CSA and subsequent HIV/AIDS/STI diagnosis operated through transdiagnostic psychopathology. The proposed mediation model was supported, indicating that individuals reporting CSA had higher estimated levels of latent general liabilities for INT and EXT disorders, and it was largely these liabilities that accounted for the link between CSA and heightened risk of adult HIV, AIDS, and STI diagnoses.

  12. High prevalence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections in HIV-infected men who have sex with men: a stimulus to improve screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveney, S; Sadlier, C; O'Dea, S; Delamere, S; Bergin, C

    2014-09-01

    In Ireland the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is steadily increasing while the number of new HIV-diagnoses in men who have sex with men has more than doubled in the past decade. This study investigated the prevalence of STIs in asymptomatic HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a clinic for routine HIV care in the largest HIV-centre in Ireland. Fifty HIV-infected MSM were included in the study (mean age [SD] 38years [9], 66% Irish). Sixteen per cent of HIV-infected MSM screened were diagnosed with a STI. Thirty-eight per cent reported always using condoms while 4% reported never using condoms, 46% used condoms inconsistently and 10% reported no sexual contacts in the preceding 12 months. Recognising the need to optimise STI screening, a pilot self-screening programme was subsequently introduced to our HIV clinic as a quality improvement initiative. Asymptomatic MSM attending for routine HIV care were invited to have an opportunistic STI screen either provider performed or by self-screening. Seventy-one patients were included in the pilot. Sixty-five (92%) opted for self-collected rectal swabs. Ten STIs were detected in eight patients. This study supports guidelines recommending routine screening for STIs in the care of HIV-infected patients and highlights opportunities to provide relevant screening and education interventions targeting unsafe sexual behaviours.

  13. Prevalence and Assessment of Clinical Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers in Two Cities of India

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    A. Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs among female sex workers (FSWs is an important strategy to reduce HIV transmission. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and assess the current clinical management of STIs in India. Methods. FSWs attending three clinics for regular checkups or symptoms were screened for study eligibility. A behavioral questionnaire was administered, clinical examination performed, and laboratory samples collected. Results. 417 study participants reported a mean number of 4.9 (SD 3.5 commercial clients in the last week. 14.6% reported anal sex in the last three months. Consistent condom use with commercial and regular partners was 70.1% and 17.5%, respectively. The prevalence of gonorrhea was 14.1%, chlamydia 16.1%, and trichomoniasis 31.1% with a third of all infections being asymptomatic. Syphilis seropositivity was 10.1%. Conclusions. At study sites, presumptive treatment for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis screening should continue. Presumptive treatment for trichomoniasis should be considered. Consistent condom use and partner treatment need to be reemphasized.

  14. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of the sexually-transmitted parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Adao, Davin Edric V; Rivera, Windell L

    2016-01-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect the sexually-transmitted parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swabs. The presence of T. vaginalis was detected from 121 female sex workers attending a social hygiene clinic in Balibago, Angeles City, Pampanga, Philippines using culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the developed LAMP assay. The high analytical sensitivity of LAMP detected a higher prevalence of T. vaginalis (42.06%) compared to culture (8.26%) and PCR (7.44%). Additionally, this assay did not cross-react with DNAs of other trichomonads that can infect humans such as Trichomonas tenax and Pentatrichomonas hominis as well as the pathogens, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. The LAMP assay developed had a limit of detection (0.036 ng/μl) lower than that of PCR using the primers TvK3 and TvK7 (0.36 ng/μl). Prevalence of T. vaginalis in female sex workers in this area of the Philippines may be higher than previously estimated. Discordant results of PCR and LAMP may be due to different reactions to different kinds of inhibitors in the vaginal swabs.

  15. Sexually transmitted infection screening uptake and knowledge of sexually transmitted infection symptoms among female sex workers participating in a community randomised trial in Peru.

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    Kohler, Pamela K; Campos, Pablo E; Garcia, Patricia J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Buendia, Clara; Hughes, James P; Mejia, Carolina; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, and knowledge of STI symptoms among female sex workers in Peru associated with sex work venues and a community randomised trial of STI control. One component of the Peru PREVEN intervention conducted mobile-team outreach to female sex workers to reduce STIs and increase condom use and access to government clinics for STI screening and evaluation. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, clustering by city. As-treated analyses were conducted to assess outcomes associated with reported exposure to the intervention. Care-seeking was more frequent in intervention communities, but differences were not statistically significant. Female sex workers reporting exposure to the intervention had a significantly higher likelihood of condom use, STI screening at public health clinics, and symptom recognition compared to those not exposed. Compared with street- or bar-based female sex workers, brothel-based female sex workers reported significantly higher rates of condom use with last client, recent screening exams for STIs, and HIV testing. Brothel-based female sex workers also more often reported knowledge of STIs and recognition of STI symptoms in women and in men. Interventions to promote STI detection and prevention among female sex workers in Peru should consider structural or regulatory factors related to sex work venues.

  16. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among visually impaired people: educational text validation 1

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    Oliveira, Giselly Oseni Barbosa; Cavalcante, Luana Duarte Wanderley; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to validate an educational text in the context of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) for visually impaired persons, making it accessible to this population. Method: a validation study, in a virtual environment. Data collection occurred from May to September 2012 by emailing the subjects, and was composed by seven content experts about STDs. Analysis was based on the considerations of the experts about Objectives, Structure and Presentation, and Relevance. Results: on the Objectives and Structure and Presentation blocks, 77 (84.6%) and 48 (85.7%) were fully adequate or appropriate, respectively. In the Relevance block, items 3.2 - Allows transfer and generalization of learning, and 3.5 - Portrays aspects needed to clarify the family, showed bad agreement indices of 0.42 and 0.57, respectively. The analysis was followed by reformulating the text according to the relevant suggestions. Conclusion: the text was validated regarding the content of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 35 stanzas were removed and nine others included, following the recommendations of the experts. PMID:27556880

  17. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of non-sexually transmitted strains of Haemophilus ducreyi.

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    Jordan R Gaston

    Full Text Available Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA, serum resistance protein (dsrA, and a collagen adhesin (ncaA contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts.

  18. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of non-sexually transmitted strains of Haemophilus ducreyi.

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    Gaston, Jordan R; Roberts, Sally A; Humphreys, Tricia L

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU) that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA), serum resistance protein (dsrA), and a collagen adhesin (ncaA) contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts.

  19. Syndromic approach to sexually transmitted infections in Tunisian women: bacteriological validation.

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    Zribi, M; Mansour, K Ben; Abid, F; Masmoudi, A; Fendri, C

    2008-02-01

    The World Health Organization emphasizes an integrated primary care approach using syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections. The objective of our study was to evaluate the quality of care of the syndromic management of sexually transmitted disease in women in Rabta hospital in Tunisia. Algorithms have been developed for: cervicitis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia (algorithm 3a), vaginitis due to Trichomonas vaginalis or Chlamydia trachomatis (algorithm 3b) and vaginitis due to Candida (algorithm 3c). A total of 116 women were enrolled in the study during February 2003 to April 2004. The prevalence of each bacterium was Chlamydia (10%), N. gonorrhoeae (1%), Treponema pallidum (1%), T. vaginalis (5%) and Candida (21%). Algorithm '3a' had a sensitivity of 45%, a specificity of 42% and positive predictive value (PPV) of 11.9%. Algorithm '3b' had a sensitivity of 35.7%, a specificity of 68.9% and PPV of 20.8%. Algorithm '3c' had a sensitivity of 12%, a specificity of 88% and PPV of 33.3%. To improve the sensitivity of the syndromic approach, we suggest improving the quality of history taking.

  20. Health Care Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes About Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Legal Aspects of Medical Services

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    Akpak Yaşam Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate healthcare professionals’ (HCPs general level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, their attitudes towards these patients and legal aspects of medical services. Materials and Methods: This was a multi-centered study. The participants were given 28 questions that mainly asked their level of knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs patients, their attitudes towards such patients, and their legal as well as ethical views on them. Results: A total of 234 HCPs, 124 (53% female and 110 (47% male, participated in the study. The majority of married HCPs have reported monogamy as the most reliable protection method, whereas single participants have marked "condoms." The most commonly known STD has been reported as AIDS in all groups. Even though HCPs find it medically unethical not to offer a medical intervention to patients with STDs, more than one-third of the participants believe that HCPs should have the right not to do so. Conclusion: It has been concluded that HCPs need further education on STDs. Nevertheless, such high level of care and attention on HCPs’ part does not necessarily decrease their need for proper medico legal regulations on such issues.

  1. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in Río Cuarto, Argentina.

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    Pájaro, M C; Barberis, I L; Godino, S; Pascual, L; Agüero, M

    2001-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are a group of transmittable diseases acquired fundamentally through sexual contact. STD are a social problem resulting from demographic explosion and changes in sexual conduct, which affects teenagers and adults of all socioeconomic strata. The goal of this work was to establish the actual state of the different STD within the studied population. Samples of vaginal fluids, endocervical materials and urethral exudates taken from 2,630 patients during five years were processed. 1,341 samples tested positive to one or more of the microorganisms, 1,099 corresponding to female patients and 242 to male patients. The microorganisms found in women were: Gardnerella vaginalis (39.1%), Candida albicans (21.3%), Trichomonas vaginalis (16.8%), Chlamydia trachomatis (11.5%); Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3.4%), Mycoplasma hominis (2.6%); Ureaplasma urealyticum (4.1%) and Treponema pallidum (1.6%). Associations were: Gardnerella vaginalis with Trichomonas vaginalis (6%), Gardnerella vaginalis with Candida albicans (5.1%); Trichomonas vaginalis with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (2.2%) and Gardnerella vaginalis with Chlamydia trachomatis (2.1%). In men, gonococcic urethritis represented 37.8%, non-gonococcic urethritis 55.4% and Treponema pallidum 6.8%. A decrease in syphilis, gonococcic urethritis and gonococcic cervicitis was observed, increasing the prevalence of non-gonococcic urethritis and cervicitis. This study showed that in our environment the actual tendency of STD is still high.

  2. Reproductive health for refugees by refugees in Guinea II: sexually transmitted infections

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    Ekirapa Akaco

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing reproductive and sexual health services is an important and challenging aspect of caring for displaced populations, and preventive and curative sexual health services may play a role in reducing HIV transmission in complex emergencies. From 1995, the non-governmental "Reproductive Health Group" (RHG worked amongst refugees displaced by conflicts in Sierra Leone and Liberia (1989–2004. RHG recruited refugee nurses and midwives to provide reproductive and sexual health services for refugees in the Forest Region of Guinea, and trained refugee women as lay health workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1999 to assess sexual health needs, knowledge and practices among refugees, and the potential impact of RHG's work. Methods Trained interviewers administered a questionnaire on self-reported STI symptoms, and sexual health knowledge, attitudes and practices to 445 men and 444 women selected through multistage stratified cluster sampling. Chi-squared tests were used where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors (to adjust for the cluster sampling design was used to assess if factors such as source of information about sexually transmitted infections (STIs was associated with better knowledge. Results 30% of women and 24% of men reported at least one episode of genital discharge and/or genital ulceration within the past 12 months. Only 25% correctly named all key symptoms of STIs in both sexes. Inappropriate beliefs (e.g. that swallowing tablets before sex, avoiding public toilets, and/or washing their genitals after sex protected against STIs were prevalent. Respondents citing RHG facilitators as their information source were more likely to respond correctly about STIs; RHG facilitators were more frequently cited than non-healthcare information sources in men who correctly named the key STI symptoms (odds ratio (OR = 5.2, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.9–13.9, and in men and

  3. The Evaluation of Knowledge and Influential Factors of Sexually Transmitted Diseases of Health Services Vocational College Students

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    Müge OĞUZKAYA-ARTAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study has been conducted to evaluate the knowledge of the Erciyes University Halil Bayraktar Health Services Vocational College students about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and the factors affecting it. Method: This is a descriptive study, made on Halil Bayraktar Health Services Vocational School students, at fall half term, in the 2007-2008 academic year. It had been planned to iclude 551 students registered to I and II grades of the school in current semester. However, for different reasons like not attending to school by various reasons, neither to complete nor to take questionnaire, 288 students in total participated in the study. A questionnaire had been given to students containing 48 questions totally of which 20 were on to measure the level of knowledge on the STD’s. The questions for measuring the level of knowledge was evaluated over 100 points. The students taking 50 points and over were considered to have satisfactory information about STDs. The obtained data was computerized and statistically analyzed. Results: Ninety eight (34.0 % students were male and 190 (66.0 % were female. The number of married students was 21 (7.3 %. The percentage of students graduated from health services vocational college was 65.3 %. It was determined that 27.1 % of the students has satisfactory information on STD (50 points and over, and 72.9 % found to have inadequate information (under 50 points. The factors affecting to have satisfactory information were as follows; being a senior class student, being a member of a divided family, and graduated from a health college. 67.4 % of the 285 cases had answered as ‘yes’ to the question on if they needed to get information about STDs and 91.2 % had declaired that they will attend the meetings related to the subject. The first remembered diseases were AIDS, gonorrhea and hepatitis among students, when they had been asked about STDs. The answer most given on the method of protection

  4. Prevention and Control of Zika as a Mosquito-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Disease: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis.

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    Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui

    2016-06-17

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We introduce a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV and calibrate the model to ZIKV epidemic data from Brazil, Colombia, and El Salvador. Parameter estimates yielded a basic reproduction number 0 = 2.055 (95% CI: 0.523-6.300), in which the percentage contribution of sexual transmission is 3.044% (95% CI: 0.123-45.73). Our sensitivity analyses indicate that 0 is most sensitive to the biting rate and mortality rate of mosquitoes while sexual transmission increases the risk of infection and epidemic size and prolongs the outbreak. Prevention and control efforts against ZIKV should target both the mosquito-borne and sexual transmission routes.

  5. Prevention and Control of Zika as a Mosquito-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Disease: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis

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    Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C.; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We introduce a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV and calibrate the model to ZIKV epidemic data from Brazil, Colombia, and El Salvador. Parameter estimates yielded a basic reproduction number 0 = 2.055 (95% CI: 0.523–6.300), in which the percentage contribution of sexual transmission is 3.044% (95% CI: 0.123–45.73). Our sensitivity analyses indicate that 0 is most sensitive to the biting rate and mortality rate of mosquitoes while sexual transmission increases the risk of infection and epidemic size and prolongs the outbreak. Prevention and control efforts against ZIKV should target both the mosquito-borne and sexual transmission routes.

  6. Sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour among youth clients of hotel-based female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

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    Haseen, F; Chawdhury, F A H; Hossain, M E; Huq, M; Bhuiyan, M U; Imam, H; Rahman, D M M; Gazi, R; Khan, S I; Kelly, R; Ahmed, J; Rahman, M

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among youth clients of hotel-based female sex workers (YCHBFSWs) in nine randomly selected hotels in Bangladesh to examine sexual-risk behaviour, condom use and determinants of condom use in last sex, knowledge of HIV, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and STI care-seeking behaviour. A prestructured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical information; urine specimens (before sex) and blood were collected for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) infection. One thousand and thirteen participants were enroled in the study. Approximately half of them reported visiting female sex workers (FSWs) at least once a month and 25% visited FSWs at least once a week. Only 12% of participants reported regular condom use. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis and HSV2 was 2.2%, 3.9%, 7.2%, 2.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Only 15.3% of the YCHBFSW sought STI care in the past year. Negotiation of condom use with FSWs was the main determinant (odds ratio = 17.95) for condom use at last sex. Male clients of FSWs, including YCHBFSW, are an important bridge population for HIV transmission in Bangladesh and HIV interventions should be designed and implemented for them.

  7. Sexually transmitted infections in HIV-infected people in Switzerland: cross-sectional study

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    Katharina Sprenger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI in HIV-infected people are of increasing concern. We estimated STI prevalence and sexual healthcare seeking behaviour in 224 sexually active HIV-infected people, including men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 112, heterosexual men (n = 65 and women (n = 47. Laboratory-diagnosed bacterial STI were more common in MSM (Chlamydia trachomatis 10.7%; 95% CI 6.2, 18.0%, lymphogranuloma venereum 0.9%; 95% CI 0.1, 6.2%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 2.7%; 95% CI 0.9, 8.0%, syphilis seroconversion 5.4%; 95% CI 2.0, 11.3% than heterosexual men (gonorrhoea 1.5%; 95% CI 0.2, 10.3% or women (no acute infections. Combined rates of laboratory-diagnosed and self-reported bacterial STI in the year before the study were: MSM (27.7%; 95% CI 21.1, 36.7%; heterosexual men (1.5%; 95% CI 0.2, 10.3%; and women (6.4%; 95% CI 2.1, 21.0%. Antibodies to hepatitis C virus were least common in MSM. Antibodies to herpes simplex type 2 virus were least common in heterosexual men. Most MSM, but not heterosexual men or women, agreed that STI testing should be offered every year. In this study, combined rates of bacterial STI in MSM were high; a regular assessment of sexual health would allow those at risk of STI to be offered testing, treatment and partner management.

  8. Risky sexual behavior, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and treatment utilization among a vulnerable population in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

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    Saleem, Naeem Hassan; Adrien, Alix; Razaque, Ali

    2008-07-01

    As a part of a second generation surveillance, we investigated the sociodemographics, risky sexual behavior, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and treatment seeking behavior among a vulnerable population. A cross-sectional study preceded by mapping, was conducted in Rawalpindi, Pakistan during 2005. Subjects were recruited through snowball, time location cluster and cluster sampling techniques. Behavioral interviews were conducted with 203 female sex workers (FSWs), 101 male sex workers (MSWs), 101 Hijras (transgender men) and 200 injecting drug users (IDUs), who were deemed a vulnerable population for STIs. Among this population 136 (67%) FSWs were illiterate, 145 (71.4%) were married and entertained on average 23 clients per month. Consistent condom use during one month was reported by 34 (17%) FSWs. One hundred thirty-three (66%) FSWs had a knowledge of STIs, 69 (34%) suffered from STIs. MSWs and Hijras had the youngest average ages at 24.4 (+/- 6.8), 25.8 (+/- 5.9) and started sexual activity even at age 14.7, and 13.9 years, respectively. Consistent condom usage was as low as 3 (3.1%) and 4 (4%) among MSWs and Hijras. IDUs had lowest monthly income of US$ 69 (+/- 41) and had a predominant migratory pattern. Fifty (25.2%) IDUs shared a needle with the last injection. Though knowledge of STIs was lowest among IDUs, 61 (30.7%), however, all utilized the public health facility for their treatment. Difference between knowledge of STIs and educational levels among IDUs and Hijras were found to be statistically significant (p=0.015 and p=0.04, respectively). The present study indicates the knowledge of HIV/STIs is high among the vulnerable population but condom usage is very low.

  9. Lack of utility of risk score and gynecological examination for screening for sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents

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    Côrtes Rejane LM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study we estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female adolescents from a Health Sector of the city of Goiânia, Brazil, and validated cervicitis diagnosis using World Health Organization/Ministry of Health risk score and gynecological examination. Methods A cross-sectional community-based sample of 914 15- to 19-year-old female teenagers was randomly selected and referred to the local Family Health Program. Of these, 472 (51.6% were sexually active and gynecological examinations were carried out for 427. Endocervical samples were collected to perform the polymerase chain reaction for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Performance of risk score, the presence of mucopurulent discharge, friability, ectopia and pain during cervical maneuver were compared with the presence of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae or both. Results The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 14.5% and 2.1%, respectively. The risk score had a specificity of 31.9% (95% confidence interval, 21.2 to 44.2 and a positive predictive value of 20.8% (95% confidence interval, 13.5 to 29.7. Friability was the component of the gynecological examination that presented the best performance with a sensitivity of 43.5%, specificity of 81.0%, and 30.6% of positive predictive value. Conclusion The prevalence of infection by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was high among these sexually active adolescents. The syndromic approach is clearly inadequate for screening and treating these infections in this population. Therefore, the implantation of other strategies to control these infections among adolescents is urgently required.

  10. Sexually-Transmitted/Founder HIV-1 Cannot Be Directly Predicted from Plasma or PBMC-Derived Viral Quasispecies in the Transmitting Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frange, Pierre; Meyer, Laurence; Jung, Matthieu; Goujard, Cecile; Zucman, David; Abel, Sylvie; Hochedez, Patrick; Gousset, Marine; Gascuel, Olivier; Rouzioux, Christine; Chaix, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Objective Characterization of HIV-1 sequences in newly infected individuals is important for elucidating the mechanisms of viral sexual transmission. We report the identification of transmitted/founder viruses in eight pairs of HIV-1 sexually-infected patients enrolled at the time of primary infection (“recipients”) and their transmitting partners (“donors”). Methods Using a single genome-amplification approach, we compared quasispecies in donors and recipients on the basis of 316 and 376 C2V5 env sequences amplified from plasma viral RNA and PBMC-associated DNA, respectively. Results Both DNA and RNA sequences indicated very homogeneous viral populations in all recipients, suggesting transmission of a single variant, even in cases of recent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in donors (n = 2) or recipients (n = 3). In all pairs, the transmitted/founder virus was derived from an infrequent variant population within the blood of the donor. The donor variant sequences most closely related to the recipient sequences were found in plasma samples in 3/8 cases and/or in PBMC samples in 6/8 cases. Although donors were exclusively (n = 4) or predominantly (n = 4) infected by CCR5-tropic (R5) strains, two recipients were infected with highly homogeneous CXCR4/dual-mixed-tropic (X4/DM) viral populations, identified in both DNA and RNA. The proportion of X4/DM quasispecies in donors was higher in cases of X4/DM than R5 HIV transmission (16.7–22.0% versus 0–2.6%), suggesting that X4/DM transmission may be associated with a threshold population of X4/DM circulating quasispecies in donors. Conclusions These suggest that a severe genetic bottleneck occurs during subtype B HIV-1 heterosexual and homosexual transmission. Sexually-transmitted/founder virus cannot be directly predicted by analysis of the donor’s quasispecies in plasma and/or PBMC. Additional studies are required to fully understand the traits that confer the capacity to transmit and

  11. The epidemic of sexually transmitted infections in China: implications for control and future perspectives

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    Yin Yue-Ping

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract China has experienced an increasing epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs, including HIV. High risk groups likely to be infected include female sex workers (FSWs and their clients, men who have sex with men (MSM, drug users and migrant workers. Prevention can be achieved through education of the population, condom promotion, early detection of symptomatic and asymptomatic people, and effective diagnosis and treatment of these patients and their partners. This article aims to describe the profile of the epidemic in high-risk groups in China as well as to detail the contributing factors and the implications for control. Programmes for the control of STIs should be immediate priorities in China, and primary and secondary prevention strategies are vital to this process.

  12. An agent based model for simulating the spread of sexually transmitted infections.

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    Rutherford, Grant; Friesen, Marcia R; McLeod, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    This work uses agent-based modelling (ABM) to simulate sexually transmitted infection (STIs) spread within a population of 1000 agents over a 10-year period, as a preliminary investigation of the suitability of ABM methodology to simulate STI spread. The work contrasts compartmentalized mathematical models that fail to account for individual agents, and ABMs commonly applied to simulate the spread of respiratory infections. The model was developed in C++ using the Boost 1.47.0 libraries for the normal distribution and OpenGL for visualization. Sixteen agent parameters interact individually and in combination to govern agent profiles and behaviours relative to infection probabilities. The simulation results provide qualitative comparisons of STI mitigation strategies, including the impact of condom use, promiscuity, the form of the friend network, and mandatory STI testing. Individual and population-wide impacts were explored, with individual risk being impacted much more dramatically by population-level behaviour changes as compared to individual behaviour changes.

  13. Trichomonas vaginalis-An indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

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    Agrawal B

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases (STD and 68 male counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female STD cases and 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 126 (58.3% out of 216 cases of T. vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with candida species; 29 cases (23% were associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N gonorrhoeae; Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi 18 cases (14.3% and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis 11 cases (8.7%. Treponema pallidium (T. pallidium was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constitutes a low percentage. The present study highlights the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-thirds of the STD cases which suggests that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  14. [Sexually transmitted diseases and other risks in the adult film industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, N

    2014-02-01

    The adult film industry nowadays represents a legal multi-billion dollar business. The main health risks of adult performers are well known. They mainly include the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, herpes and papillomavirus. However, despite regular follow-up, the frequency of STD remains significant in this high-risk population since a large part of the industry continues to reject systematic use of condoms. Besides, performers are also exposed to other physical and mental health issues often not known to the public. This article provides a comprehensive review of what is known about STD and other risks among the community of performers in the adult film industry.

  15. Sexually transmitted infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes incidence rates of the five most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces during 2000 to 2012. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections were the most common, followed in decreasing order of frequency by infections associated with chlamydia, herpes simplex virus, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Compared to their counterparts, women, younger service members, soldiers, and enlisted members had higher incidence rates of each STI. Rates tended to be lower among married personnel. Rates of chlamydia, HPV, and gonorrhea diagnoses were notably higher among women during 2006 to 2008 but rates of the latter two infections have since declined sharply. The relatively recent introduction of STI screening among young service women and the HPV vaccine are discussed.

  16. Diagnostic challenges of sexually transmitted infections in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Ronald, Allan

    2009-12-01

    The global burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is highest in the developing world where access to laboratory services is limited. Sophisticated laboratory diagnostic tests using noninvasive specimens have enabled developed countries to screen and diagnose curable STIs in a variety of settings, but control programs in resource-limited settings continue to struggle to find simple rapid tests that can provide adequate performance in the absence of laboratory services. While recent technological advances and investments in research and development may soon yield improved STI tests that can make an impact, these tests will need to be deployed within a health system that includes: regulatory oversight, quality assurance, good supply-chain management, effective training, information systems and a sound surveillance system to monitor disease trends, inform policy decisions and assess the impact of interventions.

  17. On the evolution of the sexually transmitted bacteria Haemophilus ducreyi and Klebsiella granulomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagergård, Teresa; Bölin, Ingrid; Lindholm, Leif

    2011-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi and Klebsiella (Calymmatobacterium) granulomatis are sexually transmitted bacteria that cause characteristic, persisting ulceration on external genitals called chancroid and granuloma inguinale, respectively. Those ulcers are endemic in developing countries or exist, as does granuloma inguinale, only in some geographic "hot spots."H. ducreyi is placed in the genus Haemophilus (family Pasteurellacae); however, this phylogenetic position is not obvious. The multiple ways in which the bacterium may be adapted to its econiche through specialized nutrient acquisitions; defenses against the immune system; and virulence factors that increase attachment, fitness, and persistence within genital tissue are discussed below. The analysis of K. granulomatis phylogeny demonstrated a high degree of identity with other Klebsiella species, and the name K. granulomatis comb. nov. was proposed. Because of the difficulty in growing this bacterium on artificial media, its characteristics have not been sufficiently defined. More studies are needed to understand bacterial genetics related to the pathogenesis and evolution of K. granulomatis.

  18. Trichomonas vaginalis-An indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, B M; Agrawal, S; Singh, P K; Rizvi, G; Hussain, K

    2000-01-01

    The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and 68 male counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7%) out of 350 female STD cases and 56 (82.3%) out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 126 (58.3%) out of 216 cases of T. vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5%) were associated with candida species; 29 cases (23%) were associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N gonorrhoeae); Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi) 18 cases (14.3%) and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) 11 cases (8.7%). Treponema pallidium (T. pallidium) was observed in 8 cases (6.3%) which constitutes a low percentage. The present study highlights the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-thirds of the STD cases which suggests that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  19. Etiology of sexually transmitted infections among street-based female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M; Alam, A; Nessa, K; Hossain, A; Nahar, S; Datta, D; Alam Khan, S; Amin Mian, R; Albert, M J

    2000-03-01

    An etiological study of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was conducted among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Endocervical swab and blood samples from 269 street-based FSWs were examined for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis as well as for antibodies to Treponema pallidum and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Sociodemographic data and data regarding behavior were also collected. A total of 226 of the 269 FSWs (84%) were positive for the STI pathogens studied. Among the 269 FSWs, 35.5% were positive for N. gonorrhoeae, 25% were positive for C. trachomatis, 45.5% were positive for T. vaginalis, 32.6% were seropositive for T. pallidum, 62.5% were seropositive for HSV-2, and 51% had infections with two or more pathogens.

  20. Sexually transmitted infections among transgender people and men who have sex with men in Port Vila, Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Vanessa; van Gemert, Caroline; Bulu, Siula; Kwarteng, Tamara; Bergari, Isabel; Badman, Steven; Vella, Alyce; Stoové, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Despite high sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence in the Pacific, there are limited data on STIs and risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG). In 2011, an Integrated Bio-Behavioural Survey recruited self-identified MSM and TG in Port Vila, Vanuatu. Descriptive findings were stratified by sexuality. Among 28 (55%) MSM and 23 (45%) TG, recent anal sex with male partners was more common among MSM (94% vs 71%; P Vanuatu.

  1. Early initiation of sexual activity: a risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection, and unwanted pregnancy among university students in China

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    Ravari Shahrzad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3% completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Results Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners, multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexually transmitted disease (STD, partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Conclusion Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.

  2. Infecciones de transmisión sexual en personas transgénero y otras identidades sexuales Sexually transmitted infections among transgender individuals and other sexual identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier J. Toibaro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Existen pocos datos disponibles acerca del comportamiento de riesgo y la prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS, incluyendo HIV-1, en personas transgénero. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar las características demográficas, factores de riesgo, prevalencia de HIV-1 e ITS en personas transgénero versus personas no transgénero que consultan al Centro de Prevención, Asesoramiento y Diagnóstico del Hospital General de Agudos J.M. Ramos Mejía. Se utilizó el diseño de estudio de corte transversal y se incluyeron pacientes asistidos en nuestro centro que firmaron consentimiento informado entre noviembre de 2002 y abril de 2006. Se obtuvieron datos sociodemográficos, uso de drogas, utilización de preservativos, nivel de educación alcanzado, diagnóstico de ITS y estado actual de la pareja. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y chi² para comparar proporciones. En la población estudiada (n: 4118 se identificaron a 105 personas transgénero. La prevalencia de infección por HIV-1 fue del 27.6% (29/105, mientras que en personas no transgénero (n: 4013 fue de 6.2% (247/4013; p:0.0000. El bajo nivel educativo, el consumo de alcohol, el abuso de drogas, los antecedentes de ITS y el trabajo sexual (100% en transgénero y 2.3% en no transgénero fueron más frecuentes en personas transgénero. La prevalencia de sífilis fue del 42% en personas transgénero y del 18% en personas no transgénero. Estos datos demuestran que las personas transgénero que consultan en nuestro centro tienen alta prevalencia de infección por HIV-1 e ITS. Esta información podría contribuir al diseño de estrategias de prevención necesarias en esta población.Few data are available regarding the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI, including HIV-1 infection, and risk behaviors of transgender individuals. Previous reports indicate that this community has a high prevalence of HIV and STIs. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of

  3. Immune anticipation of mating in Drosophila: Turandot M promotes immunity against sexually transmitted fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weihao; McClure, Colin D; Evans, Cara R; Mlynski, David T; Immonen, Elina; Ritchie, Michael G; Priest, Nicholas K

    2013-12-22

    Although it is well known that mating increases the risk of infection, we do not know how females mitigate the fitness costs of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It has recently been shown that female fruitflies, Drosophila melanogaster, specifically upregulate two members of the Turandot family of immune and stress response genes, Turandot M and Turandot C (TotM and TotC), when they hear male courtship song. Here, we use the Gal4/UAS RNAi gene knockdown system to test whether the expression of these genes provides fitness benefits for females infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium robertsii under sexual transmission. As a control, we also examined the immunity conferred by Dorsal-related immunity factor (Dif), a central component of the Toll signalling pathway thought to provide immunity against fungal infections. We show that TotM, but not TotC or Dif, provides survival benefits to females following STIs, but not after direct topical infections. We also show that though the expression of TotM provides fecundity benefits for healthy females, it comes at a cost to their survival, which helps to explain why TotM is not constitutively expressed. Together, these results show that the anticipatory expression of TotM promotes specific immunity against fungal STIs and suggest that immune anticipation is more common than currently appreciated.

  4. Genital ulcers disease among sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawole, O I; Okesola, A O; Fawole, A O

    2000-03-01

    Genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a risk factor in the transmission of human immuno deficiency virus (HIV). The goal of this study is to estimate proportion, identify risk factors, and improve prevention and control of GUD. This is a retrospective study of 211 cases of GUD seen between 1993 and 1997 in an urban public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Genital ulcers form 7.6% of all STDs seen. Overall, genital herpes was commonest (89 or 42.25%). It was the predominant infection (84 or 44.7%) in the males, while lymphogranuloma venereum (52 or 24.7%) was in females. The peak incidence in both sexes occurred in the 20-29 age group. Males out numbered females by a ratio of 8:1. Most of the patients were single 114 (68.3%) and most 70 or 33.3% were students. Risk markers identified were: casual sex (103 or 53.5%) and multiple sexual partners (77 or 36.5%). Both were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in single patients. Self-treatment, use of multiple drugs and incomplete course of antibiotics were also common. The need to intensify STDS education programmes to all occupational groups and to students in particular is highlighted. Commercial sex workers require periodic education, screening and treatment.

  5. Perceptions and attitudes regarding sexually transmitted infection and family planning among adolescents in Northern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Amanda; Asgary, Ramin

    2016-04-19

    The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and early pregnancy are high among adolescents in Madagascar. We applied a qualitative descriptive approach to evaluate perceptions, attitudes, and misconceptions regarding STIs and contraception among female and male adolescents ages 15-19 years (n = 43) in Northern Madagascar in 2014 using focus group discussions with open-ended questions. Data were coded and analyzed for major themes. Participants were in grades 6 to 12 in school; 53% were female. Despite high levels of awareness, significant stigma against and misconceptions about STIs, condom use, and sexual practices existed. Many participants did not know how to use condoms and felt uncomfortable suggesting condoms with regular partners, despite acknowledging infidelity as a frequent problem. Male participants were more willing to use condoms as contraception for unwanted pregnancy than for prevention of STIs. Most participants held misconceptions about side effects of contraceptives, including infertility, cancer, and preventing bad blood from leaving the woman's body. Systematic and community-wide health education and formal reproductive health curricula in schools may improve attitudes and stigma regarding STIs and family planning. These strategies need to be developed and employed via collaboration among faith-based, community, and non-governmental organizations, schools, and governmental health and social service agencies.

  6. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE CONTROL IN CHINA (1949-1994) (1949--1994)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵长庚; 徐文严; 叶干运

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the historical experiences in venereal disease control in China during the 1950s.Venereal diseases had been all but eliminated in the whole country till 1964. However, along with the im-plementation of open-door policy and economic reform in the 1980s, the social environmerlt was changed toa great extent in this country. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were re-lntroduced in the Chinesemainlatld and new loci of infeetinn emablished themselves in some cities. During the receslt 8 yeaxs the na-tional STD cose reposing and sentinel surveillance systems have been set up. The sults off surveillanceshow that the annual incidence of STD has been on the increase. The existing factors asso:iated with theincreasing incidence of STD mainly are population movement, increasing affluence in a part of population,the availability of multiple sexual partners (including the prostitution)and asymptomatic STD increased.Firally, the strategies for STD control are discussed in detail.

  7. Providing sexually transmitted disease education and risk assessment to disengaged young men through community outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Harrison, Patricia; Sidebottom, Abbey

    2010-12-01

    This study describes a community outreach project designed to increase access to reproductive health services to young African American men living in low-income urban neighborhoods. The project examined the effectiveness of providing community-based outreach and health education on increasing sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening. Outreach workers provided STD education and risk assessment in community settings, including street corners, parks, schools, and community centers. Data were recorded on outreach contacts, including client demographics, health education topics covered, and risk assessment results. Outreach workers conducted 9,701 contacts in a 176-week period. Most contacts (89%) were with African Americans, and most (84%) were with young men between 15 and 20 years old. Outreach workers discussed each health education item in their protocol at least 85% of the time and each risk assessment item at least 90% of the time. The majority of contacts (94%) reported being sexually active. Compared with the year prior to the project, actual STD testing of the target population doubled at the project clinics. This study suggests that going beyond traditional clinic-based testing to reach young, disenfranchised males constitutes a promising approach to reducing racial disparities in STD infections.

  8. THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS ABOUT SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES/AIDS

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    Elisângela de Souza Marques

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The purpose of this research was to verify the knowledge of the school adolescents, of a public school in Goiânia – Goiás, about STD/Aids. The research is characterized as descriptive and was made from 2003 January to October, with students of the related school 7th and 8th classes’ and 2nd and 3rd high school classes. The data had been collected by structuralized questionnaire. The research had evaluated 113 students and 46% of them were male and 54% were female. The age goes to 12 to 19 years old. 15% of the students told that they already had sexual relations. It was observed that, although 90,43% of the students have showed previous knowledge of the subject, when they were asked about how much they knew about DST/AIDS, many of them had answered incorrectly. The research suggests an effective implementation of educative programs about the theme in all the schools and school levels. KEYWORDS: Public Health Nursing; Teen Health; Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

  9. Let's stay together: relationship dissolution and sexually transmitted diseases among parenting and non-parenting adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace S; Ethier, Kathleen A; Niccolai, Linda M; Lewis, Jessica B; Milan, Stephanie; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2010-12-01

    Relationships influence sexual risk and maternal-child health. Few studies have assessed relationship dissolution and its association with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among adolescent parents. Our study aimed to describe relationship dissolution among 295 parenting and non-parenting adolescents over an 18-month period and how it related to STD incidence. Results showed that nonparenting adolescents in a relationship with someone other than their baby's father were more likely to have a relationship dissolution over an 18-month period compared to those in a relationship with the baby's father (OR = 1.69, P adolescents who ended their relationship with their baby's father were 3 times more likely to get an STD over the course of the study compared to parenting adolescents who remained with their baby's father (39% vs. 13%). Comparatively, nonparenting adolescents who ended their relationship were only 1.4 times more likely to get an STD compared to non-parenting adolescents who remained with their partner (44% vs. 32%). Our results suggest that prevention programs that incorporate male partners and components that strengthen relationship skills may reduce HIV/STD risk and help adolescents adapt during times of transition such as parenthood.

  10. Sexually Transmitted Disease Partner Notification among African-American, Adolescent Women

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    Anna Buchsbaum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI among female, African-American adolescents. Methods. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. Results. At baseline, most participants (85.1% preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6% had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4% notified their partner about their infection. Conclusion. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population.

  11. Testing for sexually transmitted infections in general practice: cross-sectional study

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    Brook Gary M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care is an important provider of sexual health care in England. We sought to explore the extent of testing for chlamydia and HIV in general practice and its relation to associated measures of sexual health in two contrasting geographical settings. Methods We analysed chlamydia and HIV testing data from 64 general practices and one genitourinary medicine (GUM clinic in Brent (from mid-2003 to mid-2006 and 143 general practices and two GUM clinics in Avon (2004. We examined associations between practice testing status, practice characteristics and hypothesised markers of population need (area level teenage conception rates and Index of Multiple Deprivation, IMD scores. Results No HIV or chlamydia testing was done in 19% (12/64 of general practices in Brent, compared to 2.1% (3/143 in Avon. In Brent, the mean age of general practitioners (GPs in Brent practices that tested for chlamydia or HIV was lower than in those that had not conducted testing. Practices where no HIV testing was done had slightly higher local teenage conception rates (median 23.5 vs. 17.4/1000 women aged 15-44, p = 0.07 and served more deprived areas (median IMD score 27.1 vs. 21.8, p = 0.05. Mean yearly chlamydia and HIV testing rates, in practices that did test were 33.2 and 0.6 (per 1000 patients aged 15-44 years in Brent, and 34.1 and 10.3 in Avon, respectively. In Brent practices only 20% of chlamydia tests were conducted in patients aged under 25 years, compared with 39% in Avon. Conclusions There are substantial geographical differences in the intensity of chlamydia and HIV testing in general practice. Interventions to facilitate sexually transmitted infection and HIV testing in general practice are needed to improve access to effective sexual health care. The use of routinely-collected laboratory, practice-level and demographic data for monitoring sexual health service provision and informing service planning should be more widely evaluated.

  12. The effects of peer education on reduction of the HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behaviors among Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulduk, Serap; Erdogan, Semra

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how HIV/sexually transmitted infection peer education (PE) affected HIV knowledge, perceived prevention self-efficacy, and risky sexual behaviors among Turkish university students (N = 118) who were sexually active but did not use condoms. A methodological and pre-/posttest controlled study design was used, with data collected before PE, just after PE, 3 months after PE, and 6 months after PE. We found significant differences according to group*time interaction in the variables of HIV knowledge, self-efficacy for condom use and refusing sexual intercourse, and vaginal-oral-anal intercourse with condom, talking with the partner about condom use, refusing sexual intercourse with someone not using a condom, and taking alcohol before sexual intercourse. No differences were found according to group*time interaction in self-efficacy for asking potential partners questions, using drugs before and after sexual intercourse, and sexual partner. Peer education was found to reduce risky sexual behaviors among university students. Peer education should focus on safer sexual behaviors to develop strategies to increase self-efficacy.

  13. Prevalence and etiology of sexually transmitted infections in a gynecologic unit of a developing country

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    Fusi-Ngwa Catherine Kesah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite enormous sensitization and management options available for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in the last 2 decades, these infections remain highly endemic in certain parts of Cameroon. This is a descriptive study of genital hygiene and predisposition to STIs in some women in Dschang, West Region, Cameroon. Materials and Methods: A total of 2172 consenting women seeking gynecological care at the Dschang District Hospital from 2009 to 2010 were interviewed, examined, cervical/blood specimens collected, and analyzed. Results: Inadequate healthcare systems; lack of reproductive health knowledge; vaginal washing with contaminated water or chemicals; contaminated sanitary towels or gynecologic equipment; unsterile sharps; dirty and damp lavatories; synthetic and tight underwear; multiple or concurrent sex partners; primitive traditions; myths; polygamous and inherited marriages; asymptomatic carriage of pathogens; self-medication; antibiotic abuse; traditional therapy; reinfections; poverty; poor sanitation; and illiteracy were related to genital conditions identified in 1466 (67% study subjects, excluding 41 (2% cases with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS only. In total, 1353 (62% patients were infectious cases, 113 (5% had noninfectious vaginitis, 171 (8% were positive for HIV/AIDS serology, with 6% having concurrent genital infections. Of the 1507 patients diagnosed with STIs, 62% were symptomatic and 7% asymptomatic comprising 5% convalescent and 2% healthy carriers. Bacterial vaginosis 24%, vaginal candidiasis 18%, chlamydia 15%, and active syphilis 11% predominated over trichomonas, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, herpes, and warts with rates ≤1%. Conclusion: In mitigation, hand washing, clean toilets, sexual behaviors that contribute to STIs, delay sexual debut, condom usage, rational employment of examination methods, improved medical diagnostics testing both men and women, attitude

  14. Seventh IUVDT Regional Conference on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Kuala Lumpur, 5-7 September 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A J; Waugh, M A

    1992-04-01

    In September 1991, the 7th IUVDT Regional Conference on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) convened in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to exchange information on the importance of controlling STDs and HIV-AIDS in Asia. Speakers from Thailand, Malaysia, and Japan provided the latest HIV-AIDS epidemiological data. In Thailand, heterosexual transmission of HIV is catching up with iv drug use. Most infected women are 15-24 years old. In Malaysia, drug use iv drug use trails heterosexual transmission of HIV. In Japan, hemophiliacs comprise 85% of HIV-positive people. Current problems do not compare to the sizable task Asian countries face in affecting the progression of the HIV-AIDS epidemic. All countries need to implement control measures quickly and at the same time. They should not pretend traditional values and beliefs would shield their people from the epidemic. Asian countries should especially stop promoting themselves as places of sexual adventure. Control programs should also target STDs. Australian presenters discussed the results of the Sydney Sexual Lifestyle Study and a study on the effect of zidovudine therapy on the prognosis of AIDS. Another presentation focused on the possibility of a vaccine for chlamydia infection. Several papers centered on the treatment of chancroid and gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis and evaluation of a detection test for chlamydia infection. 1 participant reviewed the role of human papilloma virus in cervical carcinogenesis. Another participant demonstrated a link between bacterial vaginosis and adnexal tenderness and pelvic infection. The conference concluded with a presenter challenging everyone to meet the HIV-AIDS challenge. Reasons why current control measures do not work include inadequate facilities to manage STDs, tendency not to consider HIV another STD, failure to promote and lack of condoms, and not educating school children about HIV-AIDS.

  15. The GIG: An Innovative Intervention To Prevent Adolescent Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infection in a Latino Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Anda, Diane

    2002-01-01

    In Los Angeles County, the GIG intervention offers education to adolescents about pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections at a social event geared to the youth culture. Pre- and posttests completed by 609 Latino adolescents indicated an increase in knowledge and attitude changes. Use of peer educators was an important component of program…

  16. Social marketing sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention: a consumer-centered approach to achieving behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamptey, P R; Price, J E

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that international sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention efforts might be enhanced by the application of social marketing principles. It first outlines the conceptual basis of social marketing approaches to health behaviour change generally and then explores key issues and opportunities for using these principles to improve current STD/HIV prevention efforts.

  17. The Association of Early Substance Use with Lifetime/Past Year Contraction of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Ashley L.; Rosen, Brittany L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Fehr, Sara K.

    2015-01-01

    The study purpose is to examine the impact of early substance use on lifetime and past year contraction of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, and syphilis. A secondary analysis of the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 52,529) was conducted to determine if lifetime or past year STD…

  18. Sexually transmitted infection risk behaviors in rural Thai adolescents and young adults: support for sex- and age-specific interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimore, Amanda D; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sherman, Susan G; Galai, Noya; Srirojn, Bangorn; Thompson, Nick; Ellen, Jonathan M; Willard, Nancy; Celentano, David D

    2013-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and risks in a sample of rural Thai adolescents and young adults (14-29 years) were examined. Unprotected sex with a casual partner conferred the greatest risk for prevalent STIs, particularly for younger adolescents, and alcohol use increased the STI risk for women but not for men.

  19. A situational analysis of sexual and reproductive health issues in physically challenged people, attending a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsha Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Physically challenged people constitute the most stigmatized sections of society, and are excluded from outreach programs, besides being considered sexually inactive. They have unaddressed sexual and reproductive healthcare (SRH issues, predisposing them to sexual abuse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. The huge paucity of data in this field prompted us to undertake this study. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 100 people with more than 40% of permanent disability, attending various out/inpatient facilities of a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. A structured, pretested questionnaire was used to assess SRH issues. Samples were collected from consenting individuals for diagnosis of various STIs, wherever relevant. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson's Chi-square test, considering significant at P <0.05. Results: Most people were in the age group of 15–30 years. Limbs were most commonly affected, and the use of assistive devices was statistically related to income levels (P = 0.045, 43% was married and 41% had children. Contraceptive usage was 33%, with a significant association (P = 0.03 with education levels. Issues related to sexual health included conditions ranging from nerve sensation loss in genitalia to fertility and gynecological issues, only 10% had received sexual counseling during rehabilitation. There were several misconceptions prevalent regarding HIV and STIs; 35% of the samples tested positive for chlamydia IgG. Interpretation and Conclusions: This is a pioneer study on a grossly neglected issue in India. There is a dire need to overcome hurdles and address the SRH issues of physically challenged people to achieve the universal WHO goal of “Health for All.”

  20. The knowledge and attitudes of student nurses towards patients with sexually transmitted infections: exploring changes to the curriculum.

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    Bell, Amelia; Bray, Lucy

    2014-09-01

    Evidence suggests that nurses can struggle to care for patients with sexually transmitted infections in a non-judgemental way. It is unknown how targeted education can influence the knowledge and attitudes of student nurses towards caring for patients with sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to investigate how a change in curriculum influenced the reported sexual health knowledge and attitudes of pre-registration adult student nurses in a University in the UK. A two phase mixed methods study, using a sequential explanatory strategy, collected quantitative questionnaire data (n = 117) followed by qualitative group data (n = 12). Data were collected from one cohort of students before a curriculum change and then from a subsequent cohort of students. Those students who had increased educational input in relation to sexual health reported higher degrees of knowledge and demonstrated a more positive attitude towards patients with a sexually transmitted infection. Both cohorts of students identified that education in this subject area was essential to challenge negative attitudes and positively influence patient care. Active learning approaches in the curriculum such as small group debates and service user involvement have the ability to allow students to express and challenge their beliefs in a safe and supportive environment.

  1. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young married women in Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu state in India

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    Rejoice Puthuchira Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are now recognized as a serious global threat to the health of population. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young married scheduled castes women in Thiruvarur district of Tamilnadu state in India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 28 villages selected using multistage sampling technique for selecting 605 women in the age group of 15-24 years during July 2010-April 2011. Data analysis was by use of SPSS version-17, with statistical significance set at p-value of 0.05. Results: Around 8.8% of women experienced sexually transmitted infections among the study population. The proportion of women who experienced STIs was seven times higher among illiterates (46.9% than women who completed secondary education (6%. The women in households in the high standard of living index (SLI were less likely to experience STIs (1.7% than women in low SLI (15.6%. The agricultural laborers were 1.145 times more likely to experience STIs than non-agricultural workers (OR=0.251. Conclusions: The main causes for sexual health problems were found to be the less education and lowest SLI among women. It is recommended that policy makers should be introduce community intervention programs to increase the awareness regarding sexual health issues among rural population. 

  2. Sexual Health Issues Related to College Students and the Use of on Campus Health Clinics for Treatment and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections

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    Gilbreath, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Using the Health Belief Model as a conceptual framework, this study examined university students who may seek access to healthcare through an on-campus student clinic for screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. A cross-sectional research design was used to collect data from students enrolled in a general health education…

  3. Alaska Native and Rural Youths' Views of Sexual Health: A Focus Group Project on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV/AIDS, and Unplanned Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…

  4. Relative Efficacy of a Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infection, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention--Focused Intervention on Changing Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Adults

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    Norton, Wynne E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Amico, K. Rivet; Dovidio, John F.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Despite findings suggesting that young adults are more concerned about experiencing an unplanned pregnancy or contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) than becoming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, no empirical work has investigated whether the specific focus of an intervention may be more or less efficacious at…

  5. A brief review of the estimated economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States: inflation-adjusted updates of previously published cost studies.

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    Chesson, Harrell W; Gift, Thomas L; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Tao, Guoyu; Johnson, Ana P; Kent, Charlotte K

    2011-10-01

    We conducted a literature review of studies of the economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. The annual direct medical cost of sexually transmitted diseases (including human immunodeficiency virus) has been estimated to be $16.9 billion (range: $13.9-$23.0 billion) in 2010 US dollars.

  6. Parasitic aphrodisiacs: manipulation of the hosts' behavioral defenses by sexually transmitted parasites.

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    Adamo, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    Animals have a number of behavioral defenses against infection. For example, they typically avoid sick conspecifics, especially during mating. Most animals also alter their behavior after infection and thereby promote recovery (i.e., sickness behavior). For example, sick animals typically reduce the performance of energetically demanding behaviors, such as sexual behavior. Finally, some animals can increase their reproductive output when they face a life-threatening immune challenge (i.e., terminal reproductive investment). All of these behavioral responses probably rely on immune/neural communication signals for their initiation. Unfortunately, this communication channel is prone to manipulation by parasites. In the case of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), these parasites/pathogens must subvert some of these behavioral defenses for successful transmission. There is evidence that STIs suppress systemic signals of immune activation (e.g., pro-inflammatory cytokines). This manipulation is probably important for the suppression of sickness behavior and other behavioral defenses, as well as for the prevention of attack by the host's immune system. For example, the cricket, Gryllus texensis, is infected with an STI, the iridovirus IIV-6/CrIV. The virus attacks the immune system, which suffers a dramatic decline in its ability to make proteins important for immune function. This attack also hampers the ability of the immune system to activate sickness behavior. Infected crickets cannot express sickness behavior, even when challenged with heat-killed bacteria. Understanding how STIs suppress sickness behavior in humans and other animals will significantly advance the field of psychoneuroimmunology and could also provide practical benefits.

  7. [Survey of sexually transmitted diseases in the region of Rio Cuarto].

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    Barberis, I L; Pájaro, M C; Godino, S; Pascual, L; Rodríguez, I; Agüero, M; Ordóñez, C

    1998-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are acquired mainly through sexual intercourse, being one of the most frequent groups of infectious diseases worldwide and consequently an important public health problem. The aim of this paper was to determine the current state of STD and to compare different diagnostic methods in the population studied. A total of 1060 samples from vaginal flows, endocervical material and urethral discharge were studied during 3 years. Of the total samples, 583 were positive, 493 in women and 90 in men. Microorganisms found in women were: Gardnerella vaginalis (39.3%), Candida albicans (21.1%), Trichomonas vaginalis (17.3%), Candida trachomatis (11.3%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3.2%): Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urelyticum (6.5%) and Treponema pallidum (1.4%), the associations found were, Gardnerella vaginalis with Trichomonas vaginalis 5.5%; Gardnerella vaginalis with Candida albicans 4.9%; Trichomonas vaginalis with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (2.2%) and Gardnerella vaginalis with Chlamydia trachomatis (1.9%). In men, gonococcal urethritis (UG) represented 37.7% non UG 55.6% and Treponema pallidum 6.7%. These results indicate a decrease in sifilis and in UG when compared to previous studies showing that gonococcal cervicitis had also decreased. We found an important increase in the prevalence of urethritis and non gonococcal cervicitis in agreement with world statistics which consider these diseases as the most common venereal ones. It is necessary to increase the search for Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women due to vertical transmission. It should be noted that, in spite of certain fluctuations, the incidence of the STD in our area is still unacceptably high.

  8. Internet treatment of sexually transmitted infections – a public health hazard?

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    Schelenz Silke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the stigma associated with sexually transmitted infections, patients may prefer to keep their illness private, and choose instead to try self-treatment remedies from the internet. However, such remedies may prove hazardous if the sellers do not provide detailed advice on adverse effects, or on avoiding transmission and re-infection. We conducted an internet search to determine the availability of treatments for STIs and the nature of information provided by vendors of these treatments. Methods We conducted a systematic internet search using five different search engines in February 2007. The search term included the words "self treatment" and the name of six different common STIs. We visited the vendors' websites and recorded any information on the formulation, adverse effects, cautions, and prevention of infection. Results We identified a total of 77 treatments from 52 different companies, most of which were sold from the UK and US. The available remedies were predominantly for topical use and consisted mainly of homeopathic remedies. Only a small proportion of the web-listed products gave details on adverse effects, contraindications and interactions (22%, 25% and 9% respectively. Similarly, web vendors seldom provided advice on treatment of sexual contacts (20% of chlamydia and 25% of gonorrhea treatments or on preventive measures (13%. Conversely, evidence of effectiveness was claimed for approximately 50% of the products. Conclusion While treatments for certain STIs are widely available on the internet, purchasers of such products may potentially suffer harm because of the lack of information on adverse effects, interactions and contra-indications. Moreover, we consider the paucity of preventive health advice to be a serious omission, thereby leading to patients being needlessly exposed to, and potentially re-infected with the causative pathogens.

  9. Pattern of Sexual Offences Attended at Accident and Emergency Department of HUSM from Year 2000 to 2003: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed Nasimul; See, Khoo Lay; Ting, Lai Chin; Khan, Jesmine

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of sexual offence cases attended at the One Stop Crisis Center (OSCC) of the Accident and Emergency Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan. A total of 439 reported sexual offence cases were examined over a period of 4 years from 2000 to 2003. Sexual offence constituted by male partner or boyfriend in 18.9%, by relatives in 27.3% and by "others" in 53.8% of cases. Only 0.7% of victims did not attempt to lodge a police report. There is a significant relationship between occupation and the risk of experiencing sexual violence. Students were mostly targeted by the perpetrator throughout the study period. Among the offences, rape cases were the highest in number, among those who attended at the OSCC, HUSM with a total of 72.7%; followed by 27.3% of incest; 26.4% of child sexual abuse; 4.8% of sodomy and lastly 1.6% of gerontophilia cases. Only 70% of the specimens obtained from sexual offences victims were sent for laboratory analysis. The result remained negative in 82.4% specimens and thus the laboratory analysis result is merely functioning as a supportive evidence for sexual offence cases attended at OSCC. The studies showed that most of the sexual assault perpetrators were known to the victims. The place of crime was also known to the perpetrators. Health sectors of various levels should be working in conjunction to promote a societal changes to improve more of the women's right and thus to reduce the violence crime.

  10. Infecciones de transmisión sexual: epidemiología y control Sexually transmitted infections: epidemiology and control

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    M. Díez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS comprenden un grupo de patologías, de etiología infecciosa diversa, en las que la transmisión sexual es relevante desde el punto de vista de salud pública. La carga de enfermedad que suponen las ITS globalmente se desconoce, ya que las infecciones asintomáticas son frecuentes, las técnicas diagnósticas no siempre están disponibles y la vigilancia epidemiológica es inexistente o muy deficiente en muchos países. La Organización Mundial de la Salud estimó que en 1999 se produjeron en el mundo 340 millones de casos nuevos de sífilis, gonorrea, clamidiasis y tricomoniasis. En la Unión Europea, al igual que en España, ITS como la gonococia o la sífilis muestran en los últimos años una tendencia ascendente. La co-infección entre distintas ITS es muy frecuente. Por ello, en cualquier persona que presente una de ellas debe descartase la presencia de otras, en particular la infección por VIH y la infección por clamidia; esta última es la ITS más común en Europa y frecuentemente es asintomática. La prevención y el control de las ITS se basa en la educación sanitaria, el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz, la detección de las infecciones asintomáticas, el estudio de los contactos y la inmunización cuando se dispone de vacuna.Sexually transmitted infections (STI include a group of diseases of diverse infectious etiology in which sexual transmission is relevant. The burden of disease that STI represent globally is unknown for several reasons. Firstly, asymptomatic infections are common in many STI; secondly, diagnostic techniques are not available in some of the most affected countries; finally, surveillance systems are inexistent or very deficient in many areas of the world. The Word Health Organization has estimated that in 1999 there were 340 million new cases of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia infection and trichomoniasis. An increasing trend in the incidence of gonorrhoea and

  11. The Association Between Racial Disparity in Income and Reported Sexually Transmitted Infections

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    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Chesson, Harrell W.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Kent, Charlotte K.; Aral, Sevgi O.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between racial disparity in income and reported race-specific county-level bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States focusing on disparities between Blacks and Whites. Methods. Data are from the US 2000 decennial census. We defined 2 race–income county groups (high and low race–income disparity) on the basis of the difference between Black and White median household incomes. We used 2 approaches to examine disparities in STI rates across the groups. In the first approach, we computed and compared race-specific STI rates for the groups. In the second approach, we used spatial regression analyses to control for potential confounders. Results. Consistent with the STI literature, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis rates for Blacks were substantially higher than were those for Whites. We also found that racial disparities in income were associated with racial disparities in chlamydia and gonorrhea rates and, to a lesser degree, syphilis rates. Conclusions. Racial disparities in household income may be a more important determinant of racial disparities in reported STI morbidity than are absolute levels of household income. PMID:23488482

  12. Local Public Health Systems and the Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Suh, Allen; Bekemeier, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations of local public health system organization and local health department resources with county-level sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence rates in large US health jurisdictions. Methods. We linked annual county STD incidence data (2005–2008) to local health department director responses (n = 211) to the 2006 wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Local Public Health Systems, the 2005 national Local Health Department Profile Survey, and the Area Resource File. We used nested mixed effects regression models to assess the relative contribution of local public health system organization, local health department financial and resource factors, and sociodemographic factors known to be associated with STD incidence to county-level (n = 307) STD incidence. Results. Jurisdictions with local governing boards had significantly lower county-level STD incidence. Local public health systems with comprehensive services where local health departments shoulder much of the effort had higher county-level STD rates than did conventional systems. Conclusions. More integration of system partners in local public health system activities, through governance and interorganizational arrangements, may reduce the incidence and burden of STDs. PMID:22813090

  13. Point-of-care testing for sexually transmitted infections: recent advances and implications for disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph D.; Bien, Cedric H.; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a major global public health issue, with more than 448 million incident bacterial infections each year. We review recent advances in STI point-of-care (POC) testing and implications for STI prevention and control. Recent findings Accurate immunochromatographic assays to detect HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis antibodies have made home or supervised self-testing possible. Several studies have demonstrated feasibility and excellent test characteristics for HIV, HCV and syphilis POC tests. Rapid oral HIV tests are now available for purchase at retail sites across the United States. Combined HIV and syphilis tests using a single finger prick blood sample are under evaluation. Summary Oral POC STI tests with comparable performance to blood-based POC tests are available for self-testing. POC tests can expand screening, improve syndromic management and reduce loss to follow up. POC STI tests have the potential to facilitate prompt treatment and partner services. POC STI tests create opportunities for new social and financial models of community-based testing services. Increasing equity and access to testing will create challenges in linkage to care, quality assurance, partner services and surveillance. These important developments warrant research to understand appropriate contexts for implementation. PMID:23242343

  14. Facilitating the Implementation of Sexually Transmitted Infection Syndromic Management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王千秋; 邵长庚

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the current status ofimplementing sexually transmitted infection (STIs)syndromic management in China. Methods: Data were collected and analyzed from the literature. Possiblesolutions were suggested for the obstacles encountered inthe implementation process. Results: Validation of revised flowcharts for themanagement of three syndromes (urethritis, vaginaldischarge, and genital ulcers) has been conducted in China.The feasibility, effectiveness and acceptance of using asyndromic STI approach were investigated in a large studyin Hainan, Zhejiang and Hubei Provinces. Chief obstaclesto implementation included the following: lack of supportfrom government authorities; negative reaction by hospitals;lack of critical thinking and innovation; perceivedover-emphasis on treatment at the expense of prevention;and lack of coverage for several important pathogens withintreatment algorithms. Possible solutions may include policyadvocacy, adopting syndromic management into a Chinesecontext, dissemination and promotion, training of providers,encouraging use of syndromic approach, and conductingoperational research. Conclusions: Syndromic STI management provides afeasible approach for the diagnosis and treatment of STIs inChina. Further efforts should be made for scaling up itsapplication in clinical settings.

  15. Transformation of sexually transmitted infection-causing serovars of chlamydia trachomatis using Blasticidin for selection.

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    Honglei Ding

    Full Text Available Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using β-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, in the current study, we modified the pGFP::SW2 plasmid by fusing a blasticidin S deaminase gene to the GFP gene to establish blasticidin resistance as a selectable marker and replacing the β-lactamase gene with the Sh ble gene to eliminate the penicillin resistance. The new vector termed pGFPBSD/Z::SW2 was used for transforming plasmid-free C. trachomatis serovar D organisms. Using blasticidin for selection, stable transformants were obtained. The GFP-BSD fusion protein was detected in cultures infected with the pGFPBSD/Z::SW2-trasnformed serovar D organisms. The transformation restored the plasmid property to the plasmid-free serovar D organisms. Thus, we have successfully modified the pGFP::SW2 transformation system for studying the biology and pathogenesis of other STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis.

  16. Analysis of the Genome of the Sexually Transmitted Insect Virus Helicoverpa zea Nudivius 2

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    Zhiqiang Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sexually transmitted insect virus Helicoverpa zea nudivirus 2 (HzNV-2 was determined to have a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 231,621 bp coding for an estimated 113 open reading frames (ORFs. HzNV-2 is most closely related to the nudiviruses, a sister group of the insect baculoviruses. Several putative ORFs that share homology with the baculovirus core genes were identified in the viral genome. However, HzNV-2 lacks several key genetic features of baculoviruses including the late transcriptional regulation factor, LEF-1 and the palindromic hrs, which serve as origins of replication. The HzNV-2 genome was found to code for three ORFs that had significant sequence homology to cellular genes which are not generally found in viral genomes. These included a presumed juvenile hormone esterase gene, a gene coding for a putative zinc-dependent matrix metalloprotease, and a major facilitator superfamily protein gene; all of which are believed to play a role in the cellular proliferation and the tissue hypertrophy observed in the malformation of reproductive organs observed in HzNV-2 infected corn earworm moths, Helicoverpa zea.

  17. Perinatal Outcomes in HIV Positive Pregnant Women with Concomitant Sexually Transmitted Infections

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    Erin Burnett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate whether HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant sexually transmitted infection (STIs are at increased risk of adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Methods. We conducted a cohort study of HIV positive women who delivered at an inner-city hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, from 2003 to 2013. Demographics, presence of concomitant STIs, prenatal care information, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected. The outcomes examined were the association of the presence of concomitant STIs on the risk of preterm birth (PTB, postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, small for gestational age, low Apgar scores, and neonatal intensive care admission. Multiple logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. HIV positive pregnant women with concomitant STIs had an increased risk of spontaneous PTB (odds ratio (OR 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12–3.97. After adjusting for a history of preterm birth, maternal age, and low CD4+ count at prenatal care entry the association between concomitant STIs and spontaneous PTB persisted (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.01–3.78. Conclusions. HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant STIs relative to HIV positive pregnant women without a concomitant STI are at increased risk of spontaneous PTB.

  18. [Epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the mine area of Las Claritas, Bolivar State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-O, N; Rodríguez-Acosta, A

    2000-06-01

    The primordial objective of this study was to carry out an epidemiological analysis of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in terms of sensed morbidity and real morbidity in the mining region of "Las Claritas", Bolivar State, Venezuela, during the third trimester of 1998. The epidemiological characteristics of time, people and place are interlaced, giving a relationship included within the Epidemiological Triad, that represents this work's conceptual framework; defining both, the determinant and the conditioning factors of the presence of STDs in the zone. The clinical interrogatory was partially steered towards the participant's sensed morbidity. A mostly feminine population is described (65%), with a low scholarly level in the general population and a high index of foreigners among the evaluated patients; with 48.72% of stable unions in the interviewees. From 166 evaluated patients, 27.70% referred to have had some STD episode, being syphilis and blenorrhagia the most frequently reported. In the survey, there was a general hush concerning the presence of STDs; but, key informants such as the medicine retailers, revealed a higher presence of these diseases, which are wrongly treated by automedication. These are important results, since they let opened a space for the epidemiological evaluation in the zone, in the various health, sanitary, environmental and social aspects and mainly, by the individual's quality of life expectations.

  19. 儿童性传播疾病%Sexually transmitted diseases in children(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张定国; 庄寅

    2007-01-01

    凡由性行为或类似性行为所传播的疾病统称为性传播疾病(sexually transmitted disease,STD).我国卫生部规定重点监测有8种性传播疾病:梅毒、淋病、非淋菌性尿道炎、尖锐湿疣、生殖器疱疹、软下疳、性病性淋巴肉芽肿、获得性免疫缺陷综合征(即艾滋病,AIDS).儿童STD近年呈上升趋势,对下一代发育及身心健康,对家庭、社会、中华民族的复兴带来严重的负面影响.防治性传播疾病是医务工作者,尤其是皮肤科及儿科医师义不容辞的职责.有鉴于此,现将儿童较常见的胎传梅毒、淋病、非淋菌性尿道炎、尖锐湿疣、生殖器疱疹和AIDS等作一介绍.

  20. Sexually-transmitted viral diseases in women: clinical and epidemiological aspects and advances in laboratory diagnosis

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    Álvaro Piazzetta Pinto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs have long been known, but they have only recently been recognized as causes of significant long-term morbidity, mainly as a result of increased knowledge concerning viral STDs. The relationship of these diseases with conditions such as anogenital cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has made viral STDs an important issue in the healthcare of women and infants, and in reproductive health. The evolution of the AIDS pandemic is now characterized by growing differences between rich and poor nations. New diagnostic tools include rapid tests of blood, urine and saliva samples. New techniques, such as computerized cytology, have been developed for the diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV. Women infected with HIV are at a greater risk of being co-infected with HPV, and they are also more prone to the progression and persistence of HPV lesions. The herpes simplex virus presents high rates of co-infection with HIV, and it plays a particularly important role in increasing transmission rates of this virus.

  1. In sickness and in health: same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections.

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    Francis, Andrew M; Mialon, Hugo M; Peng, Handie

    2012-10-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections in the United States using state-level data from 1981 to 2008. We hypothesize that same-sex marriage laws may directly affect risky homosexual behavior; may affect or mirror social attitudes toward gays, which in turn may affect homosexual behavior; and may affect or mirror attitudes toward non-marital sex, which may affect risky heterosexual behavior. Our findings may be summarized as follows. Laws banning same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea rates, which are a proxy for risky heterosexual behavior. They are more closely associated with syphilis rates, which are a proxy for risky homosexual behavior. However, these estimates are smaller and less statistically significant when we exclude California, the state with the largest gay population. Also, laws permitting same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea or syphilis, but variation in these laws is insufficient to yield precise estimates. In sum, the findings point to a modest positive association--if any at all--between same-sex marriage bans and syphilis.

  2. Partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: a systematic review

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    Vermund Sten H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. Methods The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of the research extracted information on: (1 willingness of index patients to notify partners; (2 the proportion of partners notified or referred; (3 client-reported barriers in notifying partners; (4 infrastructure barriers in notifying partners; and (5 PN approaches that were evaluated in developing countries. Results Out of 609 screened articles, 39 met our criteria. PN outcome varied widely and was implemented more often for spousal partners than for casual or commercial partners. Reported barriers included sociocultural factors such as stigma, fear of abuse for having an STI, and infrastructural factors related to the limited number of STD clinics, and trained providers and reliable diagnostic methods. Client-oriented counselling was found to be effective in improving partner referral outcomes. Conclusions STD clinics can improve PN with client-oriented counselling, which should help clients to overcome perceived barriers. The authors speculate that well-designed PN interventions to evaluate the impact on STI prevalence and incidence along with cost-effectiveness components will motivate policy makers in developing countries to allocate more resources towards STI management.

  3. A Brief Review of Viral and Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Colorectal Practice

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    Nabi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a common source of presentation to colorectal surgeons. Clinicians need to remain mindful of the possibility of STDs when faced with atypical clinical presentations. This article aims to provide surgeons with a synopsis of common pathogens, their clinical presentations, diagnostic investigations and treatment regimens. Evidence Acquisition The most common bacterial pathogens include Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea with synchronous infections at presentation occurring frequently. Patients often present with proctitis. Gonorrhea patients can also experience bloody purulent perianal discharge. Less common bacterial pathogens include syphilis, chancroid and donovanosis. The commonest STD worldwide remains human papillomavirus. Given its vast array of subtypes its manifestations include benign hyperproliferative lesions like perianal warts and extend to anal intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. Other important viral infections of the anorectum include human immunodeficiency virus and subsequent acquired immune deficiency disease as well as herpes simplex virus and molluscum contangiosum. Results Debate exists whether the increasing incidence of STDs affecting the anorectum reported in western literature represents a real increase or a reflection of greater patient and clinician recognition and reporting. Conclusions Regardless, a broad understanding of common bacterial and viral pathogens remains important part of modern colorectal practice. Remaining mindful of the manifestations of these common pathogens, options for diagnosis and management are important in disease control to limit the impact of these pathogens across the wider community.

  4. Risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases among sex workers in the interior of Piaui, Brazil

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    Jardeliny Corrêa da Penha

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for STD among female sex workers and the characteristics of this population, and to verify the association between condom use by their male partners and clients. METHOD: Cross-sectional and correlational study conducted with 73 sex workers registered at the Sex Workers´ Association of the municipality of Picos -PI, Brazil. Data were collected in September and October 2010 using a questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic information and the participants´ background in the sex industry. Ethical aspects were observed. RESULTS: There was no significant association between most of the sociodemographic variables and background in the sex industry and condom use by male partners or clients. However, there was a significant association with years in the sex industry (p = 0.029. Sex workers who had been in the industry for the longest used condoms for protection against sexually transmitted diseases. CONCLUSION: It is essential to create health promotion strategies that observe the real-life experiences of sex workers.

  5. Detection of sexually transmitted infection and human papillomavirus in negative cytology by multiplex-PCR

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    Chung Hyun-Jae

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV and 15 species that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs in negative cytology. In addition, we compared the diagnostic performance of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR with widely available techniques used to detect HPV. Methods We recruited 235 women of reproductive age who had negative cytology findings in a liquid-based cervical smear. STIs were identified by multiplex PCR, and HPV genotypes by multiplex PCR, hybrid capture 2, and DNA microaray; discordant results were analyzed by direct sequencing. Results Approximately 96.6% of patients with negative cytology results were positive for pathogens that cause STIs. The pathogens most frequently detected were Gardnerella vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum. The incidence of HPV in negative cytology was 23.3%. Low-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Chalmaydia trachomatis, and high-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Group β streptococcus. The analytical sensitivities of the multiplex PCR and DNA microarray were higher than 80%, and the analytical specificity was nearly 100% for all tests. Conclusions Multiplex PCR yielded results that most of patients with negative cytology were positive for pathogens that cause STIs, and were more similar to that of DNA microarray, than that of hybrid capture 2 in terms of analytical sensitivity and prediction value of HPV infection.

  6. Sexually transmitted infections treatment and care available to high risk populations in Pakistan.

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    Rahimtoola, Minal; Hussain, Hamidah; Khowaja, Saira N; Khan, Aamir J

    2008-01-01

    Limited literature exists on the quality and availability of treatment and care of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Pakistan. This article aims to document existing services for the care and treatment of STIs available in Pakistan's public and private sectors to high risk groups (HRG), particularly the transgendered population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to document STI services in Lahore, Karachi, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, and Quetta. Seventy-three interviews were administered with health service providers at the 3 largest public sector hospitals in each city, as well as with general physicians and traditional healers in the private sector. Twenty-five nongovernmental organizations (NGO) providing STI services were also interviewed. Fewer than 45% of private and public sector general practitioners had been trained in STI treatment after the completion of their medical curriculum, and none of the traditional healers had received any formal training or information on STIs. The World Health Organization (WHO) syndromic management guidelines were followed for STI management by 29% of public and private sector doctors and 5% of traditional healers. STI drugs were available at no cost at 44% of NGOs and at some public sector hospitals. Our findings show that although providers do treat HRGs for STIs, there are significant limitations in their ability to provide these services. These deterrents include, but are not limited to, a lack of STI training of service providers, privacy and adherence to recommended WHO syndromic management guidelines, and costly diagnostic and consultation fees.

  7. The Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in HIV-1 Progression: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature

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    Helen M. Chun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to shared routes of infection, HIV-infected persons are frequently coinfected with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Studies have demonstrated the bidirectional relationships between HIV and several STIs, including herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2, hepatitis B and C viruses, human papilloma virus, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomonas. HIV-1 may affect the clinical presentation, treatment outcome, and progression of STIs, such as syphilis, HSV-2, and hepatitis B and C viruses. Likewise, the presence of an STI may increase both genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, enhancing the transmissibility of HIV-1, with important public health implications. Regarding the effect of STIs on HIV-1 progression, the most studied interrelationship has been with HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfection, with recent studies showing that antiherpetic medications slow the time to CD4 <200 cells/µL and antiretroviral therapy among coinfected patients. The impact of other chronic STIs (hepatitis B and C on HIV-1 progression requires further study, but some studies have shown increased mortality rates. Treatable, nonchronic STIs (i.e., syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomonas typically have no or transient impacts on plasma HIV RNA levels that resolve with antimicrobial therapy; no long-term effects on outcomes have been shown. Future studies are advocated to continue investigating the complex interplay between HIV-1 and other STIs.

  8. [Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases in women: association with socioeconomic and demographic variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, A L; Gotlieb, S L; Hardy, E; Zaneveld, L J

    2001-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been a subject of discussion both among scientists and in the mass media, especially because of their association with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We studied the adoption of specific protective behaviors for the prevention of STDs among women, as well as the associations between these behaviors and socioeconomic and demographic variables. This was a descriptive study based on secondary data from a previous study carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 635 women were selected using the social network ("snowball") technique. Subjects were classified into four groups: adolescents and adults of upper middle and lower socioeconomic status, respectively. Condoms were the STD prevention method most frequently mentioned by interviewees. A negative association was observed between having a steady partner and condom use in all the groups. The main reason mentioned for not using condoms was "having a single partner and trusting him". Among adolescents, a positive association was observed between schooling above the 8th grade and condom use, and a negative association was observed between age and condom use. Among adults, only condom use in general was also positively associated with socioeconomic status.

  9. Epidemiology and etiology of sexually transmitted infection among hotel-based sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessa, Khairun; Waris, Shama-A; Sultan, Zafar; Monira, Shirajum; Hossain, Maqsud; Nahar, Shamsun; Rahman, Habibur; Alam, Mahbub; Baatsen, Pam; Rahman, Motiur

    2004-02-01

    The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among hotel-based sex workers (HBSWs) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, was studied. A total of 400 HBSWs were enrolled in the study during April to July 2002. Endocervical swabs, high vaginal swabs, and blood samples from 400 HBSWs were examined for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (by culture), Chlamydia trachomatis (by PCR), Trichomonas vaginalis (by microscopy), antibody to Treponema pallidum (by both rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination tests), and antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Sociodemographic information as well as gynecological and obstetric information was collected. Among the HBSWs, 228 women (57%) were symptomatic and 172 (43%) were asymptomatic, 35.8% were positive for N. gonorrhoeae, 43.5% were positive for C. trachomatis, and 4.3% were positive for T. vaginalis. A total of 8.5% had syphilis, 34.5% were positive for HSV-2, and 86.8% were positive for at least one RTI or STI. There was no significant difference between the prevalences of STIs among the symptomatic and asymptomatic HBSWs. These data suggested a high prevalence of STIs, particularly gonorrhea and chlamydia, among HBSWs in Dhaka.

  10. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected heavy drinkers in St Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, C A; Lioznov, D; Cheng, D M; Wakeman, S E; Raj, A; Walley, A Y; Coleman, S M; Bridden, C; Krupitsky, E; Samet, J H

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of four sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-infected Russians reporting heavy alcohol use and recent unprotected sex, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the HERMITAGE study. The primary outcome was any current STI, based on urine tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis and serological testing for infection with Treponema pallidum. Data on potential demographic and behavioural predictors of STI were obtained from surveys administered at study entry. Of 682 participants, 12.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.3, 15.3) tested positive for at least one STI. In a multivariable model adjusted for gender, age and marital status, only sex trade involvement over the last three months was significantly associated with an increased odds of STI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.00, 95% CI 1.13, 3.55). Given that STIs were common in this HIV-infected cohort, and that few patient characteristics predicted STI, the current practice of screening HIV-infected Russians for syphilis alone merits re-evaluation.

  11. Sexually transmitted infections and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caini, Saverio; Gandini, Sara; Dudas, Maria; Bremer, Viviane; Severi, Ettore; Gherasim, Alin

    2014-08-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most incident cancer and the sixth cause of death by cancer in men worldwide. Despite extensive research efforts, no modifiable risk factors have been consistently identified for PC risk. A number of studies have focused on possible relationships between sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and PC. We performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between infection caused by Neisseria gonorrheae, Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Herpes Simplex Virus types 1 and 2, Human Herpes Virus 8 and Cytomegalovirus, and PC. We conducted a comprehensive, systematic bibliographic search of medical literature to identify relevant studies. We calculated summary relative risk (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between each STI and PC through random effect models. Subgroup, meta-regression and sensitivity analyses were carried out to detect between-study heterogeneity and bias. We included 47 studies published between 1971 and 2011. Men who reported having ever had any STI in lifetime had an increased PC (SRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.19-1.92). We found a significantly increased PC risk in men having had gonorrhoea (SRR 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.37). No other single STI was significantly associated with PC. Due to high incidence of both STIs and PC worldwide, prevention of STIs may help preventing a considerable number of PC cases.

  12. [Frequency of curable sexually transmitted infections among registered female sex-workers in Ankara City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarakolu, Pinar; Alp, Sehnaz; Yağci, Server

    2010-01-01

    Sex-workers are considered as the high-risk population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Early diagnosis and treatment of curable STIs in this high-risk group have crucial importance in STI control and prevention of complications and transmission of infection. In this study, 146 registered female sex-workers in Ankara city were screened with rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for causative agents of curable STIs such as, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum. To identify gonorrhoea, Gram stained endocervical smears were examined microscopically for the presence of gram-negative intracellular diplococci. For the diagnosis of chlamydial infection, an optic immunoassay (OIA) (Chlamydia OIA, Biostar, USA) as a RDT was performed by using endocervical specimens. For the detection of T. vaginalis, direct smears of vaginal swabs were examined for the presence of motile trophozoites first directly and after being cultured in Diamond's media for 24-48 hours of incubation. Syphilis was screened in the serum specimens by RPR (Omega, UK) test. There was no positive test results for gonorrhoea and syphilis however, the frequency of C. trachomatis and T. vaginalis in the study population was 1.4% and 0.7%, respectively. To provide comprehensive policies and optimal control strategies, a reliable source of data about the frequency and spectrum of STIs among high-risk populations and optimized effective screening programmes are required.

  13. Highly effective contraception and acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Charles S; Turner, Abigail Norris; Jones, LaShawn B

    2009-04-01

    A key question for clinicians is whether an aetiological association exists between highly effective contraceptive methods and women's risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The authors searched the peer-reviewed literature for prospective studies published from January 1966 to August 2008 that assessed contraception and STI/HIV risk. The focus was on combined oral contraceptives (OCs), depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), the T380a copper intra-uterine device (IUD) and the risk of infection with HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Current data suggest that neither OCs nor DMPA increase HIV risk among women in the general population. Data are equivocal for women in high-risk groups (e.g. sex workers). Current data suggest an increased risk of chlamydial infection associated with OC use, with weaker evidence supporting a harmful effect of DMPA. Reports of OCs and gonococcal infection are inconsistent, and DMPA does not appear to be associated with gonorrhoea acquisition. Data suggest no increased STI/HIV risk among copper IUD users. Prospective data on highly effective contraceptive methods and women's STI/HIV risk are limited, and many studies have important methodological weaknesses. Additional information about the STI/HIV risks associated with these highly effective contraceptive methods is needed.

  14. [Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases in the point of view of elderly clients of a Family Health Strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar, Andreia Kullmann; Aires, Marinês; Paz, Adriana Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of elderly people on preventive actions to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the context of the Family Health Strategy (FHS). This is a cross-sectional study, involving 94 elderly, aged ≥ 60 years, attached to the ESF in Serra Gaucha (a region at Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). The results indicate parity in the sample for sexual activity and prevalence of sexual activity with the same partner. Older people have knowledge of how to prevent STDs, mostly by the use of condoms. Most interviewees reported they received no information from FHS team. Those who received orientation related that the focus was on the usage of condoms. It is necessary to intensify the actions and discussions of sexuality and STDs, aimed at healthy aging.

  15. Sexual history taking in general practice: managing sexually transmitted infections for female sex workers by doctors and assistant doctors in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Khoi; Minichiello, Victor; Hussain, Rafat; Khan, Asaduzzaman

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Vietnam have been increasing. Control of STIs among female sex workers (FSWs) is important in controlling the epidemic. Effective STI control requires that physicians are skilful in taking sexual history for FSW patients. Three hundred and seventy-one physicians responded to a survey conducted in three provinces in Vietnam. The respondents were asked whether they asked FSW patients about their sexual history and information asked during sexual history taking. The respondents were also asked about their barriers for taking sexual history. Over one-fourth (27%) respondents always, over half (54%) respondents sometimes and 19% respondents never obtained a sexual history from FSW patients. Multivariable analysis revealed that factors associated with always taking a sexual history were being doctor, training in STIs and working at provincial level facilities. Physician's discomfort was found to be inversely associated with training on communication with patients, seeing 15 or fewer patients a week, working at provincial level facilities. Issues in sexual history taking among FSW patients in general practice in Vietnam were identified. These issues can help STI control for FSW patients and need due attention in order to improve STI management in Vietnam.

  16. Man up Monday: An Integrated Public Health Approach to Increase Sexually Transmitted Infection Awareness and Testing among Male Students at a Midwest University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth A.; Eastman-Mueller, Heather P.; Henderson, Scott; Even, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This campaign sought to (a) increase awareness of sexual health and chlamydia testing; (b) motivate students, particularly sexually active men who do not pursue regular sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing, to get tested; and (c) improve the capacity of the student health center to provide free chlamydia testing and treatment…

  17. Sexual behavior and awareness of Chinese university students in transition with implied risk of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection: A cross-sectional study

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    Ma Qiaoqin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vulnerability of young people to HIV and the recent emergence of the HIV epidemic in China have made it urgent to assess and update the HIV/STD risk profile of Chinese young people. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey with cross-sectional design was conducted among 22,493 undergraduate students in two universities in Ningbo, China. Bivariate trend analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare sexual behaviors and awareness between grades. Results Of respondents, 17.6% of males and 8.6% of females reported being sexually active. Condom was reported never/rarely used by 35% of sexually active students in both genders in the previous year. Pregnancy and induced abortion had each been experienced by about 10% of sexually active female students and the female partners of male students, and about 1.5% of sexually active students of both genders reported being diagnosed with an STD. Multivariate analysis revealed that students in lower grades, compared to those in higher grades, were more likely to have become sexually active before university, to have become aware of sex before high school, and to have been exposed to pornographic media before the age of 17 years, and for sexually active respondents of both genders, to have engaged in sex without using a condom. Conclusion Sexual behaviors of Chinese university students are poorly protected and sexual behaviors and awareness may have been undergoing rapid change, becoming active earlier and more risky. If this trend continues, vulnerable sexual network will grow among them that allow more expansion of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV.

  18. Focus-on-Teens, sexual risk-reduction intervention for high-school adolescents: impact on knowledge, change of risk-behaviours, and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, C A; Hsieh, Y-H; Galbraith, J S; Barnes, M; Waterfield, G; Stanton, B

    2008-10-01

    A community-based intervention, Focus-on-Kids (FOK) has demonstrated risk-behaviour reduction of urban youth. We modified FOK to Focus-on-Teens (FOT) for high schools. High school adolescents (n=1190) were enrolled over successive school semesters. The small-group sessions were presented during the school-lunch hours. Confidential surveys were conducted at baseline, immediate, six-, and 12-month postintervention for demographics, parental communication/monitoring, sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV/condom-usage knowledge. Sexually active participants were encouraged to volunteer for urine-based STDs testing at the School-Based Health Centres. Many (47.4%) students reported having had sexual intercourse at baseline. Overall behaviours changed towards 'safer' sex behaviours (intent-to-use and using condoms, communicating with partner/parents about sex/condoms/STDs) with time (Psexual activity (Psexual risk behaviours supported the effectiveness of this intervention.

  19. HIV Incidence and Predictors of Incident HIV among Men Who Have Sex with Men Attending a Sexual Health Clinic in Melbourne, Australia.

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    King T Cheung

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for HIV infection and the incidence in men who have sex with men (MSM. It is important to identify subgroups of MSM in which preventive interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP offered at the time of their last negative test would be considered cost-effective.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of MSM attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC during 2007-2013 with at least two HIV tests within 12 months of each other. Demographic characteristics, sexual and other behaviours, and bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI diagnoses were extracted from the date of the last negative HIV test. HIV incidence rate (IR per 100 person-years for each risk factor was calculated.Of the 13907 MSM who attended MSHC, 5256 MSM had at least two HIV tests and were eligible, contributing 6391 person-years follow-up. 81 new HIV diagnoses were identified within 12 months of an HIV negative test with an incidence of 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0-1.6 per 100 person-years. Significant associations with subsequent HIV infection were: rectal gonorrhea (HIV IR: 3.4 95% CI: 2.1-5.2, rectal chlamydia (HIV IR: 2.6 95% CI: 1.7-3.7, inconsistent condom use (HIV IR: 2.1 95% CI: 1.6-2.7, use of post-exposure prophylaxis (HIV IR: 2.3 95% CI: 1.7-3.1, and injecting drug use (HIV IR: 8.5 95% CI: 3.4-17.5.The incidence of HIV was above 2.0% in subgroups of MSM with specific characteristics at the last HIV negative test. PrEP is considered cost effective at this incidence and could potentially be used along with other preventive interventions for these individuals in more than half of the population.

  20. O conhecimento das adolescentes sobre questões relacionadas ao sexo Adolescent females' knowledge about pregnancy prevention methods and sexually transmitted diseases

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    Kelencristina T. Romero

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento sobre sexualidade, métodos contraceptivos e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST entre adolescentes do sexo feminino, das zonas rural e urbana, de uma escola pública. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, realizado com 506 meninas, com idades entre 10 e 16 anos, da Escola Dr. Roberto Feijó, em Guararema, SP. Utilizou-se questionário semi-estruturado, contendo perguntas gerais sobre sexualidade e métodos de prevenção de gravidez e DST. O teste do Qui-quadrado foi usado para verificar a associação entre as variáveis. RESULTADOS: A média de idade da população adolescente da escola proveniente da área rural foi 13 anos e 11 meses e da área urbana foi 13 anos e 7 meses, não havendo diferença estatística entre as médias. Trinta e um por cento eram provenientes da zona rural e 69% da urbana. As jovens da zona rural buscaram mais informações sobre a sexualidade (81,2%, comparadas com as da zona urbana (72,2 % (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate knowledge about sexuality, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases (STD by female adolescents from both rural and urban zone attending public school. METHODS: A cross sectional study was made with 506 teenagers, 10 to 16 years old, attending Dr. Roberto Feijó Public School in Guararema, São Paulo. A semi-structured questionnaire with general questions about sexuality, contraceptive methods and STD was administered. The Chi-square test was used to verify the association between variables. RESULTS: Mean age of the girls from the rural zone was13 years and 11 months and from the urban zone age was 13 years and 7 months, with no statistical difference. Of all the girls, 31% came from the rural and 69% from the urban zone. Adolescents from the rural zone looked for more information about sexuality (81.2% when compared to those from the urban zone (72.2 % (p<0.0568. Parents were the main source of information for both zones. The condom was the most familiar

  1. Awareness of school students on sexually transmitted infections (STIs and their sexual behavior: a cross-sectional study conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

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    Ahmadi Keivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted Infections (STIs rank among the most important health issues for the people especially the young adults worldwide. Young people tend to engage in sexual activity at younger ages in the past decade than in the 1970s, and 1980s. Knowledge is an essential precursor of sexual risk reduction. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, to produce the baseline information about school students' awareness and perception about sexually transmitted Infections (STIs and their sexual activity to help establish control and education programmes. Methods Students from form 4 (aged between 15 to 16 years, form 5 (aged between 16 to 17 years and form 6 (aged between 18 to 20 years in their class rooms were approached and asked to complete self administered and anonymous pre-validated questionnaires. SPSS for windows version 13 was used to analyze the results statistically and results were presented in tabular form. Results Data was collected from 1139 students aged between 15 to 20 years, 10.6% of which claimed that they never heard about STIs. Sexual experience related significantly with gender, race, and education level. Approximately 12.6% claimed to have sexual experience of which 75.7% had their sexual debut at 15-19 years and 38.2% were having more than 3 partners. Sexual experience was found to be significantly associated with gender (p = 0.003, ethnicity (p = 0.001 and education level (p = 0.030. However, multiple partner behaviour was significantly associated only with gender (p = 0.010. Mean knowledge score was 11.60 ± 8.781 and knowledge level was significantly associated with religion (p = 0.005 education level (p = 0.000, course stream (p = 0.000, socioeconomic class (p = 0.000 and sexual experience (p = 0.022. Conclusions It was concluded that school students have moderate level of knowledge about STIs although they are sexually active. Interventions such as reinforcing the link

  2. Higher variability in the number of sexual partners in males can contribute to a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2009-01-01

    By examining published, empirical data we show that men and women consistently differ in the shape of the distribution of the number of sexual partners. The female distribution is always relatively narrow-variance is low-with a big majority of women having a number of partners close to the average......, and on the probability of disease transmission. We note that in addition to humans, the variance phenomenon described here is likely to play a role for sexually transmitted diseases in other species also. We also show, again by examining published, empirical data, that the female to male prevalence ratio increases...

  3. Detection of sexually transmitted pathogens in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain: a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papeš, Dino; Pasini, Miram; Jerončić, Ana; Vargović, Martina; Kotarski, Viktor; Markotić, Alemka; Škerk, Višnja

    2017-01-01

    In <10% of patients with prostatitis syndrome, a causative uropathogenic organism can be detected. It has been shown that certain organisms that cause sexually transmitted infections can also cause chronic bacterial prostatitis, which can be hard to diagnose and treat appropriately because prostatic samples obtained by prostatic massage are not routinely tested to detect them. We conducted a clinical study to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia, mycoplasma, and trichomonas infection in 254 patients that were previously diagnosed and treated for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome due to negative urethral swab, urine, and prostate samples. Urethral swabs and standard Meares-Stamey four-glass tests were done. Detailed microbiological analysis was conducted to detect the above organisms. Thirty-five (13.8%) patients had positive expressed prostatic secretions/VB3 samples, of which 22 (10.1%) were sexually transmitted organisms that were not detected on previous tests.

  4. Acceptability of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) among Male Sexually Transmitted Diseases Patients (MSTDP) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixin; Feng, Tiejian; Lau, Joseph T F; Kim, Yoona

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary Medical Male circumcision (VMMC) is an evidence-based, yet under-utilized biomedical HIV intervention in China. No study has investigated acceptability of VMMC among male sexually transmitted diseases patients (MSTDP) who are at high risk of HIV transmission. A cross-sectional survey interviewed 350 HIV negative heterosexual MSTDP in Shenzhen, China; 12.0% (n = 42) of them were circumcised at the time of survey. When the uncircumcised participants (n = 308) were informed that VMMC could reduce the risk of HIV infection via heterosexual intercourse by 50%, the prevalence of acceptability of VMMC in the next six months was 46.1%. Adjusted for significant background variables, significant factors of acceptability of VMMC included: 1) emotional variables: the Emotional Representation Subscale (adjusted odds ratios, AOR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.06-1.18), 2) cognitive variables derived from Health Belief Model (HBM): perceived some chance of having sex with HIV positive women in the next 12 months (AOR = 2.48, 95%CI: 1.15-5.33) (perceived susceptibility), perceived severity of STD infection (AOR = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.02-1.10), perceived benefit of VMMC in risk reduction (AOR = 1.29, 95%CI: 1.16-1.42) and sexual performance (AOR = 1.45, 95%CI: 1.26-1.71), perceived barriers against taking up VMMC (AOR = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.81-0.95), and perceived cue to action (AOR = 1.41, 95%CI: 1.23-1.61) and self-efficacy (AOR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.26-1.35) related to taking up VMMC. The association between perceived severity of STD infection and acceptability was fully mediated by emotional representation of STD infection. The relatively low prevalence of circumcision and high acceptability suggested that the situation was favorable for implementing VMMC as a means of HIV intervention among MSTDP in China. HBM is a potential suitable framework to guide the design of future VMMC promotion. Future implementation programs should be conducted in STD clinic settings, taking the important findings of

  5. Rapid ultrasonic isothermal amplification of DNA with multiplexed melting analysis – applications in the clinical diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gaolian; Gunson, Rory N; Cooper, Jonathan M; Reboud, Julien

    2015-02-14

    We describe a nucleic acid testing (NAT) platform for infectious disease diagnostics at the point-of-care, using surface acoustic waves (SAW) to perform a multiplexed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test for sexually transmitted diseases. The ultrasonic actuation not only enables faster NAT reactions but also provides a route towards integrating low-cost, low-power molecular diagnostics into disposable sensors.

  6. The influence of WebQuest learning in teaching of sexually transmitted diseases in adult education and training

    OpenAIRE

    Barroso, Marta; Coutinho, Clara Pereira

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes an experience that involved the development of a long lasting WebQuest in an adult education and training course, from the secondary education level, on the theme “Sexually Transmitted Diseases”. A case study was developed with the purpose of verifying if the WebQuest foments the trainees’ motivation and commitment towards learning and if it facilitates the research and interpretation of the information available online, in the production of the end result; to l...

  7. Improving the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) : a study using Chlamydia trachomatis as a model infection

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    Novak, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Despite the current preventive strategies sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are rising. This thesis presents a model with the aim of improving the prevention of STIs. Chlamydia being the most common STI in Sweden serves as a model infection. The presented model is based on five performed studies. First we evaluated the feasibility of taking a urine sample at home and sending it with mail for Chlamydia analysis. Postal screening was thereafter analyzed for cost effectiveness estimating th...

  8. Group Sex and Prevalent Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men.

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    Rice, Cara E; Lynch, Courtney D; Norris, Alison H; Davis, John A; Fields, Karen S; Ervin, Melissa; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the direct relation between group sex and prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a cross-sectional study of men who have sex with men (MSM) presenting at an urban STI clinic in the Midwestern US. Among 231 men who enrolled and reported that they have sex with men, we collected behavioral data using a combination of interviewer and self-administered surveys and extracted STI data from electronic health records. We used modified Poisson regression to examine the unadjusted and adjusted associations between group sex participation and prevalent STI. One-quarter of participants (n = 58) reported group sex participation in the last 3 months. Eighteen percent of participants (n = 42) had gonorrhea and 19 % (n = 45) had chlamydial infection. Men who reported recent group sex were more likely to be HIV-positive, to report recent drug use, and to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past 3 months. After adjustment for age, race, and recent drug use, recent participation in group sex was associated with prevalent gonorrhea infection (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.11, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = [1.13, 3.95]) but not chlamydia infection (PR = 1.03, 95 % CI = [0.58, 1.84]). We performed a sensitivity analysis in which we also adjusted for unprotected receptive anal intercourse and the results were not substantively changed. In summary, participation in group sex in the past 3 months was associated with a more than twofold increased prevalence of gonorrhea, but not with chlamydia. These findings support group sex participation as a potential contributor to increased STI prevalence.

  9. Lack of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections among women in North rural Vietnam

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    Lan Pham

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serious long-term complications of sexually transmitted infections (STI in women and newborns are well-documented. Particularly, STI imply considerable social consequences for women. Low STI knowledge has been shown to be associated with unsafe sex. In Vietnam, misconceptions regarding STI exist, and rural women delay seeking care for STI. The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge of STI among women aged 15 to 49 years in a rural district of Vietnam and to evaluate possible associations between socioeconomic factors and STI knowledge. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study using face-to-face interviews was carried out between March and May 2006 in a demographic surveillance site in rural Vietnam. In total, 1805 women aged 15–49 years were randomly selected to participate in the study. The interviews were based on a structured questionnaire including questions on sociodemographic characteristics of the women and their knowledge about STI. Each correct answer was scored 1, incorrect or do not know answer was scored 0. Multivariate analyses were applied to examine associations between socio-economic conditions and STI knowledge. Intra-cluster correlation was calculated to examine similarities of STI knowledge within clusters. Results Of the 1,805 respondents, 78% (73% married vs. 93% unmarried, p Conclusion The low levels of STI knowledge found among women of reproductive age in a rural district of Vietnam indicate an urgent need of health education interventions, of which, young and unmarried women should be specifically targeted.

  10. Prevalence and awareness about sexually transmitted infections among males in urban slums of Delhi

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    Garg Suneela

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : India is at present facing an emergence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs and human immunodeficiency virus. Community-based studies on the prevalence of STIs among males are scanty. Aim :(i To study the prevalence of STIs and (ii to assess the level of awareness about STIs among males belonging to the reproductive age group residing in an urban slum. Setting and Design :This is a cross-sectional study conducted in selected areas of Delhi, using a camp approach. Materials and Methods : One hundred ninety-six males in the reproductive age group were interviewed regarding their awareness about STIs, past history and present complaints of any symptoms suggestive of an STI. This was followed by a clinical examination. Required samples were also collected for microbiological tests. Statistical Tests : Simple proportions and Chi-square test. Results and Conclusions : As many as 70% of the study participants were unable to mention even one symptom of an STI. About 73.4% of the study participants stated that staying in a monogamous relationship could help prevent STI, while only 39.2% were aware that condoms could afford protection against an STI. As many as 8.7% complained of urethral discharge, while 5.6% complained of itching, 2.5% reported presence of genital ulcer and 1.0% complained of groin swelling. We found a seroprevalence rate of 1.5% for trichomoniasis and 3.6% for syphilis. Thus the overall awareness level about STIs and their prevention was rather low. Poor treatment-seeking behavior was also observed. The actual prevalence rate in the general population might be higher due to the likelihood of presence of an asymptomatic infection. The present study calls for a multipronged approach which also includes targeted interventions and strategies to be adopted in the reproductive health programs for males who have been neglected by the program managers so far.

  11. Prostatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and prostate cancer: the California Men's Health Study.

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    Iona Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prostatitis and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs have been positively associated with prostate cancer in previous case-control studies. However, results from recent prospective studies have been inconclusive. METHODOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between prostatitis, STDs, and prostate cancer among African American, Asian American, Latino, and White participants of the California Men's Health Study. Our analysis included 68,675 men, who completed a detailed baseline questionnaire in 2002-2003. We identified 1,658 incident prostate cancer cases during the follow-up period to June 30, 2006. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Overall, men having a history of prostatitis had an increased risk of prostate cancer than men with no history (RR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.10-1.54. Longer duration of prostatitis symptoms was also associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (P trend = 0.003. In addition, among men screened for prostate cancer (1 or 2 PSA tests, a non-significant positive association was observed between prostatitis and prostate cancer (RR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.75-1.63. STDs were not associated with overall prostate cancer risk. In racial/ethnic stratified analysis, Latinos reporting any STDs had an increased risk of disease than those with no STDs (RR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.07-1.91. Interestingly, foreign-born Latinos displayed a larger risk associated with STDs (RR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.16-3.02 than U.S. born Latinos (RR = 1.15; 95% CI: 0.76-3.02. CONCLUSION: In summary, results from this prospective study suggest that prostatitis and STDs may be involved in prostate cancer susceptibility. While we cannot rule out the possible influence of incidental detection, future studies are warranted to further investigate the role of infectious agents related to prostatitis and STDs in prostate cancer development.

  12. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women with known HIV status in northern Tanzania

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    Mbizvo Elizabeth M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs among pregnant women in Moshi, Tanzania and to compare the occurrence of STIs/RTIs among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected and uninfected women. Methods Pregnant women in their 3rd trimester (N = 2654 were recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March 2004. They were interviewed, examined and genital and blood samples were collected for diagnosis of STIs/RTIs and HIV. Results The prevalence of HIV, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus – type 2 (HSV-2 were 6.9%, 0.9% and 33.6%, respectively, while 0.5% were positive for N gonorrhoeae, 5.0% for T vaginalis and 20.9% for bacterial vaginosis. Genital tract infections were more prevalent in HIV-seropositive than seronegative women, statistically significant for syphilis (3.3% vs 0.7%, HSV-2 (43.2% vs 32.0%, genital ulcers (4.4% vs 1.4% and bacterial vaginosis (37.2% vs 19.6%. In comparison with published data, a declining trend for curable STIs/RTIs (syphilis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis was noted. Conclusion Rates of STIs and RTIs are still high among pregnant women in Moshi. Where resources allow, routine screening and treatment of STIs/RTIs in the antenatal care setting should be offered. Higher STIs/RTIs in HIV-seropositive women supports the expansion of HIV-counseling and testing services to all centers offering antenatal care. After identification, STIs/RTIs need to be aggressively addressed in HIV-seropositive women, both at antenatal and antiretroviral therapy care clinics.

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with sexually transmitted infections among HIV positive women opting for intrauterine contraception.

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    Othman Kakaire

    Full Text Available Women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA are a high risk group for sexually transmitted infections (STIs. However, the majority of women with STIs are asymptomatic. Data on prevalence of STIs among WLHA in Uganda are limited. The objective of the study was to determine prevalence and factors associated with STIs among WLHA opting for intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD.Three hundred fifty one WLHA deemed free of STIs using a syndromic logarithm were enrolled into the study. Endo-cervical swabs were taken before IUD insertion and PCR test for Nisseria gonorrhea (NG, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infections conducted.Participants' mean age was 29.4 ± 6.2 years, 83% were under 35years, 50% had secondary education and 73% were married. The majority (69% had disclosed their HIV sero status to their spouses, 82% used Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, 70% were on antiretroviral therapy, 90% had CD4 count greater than 350, about 60% reported condoms use and 70% were of parity 2-4. Over 50% of the participants' spouses were older than 35 years and 72% had attained secondary education. STIs prevalence was 11.1%, (95% CI 7.8-14.4 and individual prevalence for TV, NG, and CT was 5.9%, 5.4% and 0.9% respectively. Factors independently associated with STI were having primary or less education (OR= 2.3, 95% CI: 1.09 - 4.85 having a spouse of primary or less education (OR= 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6 - 6.78 and muslim faith (OR= 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04 - 0.78.STI prevalence was 11.1%. TV and NG were the commonest STIs in this population. Having primary or less education for both participant and spouse was associated with increased risk while being of muslim faith was associated with reduced risk of STI.

  14. Sexually transmitted infections among Pakistani pregnant women and their husbands in Norway

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    Soen Eng Yap Bjerke

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soen Eng Yap Bjerke1,2, Ellen Holter3, Siri Vangen2,4, Babill Stray-Pedersen1,21Medical Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Women and Children’s Division, 3Department of Microbiology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; 4National Resource Centre for Women’s Health, Oslo, NorwayAim: To assess frequency and determine the factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus type 2, and hepatitis B seropositivity among Pakistani pregnant women and their husbands in Norway.Methods: All together 112 couples of Pakistani origin living in Norway participated in our study. Blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies against C. trachomatis, herpes simplex virus type 2, and hepatitis B.Results: Pakistani women had significantly lower age, education level, and years of residence in Norway compared to their male partners. Among the men, 12% had positive chlamydial IgG antibodies in contrast to 1% of the women. These couples were discordant, meaning that the 13 wives of positive men were not infected with C. trachomatis, and the husband of one positive woman was not infected either. Four percent of women and 2% of men were positive for herpes simplex type 2. Only one couple was concordantly positive for herpes simplex type 2, the remaining four couples were discordant. Twelve percent of women and 21% of men were, or had been, infected with hepatitis B.Conclusion: Sexually transmitted infections did not seem to be prevalent in Pakistani immigrant couples in Norway. However, it was striking that most couples were discordant. Pakistani immigrants should be offered hepatitis B vaccine.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus type 2, hepatitis B, Pakistan, Norway

  15. Risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections among HIV infected men who have sex with men

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    Ma, Ping; Wei, Ye; Xia, Hongli; Jiang, Wenjie; Yang, Changqing; Meng, Xiaojun; Peng, Peng; Yang, Yue; Jiang, Liying; Chu, Minjie; Zhuang, Xun

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the factors associated with sexually transmitted infection and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (STI-HIV) co-infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). A total of 357 HIV-infected participants (84 STI-HIV co-infection and 273 HIV infections only) were recruited from Jiangsu, China. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the related factors associated with STI-HIV co-infection. Marginal structural models were adopted to estimate the effect of transmission drug resistance (TDR) on STI-HIV co-infection. For all participants, logistic regression analyses revealed that those who diagnosed with HIV-1 for longer duration (≥1.8 years) were significantly associated with reduced STI-HIV co-infection risk (OR = 0.55, 95%CI: 0.32–0.96, P = 0.036). In further stratification analysis by antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with longer duration showed consistent significant associations with STI-HIV co-infection risk (OR = 0.46, 95%CI: 0.26–0.83, P = 0.010) among MSM with ART-naïve status. In addition, significant reduced risk for STI-HIV co-infection (OR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.96–0.99, P = 0.010) were observed in younger (under the average age of 31.03) MSM of the same group. Interestingly, we also found TDR was significantly associated with an increased risk of STI-HIV co-infection risk (OR = 3.84, 95%CI: 1.05–14.03, P = 0.042) in ART-naïve group. Our study highlights a pattern of STI-HIV co-infection among MSM in China and indicates that targeted interventions aimed at encouraging TDR monitoring in MSM with early HIV infection are warranted. PMID:28158317

  16. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

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    Mercer, Frances; Diala, Fitz Gerald I.; Chen, Yi-Pei; Molgora, Brenda M.; Ng, Shek Hang; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells. PMID:27529696

  17. KNOWLEDGE LEVELS OF YOUNG ADULT MEN ABOUT SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (ANKARA 2004

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    Mustafa Alparslan BABAYIÐIT

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted disease (STD is an important health problem as all over the world in our country. We aimed to determine the level of male adolescents’ knowledge about STD particularly about HIV/AIDS and evaluate the factors regarding to their knowledge. This study was performed in November – December 2004 in Etimesgut Military Troop. Three hundred twenty five person was selected by simple randomized methods, and 310 person accepted to participate in this study. All participants were young male military persons and the mean age was 21,8+1,7. The best known topic was “How many times can a condom used?” (86,5%. AIDS was the best known STD (76,1% , and the Gonore was second, 49,7%, but syphilis was only known 6,5%. Over all knowledge score was 6,4+2,3 (max:10. Mean score of participants who had not graduated elementary school, were only 4,2. We realized that this result increased with education level. Mean score was 7,1 in participants with high school or upper education level and difference between these two groups was statistically significant (p=0,001. Participants who were born and living in the west part of the country had the highest mean score (7,8 and 7,1 respectively. Consequently, young adults who’ve been at high risk about STD, have knowledge needs, especially who live in the east region. It will be useful to have education programmes about this subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 16-24

  18. Etiology of genital ulcer disease in a sexually transmitted infection reference center in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon.

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    Felipe Gomes Naveca

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the etiology and factors associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD among patients presenting to a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil; and to compare a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR assay for the diagnosis of GUD with standard methods. METHODS: Ulcer swabs were collected and used for Tzanck test and processed in an M-PCR to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum, and Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi. Sera were tested for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Multivariable analysis was used to measure the association between clinical aspects and GUD. M-PCR results were compared with syphilis serology and Tzanck tests. RESULTS: Overall, 434 GUD samples were evaluated, 84.8% from men. DNA from HSV-2 was detected in 55.3% of GUD samples, T. pallidum in 8.3%, HSV-1 in 3.2%, and 32.5% of GUD specimens were negative for the DNA of all three pathogens. No cases of H. ducreyi were identified. HIV serology among GUD patients was 3.2%. Treponemal antibodies and Tzanck test positivity for genital herpes was detected in 25 (5.8% and in 125 (30.3% of GUD patients, respectively. In multivariable analysis genital herpes etiology by M-PCR was associated with the vesicular, multiple and recurrent lesions whereas T. pallidum with non-vesicular, non-recurrent lesions. Compared to M-PCR, syphilis serology was 27.8% sensitive and 96.2% specific whereas Tzanck test was 43.8% sensitive and 88.9% specific. CONCLUSIONS: The predominance of genital herpes etiology suggests a revision of existing national syndromic treatment guidelines in Brazil to include antiherpetic treatment for all GUD patients. The use of M-PCR can significantly improve the diagnosis of GUD and provide a greater sensitivity than standard diagnostics.

  19. Substance use, sexual behaviour and prevention strategies of Vancouver gay and bisexual men who recently attended group sex events.

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    Rich, Ashleigh J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Lal, Allan; Birch, Robert; Montaner, Julio; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Group sex events are an epidemiologically important part of some gay and bisexual men's sexual culture in Canada. Associated with condomless anal intercourse and polysubstance use, such events have been cited as disproportionally contributing to HIV infection rates. We analysed questionnaire data from the Momentum Health Study in Vancouver, Canada, to understand substance use, sexual behaviour, psychosocial variables (Sexual Sensation Seeking, Sexual Escape Motivation, Treatment Optimism) and HIV prevention strategies (sero-sorting, strategic positioning, avoiding anal sex, disclosure, treatment as prevention) of men attending such events, which were defined as group (n ≥ 4 partners) sex parties, blackout events and darkrooms. Analysis by multivariable logistic regression compared men attending group sex events within the past six months (n = 180) with non-attendees (n = 539). Results showed that attendees reported: (1) significantly higher use of sex drugs and alcohol consumption, (2) higher scores on the Sexual Sensation Scale, more anal sex partners, greater odds of any condomless anal sex with sero-discordant partners and greater odds of reporting fisting and sex toy use and (3) different prevention practices that varied by HIV-serostatus. Findings are interpreted in light of the importance of pleasure, sociality and HIV/STI prevention strategies associated with group sex events. Findings contribute to the development of appropriate education and intervention for attendees.

  20. Awareness and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Secondary School Adolescents in Ado Ekiti, South Western Nigeria

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    E. O. Amu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among adolescents in Ado, South Western Nigeria. Methods. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional design. Five hundred and fifty adolescents selected from public and private secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State were recruited using a multistage sampling technique. Results. Four hundred and ninety-nine (92.4% respondents had heard about sexually transmitted infections before, the three most important sources of information being electronic media (68.7%; teachers (68.1%; and print media (44.9%. Eighty percent of the respondents knew only one STI and the two most commonly mentioned ones were HIV/AIDS (78.0% and gonorrhea (23.0%. More than 75% of the respondents knew the modes of transmission of STIs while some of them equally had misconceptions. The most important symptoms mentioned were weight loss (77.4%, painful micturition (68.9%, and genital ulcer (54.1%. On the whole, only 6.9% of the respondents had good knowledge of STIs; the rest had fair and poor knowledge. Conclusion. Secondary school adolescents in Ado Local Government Area have only a fair knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases. STI studies should be inculcated into the school curriculum and media publicity/enlightenment campaigns about them should be intensified.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand.

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    Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2015-01-01

    More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand.

  2. Response of religious groups to HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection in Trinidad

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    Genrich Gillian L

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are significant determinants of HIV transmission in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T, where the adult HIV/AIDS prevalence is 2.5%. T&T is a spiritually-aware society and over 104 religious groups are represented. This religious diversity creates a complex social environment for the transmission of a sexually transmitted infection like HIV/AIDS. Religious leaders are esteemed in T&T's society and may use their position and frequent interactions with the public to promote HIV/AIDS awareness, fight stigma and discrimination, and exercise compassion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHA. Some religious groups have initiated HIV/AIDS education programs within their membership, but previous studies suggest that HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatized infection in many religious organizations. The present study investigates how the perception of HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection impacts religious representatives' incentives to respond to HIV/AIDS in their congregations and communities. In correlation, the study explores how the experiences of PWHA in religious gatherings impact healing and coping with HIV/AIDS. Methods Between November 2002 and April 2003, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 religious representatives from 10 Christian, Hindu and Muslim denominations. The majority of respondents were leaders of religious services, while two were active congregation members. Religious groups were selected based upon the methods of Brathwaite. Briefly, 26 religious groups with the largest followings according to 2000 census data were identified in Trinidad and Tobago. From this original list, 10 religious groups in Northwest Trinidad were selected to comprise a representative sample of the island's main denominations. In-depth interviews with PWHA were conducted during the same study period, 2002–2003. Four individuals were selected from a care and support

  3. The prevalence of sexually transmitted and other lower reproductive tract infections among rural women in Sichuan Province, China.

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    Yongjun, Tang; Samuelson, Julia; Qingsheng, Dong; Ali, Mohamed Mahmoud; Li, Xie; Yanjian, Meng; Xiaoqing, Cheng; Jun, Lan; Jian, Cheng; Bi, Luo

    2009-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and lower reproductive tract infections (RTI) and determine risk factors for STI among rural women in Sichuan Province, China, a cross-sectional, community-based cluster sample of 2,000 rural, married women were interviewed, examined and clinical specimens collected to assess for six STI and two non-sexually transmitted RTI. The overall prevalence of any STI was 10.9% (95% CI 9.5-12.3); of any STI or RTI was 30.8% (95% CI 28.7-32.8). Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 6.4% of women, Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 1.7%, Treponema pallidum in 0.5%, human papilloma virus in 0.6%, herpes simplex virus type-2 in 2.0%, Candida albicans in 8.8%, Trichomonas vaginalis in 0.7% and bacterial vaginosis in 15.4%. The reported low risk sexual behavior was corroborated by the prevalence of STIbased on laboratory findings. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis alone and the combined prevalence rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis were high enough (7.9%) to consider interventions for the control of cervical infections. Health promotion messages regarding safe sexual and health care seeking behavior is important. Routine STI surveillance, including prevalence studies, which provide accurate information for decision-making should be continued as an essential component of good STI control.

  4. Predicting discordance between self-reports of sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections with African American female adolescents: results from a 4-city study.

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    Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Brown, Larry K; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert F; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-08-01

    This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas) at each assessment. Seventeen percent of participants with a laboratory-confirmed STI reported either lifetime abstinence or recent abstinence from vaginal sex (discordant self-report). Lower STI knowledge, belief that fewer peers were engaging in sex, and belief that more peers will wait until marriage to have sex were associated with discordant reports. Discordance between self-reported abstinence and incident STIs was marked among African American female adolescents. Lack of STI knowledge and sexual behavior peer norms may result in underreporting of sexual behaviors.

  5. Sexual behaviour and self-reported sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): comparison between White and Chinese American young people.

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    Kuo, Wen-Hung; St Lawrence, Janet S

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the sexual behaviour and self-reported incidence of STDs of White and Chinese American young people in a nationally representative US sample. 10,419 White and 340 self-identified Chinese American young people in grade 7 through 12 were selected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence of sex initiation, ever having casual sex partners, number of lifetime sex partners, age of first sexual intercourse, and history of self-reported STD diagnoses were compared between these two groups. Chinese American young people reported significantly lower rates of sexual intercourse than Whites. Among sexually active young people, Chinese Americans were also less likely to report non-regular sexual partners and to report having a lower number of such sexual partners in the past year. There was no difference in self-reported STDs between the two groups. Ever having been romantically involved, older age, not living in a two-parent household, having more relaxed attitudes about sex, and reported substance use were associated with a higher likelihood of sexual intercourse in both groups. Being native-born was not associated with patterns of sexual behaviour among Chinese Americans.

  6. An epidemiological Study of Domestic Violence Against Women and its Association with Sexually Transmitted Infections in Bangalore Rural

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    Vaishali Gaikwad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender-based violence is universal, differing only in scope from one society to the other. The most common form of violence against women is domestic violence or violence within families. Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence and different forms of domestic violence perpetrated by intimate partner against married women. 2. To study socio economic and demographic factors which affect the victimization of woman for domestic violence. 3.To study prevalence of sexually transmitted infection and its association with domestic violence in the study group. Methods: Based on a pilot study results, a sample size of 257 was determined. Total 257 currently married women in the reproductive age group (15-49 yrs were interviewed by systematic random sampling with prior consent using a well designed, pre- tested questionnaire . All the women were screened for sexually transmitted infections as per the WHO guidelines by syndromic approach. The data was analyzed by percentages and chi-square test. Results: Prevalence of domestic violence was found to be 29.57% in the study group. Verbal abuse was reported by 81.58% of the women, Physical abuse by 31.58% of the women ,Psychological abuse by 27.63% of the women and Sexual abuse by 10.53% of the women. Among the 76 victimized women none of them reported to the police. Interpretation and conclusions: The vulnerability to domestic violence was found significantly associated with age at marriage, duration of marriage and addiction of husband to alcohol. The association between domestic violence and sexually transmitted infections was also found significant.

  7. Risk Factors for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, JL; Konda, KA; Segura, ER; Salvatierra, HJ; Leon, SR; Hall, ER; Caceres, CF; Klausner, JD; Coates, TJ

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), frequency of sexual risk behaviors, and relationship between knowledge of HIV infection status and sexual risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending an STI clinic in Peru. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 559 MSM from a municipal STI clinic in Lima, Peru. Participants completed a survey and provided blood for HIV, Syphilis, and HSV-2 antibody testing, and urine for gonorrhea and chlamydia nucleic acid testing. Results Among 124 HIV-infected MSM, 72.6% were aware of their HIV-infected status. Active syphilis (RPR≥1:8) was diagnosed in 21.0% of HIV-infected participants, HSV-2 in 79.8%, urethral gonorrhea in 1.6%, and chlamydia in 1.6%. Among 41 participants reporting insertive anal intercourse with their last sex partner, 34.2% did not use a condom. Of 86 participants reporting receptive anal intercourse, 25.6% did not use a condom. At least one episode of insertive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with an HIV-uninfected partner during the previous six months was reported by 33.6% (35/104) of participants, and receptive UAI with an HIV-uninfected partner by 44.6% (45/101). No difference in frequency of UAI, with HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected partners, was observed between men who knew their serostatus compared with those who were previously undiagnosed (all p-values >0.05). Conclusions HIV-infected MSM in Peru engaged in high-risk behaviors for spreading HIV and STIs. Knowledge of HIV-infected status was not associated with a decreased frequency of unprotected anal intercourse. Additional efforts to reduce risk behavior after the diagnosis of HIV infection are necessary. PMID:19028945

  8. Increased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in the recent years: data from the ICONA cohort

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    Antonella Cingolani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs data collected in HIV+ patients could be used as indicator of risky sexual behaviour possibly linked to HIV transmission. We described the STDs incidence over time and identified higher incidence factors. Methodology: All patients in the ICONA Foundation Study enrolled after 1998 were included. STDs considered: any-stage syphilis, human papilloma virus (HPV diseases, gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis, herpes simplex virus (HSV genital ulcers, vaginitis and acute hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis A virus (HAV, and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections (only for non-IVDU (intravenous drug user patients. STDs incidence rate (IR: number of STDs divided by person years of follow-up (PYFU. Calendar periods: 1998–2002, 2003–2007 and 2008–2012. Predictors of STDs occurrence were identified using Poisson regression and sandwich estimates for the standard errors were used for multiple STD events. Results: Data of 9,168 patients were analyzed (median age 37.3 (SD=9.3, 74% male, 30% MSM. Over 46,736 PYFU, 996 episodes of STDs were observed (crude IR 17.3/1,000 PYFU. Median (IQR CD4/mmc and HIV-RNA/mL at STD: 433 (251–600 and 10,900 (200–63,000. Highest crude IRs were observed for any-stage syphilis (3.95, 95% CI 3.59–4.35, HPV diseases (1.96, 1.71–2.24 and acute hepatitis (1.72, 1.49–1.99. At multivariable analysis (variables of adjustment shown in Figure 1, age (IRR 0.82 per 10 years younger, 95% CI 0.77–0.89, MSM contacts (IRR 3.03, 95% CI 2.52–3.64 vs heterosexual and calendar period (IRR 1.67, 95% CI 1.42–1.96, comparing 2008–2012 with 1998–2002 significantly increased the risk of acquiring STDs. Moreover, having a HIV-RNA >50 c/mL (IRR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19–1.74 vs HIV-RNA 500 showed an increased risk of STDs. Being on ARV treatment significantly reduced the risk of developing an STD (IRR 0.37, 95% CI 0.32–0.43 compared to ART-naïve people, even in the situation of

  9. HIV Screening Rates among Medicaid Enrollees Diagnosed with Other Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekeye, Oluwatoyosi A.; Abara, Winston E.; Xu, Junjun; Lee, Joel M.; Rust, George; Satcher, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 20 million new sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are diagnosed yearly in the United States costing the healthcare system an estimated $16 billion in direct medical expenses. The presence of other STIs increases the risk of HIV transmission. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has long recommended routine HIV screening for individuals with a diagnosed STI. Unfortunately, HIV screening prevalence among STI diagnosed patients are still sub-optimal in many healthcare settings. Objective To determine the proportion of STI-diagnosed persons in the Medicaid population who are screened for HIV, examine correlates of HIV screening, and to suggest critical intervention points to increase HIV screening in this population. Methods A retrospective database analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of HIV screening among participants. Participant eligibility was restricted to Medicaid enrollees in 29 states with a primary STI diagnosis (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis) or pelvic inflammatory disease claim in 2009. HIV-positive persons were excluded from the study. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize the sample in general and by STI diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to estimate unadjusted odds ratios and adjusted odds ratio respectively and the 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression models that included the independent variables (race, STI diagnosis, and healthcare setting) and covariates (gender, residential status, age, and state) were analyzed to examine independent associations with HIV screening. Results About 43% of all STI-diagnosed study participants were screened for HIV. STI-diagnosed persons that were between 20–24 years, female, residing in a large metropolitan area and with a syphilis diagnosis were more likely to be screened for HIV. Participants who received their STI diagnosis in the emergency

  10. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal flora utilised by traditional healers in the management of sexually transmitted infections in Sesheke District, Western Province, Zambia

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    K.C. Chinsembu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Since many rural-poor Lozi people of Sesheke District (Western Province, Zambia that suffer from sexually transmitted infections do not usually access public health facilities; they turn to traditional healers who administer remedies extracted from medicinal plants. However, the medicinal plants used for sexually transmitted infections and data on the usage of plants in Sesheke District in particular and Western Province in general have not been documented. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants that alleviate symptoms of sexually transmitted infections in Sesheke District, Western Province, Zambia. Using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires, ethnobotanical data were collected from twenty traditional healers that manage patients presenting with sexually transmitted infections. The results showed that 52 plant species in 25 families and 43 genera were used to treat gonorrhoea, syphilis, chancroid, chlamydia, genital herpes, and ano-genital warts. Sexually transmitted infections were frequently managed using the following plants: Terminalia sericea, Strychnos cocculoides, Ximenia caffra, Cassia abbreviata, Cassia occidentalis, Combretum hereroense, Combretum imberbe, Dichrostachys cinerea, Boscia albitrunca, Momordica balsamina and Peltophorum africanum. Many of these plants have putative antimicrobial activities which may justify their roles as natural remedies for sexually transmitted infections. Further studies are needed to determine the dosages, minimum inhibitory concentrations, biological activities and toxicities, and characterise the plants' chemical compounds.

  11. Awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs among school-going adolescents in Europe: a systematic review of published literature

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    Spallek Lena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a major health problem affecting mostly young people, not only in developing, but also in developed countries. We conducted this systematic review to determine awareness and knowledge of school-going male and female adolescents in Europe of STDs and if possible, how they perceive their own risk of contracting an STD. Results of this review can help point out areas where STD risk communication for adolescents needs to be improved. Methods Using various combinations of the terms "STD", "HIV", "HPV", "Chlamydia", "Syphilis", "Gonorrhoea", "herpes", "hepatitis B", "knowledge", "awareness", and "adolescents", we searched for literature published in the PubMed database from 01.01.1990 up to 31.12.2010. Studies were selected if they reported on the awareness and/or knowledge of one or more STD among school-attending adolescents in a European country and were published in English or German. Reference lists of selected publications were screened for further publications of interest. Information from included studies was systematically extracted and evaluated. Results A total of 15 studies were included in the review. All were cross-sectional surveys conducted among school-attending adolescents aged 13 to 20 years. Generally, awareness and knowledge varied among the adolescents depending on gender. Six STDs were focussed on in the studies included in the review, with awareness and knowledge being assessed in depth mainly for HIV/AIDS and HPV, and to some extent for chlamydia. For syphilis, gonorrhoea and herpes only awareness was assessed. Awareness was generally high for HIV/AIDS (above 90% and low for HPV (range 5.4%-66%. Despite knowing that use of condoms helps protect against contracting an STD, some adolescents still regard condoms primarily as an interim method of contraception before using the pill. Conclusion In general, the studies reported low levels of awareness and knowledge of

  12. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D; Grayson, Cary T; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts of articles to find randomized control trials testing the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at changing risky sexual behavior among Latinas. Articles were selected using prespecified inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the included trials in duplicate using a standardized data extraction form. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria for a total of 2,909 participants. Using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, we found a protective effect of the behavioral intervention on reported risky sexual behavior (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.42, 0.64) and on incident nonviral STI (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.93). Behavioral interventions targeted toward Latina populations are effective in reducing risky sexual behaviors and incident STI and should be considered by policymakers as a potential tool for HIV/STI prevention in this population.

  13. Family Influences on Adolescents’ Birth Control and Condom Use, Likelihood of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Manczak, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among personal factors, family structure and family function, adolescents’ self-efficacy for safe sex, and sexual behaviors among sexually active adolescents. A subset sample from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) was selected for this exploratory…

  14. Feasibility of Providing Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing and Treatment in Off-Campus, Nonclinic Settings for Adolescents Enrolled in a School-Based Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Mariam R.; Markham, Christine; Thiel, Melanie; Crandall, Stacy M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Shegog, Ross; Tortolero, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the acceptability and feasibility of using a biological outcome measure to evaluate a school-based sexuality education program. Confidential field-delivered sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing by nonmedical field staff and STI treatment by medically trained field staff was assessed in off-campus and…

  15. Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases among male patients at an urban institution in Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudip; Roy, Aloke Kumar; Giri, Parag Prasun

    2008-12-01

    Out of a total of 45022 new male patients attending the skin OPD of NRS Medical College and Hospital, an urban institution of Kolkata, West Bengal for three consecutive years 2002-2003, 2003-2004, 2004-2005, number of patients attending the STD clinic was 1424 acounting for 3.16% of total number of cases. HIV-positive was found in less than 1% of cases.

  16. Causative Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Development of Chronic Cystitis Complicated with Leukoplakia of the Bladder

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    Alexander I. Neymark, PhD, ScD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the investigation of the influence of chlamydial, mycoplasmal and trichomonas infection on the development of urinary bladder leukoplakia. The article presents the results of the examination of women with chronic cystitis complicated with leukoplakia of the bladder, and associated with concomitant sexually transmitted infections, including the results of culture analysis of the cervical canal content and urinary bladder biopsy samples, as well as molecular-biological analyses confirming the presence of sexually transmitted infections, pathomorphological characteristics of tissue samples from leukoplakia foci typical for different types of infectious agents. In this study, 60 women with chronic cystitis, complicated with leukoplakia of the bladder and associated with concomitant sexually transmitted infections were examined. Using PCR diagnostics, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia albicans were found to be the most frequently occurring agents, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis. The results of culture analyses demonstrated that M. hominis and U. urealyticum were prevalent in patients with chronic urinary tract inflammatory processes, followed by Tr. vaginalis. Candida fungi show practically the same frequency of occurrence. The pathomorphological examination of the foci of leukoplakia in the urinary bladder (in 30 subjects demonstrated metaplasia of the transitional epithelium to the stratified pavement squamous epithelium with inflammatory cellular infiltration of the lamina propria in all types of infections. The intensity of the urothelial transformation and stromal inflammatory processes were determined by the type of predominant infection. Pathomorphological characteristics of the foci of leukoplakia correlate with the etiology of chronic inflammation and are relevant for etiological diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Infecciones de transmisión sexual en personas transgénero y otras identidades sexuales Sexually transmitted infections among transgender individuals and other sexual identities

    OpenAIRE

    Javier J. Toibaro; Juan F. Ebensrtejin; Ángel Parlante; Patricia Burgoa; Alejandro Freyre; Marcela Romero; Marcelo H Losso

    2009-01-01

    Existen pocos datos disponibles acerca del comportamiento de riesgo y la prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo HIV-1, en personas transgénero. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar las características demográficas, factores de riesgo, prevalencia de HIV-1 e ITS en personas transgénero versus personas no transgénero que consultan al Centro de Prevención, Asesoramiento y Diagnóstico del Hospital General de Agudos J.M. Ramos Mejía. Se utilizó el diseño de estudio de c...

  18. Context of risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among incarcerated women in the south: individual, interpersonal, and societal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah J; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Parker, Sharon; Scheyette, Anna; Neevel, A

    2014-01-01

    Incarcerated women are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to risk factors before, during, and after imprisonment. This study assessed the behavioral, social, and contextual conditions that contribute to continuing sexual risk behaviors among incarcerated women to inform the adaptation of an evidenced-based behavioral intervention for this population. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 current and 28 former women prisoners to assess HIV/STI knowledge, perceptions of risk, intimate relationships, and life circumstances. Interviews were independently coded using an iterative process and analyzed using established qualitative analytic methods. Major themes identified in the interviews involved three focal points: individual risk (substance abuse, emotional need, self-worth, perceptions of risk, and safer sex practices); interpersonal risk (partner pressure, betrayal, and violence); and risk environment (economic self-sufficiency and preparation for reentry). These findings highlight the critical components of HIV/STI prevention interventions for incarcerated women.

  19. Sexually transmitted infections and use of contraceptives in women living with HIV in Denmark - the SHADE cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Storgaard, Merete

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No Danish guidelines for screening of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women living with HIV (WLWH) exist, except for annual syphilis testing. Drug-drug interaction between hormonal contraceptives and some types of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) occurs. We...... criteria were HIV-1 infection and ≥ 18 years of age. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, alcohol- or drug abuse impeding adherence to the protocol. At entry, participants were tested (and where appropriate, treated according to guidelines) for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis......, and herpes simplex (HSV-1 and HSV-2). At follow-up, predictors of condom use were estimated in sexually active WLWH. RESULTS: In total, 334 of the 1,392 eligible WLWH in Denmark were included (median age and HIV duration: 42.5 and 11.3 years). Chlamydia trachomatis was present in four individuals (1...

  20. From slavery to incarceration: social forces affecting the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the rural South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C

    2006-07-01

    The high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the southeastern United States have been shaped by historic and contemporary social forces. More than other regions of the country, the South was defined by slavery, an extremely hierarchical relationship between whites and blacks. Emancipation left much of the racial hierarchy intact with whites as farm owners and blacks as hired workers or sharecroppers. Agricultural policies that favored mechanization caused blacks to leave farm work and move into segregated towns, leading to the advent of the rural ghetto. Post-World War II mass migration, mostly by young men, to the industrial north altered the sex ratio and social capital of the southern towns left behind. The cocaine epidemic of the 1990s, followed by the high incarceration rates of the "War on Drugs," disproportionately affected low-income blacks. Each of these forces led to sexual and care-seeking behaviors that favor transmission of STDs.

  1. Improvement in screening for sexually transmitted infections in HIV-positive patients following implementation of a nurse-led clinic.

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    Hamlyn, E; Barrett, S; Kelsey, J; Lockyer, S; Welz, T; Poulton, M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in the uptake of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening resulting from implementation of a specific STI clinic for HIV-positive patients. An audit of STI screening in HIV-positive patients was undertaken before and after the establishment of the clinic. Significant increases in the number of patients having a sexual health discussion and annual health screen were seen. High rates of positive results were found in all patient groups. National guidelines recommend regular STI screening for all HIV-positive patients. A specific clinic for HIV-positive patients is feasible and acceptable and may result in an increase in uptake of STI screening.

  2. HIV prevalence, risk behavior, knowledge, and beliefs among women seeking care at a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A; Shastri, Jayanthi S; Shastri, Aditi; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2014-01-01

    Three hundred women presenting to a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Mumbai, India were surveyed and HIV tested. Thirty-nine percent were HIV infected; 80% were current sex workers, and HIV infection was not significantly associated with past-year sex work. Only 44% always used condoms with their noncommercial sex partners. Most believed that condom preparation is a male responsibility (58%); that condom use is a sign that partner trust is lacking (84%); and that if a woman asks her partner to use a condom, he will lose respect for her (65%). All women at STI clinics in India need HIV testing and culturally sensitive risk interventions.

  3. Prior history of sexually transmitted diseases in women living with AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Valdir Monteiro Pinto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiological profile, risk behaviors, and the prior history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in women living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, performed at the Centro de Referência e Treinamento em DST/AIDS of São Paulo. The social, demographic, behavioral, and clinical data such as age, schooling, marital status, age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, parity, use of drugs, time of HIV diagnosis, CD4 count, and viral load determination were abstracted from the medical records of women living with AIDS who had gynecological consultation scheduled in the period from June 2008 to May 2009. RESULTS: Out of 710 women who were scheduled to a gynecological consultation during the period of the study, 598 were included. Previous STD was documented for 364 (60.9%; 95% CI: 56.9%-64.8% women. The associated factors with previous STDs and their respective risks were: human development index (HDI < 0.50 (ORaj = 5.5; 95% CI: 2.8-11.0; non-white race (ORaj = 5.2; 95% CI: 2.5-11.0; first sexual intercourse at or before 15 years of age (ORaj = 4.4; 95% CI: 2.3-8.3; HIV infection follow-up time of nine years or more (ORaj = 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3-7.8]; number of sexual partners during the entire life between three and five partners (ORaj = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.6, and six or more sexual partners (ORaj = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.9-8.0%; being a sex worker (ORaj = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of a prior history of STDs in the studied population was found. It is essential to find better ways to access HIV infection prevention, so that effective interventions can be more widely implemented.

  4. Cost and efficiency of public sector sexually transmitted infection clinics in Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Ramesh YK

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs is an important part of the effort to reduce the risk of HIV/AIDS. STI clinics in the government hospitals in India provide services predominantly to the poor. Data on the cost and efficiency of providing STI services in India are not available to help guide efficient use of public resources for these services. Methods Standardised methods were used to obtain detailed cost and output data for the 2003–2004 fiscal year from written records and interviews in 14 government STI clinics in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The economic cost per patient receiving STI treatment was calculated, and the variations of total and unit costs across the STI clinics analysed. Multivariate regression technique was used to estimate incremental unit costs. The optimal number of STIs that could be handled by the clinics was estimated. Results 18807 STIs were diagnosed and treated at the 14 STI clinics in fiscal year 2003–2004 (range 323–2784, median 1199. The economic cost of treating each STI varied 5-fold from Indian Rupees (INR 225.5 (US$ 4.91 to INR 1201.5 (US$ 26.15 between 13 clinics, with one other clinic having a very high cost of INR 2478.5 (US$ 53.94. The average cost per STI treated for all 14 clinics combined was INR 729.5 (US$ 15.88. Personnel salaries made up 76.2% of the total cost. The number of STIs treated per doctor full-time equivalent and cost-efficiency for each STI treated had a significant direct non-linear relation (p 2 = 0.81; power function. With a multiple regression model, apart from the fixed costs, the incremental cost for each STI detected and cost of treatment was INR 55.57 (US$ 1.21 and for each follow-up visit was INR 3.75 (US$ 0.08. Based on estimates of optimal STI cases that could be handled without compromising quality by each doctor full-time equivalent available, it was projected that at 8 of the 14 clinics substantially more STI cases could be

  5. Surveillance of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance among HIV-1 infected women attending antenatal clinics in Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe.

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    Mqondisi Tshabalala

    Full Text Available The rapid scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART and use of single dose Nevirapine (SD NVP for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT have raised fears about the emergence of resistance to the first line antiretroviral drug regimens. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of primary drug resistance (PDR in a cohort of young (<25 yrs HAART-naïve HIV pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe. Whole blood was collected in EDTA for CD4 counts, viral load, serological estimation of duration of infection using the BED Calypte assay and genotyping for drug resistance. Four hundred and seventy-one women, mean age 21 years; SD: 2.1 were enrolled into the study between 2006 and 2007. Their median CD4 count was 371cells/µL; IQR: 255-511 cells/µL. Two hundred and thirty-six samples were genotyped for drug resistance. Based on the BED assay, 27% were recently infected (RI whilst 73% had long-term infection (LTI. Median CD4 count was higher (p<0.05 in RI than in women with LTI. Only 2 women had drug resistance mutations; protease I85V and reverse transcriptase Y181C. Prevalence of PDR in Chitungwiza, 4 years after commencement of the national ART program remained below WHO threshold limit (5%. Frequency of recent infection BED testing is consistent with high HIV acquisition during pregnancy. With the scale-up of long-term ART programs, maintenance of proper prescribing practices, continuous monitoring of patients and reinforcement of adherence may prevent the acquisition and transmission of PDR.

  6. Screening wild and semi-free ranging great apes for putative sexually transmitted diseases: Evidence of Trichomonadidae infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmore, Julie; Allison, Andrew B; Edwards, Erin E; Bagal, Ujwal; Altizer, Sonia; Cranfield, Mike R; Glenn, Travis C; Liu, Hsi; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Mugisha, Lawrence; Muller, Martin N; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Wrangham, Richard; Yabsley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can persist endemically, are known to cause sterility and infant mortality in humans, and could have similar impacts in wildlife populations. African apes (i.e., chimpanzees, bonobos, and to a lesser extent gorillas) show multi-male mating behavior that could offer opportunities for STD transmission, yet little is known about the prevalence and impact of STDs in this endangered primate group. We used serology and PCR-based detection methods to screen biological samples from wild and orphaned eastern chimpanzees and gorillas (N = 172 individuals, including adults, and juveniles) for four classes of pathogens that either commonly cause human STDs or were previously detected in captive apes: trichomonads, Chlamydia spp., Treponema pallidum (syphilis and yaws), and papillomaviruses. Based on results from prior modeling and comparative research, we expected STD prevalence to be highest in females versus males and in sexually mature versus immature individuals. All samples were negative for Chlamydia, Treponema pallidum, and papillomaviruses; however, a high percentage of wild chimpanzee urine and fecal samples showed evidence of trichomonads (protozoa). Analysis revealed that females were more likely than males to have positive urine-but not fecal-samples; however, there was no evidence of age (sexual maturity) differences in infection status. Sequence analysis of chimpanzee trichomonad samples revealed a close relationship to previously described trichomonads within the genus Tetratrichomonas. Phylogenetic comparisons to archived sequences from multiple vertebrate hosts suggests that many of the chimpanzee parasites from our study are likely transmitted via fecal-oral contact, but the transmission of some Tetratrichomonas sequence-types remains unknown and could include sexual contact. Our work emphasizes that only a fraction of infectious agents affecting wild apes are presently known to science, and that further work on great

  7. Trichomoniasis - are we giving the deserved attention to the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Camila Braz; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-01-01

    Etiology: Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the world. Transmission: Trichomoniasis is transmitted by sexual intercourse and transmission via fomites is rare. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The WHO estimates an incidence of 276 million new cases each year and prevalence of 187 million of infected individuals. However, the infection is not notifiable. Pathology/Symptomatology: The T. vaginalis infection results in a variety of clinical manifestations - in most cases the patients are asymptomatic, but some may develop signs typically associated to the disease. Importantly, the main issue concerning trichomoniasis is its relationship with serious health consequences such as cancer, adverse pregnancy outcomes, infertility, and HIV acquisition. Molecular mechanisms of infection: To achieve success in parasitism trichomonads develop a complex process against the host cells that includes dependent- and independent-contact mechanisms. This multifactorial pathogenesis includes molecules such as soluble factors, secreted proteinases, adhesins, lipophosphoglycan that culminate in cytoadherence and cytotoxicity against the host cells. Treatment and curability: The treatment with metronidazole or tinidazole is recommended; however, cure failures remain problematic due to noncompliance, reinfection and/or lack of treatment of sexual partners, inaccurate diagnosis, or drug resistance. Therefore, new therapeutic alternatives are urgently needed. Protection: Strategies for protection including sexual behavior, condom usage, and therapy have not contributed to the decrease on disease prevalence, pointing to the need for innovative approaches. Vaccine development has been hampered by the lack of long-lasting humoral immunity associated to the absence of good animal models.

  8. Patología infecciosa: vulvovaginitis, enfermedades de transmisión sexual, enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica, abscesos tubo-ováricos Infectious pathology: vulvovaginitis, sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, tubo-ovarian abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ibarrola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades de transmisión sexual son aquellas en las que la principal vía de infección es el contacto íntimo. Son numerosas las pacientes que acuden a urgencias por esta causa, tanto por la clínica como por las implicaciones sociales. Los síntomas más frecuentes son dolor abdominal bajo, sangrados vaginales, o flujo vaginal excesivo o molesto. Las vulvovaginitis son uno de los problemas principales en la práctica clínica diaria del ginecólogo. La úlcera genital cuya etiología principal es el herpes, seguida de la sífilis y el chancroide incrementa el riesgo para contraer la infección por el VIH y modifica el curso de otras enfermedades de transmisión sexual. La enfermedad pélvica inflamatoria engloba a las infecciones del tracto genital superior femenino. La importancia del diagnóstico precoz y su tratamiento adecuado reside tanto por las complicaciones en la fase aguda como por las secuelas, que incluyen el dolor crónico y la esterilidad.Sexually transmitted diseases are those where the principal path of infection is through intimate contact. Numerous patients attend Accidents and emergencies for this reason, both because of the clinical features and because of social implications. The most frequent symptoms are lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding or excessive or troubling vaginal flow. Vulvovaginites are one of the principal problems in the everyday clinical practice of gynaecology. A genital ulcer whose principal aetiology is herpes, followed by syphilis and chancroid, increases the risk of contracting HIV infection and alters the course of other sexually transmitted diseases. Inflammatory pelvic disease encompasses infections of the upper female genital tract. The importance of early diagnosis and suitable treatment is both due to the complications in its acute phase and to its sequels, which include chronic pain and sterility.

  9. Investigating ethnic inequalities in the incidence of sexually transmitted infections: mathematical modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K; Garnett, G; Ghani, A; Sterne, J; Low, N

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate ethnic differences in rates of gonorrhoea using empirical sexual behaviour data in a simple mathematical model. To explore the impact of different intervention strategies in this simulated population. Methods: The findings from cross sectional studies of gonorrhoea rates and sexual behaviour in three ethnic groups in south east London were used to determine the parameters for a deterministic, mathematical model of gonorrhoea transmission dynamics, in a population stratified by sex, sexual activity (rate of partner change), and ethnic group (white, black African, and black Caribbean). We compared predicted and observed rates of infection and simulated the effects of targeted and population-wide intervention strategies. Results: In model simulations the reported sexual behaviours and mixing patterns generated major differences in the rates of gonorrhoea experienced by each subpopulation. The fit of the model to observed data was sensitive to assumptions about the degree of mixing by level of sexual activity, the numbers of sexual partnerships reported by men and women, and the degree to which observed data underestimate female infection rates. Interventions to reduce duration of infection were most effective when targeted at black Caribbeans. Conclusions: Average measures of sexual behaviour in large populations are inadequate descriptors for the epidemiology of gonorrhoea. The consistency between the model results and empirical data shows that profound differences in gonorrhoea rates between ethnic groups can be explained by modest differences in a limited number of sexual behaviours and mixing patterns. Targeting effective services to particular ethnic groups can have a disproportionate influence on disease reduction in the whole community. PMID:15459406

  10. Sexually transmitted infections in pediatric renal transplant recipients: Time to take notice!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Isa; Aviles, Diego; Pasternak, Ryan; Vehaskari, Vesa M

    2015-09-01

    We sought to assess the prevalence of STIs, contraception use, and unintentional pregnancy in our pediatric renal transplant recipients. We performed a retrospective chart review. Forty-nine of 65 patients in our program are currently in the high-risk age window of 13 yr or older (34 men, 15 women; mean age 17 yr old, range 13-23 yr old). There was a disproportionate difference in sexual behavior among the men and women, such that while only 15% of the men reported being sexually active, 53% of the women were sexually active. Among high-risk age-group women, 40% were on hormonal contraception. This increased to 75% in sexually active women. There were no cases of unintentional pregnancy. Thirty percent of sexually active recipients had at least one STI. This was higher among sexually active women (37.5%) compared to men (20%). STIs identified included gonococcal and chlamydial urethritis/cervicitis, Trichomonas vaginitis, HSV-2 genital sores, pelvic inflammatory disease, and HIV. In conclusion, STIs are a realistic public health concern in our pediatric renal transplant recipients. Consensus guidelines on STI screening and reproductive health counseling are needed to address this understudied problem.

  11. Psychological and socio-demographic variables associated with sexual risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections/HIV

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    Ludgleydson Fernandes de Araújo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La población adulta es un grupo ascendente en los nuevos diagnósticos de las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS y el VIH. El objetivo principal es analizar si el conocimiento sobre el ITS/VIH, la preocupación por las ITS/VIH y el embarazo y la autoeficacia para rechazar relaciones sexuales son predictoras de las conductas sexuales de riesgo en jóvenes y adultos españoles. Participaron 1.106 jóvenes y adultos de ambos sexos, entre los 17 y los 55 años. Los resultados mostraron que ser soltero, homosexual, haberse hecho la prueba del VIH, haber tenido una ITS, tener estudios universitarios e ingresos económicos mensuales de 900 a más de 1.200 euros tenían las puntuaciones más altas en el conocimiento sobre el ITS/VIH. La autoeficacia predijo gran parte de las conductas sexuales vaginales y anales (la edad de inicio del sexo vaginal y anal y el número de parejas con las que se ha mantenido sexo vaginal. Además, se halló que a mayor conocimiento sobre ITS/VIH, mayor edad de inicio del sexo vaginal y mayor uso del preservativo en la primera relación sexual vaginal. Se espera que estos resultados sean útiles para el desarrollo de programas de prevención de ITS/VIH. © 2013 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L. Todos los derechos reservados.

  12. Stakeholders’ perceptions of the delivery and quality of sexually transmitted infection treatment by private practitioners in Windhoek, Namibia

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    Louise Pretorius

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to explore the perceptions of the community and other stakeholders regarding the delivery and quality of sexually transmitted infection (STI treatment and care provided by private general practitioners (PGPs in Windhoek, Namibia.

    The study provided a situational and contextual analysis employing qualitative methodologies using different methods of data collection. The methodology used included (1 a review of available country policy documents on STI management and surveillance, as well as the policy with regard to private primary care providers, (2 eight in-depth interviews conducted with key informants and (3three focus-group discussions held with community members attending PGP practices in Windhoek.

    The perceptions of the care received from PGPs differed from one person to the next. It emerged that some participants had good experiences and some had negative experiences of the care given.The participants believed that going to a PGP for treatment is a matter of affordability that goes hand in hand with the expectations of receiving care, whilst maintaining confidentiality. The study established that there is no real difference between the care provided to patients with medical aid or those without medical aid.

    It is recommended that interactions between the public and private sector at various levels be initiated to ensure that curable STIs are appropriately managed and that national guidelines for STI management are adhered to. Health workers should also be sensitised about their approach towards patients. It is further recommended that awareness creation amongst PGPs with regard to the public health importance of STIs needs to be raised to encourage them to participate in the STI-control programme.

    Opsomming

    Die hoofdoel van die studie was om ondersoek in te stel na die persepsies van die gemeenskap en ander belanghebbendes oor die lewering en kwaliteit van

  13. Youth Awareness on Sexually Transmitted Infections, HIV and AIDS in Secondary Schools in the Dschang Municipality (Cameroon): The Mobile Caravan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobze, Martin Sanou; Dongho, Ghyslaine Bruna Djeunang; Tankui, Guy Aurelien Foaleng; Fokam, Joseph; Tsi, Kien-Atsu; Fotso, Jimmy Roger; Azeufack, Yannick Ngueko; Nkamedjie, Patrick Pete; Sali, Adogaye Ben Bechir; Mabvouna, Rodrigue Biguioh; Ercoli, Lucia; Colizzi, Vittorio; Russo, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Awareness is a preventive action to instill in individuals certain concepts to improve their health. It is an essential element in the prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV and early pregnancies among adolescents. In 2012, the prevalence of HIVin Cameroon was estimated at 4.3%. The young population appear to be the most affected (3.2%); very close to that of the Dschang Health District (Cameroon; 3.1%) in the 15-19 years age group. Theaimof this study was to evaluate the contribution of the Mobile Caravan project on the preventive aspect of STI/HIV/AIDS among youths of Dschang in 10 secondary schools within three years. 2029 students joined the project’s activities and 58.55% of them belonged to the age group of 16-21 years. Most students attended private schools. Nearly 3/4 of students (1515/2029) had an acceptable level of knowledge regarding STI/HIV/AIDS, which increased in number each year (from 641 to 716 students between 2012 and 2014). The Level of knowledge was significantly determinedby the study cycle (P=0.0004), the type of school (P=0.0027) and the year ofimplementation of activities (P=0.0026). The caravan project has greatly contributed to improving young peoples’ awareness on STI/HIV/AIDSin Dschang Municipality. PMID:28299163

  14. Youth awareness on sexually transmitted infections, HIV and AIDS in secondary schools in the Dschang Municipality (Cameroon: the Mobile Caravan Project

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    Martin Sanou Sobze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness is a preventive action to instill in individuals certain concepts to improve their health. It is an essential element in the prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI/HIV and early pregnancies among adolescents. In 2012, the prevalence of HIVin Cameroon was estimated at 4.3%. The young population appear to be the most affected (3.2%; very close to that of the Dschang Health District (Cameroon; 3.1% in the 15-19 years age group. Theaimof this study was to evaluate the contribution of the Mobile Caravan project on the preventive aspect of STI/HIV/AIDS among youths of Dschang in 10 secondary schools within three years. 2029 students joined the project’s activities and 58.55% of them belonged to the age group of 16-21 years. Most students attended private schools. Nearly 3/4 of students (1515/2029 had an acceptable level of knowledge regarding STI/HIV/AIDS, which increased in number each year (from 641 to 716 students between 2012 and 2014. The Level of knowledge was significantly determinedby the study cycle (P=0.0004, the type of school (P=0.0027 and the year ofimplementation of activities (P=0.0026. The caravan project has greatly contributed to improving young peoples’ awareness on STI/HIV/AIDS in Dschang Municipality.

  15. The incidence of sexual dysfunction in patients attending Dutch general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedde, H.; Donker, G.; Leusink, P.; Kruijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    Data on patients with a sexual dysfunction were collected in 45 Dutch general practices between 2003 and 2008. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of patients with a sexual dysfunction, associated health problems, and related interventions performed by their general practitioners (GP

  16. Porphyrin-based compounds exert antibacterial action against the sexually transmitted pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus ducreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozja, J; Yi, K; Shafer, W M; Stojiljkovic, I

    2004-12-01

    A series of porphyrin based compounds without (nMP) or with (MP) metals were found to have potent bactericidal action in vitro against the sexually transmitted pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus ducreyi. nMP and MP did not show bactericidal activity against five species of lactobacilli. An MP containing gallium had the capacity to block a gonococcal infection in a murine vaginal model, indicating that its development as a topical microbicide to block sexually transmitted bacterial infections is warranted. In contrast to other bacterial species, loss of the gonococcal haemoglobin uptake system encoded by hpuB or energy supplied through the TonB-ExbB-ExbD system did not significantly affect levels of MP-susceptibility in gonococci. In contrast, mutations in gonococci that inactivate the mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump were found to enhance gonococcal susceptibility to nMPs and MPs while over-production of this efflux pump decreased levels of gonococcal susceptibility to these compounds.

  17. Estudios de contactos para infecciones de transmisión sexual: ¿Una actividad descuidada? Partner notification in sexually transmitted infections: A neglected activity?

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    Xavier Vallès

    2011-06-01

    cabo proyectos de investigación en esta área y se desarrollen el marco legal y las guías específicas adaptadas a nuestro ámbito.Objectives: To undertake a critical literature review of published evidence on the effectiveness of contact tracing in sexually transmitted infections, mechanisms of referral, and the criteria for initiating this activity. To describe how these factors vary by causative agent and to characterize the current state of contact tracing in sexually transmitted infections in developed countries. Methods: A systematic literature review was undertaken using online databases and scientific publications, as well as guidelines and documents pertaining to the legal framework within which contact tracing takes place. Results: Contact tracing is specifically recommended for infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis and HIV. The principal approaches to contact tracing reported were patient referral, provider referral or conditional patient referral. In addition, patient-dispensed partner treatment and the use of new technologies were reported. Numerous studies have evaluated the efficacy, effectiveness and social and legal context of contact tracing in different countries and populations. This situation contrasts with that in Spain, where there is a notable absence of guidelines, legal framework and formal studies dealing with contact tracing in sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: Contact tracing is an increasingly important tool in the public health management of sexually transmitted infections and should be valued as such. This activity should be an integral and effective component of the control and prevention of sexually transmitted infection programmes in all autonomous regions in Spain. Research in this field is required to develop the legal framework and practice guidelines appropriate to the local context.

  18. The relationship between physical intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infection among women in India and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Afifi, Tracie O; Halli, Shiva; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the association between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) in two national samples. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2 (n=34,653) and the National Family Health Survey-3 (n=124 385). Ever-married women between the ages of 20 and 49 were asked if they had experienced physical violence by their partner in the past year. Outcomes were presence of doctor confirmed HIV and self-reported STI. Age at first intercourse was examined as a mediator of the relationship between IPV and STI. Logistic regression examined associations between IPV, age at first intercourse and STI. Compared to individuals with no physical IPV, risk for STI was higher for individuals who experienced past year IPV living in the United States and India, however once controlling for age at first intercourse, age, education, household wealth/income and past year sexual violence, the relationship between IPV, and STI was significant in the American sample [(AOR)=1.65, 95% (CI)=1.21-2.26], however not for individuals living in India [(AOR)=1.75, 95% (CI)=0.84-3.65]. Individuals with exposure to physical IPV are at increased odds for STI. Age at first intercourse although a marker of risk, may not be an accurate marker of risky sexual behavior in both samples.

  19. Culturally Responsive Adolescent Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program for Middle School Students in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Linda Toms; Chan, Vincent; Eucogco, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Pono Choices, a culturally responsive adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention program targeting middle school youths in Hawai‘i. Methods. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial with the school as the unit of random assignment over 3 semesters between 2012 and 2013. The sample consisted of 36 middle schools and 2203 students. We administered student surveys to collect baseline outcomes, student demographic data, and outcomes at 12 months after baseline. Results. We found statistically significant effects for the knowledge assessment, which focused on basic understanding of adolescent pregnancy and STI prevention. The average percentage of correct responses was 73.6 for the treatment group and 60.4 for the control group (P < .001). We did not find statistically significant effects on behavioral outcomes (initiation of sexual activity or engagement in high-risk sexual behavior) or on other nonbehavioral outcomes (attitudes, skills, intentions). Conclusions. Pono Choices had a statistically significant impact on knowledge of adolescent pregnancy and STI prevention among middle school students at 12 months after baseline, though it did not lead to detectable changes in behavioral outcomes within the 1-year observation period. These results call for an exploration of longer-term outcomes to assess effects on knowledge retention and behavioral changes. PMID:27689477

  20. Random Behaviour or Rational Choice? Family Planning, Teenage Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, David

    2006-01-01

    Rational choice models of teenage sexual behaviour lead to radically different predictions than do models that assume such behaviour is random. Existing empirical evidence has not been able to distinguish conclusively between these competing models. I use regional data from England between 1998 and 2001 to examine the impact of recent increases in…

  1. Collecting data for sexually transmitted infections (STI surveillance: what do patients prefer in Flanders?

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    Peremans Lieve

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background STI surveillance systems are subject to qualitative and quantitative underreporting. General practitioners (GPs, who are key subjects in case reporting, explain their underreporting partly by their observation that taking a sexual history is embarrassing for patients, and that patients are reluctant to disclose information on their sexual practices. In this study we examine patients' willingness to provide data for STI surveillance. Methods A questionnaire-based survey in a stratified population sample of 300 patients aged 18–60 years. Results The large majority of respondents stated to be willing to give information on their sexual practices for the purpose of STI surveillance. They preferred to answer sexual history questions to their GP; filling in a form on the internet was the second best option. Conclusion Based on these results, it is unlikely that the cooperation of patients would be a weak link in STI surveillance strategies. This observation, together with the fact that the majority of patients at risk for STIs have regular access to general practice services, justify renewed efforts to enliven primary care-based STI surveillance strategies.

  2. Profile Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In A Clinic In The Suburb Of Kolkata (West Bengal

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    Jaiswal A K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Records of new STD patients attending the Base Hospital, Barrackpore, near Kolkata between 1991 and 2000 were analysed to examine the pattern of STDs among them. Among 567 new STD patients examined, syphilis predominated, followed by gonorrhoea, chancroid, genital warts, lymphogramuloma venereum and herpes genitalis. Non- gonococcal urethritis constituted 4.2% of study population. The overall HIV seropositivity showed a rising treads in the recent past.

  3. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in men with urethritis attending an urban sexual health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, N; Bradbury, C; Chalker, V; Koh, G C K W; Smit, E; Wilson, S; Watson, J

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) in men with urethritis, attending an urban sexual health clinic, in order to inform screening and treatment policies. Men attending an urban sexual health clinic between June 2011 and January 2012 were evaluated. Urine samples were collected from men with urethritis and tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and TV using transcription-mediated amplification and for MG and UU using polymerase chain reaction. Eighty-three samples were analysed. The prevalence of CT was 33.7% (28/83), GC was 16.8% (14/83), TV was 3.6% (3/83), MG was 12.0% (10/83) and UU was 4.8% (4/83). Fifteen men had recurrent urethritis. Of these, three were found to have had TV, five to have had MG and none to have had UU, at initial presentation. Given the prevalence of MG in this study, there is an urgent need for further larger studies looking at optimal treatment regimens and screening strategies in urethritis.

  4. Differences in Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior towards HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections between Sexually Active Foreign and Chinese Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Martin; Huang, Qiao; Rashid, Abid; Ma, Xiu Lan; Yuan, HongFang; Escalera Antezana, Juan Pablo; Yeltay, Rakhmanov; Rao, Meng; He, Qian; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased in the last decade worldwide, the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases including syphilis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis had dramatically increased in developing countries. Education and behavior are incredibly important factors to prevent these diseases' spread. This study highlights the range of differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 434 sexually active medical students towards HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Because the surveyed population constitutes the forefront of healthcare providers and was originated from different area of the world, this is the first time a study sought to investigate the behavioral attitude of this group of population irrespective of the three levels of their academic and professional knowledge. Several factors including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and STIs related patterns play a key role in medical student attitude and behavior towards people infected with HIV/AIDS and STIs. Our findings add consistent value in prior studies which aimed to stop new infections and also imply further investigations on the management of the studied infections by medical students. The present study arouses much interest among participants and provides evidence of reinforcing medical students' education on HIV/AIDS and STIs.

  5. Differences in Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior towards HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections between Sexually Active Foreign and Chinese Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kuete

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV decreased in the last decade worldwide, the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases including syphilis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis had dramatically increased in developing countries. Education and behavior are incredibly important factors to prevent these diseases’ spread. This study highlights the range of differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 434 sexually active medical students towards HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Because the surveyed population constitutes the forefront of healthcare providers and was originated from different area of the world, this is the first time a study sought to investigate the behavioral attitude of this group of population irrespective of the three levels of their academic and professional knowledge. Several factors including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and STIs related patterns play a key role in medical student attitude and behavior towards people infected with HIV/AIDS and STIs. Our findings add consistent value in prior studies which aimed to stop new infections and also imply further investigations on the management of the studied infections by medical students. The present study arouses much interest among participants and provides evidence of reinforcing medical students’ education on HIV/AIDS and STIs.

  6. The burden and risk factors of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Reproductive Tract Infections among pregnant women in Zimbabwe

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    Munjoma Marshal W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs and Reproductive tract infections (RTIs are responsible for high morbidity among women. We aim to quantify the magnitude of the burden and risk factors of STI/RTI s among pregnant women in Zimbabwe. Methods A cross sectional study of pregnant women enrolled at 36 weeks of gestation from the national PMTCT program. Study was conducted from three peri-urban clinics around Harare Zimbabwe offering maternal and child health services. Results A total of 691 pregnant women were enrolled. Prevalence of HSV was (51.1%, HIV (25.6% syphilis (1.2%, Trichomonas vaginalis (11.8%, bacterial vaginosis (32.6% and Candidiasis (39.9%. Seven percent of the women had genital warts, 3% had genital ulcers and 28% had an abnormal vaginal discharge. Prevalence of serological STIs and vaginal infections were 51% and 64% respectively. Risk factors for a positive serologic STI were increasing age above 30 years, polygamy and multigravid; adjusted OR (95% CI 2.61(1.49-4.59, 2.16(1.06-4.39, 3.89(1.27-11.98 respectively, partner taking alcohol and number of lifetime sexual partners. For vaginal infections it was age at sexual debut; OR (95% CI 1.60(1.06-2.42. More than 25% of the women reported previous STI treatment. Fifty two percent reported ever use of condoms and 65% were on oral contraceptives. Mean age gap for sexual partners was 6.3 years older. Conclusions There is a high morbidity of STI/RTIs in this cohort. There is need to continuously screen, counsel, treat and monitor trends of STI/RTIs to assess if behaviour changes lead to reduction in infections and their sustainability.

  7. University students and the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in Uganda: the Crane survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, George W; Anglemyer, Andrew; Bagenda, Danstan; Muyonga, Michael; Lindan, Christina P; Barker, Joseph L; Johnston, Lisa; Hladik, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults are at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Previous reports have found that university students in Africa comprise a sexually active population, although the prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections (STI) has not been measured. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of students from five large universities in Kampala, Uganda, using respondent-driven sampling. We asked students to complete behavioral questionnaires and provide biological samples to test for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, Trichomonas vaginalis, and bacterial vaginosis. We enrolled 649 students and obtained interpretable data from 640. Around 50% of the respondents were male, and the mean age was 22 years. An estimated 0.8% (95% CI 0.0-2.0) of male students had Chlamydia infection, approximately 4.3% (95% CI 2.0-7.0) had syphilis, 0.4% (95% CI 0.0-0.9) had HIV, and none had gonorrhea. An estimated 32.6% (95% CI 22.4-40.8) of women had bacterial vaginosis, 2.5% (95% CI 0.7-6.3) had Chlamydia infection, 1.7% (95% CI 0.5-3.6) had syphilis, 1.0% (95% CI 0.0-2.4) had gonorrhea, 0.9% (95% CI 0.0-4.2) had trichomoniasis, and 0.9% (95% CI 0.0-1.8) had HIV. We found no significant risk factors for HIV or other STI among males. We also found that not using a condom during the latest sexual intercourse was significantly associated with HIV infection, other STI, or bacterial vaginosis (OR 2.16; 95% 1.26-3.78) among females. We conclude that while university students are sexually active and there is substantial risk for syphilis, there is little evidence of substantially increased HIV risk among them.

  8. Multisite Direct Determination of the Potential for Environmental Contamination of Urine Samples Used for Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Patiyan; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Lilliebridge, Rachael A.; Brenner, Nicole C.; Martin, Louise M.; Spencer, Emma; Delima, Jennifer; Singh, Gurmeet; McCann, Frances; Hudson, Carolyn; Johns, Tracy; Giffard, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The detection of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) agent in a urine specimen from a young child is regarded as an indicator of sexual contact. False positives may conceivably arise from the transfer of environmental contaminants in clinic toilet or bathroom facilities into urine specimens. Methods The potential for contamination of urine specimens with environmental STI nucleic acid was tested empirically in the male and female toilets or bathrooms at 10 Northern Territory (Australia) clinics, on 7 separate occasions at each. At each of the 140 experiments, environmental contamination with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid contamination was determined by swabbing 10 locations, and urine collection was simulated 5 times, using a (1) synthetic urine surrogate and (2) a standardized finger contamination procedure. Results The most contaminated toilets and bathrooms were in remote Indigenous communities. No contamination was found in the Northern Territory Government Sexual Assault Referral Centre clinics, and intermediate levels of contamination were found in sexual health clinics and in clinics in regional urban centres. The frequency of surrogate urine sample contamination was low but non-zero. For example, 4 of 558 of the urine surrogate specimens from remote clinics were STI positive. Conclusions This is by far the largest study addressing the potential environmental contamination of urine samples with STI agents. Positive STI tests arising from environmental contamination of urine specimens cannot be ruled out. The results emphasize that urine specimens from young children taken for STI testing should be obtained by trained staff in clean environments, and duplicate specimens should be obtained if possible. PMID:25349693

  9. Structural factors associated with an increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection transmission among street-involved youth

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    Shoveller Jean A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among street-involved youth greatly exceed that of the general adolescent population; however, little is known regarding the structural factors that influence disease transmission risk among this population. Methods Between September 2005 and October 2006, 529 street-involved youth were enroled in a prospective cohort known as the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS. We examined structural factors associated with number of sex partners using quasi-Poisson regression and consistent condom use using logistic regression. Results At baseline, 415 (78.4% were sexually active, of whom 253 (61.0% reported multiple sex partners and 288 (69.4% reported inconsistent condom use in the past six months. In multivariate analysis, self-reported barriers to health services were inversely associated with consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.25 – 1.07. Structural factors that were associated with greater numbers of sex partners included homelessness (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.11 – 2.14 and having an area restriction that affects access to services (aIRR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.28 – 4.18. Being searched or detained by the police was significant for males (aIRR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.02 – 1.81. Conclusion Although limited by its cross-sectional design, our study found several structural factors amenable to policy-level interventions independently associated with sexual risk behaviours. These findings imply that the criminalization and displacement of street-involved youth may increase the likelihood that youth will engage in sexual risk behaviours and exacerbate the negative impact of resultant health outcomes. Moreover, our findings indicate that environmental-structural interventions may help to reduce the burden of these diseases among street youth in urban settings.

  10. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Resources on infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date Sexually ... Health Answers to women's and men's reproductive concerns Sexual Violence Prevention Sexual violence affects all people, particularly women ...

  11. Violencia sexual y problemas asociados en una muestra de usuarias de un centro de salud Sexual violence and related problems in women attending a healthcare center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ramos-Lira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la frecuencia de diferentes formas de violencia sexual y su asociación con sintomatología depresiva, ideación e intento suicida, y uso de alcohol y otras drogas alguna vez en la vida. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal, hecho en un centro de salud oficial de México, D.F., México, entre febrero y marzo de 1998. La muestra estuvo constituida por 345 mujeres usuarias del establecimiento asistencial las cuales, en el momento del estudio, vivían con pareja. Se calcularon proporciones para observar la frecuencia de tres diferentes formas de violencia sexual, y ji cuadrada para compararlas en cuanto a los problemas mencionados. Resultados. De las mujeres, 19% señaló haber sido objeto de tocamientos sexuales contra su voluntad al menos alguna vez en su vida, en tanto 11% habían sido violadas y 5% fueron forzadas a tocar los órganos sexuales de otra persona contra su voluntad. Una de cada cinco mujeres reportó haber experimentado alguna violencia sexual dentro de la relación de pareja. Se encontró una asociación significativa entre algunas formas de violencia sexual y la depresión, la ideación e intento suicida y el uso de psicofármacos. Conclusiones. La violencia sexual es un problema grave de salud pública que requiere implementar programas de capacitación para obtener una respuesta especializada de los proveedores de salud. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To estimate the frequency of different forms of sexual violence and its association with mental health problems, such as depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempt, and alcohol and drug use. Material and methods. From February to March 1998, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 345 women attending a healthcare center in Mexico City. All women were living with a partner/spouse at the time of the study. The proportions of three different types of sex life were

  12. Church Attendance as a Predictor of Number of Sexual Health Topics Discussed Among High-Risk HIV-Negative Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that sexual health communication is associated with safer sex practices. In this study, we examined the relationship between church attendance and sexual health topics discussed with both friends and sexual partners among a sample of urban Black women. Participants were 434 HIV-negative Black women who were at high risk for contracting HIV through heterosexual sex. They were recruited from Baltimore, Maryland using a network-based sampling approach. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interviews. Fifty-four percent of the participants attended church once a month or more (regular attendees). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that regular church attendance among high-risk HIV-negative Black women was a significant predictor of the number of sexual health topics discussed with both friends (AOR = 1.85, p = .003) and sexual partners (AOR = 1.68, p = .014). Future efforts to reduce HIV incidence among high-risk Black women may benefit from partnerships with churches that equip faith leaders and congregants with the tools to discuss sexual health topics with both their sexual partners and friends.

  13. 性传播疾病过度医疗的思考%Thoughts about Overtreatment of Sexually Transmitted Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁建云; 蒋先镇; 黄进华

    2005-01-01

    在性传播疾病(Sexually Transmitted Disease,STD)的诊治过程中,过度医疗的现象司空见惯,现状堪忧,原因是多方面的:STD患者是一个特殊群体,缺乏科学的就医观;医疗机构利益驱动;媒体缺乏正确的宣传等.这必将导致增加患者的身心负担,破坏医患关系,浪费医疗卫生资源.只有重视这一特殊群体,加强监管,取缔非法诊所,避免利益驱动,更新观念,坚持个体化综合治疗才能使STD的诊治走上健康发展的道路.

  14. Recent Infection, Sexually Transmitted Infections and Transmission Clusters Frequently Observed Among Persons Newly-Diagnosed with HIV in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hong-Ha M.; Pipkin, Sharon; O’Keefe, Kara J.; Louie, Brian; Liegler, Teri; McFarland, Willi; Grant, Robert M.; Bernstein, Kyle; Scheer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    There were 1,311 newly-diagnosed HIV cases in San Francisco between 2005 and 2011 that were linked to care at publicly-funded facilities and had viral sequences available for analysis. Of the 214 cases characterized as recently-infected with HIV at time of diagnosis, 25% had a recent sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis (vs. 10% among longer-standing HIV infections, p<0.001) and 57% were part of a phylogenetic transmission cluster (vs. 42% among longer-standing HIV infection, p<0.001). The association observed between recent HIV infection and having a STI diagnosis during the interval overlapping likely HIV acquisition points to potential opportunities to interrupt HIV transmission. PMID:25967271

  15. No evidence that presence of sexually transmitted infection selects for reduced mating rate in the two spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata

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    Sophie L. Jones

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in animals and plants, and frequently impair individual fertility. Theory predicts that natural selection will favour behaviours that reduce the chance of acquiring a STI. We investigated whether an STI, Coccipolipus hippodamiae has selected for increased rejection of mating by female Adalia bipunctata as a mechanism to avoid exposure. We first demonstrated that rejection of mating by females did indeed reduce the chance of acquiring the mite. We then examined whether rejection rate and mating rate differed between ladybirds from mite-present and mite-absent populations when tested in a common environment. No differences in rejection intensity or remating propensity were observed between the two populations. We therefore conclude there is no evidence that STIs have driven the evolution of female mating behaviour in this species.

  16. [Access to medical appointments by men with sexually transmitted diseases at a health unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Leitão, Glória da Conceição Mesquita

    2005-01-01

    Access to healthcare services is one of the important aspects of the Unified National Health System in Brazil, and the supply and management of such services is the responsibility of municipalities. This study focuses on difficulties faced by men with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in accessing appointments for treatment. This was a qualitative study of men treated at an STD clinic in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, in November 2003, using content analysis technique and interpretation of interviews, focusing on access as the category. Men with STDs encountered extensive difficulty in accessing medical appointments, even when they used different strategies for this purpose. Scheduling of services is incompatible with patients' available time. At the primary care level, the supply of appointments for STDs scarcely exists. More investment is needed in the Unified National Health System in order to improve access to appointments for men with STDs, and the supply of services should take the population's demand into account.

  17. Simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Brazilian women by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Raquel P; de Abreu, André L P; Ferreira, Érika C; Rocha-Brischiliari, Sheila C; de B Carvalho, Maria D; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2013-12-01

    We determined the prevalence of seven clinically important pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], HSV-2, and Treponema pallidum), by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) in samples from Brazilian woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and uninfected Brazilian women (controls). The M-PCR assay identified all STIs tested for and surprisingly, occurred association between the control and STIs. This association was probably caused by excellent HIV infection control and regular monitoring in these women established by public health strategies in Brazil to combat HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Studies using this M-PCR in different populations may help to better elucidate the roles of STIs in several conditions.

  18. Confidentiality Issues and Use of Sexually Transmitted Disease Services Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 15-25 Years - United States, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Copen, Casey; Dittus, Patricia J

    2017-03-10

    National-level data are limited regarding confidentiality-related issues and the use of sexually transmitted disease (STD) services for adolescents and young adults. Changes in the U.S. health care system have permitted dependent children to remain on a parent's health insurance plan until the child's 26th birthday and required coverage of certain preventive services, including some STD services, without cost sharing for most plans (1,2). Although these provisions likely facilitate access to the health care system, adolescents and young adults might not seek care or might delay seeking care for certain services because of concerns about confidentiality, including fears that their parents might find out (3,4). Therefore, it is important to examine STD services and confidentiality-related issues among persons aged 15-25 years in the United States. CDC analyzed data from the 2013-2015 National Survey of Family Growth and found that 12.7% of sexually experienced youths (adolescents aged 15-17 years and those young adults aged 18-25 years who were on a parent's insurance plan) would not seek sexual and reproductive health care because of concerns that their parents might find out. Particularly concerned were persons aged 15-17 years (22.6%). Females with confidentiality concerns regarding seeking sexual and reproductive health care reported a lower prevalence of receipt of chlamydia screening (17.1%) than did females who did not cite such concerns (38.7%). More adolescents aged 15-17 years who spent time alone with a health care provider (without a parent in the room) reported receipt of a sexual risk assessment (71.1%) and, among females, chlamydia testing (34.0%), than did those who did not spend time alone (36.6% and 14.9%, respectively). The results indicated that confidentiality-related issues were associated with less reported use of some STD services, especially for younger persons and females. Spending time alone with a provider (i.e., without a parent present

  19. Vulnerable Women’s Self-Care Needs in Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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    Nasrollah Alimohammadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulnerable women are prone to sexually transmitted diseases (STD due to their special conditions and poor knowledge about these diseases in the society. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the vulnerable women’s self-care needs in knowledge, attitude and practice concerning STD. Methods: This is a cross-sectional-descriptive study conducted in 2014. The data collection was carried out using a self-administered structured questionnaire. 120 vulnerable women referring to centers affiliated to health and well-being center in Isfahan participated in this study. They were selected through proportional rationing sampling and filled out a researcher developed questionnaire containing information on personal characteristics, self-care knowledge, attitude, and practice needs toward the STD. The data were analyzed using statistical methods including Spearman & Pearson correlation co-efficient, independent t-test and ANOVA. All analyses were carried out using SPSS, 20. Results: Based on the results, most of the subjects mentioned that their priorities of self-care needs in domains of knowledge, attitude and practice were “familiarization with the types and contamination ways of sexually transmitted diseases” (57.9%; “diagnosis of STD only makes us anxious” (24.8, and “the method of washing the genital area before and after intercourse” 41.3%, respectively. There was a significant association among marital status, education, history of addiction, and self-care needs in domains of knowledge, attitude and practice (P<0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that vulnerable women not only knew their need about STD, but also paid attention to their attitude and practice needs toward STD. Therefore, educational programs should be designed and administrated by the experts, based on vulnerable women’s self-care needs concerning their knowledge, attitude and practice to prevent and control STD in vulnerable individuals.

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  1. Hepatitis C virus infection in Guinea-Bissau: a sexually transmitted genotype 2 with parenteral amplification?

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    Mireille Plamondon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is the continent with the highest prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Genotype 2 HCV is thought to have originated from West Africa several hundred years ago. Mechanisms of transmission remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To delineate mechanisms for HCV transmission in West Africa, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of individuals aged >or=50 years in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Dried blood spots were obtained for HCV serology and PCR amplification. Prevalence of HCV was 4.4% (47/1066 among women and 5.0% (27/544 among men. In multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for HCV infection were age (baseline: 50-59 y; 60-69 y, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.67, 95% CI: 0.91-3.06; >or=70 y, AOR: 3.47, 95% CI: 1.89-6.39, belonging to the Papel, Mancanha, Balanta or Mandjako ethnic groups (AOR: 2.45, 95% CI:1.32-4.53, originating from the Biombo, Cacheu or Oio regions north of Bissau (AOR: 4.16, 95% CI: 1.18-14.73 and having bought or sold sexual services (AOR: 3.60, 95% CI: 1.88-6.89. Of 57 isolates that could be genotyped, 56 were genotype 2. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that transmission of HCV genotype 2 in West Africa occurs through sexual intercourse. In specific locations and subpopulations, medical interventions may have amplified transmission parenterally.

  2. [Sexually transmitted diseases in patients infected with HIV/AIDS in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E H; Abath, F G

    2000-01-01

    The data was obtained retrospectively from clinical records concerning 399 HIV infected patients. The HIV infected individuals predominated in the age group ranging from 20 to 40 years (73.4%) and 75% were male. The was no difference in the ratio of male and female patients regarding asymptomatic HIV infection or AIDS. The cases of HIV without AIDS concentrated in the age group ranging from 20-29 years while AIDS predominated in the age group ranging from 30-39 years. Only 0.8% were hemophilic, 3.5% injected drugs and 4.8% had hemotransfusions in the last 5 years. Regarding sexual behavior, 33% were heterosexuals, 11% bisexuals, 23% homosexuals and 33% did not disclose their sexual behavior. The presence of syphilis was the most frequent combination found (8.8%), followed by herpes (5.8%) and genital candidiasis (4.3%). Our results suggest an association between genital candidiasis and AIDS, although this was not demonstrated for the other STDs studied.

  3. Eating sweets without the wrapper: perceptions of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among street youth in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embleton, Lonnie; Wachira, Juddy; Kamanda, Allan; Naanyu, Violet; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Street-connected youth in Kenya are a population potentially at risk of HIV transmission, yet little is known about their perceptions and experiences of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), despite their living in an HIV endemic region. We sought to elucidate the language and sociocultural factors rooted in street life that impact on street-connected young people's knowledge of and perceptions about the prevention and transmission of STIs, and their diagnosis and treatment, using qualitative methods in western Kenya. We conducted a total of 25 in-depth interviews and 5 focus-group discussions with 65 participants aged 11-24 years in Eldoret, Kenya. Thematic analysis was conducted and data were coded according to themes and patterns emergent until saturation was reached. In general, street-connected young people knew of STIs and some of the common symptoms associated with these infections. However, there were many misconceptions regarding transmission and prevention. Gender inequities were prominent, as the majority of men described women as individuals who spread STIs due to unhygienic practices, urination and multiple partners. Due to misconceptions, gender inequity and lack of access to youth-friendly healthcare there is an urgent need for community-based organisations and healthcare facilities to introduce or augment their adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes for vulnerable young people.

  4. Snakes, Ladders, and Information about Sexually Transmitted Infections: Evaluation of a Peer Educator Training on the Thailand-Burma Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedeon, Jillian; Hkum, Jessica; Hsue, Saw Nanda; Walsh, Meredith; Foster, Angel M

    2016-03-31

    The longstanding conflict and civil strife in Burma has had significant consequences on the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of ethnic minority groups, including adolescents. The Adolescent Reproductive Health Zone in Chiang Mai, Thailand promotes adolescent SRH rights and access to services by having peer educators travel to their hometowns in Burma and lead intensive youth-focused trainings on a variety of topics and issues. In order to evaluate the impact of an intensive three-day workshop dedicated to improving knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among peer educators through didactic, experiential, and skill-building exercises, we administered a pre-, post-, and longitudinal assessment. All 13 participants completed both the pre-test and post-test; 11 of 13 participants (85%) completed the longitudinal evaluation administered three months after the training. Our results indicate that both individual and aggregate STI knowledge increased from baseline and that this knowledge was retained. Moreover, the training increased participants' confidence in their outreach abilities, informed changes in the curricular modules, and led to the implementation of new teaching and learning techniques, especially the incorporation of games and activities. Our findings showcase a successful initiative and suggest similar adolescent peer health educator programs could be undertaken in this protracted crisis and conflict setting.

  5. Sexually transmitted infections among transgender people and men who have sex with men in Port Vila, Vanuatu

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    Vanessa Veronese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite high sexually transmitted infection (STI prevalence in the Pacific, there are limited data on STIs and risk among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender people (TG. In 2011, an Integrated Bio-Behavioural Survey recruited self-identified MSM and TG in Port Vila, Vanuatu. Descriptive findings were stratified by sexuality. Among 28 (55% MSM and 23 (45% TG, recent anal sex with male partners was more common among MSM (94% vs 71%; P < 0.1, including with casual (47% vs 35%, regular (59% vs 29% and paying partners (28% vs 12%. MSM more commonly reported lifetime (P < 0.01 and recent sex with female partners (P < 0.01. Reported condom use with any partner type was low. More MSM (35% than TG (24% were diagnosed with an STI; previous treatment-seeking behaviour when symptomatic was lower among TG (P < 0.1. Tailored strategies acknowledging differences between MSM and TG are required to reduce STI vulnerability in Vanuatu.

  6. HIV, Hepatitis C, and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Male Sex Workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Donn J; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Nguyen, Thi; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    There is little data on the burden of HIV and other infections that affect male sex workers (MSW) in Vietnam. We conducted behavioral and biological sexual health surveys with 300 MSW in Ho Chi Minh City. Generalized estimating equation models were built to assess factors associated with HIV, hepatitis C, and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Of 300 MSW, 19 (6.3 %) were diagnosed seropositive for HIV, 11 (3.7 %) had hepatitis C, and 26 (8.7 %) had at least one prevalent STI. In a multivariable model, opiate use was significantly associated with HIV infection (aOR 6.46, 95 % CI 1.28-32.7) and hepatitis C (aOR = 19.6, 95 % CI 2.35-163.6). Alcohol dependency was associated with increased odds of hepatitis C (aOR = 4.79, 95 % CI 1.02-22.5) and decreased odds of other STI (aOR = 0.30, 95 % CI 0.10-0.97). These findings suggest that MSW in Vietnam would benefit from regular HIV and STI testing, as well as linkage to care and substance use rehabilitation services.

  7. Social marketing to promote HPV vaccination in pre-teenage children: talk about a sexually transmitted infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2015-01-01

    A significant barrier to the delivery of HPV vaccine is reluctance by both healthcare providers and parents to vaccinate at age 11 or 12, which may be considered a young age. This barrier has been called "vaccine hesitancy" in recent research. In this commentary, we suggest using social marketing strategies to promote HPV vaccination at the recommended preteen ages. We emphasize a critical public health message of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) as preventable and vaccination against HPV as a way to protect against its consequences. The message tackles the issue of vaccine hesitancy head on, by saying that most people are at risk for HPV and there is a way to prevent HPV's serious consequences of cancer. Our approach to this conversation in the clinical setting is also to engage the preteen in a dialog with the parent and provider. We expect our emphasis on the risk of STI infection will not only lead to increased HPV vaccination at preteen ages but also lay important groundwork for clinical adoption of other STI vaccines in development (HIV, HSV, Chlamydia, and Gonorrhea) as well as begin conversations to promote sexual health.

  8. Four sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Belgian general practice: first results (2013–2014) of a nationwide continuing surveillance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffin, N; Moreels, S; Deblonde, J; Van Casteren, V

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe and explore data from the surveillance of chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhoea and genital warts by the Belgian Network of Sentinel General Practices (SGP) over the first 2 years (2013 and 2014) and to estimate the incidence of these 4 sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A special focus is put on data quality. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting General practices from the nationwide representative SGP network. Outcome measures Agreement between data distributions by year, agreement between SGP-based incidence and incidence based on mandatory notification, missingness of patient age or gender and incompleteness of sexual risk history of patients. Results 306 new STI episodes were reported from 298 patients, corresponding with an episode-based incidence of 91.9/100 000 (95% CI 81.9 to 102.8) general practice patients, with almost half of it due to chlamydia. The incidence of chlamydia in men was significantly higher in 2014 than in 2013. Population characteristics were similarly distributed in 2013 and 2014. The SGP-based incidence of gonorrhoea and syphilis in Flanders were in agreement with the incidence based on mandatory notification of cases. Patient age or gender was missing from 35 episodes (11.4%). Independent determinants of missingness of patient age or gender were the Flemish region (OR 3.46; 95% CI 1.02 to 11.73) and genital warts infection (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.07 to 4.63). An incomplete sexual risk history was reported for 54.6% STI episodes. The odds for an incomplete sexual history were higher for older patients (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.76) and for patients infected with syphilis, gonorrhoea or co-infection(s) (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.83). Conclusions Incompleteness of reports about patients with STI sexual risk histories is important from the perspective of quality of data and of quality of care. Together with the low rates of both HIV testing and discussion of partner notification, this suggests that a

  9. The project “D.E.A.Th. by Eros to Thanatos AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases”. A multimedia exhibition as a means of prevention of sexually transmitted infections

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    Maria Ferrara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: An educational intervention on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs accompanied by a multimedia exhibition was proposed in order to verify the effectiveness of an exhibition as a tool for prevention, to increase awareness in youth and to evaluate whether it yielded changes in the sexual behaviour of its’ visitors. The Target population were high schools and university students.

    Methods: The Exhibition consisted of a historical overview and four other sections: biological and clinical aspects, epidemiology, prevention and a section called the Red Zone with clear and explicit images relating to STDs. The exhibition was supported by three observational studies carried out on about2000 students of two High Schools and the university in the city of Cassino, Italy. Data collection took place through three different types of “ad hoc” questionnaires. The Statistical analysis carried out was that typical of cross-sectional surveys. We utilized the statistical program Epi-Info 3.5.

    Results: Regarding survey 1, 48% of 529 students taking part said that the exhibition had contributed “enough” for them to acquire new knowledge, 75.2% had already had sexual intercourse and 37.7% of them did not change their sexual habits. Relative to survey 2, 583 responded to the pre test and 403 posttests returned. Regarding knowledge, data obtained from processing of pre-tests showed how 63.9% of the sample did not know how many STDs existed, whilst this value dropped in post test answers to 49.2% . AIDS was the best known disease (96% whilst other STDs were little known. The educational intervention partly increased these percentages. With regard to sexual practices although 43% of the sample claimed to have already had sexual intercourse (66% male and 34% female. The family doctor is seen by a high percentage of young people (70% - 68.6% as the first figure which should address an

  10. p16 immunostaining as a predictor of anal and cervical dysplasia in women attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic

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    Deepika Pandhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carcinogenesis caused by human papillomavirus (HPV leads to over-expression of p16 protein. p16 may act as a marker of HPV integration with host genome and serve as a surrogate marker of HPV oncogenesis. Materials and Methods: A single center study of 75 women (35 HIV-positive and 40 HIV-negative women was conducted. Anal and cervical specimens were obtained for cytology and p16 immunostaining. Results: The sensitivity of p16 to diagnose anal and cervical dysplasia was 50% and 58.8%, respectively, whereas specificity was 98.6% and 100%, respectively. Positive predictive value for anal and cervical was 75% and 100%, whereas negative predictive value was 95.8% and 89.2%, respectively. A strong relationship between the grade of dysplasia and intensity of p16 immunoscore was observed (Pearson correlation r = 0.666, P< 0.0001 and r = 0.496, P< 0.0001 for anal and cervical, respectively. Conclusion: p16 immunostaining with greater specificity for high-grade lesions may improve the diagnostic accuracy, especially for high-grade lesions which have a high risk of progression to malignancy and thereby necessitate treatment.

  11. Structural approaches for prevention of sexually transmitted HIV in general populations: definitions and an operational approach

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    Justin O Parkhurst

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although biomedical HIV prevention efforts have seen a number of recent promising developments, behavioural interventions have often been described as failing. However, clear lessons have been identified from past efforts, including the need to address influential social, economic and legal structures; to tailor efforts to local contexts; and to address multiple influencing factors in combination. Despite these insights, there remains a pervasive strategy to try to achieve sexual behaviour change through single, decontextualized, interventions or sets of activities. With current calls for structural approaches to HIV as part of combination HIV prevention, though, there is a unique opportunity to define a structural approach to HIV prevention as one which moves beyond these past limitations and better incorporates our knowledge of the social world and the lessons from past efforts. Discussion: A range of interlinked concepts require delineation and definition within the broad concept of a structural approach to HIV. This includes distinguishing between “structural factors,” which can be seen as any number of elements (other than knowledge which influence risk and vulnerability, and “structural drivers,” which should be reserved for situations where an empirically established relationship to a target group is known. Operationalizing structural approaches similarly can take different paths, either working to alter structural drivers or alternatively working to build individual and community resilience to infection. A “structural diagnostic approach” is further defined as the process one undertakes to develop structural intervention strategies tailored to target groups. Conclusions: For three decades, the HIV prevention community has struggled to reduce the spread of HIV through sexual risk behaviours with limited success, but equally with limited engagement with the lessons that have been learned about the social realities

  12. Sexually transmitted infections associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity Infecciones de transmisión sexual asociadas a síntomas vulvovaginales en adolescentes que niegan vida sexual activa

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    Elizabeth Velarde-Jurado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic evidence of a probable sexually transmitted infection associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of female adolescents, aged 10-18 years were reviewed. These women received first-time medical care for vulvovaginitis, between 1995 and 1999 at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, (Children's Hospital. Comparisons between groups were performed, as appropriate, by the unpaired Student's t-test, the Z test or the chi-square test; statistically significant differences were set at a two-tailed pOBJETIVO: Identificar datos clínicos, de laboratorio y ultrasonográficos que permitan el diagnóstico de una infección de transmisión sexual asociada a síntomas vulvovaginales en las pacientes adolescentes que niegan vida sexual activa. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisaron los expedientes de las adolescentes de 10 a 18 años de edad que requirieron atención médica de primera vez por vulvovaginitis entre 1995 y 1999 en el Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Las comparaciones entre grupos se llevaron a cabo con la prueba t de Student, la prueba de Z, o la de ji-cuadrada. Se utilizó un valor de p<0.05 para establecer diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Se calcularon razones de momios con intervalos de confianza de 95%. RESULTADOS: De 258 adolescentes, en 53 (20.5% se identificó un microrganismo de transmisión sexual y 52 de ellas negaron tener vida sexual activa. No hubo diferencias estadísticas entre los dos grupos de adolescentes en cuanto a la edad, los años de estudio, el nivel socioeconómico, la maduración sexual y la presencia de menarquia. El dolor abdominal en los cuadrantes inferiores, la coloración anormal de la secreción vaginal, un cultivo urinario positivo y un estudio ultrasonográfico abdominal compatible con enfermedad pélvica inflamatoria estuvieron asociados con

  13. Toxoplasmosis can be a sexually transmitted infection with serious clinical consequences. Not all routes of infection are created equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, J; Klapilová, K; Kaňková, S

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects about 30% of the human population. Common sources of infection are oocysts in cat faeces contaminating drinking water or unwashed vegetables, undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, and organ transplants from infected donors containing tissue cysts. However, very often, it is not possible to identify any potential source of infection in mothers of children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Here we present a hypothesis suggesting that toxoplasmosis is transmitted from infected men to noninfected women during unprotected sexual intercourse, which can result in the most serious form of disease, congenital toxoplasmosis. Arguments for the hypothesis: (1) Toxoplasma tachyzoites are present in the seminal fluid and tissue of the testes of various animals including humans. In some species infection of females by artificial insemination with semen from infected males has been observed. (2) Up to two thirds of Toxoplasma infections in pregnant women cannot be explained by the known risk factors. (3) Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in women in child-bearing age covaries with the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in particular countries. (4) In some countries, an increased incidence of toxoplasmosis has been reported in women (but not men) aged 25-35 years. This second peak of infection could be associated with women having regular unprotected sex after marriage. (5) Toxoplasmosis triggers schizophrenia in predisposed subjects. Onset of schizophrenia is about 2-3 years earlier in men than in women. However, this difference in the onset can be found only between Toxoplasma-infected patients. The increased onset of schizophrenia in infected women could be associated with the already mentioned second peak of toxoplasmosis incidence. (6) The prevalence of toxoplasmosis decreases in developed countries in last 20 years. This trend could be a result of decrease in promiscuity and increase in safe sex practices, both associated with the AIDS pandemics

  14. Case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in male without presentation of sexually transmitted disease.

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    Yi, Haram; Shim, Chan Sup; Kim, Gyu Won; Kim, Jung Seok; Choi, In Zoo

    2015-11-16

    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is a type of perihepatitis that causes liver capsular infection without infecting the hepatic parenchyma or pelvis. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is known to occur commonly in women of childbearing age who do not use oral contraceptives and have sexual partners older than 25 years of age. However, the syndrome has been reported to occur rarely in males. The clinical symptoms are right upper quadrant pain and tenderness, and pleuritic right sided chest pain. The clinical presentation is similar in male and female. We experienced a case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in a 60-year-old man with the chief complaint of right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Despite a previous history of gonorrhea, we have also described our experiences of improved symptoms and recovery with allopathic medicines and have thereby reported the present case with a literature review.

  15. The Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infection and Its Influence on Condom Use among Pregnant Women in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afari-Asiedu, Samuel; Gyabaa-Febir, Lawrence; Adjei, Kwame Kesse; Mahama, Emmanuel; Tawiah-Agyemang, Charlotte; Newton, Sam K.; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) affects the reproductive health of both men and women worldwide. Condoms are important part of the available preventive strategies for STI control. The lack of proper risk-perception continues to impede women's ability to negotiate condom use with their partners. This paper is the outcome of secondary analysis of data collected in a cross-sectional survey that explored the perception of risk of STI and its influence on condom use among 504 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at two health facilities in the Kintampo North Municipality. Consecutively, three Focus Group Discussions were conducted among 22 pregnant women which was analyzed using thematic analysis technique. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify possible predictors of condom use and risk of STI. Respondents mean age was 26.0 ± 5.9 years. 47% of respondents self-identified themselves as high risk for contracting STI, 50% of whom were married. High risk status (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1–4.4), ability to ask for condoms during sex (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1–0.73), and partner's approval of condom use (OR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.01–0.05) were independent predictors of condom use. Condom use (OR 2.9 (1.5–5.7); p = 0.001) and marital status (engaged, OR 2.6 (1.5–4.5); p = 0.001) were independent predictors of risk of STI. Women who self-identified themselves as high risk for STI successfully negotiated condom use with their partners. This is however influenced by partner's approval and ability to convince partner to use condoms. Self-assessment of STI risk by women and the cooperation of male partners remain critical. PMID:28246570

  16. Risk behaviors of 15–21 year olds in Mexico lead to a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections: results of a survey in disadvantaged urban areas

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    Conde-Glez Carlos J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the fact that adolescents are more likely to participate in high-risk behaviors, this sector of the population is particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs and resultant health problems. Methods A survey was carried out among adolescents from poor homes in 204 small-urban areas of Mexico. Information was collected in relation to risk behaviors and socio-economic environment. A sub-group of the participants also provided blood and urine samples which were analyzed to detect sexually transmitted infections. Results The presence of Chlamydia was detected in nearly 8% of participants who had stated that they were sexually active (18% and approximately 12% were positive for herpes type 2-specific antibodies. For both, a greater proportion of girls resulted positive compared to boys. The presence of these biological outcomes of sexual risk behavior was associated with other risk behaviors (smoking, but not with self-reported indicators of protected sex (reported use of condom during most recent sexual activity. Conclusion The results presented in this study show a startlingly high prevalence of HSV-2 among sexually active Mexican adolescents in poor urban areas, suggesting that this group has participated to a great extent in risky sexual practices. The relationships between socioeconomic environment and adolescent risk behavior need to be better understood if we are to design preventive interventions that modify the determinants of risk behaviors.

  17. Patterns of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and youth in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Swai Andrew

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syndromic management of STIs has been advocated as simplified and cheap approach. Youth have been reported to be at increased risk of acquiring STIs which can facilitate HIV transmission. We have investigated the relationship between the syndromic management and specific aetiology diagnosis and its relationship with HIV infection and health seeking behaviour among youth attending a reproductive health clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Between September 1998 and February 1999 among 1895 adolescents and youth below 25 years seen in the clinic 199 (10.5% were randomly selected and consented to participate in the study. A standard questionnaire was administered. Blood and vaginal or urethral specimens were taken and investigated for STI causative agents. Results Among a total of 199 studied adolescents and youth 22.6 % were teenagers, with fewer females 17.8% than males; 27.5% (p Conclusion The burden of STIs in this youth population is large indicating that youth are at increased risk of STIs and will certainly require youth friendly clinics. There is a need to refine the current syndromic management guidelines.

  18. The knowledge and attitudes of a female at-risk population towards the prevention of AIDS and sexually transmitted infections in Tehran

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    Ali-Asghar Kolahi

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Knowledge towards sexually transmitted infections (STIs and condom use is still inadequate, especially regarding risky behaviors such as anal sex, and attitudes are mainly negative. Identifying at-risk populations, HIV-positive sex workers, education and campaigns to change the attitudes towards AIDS should be regarded a high priority in Iran.

  19. Use of Expedited Partner Therapy for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in College and University Health Centers in the United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ryan; Martinez, Nina; Roberts, Craig; Habel, Melissa A; Leino, E Victor; Leichliter, Jami S

    2015-10-01

    We examined expedited partner therapy for chlamydia and gonorrhea in college and university health centers by institutional and policy characteristics. Expedited partner therapy awareness and use was low (44.1% used), did not differ by institutional characteristics, and differed by policy environment. Our findings suggest missed opportunities for sexually transmitted disease prevention in college and university health centers.

  20. Source Preferences and the Displacement/Supplement Effect between Internet and Traditional Sources of Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV/AIDS Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examines the source preferences and the displacement/supplement effect of traditional and new channel usage as Taiwanese college students search for information about sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS from the Internet. The study involved 535 junior and senior college students from four universities. Analytical results…

  1. Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection (HIV/STI) Testing and Disclosure among HIV-Negative Collegiate Men Who Have Sex with Men

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    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Fuchs, Erika L.; Brady, Sonya S.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing and disclosure. Participants: Nine hundred thirty HIV-negative collegiate men who have sex with men (MSM) who completed an online survey about alcohol use and…

  2. Effectiveness of Health Education Teachers and School Nurses Teaching Sexually Transmitted Infections/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Knowledge and Skills in High School

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    Borawski, Elaine A.; Tufts, Kimberly Adams; Trapl, Erika S.; Hayman, Laura L.; Yoder, Laura D.; Lovegreen, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We examined the differential impact of a well-established human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) curriculum, Be Proud! Be Responsible!, when taught by school nurses and health education classroom teachers within a high school curricula. Methods: Group-randomized intervention study of 1357 ninth and…

  3. An intersectional approach for understanding the vulnerabilities of English-speaking heterosexual Caribbean youth to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections: Prevention and intervention strategies

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    Marcia Elizabeth Sutherland

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean youth comprise about 30 percent of the English-speaking Caribbean population, and about 81,000 Caribbean and Latin American youth are HIV infected. AIDS is the leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old English-speaking Caribbean youth. This article relies on intersectionality theory in the assessment of the macro-level, or structural variables, and micro-level, or individual level, variables that influence the risk-taking sexual behaviors of heterosexual English-speaking Caribbean youth and increase their vulnerability to HIV/sexually transmitted infections. This article offers macro- and micro-level prevention/intervention strategies for reducing the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in English-speaking Caribbean youth, including the promotion of condom use, voluntary male circumcision, and HIV testing and counseling. Suggestions are offered for future research investigations to explore the contributing factors to youth’s vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections and to empirically verify the relationship between and among variables that account for desired outcomes, including decreases in risky sexual behaviors.

  4. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center in Kermanshah

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    Fariba Teimouri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug addiction is one of the social health problems at the present century. The high risk sexual behaviors as well as drug abusing are factors of sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center. Methods: In this descriptive study, 76 women who have referred to Niloofar de-addiction center in Kermanshah-Western Iran, were recruited using convenience sampling method. Questionnaire was completed by all subjects and blood sample were taken to determine Hepatitis B, Syphilis, and Herpes simplex virus infection. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t- test, Chi-2 and the Fisher exact test. Results: The mean age of women was 35.22±0.99 year. 51.3% of subjects were illiterate and 48.7% were supported by social welfare system. There were not common needle using and multiple sexual contacts in the subjects. None of the subjects had positive test for hepatitis B and syphilis but HSV antibody was determined in 91.6% of subjects.Conclusion: In this study, high-risk behaviors and sexually transmitted diseases were less than expected. This study was carried out in a state governmental clinic, future studies in different populations of addicted women referred to prison and private sectors are recommended.

  5. An intersectional approach for understanding the vulnerabilities of English-speaking heterosexual Caribbean youth to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections: Prevention and intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth

    2016-07-01

    Caribbean youth comprise about 30 percent of the English-speaking Caribbean population, and about 81,000 Caribbean and Latin American youth are HIV infected. AIDS is the leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old English-speaking Caribbean youth. This article relies on intersectionality theory in the assessment of the macro-level, or structural variables, and micro-level, or individual level, variables that influence the risk-taking sexual behaviors of heterosexual English-speaking Caribbean youth and increase their vulnerability to HIV/sexually transmitted infections. This article offers macro- and micro-level prevention/intervention strategies for reducing the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in English-speaking Caribbean youth, including the promotion of condom use, voluntary male circumcision, and HIV testing and counseling. Suggestions are offered for future research investigations to explore the contributing factors to youth's vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections and to empirically verify the relationship between and among variables that account for desired outcomes, including decreases in risky sexual behaviors.

  6. Assessing the vulnerability of women to sexually transmitted diseases STDS/ HIV: construction and validation of markers

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    Mónica Cecilia De la Torre Ugarte Guanilo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To construct and validate markers of vulnerability of women to STDs/HIV, taking into consideration the importance of STDs/HIV. Method Methodological study carried out in three stages: 1 systematic review and identification of elements of vulnerability in the scientific production; 2 selection of elements of vulnerability, and development of markers; 3 establishment of the expert group and validation of the markers (content validity. Results Five markers were validated: no openness in the relationship to discuss aspects related to prevention of STDs/HIV; no perception of vulnerability to STDs/HIV; disregard of vulnerability to STDs/ HIV; not recognizing herself as the subject of sexual and reproductive rights; actions of health professionals that limit women’s access to prevention of STDs/HIV. Each marker contains three to eleven components. Conclusion The construction of such markers constituted an instrument, presented in another publication, which can contribute to support the identification of vulnerabilities of women in relation to STDs/HIV in the context of primary health care services. The markers constitute an important tool for the operationalization of the concept of vulnerability in primary health care and to promote inter/multidisciplinary and inter/multi-sectoral work processes.

  7. Sexually Transmitted Diseases as a Risk for Acquiring HIV Infection among the Population of Men Who Have Sex with Men--A Case-Control Study.

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    Lakoseljac, Danijela; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Kolarić, Branko; Rukavina, Tomislav; Blazić, Tatjana Nemeth

    2015-09-01

    At the beginning of the 1980-ies, HIV infection and AIDS were described for the first time, this among the population of men who have sex with other men. Nearly thirty years later, the MSM population is still a population under heightened risk for acquiring HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. This study investigates sexually transmitted diseases as a risk for HIV infection. A total of 296 men who have sex with men (MSM) were included in this case control study. Differences among the frequencies of sexually transmitted diseases among the MSM of HIV positive and HIV negative status were tested. The history of HIV positive more often states falling ill with sexually transmitted diseases than this was the case before they became HIV positive, unlike those MSM who are not HIV infected (45.9%:11.1% that is OR 6.79, 95% CI 3.49-13.19). Hepatitis B infection is more frequent in HIV positive MSM (11.5%:1.9%; OR 6.58, 95% CI 1.86-23.3). The frequency of gonorrhea in case history of HIV positive MSM is significantly higher than in the HIV negative group (11.5%:3.8%, OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.13-9.34). In the group of HIV positive MSM, unlike the HIV negative group, syphilis (14.8:1.0%, OR 1774, 95% CI 3.43-122.87) and genital herpes (8.2%:0.5%, OR 18.39, 95% CI 2.03-424.7) are more frequent. The results of this study will be used in future preventive activities focused on the population of MSM, as a population under particular risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections.

  8. The Association of Attendance at Religious Services and Involvement in Church/Religious Activities and Youth Assets, by Gender, with Youths Engagement in Sexual Intercourse

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    Mueller, Trisha; Bensyl, Diana; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Aspy, Cheryl B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has shown that religion plays a role in the lives of many youths. This paper aims to extend previous research and examine attendance at religious services and involvement in religious/church activities as separate items to determine if one aspect was more strongly associated with never having had sexual intercourse among…

  9. Hepatitis B virus and its sexually transmitted infection – an update

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    Takako Inoue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: About 5% of the world’s population has chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, and nearly 25% of carriers develop chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals is 5%-15%; HIV/HBV coinfected individuals have a higher level of HBV replication, with higher rates of chronicity, reactivation, occult infection, and HCC than individuals with HBV only. The prevalence of HBV genotype A is significantly higher among men who have sex with men (MSM, compared with the rest of the population. Molecular mechanisms of infection, pathology, and symptomatology: HBV replication begins with entry into the hepatocyte. Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide was identified in 2012 as the entry receptor of HBV. Although chronic hepatitis B develops slowly, HIV/HBV coinfected individuals show more rapid progression to cirrhosis and HCC. Transmission and protection: The most common sources of HBV infection are body fluids. Hepatitis B (HB vaccination is recommended for all children and adolescents, and all unvaccinated adults at risk for HBV infection (sexually active individuals such as MSM, individuals with occupational risk, and immunosuppressed individuals. Although HB vaccination can prevent clinical infections (hepatitis, it cannot prevent 100% of subclinical infections. Treatment and curability: The goal of treatment is reducing the risk of complications (cirrhosis and HCC. Pegylated interferon alfa and nucleos(tide analogues (NAs are the current treatments for chronic HBV infection. NAs have improved the outcomes of patients with cirrhosis and HCC, and decreased the incidence of acute liver failure.

  10. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in short-term correctional institutions: summary of evidence reviewed for the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

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    Spaulding, Anne C; Miller, Jamie; Trigg, Bruce G; Braverman, Paula; Lincoln, Thomas; Reams, Patricia N; Staples-Horne, Michelle; Sumbry, Anitra; Rice, Dana; Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Young persons entering US jails and youth detention facilities have high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention added STD screening guidelines specific to correctional settings to the 2010 STD Treatment Guidelines. This article summarizes published evidence from 1990 to 2009 used to develop the recommendations. The literature supports routine screening of adolescents and young women (aged ≤35 years, or on the basis of local institutional prevalence data) for chlamydia and gonorrhea because of high prevalence and the subsequent risk of adverse reproductive outcomes. Chlamydia positivity among young women (aged <20 years) in juvenile detention facilities and adult facilities is more than 14%. Men in correctional settings are also at high risk for chlamydia and gonorrhea. Among boys in juvenile detention facilities, chlamydia positivity is estimated at 6.6%; among young men in adult facilities, positivity is 16.6%. Screening men (to reduce sequelae among women) should be considered based on local epidemiology and resource availability. Syphilis screening is not strongly supported in published literature because of low prevalence and is not routinely recommended; however, some screening may be warranted based on local prevalence. Although there is a great diversity in the organization of correctional facilities, implementation of screening recommendations is possible owing to improvements in test technology (urine specimens) and through integration of a standard screening protocol. Based on the high burden of disease and substantial opportunities to reach a high-risk population, correctional facilities are important venues to target efforts to control STDs.

  11. Evaluating the Need for Sex Education in Developing Countries: Sexual Behaviour, Knowledge of Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections/HIV and Unplanned Pregnancy

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    Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Woog, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    Young people's need for sex education is evidenced by their typically early initiation of sexual activity, the often involuntary context within which they have sexual intercourse, high-risk sexual behaviours and the inadequate levels of knowledge of means of protecting their sexual health. The earliness of initiation of sexual intercourse has…

  12. Prevalence and knowledge of sexual transmitted infections, drug abuse, and AIDS among male inmates in a Taiwan prison.

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    Feng, Ming-Chu; Feng, Jui-Ying; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chang, Pi-Yen; Lu, Po-Liang

    2012-12-01

    This cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study performed a structured questionnaire survey of a Taiwan population of male prison inmates to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), intravenous drug users (IDUs), and drug abuse and to assess their knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The objective was to obtain data needed to control the spread of HIV. Out of 1000 questionnaires distributed, 908 valid questionnaires were returned. Inmates were classified into three groups: IDUs with HIV (13.5%), IDUs without HIV (49.3%), and non-IDUs without HIV (37.2%). A total of 115 (12.7%) inmates had contracted STIs other than HIV. Compared with inmates without HIV, those with HIV were more likely to have a junior high school education level or lower and a history of the following: employment as a blue-collar laborer, STI, unprotected sexual activity, and needle sharing during intravenous drug use. The longer they have used intravenous drugs, the higher the probability that they shared needles, and the more likely they contracted with HIV. Taiwanese male inmates had a low level of knowledge about safe sex and HIV transmission routes, except for sharing needles. The three groups did not significantly differ in HIV-related knowledge. Given the high percentage of IDU and HIV infection in male prison inmates in Taiwan, interventions are needed to educate this population in the increased risk of contracting HIV/AIDS associated with unsafe sex and needle sharing during illicit drug use. Such interventions are crucial for limiting the spread of HIV as this population reintegrates with the community.

  13. Prevalence and determinants of sexually transmitted infections (STIs among male migrant factory workers in Haryana, North India

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    Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male migrant workers display high risk sexual behavior and have been shown to have higher prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs, which make them more vulnerable to HIV infection. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported STIs and delineate their determinants among male migrant factory workers in Faridabad, Haryana. Materials and Methods: Male workers in two selected factories, who were aged ≥18 years, were born outside Haryana (destination, and who had migrated to Haryana after the age of 15 years were eligible. Socio-demographic information, HIV/AIDS knowledge and behavior, and self-reported STI symptoms in the last 1 year were ascertained by face-to-face interview. Determinants of STIs were identified by regression analysis. Results: Totally 755 eligible workers participated. Mean ± SD age was 31.4 ± 8.2 years and migration duration was 9.5 ± 6.7 years. At least one STI symptom was reported by 41.7% of the participants (burning micturition- 35%, inguinal bubos-5.2%, genital ulcers- 2.6%, urethral pus discharge- 1.3%. Factors associated with STIs were higher age at migration, lower HIV/AIDS knowledge, paid sex in the last year, non-use of condoms during the last non-spousal sex, and unfavorable intention to use condom. Conclusion: Prevalence of self-reported STIs among these migrant men was high. Targeted Interventions among migrant workers need to be strengthened for control and prevention of STIs.

  14. Association between sexually transmitted disease and church membership. A retrospective cohort study of two Danish religious minorities

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    Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont; Johansen, Christoffer; Søndergaard, Jens; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies comprising Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDAs) and Danish Baptists found that members have a lower risk of chronic diseases including cancer. Explanations have pointed to differences in lifestyle, but detailed aetiology has only been sparsely examined. Our objective was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour. Methods We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care contacts using the National Patient Register. We compared the incidence of syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia among members of the cohort with the general population. Results The cohort comprised 3119 SDA females, 1856 SDA males, 2056 Baptist females and 1467 Baptist males. For the entire cohort, we expected a total of 32.4 events of STD, and observed only 9. Female SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (both p<0.001). Male SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years also had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). No SDA members were diagnosed with gonorrhoea, when 3.4 events were expected, which, according to Hanley's ‘rule of three’, is a significant difference. No SDA or Baptist was diagnosed with syphilis. Conclusions The cohort shows significant lower incidence of STD, most likely including human papillomavirus, which may partly explain the lower incidence of cancers of the cervix, rectum, anus, head and neck. PMID:27016243

  15. Empowering sex workers in India to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted diseases.

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    Swendeman, Dallas; Basu, Ishika; Das, Sankari; Jana, Smarajit; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2009-10-01

    The Sonagachi Project was initiated in Kolkata, India in 1992 as a STD/HIV intervention for sex workers. The project evolved to adopt strategies common to women's empowerment programs globally (i.e., community mobilization, rights-based framing, advocacy, micro-finance) to address common factors that support effective, evidence-based HIV/STD prevention. The Sonagachi model is now a broadly diffused evidence-based empowerment program. We previously demonstrated significant condom use increases among female sex workers in a 16 month replication trial of the Sonagachi empowerment intervention (n=110) compared to a control community (n=106) receiving standard care of STD clinic, condom promotion, and peer education in two randomly assigned rural towns in West Bengal, India (Basu et al., 2004). This article examines the intervention's impacts on 21 measured variables reflecting five common factors of effective HIV/STD prevention programs to estimate the impact of empowerment strategies on HIV/STD prevention program goals. The intervention which was conducted in 2000-2001 significantly: 1) improved knowledge of STDs and condom protection from STD and HIV, and maintained STD/HIV risk perceptions despite treatment; 2) provided a frame to motivate change based on reframing sex work as valid work, increasing disclosure of profession, and instilling a hopeful future orientation reflected in desire for more education or training; 3) improved skills in sexual and workplace negotiations reflected in increased refusal, condom decision-making, and ability to change work contract, but not ability to take leave; 4) built social support by increasing social interactions outside work, social function participation, and helping other sex workers; and 5) addressed environmental barriers of economic vulnerabilities by increasing savings and alternative income, but not working in other locations, nor reduced loan taking, and did not increase voting to build social capital. This study

  16. THE KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OF A GROUP OF STUDENTS IN CELAL BAYAR UNIVERSITY ABOUT FAMILY PLANNING AND SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

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    Pinar ERBAY DUNDAR

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Young adulthood is a period when concepts like family planning (FP and sexually transmitted diseases (STD?s become important. This cross-sectional study was performed to measure the knowledge level of Biology and Turkish Language / Literature students of Manisa Celal Bayar University about FP and STD?s. The questionnaire measures knowledge level of FP-STD?s and sociodemographic variables was performed to 299 students (73 % of the population undar observation. The data is evaluated by chi square test and Student?s t test in SPSS 10.0 statistics program. The mean age of the study group is 21.3±1.9, 31.8% get informed about FP by friends, 95.4% of girls know about oral contraseptives (oc?s and 88.3% of girls know about IUD?s; 96.1% of boys know about oc?s and 79.4% of them know about condom. The mean knowledge point of FP is 11.2±3.7 of girls, 9.0±3.9 of boys (p0.05. The effective variables of STD?s knowledge is age group.Medico-social section of universities is a very important places for consulting FP and STD?s to the students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000: 66-78

  17. Validity and Reliability of Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Assessment Tool Among Vulnerable Women Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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    Zahra Boroumandfar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to design and evaluate the content and face validity, and reliability of knowledge, attitude, and behavior questionnaire on preventive behaviors among vulnerable women concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in two phases of an action research. In the first phase, to explain STDs preventive domains, 20 semi- structured interviews were conducted with the vulnerable women, residing at women prison and women referred to counseling centers. After analyzing content of interviews, three domains were identified: improve their knowledge, modify their attitude and change their behaviors. In the second phase, the questionnaire was designed and tested in a pilot study. Then, its content validity was evaluated. Face validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed by test re- test method and Cronbach alpha respectively.Results: Index of content validity in each three domain of the questionnaire (knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning STDs was obtained over 0.6. Overall content validity index was 0.86 in all three domains of the questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha as reliability of questionnaire was 0.80 for knowledge, 0.79 for attitude and 0.85 for behavior.Conclusion: The results showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable tool to measure knowledge, attitude and behavior of vulnerable women, predisposed to risk of STDs.

  18. Male circumcision for the prevention of acquisition and transmission of sexually transmitted infections: the case for neonatal circumcision.

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    Tobian, Aaron A R; Gray, Ronald H; Quinn, Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) male circumcision policy states that while there are potential medical benefits of newborn male circumcision, the data are insufficient to recommend routine neonatal circumcision. Since 2005, however, 3 randomized trials have evaluated male circumcision for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. The trials found that circumcision decreases human immunodeficiency virus acquisition by 53% to 60%, herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition by 28% to 34%, and human papillomavirus prevalence by 32% to 35% in men. Among female partners of circumcised men, bacterial vaginosis was reduced by 40%, and Trichomonas vaginalis infection was reduced by 48%. Genital ulcer disease was also reduced among males and their female partners. These findings are also supported by observational studies conducted in the United States. The AAP policy has a major impact on neonatal circumcision in the United States. This review evaluates the recent data that support revision of the AAP policy to fully reflect the evidence of long-term health benefits of male circumcision.

  19. Sexually transmitted diseases and condom use among female freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore.

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    Wong, M L; Chan, R K; Chua, W L; Wee, S

    1999-11-01

    This study compares the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), condom use, and health-screening behavior between freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore. A total of 111 female freelance sex workers arrested from November 1996 to March 1997 for illicit prostitution were interviewed; 333 brothel-based sex workers served as the comparison group for the analysis. STD test results revealed that freelance sex workers (34.8%) have higher STD rates than brothel-based sex workers (24%). The two most common STDs in both groups were chlamydial cervicitis and syphilis. Moreover, condom use was significantly lower among freelance sex workers than brothel-based sex workers and was associated with younger age (25 years old), decreasing number of clients, and perception of non-condom use among peers. In addition, freelance workers were more educated and had equally high knowledge on STDs and AIDS. Since most of these freelance workers practice high-risk behaviors and poor health screening behaviors such as not going for regular medical check-ups, STD services and education programs should target this group.

  20. Sensitive simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in semen by multiplex-PCR and of HPV by single PCR.

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    Fabrícia Gimenes

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV -1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%, sensitivity (100.00%, specificity (99.70%, positive (96.40% and negative predictive values (100.00% and accuracy (99.80%. The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%. Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks.

  1. Prevalence and associated factors of mental health problems among monogamous Chinese female patients with sexually transmitted diseases in Hong Kong.

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    Mo, Phoenix K H; Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T F; You, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted disease (STD) increases risk of HIV infection and has profound psychological consequences. The present study examined the mental health problems (poor emotional well-being, insomnia, probable depression) and their associated factors among monogamous Chinese female STD patients. A total of 537 Chinese female STD patients who self-reported having had only one male sex partner in the last 12 months were recruited from a STD clinic in Hong Kong. They completed a survey including measures of mental health, STD-related history, perceptions, feelings related to STD infection, and perceptions toward condom use. Results showed that 22% had poor emotional well-being, 25.7% had insomnia, and 43% were probable cases of depression. Unemployment, worsened relationship with partners after STD diagnosis, STD history in last three months, finding STD examinations embarrassing, and feelings of helplessness were significant risk factors for poor emotional well-being and insomnia. Also, unemployment, worsened relationships with partners after STD diagnosis, and perceived high chance of STD in the coming six months were significant risk factors for probable depression. Perceived efficacy of condom use for STD prevention was a significant protective factor against poor emotional well-being and probable depression. Findings suggest that interventions are warranted to improve the mental health among this population.

  2. Highly variable use of diagnostic methods for sexually transmitted infections-results of a nationwide survey, Germany 2005

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    Hamouda Osamah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual transmitted infections (STIs have increased in Germany and other countries in Europe since the mid-nineties. To obtain a better picture of diagnostic methods used in STI testing institutions in Germany, we performed a nationwide survey amongst STI specialists in order to evaluate the quality of STI reports and provide recommendations to harmonize and possibly improve STI diagnostics in Germany. Methods We asked sentinel physicians and randomly chosen gynaecologists, urologists and dermato-venerologists, about the diagnostic methods used in 2005 to diagnose HIV, chlamydia (CT, gonorrhoea (GO and syphilis (SY in a national cross-sectional survey in order to recognize potential problems and provide recommendations. Results A total of 739/2287 (32% physicians participated. Of all participants, 80% offered tests for HIV, 84% for CT, 83% for GO and 83% for SY. Of all participants who performed HIV testing, 90% requested an antibody test, 3% a rapid test and 1% a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. For CT testing, NAAT was used in 33% and rapid tests in 34% of participants. GO resistance testing was performed by 31% of the participants. SY testing was performed in 98% by serology. Conclusions Diagnostic methods for STI vary highly among the participants. Diagnostic guidelines should be reviewed and harmonised to ensure consistent use of the optimal STI diagnostic methods.

  3. Substance use, need, and demand for substance user treatment services in patients treated for sexually transmitted diseases in michigan.

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    Aktan, G B; Calkins, R F; Johnson, D R

    2001-10-01

    The association between substance use and communicable diseases, and the need for substance user treatment services for patients treated for communicable diseases, is well documented. This study builds upon this knowledge in that it quantifies the need and demand for substance user treatment services in a large population of patients treated for communicable diseases, specifically, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), an area in which there is insufficient research published in the literature, but which is essential for policy development. More than 1700 patients treated for STDs in publicly funded clinics in Michigan between 1994-1995 were interviewed about their substance use, consequences of use and demand for substance user treatment services. Results indicated that the rates of substance use and demand for substance user treatment services were significantly higher among persons encountered in the STD clinics compared to the Michigan general adult population; however, a large proportion of STD patients determined to need substance user treatment services according to DSM-III-R criteria for "substance dependence" and "abuse" did not report ever receiving it. These results are followed by a discussion of possible policy implications for planning for substance user treatment services for patients treated for STDs in publicly funded clinics and suggestions for further research.

  4. Acceptability and Feasibility of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing and Treatment among Pregnant Women in Gaborone, Botswana, 2015

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    Adriane Wynn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV are curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs that can cause adverse maternal and birth outcomes. Most countries do not conduct routine testing during antenatal care. We present data on the acceptability and feasibility of testing and treating pregnant women for STIs in an antenatal clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. Materials and Methods. We offered CT, NG, and TV testing using self-collected vaginal swabs to eligible pregnant women. Participants received same-day test results. Those who tested positive were given treatment. Results. Among the 225 women who were eligible and recruited, 200 (89% agreed to participate. The median age of our study sample was 30 years; most were unmarried (77%, with a median gestational age of 27 weeks and a 23% HIV prevalence. All participants received their results with at least 72% (n=143 on the same day. Thirty participants (15% tested positive for an STI, all were treated, and 24 (80% were treated on the same day. Conclusion. The acceptability of STI testing was high, and the intervention was feasible. This study provides support for continued research into STI prevalence, cost-effectiveness, and the association of STIs with adverse maternal and infant outcomes.

  5. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in rural women in Papua New Guinea: are WHO therapeutic algorithms appropriate for case detection?

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    Passey, M.; Mgone, C. S.; Lupiwa, S.; Tiwara, S.; Lupiwa, T.; Alpers, M. P.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of a large reservoir of untreated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in developing countries has prompted a number of suggestions for improving case detection, including the use of clinical algorithms and risk assessments to identify women likely to be infected when they present to clinics for other reasons. We used data from a community-based study of STDs to develop and evaluate algorithms for detection of cervical infection with Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and for detection of vaginal infection with Trichomonas vaginalis or bacterial vaginosis. The algorithms were derived using data from 192 randomly selected women, then evaluated on 200 self-selected women. We evaluated the WHO algorithm for vaginal discharge in both groups. The prevalences of cervical and vaginal infection in the randomly selected group were 27% and 50%, respectively, and 23% and 52%, respectively, in the self-selected group. The derived algorithms had high sensitivities in both groups, but poor specificities in the self-selected women, and the positive predictive values were unacceptably low. The WHO algorithms had extremely low sensitivity for detecting either vaginal or cervical infection because relatively few women reported vaginal discharge. Simple algorithms and risk assessments are not valid for case detection in this population. PMID:9803591

  6. Phenotypic Detection of Genitourinary Candidiasis among Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Attendees in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria.

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    Obisesan, Oluranti J; Olowe, Olugbenga A; Taiwo, Samuel S

    2015-01-01

    The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC) is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API) 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32 ± 11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p < 0.0001). The age groups 31-45 and 16-30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere.

  7. Sensitive simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in semen by multiplex-PCR and of HPV by single PCR.

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    Gimenes, Fabrícia; Medina, Fabiana Soares; Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta de; Irie, Mary Mayumi Taguti; Esquiçati, Isis Baroni; Malagutti, Natália; Vasconcellos, Vinícius Rodrigo Bulla; Discacciati, Michele Garcia; Bonini, Marcelo Gialluisi; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV) -1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV) and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR) in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%), sensitivity (100.00%), specificity (99.70%), positive (96.40%) and negative predictive values (100.00%) and accuracy (99.80%). The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%). Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks.

  8. Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women Participating in a Biomedical Intervention Trial in Durban: Prevalence, Coinfections, and Risk Factors.

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    Abbai, Nathlee Samantha; Wand, Handan; Ramjee, Gita

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to be a significant public health problem especially among women of reproductive age in Africa. Methods. A total of 2236 women that had enrolled in the MDP301 vaginal microbicide trial were tested for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), Treponema pallidum, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Results. CT was identified as the most prevalent STI (11%) followed by TV (10%), NG, and Syphilis (3%). The highest prevalence of coinfection was reported between T. pallidum and TV (19.67%, P = 0.004), followed by CT and TV (13.52%, P ≤ 0.001). Risk factors that were significantly associated with STI acquisition were women of 23 years of age or younger (HR: 1.50, 95% CI 1.17, 1.93), baseline STI with CT (HR: 1.77, 95% CI 1.32, 2.35), TV (HR: 1.58, 95% CI, 1.20, 2.10), and T. pallidum (HR: 5.13, 95% CI 3.65, 7.22), and a low education level (HR: 1.30, 95% CI 1.02, 1.66). Conclusion. Young women with lower education and a history of STIs are at high risk of multiple STIs. Prevention programs should consider target approach to STI prevention among young women. This trial is registered with ISRCTN64716212.

  9. Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women Participating in a Biomedical Intervention Trial in Durban: Prevalence, Coinfections, and Risk Factors

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    Nathlee Samantha Abbai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs continue to be a significant public health problem especially among women of reproductive age in Africa. Methods. A total of 2236 women that had enrolled in the MDP301 vaginal microbicide trial were tested for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhea (NG, Treponema pallidum, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV. Results. CT was identified as the most prevalent STI (11% followed by TV (10%, NG, and Syphilis (3%. The highest prevalence of coinfection was reported between T. pallidum and TV (19.67%, P=0.004, followed by CT and TV (13.52%, P≤0.001. Risk factors that were significantly associated with STI acquisition were women of 23 years of age or younger (HR: 1.50, 95% CI 1.17, 1.93, baseline STI with CT (HR: 1.77, 95% CI 1.32, 2.35, TV (HR: 1.58, 95% CI, 1.20, 2.10, and T. pallidum (HR: 5.13, 95% CI 3.65, 7.22, and a low education level (HR: 1.30, 95% CI 1.02, 1.66. Conclusion. Young women with lower education and a history of STIs are at high risk of multiple STIs. Prevention programs should consider target approach to STI prevention among young women. This trial is registered with ISRCTN64716212.

  10. The socio-cultural contexts of sexually transmitted diseases in South Africa: implications for health education programmes.

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    Meyer-Weitz, A; Reddy, P; Weijts, W; van den Borne, B; Kok, G

    1998-04-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are widespread in South Africa and contribute to the growing HIV epidemic. As an important step in curtailing the spread of STDs, this study explores STD patients' illness representations within its socio-cultural context, particularly gender relationships. In-depth interviews were conducted with Xhosa- and Zulu-speaking patients in clinics in Cape Town, Western Cape (N = 67) and in rural areas of Kabokweni, Mpumalanga (N = 21) The findings suggest that STD patients' illness representations are reflections of their socio-cultural understanding of disease and of culturally defined gender relations. This, in turn, impacts on their general perceptions of the cause of STDs, their perceptions of the risk of contracting STDs, them entering and using formal and traditional medical treatment and on their ideas of prevention. Thus, healthy behaviours need to be facilitated through multiple educational strategies focusing on an improved understanding of the cause of the STD in its context of gender relations, the development of interpersonal and technical skills, as well as focusing on cues for action.

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of behavioral intention for risk compensation following voluntary medical male circumcision among male sexually transmitted diseases patients in China.

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    Wang, Zixin; Feng, Tiejian; Lau, Joseph T F

    2016-10-01

    Risk compensation was an important concern of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) promotion campaigns. No study investigated risk compensation following VMMC among male sexually transmitted diseases patients (MSTDP). A cross-sectional survey interviewed 308 uncircumcised MSTDP in Shenzhen, China. 26.9% of them intended to perform at least one of the five types of risk compensation behaviors following VMMC. In the summary stepwise model, provision of incorrect response to HIV/sexually transmitted diseases knowledge items (multivariate odds ratios (ORm) = 2.30), genital herpes infection (ORm = 3.19), Risk Reduction Score for Unprotected Sex, and Negative Condom Attitudes Scale (ORm = 1.13) were significantly associated with behavioral intention to perform at least one type of risk compensation behavior following VMMC. The results provided a framework for developing related interventions. Prevention of risk compensation should be an essential component of VMMC promotion for all MSTDP, irrespective of their intention for VMMC.

  12. Impact of an intervention on HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use among sex workers in Bombay, India.

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    Bhave, G; Lindan, C P; Hudes, E S; Desai, S; Wagle, U; Tripathi, S P; Mandel, J S

    1995-07-01

    The objective was to develop and test an HIV intervention targeting sex workers and madams in the brothels of Bombay. In a controlled intervention trial, with measurements before and after the intervention, 334 sex workers and 20 madams were recruited from an intervention site, and 207 and 17, respectively, from a similar control site, both in red-light areas of Bombay. All sex workers were tested for antibodies to HIV and syphilis, and for hepatitis B surface antigen. Information on sexual practices, condom use, and knowledge of HIV was collected by questionnaires. All subjects in the intervention group underwent a 6-month program of educational videos, small group discussions and pictorial educational materials; free condoms were also distributed. The blood tests and the questionnaire were readministered to all subjects at both sites immediately after the intervention. Both groups were followed for approximately 1 year. The baseline prevalence of HIV antibodies was 47% in the intervention group and 41% in the control group (p = 0.17). The incidence densities for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases were significantly different in the 2 groups (all p 0.005): 0.05 and 0.16 per person-year of follow-up for HIV, 0.08 and 0.22 per person-year for antibodies to syphilis, and 0.04 and 0.12 per person-year for hepatitis B surface antigen in the intervention and control women, respectively. Following the intervention, there was a significant increase in knowledge of modes of HIV transmission in the intervention group (n = 334) compared to the control group (n = 190) (60% vs. 99% compared to 56% vs. 26%, p 0.001). In addition, women reported increased levels of condom use and some (41%) said they were willing to refuse clients who would not use them. However, both the sex workers and 100% of the madams were concerned about losing business if condom use was insisted upon. Intervention programs of longer duration that target madams and clients and make condoms easily

  13. Epidemiology of curable sexually transmitted infections among women at increased risk for HIV in northwestern Tanzania: inadequacy of syndromic management.

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    Suzanna C Francis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Curable, non-viral pathogens account for a significant burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and there is established evidence that STIs increase both HIV acquisition and transmission. We investigated the prevalence, trends, and factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum, and the performance of syndromic management, among a cohort of women working in bars, hotels, and other food and recreational facilities near large-scale mines in northwestern Tanzania. METHODS: HIV-negative women aged 18-44 years (N = 966 were enrolled and followed for 12 months in a microbicides feasibility study. We collected sociodemographic and behavioural data, performed clinical examinations, and tested for STIs, at enrolment and 3-monthly. Risk factors for STIs were investigated using logistic regression models with random effects. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of syndromic management were calculated. RESULTS: At enrolment, the prevalences of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, and high-titre active syphilis were 111/956 (12%, 42/955 (4%, 184/945 (19% and 46/965 (5%, respectively. There were significant decreases over time for C. trachomatis and T. vaginalis (OR trend per month: 0.94 [95% CI 0.91, 0.97]; and 0.95 [0.93, 0.98], respectively; both p<0.001. The majority of these infections were not diagnosed by the corresponding syndrome; therefore, most participants were not treated at the diagnosis visit. Syndromic management was poorly predictive of laboratory-diagnosed infections. We identified a number of risk factors for STIs, including low educational level, some sexual behaviours, and ever having been pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis demonstrates that the prevalences of curable STIs are high among women who work in food and recreational facilities in northwestern Tanzania. Most of these infections are missed by syndromic management

  14. Health-related attitudes and risk factors for sexually transmitted infections of Chinese women who have sex with women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-fang; Jessie L. Norris; LIU Ying-jie; Kathleen H.Reilly; WANG Ning

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown evidence of health-related risk behaviors among women who have sex with women (WSW),such as sex with men,multiple bisexual partners,and drug use.Women who have sex with women have also been known to avoid routine physical examinations and conceal their same-sex history from physicians,which can affect their ability to receive an accurate diagnosis and treatment.No previous research has targeted women who have sex with women in China.We sought to describe women who have sex with women in China and explore risk factors for their reproductive tract infections (RTI)/sexually transmitted infections (STI).Methods Participants were recruited through outreach in venues and online for a cross-sectional study.Data were collected using interviews and laboratory tests.Results We recruited 224 women who have sex with women.In the year preceding their participation in the study,92% (206/224) of women reported sexual relations with women.The RTI rates were:gonorrhea (15.8%),chlamydia (3.5%),syphilis (0.5%),bacterial vaginosis (14.4%),hepatitis B virus (HBV) (0.9%),hepatitis C virus (HCV) (0.5%),and candidiasis (6.9%).No HIV or herpes simplex virus (HSV) positive cases were detected.Factors associated with gonorrhea infection were non-Beijing local residency (odds ratio (OR)=2.1,95% confidence interval (Cl):1.2-3.8) and genital-genital contact (OR=3.1,95% Cl:1.3-7.2); factors associated with curable STI (excluding bacterial vaginosis,candidiasis,HBV and HCV) were non-Beijing local residency (OR=1.9; 95% Cl:1.2-3.0) and bleeding during or after sex (OR=18.1; 95% CI:5.2-62.6); and the factor associated with RTI (including all the infections tested) was bleeding during or after sex (OR=37.8,95% Cl:11.2-127.4).Conclusions Behaviors that may cause RTI/STI exist among Chinese women who have sex with women.Researchers should consider these behaviors when planning corresponding prevention and interventions.

  15. Causative Role of Ureaplasma Urealyticum and other Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Urethral Meatus Polyp Development in Women

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    Tatyana S. Taranina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the investigation of the influence of ureaplasmal infection on the development of urethral meatus polyps in women. The article presents the results of the examination of women with chronic cystitis and urethritis over a 0.5- to 5-year duration, complicated by the presence of urethral meatus polyps and associated with concomitant Ureaplasma urealyticum and other sexually transmitted infections (STI. This was based on the culture analysis of the cervical and urethral content, and PCR-diagnostics of STI, as well as a complex pathomorphologic study of the resected polyps, including electron microscopy. In this study, 98 women between 45 and 60 years (52.5±4.9 years were examined, who had undergone radiowave resection of the polyps: 52 women were infected by STI, including Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis, while the remaining 46 women had been diagnosed as not having STI. According to the culture results in the women with STI, U. urealyticum was identified as a monoinfection in 69% of cases, while in the remaining 31% of cases it was evident in the form of mixed infections, mainly in association with Mycoplasma hominis (17.5% and Trichomonas vaginalis (13.5%. Pathomorphological examination of the urethral meatus polyps of the women with U. urealyticum and other STI demonstrated the proliferative character of the remodeling of the surface epithelium with hyperplasia, acanthosis, and keratinization of the stratified squamous epithelium and synchronous changes in the underlying connective tissue - impaired microcirculation and the diffuse inflammatory cell infiltrates with transepithelial leukopedesis. Using electron microscopy in the fibroblasts and plasma cells of the resected polyps the markers of U. urealyticum were detected in patients with negative results of the bacteriological diagnostic methods.

  16. KAP Study on Sexually Transmitted Infections/Reproductive Tract Infections (STIs/RTIs among married women in rural Haryana

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    S A Rizwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: About 490 million cases of curable Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI occur throughout the world, of which 79 million cases occur in India annually. Sexually Transmitted Infections/Reproductive Tract Infections (STI/RTI confers a huge economic burden on the individual and the health system. Complications of RTI/STI are many, ranging from chronic pain syndrome to infertility. Most of these complications can be prevented by early diagnosis and treatment. Aims: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices on STI/RTIs among married women aged 15-45 years in rural Haryana. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study, conducted in selected villages under the primary health centre Mandi, Sonepat, Haryana. Subjects and Methods: Systematic sampling was used to cover 10 villages. In each village, every tenth house was sampled, taking first house from the center of the village. Face-to-face interview was conducted using pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics and results were described in percentages. Results: A total of 344 women were interviewed. About 44% women had never heard of STI/RTI. The prevalence of self-reported symptoms of STI/RTI was very high (60%. Only 40% of them opted for treatment and most common cause for not opting for treatment was that they considered it as a minor problem. Advice for use of condom during the treatment was received by only 20% of patients and only 26.5% of their husbands also received treatment. Conclusions: Overall knowledge, attitude and practices relating to STI/RTI among married women in rural Haryana was poor. The prevalence of self-reported STI/RTI was found to be high and treatment seeking behavior was poor.

  17. An interactive internet-based continuing education course on sexually transmitted diseases for physicians and midwives in Peru.

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    Fredy A Canchihuaman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinicians in developing countries have had limited access to continuing education (CE outside major cities, and CE strategies have had limited impact on sustainable change in performance. New educational tools could improve CE accessibility and effectiveness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of this study was to evaluate an interactive Internet-based CE course on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs management for clinicians in Peru. Participants included physicians and midwives in private practice drawn from a census of 10 Peruvian cities. The CE included a three-hour workshop for improving Internet skills, followed by a 22-hour online course on STD-syndrome-management, with subsequent educational support. The course used case-based clinical vignettes tailored to local STD problems. Knowledge and reported practices on STD management were assessed before, immediately after and at four months after completion of the course. Statistical analysis included parametric tests-linear regression multivariate analysis, paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS 14.0. Of 1,071 eligible clinicians, 510 agreed to participate, as did an additional 132 public sector clinicians. Of these 642 participants, 619 (96.4% completed the course, and 596 (96.3% took the four-month follow-up evaluation. Physician and midwife scores improved from 64.2% correct answers on the pre-test to 77.9% correct on the four-month follow-up test (p<0.001. Most participants (95% found the online course useful for their work needs. Self reported STD management practices did not change. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Among physicians and midwives in Peru, an Internet-based CE course was feasible, acceptable with high participation rates, and led to sustained improvement in knowledge at four months. Further studies are needed to test it as a model for improving the training of physicians, midwives, and other health care providers.

  18. DECLINING PREVALENCE OF HIV AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AMONG FEMALE SEX WORKERS IN JOS, NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbe, AE; Sagay, AS; Imade, GE; Musa, J; Pam, VC; Egah, D; Onwuliri, V; Short, R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female Sex Workers (FSWs) are key reservoirs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from which transmission to the general population fuels epidemics. STIs amplify HIV infectiousness and susceptibility. We determined the status of HIV and STIs among brothel-based FSWs in Jos as part of an ongoing prevention intervention. METHOD Between January and May 2012, consenting consecutive brothel-based FSWs were recruited from previously designated brothels across Jos. HIV counseling and testing as well as screening for gonorrhoea, syphilis, trichomonasis, candidasis and Bacteria vaginosis (BV) were performed. Positive cases were provided free treatment and follow-up at Solat Women Hospital, Jos. Ethical clearance was obtained from Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) ethical committee. RESULT Two hundred FSWs aged 27.6 ± 4.6 years (range 15–55 years) were recruited and of these, 47 (23.5%) were HIV Positive, 20 (10.0%) had syphilis, 9 (4.5%) had Neisseria gonorrhea, 3 (1.5%) had Trichomonas vaginalis and 86 (43.0%) had BV. The association between HIV and bacterial vaginosis was statistically significant (OR of 2.2, 95% CI of 1.1–4.2, P-value=0.02). In comparison to similar prevalence in 2006, the current findings represent 51.5% decline in HIV prevalence, 40.8% decline for syphilis and over 83.3% decline in prevalence for Trichomonas vaginalis. There was no significant change in the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoea and BV. CONCLUSION The prevalence of HIV and STIs among brothel-based FSWs in Jos remain unacceptably high, although, there is a declining trend. A comprehensive HIV prevention program targeting these women is required to block transmission to the general population. PMID:25335372

  19. Influencing risk behavior of sexually transmitted infection clinic visitors: efficacy of a new methodology of motivational preventive counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Lisette; de Wit, John; Heijman, Titia; Fennema, Han; van Bergen, Jan; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2009-06-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted at a Dutch sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic to compare the effects of educational counseling and motivational interviewing (MI)-based HIV/STI counseling on determinants of condom use and partner notification at 6-month follow-up. It also examined the feasibility of MI-based counseling in a busy real-life clinic. The counseling approaches were historically compared: respondents in the control condition were recruited between April and July 2005, those in the experimental condition between September and December 2005. The study involved 428 participants. These were all high-risk clients of the STI clinic. Their mean age was 33.7 years, and 39.6% were female. The study showed that MI-based counseling had a more positive effect on self-efficacy, intentions to use condoms with casual partners, and long-term condom use with steady partners. It had no adversarial outcomes on other social cognitions or behaviors compared to educational counseling. Furthermore, MI-based counseling is experienced as a more respectful and structured way of counseling. MI-based counseling was relatively easily implemented into the current clinic procedures. In addition to the implementation of the training, neither specialized staff nor additional or longer client visits were needed. However, some nurses indicated that the new method required more personal investment and effort. Limitations of the current study are the low response rates, the high educational level of most participants, and the small sample size regarding partner notification. Nonetheless, we conclude that MI-based counseling was a more effective approach to preventive counseling compared to educational counseling and feasible in the busy real-life setting.

  20. Impact of HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing on risky sexual behaviors among men who have sex with men in Langfang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; WU Zun-you; SONG Ai-jun; Katharine Poundstone

    2013-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) in China remain at high risk for HIV infection,the proportion of reported HIV/AIDS cases that occurred among MSM rose greatly from 2005 to 2011.HIV testing and counseling is a critical HIV prevention strategy among HIV related high-risk population,including MSM in China.This article aimed to assess the association between receiving HIV testing and high-risk sexual behaviors among MSM in Langfang,Hebei Province,China.Methods Between September and November 2007,233 MSM were recruited to receive an HIV testing intervention.Face-to-face interviews were conducted before HIV testing and 3 months later HIV-related risk behaviors were assessed.Serological testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed.Results Of the recruited 233 MSM,200 completed follow-up.Baseline prevalence was 7.8% for HIV,21.0% for syphilis,15.8% for gonorrhea,and 5.0% for chlamydia.Multivariate analysis indicated that inconsistent condom use (OR=7.9,95% CI:0.9-66.7,P=-0.059) and bleeding during anal sex (OR=5.9,95% CI:1.3-26.2,P=0.019) were risk factors for HIV infection,and group sex (OR=6.6,95% Cl:2.2-19.7,P=-0.001) was a risk factor for syphilis infection at baseline.At 3 months follow-up,among STI-positive MSM,self-reported anal sex fell from 73.1% to 38.5% (P <0.001); group sex fell from 19.2% to 5.8% (P <0.001); and bleeding during anal sex fell from 23.1% to 5.8% (P <0.001).Among STI-negative MSM,the frequency of one-night stands fell from 32.5% to 17.2% (P <0.001),and oral sex rose from 57% to 78.5% (P <0.001).STI-positive MSM were less likely to engage in anal sex compared to STI-negative MSM (x2=5.189,P=0.023).Conclusions HIV testing is an important intervention strategy among MSM.HIV testing services among MSM need to be scaled up,along with comprehensive,tailored interventions including condom promotion and STI treatment.

  1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    education Trichomoniasis (107) General Information 1. caused by Trichomonas vaginalis , a single - celled protozoan 2. very common in females, but much...34 organisms on Wright’s or Giemsa stain--biopsy necessary 105. Treatment 27 106. Prevention 107. Trichomoniasis 108. Trichomonas vaginalis 109. Trichomonas ...nonspecific vaginitis) (115) General Information 1. caused by Gardnerella vaginalis most commonly 2. usually in combination with other anaerobic bacteria

  2. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Respond to Pre-Award Requests Manage Your Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award ... New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies , April 6, 2017 Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection ...

  3. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... come in for testing. Or the doctor may give you a medicine to take home for your partner. The STI may have ... come in for testing. Or the doctor may give you a medicine to take home for your partner. The STI may have ...

  4. UK national audit against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, H; Sullivan, A K; Carne, C A; Warwick, Z; Menon-Johansson, A; Clutterbuck, D

    2012-10-01

    A national audit of practice performance against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health Standards for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) was conducted in 2011. Approximately 60% and 8% of level 3 and level 2 services, respectively, participated. Excluding partner notification performance, the five lowest areas of performance for level 3 clinics were the STI/HIV risk assessment, care pathways linking care in level 2 clinics to local level 3 services, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs, information governance and receipt of chlamydial test results by clinicians within seven working days (the worst area of performance). The five lowest areas of performance for level 2 clinics were participating in audit, having an audit plan for the management of STIs for 2009-2010, the STI/HIV risk assessment, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs and information governance. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of the standards by commissioners of services because of their relevance to other national quality assurance drivers, and the need for development of a national system of STI management quality assurance measurement and reporting.

  5. The impact of health education transmitted via social media or text messaging on adolescent and young adult risky sexual behavior: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista; Eathington, Patricia; Baldwin, Kathleen; Sipsma, Heather

    2014-07-01

    Despite the increased use of social media and text messaging among adolescents, it is unclear how effective education transmitted via these mechanisms is for reducing sexual risk behavior. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the effectiveness of social media and text messaging interventions designed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) knowledge, increase screening/testing, decrease risky sexual behaviors, and reduce the incidence of STDs among young adults aged 15 through 24 years. Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies used a control group to explore intervention effects and included both young men and women. Sample sizes ranged from 32 to 7606 participants, and follow-up periods ranged between 4 weeks and 12 months. These studies provide preliminary evidence indicating that social media and text messaging can increase knowledge regarding the prevention of STDs. These interventions may also affect behavior, such as screening/testing for STDs, sexual risk behaviors, and STD acquisition, but the evidence for effect is weak. Many of these studies had several limitations that future research should address, including a reliance on self-reported data, small sample sizes, poor retention, low generalizability, and low analytic rigor. Additional research is needed to determine the most effective and engaging approaches for young men and women.

  6. Sexual practices of gay, bisexual, and other nonidentified MSM attending New York City gyms: patterns of serosorting, strategic positioning, and context selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkitis, Perry N; Moeller, Robert W; Pollock, James A

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive paper characterizes the sexual behaviors of a diverse sample (N=311) of gay, bisexual, and other nonidentified men who have sex with men (MSM) who regularly attended gyms in New York City. Approximately 50% of the sample indicated sex with primary male partners, while 88% of the men had sexual relations with male casual partners in the 6 months prior to assessment. The participants met their casual partners in a variety of different venues, including the Internet. Differences were noted along key demographic factors with regard to the contexts in which men met their partners. The data indicate that the men use serosorting, strategic positioning, and contexts in which they meet other men, to influence choices concerning sexual partners and practices as a form of health protection. It is proposed that these patterns of sexual behavior are representative of the totality of the lives of gay, bisexual, and other MSM, because despite engaging in gym behaviors, which might be considered health promoting, these men are simultaneously taking risks. Such findings point to varying motivations as to why gay, bisexual, and other MSM actually attend the gym.

  7. Prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Kisumu, Western Kenya, 1997 and 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde M Vandenhoudt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 1997, a survey in Kisumu found a prevalence of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSW of 75%. Only 50% reported using a condom with the last client. In 2008, we conducted another survey to collect data to inform an intervention targeting FSW in Kisumu. METHODS: In 2008 FSW were recruited by respondent-driven sampling. Women completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to explore factors associated with HIV-infection, and with condom use. Prevalence of HIV infection was compared in the two surveys from 1997 and 2008. Multivariate analysis was used to assess whether a change in HIV prevalence between the two surveys could be explained by changes in socio-demographic characteristics and/or behavioral factors. RESULTS: 481 FSW participated in the 2008 study. HIV prevalence was 56.5% (95% CI 52.0-61.6. Factors independently associated with HIV were age older than 29 years; being a widow; STI treatment in the past year; herpes simplex virus Type-2 infection; bacterial vaginosis; and trichomoniasis. Condom use with last client was reported by 75.0% (95% CI 70.9-78.9. Predictors of condom use with the last client were age older than 29 years; higher price paid by last client; ever having been tested for HIV. Predictors of unprotected sex were being drunk during last sex act; usually having sex during menses; and STI treatment in the past year. The odds ratio of HIV infection associated with year of survey was 0.49 (95% CI 0.33-0.75 after adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioral factors. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HIV among FSW in Kisumu was found to be lower in 2008 than in 1997, while reported condom use was higher. However, access to HIV/STI prevention and care services needs to improve to further decrease HIV transmission between FSW and their clients.

  8. Female sex workers incarcerated in New York City jails: prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and associated risk behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Farah; Katyal, Monica; Alper, Howard; Leibowitz, Ruth; Venters, Homer

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are an important cause of morbidity among incarcerated women and female sex workers (FSW). Little is known about FSW incarcerated in New York City (NYC) jails. We reviewed jail health records to identify the STI and HIV prevalence among newly incarcerated FSW in NYC jails. We also examined the relationship of demographics and self-reported clinical and risk behaviour history with FSW status and compared FSW with non-FSW incarcerated women to identify FSW predictors and, guide NYC jail programme planning and policy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed routinely collected jail health record data to identify the prevalence of chlamydia (Ct), gonorrhoea (Ng) and HIV infection among women newly incarcerated in NYC jails in 2009–2010 (study period) and studied the relationship of STIs, demographics and self-reported clinical and risk behaviour history with FSW status. Results During the study period, 10 828 women were newly incarcerated in NYC jails. Of these, 10 115 (93%) women were tested for Ct and Ng; positivity was 6.2% (95% CI 5.7% to 6.7%) and 1.7% (95% CI 1.4% to 1.9%), respectively. Nine percent had HIV infection. Seven hundred (6.5%) were defined as FSW. FSW were more likely to have Ct (adjusted OR (AOR): 1.55; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.05; p<0.0001) but not Ng or HIV. FSW were more likely to report age 20–24 years, reside in boroughs other than Manhattan, ≥6 prior incarcerations, ≥2 incarcerations during the study period, condom use with current sex partners, multiple sex partners and current drug use. Conclusions Women incarcerated in NYC jails had high rates of Ct, Ng, and HIV infection. FSW were at higher risk for Ct than non-FSW incarcerated women. These findings are being used to design targeted interventions to identify FSW, provide clinical and preventive services in jail and coordinate care with community partners. PMID:23687128

  9. In vitro surfactant structure-toxicity relationships: implications for surfactant use in sexually transmitted infection prophylaxis and contraception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela S Inácio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The need for woman-controlled, cheap, safe, effective, easy-to-use and easy-to-store topical applications for prophylaxis against sexually transmitted infections (STIs makes surfactant-containing formulations an interesting option that requires a more fundamental knowledge concerning surfactant toxicology and structure-activity relationships. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report in vitro effects of surfactant concentration, exposure time and structure on the viability of mammalian cell types typically encountered in the vagina, namely, fully polarized and confluent epithelial cells, confluent but non-polarized epithelial-like cells, dendritic cells, and human sperm. Representatives of the different families of commercially available surfactants--nonionic (Triton X-100 and monolaurin, zwitterionic (DDPS, anionic (SDS, and cationic (C(nTAB (n = 10 to 16, C(12PB, and C(12BZK--were examined. Triton X-100, monolaurin, DDPS and SDS were toxic to all cell types at concentrations around their critical micelle concentration (CMC suggesting a non-selective mode of action involving cell membrane destabilization and/or destruction. All cationic surfactants were toxic at concentrations far below their CMC and showed significant differences in their toxicity toward polarized as compared with non-polarized cells. Their toxicity was also dependent on the chemical nature of the polar head group. Our results suggest an intracellular locus of action for cationic surfactants and show that their structure-activity relationships could be profitably exploited for STI prophylaxis in vaginal gel formulations. The therapeutic indices comparing polarized epithelial cell toxicity to sperm toxicity for all surfactants examined, except C(12PB and C(12BZK, does not justify their use as contraceptive agents. C(12PB and C(12BZK are shown to have a narrow therapeutic index recommending caution in their use in contraceptive formulations. CONCLUSIONS

  10. Self-Defining as Sexually Abused and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Women Attending an STD Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with increased sexual risk behavior in adulthood, and this association may be mediated by traumagenic dynamics constructs (i.e., traumatic sexualization, trust, guilt, and powerlessness). However, few studies have investigated whether such relationships hold for women who do not identify as…

  11. Primary human epithelial cell culture system for studying interactions between female upper genital tract and sexually transmitted viruses, HSV-2 and HIV-1.