WorldWideScience

Sample records for attempt suicide pharmacological

  1. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts...... the neurobiology and specific treatment of suicide risk in bipolar disorder....

  2. Attempted suicide in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Thanh, Huong

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide is currently a major public health problem in rapidly developing countries but there are limited studies on this field in Asian countries. These are the first studies on suicidal behavior in Vietnam. The aim of the studies was to: 1) investigate the prevalence of suicide attempts, plans, ideation and medical attention following a suicide attempt in Vietnam and in nine other countries, 2) investigate the relation between lifetime suicidal tho...

  3. Serious Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Belz, Yossi; Beautrais, Annette

    2016-07-01

    Suicidal behavior comprises a diverse set of behaviors with significant differences among several behavioral categories. One noteworthy category includes individuals who have made serious suicide attempts, epidemiologically very similar to those completing suicide. This behavioral category is important, since interviewing survivors of a potentially lethal incident of self-harm enables a detailed investigation of the psychological process leading to the suicidal act. To achieve a consensus definition and operational criteria of serious suicide attempts. We reviewed studies that included the term serious suicide attempt or related terms (e.g., highly lethal), with a focus on the variety of operational criteria employed across studies. More than 60 papers addressing various types of serious suicide attempt were explored. We found a large variety of operational definitions, reflecting the lack of consensus regarding terminology and criteria related to the term. We undertook the challenge of developing an integrative and comprehensive set of criteria of serious suicide attempt and suggest a definition comprising three key dimensions: medical lethality, potential lethality of the method used, and severity of the objective circumstances of the suicide intent. Clinicians and researchers are strongly encouraged to consider using the term serious suicide attempt with its attendant components.

  4. Register for Suicide Attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-01-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...

  5. Intoxication after Extreme Oral Overdose of Quetiapine to Attempt Suicide: Pharmacological Concerns of Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Müller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic approved for the treatment of patients with psychotic disorders. Since approvement several case reports about intoxication with quetiapine were linked mainly with tachycardia, QTc-prolongation, somnolence, and hyperglycemia. Here, we present the first case report of an intoxication with an extreme overdose of quetiapine (36 g, ingested by a 32-year-old female (62 kg bodyweight to attempt suicide. Symptoms associated with intoxication were coma without arterial hypotension, persistent tachycardia, hyperglycemia, and transient hypothyreoidism. QTc-interval was moderately extended. Management consisted of intubation for airway protection, gastric lavage, the use of activated charcoal, i.v. saline, and observation for 17 hours on an intensive care unit. Despite the extremely high dose of quetiapine, the patient recovered completely without residual symptoms.

  6. Register for Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-11-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify high-risk groups. Data collection for the RSA started in 1989. The RSA is a longitudinal, person-based register. It contains information about people who have been in contact with the health care system in the County of Funen as a result of a suicide. The RSA contains 11 variables, which describe the incident in detail, and a number of variables describing the person. The RSA contains data covering the period April 1989 to December 2001 and is updated annually. Data is collected from somatic and psychiatric hospitals in an administrative district (County of Funen). The data collection is done manually by going through all the records in which a contact to the health care system, i.e. a potential suicide attempt, is described. Only incidents matching the WHO definition of an attempted suicide are registered. Data from the RSA has been used in national and international studies. The RSA is the most suitable register in Denmark for analyses of suicide attempts.

  7. Transgenerational Patterns of Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Rutter, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    Using data from 2,304 community residents, found self-reports of suicide attempts were more common among persons with than without family history of suicide. Nearly one in four suicide attempters reported family history of suicide. Being female and unmarried, respondent mental disorder, parent mental disorder, and parent suicide attempt exerted…

  8. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  9. Surviving a Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  10. Cognitive Distortions and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager-Hyman, Shari; Cunningham, Amy; Wenzel, Amy; Mattei, Stephanie; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T

    2014-08-01

    Although theorists have posited that suicidal individuals are more likely than non-suicidal individuals to experience cognitive distortions, little empirical work has examined whether those who recently attempted suicide are more likely to engage in cognitive distortions than those who have not recently attempted suicide. In the present study, 111 participants who attempted suicide in the 30 days prior to participation and 57 psychiatric control participants completed measures of cognitive distortions, depression, and hopelessness. Findings support the hypothesis that individuals who recently attempted suicide are more likely than psychiatric controls to experience cognitive distortions, even when controlling for depression and hopelessness. Fortune telling was the only cognitive distortion uniquely associated with suicide attempt status. However, fortune telling was no longer significantly associated with suicide attempt status when controlling for hopelessness. Findings underscore the importance of directly targeting cognitive distortions when treating individuals at risk for suicide.

  11. Suicide attempts: prevention of repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Marc S; Pouliot, Louise; Chagnon, François; Greenfield, Brian; Mishara, Brian

    2011-10-01

    To present an overview of promising strategies to prevent repetition of suicidal behaviours. This literature review on tertiary preventive interventions of suicide attempts was produced using the computerized databases PubMed and PsycINFO from January 1966 to September 2010, using French- and English-language limits and the key words: suicid* or deliberate self-harm and treatment* or therapy or intervention* or management. Thirteen of the 35 included studies showed statistically significant effects of fewer repeated attempts or suicides in the experimental condition. Overall, 22 studies focused on more traditional approaches, that is, pharmacological or psychological approaches. Only 2 of the 6 pharmacological treatments proved significantly superior to a placebo- a study of lithium with depression and flupenthixol with personality disorders. Eight out of 16 psychological treatments proved superior to treatment as usual or another approach: cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) (n = 4), (including dialectical behaviour therapy [n = 2]); psychodynamic therapy (n = 2); mixed (CBT plus psychodynamic therapy [n = 1]); and motivational approach and change in therapist (n = 1). Among the 8 studies using visit, postal, or telephone contact or green-token emergency card provision, 2 were significant: one involving telephone follow-up and the other telephone follow-up or visits. Hospitalization was not related to fewer attempts, and 1 of the 4 outreach approaches had significant results: a program involving individualized biweekly treatment. The rationale behind these single or multiple approaches still needs to be clarified. There were methodological flaws in many studies and some had very specific limited samples. There is a need for more research addressing the problem in definitions of outcomes and measurement of the dependent variables, gender-specific effects, and inclusion of high-risk groups. There is a need for the development and evaluation of new approaches that

  12. Suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...

  13. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder: Part I of a report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo; Moreno, Doris H; Sinyor, Mark; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Turecki, Gustavo; Weizman, Abraham; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Ha, Kyooseob; Reis, Catherine; Cassidy, Frederick; Goldstein, Tina; Rihmer, Zoltán; Beautrais, Annette; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Diazgranados, Nancy; Levitt, Anthony J; Zarate, Carlos A; Yatham, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder. Methods Systematic review of studies from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 examining suicide attempts or deaths in bipolar disorder, with a specific focus on the incidence and characterization of suicide attempts and deaths, genetic and non-genetic biological studies and pharmacotherapy studies specific to bipolar disorder. We conducted pooled, weighted analyses of suicide rates. Results The pooled suicide rate in bipolar disorder is 164 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval = [5, 324]). Sex-specific data on suicide rates identified a 1.7:1 ratio in men compared to women. People with bipolar disorder account for 3.4–14% of all suicide deaths, with self-poisoning and hanging being the most common methods. Epidemiological studies report that 23–26% of people with bipolar disorder attempt suicide, with higher rates in clinical samples. There are numerous genetic associations with suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder, but few replication studies. Data on treatment with lithium or anticonvulsants are strongly suggestive for prevention of suicide attempts and deaths, but additional data are required before relative anti-suicide effects can be confirmed. There were limited data on potential anti-suicide effects of treatment with antipsychotics or antidepressants. Conclusion This analysis identified a lower estimated suicide rate in bipolar disorder than what was previously published. Understanding the overall risk of suicide deaths and attempts, and the most common methods, are important building blocks to greater awareness and improved interventions for suicide prevention in bipolar disorder. Replication of genetic findings and

  14. Adolescent Suicide Attempters: What Predicts Future Suicidal Acts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Haldorsen, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Predictors for repetition of suicide attempts were evaluated among 92 adolescent suicide attempters 9 years after an index suicide attempt (90% females). Five were dead, two by suicide. Thirty-one (42%) of 73 had repeated a suicide attempt. In multiple Cox regression analysis, four factors had an independent predictive effect: comorbid disorders,…

  15. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder: Part I of a report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo; Moreno, Doris H; Sinyor, Mark; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Turecki, Gustavo; Weizman, Abraham; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Ha, Kyooseob; Reis, Catherine; Cassidy, Frederick; Goldstein, Tina; Rihmer, Zoltán; Beautrais, Annette; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Diazgranados, Nancy; Levitt, Anthony J; Zarate, Carlos A; Yatham, Lakshmi

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder. Systematic review of studies from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 examining suicide attempts or deaths in bipolar disorder, with a specific focus on the incidence and characterization of suicide attempts and deaths, genetic and non-genetic biological studies and pharmacotherapy studies specific to bipolar disorder. We conducted pooled, weighted analyses of suicide rates. The pooled suicide rate in bipolar disorder is 164 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval = [5, 324]). Sex-specific data on suicide rates identified a 1.7:1 ratio in men compared to women. People with bipolar disorder account for 3.4-14% of all suicide deaths, with self-poisoning and hanging being the most common methods. Epidemiological studies report that 23-26% of people with bipolar disorder attempt suicide, with higher rates in clinical samples. There are numerous genetic associations with suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder, but few replication studies. Data on treatment with lithium or anticonvulsants are strongly suggestive for prevention of suicide attempts and deaths, but additional data are required before relative anti-suicide effects can be confirmed. There were limited data on potential anti-suicide effects of treatment with antipsychotics or antidepressants. This analysis identified a lower estimated suicide rate in bipolar disorder than what was previously published. Understanding the overall risk of suicide deaths and attempts, and the most common methods, are important building blocks to greater awareness and improved interventions for suicide prevention in bipolar disorder. Replication of genetic findings and stronger prospective data on

  16. Suicide Neurosis--A Study of Sixty Young Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnian, R. Rawlin; Johnson, Shelonitda

    Suicide and deviance are related because loss in social interaction is a consequence of deviance and an antecedent to suicide. This study examined the cognitive and affective experiences of suicidal individuals for evidence of neurosis. Sixty young attempted suicides with a history of a serious suicidal attempts attending the suicide prevention…

  17. Preventing repetition of attempted suicide-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahoz, Titia; Hvid, Marianne; Wang, August G

    2016-01-01

    to suicide attempters had a significant preventive effect on the prevalence of suicide attempts and significantly reduced the number of patients repeating a suicide attempt. AIMS: In this 5-year RCT follow-up the aim was to investigate the sustainability of the suicide preventive effect shown in a 1-year...... follow-up study. METHOD: One hundred and thirty-three suicide attempters were included at this 5-year follow-up RCT study at Copenhagen University Hospital, Amager, and randomized to a rapid outreach suicide preventive intervention (OPAC) or TAU. RESULTS: Offering OPAC intervention to patients after...... a suicide attempt has a significant preventive effect on the total of suicide attempts and significantly reduces the number of patients repeating a suicide attempt. The suicide preventive effect lasts up to 265 weeks. After 3-4 years the effect on the number of patients repeating a suicide attempt...

  18. Near-death experiences and attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyson, B

    1981-01-01

    Attempted suicide is correlated with an increase subsequent risk of committed suicide. However, preliminary data and psychodynamic hypotheses suggest that serious suicide attempts followed by transcendental near-death experiences (NDEs) may decrease rather than increase subsequent overt suicide risk, despite the NDEs' apparent "romanticization" of death. Studies of NDEs and of their influence on suicidal ideation are proposed which may yield greater understanding of self-destructive urges and new strategies of suicide prevention.

  19. Repeated suicide attempts and suicide among individuals with a first emergency department contact for attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyszyn, Izabela E.; Erlangsen, Annette; Hjorthoj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Emergency departments are important, albeit underutilized, sites for suicide prevention. Preventive strategies and interventions could benefit from a greater understanding of factors influencing the course of suicide risk after emergency department contact due to attempted suicide....... The aim of our study was 2-fold: to identify predictors of repeated suicide attempts and suicide and to investigate the timing of these events. Methods: Data from Danish nationwide, longitudinal registers were used in this prospective, population-based study of all individuals first presenting...... to an emergency department after attempted suicide (index attempt) between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2011 (N = 11,802). Cox regression analysis identified predictors, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis modeled the time to repeated suicide attempts and suicide. Results: Sixteen percent of the sample...

  20. Suicide prevention is possible: A perception after suicide attempt

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Dushad; Darshan, M. S.; Rao, T. S. S; Honagodu, Abhijit R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Suicide is a preventable cause of death, inspite of which its incidence is increasing worldwide. Very few studies are done to know the perception of suicide attempters regarding prevention of their suicide attempt. Such information may be helpful in implementing preventive strategies. This study was done to find out whether those who attempted suicide and recovered perceived that their suicide attempt could have been prevented or not. Materials and Methods: Fifty consecutive subje...

  1. Risk of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide or all deaths after an episode of attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these.......This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these....

  2. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Suicide Attempts and Suicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relative risk of suicide attempt and suicide in users of hormonal contraception. METHOD: The authors assessed associations between hormonal contraceptive use and suicide attempt and suicide in a nationwide prospective cohort study of all wome...... and suicide. Adolescent women experienced the highest relative risk.......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relative risk of suicide attempt and suicide in users of hormonal contraception. METHOD: The authors assessed associations between hormonal contraceptive use and suicide attempt and suicide in a nationwide prospective cohort study of all women...... in Denmark who had no psychiatric diagnoses, antidepressant use, or hormonal contraceptive use before age 15 and who turned 15 during the study period, which extended from 1996 through 2013. Nationwide registers provided individually updated information about use of hormonal contraception, suicide attempt...

  3. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  4. Impaired Decision Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…

  5. Violent and serious suicide attempters: one step closer to suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Lucas; Jaussent, Isabelle; Olié, Emilie; Béziat, Séverine; Guillaume, Sébastien; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Courtet, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    The use of violence in a suicide attempt and its medical consequences can be used to characterize specific subpopulations of suicide attempters that could be at higher risk of ever completing suicide. A population of 1,148 suicide attempters was consecutively recruited from 2001 to 2010. Violent suicide attempts were classified using Asberg's criteria. An overdose requiring hospitalization in an intensive care unit was considered a serious suicide attempt. In this exploratory study, we retrospectively compared 183 subjects who made a serious suicide attempt, 226 that made a violent suicide attempt, and 739 without any history of serious or violent suicide attempts with regard to demographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics and features of the suicide attempts using univariate and multivariate analyses. In comparison with subjects whose attempts were neither violent nor serious, violent attempters and serious attempters were more likely to make repeated suicide attempts (OR = 3.27 [95% CI, 1.39-7.70] and OR = 2.66 [95% CI, 1.29-5.50], respectively), with higher medical lethality (OR = 6.66 [95% CI, 4.74-9.38] and OR = 3.91 [95% CI, 2.89-5.29], respectively). Additionally, violent attempts were associated with male gender (OR = 6.79; 95% CI, 3.59-12.82) and family history of suicidal behavior (particularly if serious or violent: OR = 6.96; 95% CI, 2.82-17.20), and serious attempters were more likely to be older (OR = 1.49, 95% CI, 1.12-1.99). One of every 3 attempters in our sample had made violent or serious suicide attempts in their lifetime. Violent attempters and serious attempters presented differential characteristics, closer to those of suicide completers, compared to the rest of the sample. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy controls. Methods The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA), which is the most used measure of shame-proneness, was completed by attempted suicide patients (n = 175: 105 women and 3 men with borderline personality disorder [BPD], 45 women and 22 men without BPD), non-suicidal psychiatric patients (n = 162), and healthy controls (n = 161). The participants were convenience samples, with patients from three clinical research projects and healthy controls from a fourth research project. The relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide was studied with group comparisons and multiple regressions. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results Women were generally more shame-prone than men of the same participant group. Female suicide attempters with BPD were significantly more shame-prone than both female suicide attempters without BPD and female non-suicidal patients and controls. Male suicide attempters without BPD were significantly less shame-prone than non-suicidal male patients. In multiple regressions, shame-proneness was predicted by level of depression and BPD (but not by attempted suicide) in female patients, and level of depression and non-suicidality in male patients. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis and related previous research, there was no general relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide. Shame-proneness was differentially related to attempted suicide in different groups of suicide attempters, with significantly high

  7. A specific attentional bias in suicide attempters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Strohbach, D.; Rinck, M.

    1999-01-01

    Selective attention in patients after an attempted suicide was investigated to find out whether a specific attentional bias for suicide-related materials exists and to clarify the possible role of emotions in the bias. Thirty-one patients who had previously attempted to commit suicide and 31 control

  8. Life expectancy after the first suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, J; Talbäck, M; Feychting, M; Ahlbom, A; Ljung, R

    2017-12-14

    To assess excess mortality among suicide attempters compared to the general population. Remaining life expectancy was calculated for a nationwide cohort of all 187 894 persons 18 years or older hospitalised for the first time attempted suicide in Sweden in 1971-2010. Life expectancy was shortened throughout the lifespan for both men and women debuting with suicide attempt. The reduction in life expectancy for men debuting with a suicide attempt at 20 years of age was 18 years while the reduction for men debuting at 50 years of age was 10 years. For women attempting suicide, the life expectancy was shortened by 11 and 8 years respectively. The gender difference in life expectancy attenuated in patients making their first suicide attempt at age 70 years or older. Suicide deaths explained about 20% of the total mortality within 10 years of the suicide attempt and 5% in those with duration of four decades since the first suicide attempt. The life expectancy is dramatically reduced in patients attempting suicide. With most excess deaths being due to physical health conditions, public efforts should be directed both towards improving physical health and to prevent suicide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mental disorders and attempted suicide in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Millions of people die from suicide globally every year. Suicide is strongly associated with mental disorders. More than 90% of those who die by suicide have at least one diagnosable mental disorder at the time of their death. Attempted suicide is also a major public health concern since it is an important predictor of subsequent completed suicide and an indicator of mental health problems. Aims: There are four aims which correspond to four papers. First, we validated the Vietn...

  10. [Mother's filicide with suicide attempt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misić-Pavkov, Gordana; Gajić, Zoran; Golubović, Boris; Bozić, Ksenija

    2010-01-01

    Filicide is the killing of a son or daughter by a parent. The paper examines interaction between stress and maternal psychopathology that led to the killing. After prolonged conflict with her ex-husband and father of her only child, the respondent committed filicide. Two years before committing filicide, after she had divorced the father of the child, the respondent attempted suicide and had to be hospitalized. On that occasion, she was diagnosed with depressive disorder, which was not treated after hospitalization. Having killed her daughter by cutting her throat, she tried to commit suicide in the same manner, by slitting her throat. During further observation, the respondent was found to suffer from acute psychotic disorder, depressive disorder and histrionic personality disorder. These disorders in interaction with stress do not provide us with an explanation for an unusual and psychopathological motivation analysis of killing the child. Filicide is a violent act, most frequently multifactorial in its nature. Histrionic personality disorder in mother cannot explain the filicide act. Only interactive and dynamic evaluation of this psychiatric disorder in its longitudinal, development aspects and its potentiality to enable the expression of some other psychiatric disorders, especially dissociative states, as well as the importance of prolonged and acute stress and its subjective importance for the individual can shed some more light on the mental state of the mother at the time of filicide.

  11. Suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia from 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard

    2014-01-01

    profiles as well as the likely background and means used for suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia. METHOD: This study presents 1124 cases from four different sources of information: (i) emergency ward data with suicide attempts by poisoning from the year 2007, (ii) psychiatric ward data including...

  12. Gambaran Pikiran Bunuh Diri Pada Suicide Attempters

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa, Ivi

    2010-01-01

    In general, human being is a rational being that can use his/her mind and logic to solve problem. The greatness of human mind is indicated by human ability to generate, weigh, and choose the appropriate one in accordance with the situation. Despite that fact, some people lose their ability to think rationally as they face stressful life events and eventually attempt suicide. Unfortunately, many attempts are completed. In addition, before a person attempts suicide, suicide ideation must have b...

  13. STUDY OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesan Madras Sundararajan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major mental illness whose sufferers have been found to have lesser longevity than general population. The most common cause for premature death in schizophrenia is suicide. There are very few Indian studies on suicide in persons suffering from schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the frequency of suicide attempt in schizophrenia to compare and study the clinical and sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters and non-attempters in schizophrenia and to analyse and study the various risk factors of suicide attempts in persons suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive patients attending review OPD of a government tertiary care hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters and analysed using the SAPS (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS (Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary depression scale, and Beck’s suicide intent scale. RESULTS People suffering from schizophrenia are at a high risk for making suicidal attempts (27% especially when the illness is acute and severe in early stages when accompanied by depressive symptoms. Demographic profile such as age, sex, education, occupation, socio-economic status, marital status, and family type were not significantly related to suicide attempts. Family history of suicide was a significant factor in patients with suicide attempts. Majority of the attempts were of medium-to-high intent, hanging being the commonest method, and were attributed to most commonly delusions and depressive symptoms.

  14. Gender differences in characteristics of suicide attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt denotes activities directed towards one's own death which do not end in death. The ratio between attempted and realized suicides is expressed by the index called hazard ratio. Risk factors which contribute to suicidal behavior are: various emotional conditions, personality traits, stressful life events, substance misuse etc. The purpose of the study was to explore the frequencies and epidemiological and demographic characteristics of suicide attempts separately in men and women. The study sample involved 56 patients with the diagnosis suicide attempt (Tentamen suicidii treated on the Psychiatric department of the Clinical Center Priština, Gračanica. The data have been analyzed in respect to gender, age, profession/employment, mental disorder diagnosis, motivation (reason and the way of performing a suicide attempt. Results: suicide has been attempted by 42 women (75% and 14 men (25% of the sample. The prevalent age group of our sample (26.8% represents the patients below 20. The most prevalent are also unemployed patients, 33.3% of women and 50% of men. The most prevalent diagnosis is anxiety disorder (61.9% of women and 57.1% of men. The prevailing reason for attempting suicide in women was couple conflict (54.8% and existential problems in men (50%. Fifty one patients of the sample (91.1% have attempted suicide by intoxication with sedative drugs (anxiolytics. The majority of suicide attempts happened during afternoon and evening hours, i.e. in the period 12-24h. Conclusion: women have attempted suicide more frequently than men (ratio 3:1. Unemployment has been the prevailing professional characteristic in both genders. The most prevailing diagnosis is anxiety disorder. The chief motive in women is couple conflict and in men existential difficulties. In both genders the most frequent way of attempting suicide is poisoning, mostly in the period 12-24h.

  15. Suicide and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents 15 to 19 years old. This report updates the previous statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and is intended to assist pediatricians, in collaboration with other child and adolescent health care professionals, in the identification and management of the adolescent at risk for suicide. Suicide risk can only be reduced, not eliminated, and risk factors provide no more than guidance. Nonetheless, care for suicidal adolescents may be improved with the pediatrician's knowledge, skill, and comfort with the topic, as well as ready access to appropriate community resources and mental health professionals. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Childhood suicide attempts with acetaminophen in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeland, Rikke; Jørgensen, Marianne H; Teilmann, Grete

    2013-01-01

    attempts. (3) The frequency of self-mutilation among children with suicidal behaviour. (4) The purposes and reasons for childhood suicide attempts. Methods: A retrospective case-control study based on medical records and in-hospital child psychiatric assessments at the Paediatric Department, Hillerød...

  17. Clusters of suicides and suicide attempts: detection, proximity and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, L S; Pirkis, J; Milner, A; Spittal, M J

    2017-10-01

    A suicide cluster is defined as a higher number of observed cases occurring in space and/or time than would typically be expected. Previous research has largely focused on identifying clusters of suicides, while there has been comparatively limited research on clusters of suicide attempts. We sought to identify clusters of both types of behaviour, and having done that, identify the factors that distinguish suicide attempts inside a cluster from those that were outside a cluster. We used data from Western Australia from 2000 to 2011. We defined suicide attempts as admissions to hospital for deliberate self-harm and suicides as deaths due to deliberate self-harm. Using an analytic strategy that accounted for the repetition of attempted suicide within a cluster, we performed spatial-temporal analysis using Poisson discrete scan statistics to detect clusters of suicide attempts and clusters of suicides. Logistic regression was then used to compare clustered attempts with non-clustered attempts to identify risk factors for an attempt being in a cluster. We detected 350 (1%) suicide attempts occurring within seven spatial-temporal clusters and 12 (0.6%) suicides occurring within two spatial-temporal clusters. Both of the suicide clusters were located within a larger but later suicide attempt cluster. In multivariate analysis, suicide attempts by individuals who lived in areas of low socioeconomic status had higher odds of being in a cluster than those living in areas of high socioeconomic status [odds ratio (OR) = 29.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.3-135.5]. A one percentage-point increase in the proportion of people who had changed address in the last year was associated with a 60% increase in the odds of the attempt being within a cluster (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.29-1.98) and a one percentage-point increase in the proportion of Indigenous people in the area was associated with a 7% increase in the suicide being within a cluster (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.00-1.13). Age

  18. Characteristics of suicide attempters with family history of suicide attempt: a retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Makiko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family history of suicide attempt is one of the risks of suicide. We aimed at exploring the characteristics of Japanese suicide attempters with and without a family history of suicide attempt. Methods Suicide attempters admitted to an urban emergency department from 2003 to 2008 were interviewed by two attending psychiatrists on items concerning family history of suicide attempt and other sociodemographic and clinical information. Subjects were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of a family history of suicide attempt, and differences between the two groups were subsequently analyzed. Results Out of the 469 suicide attempters, 70 (14.9% had a family history of suicide attempt. A significantly higher rate of suicide motive connected with family relations (odds ratio 2.21, confidence interval 1.18–4.17, p p Conclusion The present study has revealed the characteristics of suicide attempters with a family history of suicide attempt. Further understanding of the situation of such individuals is expected to lead to better treatment provision and outcomes, and family function might be a suitable focus in their treatment.

  19. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Nielsen, B; Bille-Brahe, U

    1985-01-01

    features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed......Ninety-nine patients, randomly chosen among hospital admitted suicide attempters, were initially interviewed at the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and then followed up for a period of about 3 years. Half of the patients repeated the attempt in the follow-up period......, mostly in the first year. Ten patients committed suicide, half of them in the first 3 months after the interview, shortly after discharge from hospital. The majority of the repeaters were living alone, while those that committed suicide were mostly married women aged 50-60 years. Other characteristic...

  20. Depressed suicide attempters have smaller hippocampus than depressed patients without suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Romain; Chupin, Marie; Cury, Claire; Vandendrie, Christophe; Gressier, Florence; Hardy, Patrick; Falissard, Bruno; Colliot, Olivier; Ducreux, Denis; Corruble, Emmanuelle

    2015-02-01

    Despite known relationship between hippocampal volumes and major depressive episodes (MDE) and the increased suicidality in MDE, the links between hippocampal volumes and suicidality remain unclear in major depressive disorders (MDD). If the hippocampus could be a biomarker of suicide attempts in depression, it could be useful for prevention matters. This study assessed the association between hippocampal volumes and suicide attempts in MDD. Hippocampal volumes assessed with automatic segmentation were compared in 63 patients with MDD, with (n = 24) or without (n = 39) suicide attempts. Acute (one month) suicide attempts were studied. Although not different in terms of socio-demographic, MDD and MDE clinical features, suicide attempters had lower total hippocampus volumes than non-attempters (4.61 (± 1.15) cm(3) vs 5.22 (± 0.99) cm(3); w = 625.5; p = 0.03), especially for acute suicide attempts (4.19 (± 0.81) cm(3) vs 5.22 (± 0.99) cm(3); w = 334; p = 0.005), even after adjustment on brain volumes, sex, age, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores and MDD duration. A ROC analysis showed that a total hippocampal volume threshold of 5.00 cm(3) had a 98.2% negative predictive value for acute suicide attempts. Depressed suicide attempters have smaller hippocampus than depressed patients without suicide attempts, independently from socio-demographics and MDD characteristics. This difference is related to acute suicide attempts but neither to past suicide attempts nor to duration since the first suicide attempt, suggesting that hippocampal volume could be a suicidal state marker in MDE. Further studies are required to better understand this association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Suicide attempts among adolescent drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, A L; Schwartz, R H

    1990-03-01

    Substance use has been identified as a significant risk factor in nonfatal and fatal suicides during adolescence. A comprehensive questionnaire on patterns of alcohol and other drug use, early childhood and nuclear family psychological and behavioral history, and previous suicidal attempts was completed by 298 (88%) of 340 outpatient adolescent substance abusers in three geographic regions east of the Mississippi River. An abbreviated Beck Depression Inventory was included to ascertain current symptoms of depressed mood. Adolescents admitting to a previous suicide attempt (30%) were compared with two age- and sex-matched samples. Substance abusers were three times as likely as a normative population of non-drug-using age- and sex-matched peers to make a suicide attempt. Thirty-three percent of attempts reported occurred prior to high school. Both the wish to hurt oneself and actual suicide attempts were found to increase significantly after the initiation of substance use. Forty percent used drugs within 8 hours before the suicide attempt, and 23% of attempters reported that their families continued to have a firearm with ammunition in the home following the suicide attempt. Adolescent substance abusers who had attempted suicide were significantly more likely than a matched group of nonattempters in the same drug treatment facility to: (1) complain of usually feeling "blue" or sad (depressed affect) during early childhood, (2) identify important childhood behavioral problems, (3) identify long-standing self-perceived impaired self-concept, and (4) identify serious parental problems, such as chronic depression or alcoholism. Self-perceived chronic loneliness in childhood appears to be a singularly important initiator of adolescent drug use and subsequent suicide attempts among drug abusers.

  2. Clinical Correlates of Planned and Unplanned Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sadia R; Singh, Tanya; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J John; Grunebaum, Michael; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Oquendo, Maria A

    2016-11-01

    Suicide attempters differ in the degree of planning for their suicide attempts. The purpose of this study was to identify differences between individuals who make planned (≥3 hours of planning) and unplanned (suicide attempts. Depressed suicide attempters (n = 110) were compared based on degree of planning of their most recent suicide attempt on demographic and clinical variables. Participants who made planned suicide attempts were more likely to have family history of completed suicide, more severe and frequent suicidal ideation, greater trait impulsivity, and greater suicidal intent and more severe medical consequences for both their most recent and most serious suicide attempts. These results suggest clear clinical differences based on the degree of suicide attempt planning. Severe suicidal ideation, high suicide intent, family history of suicide completion, and high levels of motor impulsivity contribute to a phenotype that is at greater risk of planned, highly lethal suicide attempts.

  3. Factors predicting recovery from suicide in attempted suicide patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Lu, Chu-Yun; Tseng, Yun Shan; Chiang, Chun-Ying

    2017-02-23

    The aim of this study was to explore the factors predicting suicide recovery and to provide guidance for healthcare professionals when caring for individuals who have attempted suicide. The high rate of suicide is a global health problem. Suicide prevention has become an important issue in contemporary mental health. Most suicide research has focused on suicidal prevention and care. There is a lack of research on the factors predicting suicidal recovery. A cross-sectional design was adopted. A correlational study with a purposive sample of 160 individuals from a suicide prevention centre in southern Taiwan was conducted. The questionnaires included the Brief Symptom Rating Scale-5, Suicidal Recovery Assessment Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions were used for the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 40.2 years. Many participants were striving to make changes to create a more stable and fulfilling life, had an improved recovery from suicide and had a good ability to adapt or solve problems. The linear regression showed that the Beck Hopelessness Scale scores (ß = -.551, p suicidal behaviour (ß = -.145, p = .008) were significant predictors of individuals' recovery from suicide. They accounted for 57.1% of the variance. Suicidal individuals who have a lower level of hopelessness, a better ability to cope with their mental condition and fewer past suicidal behaviours may better recover from suicide attempts. The nurses could use the results of this study to predict recovery from suicide in patients with attempted suicide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Risk of Suicide Attempt Among Soldiers in Army Units With a History of Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Naifeh, James A; Herberman Mash, Holly; Fullerton, Carol S; Bliese, Paul D; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B

    2017-09-01

    Mental health of soldiers is adversely affected by the death and injury of other unit members, but whether risk of suicide attempt is influenced by previous suicide attempts in a soldier's unit is unknown. To examine whether a soldier's risk of suicide attempt is influenced by previous suicide attempts in that soldier's unit. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (STARRS), this study identified person-month records for all active-duty, regular US Army, enlisted soldiers who attempted suicide from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009 (n = 9650), and an equal-probability sample of control person-months (n = 153 528). Data analysis was performed from August 8, 2016, to April 10, 2017. Logistic regression analyses examined the number of past-year suicide attempts in a soldier's unit as a predictor of subsequent suicide attempt, controlling for sociodemographic features, service-related characteristics, prior mental health diagnosis, and other unit variables, including suicide-, combat-, and unintentional injury-related unit deaths. The study also examined whether the influence of previous unit suicide attempts varied by military occupational specialty (MOS) and unit size. Of the final analytic sample of 9512 enlisted soldiers who attempted suicide and 151 526 control person-months, most were male (86.4%), 29 years or younger (68.4%), younger than 21 years when entering the army (62.2%), white (59.8%), high school educated (76.6%), and currently married (54.8%). In adjusted models, soldiers were more likely to attempt suicide if 1 or more suicide attempts occurred in their unit during the past year (odds ratios [ORs], 1.4-2.3; P attempts increased. The odds of suicide attempt among soldiers in a unit with 5 or more past-year attempts was more than twice that of soldiers in a unit with no previous attempts (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 2.1-2.6). The association of previous unit suicide attempts with subsequent

  5. Family history of suicide and interpersonal functioning in suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalin, Mia; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Salander Renberg, Ellinor; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in interpersonal relationships are associated with a wide range of psychiatric diagnoses and have been reported as a trigger for suicidal behavior, too. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal problems and family history of suicide in suicide attempters and to describe relevant patterns of interpersonal problems in this patient group. The study involves 181 patients having their clinical follow-up after a suicide attempt. Family history of suicide was assessed by using the Karolinska Self Harm History Interview or retrieved in patient records. The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems was used to assess personal style in an interpersonal context. Suicide attempters with a family history of suicide had significantly more often an intrusive personal style. The results remained significant after adjustment for personality disorder. The specific interpersonal patterns associated with family history of suicide may interfere with the ability to create stable, long-lasting relationships. In regards to treatment, these personal qualities could cause difficulties in the alliance with health care personnel and make it harder for suicide attempters to accept or benefit from treatment. Attention to suicide attempters' interpersonal problems is of importance to lower their distress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictors of Multiple Suicide Attempts among Suicidal Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Christopher; Kramer, Anne; Joe, Sean; Venkataraman, Sanjeev; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathology, social support, and interpersonal orientation were studied in relation to suicide attempt status in acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized Black adolescents and a matched sample of White adolescents. In the total sample, multiple attempters were differentiated by lower perceived support. Within the Black youth subsample,…

  7. Reasons for attempted suicide in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Wiktorsson, Stefan; Duberstein, Paul; Berg, Anne Ingeborg; Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; Waern, Margda

    2015-05-01

    Using the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide as a guiding framework, we investigated older adults' causal attributions for suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that older adults who attributed their suicidal behavior to thwarted belongingness or perceived burdensomeness would be more likely to use more immediately lethal means and to re-attempt suicide during the 12-month follow-up. Prospective cohort study in western Sweden. A total of 101 older adults who presented to medical emergency rooms for suicide attempts. Participants were asked why they attempted suicide. Attributions included: a desire to escape (N = 29), reduced functioning and autonomy (N = 24), psychological problems, including depression (N = 24), somatic problems and physical pain (N = 16), perceived burdensomeness (N = 13), social problems that reflected either thwarted belongingness or family conflict (N = 13), and lack of meaning in life (N = 8); 41 participants provided more than one reason. No specific reason was given by 28 participants, 15 of whom reported not understanding or remembering why they attempted suicide and 13 reported simply wanting to die (or go to sleep and not wake up). As hypothesized, patients who attributed the attempt to thwarted belongingness were more likely to use more immediately lethal means for their index attempt and were more likely to re-attempt during follow-up. This was not the case for those reporting burdensomeness. People who attribute suicide attempts to thwarted belongingness use more lethal methods and have a poorer prognosis. Replications across diverse cultural settings are needed to determine whether attributing suicide attempts to thwarted belongingness may warrant increased monitoring. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Teen experiences following a suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Carrie; Vandermause, Roxanne

    2015-06-01

    Teen suicide is the third leading cause of death for 15-24year olds. A clear understanding of what the experience of being suicidal means to adolescents living the phenomenon has not been clearly addressed in the literature. The aim of this research was to generate a comprehensive interpretation of the experiences of six adolescents who visited the ED following a suicide attempt, using hermeneutic phenomenological methodology. Participants ranged in age from 15 to 19years old, and all had been hospitalized for their attempt. Two patterns emerged: attempting as communicating and attempting as transforming. Underlying themes are described in detail. The findings have implications for nursing practice including how to assess and intervene with adolescent suicide attempters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Attempted suicide, depression and physical diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    In the period January 1, 1990 to March 31, 1991 a sample of suicide attempters admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, underwent a structured interview. In the study 52% of the patients interviewed were found to suffer from a somatic disease, and 21% were daily...... on analgesics for pain. Patients that suffered from a somatic disease differed from other suicide attempters in depression score, age, pain and the presence of psychosis. Fewer of the somatically ill suicide attempters had a psychosis. Patients complaining of pain were more often depressed and abused medicine...

  10. Suicidal ideations and attempts in juvenile delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchkin, Vladislav V; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Koposov, Roman A; Vermeiren, Robert; King, Robert A

    2003-10-01

    Suicidality among adolescents is a common focus of clinical attention. In spite of links to disruptive behaviors and other types of psychopathology, it is not clear whether other factors commonly associated with suicide, such as personality and parenting, predict suicidality over and above psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to assess suicidal ideations and attempts and their relationship to psychopathology, violence exposure, personality traits and parental rearing in Russian male juvenile delinquents with conduct disorder (CD). Suicidality and psychopathology were assessed using a semi-structured psychiatric interview in 271 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents diagnosed with CD. Violence exposure, personality characteristics and perceived parental rearing were assessed via self-reports. Thirty-four percent of those diagnosed with CD (92 subjects) reported a lifetime history of either suicidal thoughts or attempts. Suicidal ideators and attempters did not differ significantly on any variable of interest, but both reported significantly higher rates of psychopathology and violence exposure than the non-suicidal group, as well as higher levels of harm avoidance, lower self-directedness, and higher rates of perceived negative parental rearing. Finally, even when controlling for the relationship with psychopathology, personality and perceived parental rearing factors showed significant associations with suicidality. Juvenile delinquents with CD have high rates of suicidal ideations and attempts, related to a wide spectrum of psychopathology and specific personality traits. These findings suggest that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors create vulnerability to stressors, which under the influence of situational factors (e.g., repeated traumatization) may lead to suicidal thoughts and acts. Factors potentially contributing to vulnerability for suicidality should be identified when planning prevention and rehabilitation efforts for

  11. Clinical Correlates of Planned and Unplanned Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sadia R.; Singh, Tanya; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John; Grunebaum, Michael; Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide attempters differ in the degree of planning for their suicide attempts. The purpose of this study is to identify differences between individuals who make planned (≥3 hours of planning) and unplanned (attempts. Depressed suicide attempters (n=110) were compared based on degree of planning of their most recent suicide attempt on demographic and clinical variables. Participants who made planned suicide attempts were more likely to have: family history of completed suicide; more severe and frequent suicidal ideation; greater trait impulsivity; and greater suicidal intent and more severe medical consequences for both their most recent and most serious suicide attempts. These results suggest clear clinical differences based on the degree of suicide attempt planning. Severe suicidal ideation, high suicide intent, family history of suicide completion, and high levels of motor impulsivity contribute to a phenotype that is at greater risk for planned, highly lethal suicide attempts. PMID:27105457

  12. Risk factors for adolescents' attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Poulsen, Henrik Day; Nielsen, Anne

    This paper has been submitted to a journal for consideration, so please do not quote without permission. Adolescents' first-time suicide attempt tends to be characterized by parental psychiatric disorder or suicidal behaviour, family violence, especially child abuse and neglect. An increased risk...

  13. Autobiographical Memory and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…

  14. Intrapersonal positive future thinking predicts repeat suicide attempts in hospital-treated suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory C; Smyth, Roger; Williams, J Mark G

    2015-02-01

    Although there is clear evidence that low levels of positive future thinking (anticipation of positive experiences in the future) and hopelessness are associated with suicide risk, the relationship between the content of positive future thinking and suicidal behavior has yet to be investigated. This is the first study to determine whether the positive future thinking-suicide attempt relationship varies as a function of the content of the thoughts and whether positive future thinking predicts suicide attempts over time. A total of 388 patients hospitalized following a suicide attempt completed a range of clinical and psychological measures (depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, suicidal intent and positive future thinking). Fifteen months later, a nationally linked database was used to determine who had been hospitalized again after a suicide attempt. During follow-up, 25.6% of linked participants were readmitted to hospital following a suicide attempt. In univariate logistic regression analyses, previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression-as well as low levels of achievement, low levels of financial positive future thoughts, and high levels of intrapersonal (thoughts about the individual and no one else) positive future thoughts predicted repeat suicide attempts. However, only previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking were significant predictors in multivariate analyses. Positive future thinking has predictive utility over time; however, the content of the thinking affects the direction and strength of the positive future thinking-suicidal behavior relationship. Future research is required to understand the mechanisms that link high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking to suicide risk and how intrapersonal thinking should be targeted in treatment interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Suicide attempt and genes : psychiatric and genetic characteristics of suicide attempters

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Maj-Liz

    1999-01-01

    Suicide affects an appreciable number of people in all societies. Finding genes that predispose to suicidal behavior may help to identify individuals at risk and an appropriate counseling and support can be extended to them. The studies of the present thesis focuse on suicide attempt. In order to characterize suicide attempters, DSM-III-R/DSM-IV classification, Axes I-V were used. Ninety-nine per cent of the patients had at least one Axis I diagnosis. Mood disorders ...

  16. Factors related to attempted suicide in Davanagere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Gouda M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the factors responsible for suicidal attempts? Objectives: To study the socio-demographic factors, methods and reasons for suicidal attempts. Type of Study: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bapuji and C.G. Hospitals attached to J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere. Participants: A total of 540 suicidal attempters admitted to emergency wards. Methodology: A pretested proforma was administered to the subjects relating the factors responsible for the attempt. The data thus obtained was compiled and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Z -test and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, 61.3% were males and 38.7% were females. Peak occurrence of suicidal attempts was found in the second and third decades (15-29 years. Hindus constituted about 94.6% of the total suicidal attempters. Almost half (52.2% of the subjects had education below or up to matriculation and 83% of them were from the lower (classes IV and V socio-economic groups. Agriculturists, housewives and unskilled workers represented 75% of the total subjects. Fifty-five percent of the subjects were from nuclear families and most (62.4% of them were married; frequent mode of attempting suicides was by organo-phosphorus compounds (66.3% followed by overdosage of tablets (17.8%. Common cause was family problem (27.2% followed by illness (27%.

  17. Variables associated with familial suicide attempts in a sample of suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Saiz-Gonzalez, Dolores; Basurte-Villamor, Ignacio; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Leiva-Murillo, José M; de Prado-Cumplido, Mario; Santiago-Mozos, Ricardo; Artés-Rodríguez, Antonio; de Leon, Jose

    2007-08-15

    Attempted suicide appears to be a familial behavior. This study aims to determine the variables associated with family history of attempted suicide in a large sample of suicide attempters. The sample included 539 suicide attempters 18 years or older recruited in an emergency room. The two dichotomous dependent variables were family history of suicide attempt (10%, 51/539) and of completed suicide (4%, 23/539). Independent variables were 101 clinical variables studied with two data mining techniques: Random Forest and Forward Selection. A model for family history of completed suicide could not be developed. A classificatory model for family history of attempted suicide included the use of alcohol in the intent and family history of completed suicide (sensitivity, specificity, 98.7%; and accuracy, 96.6%). This is the first study that uses a powerful new statistical methodology, data mining, in the field of familial suicidal behaviors and suggests that it may be important to study familial variables associated with alcohol use to better understand the familiality of suicide attempts.

  18. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brière, Frédéric N; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Eight hundred and sixteen adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. VALUE OF STUDYING THE TIME OF OCCURRENCE OF SUICIDE ATTEMPT IN PEOPLE ATTENDING HOSPITAL FOLLOWING SUICIDE ATTEMPT

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasagopalan, Nappinnai, Solayappan

    2015-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether any particular time of the day is Vulnerable for suicide attempts. Suicide attempt is a known risk factor for future completed suicide. Aim To investigate the relationship between the time of suicide attempt and the sociodemograpic and illness characteristics of suicide attempters. Method Time of attempt, clinical and demographic data and illness variables of 74 patients presenting to hospital following suicide attempt were analyzed. Results Our results showed...

  20. Are previous suicide attempts a risk factor for completed suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Sarriés, Adriana; Blanco, Miriam; Azcárate, Leire; Peinado, Rubén; López-Goñi, José J

    2018-02-01

    A previous suicide attempt is a clinically relevant factor for completed suicide. In this paper people who committed suicide on their first attempt are compared with those who did so after previous attempts. A review of the Computerised Clinical Histories in the Navarro Health Service-Osasunbidea (2010-2013) in Spain. Of the 166 cases, 31.9% (n = 53) presented at least one prior attempt. Of these 53, 65.3% modified the method of suicide. Women presented significantly more attempts (χ2 = 14.3; df = 3; p = .002). Three sub-samples were identified according to the attempts and diagnoses. The diagnoses of personality disorders (90.9%; n = 10) and women under 51 years of age with a diagnosis of affective, anxiety, or substance abuse disorders (82.4%; n = 14) presented the highest numbers of attempts. People without a psychiatric diagnosis and with psychotic or organic mental disorders presented the smallest proportion of attempts (13.2%; n = 10) together with people over 51 years of age diagnosed with affective, anxiety, or substance abuse disorders (22.5%; n = 9). Prior attempts are suicide risk factors only in specific clinical sub-samples. Prevention and intervention programs should consider these results.

  1. How do clinicians and suicide attempters understand suicide attempt impulsivity? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkeviciene, Jurgita; O'Gorman, John; De Leo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistencies in the definition of impulsive suicide attempts hamper research integration. To expand the currently limited data on how this construct is used in clinical practice, researchers interviewed eight suicide attempters to create timelines of their suicide process, then had seven experienced clinicians review these timelines. Thematic analysis of the patient and clinician data revealed three themes: "thinking out," build-up, and unclear intentionality. The results imply that assessing build-up of agitation and exhaustion symptoms can contribute to understanding acuteness of suicide risk. In addition, uncertainty about one's intentions during the attempt should not be equated to low intent to die.

  2. Depressed Multiple-Suicide-Attempters - A High-Risk Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Grunebaum, Michael F; Burke, Ainsley K; Chaudhury, Sadia; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A

    2017-09-15

    There is compelling evidence that suicide attempts are among the strongest predictors of suicide and future suicide attempts. This study aimed to examine psychopathology in multiple-suicide attempters. We compared the demographic and clinical features of three groups: depressed patients without a history of suicide attempts (non-attempters), depressed patients with a history of one to three suicide attempts (attempters), and depressed patients with a history of four or more suicide attempts (multiple attempters). We found that attempters and multiple attempters had higher levels of depression, hopelessness, aggression, hostility, and impulsivity and were more likely to have borderline personality disorder and family history of major depression or alcohol use disorder compared with non-attempters, but did not differ between each other on these measures. Multiple attempters had greater suicidal ideation at study entry and were more likely to have family history of suicide attempt compared with attempters. Importantly, multiple attempters had greater suicide intent at the time of the most medically serious suicide attempt and more serious medical consequences during their most medically serious suicide attempt compared with attempters. The cross-sectional design of the study. Our data suggest that multiple-suicide attempters require careful evaluation as their behavior can have serious medical consequences.

  3. Suicidal ideation and attempted suicide in elderly people - subjective experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Denise Machado Duran; Sousa, Amandia Braga Lima; Grubits, Sonia

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the subjective experiences of elderly people who show suicidal ideation and/or attempts at suicide, based on their own reports. We understand the concept of 'subjective' as referring to intra-psychic experience resulting from social, economic, relationship or biographical conditions. Although the subject is sparsely covered in the literature, it is important, because it is in the field of subjectivity that ideations of, and attempts at, suicide develop and occur until they become a concrete act. Empirical data were collected through semi-structured interviews focusing on: social characterization, portrayal and mode of life, previous mental state, atmosphere of the attempt, effects on the health of the elderly person and family. Based on the analysis of the meanings that emerge, five empirical categories were generated: (1) subject's feeling of being in a non-place; (2) absence of acceptance of losses; (3) suffering due to ingratitude of family members; (4) feeling of uselessness of, and in, life; (5) re-signification of the situations that generate suicide-related conduct. The results point to a fundamental need to incorporate knowledge about the subjective processes into programs for prevention of suicide among the elderly who have ideation of, or attempts at, suicide.

  4. [Experience of College Students on Suicide Attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Mi

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the experience of Korean college students on suicide attempts. Eight students participated and data were collected through in-depth individual interviews between September, 2011 and April, 2012. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory method. Analysis showed that the central phenomenon of suicide attempt experience of college students was 'inextricable despair'. Causal conditions were 'sense of shame by failure to achieve perfect independence' and 'a big gap between reality and ideals'. Contextual conditions were 'extreme situation of being cornered' and 'excessive changes in emotions'. Intervening conditions were 'important others' and 'perspectives on the world'. Action/interaction strategies were 'temporary efforts' and 'gathering up one's mind'. Consequences were 'trauma as one's own hurt', 'conflict between life and death' and 'becoming mature'. The results of this study provide an in-depth understanding of the experience of college students with attempted suicide. It is necessary to develop programs to prevent suicide attempts by college students and these results can be used as a basis for program development.

  5. Comment: Transgenerational Patterns of Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Shirley L.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that subject of transgenerational patterns of suicide attempt calls for examination of variables extending beyond those examined in previous article (Sorenson and Rutter, 1991). Considers possible significance of such variables as respondent's income, employment status, and length of residence in the community. Contends that scales assessing…

  6. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHINESE SUICIDE ATTEMPTERS: AN EMERGENCY ROOM STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; Jia, Shuhua; Jiang, Chao; Sun, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Studying the characteristics of attempted suicide is helpful in knowing the background of some completed suicides and improving prevention or intervention strategies. This current study analyzed data of 74 suicide attempters and 92 accident injured patients admitted to 6 hospital emergency rooms in an area of North-eastern China and found both similarities and differences between Chinese and Western suicide attempters. The data show that more women than men attempted suicide. Perhaps because ...

  8. Risk and protective factors predicting multiple suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Ho; Wang, Sheng-Min; Yeon, Bora; Suh, Soo-Yeon; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2013-12-30

    This study compared demographical and clinical variables between first and multiple suicide attempters and investigated risk and protective factors predicting multiple attempts. 228 patients visiting emergency department after attempting suicide were divided into two groups: first attempter (n=148, 64.9%) and multiple attempter (n=80, 35.1%). Demographic variables, clinical characteristics, factors related with suicide behavior, and psychiatric resources between two groups were compared. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate risk and protective factors predicting multiple attempts. The results showed that multiple attempters were younger, not married, more severe in psychopathology (e.g., psychiatric disorder, personality disorder, lower function, and suicide family history) and suicidality (e.g., repetitive/severe/continuous suicide ideation), and lower in psychiatric resources (e.g., interpersonal stress/conflict, conflicting interpersonal relationship, socially isolated, lower personal achievement, and lower ability to control emotion) than first attempters. Suicide ideation severity and conflicting interpersonal relationships predicted multiple suicide attempts, whereas past year's highest global functioning score and age over 45 protected against multiple suicide attempts. This study demonstrated that multiple suicide attempters have more severe clinical profile than first suicide attempters. Moreover, decreasing severity of suicide ideation, improving interpersonal relationships, and enhancing functioning level of suicide attempters might be important in preventing them from re-attempting suicide. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Intrapersonal positive future thinking predicts repeat suicide attempts in hospital-treated suicide attempters

    OpenAIRE

    O?Connor, Rory C.; Smyth, Roger; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although there is clear evidence that low levels of positive future thinking (anticipation of positive experiences in the future) and hopelessness are associated with suicide risk, the relationship between the content of positive future thinking and suicidal behavior has yet to be investigated. This is the first study to determine whether the positive future thinking?suicide attempt relationship varies as a function of the content of the thoughts and whether positive future thinkin...

  10. Nurses' experiences of patient suicide and suicide attempts in an acute unit

    OpenAIRE

    DOYLE, LOUISE

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED Suicide and suicide attempts in Ireland have increased dramatically in the last twenty years. Many of the presentations of suicide attempts to Emergency Departments are recommended an admission to an acute mental health unit. A psychiatric staff nurse working in an acute mental health setting has a high chance of experiencing a patient suicide or suicide attempt during their career. The occurrence of an inpatient suicide or suicide attempt is unquestionably an overwhelmingly stre...

  11. Suicide attempts in 107 adolescents and adults with kleptomania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2012-01-01

    Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom...... severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047......) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania....

  12. VALUE OF STUDYING THE TIME OF OCCURRENCE OF SUICIDE ATTEMPT IN PEOPLE ATTENDING HOSPITAL FOLLOWING SUICIDE ATTEMPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasagopalan, Nappinnai, Solayappan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background It is unclear whether any particular time of the day is Vulnerable for suicide attempts. Suicide attempt is a known risk factor for future completed suicide. Aim To investigate the relationship between the time of suicide attempt and the sociodemograpic and illness characteristics of suicide attempters. Method Time of attempt, clinical and demographic data and illness variables of 74 patients presenting to hospital following suicide attempt were analyzed. Results Our results showed 8.a.m. to 11.59 a.m. is the most preferred time of attempt and it is statistically significant. Suicide attempt is significantly more in the day time (between 8 a.m. to 11.59 a.m.. The above time period is significantly associated with place of attempt of the suicide attempters. This is the time period where more young males (20 – 29 years from rural back ground, married, illiterates and unemployed (significant no. of house wives also attempt suicide during this time. Depression is the common psychiatric illness and pesticide is the common mode of attempt. More number of cases attempt during the months of August, September and October. Majority of them have experienced more than 5 life events before the attempt. Therefore we conclude that forenoon (8 a.m. to 11.59 a.m. is the most vulnerable period for attempting suicide. Conclusion The assessment of patients with history of suicide attempt in relation to the time of attempt is beneficial in formulating suicide prevention strategies.

  13. [When a Suicide Attempt is Kid's Stuff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Rojas, Rafael; Quijano-Serrano, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Attempted suicide in children and adolescents is a disturbing and painful issue for patients, their families and physicians. Current medical literature provides little information about minors who attempt suicide, possibly because there is under-reporting of this condition as a diagnosis, or maybe because it is sometimes considered as a way for the child to draw attention. To present the experience of the Department of Psychiatry (Universidad Nacional de Colombia) at the Hospital Infantil de La Misericordia, from 2003 to 2013. An observational retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 213 cases of children and adolescents treated for attempted suicide at the Hospital Infantil de La Misericordia from January 1, 2003 to October 31, 2013, and who received hospital or outpatient care in Child Psychiatry. A review was performed of the diagnosis, the number of suicide attempts, the peak months of consultation for this reason, and the methods selected, as well as a detailed description of the group of patients under 12 years old, and those managed with outpatient follow-up. The average patient is a female teenager who becomes intoxicated with drugs. Most often, patients do not return to outpatient follow-up. Those with follow-up have multiple psychopathologies and a high level of suffering. The most common methods, other than poisoning by drugs, are hanging and jumping from heights. Patients under 12 years old generally have their first attempt by drug poisoning. There is a predominance of anxiety disorder and depression, with a strong association with cognitive dysfunction, as a vulnerability factor. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt ...

  15. The profile analysis of attempted-suicide patients referred to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Suicide is an increasing phenomenon worldwide. A suicide occurs every 40 seconds, and there is 1 attempt every 1 to 3 seconds. By 2020, these figures may have doubled. No accurate statistics regarding the occurrence of attempted suicide (or non-fatal suicidal behaviour) in South Africa exist, because there ...

  16. SUICIDAL ATTEMPTS AMONG YOUNG RURAL INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Brzeski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.

  17. Clinical Correlates of Planned and Unplanned Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhury, Sadia R.; Singh, Tanya; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John; Grunebaum, Michael; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide attempters differ in the degree of planning for their suicide attempts. The purpose of this study is to identify differences between individuals who make planned (≥3 hours of planning) and unplanned (

  18. Psychopathology Associated with Suicide Attempts among Rural Adolescents of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianchen; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Zhao, Zhongtang

    2005-01-01

    This case control study examined the relationship between psychopathological profiles and self reported suicide attempts among rural adolescents of China. Cases consisted of 142 adolescents who reported a suicide attempt in the past 6 months in a questionnaire survey (n = 1,365). An equal number of adolescents without reporting a suicide attempt,…

  19. Characteristics of Spirituality and Religion Among Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandhouj, Olfa; Perroud, Nader; Hasler, Roland; Younes, Nadia; Huguelet, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    Spirituality and religiousness are associated with a lower risk of suicide. A detailed assessment of spirituality among 88 suicide attempters hospitalized after a suicide attempt was performed. Factors associated with the recurrence of suicide attempts over 18 months were looked into. Spirituality was low among most suicide attempters in comparison with the general population. Two groups were identified: those with a high score of depression who featured "low" in spirituality and those with a more heterogeneous profile, for example, involving personality disorders, characterized by a "high" spirituality. At the follow-up, the "meaning in life" score appeared to correlate with recurrence of suicide. Clinical implications are discussed herein.

  20. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyes, M. A.; Malone, S. M.; Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide att...... of the risk of suicide attempt in adopted offspring may inform the larger investigation of suicidality in all adolescents and young adults.......OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide...... agencies; nonadoptees were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Outcome measures were attempted suicide, reported by parent or offspring, and factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior including psychiatric disorder symptoms, personality traits, family environment, and academic...

  1. Negative Life Events and Attempted Suicide in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Chao; Jia, Cun-Xian; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Wang, Lin-Lin; Liu, Xian-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the association between negative life events (NLEs) and attempted suicide in rural China. Methods Six rural counties were selected from disease surveillance points in Shandong province, China. A total of 409 suicide attempters in rural areas between October 1, 2009, and March 31, 2011, and an equal number of matched controls were interviewed. We compared negative life events experienced within 1 month, 1–3 months, 3–6months, and 6–2 months prior to attempted suicide for cases and prior to interview for controls. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between NLEs and attempted suicide. Results Suicide attempters experienced more NLEs within the last year prior to suicide attempt than controls prior to interview (83.1% vs. 33.5%). There was a significant dose-response relationship between NLEs experienced within the last year and increased risk of attempted suicide. Timing of NLEs analysis showed that NLEs experienced in the last month and 6–12 months prior to suicide attempt were significantly associated with elevated risk of attempted suicide, even after adjusting for mental disorders and demographic factors. Of NLEs, quarrelling with spouse, quarrelling with other family members, conflicting with friends or neighbors, family financial difficulty, and serious illness were independently related to attempted suicide. Conclusion NLEs are significantly associated with increased risk for attempted suicide in rural China. Stress management and intervention may be important to prevent suicidal behavior in rural China. PMID:25611854

  2. Characteristics of methods of suicide attempts in Korea: Korea National Suicide Survey (KNSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Ahn, Joon-Ho; Cha, Boseok; Chung, Young-Chul; Ha, Tae Hyon; Hong Jeong, Seong; Jung, Hee Yeon; Ju, Gawon; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Moon-Doo; Kim, Min-Hyuk; Kim, Soo In; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Seung Jae; Lee, Yu Jin; Moon, Eunsoo; Ahn, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    Because the method used for a suicide attempt is an important determinant of outcome, these methods should be explored. The present study was a nationwide investigation of suicide attempts and the characteristics of suicidal behavior. To compare the suicide methods used in attempted suicides with those used in completed suicides and to examine the factors associated with each phenomenon. The present study reviewed the medical charts of subjects who had attempted suicide and subsequently visited the emergency rooms of 17 medical centers from May 1, 2013 to November 7, 2013. All subjects completed a full psychiatric interview conducted by trained psychiatric residents. Suicide-attempt methods were divided into the following six categories: drug poisoning, pesticide poisoning, gassing, cutting, hanging, and others. The associations among demographic variables, related psychiatric variables, and suicide-attempt methods were analyzed using a multinomial regression analysis. Of the 1359 suicide attempts or instrumental suicide-related behaviors with/without injuries and the 14,160 completed suicides, drug poisoning and cutting were the most common suicidal behaviors with/without injuries, but they were the least frequent method of completed suicides. In contrast, hanging and jumping from a height were less common among failed suicide attempts but resulted in a higher percentage of fatalities. Being male, age, and area of residence were associated with pesticide poisoning, whereas previous suicide attempts were associated with cutting, pesticide poisoning, and gassing. A previous suicide attempt is a risk factor for suicide; thus, assessing the characteristics of suicide attempts or instrumental suicide-related behaviors with/without injuries is necessary to prevent these attempts. The present findings showed that the methods of suicide used by individuals who only attempted suicide differed from those used by individuals who completed. Of the suicide methods, pesticide

  3. SSRIs and risk of suicide attempts in young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Bilenberg, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: SSRIs are widely used in the treatment of mental illness for both children and adults. Studies have found a slightly increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in young people using SSRIs but SSRIs' impact on risk for suicides in youth is not well-established. AIM......: Is there indication that SSRIs might raise risk for suicide attempts in young people? METHODS: We used an observational register-based historical cohort design, a large cohort of all Danish individuals born in 1983-1989 (n = 392,458) and a propensity score approach to analyse the impact from SSRIs on risk for suicide...... attempts. Every suicide attempt and redeemed prescription of SSRIs was analysed by Cox regression. RESULTS: We found a significant overlap between redeeming a prescription on SSRIs and subsequent suicide attempt. The risk for suicide attempt was highest in the first 3 months after redeeming the first...

  4. Predicting Future Suicide Attempts among Depressed Suicide Ideators: A 10-year Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    May, Alexis M.; Klonsky, E. David; Klein, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. Research has identified many risk factors for suicidality; however, most fail to identify which suicide ideators are at greatest risk of progressing to a suicide attempt. Thus, the present study identified predictors of future suicide attempts in a sample of psychiatric patients reporting suicidal ideation. The sample comprised 49 individuals who met full DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder and/or dysthymic disorder a...

  5. An examination of suicide attempts among incarcerated sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Spada, Ashley; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about suicide attempts among sex offenders. This study examines the rates of nonfatal suicide attempts among a sample (N = 3,030) of incarcerated male sex offenders. Overall, the authors found that 14% of sex offenders in the study sample had made a suicide attempt at some point in their lives. Of those, 11% had reported a suicide attempt prior to incarceration, 0.5% had made a suicide attempt while incarcerated, and 2.5% made suicide attempts both prior to and during incarceration. Sex offenders who made suicide attempts were significantly more likely than those who did not make suicide attempts to have had an abusive childhood, a history of psychiatric problems, intellectual impairment, male victims, and related victims. Suicide attempters also scored higher on actuarial risk measures than nonattempters. No differences were found in attempter status between sex offenders who committed sex offenses against children and those who committed sex offenses against adults. A history of psychiatric problems and treatment as well as childhood abuse/neglect and perpetration against male victims predicted suicide attempter status. These findings are discussed as they pertain to suicide prevention, risk assessment, and the collateral consequences of sex offender legislation.

  6. Factors associated with suicide completion: A comparison between suicide attempters and completers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Soo-Hyun; Wang, Sheng-Min; Kim, Tae-Won; Seo, Ho-Jun; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Han, Jin-Hee; Hong, Seung-Chul

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the sociodemographic and clinical variables of suicide attempters and completers and to identify risk and protective factors for suicide completion. Subjects (n = 320) visiting to the emergency room were classified into two groups: suicide attempters (n = 222) and suicide completers (n = 98). Univariate analyses and logistic regression models were used to explore the differences between suicide attempters and completers and to identify risk factors for suicide completion. The results showed that compared with suicide attempters, suicide completers were older, male, having alcohol use disorders, having comorbid health problems, having severe suicide ideation, and using severe suicide methods such as hanging and jumping from a height. Using multiple logistic regression model, risk factors predicting suicide completion were comorbid medical illness, and intense suicide ideation. Factor that served as protective factors against suicide completion was female. This study demonstrated that suicide completers have more severe clinical profile than suicide attempters. Decreasing intensity of suicide ideation and treating comorbid medical illness of suicide attempters might be important in preventing them from suicide completion. It is important that the implementation of suicide preventive programs focused on alcoholism is useful in decreasing suicide rates further. Moreover, suicide completers used highly lethal methods, our results indicate that our country should make greater efforts to decrease hanging and jumping from a height. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Suicide Attempt as a Risk Factor for Completed Suicide: Even More Lethal Than We Knew

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bostwick, J. Michael; Pabbati, Chaitanya; Geske, Jennifer R; McKean, Alastair J

    2016-01-01

    Objective:While suicide attempt history is considered to robustly predict completed suicide, previous studies have limited generalizability because of using convenience samples of specific methods/treatment...

  8. Cognitive Control Deficits Differentiate Adolescent Suicide Ideators From Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeremy G; Glenn, Catherine R; Esposito, Erika C; Cha, Christine B; Nock, Matthew K; Auerbach, Randy P

    2017-06-01

    Mental illness and suicidal ideation are among the strongest correlates of suicidal behaviors, but few adolescents with these risk factors make a suicide attempt. Therefore, it is critical to identify factors associated with the transition from suicide ideation to attempts. The present study tested whether deficits in cognitive control in the context of suicide-relevant stimuli (ie, suicide interference) reliably differentiated adolescent ideators and attempters. Adolescents (n = 99; 71 girls) aged 13-18 years (mean = 15.53, SD = 1.34) with recent suicide ideation (n = 60) or a recent suicide attempt (n = 39) were recruited from an acute residential treatment facility between August 2012 and December 2013. We measured interference to suicide-related, negative, and positive words using the Suicide Stroop Task (SST). When stimuli were analyzed separately, suicide attempters showed greater interference for suicide (t₉₇ = 2.04, P = .044, d = 0.41) and positive (t₉₇ = 2.63, P = .010, d = 0.53) stimuli compared to suicide ideators. An additional omnibus interference (suicide, negative, positive) x group (suicide ideator, suicide attempter) analysis of variance revealed a main effect of group (F₁,₉₇ = 4.31, P = .041, ηp² = 0.04) but no interaction (P = .166), indicating that attempters showed greater interference for emotional stimuli, regardless of valence. Multiple attempters drove this effect; single attempters and ideators did not differ in SST performance (P = .608). General deficits in cognitive control in the context of emotional stimuli may be a marker of adolescent suicide risk.

  9. Beck Hopelessness Scale: Psychometric Properties Among Rural Chinese Suicide Attempters and Non-Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Chao; Jia, Cun-Xian; Hu, Xia; Qiu, Hui-Min; Liu, Xian-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The authors recruited 401 suicide attempters from general hospitals and 409 matched non-attempters to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) in rural China. All participants completed the BHS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Suicide attempters had higher BHS scores than non-attempters. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were satisfactory and BHS scores significantly correlated to CES-D and TAI scores. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor model for suicide attempters and a five-factor model for non-attempters. The BHS is satisfactory in assessing hopelessness among suicide attempters in rural China.

  10. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  11. Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire…

  12. Suicide Attempt in a Recently Diagnosed HIV Positive Subject: Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicide and attempted suicide are recognized neuropsychiatric complications of HIV/AIDS and one of the risk factors is recent notification of seropositivity. A case of attempted suicide in a recently diagnosed HIV positive subject without adequate counseling is reported. Subject presented at a government hospital with ...

  13. Genetic and familial environmental effects on suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    who attempted suicide compared to siblings of adoptees with no suicide attempts. METHOD: We used a random sample of 1933 adoptees from the Danish Adoption Register, a register of non-familial adoptions of Danish children, i.e. the adoptive parents are biologically unrelated to the adoptee. Analyses......OBJECTIVES: Genetic factors have been found to influence the risk of suicide. It is less clear if this also applies to attempted suicide. We have investigated genetic and familial environmental factors by studying the occurrence of suicide attempts in biological and adoptive siblings of adoptees...

  14. How Parental Reactions Change in Response to Adolescent Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene-Palmer, Farrah N; Wagner, Barry M; Neely, Laura L; Cox, Daniel W; Kochanski, Kristen M; Perera, Kanchana U; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined parental reactions to adolescents' suicide attempts and the association of reactions with future suicidal self-directed violence. Participants were 81 mothers and 49 fathers of 85 psychiatric inpatient adolescents. Maternal hostility and paternal anger and arguing predicted future suicide attempts. From pre- to post-attempt, mothers reported feeling increased sadness, caring, anxiety, guilt, fear, and being overwhelmed; fathers reported increased sadness, anxiety, and fear. Findings have clinical implications; improving parent-child relationships post-suicide attempt may serve as a protective factor for suicide.

  15. Mental health professionals' determinations of adolescent suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Barry M; Wong, Steven A; Jobes, David A

    2002-01-01

    The degree of ambiguity in the term suicide attempt was examined among 14 expert suicidologists, and 59 general mental health clinicians who either did or did not receive a standard definition of the term. The participants judged whether each of ten vignettes of actual adolescent self-harm behaviors was a suicide attempt. Low levels of agreement were found within each group, although agreement was better for the most and least serious cases. Possible explanations were examined, including how professionals weight suicidal intent and medical lethality in their suicide attempt decisions, and the use of a "fuzzy," natural language conceptualization of suicide attempts was proposed.

  16. Physiological reactions to a suicide film: suicide attempters, suicide ideators, and nonsuicidal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, A; Stein, D; Levine, Y; Abramovitch, Y; Eilat, E; Neuman, M

    1998-01-01

    A film about two teenagers who commit suicide was shown to three groups of psychiatric inpatients: 17 who had attempted suicide, 20 who had expressed suicidal thoughts, and 10 who were not suicidal. Anxiety before and after the film was evaluated with psychometric (anxiety rating scale) and physiological tools (heart and respiration rate, blood pressure, electromyogram). Values noted before and after screening, and the degree of change in these values, were compared. In addition, psychomotor agitation was rated at several points during the film. Most results were negative. The suicide attempters had significantly lower postscreening heart rates and a significantly lesser change in heart and respiration rates than the other two groups. The suicide attempters revealed an increase in psychomotor agitation until the discovery of the suicide and a decrease thereafter, whereas the agitation of the nonsuicidal patients continued to increase from the start to the end of the film. The study suggests that on some parameters, suicide attempters reveal less anxiety than nonsuicidal psychiatric patients following exposure to a simulated suicide. The reaction of suicide ideators falls somewhere between the two groups.

  17. Cognitive Inhibition in Elderly High-Lethality Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Szanto, Katalin; Butters, Meryl A.; Kalkus, Jan; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background People who attempt suicide often display cognitive impairments, particularly poor cognitive control. Could poor cognitive control contribute to high suicide rates in old age? A component of cognitive control, cognitive inhibition – active suppression of task-irrelevant processing – is very sensitive to aging and has been linked to attempted suicide. We investigated cognitive inhibition in older high-lethality suicide attempters, closely resembling suicide victims, as well as low-lethality attempters, and control groups with and without depression and suicidal ideation. Methods 102 participants aged 60+ (17 psychiatrically healthy control subjects, 38 depressed control subjects, 16 suicide ideators, 14 low-lethality suicide attempters, and 17 high-lethality suicide attempters) underwent comprehensive clinical and cognitive assessments. They completed the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System Color-Word Interference Test, a validated modification of the Stroop test. Results High-lethality suicide attempters demonstrated a distinct pattern of cognitive inhibition deficits. Compared to psychiatrically healthy control subjects and suicide ideators, high-lethality attempters took longer to complete inhibition trials, even after accounting for potential confounding factors (age, education, MMSE score, information processing speed, and accuracy). Compared to non-suicidal depressed and healthy control subjects, low-lethality suicide attempters committed more uncorrected errors; however, this difference was not specific to the inhibition condition. Conclusions Older suicide attempters are a cognitively heterogeneous group. Poor cognitive control in high-lethality attempters may undermine their ability to solve real-life problems, precipitating a catastrophic accumulation of stressors. Meanwhile, low-lethality attempters' poor performance may reflect a careless approach to the task or faulty monitoring. PMID:24816626

  18. Middle-aged and older adults who had serious suicidal thoughts: who made suicide plans and nonfatal suicide attempts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan

    2015-03-01

    High suicide rates in late middle-aged and older adults are significant public health problems. Although suicide risk and protective factors are well established, more research is needed about suicide planners and attempters. Using multi-year, national epidemiologic survey data, this study identified correlates of making suicide plans and nonfatal suicide attempts among U.S. adults aged 50+ years. Data are from the 2008 to 2012 U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Descriptive statistics were used to examine sample characteristics by past-year serious suicidal thoughts, suicide plans, and suicide attempts. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to examine potential correlates (sociodemographic factors, health status, religiosity, psychiatric and substance use disorders (SUDs), and mental health and substance abuse treatment use) of suicide plans and suicide attempts among those who reported serious suicidal thoughts. Of the 2.5% of the study population that had serious suicidal thoughts (n = 804), 28% made suicide plans and 11.5% attempted suicide. Although 42% of those with serious suicidal thoughts had major depressive episode (MDE), MDE was not significantly associated with suicide plans or attempts in multivariate models. Being employed decreased the odds of making suicide plans, while mental health service use was associated with increased odds of suicide plans. SUDs increased the odds of suicide attempts. It is important to screen middle-aged and older adults for severe mental and SUDs and suicidal thoughts and to target interventions for likely planners and attempters.

  19. Conducting Research on Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Dilemmas and Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, Michele; Adrian, Molly; McCauley, Elizabeth; Asarnow, Joan; Avina, Claudia; Linehan, Marsha

    2014-01-01

    Research on effective treatments for adolescent suicide attempters is urgently needed. However, there has been a lack of research in this area. This is likely a result of the multiple challenges faced by investigators working with individuals at high risk of suicide. Based on our experiences conducting a large, randomized clinical trial with adolescent suicide attempters, in this article, we review ways to address these challenges in order to facilitate needed research on suicide prevention i...

  20. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN PERSONS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia has been called a ‘Life-shortening disease’, because many sufferers die early than general population and suicide accounts for a significant proportion of those dying prematurely. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia has been an intriguing area of research work for mental health professionals. Indian research on suicide attempts in schizophrenia have been few. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia, to compare and study the positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicide intent in schizophrenic population with suicide attempt compared to nonattempters, along with socio-demographic parameters. METHODS A sample of 60 consecutive patients attending OPD of a Private tertiary care Hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for the presence of past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters, and analysed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, Beck’s hopelessness scale (BHS, and Suicide intent scale (SIS. RESULTS Among the disorders schizophrenia is rated the second most common reason for suicide attempts (53.3%, especially when associated with positive symptoms, depressive features and significant hopelessness. Demographic parameters like age, sex, educational status, occupation, economic status, and marital status were not found to be significant factors linked to the suicide attempts, however family history of suicide had a significant association in schizophrenic suicide attempts. Suicidal intent severity was medium to high among most of the attempters; poisoning was the commonest method; and were found to be due to positive symptoms and depressive symptoms in the schizophrenic illness course.

  1. Gratitude and Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts among Chinese Adolescents: Direct, Mediated, and Moderated Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xian; Li, Nini; Ye, Baojuan

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 1252 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.00 years), this study examined the direct relations between gratitude and adolescents' suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This study also examined indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts via two self-system beliefs--coping efficacy and self-esteem.…

  2. High rates of suicide and attempted suicide using pesticides in Nickerie, Suriname, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafsma, T.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Gibson, D.; Badloe, R.; van Beek, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide are identified as a serious mental health problem in Suriname, especially in the district of Nickerie. An epidemiological study in the Nickerie catchment area revealed high rates of suicide (48 per 100,000) and attempted suicide (207 per 100,000) on average in the years

  3. Suicide Attempts in Malaysia from the Year 1969 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76%) of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used. PMID:24672358

  4. Predicting Future Suicide Attempts among Depressed Suicide Ideators: A 10-year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexis M.; Klonsky, E. David; Klein, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. Research has identified many risk factors for suicidality; however, most fail to identify which suicide ideators are at greatest risk of progressing to a suicide attempt. Thus, the present study identified predictors of future suicide attempts in a sample of psychiatric patients reporting suicidal ideation. The sample comprised 49 individuals who met full DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder and/or dysthymic disorder and reported suicidal ideation at baseline. Participants were followed for 10 years. Demographic, psychological, personality, and psychosocial risk factors were assessed using validated questionnaires and structured interviews. Phi coefficients and point-biserial correlations were used to identify prospective predictors of attempts, and logistic regressions were used to identify which variables predicted future attempts over and above past suicide attempts. Six significant predictors of future suicide attempts were identified – cluster A personality disorder, cluster B personality disorder, lifetime substance abuse, baseline anxiety disorder, poor maternal relationship, and poor social adjustment. Finally, exploratory logistic regressions were used to examine the unique contribution of each significant predictor controlling for the others. Co-morbid cluster B personality disorder emerged as the only robust, unique predictor of future suicide attempts among depressed suicide ideators. Future research should continue to identify variables that predict transition from suicidal thoughts to suicide attempts, as such work will enhance clinical assessment of suicide risk as well as theoretical models of suicide. PMID:22575331

  5. Mother’s filicide with suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Ksenija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Filicide is the killing of a son or daughter by a parent. The paper examines interaction between stress and maternal psychopathology that led to the killing. Case Outline. After prolonged conflict with her ex-husband and father of her only child, the respondent committed filicide. Two years before committing filicide, after she had divorced the father of the child, the respondent attempted suicide and had to be hospitalized. On that occasion, she was diagnosed with depressive disorder, which was not treated after hospitalization. Having killed her daughter by cutting her throat, she tried to commit suicide in the same manner, by slitting her throat. During further observation, the respondent was found to suffer from acute psychotic disorder, depressive disorder and histrionic personality disorder. These disorders in interaction with stress do not provide us with an explanation for an unusual and psychopathological motivation analysis of killing the child. Conclusion. Filicide is a violent act, most frequently multifactorial in its nature. Histrionic personality disorder in mother cannot explain the filicide act. Only interactive and dynamic evaluation of this psychiatric disorder in its longitudinal, development aspects and its potentiality to enable the expression of some other psychiatric disorders, especially dissociative states, as well as the importance of prolonged and acute stress and its subjective importance for the individual can shed some more light on the mental state of the mother at the time of filicide.

  6. Multidimensional profile of people who have attempted to commit suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Gómez, Nicolás Arturo; Olivera Plaza, Silvia Leonor; Losada Ramirez, Ivan Daniel; Díaz Monroy, Lusi Guillermo; Rojas Vega, Homero Abraham

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a multidimensional profile of people who have attempted to commit suicide. 116 cases of people with reported suicide attempts in emergency rooms and educational institutions in the department of Huila were studied. This was a descriptive study, with a semi-structured interview, personality test, depression inventory, alcohol evaluation, ideation and suicide attempt evaluations. The multidimensional profile consisted of adolescents from rural areas, ci...

  7. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  8. Epidemiology of Suicide Attempts among Youth Transitioning to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Martie P; Swartout, Kevin

    2017-04-18

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for older adolescents and young adults. Although empirical literature has identified important risk factors of suicidal behavior, it is less understood if changes in risk factors correspond with changes in suicide risk. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed if there were different trajectories of suicidal behavior as youth transition into young adulthood and determined what time-varying risk factors predicted these trajectories. This study used four waves of data spanning approximately 13 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample included 9027 respondents who were 12-18 years old (M = 15.26; SD = 1.76) at Wave 1, 50% male, 17% Hispanic, and 58% White. The results indicated that 93.6% of the sample had a low likelihood for suicide attempts across time, 5.1% had an elevated likelihood of attempting suicide in adolescence but not young adulthood, and 1.3% had an elevated likelihood of attempting suicide during adolescence and adulthood. The likelihood of a suicide attempt corresponded with changes on depression, impulsivity, delinquency, alcohol problems, family and friend suicide history, and experience with partner violence. Determining how suicide risk changes as youth transition into young adulthood and what factors predict these changes can help prevent suicide. Interventions targeting these risk factors could lead to reductions in suicide attempts.

  9. Peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S; Cheng, Y; Xu, Z; Chen, D; Wang, Y

    2011-09-01

    Suicide is a global health concern. Therefore, studying suicide behaviour and identifying the early roots of suicide are critical. To address these issues, the present study examined (i) the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts among Chinese adolescents; and (ii) whether such associations were moderated or mediated by feeling of loneliness. We hypothesized that problems in peer relationships were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts, and that feeling of loneliness would moderate and mediate such associations. The sample included 8778 Chinese adolescents from a large survey. Measures of peer relationships, suicide ideation and attempts, and feeling of loneliness were obtained through adolescents' self-reports. Results from multivariate logistic regressions suggested that specific problems in peer relationships, such as lack of peer association and being victimized by bullying, were significantly related to suicide ideation and attempts. In addition, the moderating effects of feeling of loneliness on the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts were found. Finally, some gender effects were also found. The present study provided strong evidence that suicide ideation and attempts were serious problems among adolescents in China, to which peer relationships played an important role. Further, feeling of loneliness acted as a moderator affecting the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts. Finally, there were some gender differences that have important implications. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. (De- criminalization of attempted suicide in India: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempted suicide is a serious problem requiring mental health interventions, but it continues to be treated as a criminal offence under the section 309 of Indian Penal Code. The article reviews the international legal perspective across various regions of the world, discusses the unintended consequences of section 309 IPC and highlights the need for decriminalization of attempted suicide in India. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2013, still under consideration in the Rajya Sabha (upper house, has proposed that attempted suicide should not be criminally prosecuted. Decriminalization of suicidal attempt will serve to cut down the undue stigma and avoid punishment in the aftermath of incident, and lead to a more accurate collection of suicide-related statistics. From a policy perspective, it will further emphasize the urgent need to develop a framework to deliver mental health services to all those who attempt suicide.

  11. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  12. Family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence in childhood predict suicide in male suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalin, Mia; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Jokinen, Jussi

    2013-05-15

    Family studies, including twin and adoption designs, have shown familial transmission of suicidal behaviors. Early environmental risk factors have an important role in the etiology of suicidal behavior. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of family history of suicide and childhood trauma on suicide risk and on severity of suicide attempt in suicide attempters. A total of 181 suicide attempters were included. Family history of suicide was assessed with the Karolinska Suicide History Interview or through patient records. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behavior in childhood (between 6 and 14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). Suicide intent was measured with the Freeman scale. Male suicide attempters with a positive family history of suicide made more serious and well planned suicide attempts and had a significantly higher suicide risk. In logistic regression, family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence as a child were independent predictors of suicide in male suicide attempters. The information about family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence as a child derives from the patients only. In the first part of the inclusion period the information was collected from patient records. The results of this study imply that suicides among those at biological risk might be prevented with the early recognition of environmental risks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting frequency of suicide attempts of adolescent outpatients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevention of suicide, particularly adolescent suicide, remains one of the biggest challenges in psychiatry. Objectives. To ascertain: (i) clinical and demographic characteristics; and (ii) possible associations between these characteristics and suicide attempt frequency in a selected patient group at Weskoppies Hospital ...

  14. Suicidal ideations, plans and attempts in primary care: cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Moroccan consultants in primary health care system. Methods: we conducted a cross sectional survey in three health care centers in two cities of Morocco to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan and suicide attempts among ...

  15. Identifying differences between depressed adolescent suicide ideators and attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Randy P; Millner, Alexander J; Stewart, Jeremy G; Esposito, Erika C

    2015-11-01

    Adolescent depression and suicide are pressing public health concerns, and identifying key differences among suicide ideators and attempters is critical. The goal of the current study is to test whether depressed adolescent suicide attempters report greater anhedonia severity and exhibit aberrant effort-cost computations in the face of uncertainty. Depressed adolescents (n=101) ages 13-19 years were administered structured clinical interviews to assess current mental health disorders and a history of suicidality (suicide ideators=55, suicide attempters=46). Then, participants completed self-report instruments assessing symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, anhedonia, and anxiety as well as a computerized effort-cost computation task. Compared with depressed adolescent suicide ideators, attempters report greater anhedonia severity, even after concurrently controlling for symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, and anxiety. Additionally, when completing the effort-cost computation task, suicide attempters are less likely to pursue the difficult, high value option when outcomes are uncertain. Follow-up, trial-level analyses of effort-cost computations suggest that receipt of reward does not influence future decision-making among suicide attempters, however, suicide ideators exhibit a win-stay approach when receiving rewards on previous trials. Findings should be considered in light of limitations including a modest sample size, which limits generalizability, and the cross-sectional design. Depressed adolescent suicide attempters are characterized by greater anhedonia severity, which may impair the ability to integrate previous rewarding experiences to inform future decisions. Taken together, this may generate a feeling of powerlessness that contributes to increased suicidality and a needless loss of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods ( P weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  17. Substance Use Disorders and Suicide Attempts in Bipolar Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Carballo, Juan J.; Moreno, Carmen; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2009-01-01

    1. Abstract Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with high rates of suicide attempt and completion. Substance use disorders (SUD) have been identified as potent risk factors for suicidal behavior in BD. However, little is known concerning differences between BD subtypes with regard to SUD as a risk factor for suicidal behavior. We studied previous suicidal behavior in adults with a major depressive episode in context of BD type I (BD-I; N=96) or BD type II (BD-II; N=42), with and without history of SUD. Logistic regressions assessed the association between SUD and suicide attempt history by BD type, and exploratory analyses examined the effects of other clinical characteristics on these relationships. SUD were associated with suicide attempt in BD-I but not BD-II, an effect not attributable to sample size differences. The higher suicide attempt rate associated with alcoholism in BD-I was mostly explained by higher aggression scores, and earlier age of BD onset increased the likelihood that alcohol use disorder would be associated with suicide attempt(s). The higher suicide attempt rate associated with other drug use disorders in BD-I was collectively explained by higher impulsivity, hostility, and aggression scores. The presence of both alcohol and drug use disorders increased odds of a history of suicide attempt in a multiplicative fashion: 97% of BD-I who had both comorbid drug and alcohol use disorders had made a suicide attempt. A critical next question is how to target SUD and aggressive traits for prevention of suicidal behavior in BD-I. PMID:18590916

  18. Suicide Risk Factors and Mediators between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide Ideation Among Male and Female Suicide Attempters

    OpenAIRE

    Spokas, Megan; Wenzel, Amy; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Brown, Gregory K.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the manner in which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history relates to risk factors for suicidal behavior among recent suicide attempters (n = 166). Men who recently attempted suicide and endorsed a CSA history had higher scores on measures of hopelessness and suicide ideation than men without a CSA history. Men with a CSA history were also more likely to have made multiple suicide attempts and meet diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline p...

  19. The patient suicide attempt – An ethical dilemma case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jie

    2015-12-01

    Results: In Mr Green's case, the nurse chose to share the information of Mr Green's suicide attempt with other health care professionals. The nursing team followed the self-harm and suicide protocol of the hospital strictly, they maintained the effective communication with Mr Green, identified the factors which cause patient's suicide attempt, provided the appropriate nursing intervention to deal will these risk factors and collaborated with other health care professionals to prefect the further care. The patient transferred to a palliative care service with no sign of suicide attempt and other self-harm behaviors and passed away peacefully 76 days after discharged with his relatives and pastors accompany.

  20. Risk factors for multiple suicide attempts among Roma in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Mónika Ditta; Ádám, Szilvia; Zonda, Tamás; Birkás, Emma; Purebl, György

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, suicide rates in Hungary have been among the highest in the European Union. Attempted suicide rates in the Roma population are 2-3 times higher than in the non-Roma population. Since individuals making multiple attempts have a higher pro-bability of eventual death by suicide, and there are limited data on suicidal behaviour of the Roma population, the aim of this study was to explore the sociodemographic and psychological background factors of multiple suicide attempts in the Hungarian Roma population. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 150 individuals admitted to hospital toxicology departments, who made suicide attempts by deliberate self-poisoning, 65 of whom were multiple attempters. Detailed information regarding the current attempt and previous suicidal acts was recorded. Patients also completed the Shortened Beck Depression, the Beck Hopelessness Questionnaire, and the Social Support Questionnaire. Independent samples t-tests were used to evaluate differences in psychological variables between the Roma ( N = 90) and non-Roma ( N = 60) groups. Stepwise linear regression and odds ratios analyses were performed to identify potential background factors of multiple suicide attempts. There was a significantly higher level of previous suicidal events among the Roma in the sample population (3.53 vs. 0.84, p attempts. Current major depression, hopelessness, and diagnosed mood disorder were identified as significant risk factors of repeated attempts. Smoking (OR = 5.4), family history of suicide (OR = 4.9), and long-term unemployment (OR = 4.6) were additional risk factors among Roma patients. A thorough understanding of the ethnicity-specific risk factors for multiple suicide attempts could facilitate the development of effective intervention and postvention programmes.

  1. Suicidal ideation and lifetime attempts in substance and gambling disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Victoria; Koh, Puay Kee; Yang, Yi; Ng, Andrew; Guo, Song; Kandasami, Gomathinayagam; Wong, Kim Eng

    2015-02-28

    Suicidality is more commonly reported among individuals with addictions relative to the general population, though data from Asian countries remain scarce. The medical records of 2187 Singaporean patients with drug (n=879), alcohol (n=754) or gambling (n=554) disorders entering an outpatient treatment service were examined to explore differences in suicidal ideation and lifetime attempts between substance and gambling addictions. The relationship between suicidality, co-morbidity and addiction severity were also examined. 25.0% reported thoughts of suicide in the past month, 11.8% had a suicide plan and 12.2% reported lifetime attempts. Rates of suicidal ideation (thoughts, and plan) but not lifetime attempts were significantly higher among gambling than substance use patients. Co-morbid (DSM-IV axis-1) disorders were found among 32.5%, 38% and 40% of those reporting thoughts, plan and lifetime attempts respectively. Addiction severity was higher and quality of life lower among those reporting suicidal behaviors. Logistic regression revealed co-morbidity, debt, gender (being female) and being a gambling patient as significant predictors of suicidal behaviors. The findings highlight the importance of screening for suicidality, even in the absence of co-morbidity, particularly among gambling disorder patients with debts. Suicide risk should be assessed periodically and referral to suicidal prevention interventions routinely offered to this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychopathological Differences Between Suicide Ideators and Suicide Attempters in Patients with Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sandra; Marco, Jose H; García-Alandete, Joaquin

    2017-07-01

    Although suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, there is a need for studies to identify variables that can differentiate patients with suicide ideation at risk of transitioning to an attempt. In this study, we assessed suicide ideation and attempts, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), hopelessness, borderline symptoms and meaning in life in a sample of 348 patients with different diagnoses of mental disorders. We divided the sample into four subgroups: patients without suicide ideation or suicide attempts; patients with current suicide ideation; patients with lifetime suicide attempts and patients with a suicide attempt in the previous year. The group with suicide attempts in the previous year showed higher levels of hopelessness, borderline symptoms and NSSI, and lower levels of meaning in life than the other groups. Groups were composed of unequal numbers of patients, and in some of them, the sample size was small. The sample was composed mainly of women with eating disorders. The study design was retrospective, and so the results must be considered in terms of correlates. Our results suggest that hopelessness, borderline symptoms-including NSSI-and meaning in life play a key role in suicide attempts. Thus, psychotherapeutic interventions should focus on managing NSSI, searching for meaning and managing emptiness, loss of control and feelings such as self-contempt in patients with suicide ideation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Recent suicide attempters show higher levels of hopelessness, borderline symptoms and NSSI than lifetime attempters and suicide ideators. Clinicians should focus attention on assessing hopelessness, borderline symptoms and NSSI in those with suicide ideation. Lower levels of meaning in life are related to recent suicide attempts. Levels of hopelessness differentiate between recent and lifetime suicide attempters. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Increased risk of attempted suicide among aging holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Yoram; Aizenberg, Dov; Szor, Henry; Swartz, Marnina; Maor, Rachel; Knobler, Haim Y

    2005-08-01

    Suicide rates are higher in elderly persons than in those at other phase of the life-cycle. The majority of World War II (WWII) veterans and Holocaust survivors still define their war experiences as being the "most significant stressor" of their lives. Aging of survivors is frequently associated with depression, reactivation of traumatic syndromes, physical disorders, loss, and psychological distress, possibly increasing the risk of suicide. The aim of the present study was to investigate, among a large cohort of elderly Holocaust survivors, whether their WWII experiences confer an increased risk of suicidal behavior. All medical records of elderly patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Israel during a 5-year period were retrospectively evaluated. Suicidal patients were compared with patients who had not attempted suicide. Of 921 eligible patients, 374 were Holocaust survivors; 135 (14.6%) had attempted suicide in the month before admission. Ninety Holocaust survivors (24%) had attempted suicide, versus 45 of the 502 patients (8.2%) with no WWII experience. The risk of attempted suicide among Holocaust survivors was significantly increased. Although these findings are from a highly selected sample, we suggest that aging Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of attempting suicide. The growth of the elderly population, of whom many had had traumatic life experiences, emphasizes the need to implement preventive strategies so that suicidal risk may be contained.

  4. Memory impairment in those who attempted suicide by benzodiazepine overdose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, B.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Wientjes, H.J.F.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    Backgroud: a prospective study was done to investigate the presence of anterograde amnesia in suicide attempters who took benzodiazepines (BZ) and to study the correlation with sedation. Method: in 43 patients, who attempted suicide by taking benzodiazepines, memory perfomrance was tested on a

  5. The Meaning of Suicide Attempts by Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everall, Robin D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes study identifying themes that characterize experiences of young adults who made one suicide attempt between the ages of 20 and 24. Six major themes identified include: family experiences, adolescent interactions, emotional experiences, self-destructive behaviors, depression, and perception of control. Views suicide attempts as a…

  6. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

  7. Personality traits, brie' recurrent depression and attempted suicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between attempted suicide, personality factors and brief recurrent depression. Over a period of 1 year, the demographic and psychiatric factors of 307 patients who had attempted suicide and subsequently been hospitalised at H. F. Verwoerd Hospital and referred to its Department of ...

  8. Prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt: associations with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Research on the prevalence of suicidal ideation, attempt, and cormorbid psychiatric disorders in post-conflict areas is still limited. Aim: We explored the prevalence of suicidal ideation, attempt, associated psychiatric disorders and HIV/AIDS in post-conflict Northern Uganda, an area that experienced civil strife ...

  9. Personality traits, brie' recurrent depression ~nd attempted suicide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between attempted suicide, personality factors and brief recurrent depression. Over a period of 1 year, the demographic and psychiatric factors of 307 patients who had attempted suicide and subsequently been hospitalised at H. F. Verwoerd Hospital and referred to its Department of ...

  10. Suicidal ideation and attempt among South African medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International data reveal that medical students are at higher risk of attempting suicide than the general population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt among South African medical students from three universities and identify key predisposing risk factors. Data were collected via a ...

  11. Suicide Ideation and Attempts in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Gorman, Angela A.; Hillwig-Garcia, Jolene; Syed, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in 791 children with autism (1-16 years), 35 nonautistic depressed children, and 186 typical children and risk factors in autism were determined. Percent of children with autism for whom suicide ideation or attempts was rated as sometimes to very often a problem by mothers (14%) was 28 times greater than…

  12. Temperament, Hopelessness, and Attempted Suicide: Direct and Indirect Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Rosellini, Anthony J.; Bagge, Courtney L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated if hopelessness mediated the relations between temperament and recent suicide attempter status in a psychiatric sample. Negative and positive temperament (particularly the positive temperament-positive emotionality subscale) uniquely predicted levels of hopelessness. Although these temperament constructs also demonstrated significant indirect effects on recent suicide attempter status, the effects were partially (for the broad temperament scales) or fully (for the ...

  13. Interpersonal Precipitants and Suicide Attempts in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Beth S.; Groves, Shelly A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Stanley, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often characterized by multiple low lethality suicide attempts triggered by seemingly minor incidents, and less commonly by high lethality attempts that are attributed to impulsiveness or comorbid major depression. The relationships among life events, impulsiveness, and type of suicidal behavior has hardly…

  14. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempt in Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farideh faraji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II, Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress, and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was found in young male drug abusers with these characteristics: single, junior school graduate, unemployed, suicide history, sex and physical abuse history during childhood, legal problems, suicide and self-injury witness, and violence and suicide in family members. Compared to non-attempters, suicide attempters obtained higher scores in depressive, obsessive, masochistic, and borderline personality disorders clinical somatoform symptoms, alcohol abuse in addition to drug use, major depressive disorder, and stress. Suicide attempters also used lower levels of task-focused and avoidance-focused strategies and higher levels of emotion-focused strategies to cope with stressors. Conclusion: The findings of this study can contribute to suicide identification and prevention among drug abusers.

  15. Attempted suicide in Denmark. I. Some basic social characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W; Kolmos, L

    1985-01-01

    During a 6 months' period, 99 persons, randomly chosen among patients admitted for attempted suicide to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, were interviewed. This paper, which is the first in a series, deals with the theoretical and methodological background of the survey...... and the validity of the sample and also with some basic social characteristics of the suicide attempters. The majority of the suicide attempters were found to be single and many of them were living alone or alone with children. The sample could also be characterized by a low level of vocational education...... and by lack of association with the labour market. The suicide attempters could not, however, be unequivocally described as being in bad financial circumstances, neither were they solely from the lower social classes; the social status profile of the suicide attempters was closer to the status profile...

  16. Risk factors and characteristics of suicide attempts among 381 suicidal adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeland, Rikke Lindgaard; Teilmann, Grete; Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This study explored the relationships between suicidal adolescents and their parents, siblings and friends. It examined how much adolescents talked to their parents before suicide attempts, the frequency of self-mutilation, the extent of suicidal ideation, previous suicide attempts and suicide...... this feeling and the duration of suicidal ideation (p = 0.01) and self-mutilation (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Early risk factors for suicide were dissociated relationships with parents, siblings and friends, feeling unheard, self-mutilation and extended suicidal ideation....... attempts in the adolescent's surroundings. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional case-control study that focused on 381 adolescents aged 10-17 years who were admitted to hospitals across Denmark after suicide attempts with acetaminophen and 296 age- and gender-matched controls recruited from schools...

  17. LPG Dependence after a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Aldemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalant abuse is a problem that is getting more common all around the world. The increase in prevalence of inhalant abuse escalates morbidity and mortality rates. About 22% of people using inhalant have died at their first attempt. Particularly propane, butane, or propane-butane mixture has highest mortality rates. Sudden sniffing death syndrome, cardiomyopathy, central nervous system toxicity, hematological abnormalities, kidney toxicity, and hepatocellular toxicities are the major complications of inhalant abuse. Herein we present a patient with inhalant use disorder. At the age of 19, after a stressful life event he had unsuccessfully tried to suicide by inhaling LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, a mixture of butane and propane gases. After he realized that he had hallucinations and felt better during the inhalation, he started to abuse it. He was addicted to LPG for 10 years at the time of admission. Besides being dangerous for the society security, this intense level of LPG inhalation (12 liters a day not giving any physical harm makes this case interesting.

  18. Suicides and Suicide Attempts in the U.S. Military, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nigel E.; Reger, Mark A.; Luxton, David D.; Skopp, Nancy A.; Kinn, Julie; Smolenski, Derek; Gahm, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Defense Suicide Event Report Program collects extensive information on suicides and suicide attempts from the U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy. Data are compiled on demographics, suicide event details, behavioral health treatment history, military history, and information about other potential risk factors such as…

  19. Family history of suicide and high motor impulsivity distinguish suicide attempters from suicide ideators among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Guang; Chen, Shen; Xu, Zhi-Ming; Shen, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Yi-Quan; He, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Ri-Fang; Roberts, David L; Shi, Jian-Fei; Wang, Yi-Qiang

    2017-07-01

    Suicide in college students has become an important public health issue in China. The aim of this study was to identify the differences between suicide attempters and suicide ideators based on a cross-sectional survey. Our results indicate that although female gender, positive screening for psychiatric illness, positive family history of suicide, elevated overall impulsivity, and elevated motor impulsivity were correlated with suicidal ideation, only positive family history of suicide and high motor impulsivity could differentiate suicide attempters from suicidal ideators. Future research with a longitudinal and prospective study design should be conducted to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Immigrants in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Wasserman, Danuta; Apter, Alan; Kerkhof, Ad; Michel, Konrad; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; van Heeringen, Kees; Värnik, Airi; Schmidtke, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare frequencies of suicide attempt repetition in immigrants and local European populations, and the timing of repetition in these groups. Method: Data from 7 European countries, comprising 10 574 local and 3032 immigrant subjects, were taken from the World Health Organization European Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and the ensuing Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe (commonly referred to as MONSUE) project. The relation between immigrant status and repetition of suicide attempt within 12-months following first registered attempt was analyzed with binary logistic regression, controlling for sex, age, and method of attempt. Timing of repetition was controlled for sex, age, and the recommended type of aftercare. Results: Lower odds of repeating a suicide attempt were found in Eastern European (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.61, P Europe stands in contrast to their markedly higher tendency to attempt suicide in general, possibly pointing to situational stress factors related to their suicidal crisis that are less persistent over time. Our findings also raise the possibility that suicide attempters and repeaters constitute only partially overlapping populations. PMID:25565687

  1. The influence of media coverage of a celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andrew T A; Hawton, Keith; Chen, Tony H H; Yen, Amy M F; Chen, Chung-Ying; Chen, Lin-Chen; Teng, Po-Ren

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the impact of media reporting of a celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide attempts. A Poisson time series autoregression analysis was conducted to examine whether there was a significant increase in suicide attempts during the 3-week period after the start of extensive media reporting of a celebrity suicide. The reporting began on May 2, 2005, and lasted about 17 days. To investigate the influence of media reporting on suicide attempts, a structured interview was conducted with 124 suicide attempters identified from 2 counties in Mid Taiwan who had exposure to the media reporting. After controlling for seasonal variation, calendar year, temperature, and humidity, there was a marked increase in the number of suicide attempts during the 3-week period after media reporting began (adjusted relative risk = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.26 to 1.91). Among 124 suicide attempters exposed to the media reports, 23.4% reported an influence from them. There was no relationship between the attempters' ages and the age of the celebrity or the method, but male attempters had a significantly higher risk for such influence. A considerably higher risk for such influence was found among subjects with a history of suicide attempt(s) in the previous year (odds ratio = 52.3, 95% CI = 5.96 to 459.1). The extensive media reporting of the suicide of a celebrity was followed by an increase in suicide attempts. The effect was particularly marked in individuals with a recent history of a suicide attempt. The results provide further support for the need for more restrained reporting of suicides as part of suicide prevention strategies and for special vigilance for contagious effects of such reporting on people who have carried out recent suicidal acts.

  2. Adolescent Attachment Security, Family Functioning, and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, R. Michael; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual’s social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all 3 types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention. PMID:23560608

  3. Age-Specific Characteristics of Serious Suicide Attempters in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengcheng; Yang, Rong; Phillips, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of four age groups of patients with medically serious suicide attempts from nine general hospitals in China (N = 617) were compared. There were no significant age-group differences by residence (rural vs. urban), method of attempt, proportion with prior attempts, or level of family functioning. Attempters [less than or equal to]20…

  4. History of suicide attempts in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette-Smith, Melissa; Weiss, Jonathan; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) may be at higher risk for attempting suicide compared to the general population. This study examines the issue of suicidality in adults with AS. An online survey was completed by 50 adults from across Ontario. The sample was dichotomized into individuals who had attempted suicide (n = 18) and those who had not (n = 32). We examined the relationship between predictor variables and previous attempts, and compared the services that both groups are currently receiving. Over 35% of individuals with AS reported that they had attempted suicide in the past. Individuals who attempted suicide were more likely to have a history of depression and self-reported more severe autism symptomatology. Those with and without a suicidal history did not differ in terms of the services they were currently receiving. This study looks at predictors retrospectively and cannot ascertain how long ago the attempt was made. Although efforts were made to obtain a representative sample, there is the possibility that the individuals surveyed may be more or less distressed than the general population with AS. The suicide attempt rate in our sample is much higher than the 4.6% lifetime prevalence seen in the general population. These findings highlight a need for more specialized services to help prevent future attempts and to support this vulnerable group.

  5. Drugs associated with more suicidal ideations are also associated with more suicide attempts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry T Robertson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In randomized controlled trials (RCTs, some drugs, including CB1 antagonists for obesity treatment, have been shown to cause increased suicidal ideation. A key question is whether drugs that increase or are associated with increased suicidal ideations are also associated with suicidal behavior, or whether drug-induced suicidal ideations are unlinked epiphenomena that do not presage the more troubling and potentially irrevocable outcome of suicidal behavior. This is difficult to determine in RCTs because of the rarity of suicidal attempts and completions.To determine whether drugs associated with more suicidal ideations are also associated with more suicide attempts in large spontaneous adverse event (AE report databases.Generalized linear models with negative binomial distribution were fitted to Food and Drug Administration (FDA Adverse Event (AE Reporting System (AERS data from 2004 to 2008. A total of 1,404,470 AEs from 832 drugs were analyzed as a function of reports of suicidal ideations; other non-suicidal adverse reactions; drug class; proportion of reports from males; and average age of subject for which AE was filed. Drug was treated as the unit of analysis, thus the statistical models effectively had 832 observations.Reported suicide attempts and completed suicides per drug.832 drugs, ranging from abacavir to zopiclone, were evaluated. The 832 drugs, as primary suspect drugs in a given adverse event, accounted for over 99.9% of recorded AERS. Suicidal ideations had a significant positive association with suicide attempts (p<.0001 and had an approximately 131-fold stronger magnitude of association than non-suicidal AERs, after adjusting for drug class, gender, and age.In AE reports, drugs that are associated with increased suicidal ideations are also associated with increased suicidal attempts or completions. This association suggests that drug-induced suicidal ideations observed in RCTs plausibly represent harbingers that presage the

  6. Last Suicide Attempt before Completed Suicide in Severe Depression: An Extended Suicidal Process May Be Found in Men Rather Than Women.

    OpenAIRE

    Brådvik, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the time from last suicide attempt to suicide in men and women with major depressive disorder with melancholic and/or psychotic features. The case records of 100 suicide victims with severe depression were evaluated. All suicide attempts during the course of depression were noted. The time from last suicide attempt to suicide was compared as well as the occurrence of suicide attempt during the last depressive episode, by gender. Male suicide attempte...

  7. Trends in suicide attempts at an emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica M. Alves

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the profile of suicide attempts treated at an emergency department in the municipality of Arapiraca, state of Alagoas, Brazil, from 2009 to 2012. Methods: We analyzed all emergency department records containing a diagnosis of suicide attempt. Data were evaluated using Student’s t test and Pearson’s chi-square test. Significance was accepted at p<0.05. Results: We identified 2,142 cases. Suicide attempts were more frequent among women and young adults, but deaths were more frequent among men. Suicide attempts were most frequent among patients aged 10 to 39 years (81.1%. Drug intoxication (65.0% and non-drug poisoning (16.2% were significantly more prevalent than other methods of suicide. The month of April (10.6% accounted for the greatest number of cases, and July had the smallest number (5.5%. Suicide attempts were most prevalent in spring (28.3%, on Sundays (18.4% and Saturdays (16.8%, and from 12:00 p.m. to 5:59 p.m. Conclusion: Suicide prevention measures should focus on young women. Further research into the care provided to suicide attempters and better monitoring of the sale and use of medicines and poisons could be useful.

  8. Reward/Punishment reversal learning in older suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y; Clark, Luke; Siegle, Greg J; Butters, Meryl A; Ichikawa, Naho; Sahakian, Barbara J; Szanto, Katalin

    2010-06-01

    Suicide rates are high in old age, and the contribution of cognitive risk factors remains poorly understood. Suicide may be viewed as an outcome of an altered decision process. The authors hypothesized that impairment in reward/punishment-based learning, a component of affective decision making, is associated with attempted suicide in late-life depression. They expected that suicide attempters would discount past reward/punishment history, focusing excessively on the most recent rewards and punishments. The authors further hypothesized that this impairment could be dissociated from executive abilities, such as forward planning. The authors assessed reward/punishment-based learning using the probabilistic reversal learning task in 65 individuals age 60 and older: suicide attempters, suicide ideators, nonsuicidal depressed elderly, and nondepressed comparison subjects. The authors used a reinforcement learning computational model to decompose reward/punishment processing over time. The Stockings of Cambridge test served as a control measure of executive function. Suicide attempters but not suicide ideators showed impaired probabilistic reversal learning compared to both nonsuicidal depressed elderly and nondepressed comparison subjects, after controlling for effects of education, global cognitive function, and substance use. Model-based analyses revealed that suicide attempters discounted previous history to a higher degree relative to comparison subjects, basing their choice largely on reward/punishment received on the last trial. Groups did not differ in their performance on the Stockings of Cambridge test. Older suicide attempters display impaired reward/punishment-based learning. The authors propose a hypothesis that older suicide attempters make overly present-focused decisions, ignoring past experiences. Modification of this "myopia for the past" may have therapeutic potential.

  9. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress.

  10. Attempted suicide in Denmark. I. Some basic social characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W; Kolmos, L

    1985-01-01

    and by lack of association with the labour market. The suicide attempters could not, however, be unequivocally described as being in bad financial circumstances, neither were they solely from the lower social classes; the social status profile of the suicide attempters was closer to the status profile...... and the validity of the sample and also with some basic social characteristics of the suicide attempters. The majority of the suicide attempters were found to be single and many of them were living alone or alone with children. The sample could also be characterized by a low level of vocational education...... of suiciders, with relatively many persons from both upper and lower classes and few from the middle class....

  11. Attempted suicide in Ghana: motivation, stigma, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Andoh-Arthur, Johnny; Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye

    2015-01-01

    To understand the experiences of suicidal persons in Ghana, 10 persons were interviewed after they attempted suicide. Thematic analysis of data showed that motivation for suicidal behavior included social taunting, hopelessness, and partner's infidelity. Suicidal persons reported stigma expressed through physical molestation and social ostracism, which left them traumatized. However, they coped through social support from relations, religious faith, and use of avoidance. Community-wide sensitive education should target reducing stigma and also increase mental health education on suicidal behavior in Ghanaian communities.

  12. Family Dysfunction and Teenage Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    One of the most persistent findings in the literature on suicidal behavior in adolescence is its association with the characteristics of the adolescent's family. Although empirical work clearly indicates that the family is a critical variable to consider in the study of teenage suicidal behavior, it is less clear how particular family features…

  13. Does Response on the PHQ-9 Depression Questionnaire Predict Subsequent Suicide Attempt or Suicide Death?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, Gregory E; Rutter, Carolyn M; Peterson, Do; Oliver, Malia; Whiteside, Ursula; Operskalski, Belinda; Ludman, Evette J

    2013-01-01

    .... Patients who reported thoughts of death or self-harm “more than half the days” or “nearly every day” experienced a markedly increased risk of subsequent suicide attempt and suicide death...

  14. Effect of Socioeconomic Status on the Linkage Between Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Lim; Kim, Ji Man; Choi, Young; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Previous suicide attempts are a leading risk factor for completed suicide. To identify specific characteristics of those at high risk for attempts, we investigated associations with socioeconomic status (SES). Data from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) included adults who reported suicidal ideation (N = 220,245). Attempts in the past 12 months were assessed. Associations of demographic, socioeconomic, and suicide-related behavioral factors were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Among those with suicidal ideation, 862 (3.9%) had attempted suicide. After stratification by age and gender, results showed that low education and unemployed young adult men and women had significantly higher rates of attempts. The lowest income level was associated with significantly higher rates of attempts in only young adult women. Among those with the lowest and highest income, the association between ideation and attempts was attenuated, whereas it was enhanced among other income groups. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  15. Associations between Korean Adolescents' Sexual Orientation and Suicidal Ideation, Plans, Attempts, and Medically Serious Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yeunhee; Kim, Ji-Su

    2017-04-01

    Despite growing interest in the public health of sexual minority, youth around the world due to the high rates of suicidal ideation and attempts in this population, few studies on the sexual orientation of Korean adolescents have been conducted. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the sexual orientation of Korean adolescents and their suicide-related behavior. Raw data from the tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The sample consisted of 3603 adolescents who provided selected demographic variables and reported on their experience of sexual intercourse with the same or the opposite sex, along with lifestyle and suicide-related behaviors. Rates of suicidal ideation, plans, attempts, and medically serious attempts were higher in both homosexual and bisexual than heterosexual groups. Suicidal ideation (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.09-2.08), suicidal plans (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.09), and suicide attempts (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.28-2.88) had the strongest associations with homosexuality after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, bisexuality was only significantly associated with suicidal attempts (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.97) after multivariate adjustment. Effective suicide prevention interventions are required for homosexual and bisexual adolescents, in the form of targeted programs to improve their mental health status and ability to cope with stress.

  16. Associations between Korean Adolescents’ Sexual Orientation and Suicidal Ideation, Plans, Attempts, and Medically Serious Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    KWAK, Yeunhee; KIM, Ji-Su

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite growing interest in the public health of sexual minority, youth around the world due to the high rates of suicidal ideation and attempts in this population, few studies on the sexual orientation of Korean adolescents have been conducted. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the sexual orientation of Korean adolescents and their suicide-related behavior. Methods: Raw data from the tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The sample consisted of 3603 adolescents who provided selected demographic variables and reported on their experience of sexual intercourse with the same or the opposite sex, along with lifestyle and suicide-related behaviors. Results: Rates of suicidal ideation, plans, attempts, and medically serious attempts were higher in both homosexual and bisexual than heterosexual groups. Suicidal ideation (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.09–2.08), suicidal plans (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.01–2.09), and suicide attempts (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.28–2.88) had the strongest associations with homosexuality after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, bisexuality was only significantly associated with suicidal attempts (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.01–2.97) after multivariate adjustment. Conclusion: Effective suicide prevention interventions are required for homosexual and bisexual adolescents, in the form of targeted programs to improve their mental health status and ability to cope with stress. PMID:28540263

  17. Prediction of Lethality in Suicide Attempts: Gender Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Carol C; Harris, Keith M; Ho, Roger C

    2017-01-01

    This study explores gender differences in lethality of suicide attempts. Three years of medical records related to suicide attempters ( N = 666) were subjected to analysis. Of the sample, 69.2% were female, 30.8% male; 63.8% Chinese, 15.8% Indian, and 15.0 % Malay. Ages ranged from 10 to 85 years old ( M = 29.7, SD = 16.1). More males than females made attempts with high perceived lethality (χ2 = 12.10, p attempts and more than 80% of high perceived lethality attempts. Suicide intent and opportunity for rescue were significant predictors for both measures of lethality. Gender differences were examined. Findings were discussed in regard to implications in suicide assessments and interventions.

  18. Psychiatric Morbidity Among Suicide Attempters Who Needed ICU Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MMA Shalahuddin Qusar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a tragic and serious but preventable public health problem all over the world including Bangladesh. Committing suicide has become a burning issue and mortality rate increases especially in young females. Psychiatric evaluation is needed in suicide attempted patients for better management plan to reduce such unnatural mortality, as well as the impairment related to suicidal thought and psychiatric disorders. Objectives: To assess the psychiatric disorders and conditions that needed sufficient clinical attention among the suicide attempters who needed ICU intervention. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a private hospital of Dhaka City from July 2008 to December 2008. Total forty four subjects of attempted suicide were included in the study and psychiatric diagnosis was made by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV by psychiatrists after initial physical problems subsided. Results: The most common psychiatric diagnosis was Major Depressive Disorder. Female suffered more and among them attention-seeking behaviors were frequent. Thirty-four patients (77.3% had previous history of psychiatric disorder. Chemicals (like; organophosphorous, kerosene, harpic and other medicine overdose ingestion was the most frequently used method by the suicide attempters. Conclusion: This study may be helpful for further research regarding suicide attempters and its' association with mental problems. In primary health care setting, the physicians may get a clue to design a system for preventing, early recognition and managing suicidal ideas, thoughts and attempts. Psychiatric consultation should be made mandatory for all patients admitted following attempted suicide. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i2.4761 BSMMU J 2009; 2(2: 73-77

  19. A Novel Therapy for People Who Attempt Suicide and Why We Need New Models of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Michel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of suicidal behaviour based on suicide as a goal-directed action, and its implications. An action theoretical model has guided the authors in the development of a brief therapy for individuals who attempt suicide (ASSIP—Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program. Key elements are an early therapeutic alliance, narrative interviewing, psychoeducation, a joint case conceptualization, safety planning, and regular letters over 24 months. In a randomized controlled trial, ASSIP was highly effective in reducing the risk of suicide reattempts. The therapeutic elements in this treatment are described and possible implications for future directions in clinical suicide prevention discussed.

  20. Panic symptom clusters differentially predict suicide ideation and attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Lance M; Moskowitz, D S; Galynker, Igor; Yaseen, Zimri S

    2014-05-01

    Increasingly strong evidence links anxiety disorders in general and panic attacks in particular to suicidality. The underlying causes and specifics of this relation, however, remain unclear. The present article sought to begin addressing this question by clarifying the association between panic symptoms and suicidality. Data were sampled from the NESARC epidemiological data set from the US and analyzed as four independently, randomly selected subsets of 1000 individuals using structural equation modeling analyses and replicating results across samples. Evidence is presented for four symptom clusters (cognitive symptoms, respiratory distress, symptoms of alpha and beta adrenergic activation) and the differential association of each with suicidal ideation and attempts. Symptoms of alpha adrenergic activation predicted prior suicide attempt whereas cognitive symptoms predicted prior suicidal ideation. These findings were independent of comorbid major depressive disorder. It is suggested that assessment of suicide risk in the community includes the presentation of cognitive symptoms and symptoms related to alpha adrenergic activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Level of suicidal intent predicts overall mortality and suicide after attempted suicide: a 12-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostamo Aini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to comprehensively examine clinical risk factors, including suicide intent and hopelessness, for suicide and risk of death from all causes after attempted suicide over a 12-year follow-up period. Methods A systematic sample of 224 patients from consecutive cases of attempted suicide referred to health care in four Finnish cities between 1 January and 31 July 1990 was interviewed. Results After 12 years of follow-up 22% of these patients had died, 8% by committing suicide. The only statistically significant risk factor for eventual suicide was high scores on Beck's Suicidal Intention Scale. Male gender, older age, physical illness or disability and high scores on Beck's Suicidal Intention Scale predicted death overall. Conclusions Following attempted suicide, high intention to kill oneself is a significant risk factor for both death from all causes and suicide.

  2. Temperament and character profile of college students who have suicidal ideas or have attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kounseok; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seok Hyeon

    2017-10-15

    Suicide is a major cause of death in university students. Personality traits have been suggested as possible risk factors for suicidal behaviors. This study looked at the relationship between the personality dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and suicidal behaviors. A total of 5644 college students took the TCI test and the suicidality module of the M.I.N.I. The students were divided into the suicidal ideation group (n = 302; 5.4%) and the suicide attempt group (n = 301; 5.3%). Each group's TCI dimension and sub-dimension scores were compared with one another. To find out which TCI dimension affects suicide risk when depressed, regression analysis and mediation analysis were conducted. First, we adjusted for age, sex and depressive mood and compared the TCI scores of the participants based on their suicide risk. After the adjustment, self-directedness decreased in the suicidal ideation group while novelty seeking and persistence increased in the suicide attempt group. It turned out that self-directedness has a partial mediating effect between depressive symptom and suicide risk (β = -0.068 P suicidal ideation group is affected by character whereas the suicide attempt group is affected by temperament. Among the character dimensions, self-directedness was found to reduce the effect of depressive mood on suicide risk. Therefore, when evaluating suicide risk, assessing character dimensions, especially self-directedness along with depressive mood, a risk factor, will be helpful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cholesterol and suicide attempts: A prospective study of depressed inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Coryell, William H.

    2007-01-01

    Low cholesterol levels have commonly been associated with various suicide measures. We sought to examine suicide attempts in a prospective sample of depressed patients that on prior analysis demonstrated an association between low cholesterol and subsequent suicide completions. Seventy-four inpatients with Research Diagnostic Criteria unipolar major depression, bipolar depression or schizoaffective depression entered a prospective follow-up study from 1978 - 1981. Kaplan-Meier survival analys...

  4. Substance Use, Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    WU, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Liu, Xinhua; Cohen, Patricia; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Shaffer, David

    2004-01-01

    Using data from a community sample of youth (N = 1,458; ages 9–17), this study assessed the association between adolescent substance use/abuse and suicidal behaviors. Suicide attempts were strongly associated with alcohol abuse and dependence, followed by frequent cigarette smoking. The associations remained significant even after controlling for depression. The associations between substance use/abuse and suicidal ideation were no longer significant after controlling for depression. These fi...

  5. Attempted suicide and contact with the primary health authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    In a study describing suicide attempters' approach to the health and social welfare authorities prior to a suicide attempt, it was found that one-fourth of the patients seeking help requested therapeutic consultations and only a few asked for medicinal treatment. Forty-four percent had taken newly...... prescribed medicine for the parasuicide. It is concluded that the availability of psychological support and a more restrictive prescription of medicine could have a preventive effect on parasuicidal behaviour. Patients suffering from depression and pain have more often than other patients been in contact...... with their general practitioner prior to the suicide attempt. Postgraduate courses for practitioners on depression diagnostics and suicidal behaviour are proposed as a measure in suicide prevention....

  6. [Suicid attempts among first and second generation immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Tarik A; Riecher-Rössler, Anita

    2008-01-01

    To examine the characteristics of suicide attempters among first and second generation immigrants from Turkey living in Basel-City, Switzerland. All immigrants living in Basel City and admitted to the University Hospital of Basel-City, Switzerland, after a suicide attempt, were consecutively examined during a 7-year period (n=70). 35,7% of the suicide attempters were first generation and 64,3% second generation immigrants. Among the first generation the sex ratio female to male was 1,3 and among second generation 3,1. 36,9% of those concerned were at immigration 15 to 19 years of age. 24,1 % of females from first generation and 14,7% of females from second generation mentioned violence in family and partnership as the main problem. Female migrants of 2. generation seem to be at risk with regard to suicidal behavior. Violence seems to be a significant problem in suicidal female immigrants of both generations.

  7. The Differentiating Role of State and Trait Hopelessness in Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Erin M; Rahm-Knigge, Ryan L; Conner, Bradley T

    2017-08-30

    With suicide being a leading cause of death in the United States, research must aim to increase efficacious prevention methods. The purpose of the present study was to gain greater understanding of the difference between suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Previous research emphasizes the role of hopelessness in attempts and ideation (Bagge, Lamis, Nadorff, & Osman, 2014 ). Yet while hopelessness offers predictive value to suicide attempt, it fails in discriminating between suicide attempters and suicide ideators. Thus the goal was to examine the possible influence of different types of hopelessness on suicidal ideation and attempt. The experience of hopelessness as a temporary feeling, or state, versus as an enduring emotion, or trait, was examined in this study. The State-Trait Hopelessness Scale and 4 suicidal thought and suicidal behavior questions were assessed. Results of logistic regression analysis supported the hypothesis that state and trait hopelessness were differentially associated with ideation and attempt. While trait hopelessness was significantly positively associated with responses to all 4 suicidality questions (p's hopelessness was only positively related to responses to 1 ideation question (p hopelessness in differentiating suicidal ideation and attempt.

  8. Influence of visual acuity on suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and depression in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Lee, Christopher Seungkyu; Lee, Sung Chul; Chung, Byunghoon; Kim, Sung Soo

    2015-08-01

    To assess the influence of visual acuity (VA) on suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and depression. From 2008 to 2012, a total of 28 919 nationally representative participants aged 19 years or older in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey underwent additional ophthalmological examinations by the Korean Ophthalmologic Society. Associations between best corrected VA in the better-seeing eye based on decimal fraction and mental health were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis after adjusting for possible biopsychosocial confounders. Self-reported mental health (suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and depression), Euro Quality of Life-Visual Analog Scale and counselling experience were evaluated by direct interviews. A nomogram for risk of suicidal ideation was generated. By multivariable logistic regression analysis, low VA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt but not depression. Participants with a VA of no light perception to 0.2 had a nearly twofold and threefold increased risk of suicidal ideation (adjusted OR, 1.85; 95% CI 1.04 to 3.27) and suicidal attempt (adjusted OR, 3.44; 95% CI 0.92 to 12.79), compared with participants with a VA of 1.0. Sociodemographic disparities, including age and socioeconomic status, existed for suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt and depression. Euro Quality of Life-Visual Analog Scale significantly decreased as VA decreased and was lower in participants who attempted suicide. Low VA was associated with the occurrence of suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. Ophthalmologists should embrace their responsibility to help reduce suicidality and prevent suicides in patients with low VA by encouraging them to seek psychiatric care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Association of Risk of Suicide Attempts With Methylphenidate Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kenneth K C; Coghill, David; Chan, Esther W; Lau, Wallis C Y; Hollis, Chris; Liddle, Elizabeth; Banaschewski, Tobias; McCarthy, Suzanne; Neubert, Antje; Sayal, Kapil; Ip, Patrick; Schuemie, Martijn J; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Buitelaar, Jan; Carucci, Sara; Zuddas, Alessandro; Kovshoff, Hanna; Garas, Peter; Nagy, Peter; Inglis, Sarah K; Konrad, Kerstin; Häge, Alexander; Rosenthal, Eric; Wong, Ian C K

    2017-10-01

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at an increased risk of attempting suicide. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate hydrochloride, are the most common treatment for ADHD, but the association between their therapeutic use and suicide is unclear. To investigate the association between methylphenidate and the risk of suicide attempts. A population-based, electronic medical records database from the Hong Kong Clinical Data Analysis & Reporting System was used to identify 25 629 individuals aged 6 to 25 years who were treated with methylphenidate between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2015. Those who had attempted suicide were included in the analysis. A self-controlled case series design was used to control for time-invariant characteristics of the patients. Relative incidence of suicide attempt during periods when patients were exposed to methylphenidate compared with nonexposed periods. Among 25 629 patients with methylphenidate prescriptions, 154 had their first recorded suicide attempt within the study period; of these individuals, 111 (72.1%) were male; mean (SD) age at baseline was 7.15 (2.19) years. The overall incidence of suicide attempts during methylphenidate treatment was 9.27 per 10 000 patient-years. An increased risk of suicide attempts was detected during the 90-day period before methylphenidate was initiated, with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 6.55 (95% CI, 3.37-12.72). The IRR remained elevated during the first 90 days of treatment (IRR, 3.91; 95% CI, 1.62-9.42) before returning to baseline levels during ongoing treatment (IRR, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.77-2.38). When the risk during the first 90 days of treatment was compared with the 90 days preceding first treatment, the incidence of suicide attempts was not elevated (IRR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.26-2.35). The incidence of suicide attempts was higher in the period immediately before the start of methylphenidate treatment. The risk remained elevated immediately after the start of

  10. Intoxication, criminal offences and suicide attempts in a group of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intoxication, criminal offences and suicide attempts in a group of South African problem drinkers. ... Research suggests a relationship between alcohol and both crime and suicide. ... The importance of population studies and the need for intervention programmes aimed at teenagers who are drinking, are emphasised.

  11. Personality traits, brie' recurrent depression ~nd attempted suicide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ant that son to t r their nd to e. 15. nt. J. Arch f is by scess: l Head. Personality traits, brie' recurrent depression ~nd attempted suicide. H. W. Pretorius, W. Bodemer, J. L. Roos,. J. Grimbeek. This study investigated the relationship ... recurrent depression and suicidal behaviour. Personality traits observed during the initial ...

  12. [A phenomenological study of suicide attempts in elders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Mi Young; Kim, Yun Jeong

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning and essence of suicide for elderly people who had previously attempted suicide as an older person. Giorgi's descriptive phenomenology was used for analysis. The researchers carried out in-depth interviews, recordings and memos individually with four elders. The elders were individuals who had attempted suicide sometime in the past 5 yr. They were interviewed from 5 to 10 times using open-ended questions and a semi-structural format. Demographic data were also collected. The meaning of suicide before a suicide attempt in older people had four core components: conflict with family, powerlessness and despair in their life with a drop in self-esteem, using internal and external resources to resolve their troubles and awareness of imminent crisis. These results of this study will increase understanding of suicide in older people by defining their subjective experience of suicide attempts and applying grounded data in the development of programs that provide concrete intervention strategies to prevent suicide in elderly people.

  13. Problem Solving, Stress, and Coping in Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keith G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Twenty adolescents who had made suicide attempts are compared with 20 nonpsychiatric subjects on measures of problem solving, stress, and coping. Findings support a transactional model of adolescent suicidal behavior whereby inaccuracies in the appraisal of problem solving while under high stress lead to a reduction in the use of adaptive coping…

  14. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among individuals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Suicide is a common problem worldwide and the magnitude is high especially in countries where mental illnesses are prevalent and psychiatric services are poor. Objective: To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among patients who attended the Psychiatry clinic of Gondar University ...

  15. Intolerance to Delayed Reward in Girls with Multiple Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.; James, Lisa M.; Richard, Dawn M.; Dawes, Michael A.; Acheson, Ashley; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity has been conceptualized as influencing the expression of suicidal behavior. Adolescence is a developmental period characterized both by a relatively high rate of suicide attempts and a high level of impulsivity. The current study examined two behavioral measures (delay reward and disinhibition) and one self-report measure of…

  16. Examining the unique relations between anxiety sensitivity factors and suicidal ideation and past suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Norr, Aaron M; Boffa, Jay W; Durmaz, Daphne; Raines, Amanda M; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-30

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) has recently been linked to suicidality. Specifically, AS cognitive concerns has been implicated as a risk factor, and AS physical concerns as a protective factor, for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, no studies have used structural equation modeling (SEM) to address issues of skewed suicide variables and bifactor modeling of AS to address the high degree of overlap between the lower-order dimensions of AS that limit interpretation of these past findings. AS, suicidal ideation, past suicide attempts, and depression were assessed in a clinical sample of 267 individuals (M age=35.45 years, SD=16.53; 52.1% female). The global AS and AS cognitive concerns factors were positively, significantly associated with suicidal ideation, though these effects were nonsignificant controlling for depression. The global AS factor was positively, significantly associated with suicide attempts, controlling for depression. The current study demonstrated that the relations between AS and suicidal ideation are not maintained when accounting for depression, suggesting that the relation between AS and suicidal ideation may be mediated by depression. The positive relation between global AS and suicide attempts is consistent with theories positing suicide attempts as a consequence of an inability to cope with intolerable distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Life Experience following Suicide Attempt among Middle-aged Men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Eun Young; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to identify the meaning of life experience following suicide attempt among middle-aged men. A qualitative research design was adopted using van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The participants were six middle-aged men who had attempted suicide at least one time. Data were collected in 2013 through in-depth interviews. Individual interviews were recorded; and literary, art works and phenomenological literature were searched to identify the meaning of the experience. The five essential themes of the life experience of middle-aged men who attempted suicide were 'Bitter reality confronted again', 'Anger buried deep inside', 'Broken family, inescapable fetters', 'Blocked relationships, closed world' and 'A step towards a new life'. The meaning of lived experience found in this study provides deep insight into the experience following suicide attempt in middle-aged men and crucial information to give directions to appropriate support and nursing interventions.

  18. Cultural concepts and themes of suicidal attempt among Iranian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad Rafi; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Mani, Arash

    2015-03-01

    Suicide attempts are more common among adolescents than other age groups. Although suicide is considered a worldwide problem, but the related factors, to suicidal behavior are different in various cultures. The purpose of this study is to identify themes that explain suicide attempt process among adolescents in Iran. This is a qualitative study carried out based on grounded theory. Key informants were 16 adolescents referred to two hospitals in Shiraz after suicide attempts. Also, 4 family members, a nurse, a psychologist, and a psychiatrist participated in this study. Sampling started with purposive sampling method and continued with theoretical sampling. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data analysis was carried out using Strauss and Corbin approach and constant comparative method until the point of data saturation. Five main categories, including personal factors and life experiences; family factors, social and educational factors, psychological-emotional problems, and stress control strategies were extracted from the data. The central concept in the data was to escape the painful psychological condition, which was in connection with other concepts describing the process of suicide attempts in adolescents. This study identified 5 categories of concepts as main themes that can be used to explain suicidal attempt process among Iranian adolescents.

  19. Maternal and paternal personality profiles of adolescent suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Nurullah; Kadak, Tayyib; Eliacik, Kayi; Sargin, Enis; Incekas, Secil; Gunes, Hatice

    2017-02-01

    Personality features have been correlated with suicidal behaviors in recent decades. Given its neurobiological background, Cloninger's model of personality, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), may help to identify the maternal and paternal personality dimensions associated with adolescent suicide attempts. The present study is the first that specifically compares the temperament and character profiles of both mothers and fathers of the adolescent suicide attempters with a control group, by considering the influence of demographic and clinical factors. The study group comprised 117 parents of 71 adolescent suicide attempters and 119 parents of 71 age- and gender-matched adolescents without a suicide attempt included as a control group. The TCI and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were applied to the parents in both groups. Logistic regression analysis, which was performed to adjust confounding factors, demonstrated significantly higher scores for harm avoidance among the mothers and lower scores of self-directedness among the fathers of the adolescent suicide attempters. New psychotherapeutic modalities considering the high-risk parental personality traits would be beneficial to support parent-adolescent relationships and may have a preventative effect on adolescent suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors related to Chinese older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Xu, Ling; Chi, Iris

    2016-07-01

    Guided by the biopsychosocial framework and empirical evidence, this study examined protective and risk factors of older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts during the previous month, 12 months, and 5 years. The data used in this study were extracted from the Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China conducted in 2006, which included 15,957 older adults from mainland China. Multiple penalized logistic regressions were used to conduct the analyses. During the previous month, 12 months, and 5 years, 5.1‰, 10.0‰, and 17.7‰ of older adults indicated that they thought about suicide, whereas 2.2‰, 3.5‰, and 6.3‰ reported suicidal attempts, respectively. Older adults' age, financial strain, functional limitations, depression, children's filial piety, social network, loneliness, and urban residence were significantly related to suicidal thoughts during the different time periods. In addition, older adults' religious affiliation, depression, loneliness, and urban residence were significantly related to suicidal attempts during the different time periods. Older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts need to be assessed by mental health care professionals and primary care doctors. Programs addressing these important protective and risk factors may help reduce older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts.

  1. Estimating the rates of deaths by suicide among adults who attempt suicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Beth; Kott, Phillip S; Hughes, Art; McKeon, Richard; Blanco, Carlos; Compton, Wilson M

    2016-06-01

    In 2012, over 1.3 million U.S. adults reported that they attempted suicide in the past year, and 39,426 adults died by suicide. This study estimated national suicide case fatality rates among adult suicide attempters (fatal and nonfatal cases) and examined how they varied by sociodemographic characteristics. We pooled data on deaths by suicide (n = 147,427, fatal cases in the U.S.) from the 2008-2011 U S. mortality files and data on suicide attempters who survived (n = 2000 nonfatal cases) from the 2008-2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were applied. Among adult suicide attempters in the U.S., the overall 12-month suicide case fatality rate was 3.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.9%-3.5%). It varied significantly by sociodemographic factors. For those aged 45 or older, the adjusted suicide case fatality rate was higher among men (7.6%) than among women (2.6%) (suicide case fatality rate ratio (SCFRR) = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.83-4.79), was higher among non-Hispanic whites (7.9%) than among non-white minorities (0.8-2.5%) (SCFRRs = 3.2-9.9), and was higher among those with less than high school education (16.0%) than among college graduates (1.8%) (SCFRR = 8.8, 95% CI = 3.83-20.16). Across male and female attempters, being aged 45 or older and non-Hispanic white and having less than secondary school were at a higher risk for death by suicide. Focusing on these demographic characteristics can help identify suicide attempters at higher risk for death by suicide, inform clinical assessments, and improve suicide prevention and intervention efforts by increasing high-risk suicide attempters' access to mental health treatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Different roles of resilience in depressive patients with history of suicide attempt and no history of suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Maria C; Tosone, Adele; Stratta, Paolo; Collazzoni, Alberto; Santarelli, Valeria; Guadagni, Elisabetta; Rossi, Rodolfo; Rossi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Suicidal ideation is modulated by several risk and protective factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between patients with a history of suicide attempt and those with no such history, with special attention to depression, interpersonal sensitivity, humiliation, and resilience. One hundred consecutively admitted patients with an index depressive episode were recruited. The Brief Symptom Inventory, Humiliation Inventory, and Resilience Scale for Adult were administered. Scores for humiliation, interpersonal sensitivity, and depression were higher in subjects with history of suicide attempt, while higher scores for resilience were observed in the group with no such history. Different patterns of relationships among the variables of interest were found in the two groups. Resilience dimensions such as social resources and familial cohesion were strongly and negatively correlated with humiliation, interpersonal sensitivity, and depression in subjects with a past suicide attempt. Resilience factors can modulate and reduce the impact of suicide risk. Assessing risk and protective factors could enhance the ability to intervene appropriately.

  3. (De-) criminalization of attempted suicide in India: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Ranjan; Saurabh Kumar; Raman Deep Pattanayak; Anju Dhawan; Rajesh Sagar

    2014-01-01

    Attempted suicide is a serious problem requiring mental health interventions, but it continues to be treated as a criminal offence under the section 309 of Indian Penal Code. The article reviews the international legal perspective across various regions of the world, discusses the unintended consequences of section 309 IPC and highlights the need for decriminalization of attempted suicide in India. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2013, still under consideration in the Rajya Sabha (upper house), ...

  4. Suicide Attempts Among Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Jody L.; Haas, Ann P.; Rodgers, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    New analysis of responses to the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS) shows that transgender respondents who experienced rejection by family and friends, discrimination, victimization, or violence have a higher risk of attempting suicide. 78 percent of survey respondents who suffered physical or sexual violence at school reported suicide attempts, as did 65 percent of respondents who experienced violence at work. The study suggests that several minority stressors – negat...

  5. Suicide attempts among children and adolescents: partial or total injury?

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Alexandra Gomes Alves; Matilde Meire Miranda Cadete

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to verify the records on file and the number of cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents who were attended by Emergency Care health professionals in the municipality of Matozinhos, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Documentary and descriptive research was conducted, the data for which was collected by means of an investigation of Outpatient Records from 2008 to 2010. Of the 73,000 files evaluated, those dealing with cases of attempted suicide among children and adolesce...

  6. [Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women

  7. After the Attempt: Maintaining the Therapeutic Alliance Following a Patient's Suicide Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J. Russell; Newman, Cory F.

    2005-01-01

    The risk of a patient's suicide is a prominent occupational hazard for psychotherapists. The precise number of patients who attempt suicide while in treatment and then resume therapy with the same therapist is not known, but this situation is a relatively common occurrence in clinical practice. Such scenarios can pose significant challenges to the…

  8. [Experiences of Individuals With Suicidal Ideation and Attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Quintero, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem. It covers about half of violent deaths and results in approximately one million deaths annually. Although completed suicide rates in Colombia are relatively low when compared with other countries, suicidal behavior, represented not only by completed suicide, is a significant mental health problem. To understand life experiences of a group of subjects related to the phenomenon of ideation and suicide attempt. A qualitative study with a psychodynamic approach. In-depth interviews were conducted in order to explore thought processes, emotions, motivations and experiences that underlie and accompany the suicide attempt. Five women and 3 men were interviewed. The average age was 29 years. The exploration of subjective experiences in the present study showed that loneliness and psychic pain were linked to hopelessness, pessimism and discouragement. Also, the illusion of death represents an invitation to suicide attempt. It is important to consider the subjective assessment that patients with suicidal risk make of their depression and stressful life situations. Additionally, the concepts of loneliness and psychic pain have a leading role in the interaction between discourse and the experiences of the participants interviewed. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychopathology profiles of acutely suicidal adolescents: Associations with post-discharge suicide attempts and rehospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berona, Johnny; Horwitz, Adam G; Czyz, Ewa K; King, Cheryl A

    2017-02-01

    Suicidal adolescents are heterogeneous, which can pose difficulties in predicting suicidal behavior. The Youth Self-Report (YSR) psychopathology profiles predict the future onset of psychopathology and suicide-related outcomes. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of YSR psychopathology profiles among suicidal adolescents and prospective associations with post-discharge rates of suicide attempts and psychiatric rehospitalization. Participants were acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (N=433 at baseline; n=355 at follow-up) who were enrolled in a psychosocial intervention trial during hospitalization. Psychopathology profiles were assessed at baseline. Suicide attempts and rehospitalization were assessed for up to 12 months following discharge. Latent profile analysis identified four psychopathology profiles: subclinical, primarily internalizing, and moderately and severely dysregulated. At baseline, profiles differed by history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and multiple suicide attempts (MA) as well as severity of suicide ideation, hopelessness, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance abuse, and functional impairment. The dysregulation profiles predicted suicide attempts within 3 months post-discharge. The internalizing profile predicted suicide attempts and rehospitalization at 3 and 12 months. This study's participants were enrolled in a randomized trial and were predominantly female, which limit generalizability. Additionally, only a history of NSSI was assessed. The dysregulation profile was overrepresented among suicidal youth and associated with impairment in several domains as well as suicide attempts shortly after discharge. Adolescents with a severe internalizing profile also reported adverse outcomes throughout the study period. Psychopathology profiles warrant further examination in terms of their potential predictive validity in relation to suicide-related outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  10. Suicide Attempts and Family History of Suicide in Three Psychiatric Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremeau, Fabien; Staner, Luc; Duval, Fabrice; Correa, Humberto; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Darreye, Angelina; Czobor, Pal; Dessoubrais, Cecile; Macher, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The influence of a family history of suicide on suicide attempt rate and characteristics in depression, schizophrenia, and opioid dependence was examined. One hundred sixty inpatients with unipolar depression, 160 inpatients with schizophrenia, and 160 opioid-dependent patients were interviewed. Overall, a family history of suicide was associated…

  11. Gender differences in suicidal intent and choice of method among suicide attempters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Branner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine gender differences in choice of method and suicidal intent among persons referred to a suicide prevention center. A total of 351 consecutive patients who had attempted suicide were interviewed using the European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedule I (EPSIS I) while p...

  12. Assessment of Depression and Suicidal Actions: Agreement between Suicide Attempters and Informant Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Timothy M.; Overholser, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledgeable informants may be able to provide useful information about depressive symptoms and suicidal actions when a suicidal patient is uncooperative with a clinical interview or not available for a psychiatric evaluation. The present study was designed to examine information gathered from psychiatric inpatients who had attempted suicide as…

  13. Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

  14. Suicide and Attempted Suicide in Young People. Report on a Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974

    Suicide and attempted suicide are problems which continue to occupy the world-wide attention of both health service administrators and research workers. National statistics of completed suicides have shown an increase in rates among people aged 15-24 years and even among children below the age of 15. Conference discussions were based on working…

  15. Comparing Families of Suicide Attempters, Human

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the exclusion criteria (psychotic disorders, suicidal ideation, addiction, refusing to participate in the study) were examined, and questionnaires were completed. Eighty-nine people were interviewed out of which 29 were excluded from the study. (3) General population: This group included single men from Shiraz, Southern ...

  16. Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt among School-Going Urban Adolescents in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimala Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, and associated factors among school-going urban adolescents in Peru. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of 916 secondary school adolescents in 2014. A structured questionnaire adapted from Global School-based Student Health Survey was used to obtain information. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models at 5% level of significance. Overall, 26.3% reported having suicidal ideation, and 17.5% reported having attempted suicide during the past 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, smoking and sexual intercourse initiation were significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation, while female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, alcohol and illicit drug use were related to suicide attempt. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts observed in the survey area is relatively high. Female adolescents are particularly vulnerable to report suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Interventions that address the issue of violence against adolescents, fighting with peers, health risk behaviors particularly initiation of smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use and encourage supportive role of parents may reduce the risk of suicidal behaviors.

  17. Spirituality and Religion in Youth Suicide Attempters' Trajectories of Mental Health Service Utilization: The Year before a Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Marie; Nadeau, Lucie; Renaud, Johanne

    2012-08-01

    Youth suicide attempters are high-risk for suicide. Many have untreated mental disorders and are not receiving services. It is crucial to understand potential influences associated with service use. Spirituality/religion are one influence in youths' mental health service trajectories. This study explored youths' experiences of spirituality/religion as it relates to their help-seeking the year before their suicide attempt. Fifteen youth (aged 14-18) who made a suicide attempt(s) one to two years prior were consecutively recruited through the Depressive Disorders Program of a psychiatric hospital and interviewed using a mixed-methods design, including an adapted psychological autopsy method. THREE THEMES EMERGED: religious community members acted as a bridge, step, or provider to mental health services; religious/spiritual discourses were encountered within services; and many youths reported changes in spirituality/religious beliefs the year before their suicide attempt. Spirituality/religion can have a role in these youths' service trajectories. How this confers protection or challenges needs to be clarified. Our findings can inform policies supporting training religious leaders about suicide intervention to foster coordination with mental health services, and service-providers in judiciously approaching spiritual/religious themes in suicide prevention.

  18. Military veteran mortality following a survived suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conigliaro Joseph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a global public health problem. Recently in the U.S., much attention has been given to preventing suicide and other premature mortality in veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. A strong predictor of suicide is a past suicide attempt, and suicide attempters have multiple physical and mental comorbidities that put them at risk for additional causes of death. We examined mortality among U.S. military veterans after hospitalization for attempted suicide. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted with all military veterans receiving inpatient treatment during 1993-1998 at United States Veterans Affairs (VA medical facilities following a suicide attempt. Deaths occurring during 1993-2002, the most recent available year at the time, were identified through VA Beneficiary and Records Locator System data and National Death Index data. Mortality data for the general U.S. adult population were also obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. Comparisons within the veteran cohort, between genders, and against the U.S. population were conducted with descriptive statistics and standardized mortality ratios. The actuarial method was used estimate the proportion of veterans in the cohort we expect would have survived through 2002 had they experienced the same rate of death that occurred over the study period in the U.S. population having the age and sex characteristics. Results During 1993-1998, 10,163 veterans were treated and discharged at a VA medical center after a suicide attempt (mean age = 44 years; 91% male. There was a high prevalence of diagnosed alcohol disorder or abuse (31.8%, drug dependence or abuse (21.8%, psychoses (21.2%, depression (18.5%, and hypertension (14.2%. A total of 1,836 (18.1% veterans died during follow up (2,941.4/100,000 person years. The cumulative survival probability after 10 years was 78.0% (95% CI = 72.9, 83.1. Hence the 10-year cumulative mortality risk was 22

  19. Personality differences in early versus late suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitzka, Ute; Denzin, Sebastian; Sauer, Cathrin; Bauer, Michael; Jabs, Burkhard

    2016-08-09

    Suicidality is an individual behaviour caused by a complex framework of internal and external factors. The predictive values of personality traits for a suicide attempt have been demonstrated, especially in conjunction with Cloninger's TCI and impulsivity. Two issues remain unsolved, namely whether these traits alter over time after a suicide attempt, and how they may be influenced by depressive symptoms. We studied two patient cohorts: one sample of 81 patients after a suicide attempt no longer than 3 months previously (SA early) and another sample of 32 patients whose attempt had taken place more than 6 months previously (SA late). We carried out structured interviews with these subjects addressing diagnosis (MINI), suicidality (Scale for suicide ideation), depression (HAMD-17), temperament and character inventory (TCI), and impulsivity (BIS-10). Data analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. Our two groups did not differ significantly in sociodemographics or suicidality. However, patients in the SA early group were significantly more depressed (p < 0.001), and scored lower in reward dependence (p < 0.001) and persistence (p = 0.005) but higher in harm avoidance (p < 0.001); they did not differ significantly in impulsivity (p < 0.01). Reward dependence, persistence, and harm avoidance remained significantly different between the two groups after controlling for depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that some personality traits vary after a suicide attempt. Further investigations are necessary to verify our results, ideally in longitudinal studies with larger, carefully-described cohorts. It would be also clinically important to investigate the influence of therapeutic strategies on the variability of personality traits and their impact on suicidal behavior.

  20. Medically Serious Suicide Attempters with or without Plan in Rural China1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Long; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies have discussed the risk factors of unplanned suicide behavior in several countries, the unplanned suicide attempt in China was not explored in a large sample. We aim to look into the characteristics of unplanned suicide attempters in China, and compare them with those suicide attempters with plans. Subjects were 791 medically serious suicide attempters aged 15–54 years in rural China. The sixth item of Beck’s Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) was used to estimate the planned and unplanned suicide attempt. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors related to planned or unplanned suicide attempt. The results showed that the planned suicide attempt were associated with higher education, hopelessness and prior suicide act. The unplanned suicide attempt tend to suicide by pesticide and store pesticide at home. A ban of lethal pesticides may be a method for suicide prevention in rural China. PMID:26524517

  1. Risk factors of suicide attempts by poisoning: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia da Cruz Pires

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide, a complex and universal human phenomenon, is a major public health problem. This study reviewed the literature about the major risk factors associated with suicide attempts by poisoning. Methods: An integrative review of the literature was performed in databases (LILACS, PubMed and MEDLINE to search for studies published between 2003 and 2013, using the following keywords: suicide, attempted; poisoning; risk factors. Inclusion criteria were: original study with abstract, sample of adults, and attempted suicide by poisoning in at least 50% of the study population. Results: Two hundred and nineteen studies were retrieved and read by two independent examiners, and 22 were included in the study. The main risk factors for suicide attempts by poisoning were female sex, age 15-40 years, single status, little education, unemployment, drug or alcohol abuse or addiction, psychiatric disorder and psychiatric treatment using antidepressants. Conclusion: Further prospective studies should be conducted to confirm these risk factors or identify others, and their findings should contribute to planning measures to prevent suicide attempts.

  2. Risk factors for adult interpersonal violence in suicide attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal and violent behaviours are interlinked and share common biological underpinnings. In the present study we analysed the association between violent behaviour as a child, childhood trauma, adult psychiatric illness, and substance abuse in relation to interpersonal violence as an adult in suicide attempters with mood disorders. Methods A total of 161 suicide attempters were diagnosed with Structured Clinical Interviews and assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behaviour in childhood (between 6-14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). Ninety five healthy volunteers were used as a comparison group. A logistic regression analysis was conducted with the two KIVS subscales, expressed violent behaviour as a child and exposure to violence in childhood together with substance abuse, personality disorder diagnoses and age as possible predictors of adult interpersonal violence in suicide attempters. Results Violent behaviour as a child, age and substance abuse were significant predictors of adult interpersonal violence. ROC analysis for the prediction model for adult violence with the KIVS subscale expressed violence as a child gave an AUC of 0.79. Using two predictors: violent behaviour as a child and substance abuse diagnosis gave an AUC of 0.84. The optimal cut-off for the KIVS subscale expressed violence as a child was higher for male suicide attempters. Conclusions Violent behaviour in childhood and substance abuse are important risk factors for adult interpersonal violent behaviour in suicide attempters. PMID:25001499

  3. Suicide and suicide attempts by the elderly in film: related factors as shown in feature films

    OpenAIRE

    Scalco,Laércio Maciel; Santos,Juvenal Fernandes dos; Scalco,Monique Gomes da Silva; Bezerra,Armando José China; Faleiros,Vicente de Paula; Gomes,Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analyze cases of suicide and suicide attempts by elderly persons in feature films. Method: a survey of specialized internet cinema portals was carried out. A total of 19 feature films produced between 1950 and 2014 were identified. After the authors watched the films, synopses were written describing the circumstances of the suicide and dialogue that described the profile of the elderly character was transcribed. Results: films that described suicide among the elderl...

  4. Predictive Factors of Suicide Attempt and Non-Suicidal Self-Harm in Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Salman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide is the third cause of mortality in America, second leading cause of death in developed countries, and one of the major health problems. Self-harm is self-inflicted damage to one’s self with or without suicidal intent. In the present study, the predictive factors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm were evaluated in patients referred to emergency department (ED with these problem. Methods: The total number of 45 patients with suicide attempt or self-harm admitted to ED were included. Clinical symptoms, thoughts and behaviors of suicidal, and non-suicidal self-harm in these patients were evaluated at baseline. Suicidality, suicidal intent and ideation, non-suicidal self-injury, social withdrawal, disruptive behavior, and poor family functions were evaluated at admission time. Brief clinical visits were scheduled for the twelfth weeks. In the twelfth week, patients returned for their final visit to determine their maintenance treatment. Finally data were analyzed using chi-squared and multiple logistic regression. Results: Forty five patients were included in the study (56.1% female. The mean age of patients was 23.3±10.2 years (range: 15-75; 33.3% married. Significant association of suicide and self-injury was presented at the baseline and in the month before attempting (p=0.001. The most important predictive factors of suicide and self-harm based on univariate analysis were depression (suicidal and non-suicidal items of Hamilton depression rating scale, anxiety, hopelessness, younger age, history of non-suicidal self-harm and female gender (p<0.05. The participants’ quality of life analysis showed a significant higher quality in physical component summary (p=0.002, mental component summary (p=0.001, and general health (p=0.001 at follow up period. Conclusion: At the time of admission in ED, suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm are subsequent clinical markers for the patient attempting suicide again. The

  5. Associations between substance use disorders and suicide or suicide attempts in people with mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Marie L D; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To estimate and test associations between substance use disorders (SUDs) and both completed suicides and suicide attempts in a population with severe mental illness. DESIGN: Register-based cohort study with adjusted Cox regression of substance use disorders as time-varying covariates. SETTING...... attempt identified in treatment registers; and completed suicides identified in the Cause of Death register. Covariates were sex and age at diagnosis. FINDINGS: Having any SUD was associated with at least a threefold increased risk of completed suicide when compared with those having no SUD. Alcohol...... populations except bipolar disorder, and cannabis was associated with increased risk of attempted suicide only in people with bipolar disorder (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.15-2.99). Alcohol and other illicit substances each displayed strong associations with attempted suicide, HR ranging from 3.11 (95% CI = 2...

  6. Adolescent self-injurers: Comparing non-ideators, suicide ideators, and suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeremy G; Esposito, Erika C; Glenn, Catherine R; Gilman, Stephen E; Pridgen, Bryan; Gold, Joseph; Auerbach, Randy P

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality are serious health concerns; however, factors that contribute to the transition from NSSI to suicide ideation and suicide attempts are unclear. To address this gap, we investigated whether demographic characteristics, child maltreatment, and psychiatric factors are associated with the level suicidality among adolescents with a history of self-injury. Participants were three groups of adolescent inpatient self-injurers (n = 397, 317 female), aged 13-18 years (M = 15.44, SD = 1.36): (a) non-ideators (n = 96; no current suicide ideation and no lifetime suicide attempts), (b) suicide ideators (n = 149; current ideation and no lifetime attempts), and (c) suicide attempters (n = 152; current ideation and at least one lifetime attempt). Participants completed interviews assessing psychiatric diagnoses, suicidality, and NSSI characteristics, as well as questionnaires on childhood trauma, psychiatric symptoms, and risky behavior engagement. Depression severity was associated with greater odds being a suicide ideator (p Suicide attempters used more NSSI methods and reported greater risky behavior engagement than non-ideators (p = 0.03, OR = 1.29 and p = 0.03, OR = 1.06, respectively) and ideators (p = 0.015, OR = 1.25 and p = 0.04, OR = 1.05, respectively); attempters used more severe NSSI methods (e.g., burning). Our results identify a wide range of risk markers for increasing lethality in a sample at high risk for suicide mortality; future research is needed to refine risk assessments for adolescent self-injurers and determine the clinical utility of using risk markers for screening and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Player

    Full Text Available Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1 development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors, (2 men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3 understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4 distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5 suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk.

  8. Deliberate self-harm (and attempted suicide)

    OpenAIRE

    Soomro, G Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm involves acts such as self-cutting or self-poisoning, carried out deliberately, with or without the intention of committing suicide. Lifetime prevalence of deliberate self-harm in Europe and the USA is about 3% to 5% of the population, and is increasing.Familial, biological and psychosocial factors may contribute. Risks are higher in women and young adults, in people who are socially isolated or deprived, and those with psychiatric or personality disorders.

  9. Deliberate self-harm (and attempted suicide)

    OpenAIRE

    Soomro, G. Mustafa; Kakhi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm involves acts such as self-cutting or self-poisoning, carried out deliberately, with or without the intention of suicide. Lifetime prevalence of deliberate self-harm in Europe and the US is about 3% to 5% of the population, and has been increasing.Familial, biological, and psychosocial factors may contribute. Risks are higher in women and young adults, in people who are socially isolated or deprived, and in those with psychiatric or personality disorders.

  10. Child abuse and the prevalence of suicide attempts among those reporting suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael S; Dykxhoorn, Jennifer; Afifi, Tracie O; Colman, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Victims of child abuse may be at increased risk of acting on suicide ideation, although this has not been empirically tested. We estimated the risk of suicide attempts associated with child abuse among individuals who reported suicide ideation. Secondary analysis of data from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey Mental Health (n = 828). This population-based survey included various structured questionnaires, including the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess mental illness and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Approximately 80 % of those who attempted suicide had a history of child abuse. Poor mental health, financial difficulties, poor coping skills, and reporting a suicide plan were also associated with an increased prevalence of attempting suicide; adjusted for these factors, child abuse was associated with a 1.77-fold increased prevalence (95 % CI 0.93, 3.36) of suicide attempts. Most individuals who attempt suicide experience child abuse, and worse health and social functioning. Adopting a life-course perspective to understand trajectories of suicide risk factors may inform prevention and treatment.

  11. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family…

  12. "Impulsive" suicide attempts: What do we really mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexis M; Klonsky, E David

    2016-07-01

    Suicide attempts are often regarded as impulsive acts. However, there is little consensus regarding the definition or clinical characteristics of an "impulsive" attempt. To clarify this issue, we examined 3 indicators of the impulsivity of an attempt: (a) preparation, (b) time contemplating the attempt, and (c) self-report that impulsivity motivated the attempt. We examined relationships among the indicators and their relationship to trait impulsivity and characteristics of the suicide attempt. Adult participants (N = 205) with a history of suicide attempts were administered validated interviews and questionnaires. In general, the 3 attempt impulsivity indicators correlated only moderately with each other and not at all with trait impulsivity or with important characteristics of the attempt (e.g., lethality, preattempt communication, motivations). However, there were 2 exceptions. First, intent to die was inversely related to the 3 attempt impulsivity indicators (rs ranged from -.17 to .45) such that more impulsive attempts were associated with lower intent. Second, self-report that the attempt was motivated by impulsivity was related to 3 facets of trait impulsivity (rs ranged from .16 to .41). These findings suggest that individuals endorsing trait impulsivity are likely to describe their attempts as motivated by impulsivity, regardless of the presence of preparation or prolonged contemplation. Overall, study results suggest that the common conception of a unidimensional impulsive attempt may be inaccurate and that the emphasis on general impulsivity in prevention guidelines should be tempered. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Predisposing and Precipitating Risk Factors for Suicide Ideations and Suicide Attempts In Young and Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S KHUSHABI

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:To investigate the predisposing and precipitating risk factors for suicide ideations and suicide attempts in young and adolescent females,we tried to introduce a holistic model of suicidal behavior in young and adolescent girls. Methods: This study is based on the survey studies and was cross-sectional. Considering high rates of suicide attempts in provinces of Iran,three provinces (Kermanshah, Hamedan,Ilam which had the highest rates of completed suicide were selected. Then among female high school students (aged 14 to 21 years, in two stages a representative sample was selected by a multi-clusteral and simple randomized sampling methods. The research data were gathered by administering (1 The inventory of predisposing and precipitating factors of suicide, demographic and family characteristics (based on the literature review (2 Symptom Check List (SCL 90-R (3Suicidality Subscale of the Depressive Symptom Index (DSI-SS (4 Center for Epidemiological Studies (CED- SSI (5 Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS and (6 Child Abuse Self Report Scale (CASRS.Then,subjects were characterized by dividing them in to two categories: at risk,and low risk. The scores of 2 categories were analyzed and discussed. Results: Relationships were found between suicide ideations and psychological problems and disorders (especially depression.Also,the students who reported suicide ideation and suicide attempt had a history of being abused. Based on the results,predisposing and precipitating risk factors and also some protective factors of suicide ideations and suicide attempts were found and a theoretical model was presented.Conclusion: Some predisposing,precipitating and protective factors can predict suicide ideation and suicide attempts significantly.

  14. Can we predict agitation in patients with suicide attempts in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ED) after suicide attempts is common and an important problem. Objective: To establish whether we can predict agitated patients among suicide attempt patients in ED. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study of adult suicide ...

  15. Blunted HPA Axis Activity in Suicide Attempters Compared to those at High Risk for Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, Nadine M; Keilp, John G; Porta, Giovanna; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Brent, David A

    2016-05-01

    Studies looking at the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to suicidal behavior and its risk factors, such as depression, childhood abuse, and impulsive aggression, report inconsistent results. These studies also do not always differentiate between subjects who go on to attempt suicide, suicidal subjects who never attempted suicide, and non-suicidal subjects with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined cortisol responses to an experimental stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), in 208 offspring of parents with mood disorder. Offspring suicide attempters showed lower total cortisol output (β=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.83, -0.11), p=0.01) compared with offspring with suicide-related behavior (SRB) but never attempted, non-suicidal offspring, and a healthy control group. The result remained significant even after controlling for sex, age, race, ethnicity, site, socio-economic status, and hour of the day when the TSST was conducted. Suicide attempters also showed lower baseline cortisol before the TSST (β=-0.45, 95% CI (-0.74, -0.17), p=0.002). However, there were no significant differences between the groups on cortisol reactivity to stress (β=4.5, 95% CI (-12.9, 22), p=0.61). Although subjects with suicide attempt and SRB have similar clinical and psychosocial characteristics, this is the first study to differentiate them biologically on HPA axis indices. Blunted HPA axis activity may increase risk for suicide attempt among individuals with psychopathology by reducing their ability to respond adaptively to ongoing stressors. These results may help better identify subjects at high risk for suicidal behavior for targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among veterans in primary care referred for a mental health evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafioun, Lisham; Pigeon, Wilfred R; Conner, Kenneth R; Leong, Shirley H; Oslin, David W

    2016-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration has made concerted efforts to increase mental health services offered in primary care. However, few studies have evaluated correlates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in veterans in primary care-mental health integration (PCMHI). The purpose of the present study is to examine associations between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts as dependent variables and demographic and clinical factors as the independent variables. Veterans (n=3004) referred from primary care to PCMHI were contacted for further assessment, which included past-year severity of suicidal thoughts (none, low, high) and attempts using the Paykel Suicide Scale, mental health disorders, and illicit drug use. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Thoughts of taking one's life was endorsed by 24% of participants and suicide attempts were reported in 2%. In adjusted models, depression, psychosis, mania, PTSD and generalized anxiety disorder were associated with high severity suicidal ideation, but not suicide attempt. Illicit drug use was not associated with suicidal ideation, but was the only variable associated with suicide attempt. The study was cross-sectional, focused on one clinical setting, and the suicide attempt analyses had limited power. PCMHI is a critical setting to assess suicidal ideation and suicide attempt and researchers and clinicians should be aware that the differential correlates of these suicide-related factors. Future research is needed to identify prospective risk factors and assess the utility of follow-up care in preventing suicide. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The epidemiology of suicide and attempted suicide in Dutch general practice 1983–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellevis François G

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients attempting or committing suicide consult their general practitioner (GP in the preceding period, indicating that GPs might play an important role in prevention. The aim of the present study was to analyse the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour in Dutch General Practice in order to find possible clues for prevention. Method Description of trends in suicide and suicide attempts occurring from 1983–2003 in the Dutch General Practice Sentinel Network, representing 1% of the Dutch population. The data were analysed with regard to: 1 suicidal behaviour trends and their association with household situation; 2 presence of depression, treatment of depression and referral rate by GPs; 3 contact with GP before suicide or suicide attempt and discussion of suicidal ideation. Results Between 1983 and 2003 the annual number of suicide and suicide attempts decreased by 50%. Sixty percent of the patients who committed or attempted suicide were diagnosed as depressed, of whom 91% were treated by their GP with an antidepressant. Living alone was a risk factor for suicide (odds ratio 1.99; 95% CI 1.50 to 2.64, whereas living in a household of 3 or more persons was a relative risk for a suicide attempt (odds ratio 1.81; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.46. Referral to a psychiatrist or other mental health professionals occurred in 65% of the cases. GPs recalled having discussed suicidal ideation in only 7% of the cases, and in retrospect estimated that they had foreseen suicide or suicide attempts in 31% and 22% of the cases, respectively, if there had been contact in the preceding month. Conclusion With regard to the prescription of antidepressants and referral of suicidal patients to a psychiatrist, Dutch GPs fulfil their role as gatekeeper satisfactorily. However, since few patients discuss their suicidal ideation with their GP, there is room for improvement. GPs should take the lead to make this subject debatable. It may improve early

  18. Correlations between interpersonal and cognitive difficulties: relationship to suicidal ideation in military suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, L; Fruchter, E; Mann, J J; Yacobi, A

    2014-10-01

    Understanding suicidal ideation may help develop more effective suicide screening and intervention programs. The interpersonal and the cognitive-deficit theories seek to describe the factors leading to suicidal behavior. In the military setting it is common to find over- and under-reporting of suicidal ideation. This study sought to determine the relationship between these two models and determine to what degree their components can indirectly predict suicidal ideation. Suicide attempters (n=32) were compared with non-suicidal psychologically treated peers (n=38) and controls (n=33), matched for sex and age (mean 19.7years). Pearson's analysis was used to quantify the relationship between the variables from the two models and hierarchal regression analysis was used to determine the explanation of suicidal ideation variance by these variables. Suicide attempters have more difficulties in problem-solving, negative emotion regulation and burdensomeness compared with their peers (P±0.5; Pinterpersonal and cognitive difficulties. In addition to assessing current suicidal ideation, clinicians should assess past suicide attempt, loneliness and burdensomeness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Suicide Attempts among College Students in China: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-Sheng Yang; Zhi-Hua Zhang; Liang Sun; Ye-Huan Sun; Dong-Qing Ye

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide is the leading cause of death among 15?34 year olds in China, but no national data are available on the suicide and suicide attempts rates of college students, a sub-group of youth with 23 million. Several studies have reported the prevalence of suicide attempts among college students, however, no meta-analysis pooling the prevalence of suicide attempts is found. Objective and Methods This study aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among college studen...

  20. Medically Serious Suicide Attempters with or without Plan in Rural China1

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Long; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have discussed the risk factors of unplanned suicide behavior in several countries, the unplanned suicide attempt in China was not explored in a large sample. We aim to look into the characteristics of unplanned suicide attempters in China, and compare them with those suicide attempters with plans. Subjects were 791 medically serious suicide attempters aged 15–54 years in rural China. The sixth item of Beck’s Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) was used to estimate the planne...

  1. Attempted suicide and completed suicide among young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    model it is an ambition to level-out inequalities and give children the same opportunities despite parental income or educational resources. The paper focuses on suicidal behavior as an extreme indicator of individual disadvantage and social disintegration in order to disentangle groups of risk factors...

  2. Suicide Intent, Hopelessness and Negative Cognitions in Attempted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnian, R. Rawlin; And Others

    Empirical investigations relevant to Beck's theory have shown that depressives often experience a preponderance of negative cognitive attitudes towards themselves and their own performance. Many studies have brought out the direct relationship that exists between hopelessness and suicide behavior, although few studies from India have examined the…

  3. Self-harm, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Sadik; Cetin, Ilhan; Guven, Taner; Can, Gunay; Demircan, Cetin

    2011-05-15

    Self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts are well represented behaviours in the general population of both developed and developing countries. These behaviours are indicative of underlying risk factors that show a strong interdependent correlation. In this study we attempted to define correlates for and prevalence of self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among Turkish college students. This 2006 study included 636 students from two Turkish state universities. Our results showed that the lifetime prevalence of self-harm was 15.4%, the prevalence of suicidal ideation was 11.4%, and the prevalence of suicide attempts was 7.1%. We uncovered correlates for self-harm, including low income, unsatisfying familial relationships, smoking, and alcohol, inhalant, and tranquilizer abuse. Tranquilizer abuse shared a dual role as a correlate for suicide ideation and as a means to attempt suicide. Additionally, we found that drug abusers and adolescents who practise self-harm presented the highest suicide risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of celebrity suicide on copycat suicide attempt: a multi-center observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun Chul; Hwang, Seung Sik; Lee, Eui Jung

    2012-06-01

    The effect of celebrity suicides on copycat suicide attempts is not well known. Our objective was to determine the association between celebrity suicide and copycat suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective multicenter observational time series analysis. Celebrity suicides were selected by an operational definition via three nationwide television news internet sites from January 2005 to December 2008. The reference week was defined as the week preceding date of suicide notification to the public. Then two pre-event weeks and four post-event weeks were analyzed for suicide attempts. We derived a prediction model for suicide attempt visits for each ED for these seven observational weeks using a General Additive Model with data from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) database. We calculated the mean excess visit (EV = observed visit - expected visit) and mean excess visit ratio (EVR = EV/expected visit). We tested the mean EV and EVR between reference weeks versus the observational weeks using independent t test and repeated measures ANOVA. Five celebrity suicides occurred during the study period. Total number of ED visits was 5,453,441 in the 85 EDs over the 4-year period, and suicide attempt or self-injury occurred in 27,605. The mean excess visit for each observational interval per ED was less than 0.1 during pre-event periods but increased to 0.695 in the second post-event week. EVs were significantly higher in the first to the third post-event weeks (p = 0.02, p suicide attempts or self injury increased following the announcements of celebrity suicides.

  5. Victims of bullying in childhood and suicide attempts in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H; Vostanis, P; Ford, T; Bebbington, P; Dennis, M S

    2011-11-01

    To examine whether self-reported exposure to bullying during childhood is associated with suicide attempts over the life course, and if so, what mechanisms could account for this relationship. A random probability sample comprising 7461 respondents was interviewed for the 2007 survey of psychiatric morbidity of adults in Great Britain. Survey respondents were asked about suicidal attempts and whether they were bullied in childhood. Recall of being bullied in childhood decreased with age from 25% of 16-24-year-olds to 4% among those 75 or over with few differences in the proportions between men and women. Bullying co-occurred with several victimisation experiences including sexual abuse and severe beatings and with running away from home. Even after controlling for lifetime factors known to increase the risk of suicidal behaviour, adults who reported bullying in childhood were still more than twice as likely as other adults to attempt suicide later in life. Being the victim of bullying involves the experience of suffering a defeat and humiliation that in turn could lead to entrapment, hopelessness, depression and suicidal behaviour. Bullying is already known to be associated with substantial distress and other negative consequences and this further evidence of a strong correlation with the risk of suicide in later life should increase further the motivation of society, services and citizens to act decisively to reduce bullying in childhood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Blunted HPA axis activity prior to suicide attempt and increased inflammation in attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, Nadine M; Munroe, Sara; Marsland, Anna; Gray, Katarina; Brent, David; Porta, Giovanna; Douaihy, Antoine; Laudenslager, Mark L; DePietro, Frank; Diler, Rasim; Driscoll, Henry; Gopalan, Priya

    2017-03-01

    Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation is associated with increased risk for suicidal behavior. However, it is not clear whether such dysregulation exists prior to or is a consequence of attempt. Studies also show an activation of inflammatory responses in suicidal behavior but often combine attempters with those with ideation. The sample consisted of psychiatric inpatients, aged 15-30 years, admitted for suicide attempt (SA, n=38), inpatients admitted for suicidal ideation with no prior history of attempts (SI, n=40), and healthy controls (n=37). We compared SA, SI, and controls on hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), which provides retrospective levels of cortisol and thus prior to the attempt in SA. We also compared them on the expression of genes in the HPA axis and inflammatory pathways previously implicated in suicidal behavior (GR or NR3C1, SKA2, FKBP5, IL-1β, TNF-α); plasma C-Reactive Protein (CRP); and cellular measures of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity and stimulated production of IL-6. We found lower HCC [β=-0.55, 95% CI (-0.96, -0.13), p=0.01, ES=-0.54] in first-time SA compared to SI and controls. In addition, SA showed lower GR or NR3C1 (α isoform) mRNA [β=-5.11, 95% CI (-10.9, 0.73), p=0.09, ES=-0.46], higher CRP [β=0.94, 95% CI (-0.004, 1.9), p=0.05, ES=0.60], and higher TNF-α mRNA [β=26.4, 95% CI (7.7, 45.2), p=0.006, ES=0.73]. This is the first study to differentiate youth who attempt suicide from those with suicidal ideation on HCC and to show that low HCC precedes suicide attempt. Suicide attempters also showed a distinct biological profile on several markers in both the HPA axis and inflammatory pathways. Future longitudinal studies are needed to examine the ability of these biomarkers to predict suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clarifying the role of neuroticism in suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among women with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, L M; Flint, J; Kendler, K S

    2017-10-01

    Prior research consistently demonstrates that neuroticism increases risk for suicidal ideation, but the association between neuroticism and suicidal behavior has been inconsistent. Whereas neuroticism is recommended as an endophenotype for suicidality, the association of neuroticism with attempted suicide warrants clarification. In particular, prior research has not distinguished between correlates of attempted suicide, correlates of suicidal ideation, and correlates of comorbid psychopathology. The present study used the CONVERGE study, a sample of 5864 women with major depressive disorder (MD) and 5783 women without MD throughout China. Diagnoses, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicide were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Neuroticism was assessed with the neuroticism portion of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results replicate prior findings on the correlates of suicidal ideation, particularly elevated neuroticism among individuals who report prior suicidal ideation. Moreover, as compared with individuals who reported having experienced only suicidal ideation, neuroticism was associated with decreased likelihood of having attempted suicide. The association of neuroticism with suicidality is more complicated than has been previously described. Whereas neuroticism increases risk for suicidal ideation, neuroticism may decrease risk for a suicide attempt among individuals with suicidal ideation. These results have implications for the assessment of risk for a suicide attempt among individuals who report suicidal ideation and addresses prior discordant findings by clarifying the association between neuroticism and attempted suicide.

  8. [Evaluation of suicide risk factors based on a survey of suicides and suicidal attempts at psychiatric hospitals in Aichi Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takao

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined cases of suicide, suicidal attempts, and risk factors in 41 psychiatric hospitals of Aichi Prefecture. As a result, some characteristics of psychiatric wards considered to be effective in suicide prevention were shown. In addition, as for measures to resolve risk factors and the state of the patients, there were many which were effective in the prevention of suicide attempts. Regarding measures to reduce risk factors for symptoms and treat patients, there were many techniques which were effective in the prevention of suicidal attempts, but, for cases which did not respond to treatment, suicide was frequent. In addition, a "suicide preventive manual in a psychiatric hospital" produced based on these results was distributed.

  9. Temperament, hopelessness, and attempted suicide: direct and indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Bagge, Courtney L

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated whether hopelessness mediated the relations between temperament and recent suicide attempter status in a psychiatric sample. Negative temperament and positive temperament (particularly the positive emotionality subscale) uniquely predicted levels of hopelessness. Although these temperament constructs also demonstrated significant indirect effects on recent suicide attempter status, the effects were partially (for the broad temperament scales) or fully (for the positive emotionality subscale) mediated by the levels of hopelessness. These findings indicate that a tendency to experience excessive negative emotions as well as a paucity of positive emotions may lead individuals to experience hopelessness. Although temperament may also indirectly influence suicide attempter status, hopelessness mediates these relations. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  10. Attempted suicide in Oxford University students, 1976-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, K; Haigh, R; Simkin, S; Fagg, J

    1995-01-01

    During the 14 years between the beginning of academic year 1976-7 and the end of academic year 1989-90, 216 Oxford University students (119 females and 97 males) were referred to the general hospital in Oxford because of suicide attempts (254 in all). The rate of attempted suicide during university term-time (106/100,000) was lower than in other young people of similar age in Oxford City (164/100,000). The difference was particularly marked in females (178/100,000 v. 269/100,000). The lower rate in the students may in part reflect their generally higher socio-economic status. Very few of the attempts by the students appeared to be failed suicides. The most frequent problems faced by the students at the time of their attempts were interpersonal, especially difficulties regarding partners, followed by academic problems. The latter were usually problems with ongoing course work rather than with the Finals examinations. Approximately a quarter of the students had psychiatric problems, with personality disorders and depression being most common. At least 30% had a history of previous attempts. Suggestions are made concerning measures for improving the management and prevention of attempted suicide by students.

  11. Determinants of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: parallel cross-sectional analyses examining geographical location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inder, Kerry J; Handley, Tonelle E; Johnston, Amy; Weaver, Natasha; Coleman, Clare; Lewin, Terry J; Slade, Tim; Kelly, Brian J

    2014-07-23

    Suicide death rates in Australia are higher in rural than urban communities however the contributors to this difference remain unclear. Geographical differences in suicidal ideation and attempts were explored using two datasets encompassing urban and rural community residents to examine associations between socioeconomic, demographic and mental health factors. Differing patterns of association between psychiatric disorder and suicidal ideation and attempts as geographical remoteness increased were investigated. Parallel cross-sectional analyses were undertaken using data from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (2007-NSMHWB, n = 8,463), under-representative of remote and very remote residents, and selected participants from the Australian Rural Mental Health Study (ARMHS, n = 634), over-representative of remote and very remote residents. Uniform measures of suicidal ideation and attempts and mental disorder using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-3.0) were used in both datasets. Geographic region was classified into major cities, inner regional and other. A series of logistic regressions were undertaken for the outcomes of 12-month and lifetime suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide attempts, adjusting for age, gender and psychological distress. A sub-analysis of the ARMHS sample was undertaken with additional variables not available in the 2007-NSMHWB dataset. Rates and determinants of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts across geographical region were similar. Psychiatric disorder was the main determinant of 12-month and lifetime suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide attempts across all geographical regions. For lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, marital status, employment status, perceived financial adversity and mental health service use were also important determinants. In the ARMHS sub-analysis, higher optimism and better perceived infrastructure and service accessibility tended to be

  12. Suicide Ideations, Suicide Attempts, and Completed Suicide in Persons with Pathological Gambling and their First-Degree Relatives

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Donald W.; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relationship between suicidal ideations and attempts in 95 probands with pathological gambling (PG), 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives. The results were analyzed using logistic regression with GEE. Thirty-four PG probands (35.8%) and 4 controls (4.4%) had attempted suicide (OR = 12.12, P < .001); in 13 the attempt occurred before PG onset. Lifetime suicidal ideations occurred in 60 PG probands (63.2%) and 12 controls (13.2%) (OR = 11.29, P < .001). Suicidality in PG...

  13. Associations between Korean Adolescents? Sexual Orientation and Suicidal Ideation, Plans, Attempts, and Medically Serious Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    KWAK, Yeunhee; Kim, Ji-Su

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite growing interest in the public health of sexual minority, youth around the world due to the high rates of suicidal ideation and attempts in this population, few studies on the sexual orientation of Korean adolescents have been conducted. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the sexual orientation of Korean adolescents and their suicide-related behavior. Methods: Raw data from the tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were analyzed by logis...

  14. Longitudinal trajectories and predictors of adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts following inpatient hospitalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinstein, M.J.; Nock, M.K.; Simon, V.A.; Aikins, J.W.; Cheah, C.S.L.; Spirito, A.

    2008-01-01

    Remarkably little is known regarding the temporal course of adolescent suicidal ideation and behavior, the prediction of suicidal attempts from changes in suicidal ideation, or the prediction of suicidal attempts after accounting for suicidal ideation as a predictor. A sample of 143 adolescents

  15. Suicide Ideation Is Related to Therapeutic Alliance in a Brief Therapy for Attempted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysin-Maillart, Anja C; Soravia, Leila M; Gemperli, Armin; Michel, Konrad

    2017-01-02

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of therapeutic alliance on suicide ideation as outcome measure in a brief therapy for patients who attempted suicide. Sixty patients received the 3-session therapy supplemented by follow-up contact through regular letters. Therapeutic alliance was measured with the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAQ). Outcome at 6 and 12 months was measured with the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS). Therapeutic alliance increased from session 1 to session 3. Higher alliance measures correlated with lower suicidal ideation at 12 months follow-up. A history of previous attempts and depression had a negative affect on therapeutic alliance. The results suggest that in the treatment of suicidal patients therapeutic alliance may be a moderating factor for reducing suicide ideation.

  16. Risk of self-harm and nonfatal suicide attempts, and completed suicide in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Hansen, P R; Gislason, G H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease, and inflammation may affect suicidal behaviour. Current data on the incidence and risk of suicidal behaviour in patients with psoriasis are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between psoriasis and the risk of self......-harm and suicide attempts and suicides. METHODS: All Danish patients aged ≥ 18 years with mild or severe psoriasis (cases) from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2011 were matched on age, sex and calendar time 1 : 5 with healthy controls. The outcome was a diagnosis of self-harm or a nonfatal suicide attempt......, or completed suicide. Incidence rates per 10 000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 408 663 individuals, including 57 502 and 11 009 patients with mild and severe...

  17. Prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in the general population of China: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiao-Lan; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Ungvari, Gabor S; Lai, Kelly Y C; Chiu, Helen F K; Caine, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis is to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in the general population of Mainland China. A systematic literature search was conducted via the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, China Journals Full-Text Databases, Chongqing VIP database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, and Wan Fang Data. Statistical analysis used the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria for the analysis; five reported on the prevalence of suicidal ideation and seven on that of suicide attempts. The estimated lifetime prevalence figures of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were 3.9% (95% confidence interval: 2.5%-6.0%) and 0.8% (95% confidence interval: 0.7%-0.9%), respectively. The estimated female-male ratio for lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was 1.7 and 2.2, respectively. Only the difference of suicide attempts between the two genders was statistically significant. This was the first meta-analysis of the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in the general population of Mainland China. The pooled lifetime prevalence of both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are relatively low; however, caution is required when assessing these self-report data. Women had a modestly higher prevalence for suicide attempts than men. The frequency for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in urban regions was similar to those in rural areas. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Child abuse and the prevalence of suicide attempts among those reporting suicide ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael S; Dykxhoorn, Jennifer; Afifi, Tracie O.; Colman, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Objective Victims of child abuse may be at increased risk of acting on suicide ideation, although this has not been empirically tested. We estimated the risk of suicide attempts associated with child abuse among individuals who reported suicide ideation. Methods Secondary analysis of data from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey Mental Health (n?=?828). This population-based survey included various structured questionnaires, including the Composite International Diagnostic I...

  19. Psychosocial Determinants of Suicide Attempts among Black South African Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilubane, Hilda N.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bos, Arjan E. R..; van den Borne, Bart; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S.

    2012-01-01

    In South Africa, one in five adolescents attempt suicide. Suicide attempts continue to rise. We aimed to identify psychosocial target points for future educational interventions. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore psychosocial factors associated with past suicide attempts among suicide survivors in Limpopo province,…

  20. Self-Injurious Behavior and Suicide Attempts among Indonesian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts among college students in Indonesia and examines risk factors distinguishing between 3 groups: self-injury with suicide attempt, non-suicidal self-injury, and non-self-injury. Self-report questionnaires measuring self-injury and suicide attempts, negative mood…

  1. Suicidal behavior in children and adolescents: does a history of trauma predict less severe suicidal attempts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutek, Jirí; Kocourkova, Jirina; Hladikova, Marie; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and possible predictors of severity of suicidal behavior of children and adolescents. Seventy-seven patients (15 boys and 62 girls) aged 15.5+/-1.6 years on average, hospitalized due to a suicidal attempt in the department of pediatric psychiatry, were examined. Structured interviews with patients and their parents were used to clinically assess circumstances of suicidal behavior, relevant risk factors and severity of suicidal behavior. The results indicated that patients with any previous traumatic experience tended to have somatically less severe suicidal attempts (p=0.050). Intensity of suicidal intent was associated with a history of depression (p=0.014) and anxiety disorders (p=0.004), and the current stress from a mental disorder (p=0.014). Somatic severity of suicidal behavior was significantly associated with intensity of suicidal intent (p=0.014). A history of any trauma (previous traumatic experience predicted less severe suicidal behavior, p=0.053) and the current stress from sexual problems (p=0.067) were identified as predictors of somatic severity of suicidality. These two predictors showed only a trend level of significance. The only significant predictor of intensity of suicidal intent was the current stress from a mental illness (p=0.017). Several risk factors of somatic severity of suicidal behavior and intensity of suicidal intent were described. The most important finding of the study was the association between a history of psychological trauma and a tendency to have less somatically severe suicidal behavior.

  2. Gender differences in suicidal intent and choice of method among suicide attempters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Branner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    participating in a 2-week inpatient treatment program. They were invited to a 1-year follow-up interview, and followed in the National Patient Register. Compared to women, men who had attempted suicide were older, had better self-esteem, fewer depressive symptoms, and higher total suicidal intention scores...

  3. The epidemiology of suicide and attempted suicide in Dutch general practice 1983-2003.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquet, R.L.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Zee, J. van der

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients attempting or committing suicide consult their general practitioner (GP) in the preceding period, indicating that GPs might play an important role in prevention. The aim of the present study was to analyse the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour in Dutch general practice in

  4. Memory impairment in those who attempted suicide by benzodiazepine overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwey, B; Eling, P; Wientjes, H; Zitman, F G

    2000-06-01

    A prospective study was conducted to investigate the presence of anterograde amnesia in those who attempted suicide by benzodiazepine overdose and to study the correlation with sedation. In 43 patients who attempted suicide by taking benzodiazepines, memory was tested with a 15-word memory recall task. The immediate and delayed recall on the first day after admission (day 1) and 24 hours later (day 2) were rated. Each patient and the interviewer scored the patient's degree of sedation on a visual analogue scale. Patients also had to try to recognize, from photographs, the psychiatrist with whom they had spoken the day before. The ratings of immediate and delayed recall were significantly lower on day 1 than on day 2. Subjective ratings of sedation of the patients were not significantly higher than the ratings of the observer. Less than half of the patients recognized the psychiatrists and knew that they were the ones they had spoken to the day before. Anterograde amnesia is present in suicide attempters who take overdoses of benzodiazepines. The implications of this finding for the assessment of suicide attempters during admission are discussed.

  5. Prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt: associations with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The prevalence rate of suicide ideation and attempt indicate a major public health problem in post-conflict North- ern Uganda. Effective ... departments (including. African Health Sciences Vol 16 Issue 4, December, 2016. 1027 ..... et al., 2011; Pompili et al., 2014) that unemployment may promote the vulnerability ...

  6. Cognitive behavioural therapy halves the risk of repeated suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Gøtzsche, Pernille K

    2017-01-01

    is excluded, the risk ratio becomes 0.61 (0.46-0.80) and the heterogeneity in the results disappears (I(2 )= 0%). Conclusions Cognitive behavioural therapy reduces not only repeated self-harm but also repeated suicide attempts. It should be the preferred treatment for all patients with depression....

  7. Suicide attempts in a Nigerian military setting | Okulate | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicide attempts in a Nigerian military setting. G. T. Okulate. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal 2001 78 (9): 493-496). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i9.8983 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  8. Neighborhood Predictors of Hopelessness among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Smith, Alina; Spirito, Anthony; Boergers, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents (N=48) who attempted suicide were administered measures of hopelessness and depression. Those living in neighborhoods with weak social networks reported higher levels of hopelessness, even after controlling for socioeconomic backgrounds and depression. Findings suggest that the environmental context may play a role in the emotional…

  9. Comparing characteristics of suicide attempters with suicidal ideation and those without suicidal ideation treated in the emergency departments of general hospitals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Li, Haiyan; Hou, Jinglin; Chen, Wei; Tan, Shanyong; Chen, Xu; Qin, Xiaoxia

    2018-02-03

    Suicide attempts are more frequent than suicides, and suicidal ideation has been identified as an important precursor of both attempted and completed suicide. In this study, we compare the characteristics of suicide attempters with suicidal ideation and suicide attempters without suicidal ideation who were treated in the emergency departments of general hospitals in China. We identified 166 people as having suicidal ideation and 73 people who did not have suicidal ideation. The suicide attempters with suicidal ideation were more likely to be more depressed, older, have a lower score on life quality, female, divorced and unemployed, report having religious beliefs, have a suicide attempt history and a psychiatric diagnosis, and intend to reduce pain as motives. However, the suicide attempters without suicidal ideation were more likely to have a more self-rescue ideation and were more impulsive, and to threaten or intend revenge on others as motives. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of suicidal ideation in the suicide attempters: a higher score on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, religious beliefs, non-impulsive suicide attempts, and a psychiatric diagnosis. The results indicate the importance of developing different interventions for the two groups to prevent future suicide in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Suicide Ideations, Suicide Attempts, and Completed Suicide in Persons with Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between suicidal ideations and attempts in 95 probands with pathological gambling (PG), 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives. The results were analyzed using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Thirty-four PG probands (35.8%) and 4 controls (4.4%) had attempted suicide (OR = 12.12, p < .001); in 13 probands, the attempt occurred before PG onset. Lifetime suicidal ideations occurred in 60 PG probands (63.2%) and 12 controls (13.2%) (OR = 11.29, p < .001). Suicidality in PG probands is a marker of PG severity and is associated with greater psychiatric comorbidity. Offspring of PG probands had significantly higher rates of suicide attempts than control offspring. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  11. Different roles of resilience in depressive patients with history of suicide attempt and no history of suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Rossetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Suicidal ideation is modulated by several risk and protective factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between patients with a history of suicide attempt and those with no such history, with special attention to depression, interpersonal sensitivity, humiliation, and resilience. Methods: One hundred consecutively admitted patients with an index depressive episode were recruited. The Brief Symptom Inventory, Humiliation Inventory, and Resilience Scale for Adult were administered. Results: Scores for humiliation, interpersonal sensitivity, and depression were higher in subjects with history of suicide attempt, while higher scores for resilience were observed in the group with no such history. Different patterns of relationships among the variables of interest were found in the two groups. Resilience dimensions such as social resources and familial cohesion were strongly and negatively correlated with humiliation, interpersonal sensitivity, and depression in subjects with a past suicide attempt. Conclusions: Resilience factors can modulate and reduce the impact of suicide risk. Assessing risk and protective factors could enhance the ability to intervene appropriately.

  12. [Suicidal attempts in child and adolescent and bipolar disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugand, N; Thümmler, S; Pradier, C; Askenazy, F

    2017-03-02

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists are frequently confronted with suicide attempts and comorbid mood disorders. Diagnoses of juvenile bipolar disorders (BD) are rare and controversial and standardized assessment is helpful for a reliable diagnosis. The main objective of this study was to identify the number of juvenile bipolar disorder diagnoses according to DSM-5 criteria in a population of children and adolescents hospitalized for suicide attempts. Secondary objectives were the assessment of a patient's characteristics and the comparison of suicide attempt recurrence during 12 months of follow-up. This current practice study consecutively included children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years and hospitalized for a suicide attempt in a French University Pediatric Hospital over a 4-month period. Patients were assessed at baseline, at 3 months and at 12 months. The standardized assessment was realized by the investigator using semi-structured interview K-SADS-PL (2013) to diagnose juvenile bipolar disorders based on DSM-5 criteria. Clinical diagnoses based on medical charts and according to ICD-10 criteria were also collected at 12-month follow-up. Standardized assessment was completed by the French validated K-SADS-PL (2004) for comorbidities (DSM-IV), dimensional assessment by MADRS-YMRS-ARI-C-SSR, and C-GAS at inclusion. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) those presenting juvenile bipolar disorder according to DSM 5 (BD+) and (2) those without criteria for bipolar disorder (BD-). Suicide risk factors and suicide attempt relapse were assessed at 3 and 12 months of follow-up. Twenty-six inpatients (22 female and 4 male) aged 14.5 years (SD 1,5) were consecutively included. Twenty patients were followed up during the 12-month period. At baseline, 5 patients (19.2 %) presented a diagnosis of BD (DSM-5): 1 BD type 2, 2 non specified BD, 2 cyclothymic disorders. According to the medical charts (ICD-10), none of the patients had been diagnosed

  13. Serum lipids, recent suicide attempt and recent suicide status in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kang, Eun-Suk; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Yu, Bum-Hee; Lee, Dongsoo; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2014-06-03

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with suicide. Although several studies have reported its association with low serum lipid, few studies have investigated relationships between current suicidality and lipid profiles, comparing with other blood measures in MDD patients. The study population consisted of 555 subjects with MDD who were ≥ 18 years old, evaluated by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) with the suicidality module. At the evaluation visit, we measured serum lipid profiles including total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and blood measures such as fasting glucose, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, thyroid hormones, red and white blood cells, platelet count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Recent attempters who had attempted suicide within the past month showed significantly lower TG and higher HDL levels than lifetime and never attempters, using Tukey's post-hoc analysis. Recent attempters exhibited lower TG and higher HDL than those with recent suicide ideation and wish to self-harm and those without previous attempt. Linear regression analysis revealed that TG was negatively associated with current suicidality scores (β = -0.187, p = 0.039), whereas VLDL was positively associated with the recent suicide status (β = 0.198, p = 0.032) after controlling for age and sex. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of other serum lipid profiles and blood measures. Low serum TG, high HDL and VLDL levels are associated with recent suicide attempt or recent suicide status in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Declines in the lethality of suicide attempts explain the decline in suicide deaths in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Spittal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the epidemiology of a steep decrease in the incidence of suicide deaths in Australia. METHODS: National data on suicide deaths and deliberate self-harm for the period 1994-2007 were obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. We calculated attempt and death rates for five major methods and the lethality of these methods. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the size and significance of method-specific time-trends in attempts and lethality. RESULTS: Hanging, motor vehicle exhaust and firearms were the most lethal methods, and together accounted for 72% of all deaths. The lethality of motor vehicle exhaust attempts decreased sharply (RR = 0.94 per year, 95% CI 0.93-0.95 while the motor vehicle exhaust attempt rate changed little; this combination of motor vehicle exhaust trends explained nearly half of the overall decline in suicide deaths. Hanging lethality also decreased sharply (RR = 0.96 per year, 95% CI 0.956-0.965 but large increases in hanging attempts negated the effect on death rates. Firearm lethality changed little while attempts decreased. CONCLUSION: Declines in the lethality of suicide attempts-especially attempts by motor vehicle exhaust and hanging-explain the remarkable decline in deaths by suicide in Australia since 1997.

  15. The close link between suicide attempts and mixed (bipolar) depression: implications for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Judit; Benazzi, Franco; Rihmer, Zoltán; Rihmer, Annamária; Akiskal, K K; Akiskal, H S

    2006-04-01

    Previous reports have shown a significant relationship between suicide ideation and mixed depression. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and clinical characteristics of mixed depression among non-violent suicide attempters. Using a structured interview (modified Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview) and assessing all the symptoms of 16 psychiatric diagnoses, the authors examined 100 consecutive nonviolent suicide attempters (aged 18-65) within 24 h after their attempts. Mixed depression was defined as a major depressive episode (MDE)/dysthymic disorder plus 3 or more co-occurring hypomanic symptoms, according to the definition validated by Akiskal and Benazzi [Akiskal, H.S., Benazzi, F., 2003a. Delineating depressive mixed states: Their therapeutic significance. Clin. Approaches Bipolar Disord. 2, 41-47, Akiskal, H.S., Benazzi, F., 2003b. Family history validation of the bipolar nature of depressive mixed states. J. Affect. Disord. 73, 113-122.]. Current mixed depression was present in 63.0% in the total sample, and in 70.8% among the 89 depressive suicide attempters. Irritability, distractibility and psychomotor agitation were present in more than 90% of the subjects with mixed depression. The rate of mixed depression was significantly higher among bipolar than non-bipolar depressive suicide attempters (90% vs. 62%). Patients with mixed depression had the following concurrent disorders: bipolar disorders 41.0%, panic disorder 30.0%, generalized anxiety disorder 89.0%, alcohol abuse/dependence 56.0%, and substance abuse 27.0%. Mixed depression versus non-mixed depression had the following significant associations (odds ratio=OR): females 2.4, bipolar II disorder 9.3, generalized anxiety disorder 41.3, irritability 101.6 and psychomotor agitation 61.1. The study didn't include suicide attempters with very high risk of fatality. The important new finding of this study is the very high prevalence of mixed depression among depressed suicide

  16. Gender differentiation in indirect self-destructiveness and suicide attempt methods (gender, indirect self-destructiveness, and suicide attempts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Tsirigotis-Maniecka, Marta

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the gender (sex) differentiation of indirect self-destructiveness and its manifestations as well as its relationships with suicide attempt methods in females and males. The study was conducted among 147 persons (114 females, 33 males) who attempted suicide. The research instrument was the polish version of the Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale including Transgression and Risk, Poor Health Maintenance, Personal and Social Neglects, Lack of Planfulness, and Helplessness and Passiveness in the face of problems. Differences testing and correlation analyses were applied. Females scored higher on poor health maintenance and males scored significantly higher on personal and social neglects, lack of planfulness, and helplessness. Noteworthy is that the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness in females reached the same magnitude as in males. A number of statistically significant correlations were found between indirect self-destructiveness, or its manifestations, and the methods of suicide attempt in the two groups. Among these categories, the highest contribution was of helplessness and passiveness (both of groups), poor health maintenance (males), and personal and social neglects (females). Results of this study can be useful in the therapeutic efforts and prevention of not only indirectly self-destructive behaviours but also possible suicide attempts. Both preventive and therapeutic activities can take into account the specificity of those phenomena resulting from one's sex/gender. It is important to adapt preventive and therapeutic measures to psychological (personal) features that arise from an individual's sex/gender.

  17. The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale: Associations between interrupted, aborted, and actual suicide attempts among adolescent inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan M; Hatkevich, Claire E; Kazimi, Iram; Sharp, Carla

    2017-09-01

    The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale divides suicide attempt behaviors into actual, interrupted, and aborted attempts, but limited data have been reported regarding associations between interrupted, aborted, and actual attempts. This study provided initial data on the ability of interrupted and aborted attempts to estimate the frequency of actual suicide attempts. Participants were adolescent psychiatric inpatients (59.9% female), 12-17 years (mean = 14.73, SD = 1.62). Results suggest that interrupted and aborted suicide attempts are associated with the frequency of actual suicide attempts, controlling for suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms. Future research should evaluate whether interrupted and aborted attempts prospectively predicting actual suicide attempts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters Study (TASA): Predictors of Suicidal Events in an Open Treatment Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Compton, Scott; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Bukstein, Oscar; Stanley, Barbara; Posner, Kelly; Kennard, Betsy D.; Cwik, Mary F.; Wagner, Ann; Coffey, Barbara; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Barnett, Shannon; Capasso, Lisa; Zelazny, Jamie; Hughes, Jennifer; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify the predictors of suicidal events and attempts in adolescent suicide attempters with depression treated in an open treatment trial. Method: Adolescents who had made a recent suicide attempt and had unipolar depression (n =124) were either randomized (n = 22) or given a choice (n = 102) among three conditions. Two…

  19. Prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China: a meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Lin-Sheng; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Sun, Liang; Sun, Ye-Huan; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among 15-34 year olds in China, but no national data are available on the suicide and suicide attempts rates of college students, a sub-group of youth with 23 million...

  20. Non-psychotropic medication and risk of suicide or attempted suicide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Hayley C; Webb, Roger T; Kapur, Navneet; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-01-13

    To establish which non-psychotropic medications have been assessed in relation to risk of suicide or attempted suicide in observational studies, document reported associations and consider study strengths and limitations. Systematic review. Four databases (Embase, Medline, PsycINFO and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts) were searched from 1990 to June 2014, and reference lists of included articles were hand-searched. Case-control, cohort and case only studies which reported suicide or attempted suicide in association with any non-psychotropic medication were included. The outcomes eligible for inclusion were suicide and attempted suicide, as defined by the authors of the included study. Of 11,792 retrieved articles, 19 were eligible for inclusion. Five studies considered cardiovascular medication and antiepileptics; two considered leukotriene receptor antagonists, isotretinoin and corticosteroids; one assessed antibiotics and another assessed varenicline. An additional study compared multiple medications prescribed to suicide cases versus controls. There was marked heterogeneity in study design, outcome and exposure classification, and control for confounding factors; particularly comorbid mental and physical illness. No increased risk was associated with cardiovascular medications, but associations with other medications remained inconclusive and meta-analysis was inappropriate due to study heterogeneity. Whether non-psychotropic medications are associated with increased risk of suicide or attempted suicide remains largely unknown. Robust identification of suicide outcomes and control of comorbidities could improve quantification of risk associated with non-psychotropic medication, beyond that conferred by underlying physical and mental illnesses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Prevalence of Suicide Ideation and Suicide Attempts among the Filipino Youth and Its Relationship with the Family Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Anthony Mujer Quintos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing threat of suicide amongst the youth serves as the motivation of this study. This study was done to add to the understanding of suicide in terms of ideation and actual attempts among the youth in the Philippines. In particular, this study attempted to accomplish the following objectives: (1 determine the prevalence of suicide ideation and suicide attempt among the Filipino youth, (2 determine the prevalent methods of suicide among the Filipino youth, (3 determine the prevalent reasons for suicide among the Filipino youth, and (4 determine if there is a significant correlation between the family and suicide ideation and suicide attempts among the Filipino youth. Results showed that roughly one in every ten Filipino youth aged 15 to 27 have thought of ending their life through suicide before, though only around one in every twenty pushes through with an actual attempt. When they do attempt to commit suicide, this is most frequently because of problems in the family and they utilize a violent method of suicide in the form of slashing of wrist(s or the non-violent method of ingesting poisonous substances. However, overall, the use of violent methods is more prevalent. When it comes to the factors correlated with suicide ideation and suicide attempts, this study found significant relationships between integration in the family and suicide. The study emphasizes the importance of a strong relationship between the youth and the other members of the family to curb the probability of suicide.

  2. Suicide Attempt Risk in Youths: Utility of the Harkavy–Asnis Suicide Scale for Monitoring Risk Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Asarnow, Joan; McArthur, David; Hughes, Jennifer; Barbery, Veronica; Berk, Michele

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the Harkavy-Asnis Suicide Scale (HASS), one of the few self-report scales assessing suicidal behavior and ideation, and to identify predictors of suicide attempts with the goal of developing a model that clinicians can use for monitoring suicide-attempt risk. Participants were 131 pediatric Emergency Department patients with suicidal behavior. The HASS and Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) were administered approximately two months after ED presentation...

  3. Suicide and attempted suicide: epidemiological surveillance as a crucial means of a local suicide prevention project in Trento's Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Della Rosa, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization identifies suicide among the top 10 causes of death in many countries with an overall mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 inhabitants. Furthermore suicide attempts present a frequency 4-10 times greater than the suicidal events, representing also one of the main risk factors to lead to recurrent attempts of suicide. In 2008 the Autonomous Province of Trento launched a suicide prevention pogram called "Invitation to Life" which includes various interventions intended to counter the phenomenon of suicide in the region. Actually the epidemiological research upon the phenomenon of suicide in Trentino region is one of the main pillars of the project: it represents a fundamental requirement to identify risk and protective factors in the population in order to adopt more specific and effective preventive strategies. This article aims to present methods and instruments for epidemiological monitoring of suicide and attempted suicide which are applied in Trentino and to describe results after seven years from the beginning of the local prevention program "Invitation to life".

  4. Prevalence and profile of suicide attempters with abdominal pain as the reason of attempt: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Kattimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Suicide attempt is a complex human behavior with multiple determinants. Literature suggests toward abdominal pain as a risk factor for a suicide attempt, but such patients need to be characterized further. This retrospective study aimed to compare individuals with abdominal pain as the reason of suicide attempt to those reporting other reasons for such attempt. Methods: This retrospective chart review-based case-control study was conducted among individuals registered at the crisis intervention clinic of a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Information was extracted from the records using a structured profroma. Characteristics of those with abdominal pain as the reason of suicide attempt were compared with age- and gender-matched controls. Results: Of 427 persons registered in the clinic in the period, abdominal pain was the stated reason for the attempt in 37 (8.7% of the sample. Suicide attempters whose stated reason for attempted suicide as abdominal pain had lower education (P = 0.042, were more likely to suffer from physical illness (P < 0.001, were more likely to have a recent visit to a health care professional (P = 0.047, were less likely to give hint prior to attempt (P = 0.010, and had lesser stressful life events compared to the controls (P = 0.024. Conclusions: There seem to be certain differences between suicide attempters who report abdominal pain versus other causes for a suicide attempt.

  5. A Reanalysis of Occupation and Suicide: Negative Perceptions of the Workplace Linked to Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Matt; Krannitz, Morgan

    2017-11-17

    Suicide is the ultimate outcome of poor psychological well-being; however, there is a paucity of research examining the link between occupation and suicide, despite early academic interest and the known importance of work to our everyday lives. We propose that this body of research was abandoned prematurely, and we provide a reanalysis by integrating the Job Characteristics Model and the Conservation of Resources model with extant suicide research. Specifically, we hypothesize that work design characteristics (job autonomy, task variety, physical demands) and threats to personal resources (absence of viewing work-as-career, work-family conflict, family-work conflict, job dissatisfaction) are linked to suicide attempts via depression and suicidal ideation. Utilizing three measurement occasions and 2,855 participants from the AddHealth database, our findings indicate that job autonomy, task variety, work-family conflict, family-work conflict, and job dissatisfaction all indirectly contribute to employees' suicide attempts via depression and suicidal ideation. Thus, negative employee perceptions of the workplace environment have much more severe consequences than is typically examined. Based on these results, we provide recommendations for developing a theoretically derived nomological net around suicidal behavior in an organizational context, and offer strategies for managers and employees to construct a work environment that is conducive to employee well-being.

  6. Predicting Future Suicide Attempts Among Adolescent and Emerging Adult Psychiatric Emergency Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Adam G; Czyz, Ewa K; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine specific characteristics of suicidal ideation in combination with histories of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) to best evaluate risk for a future attempt among high-risk adolescents and emerging adults. Participants in this retrospective medical record review study were 473 (53% female; 69% Caucasian) consecutive patients, ages 15 to 24 years (M=19.4 years) who presented for psychiatric emergency services during a 9-month period. These patients' medical records, including a clinician-administered Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, were coded at the index visit and at future visits occurring within the next 18 months. Logistic regression models were used to predict suicide attempts during this period. Socioeconomic status, suicidal ideation severity (i.e., intent, method), suicidal ideation intensity (i.e., frequency, controllability), a lifetime history of suicide attempt, and a lifetime history of NSSI were significant independent predictors of a future suicide attempt. Suicidal ideation added incremental validity to the prediction of future suicide attempts above and beyond the influence of a past suicide attempt, whereas a lifetime history of NSSI did not. Sex moderated the relationship between the duration of suicidal thoughts and future attempts (predictive for male patients but not female). Results suggest value in incorporating both past behaviors and current thoughts into suicide risk formulation. Furthermore, suicidal ideation duration warrants additional examination as a potential critical factor for screening assessments evaluating suicide risk among high-risk samples, particularly for male patients.

  7. Is it possible to overcome suicidal ideation and suicide attempts? A study of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ana Elisa Bastos; da Silva, Raimunda Magalhães; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre Souza; Mangas, Raimunda Matilde do Nascimento; de Sousa, Girliani Silva; Freitas, Jarlideire Soares; Conte, Marta; Sougey, Everton Botelho

    2015-06-01

    This study presents a qualitative analysis of how older people who had attempted suicide began to overcome the desire and the urge to take their own life. This article is based on a survey of 87 Brazilian men and women aged 60 and over, living in different regions of Brazil, who have demonstrated suicidal behaviour; twenty of whom gave important information about their coping strategies. The analysis in this article only refers to the aforementioned twenty participants. All the participants were heard through semi-structured interviews, which included questions about the process of overcoming suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The central focus of the analysis - overcoming suicidal ideation and suicide attempts - was based on the following concepts: coping strategies, autonomy, and emotional balance. Irrespective of the gender of the respondents, five centers of meaning emerged from the discourses of the elderly, which highlighted the effectiveness of the following factors: religiosity and religious practices; social and family support; the support of health services; contact with pets; and the recovery of the autonomy to manage their own lives. This study can help to support the primary and secondary prevention of suicidal behavior in older people.

  8. Factors associated with referral to mental health services among suicide attempters visiting emergency centers of general hospitals in Korea: does history of suicide attempts predict referral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Myung-Soo; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Han Joon; Lee, Kyeongryong; Chung, Hyun Soo; Cho, Junho; Choi, Seung-Pil; Seo, Young Mi

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether a history of past suicide attempts was a critical factor for referral to mental health services among suicide attempters visiting emergency centers of general hospitals in Korea. In this cross-sectional study, a resident of emergency medicine at each emergency center interviewed 310 suicide attempters visiting five tertiary general hospitals located in Seoul, using standardized questionnaires, during 7 months in 2007. We examined associations between suicide attempt history and referral to mental health services via multiple logistic regressions. Subjects' rate of referral to mental health services was 47.3%. When we controlled for participant age, time of arrival at the emergency center, psychiatric treatment history, use of alcohol, suicide attempt lethality and subjective expectation to suicide attempts, past suicide attempts did not predict referral to mental health services (odds ratio=1.74; 95% confidence interval .88-3.43). Psychiatric interventions for suicide reattempters visiting emergency centers are important for preventing suicide, but providers have not considered suicide attempt history as a critical factor for referral to mental health services. Therefore, we suggest that more effort is needed to systemize psychiatric interventions for suicide reattempters at emergency centers in Korea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Suicide attempts among children and adolescents: partial or total injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Alexandra Gomes Alves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to verify the records on file and the number of cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents who were attended by Emergency Care health professionals in the municipality of Matozinhos, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Documentary and descriptive research was conducted, the data for which was collected by means of an investigation of Outpatient Records from 2008 to 2010. Of the 73,000 files evaluated, those dealing with cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents between the age of 3 and 18 years were selected. It was revealed that the health professionals, particularly physicians and nurses, fail to register the cases appropriately, invalidating information about the problem and potential prevention measures. The conclusion reached was that underreporting and the discrepancy of the diagnoses which were not duly referred to the competent agencies require rethinking and reviewing medical practices, and taking a systematic and careful look to address the individual as a complex whole.

  10. The attitudes of preclinical and clinical Turkish medical students toward suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emul, Murat; Uzunoglu, Zeynep; Sevinç, Hacer; Güzel, Cidem; Yilmaz, Cala; Erkut, Dervi; Arikan, Kemal

    2011-01-01

    Interest in studies of stigma toward patients with mental disorders is growing. Research on the attitudes of medical students toward suicide attempters does not exist; although as medical personnel, they will encounter suicide attempters in emergency rooms. We aimed to investigate the attitudes of preclinical and clinical medical students toward suicide attempters and to compare their attitudes with nonmedical students. Participants were asked to fill out questionnaires those were searching the attitudes toward suicide attempters. These questionnaires used a social distance scale, skillfulness assessment scale, and dangerousness scale. More than 73% of students had a negative attitude toward "renting a room of their home to a suicide attempter." More than 90% would not want "a suicide attempter to supervise their children for few hours." Significantly more preclinical than clinical students would not want their children to marry a suicide attempter. Social distance, skillfulness, and attitudes concerning the dangerousness of suicide attempters are problematic for medical students and need educational intervention.

  11. Depressive episodes with suicide attempts in severe depression: suicides and controls differ only in the later episodes of unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brådvik, Louise; Berglund, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of suicide attempts across the depressive episodes in suicides and controls with a severe depression. A blind record evaluation was performed of 100 suicide victims and matched controls admitted to the Department of Psychiatry between 1956 and 1969 and monitored to 2006. There was a similar number of episodes in suicides and controls and in the early episodes a similar number of suicide attempts in both groups. However, in the later episodes future suicides showed more suicide attempts as compared to controls. This was found for unipolar depression only. This difference was found despite previously shown similar rates of adequate treatment and improvement. In conclusion, more depressive episodes including suicide attempts appeared to be related to suicide.

  12. Comparisons of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide Constructs Among Individuals Without Suicidality, Ideators, Planners, and Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Lauren N; Smith, April R

    2017-10-01

    The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) proposes that combinations of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability lead to suicide ideation, planning, and attempting. We compared individuals with and without suicidality on thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, and compared a combined group of planners and attempters to ideators on fearlessness about death (one component of acquired capability). Individuals with suicidality had higher thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness than individuals without suicidality. Planners and attempters did not have higher fearlessness about death than ideators. These findings partially support IPTS hypotheses. Assessing thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness may improve suicide risk determination. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  13. Is Cumulative Exposure to Suicide Attempts and Deaths A Risk Factor for Suicidal Behavior among Firefighters? A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Pennington, Michelle L.; Cammarata, Claire M.; Leto, Frank; Ostiguy, William J.; Gulliver, Suzy B.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the association between cumulative exposure to suicide attempts and deaths and suicidal behavior in a sample of 61 professional firefighters. On average, firefighters reported 13.1 (SD=16.6) exposures over the course of their lifetime. Cumulative exposure to suicide attempts and deaths was positively correlated with suicidal behavior (r = 0.38, p = 0.004). Moreover, firefighters with 12+ exposures were more likely to screen positive for risk of suicidal behavior (OR = 7.885, p = 0.02). Additional research on the potential impact of cumulative exposure to suicide attempts and deaths on firefighters’ health and safety is needed. PMID:27371810

  14. Perceived School Climate and Chinese Adolescents' Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Role of Sleep Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongping; Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Background: School factors play important roles in adolescent suicide. However, little is known about how school climate is associated with adolescent suicide. This study examined the relationship between perceived school climate and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and whether these relations were explained by adolescent sleep…

  15. Suicidal Ideation of Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents has One-Year Predictive Validity for Suicide Attempts in Girls Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingmei; Czyz, Ewa K.; Kerr, David C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians commonly incorporate adolescents’ self-reported suicidal ideation into formulations regarding adolescents’ risk for suicide. Data are limited, however, regarding the extent to which adolescent boys’ and girls’ reports of suicidal ideation have clinically significant predictive validity in terms of subsequent suicidal behavior. This study examined psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent boys’ and girls’ self-reported suicidal ideation as a predictor of suicide attempts during the first year following hospitalization. A total of 354 adolescents (97 boys; 257 girls; ages 13–17 years) hospitalized for acute suicide risk were evaluated at the time of hospitalization as well as 3, 6, and 12 months later. Study measures included the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Youth Self-Report, and Personal Experiences Screen Questionnaire. The main study outcome was presence and number of suicide attempt(s) in the year after hospitalization, measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Results indicated a significant interaction between suicidal ideation, assessed during first week of hospitalization, and gender for the prediction of subsequent suicide attempts. Suicidal ideation was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts for girls, but not boys. Baseline history of multiple suicide attempts was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts across genders. Results support the importance of empirically validating suicide risk assessment strategies separately for adolescent boys and girls. Among adolescent boys who have been hospitalized due to acute suicide risk, low levels of self-reported suicidal ideation may not be indicative of low risk for suicidal behavior following hospitalization. PMID:23996157

  16. Characteristics of Adolescent Suicide Attempters Admitted to an Acute Psychiatric Ward in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ning Chiou

    2006-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study confirms some previous Western reports that adolescents with depressive disorders commonly manifest suicide attempts. There are, however, some cultural differences in risk factors. School-related problems play an important role in Taiwan among the adolescent suicides, and prior suicide attempts predict future suicidal behavior. Enhancing school-based screening for adolescents with suicide risk and transferring them to psychiatric professionals for intervention is important. We should focus suicide prevention resources mainly on the adolescent population with psychiatric illness, prior suicide attempts, and with high risk factors.

  17. Characteristics of Living and Deceased Suicidal Military Personnel Based on Single Versus Multiple Suicide Attempt Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    whereas two studies in the United States found that of individuals who died by suicide, 46% (Barraclough, Bunch, Nelson, & Sainsbury , 1974) and 42% of...analyses, all significant variables are hypothesized to predict multiple suicide attempt status in logistic regression analyses. There is minimal...error. A binary logistic regression was then conducted using variables significant in the bivariate analyses, as well as variables suggested by

  18. Longitudinal Trajectories of Suicidal Ideation and Subsequent Suicide Attempts among Adolescent Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, E.K.; King, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A period of particularly high risk for suicide attempts among adolescent inpatients is within 12 months after discharge. However, little is known about longitudinal trajectories of suicidal ideation in this high-risk group and how these relate to post-hospitalization suicide attempts and rehospitalizations. Our objectives were to identify these trajectories and examine their relationships with post-hospitalization psychiatric crises. We also examined predictors of trajectory group membership. Method Participants (N=376; ages 13-17; 72% females) were assessed at hospitalization and 3, 6, and 12 months later. Trajectory groups, and their predictors, were identified with latent class growth modeling. We used logistic regression to examine associations between trajectory groups and likelihood of suicide attempts and rehospitalization, controlling for attempt history. Results Three trajectory groups were identified: (1) subclinical ideators (31.6%); (2) elevated ideators with rapidly declining ideation (57.4%); and (3) chronically elevated ideators (10.9%). Adolescents in the chronically elevated ideation group had 2.29[(CI=1.08,4.85), p=0.03] and 4.15[(CI=1.65,10.44), psuicide and 3.23[(CI=1.37,7.69), p=0.01] and 11.20[(CI=4.33,29.01), psuicidal ideation. Conclusions Results suggest that suicidal ideation severity at hospitalization may not be an adequate marker for subsequent suicidal crises. It is important to identify adolescents vulnerable to persisting suicidal ideation, as they are at highest risk of psychiatric crises. Addressing hopelessness may facilitate faster declines in ideation after hospitalization. Results also highlight a need for consistent monitoring of these adolescents' suicidal ideation after discharge. PMID:24079705

  19. The frequency of suicide attempts: a retrospective approach applied to college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, B L; Baker, A H; Mishara, T T

    1976-07-01

    Suicide attempt rates are usually reported as an annual statistic. However, annual rates may underestimate the cumulative prevalence of attempters since they ignore people whose attempts occurred in years other than the one examined. The authors studied the prevalence of suicide attempters over several years through data gathered from retrospective reports of college students. They found that 15% of the total sample studied (N=293) reported having attempted suicide at one time. This unexpectedly high rate suggests that suicidal behavior is a serious problem among college students and underlines the need for further retrospective studies of the prevalence of suicide attempters.

  20. HIV-infection as a self-reported risk factor for attempted suicide in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Key Words: HIV-infection; Attempted suicide risk; Management; PreventionThe aim of this study was to examine variables associated with recently diagnosed HIV-infection as a self-reported attempted suicide risk factor. Method: The study cohort consisted of 112 general hospital in-patients who attempted suicide ...

  1. Recommended care for young people (15-19 years) after suicide attempts in certain European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hulten, A.; Wasserman, D.; Hawton, K.

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Data on recommended care for young people aged 15±19 years after attempted suicide from nine European research centres dur- ing the period 1989±1992 were ana- lysed in terms of gender, history of previous suicide attempt and meth- ods used. Altogether 438 suicide attempts made by 353 boys

  2. Attempted Suicide, Self-Harm, and Violent Victimization among Regular Illicit Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; McCrim, Michelle Torok; Kaye, Sharlene; Ross, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Relationships among attempted suicide, nonsuicidal self-harm, and physical assault were examined in 400 regular users of heroin and/or psychostimulants. Twenty-eight percent had episodes of nonsuicidal self-harm, 32% had attempted suicide, and 95% had been violently assaulted. The number of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm incidents were…

  3. Religion as a Risk Factor for Suicide Attempt and Suicide Ideation Among Depressed Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Brent, David; Mann, J John; Burke, Ainsley K; Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Oquendo, Maria A

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to examine the relationship between religion and suicide attempt and ideation. Three hundred twenty-one depressed patients were recruited from mood-disorder research studies at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Participants were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, Columbia University Suicide History form, Scale for Suicide Ideation, and Reasons for Living Inventory. Participants were asked about their religious affiliation, importance of religion, and religious service attendance. We found that past suicide attempts were more common among depressed patients with a religious affiliation (odds ratio, 2.25; p = 0.007). Suicide ideation was greater among depressed patients who considered religion more important (coefficient, 1.18; p = 0.026) and those who attended services more frequently (coefficient, 1.99; p = 0.001). We conclude that the relationship between religion and suicide risk factors is complex and can vary among different patient populations. Physicians should seek deeper understanding of the role of religion in an individual patient's life in order to understand the person's suicide risk factors more fully.

  4. Anticonvulsant medications and the risk of suicide, attempted suicide, or violent death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patorno, Elisabetta; Bohn, Rhonda L; Wahl, Peter M; Avorn, Jerry; Patrick, Amanda R; Liu, Jun; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-04-14

    In 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration mandated warning labeling for anticonvulsant medications regarding the increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The decision was based on a meta-analysis not sufficiently large to investigate individual drugs. To evaluate the risk of suicidal acts and combined suicidal acts or violent death associated with individual anticonvulsants. A cohort study of the risk of suicidal acts and combined suicidal acts or violent death in patients beginning use of anticonvulsant medications compared with patients initiating a reference anticonvulsant drug. Patients 15 years and older from the HealthCore Integrated Research Database (HIRD) who began taking an anticonvulsant between July 2001 and December 2006. Cox proportional hazards models and propensity score-matched analyses were used to evaluate risk of attempted or completed suicide and combined suicidal acts or violent death, controlling for psychiatric comorbidities and other risk factors, among individual anticonvulsants compared with topiramate and secondarily carbamazepine. The study identified 26 completed suicides, 801 attempted suicides, and 41 violent deaths in 297,620 new episodes of treatment with an anticonvulsant (overall median follow-up, 60 days). The incidence of the composite outcomes of completed suicides, attempted suicides, and violent deaths for anticonvulsants used in at least 100 treatment episodes ranged from 6.2 per 1000 person-years for primidone to 34.3 per 1000 person-years for oxcarbazepine. The risk of suicidal acts was increased for gabapentin (hazard ratio [HR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.80), lamotrigine (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.43-2.37), oxcarbazepine (HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.52-2.80), tiagabine (HR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.65-3.52), and valproate (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.25-2.19), compared with topiramate. The analyses including violent death produced similar results. Gabapentin users had increased risk in subgroups of younger and older

  5. Clinical correlates of planned, more lethal suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Atsuo; Grunebaum, Michael F; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley K; Kashima, Haruo; Mann, J John

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of suicide plans is standard in acute psychiatric care, but there is a limited evidence base to guide this routine clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical correlates of suicide planning in depressed patients. 151 patients with major depressive disorder and a lifetime history of suicide attempt were studied. Subjects received a comprehensive evaluation including structured diagnostic interview for Axis I and II disorders, current symptoms, impulsivity, and systematic assessment of suicide planning prior to the most recent suicide attempt. Seriousness of suicide attempt planning correlated with lethality of suicidal acts. Comorbid anxiety disorder and anxiety correlated with less suicide planning. Specifically, this negative correlation was with comorbid panic disorder. Planning did not correlate with severity of depression or aggressive/impulsive traits. Cross-sectional design, retrospective recall of suicide planning data, limited applicability to completed suicide or other psychiatric disorders. In major depression, comorbid panic disorder appears protective against more carefully planned, higher lethality suicide attempts. Surprisingly, severity of depression and aggressive impulsive traits do not predict planning or lethality of suicide attempts. We have previously reported that anxiety severity protects against the probability of a suicide attempt and now extend that observation to show there is protection against lethality of a suicide attempt. Treatment of anxiety without directly treating major depression may place patients at greater risk of suicidal behavior.

  6. Comparison of suicide attempts in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, Girish H; Vankar, Ganpat K; Parikh, Minakshi N

    2013-12-01

    Schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) are among the most common psychiatric diagnoses associated with suicide. There is a dearth of published research systematically comparing suicidal behavior in schizophrenia and MDD. The present study aimed to compare suicide attempts in schizophrenia and MDD. In this hospital-based, cross-sectional study, 50 outpatients each of schizophrenia and MDD were evaluated for their sociodemographic characteristics. In subjects with a history of suicide attempt(s), additional information related to the attempt(s) was obtained. Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) was used to assess the suicidal intent and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to measure the current suicidal risk. Thirty-four percent and 44% of patients with schizophrenia and MDD, respectively, attempted suicide. The attempters in schizophrenia compared to those in MDD were younger and more likely to be single (unmarried, separated or divorced). Suicidal intent was stronger in schizophrenia, while the attempters with MDD were more often preoccupied with a death wish and reported that stressful life events influenced the attempt. There were no differences in the attempt methods of the two groups. Current suicidal risk was higher in attempters compared to the non-attempters in schizophrenia as well as MDD. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia and MDD have similar features, with quite a few notable differences, which have been discussed at length in the present paper. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Revisiting the immigrant paradox: Suicidal ideations and suicide attempts among immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Mikuška, Jakub; Gaššová, Zuzana

    2017-08-01

    The current study examined the immigrant paradox in suicidal ideations and attempts, whether rates and correlates varied across immigrant/non-immigrant youth in a nationally representative sample of 7,287 Swiss adolescents (10.2% 1st generation immigrants, 10.3% 2nd generation, and 16.1% mixed parentage; Mage = 17.45, SD = 1.85, 46.6% females). Known risk and protective factors for suicidal ideations and attempts (depressive symptoms, family and peer connectedness, and demographics) were used as correlates, and their effects were compared across groups. About 27% of youth thought about suicide in past 12 months, while 5.5% reported attempting suicide once in their lifetime. After controlling for known predictors and nationality, being an immigrant adolescent (1st, 2nd generation, or mixed parentage) lowered the risk for suicidal ideations as compared to native Swiss youth; immigrant status was unrelated to attempts. Findings provide mixed support for the immigrant paradox; both immigrant and native youth would benefit from effective intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differences between Impulsive and Non-Impulsive Suicide Attempts among Individuals Treated in Emergency Rooms of South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Meerae; Lee, Soojung; Park, Jong-Ik

    2016-01-01

    Objective A considerable proportion of suicide attempts are the result of sudden desires. Understanding such impulsive suicide attempts is necessary for effective interventions. We evaluated the impulsivity of suicide attempters treated in emergency rooms. The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of impulsive suicide attempts by comparing these individuals to those who attempted to commit suicide in a non-impulsive manner. Methods This study analyzed suicide attempters who vis...

  9. Suicide attempts by elderly women - from a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Moura, Rosylaine; Hesler, Lilian Zielke; Gutierrez, Denise Machado Duran

    2015-06-01

    This article analyzes the presence of gender inequality and violence in the lives of elderly women who have attempted suicide. This survey is part of a qualitative research study developed in twelve municipal regions in Brazil with high levels of suicide, and is coordinated by Claves-Fiocruz. Information was obtained by means of semi-structured interviews with thirty-two women from a sampling of fifty-nine elderly women with a history of attempted suicide. It was decided not to identify the interviewees, and to construct a narrative based on events that have occurred in the lives of all these women. The study was based on the women's life cycle (infancy, youth, adult life and old age) to see if gender inequality had been an issue in each of these phases. The inequalities began in infancy with differentiated gender upbringing; these continued during their youth and with their sexual initiation, marriage and maturity these continued during their adult life through acts of violence committed by their partners and/ or other family members which culminates in old age, when they are deprived of their independence and have lost ties, possessions and points of reference. These lives permeated with violence result in a feeling of emptiness and unworthiness, and lead many elderly women to view death as their only solution.

  10. Nurses' attitudes and beliefs to attempted suicide in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven; Krishna, Murali; Rajendra, Raj Gopal; Keenan, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing global interest into the attitudes and clinical management of persons who have attempted suicide. The principal purpose was to determine senior nursing staff attitudes towards patients who had attempted suicide from a professional and cultural perspective, which might influence care following hospital admission. The focus concerned nursing staff interactions at a psychological level that compete with physical tasks on general hospital wards. A qualitative methodology was employed with audio-taped interviews utilising four level data coding. This article reports on a group of 15 nursing staff from a large general hospital in Mysore, Southern India. Findings suggested that patient care and treatment is directly influenced by the nurse's religious beliefs within a general hospital setting with physical duties prioritised over psychological support, which was underdeveloped throughout the participant group. The results allow a series of recommendations for educational and skills initiatives before progressing to patient assessment and treatment projects and cross-cultural comparison studies. In addition, interventions must focus on current resources and context to move the evidence-based suicide prevention forward.

  11. Risk behaviors, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a nationally representative French sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husky, Mathilde M; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Michel, Grégory

    2013-12-01

    Data from large nationally representative samples are needed to provide the empirical foundation to inform health policies for the prevention of suicide risk and risk behaviors in men and women. Data were extracted from the 2010 Health Barometer, a large telephone survey on a representative sample of the general population aged 15-85 years living in France (n=27,653), carried out by the National Institute for Health Promotion and Health Education. Data were collected between October 2009 and July 2010. A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system was used. Overall, 3.9% of respondents aged 15 to 85 reported past year suicidal ideation, and 0.5% reported a suicide attempt in that time period. Increased rates of risky sexual behavior are associated with ideation and attempt in both men and women, after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Homosexuality or bisexuality are associated with suicidal ideation for both men and women, but not with attempts. Substance misuse, physical and sexual assaults are strongly associated with suicidal symptoms for both men and women. Early first experiences with sex, tobacco, and alcohol are associated with suicidal symptoms though somewhat differentially for men and women. Cross-sectional survey. The findings underscore associations between suicidal thoughts and behaviors and risk behaviors such as unprotected sex and substance use in men and women throughout the lifespan. These associations highlight the need for preventive strategies such as screening for risk behaviors in order to identify men and women particularly at risk for suicidal behavior. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A review of factors associated with greater likelihood of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Azorin, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    of current/recent episode, predominant polarity, mood episode characteristics, psychosis, psychiatric comorbidity, personality characteristics, sexual dysfunction, first-degree family history of suicide or mood disorders, past suicide attempts, early life trauma, and psychosocial precipitants. CONCLUSION...

  13. Suicide Ideation and Suicide Attempt Among Young Lesbian and Bisexual Filipina Women: Evidence for Disparities in the Philippines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eric Julian Manalastas

    2016-01-01

    .... Similar to previous results from young Filipino men and to findings in the global LGBT mental health literature, sexual-minority status was associated with both suicide ideation and suicide attempt...

  14. Attempted suicide and associated risk factors among youth in urban Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Yasuharu; Operario, Don; Takenaka, Mie; Omori, Sachiko; Ichikawa, Seiichi; Shirasaka, Takuma

    2008-09-01

    Suicide is a major social and health issue in Japan. We assessed prevalence of attempted suicide and explored individual, interpersonal, behavioral, and psychological risk factors associated with attempted suicide in a general community sample of youth in a metropolitan Japanese city. Survey of 2,095 participants age between 15 and 24 who were recruited using street-intercept techniques. Overall, 6% of males and 11% of females reported a prior suicide attempt. For males, attempted suicide was independently associated with experience of school bullying, being homosexual or bisexual, history of drug use, experience of unwanted sex, history of a diagnosed sexually transmitted infection, and low self-esteem. For females, attempted suicide was independently associated with being younger (ages 15-19 compared to 20-24), experience of school bullying, history of drug use, and history of smoking. Prevention intervention programs for youth in Japan are necessary to achieve national aims to reduce attempted suicides and suicide mortality.

  15. Clinical and cognitive correlates of suicide attempts in bipolar disorder: is suicide predictable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Alison M; Garno, Jessica L; Braga, Raphael J; Shaya, Yaniv; Goldberg, Terry E; Malhotra, Anil K; Burdick, Katherine E

    2011-08-01

    We conducted a retrospective investigation of potential clinical, demographic, and neuropsychological risk factors for suicide attempts in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Participants included 67 adult inpatients and outpatients aged 18-60 years meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder (bipolar I and II disorders, bipolar disorder not otherwise specified). We assessed demographic factors, mood symptoms, psychosis, trauma history, trait impulsivity, trait aggression, and reasons for living. The primary outcome measures were the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-version II, Aggression Questionnaire, and 10 cognitive outcome variables. The cognitive outcome variables assessed cognitive performance across several domains, including processing speed, attention, verbal learning, and executive function. Another aspect of cognitive function, decision making, was assessed using the Iowa Gambling Task. The study was conducted from July 2007-July 2009. We found that nonattempters reported significantly higher trait impulsivity scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale compared to attempters (t(57) = 2.2, P = .03) and that, among attempters, lower trait impulsivity score was associated with higher scores of lethality of prior attempts (r(25) = -0.53, P = .01). Analyses revealed no other group differences on demographic, clinical, or neurocognitive variables when comparing attempters versus nonattempters. Regression models failed to identify any significant predictors of past suicide attempt. The largely negative results of our study are particularly important in highlighting the clinical dilemma faced by many clinicians when trying to predict which patients will make serious suicide attempts and which patients are at a lower risk for acting on suicidal thoughts. A limitation of our work is that we examined stable trait measures of impulsivity among a euthymic sample rather than mood state or the impact of mood state on traits. Overall, we conclude that suicidal

  16. The investigation of factors related to suicide attempts in Southeastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okan Ibiloglu, Aslihan; Atli, Abdullah; Demir, Suleyman; Gunes, Mehmet; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Bulut, Mahmut; Sir, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is an important health problem in Turkey as it is in all regions of the world. Suicidal behavior has multiple causes, which are broadly divided into those related to proximal stressors and those due to predisposition. Suicide statistics may be associated with mental health disorders, which are among the foremost predictors of suicide attempts. More than 90% of patients who commit suicide have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder, usually a major depressive disorder. Other major risk factors for suicide attempts are history of suicide attempts in the family, stressful life events, sleep disturbances, poor income, unemployment, severity of symptoms of depression, and anxiety. Sleep is a complex phenomenon. Sleep disturbances can therefore be contributed to the emergence of suicidal behavior allowing for the possibility of predicting future suicides. We evaluated 106 patients who were admitted after suicide attempts to the Department of Psychiatry at Dicle University Faculty of Medicine. The recruited subjects were assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, and the intensity of symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The mean values of the subjects attempting multiple and single suicides were compared using appropriate inferential statistical tests. Most suicide attempts are believed to be preventable. Our results revealed that a great variety of risk factors are associated with an increased risk for multiple suicide attempts. Most of these attempts appeared to be spontaneous and impulsive rather than planned. In particular, this study highlights the importance of previous suicide attempts, history of suicide in the family, history of stressful life events in the previous 6 months, poor income, unemployment, sleep disturbances, severe hopelessness with depression, and coexisting symptoms of anxiety as risk factors. The first step in prevention of

  17. Stressful life events, hopelessness, and coping strategies among impulsive suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Sarkar, Siddharth; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip; Menon, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Suicides are among the most important causes of death in the economically productive population. Characteristics of impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters may differ which would have a bearing on planning preventive measures. This study aimed to characterize the clinical and psychological profile of impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters. This retrospective comprehensive chart-based study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. The study utilized records of patients over a period of 3 years. An attempt was considered impulsive if the time between suicidal idea and the attempt was hopelessness was evaluated using Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and coping was measured using Coping Strategies Inventory Short Form. Impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters were compared using appropriate inferential statistical tests. Of 316 patients, 151 were classified as having an impulsive suicidal attempt (47.8% of the sample). The impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters did not differ on demographic characteristics. Use of natural plant products was more common in impulsive attempters (27.2% vs. 12.7%), while physical methods like hanging was less common (0.7% vs. 7.3%). Those with an impulsive attempt were more likely to have a recent contact with a health professional (24.5% vs. 4.5%). Impulsive suicide attempters had higher scores on BHS (Mann-Whitney U = 7680.5, P suicide attempters differ from nonimpulsive suicide attempters in clinical features like methods of attempt, presence of hopelessness, and stressors.

  18. A Mixed Methods Approach to Identify Cognitive Warning Signs for Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Abby; Bush, Ashley; Barg, Frances K; Weissinger, Guy; Beck, Aaron T; Brown, Gregory K

    2016-01-01

    This study used a mixed methods approach to examine pathways to suicidal behavior by identifying cognitive warning signs that occurred within 1 day of a suicide attempt. Transcripts of cognitive therapy sessions from 35 patients who attempted suicide were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Cognitive themes emerging from these transcripts included: state hopelessness, focus on escape, suicide as a solution, fixation on suicide, and aloneness. Differences in demographic and baseline diagnostic and symptom data were explored in relation to each cognitive theme. We propose a potential conceptual model of cognitive warning signs for suicide attempts that requires further testing.

  19. [Suicide attempt by an interstitial cystitis patient : a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahisa; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kato, Taiki; Furuse, Hiroshi; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2014-11-01

    We report a suicide attempt by an interstitial cystitis patient. A 68-year-old woman consulted several clinics with complaints of urinary frequency and bladder pain, but her symptoms did not improve. She was admitted to our hospital and diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Hydrodistention was performed, and the urethral catheter removed one day after surgery. The next day, the patient was afraid that her symptoms had not improved and, due to this physical and mental distress, cut her wrist with a razor. Vascular anastomosis and neuroanastomosis were performed accordingly. Eighteen months after hydrodistention, the patient's symptoms of interstitial cystitis have much improved.

  20. Experiences of parents whose sons or daughters have (had) attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Caspersen, Jimmy; Hansen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    -being. The pressure on the parents was intense and the fundamentally unpredictable character of suicide attempts was frequently emphasized. CONCLUSION: Being the parent of a child who attempts suicide meant managing a life-threatening situation and the additional moral stigma. In part, the participants did......AIM: The aim of this exploratory study was to gain further insights into the experiences of parents of sons or daughters who have attempted suicide and how these parents respond to the increased psychosocial burden following the suicide attempt(s). BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major public health...... problem and relatives are understood as playing an important role in suicide prevention; however, suicide and suicidal behaviour affect the relatives' lives profoundly, both emotionally and socially, and the psychosocial impact on families is underresearched. DESIGN: Focus groups with parents of sons...

  1. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Bipolar Disorder Patients With and Without Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kristine Kahr

    2016-03-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) are at an increased risk of attempted and completed suicide. To elucidate the beliefs and assumptions associated with suicidality in BD, the present study compared BD patients with and without a history of suicide attempt in terms of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). The sample consisted of 49 remitted BD patients who completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Version. Information on suicide attempts was obtained through interviews combined with medical records. Compared with BD patients without suicide attempts, the BD patients with suicide attempts scored significantly higher on 3 EMSs: social isolation, practical incompetence, and entitlement. The findings suggest that specific EMSs may be implicated in suicidal behaviors in BD. These results have implications for the assessment and treatment of suicidality in BD.

  2. The effect of seasonal changes and climatic factors on suicide attempts of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya-Kalayci, Türkan; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Winkler, Dietmar; Willeit, Matthaeus; Kapusta, Nestor D; Dorffner, Georg; Özlü-Erkilic, Zeliha

    2017-11-15

    Seasonal changes and climatic factors like ambient temperature, sunlight duration and rainfall can influence suicidal behavior. This study analyses the relationship between seasonal changes and climatic variations and suicide attempts in 2131 young patients in Istanbul, Turkey. In our study sample, there was an association between suicide attempts in youths and seasonal changes, as suicide attempts occurred most frequently during summer in females as well as in males. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the mean temperature over the past 10 days and temperature at the index day and suicide attempts in females. After seasonality effects were mathematically removed, the mean temperature 10 days before a suicide attempt remained significant in males only, indicating a possible short-term influence of temperature on suicide attempts. This study shows an association between suicide attempts of young people and climatic changes, in particular temperature changes as well as seasonal changes. Therefore, the influence of seasonal changes and climatic factors on young suicide attempters should get more attention in research to understand the biopsychosocial mechanisms playing a role in suicide attempts of young people. As suicide attempts most frequently occur in young people, further research is of considerable clinical importance.

  3. The relationship of outwardly-directed aggression to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts across two high-risk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swogger, Marc T; Van Orden, Kimberly A; Conner, Kenneth R

    2014-04-01

    While research has established some relationships between risk factors and specific suicide-related outcomes, in large part the extent to which suicidal ideation and attempts have different risk profiles is unclear. Using two theories of suicidal behavior to guide our hypotheses, we studied the relationship of outwardly-directed aggression to suicidal ideation and attempts in two high-risk samples. Participants in study one were 271 criminal offenders in a pretrial diversion program. Participants in study two were 892 psychiatric inpatients who participated in the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. In both studies, after controlling for relevant covariates, outwardly-directed aggression was associated with suicide attempts, but not ideation. Among psychiatric patients, further analyses revealed that outwardly-directed aggression was associated with planned, but not unplanned, suicide attempts. That aggression is related to suicide attempts and not ideation is consistent with hypotheses based on both Joiner's (2005) interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior and theories based on a diathesis toward behavioral dysregulation (e.g., Mann, 2009). That aggression was associated with planned suicide attempts is consistent with Joiner's theory. Competing explanations for the results include a potential role of proactive aggression in suicide attempts, particularly planned attempts.

  4. Clinical characteristics in schizophrenia patients with or without suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Erlend; Walby, Fredrik A; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Barrett, Elizabeth A; Steen, Nils E; Lorentzen, Steinar; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Mehlum, Lars

    2013-10-09

    To investigate whether schizophrenia patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm have earlier age of onset of psychotic and depressive symptoms and higher levels of clinical symptoms compared to patients with only suicide attempts or without suicide attempt. Using a cross-sectional design, 251 patients (18-61 years old, 58% men) with schizophrenia treated at hospitals in Oslo and Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway, were assessed with a comprehensive clinical research protocol and divided into three groups based on their history of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm. Suicide attempts were present in 88 patients (35%); 52 had suicide attempts only (29%) and 36 had both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm (14%). When compared with nonattempters and those with suicide attempts without non-suicidal self-harm, patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more frequently women, younger at the onset of psychotic symptoms, had longer duration of untreated psychosis, and had higher levels of current impulsivity/aggression and depression. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more likely to repeat suicide attempts than patients with suicide attempts only. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm had different illness history and clinical characteristics compared to patients with only suicide attempts or patients without suicidal behavior. Our study suggests that patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm represent a distinct subgroup among patients with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior with their early onset of psychotic symptoms, high rate of repeated suicidal behavior and significant treatment delay.

  5. Decision making under risk and under ambiguity in depressed suicide attempters, depressed non-attempters and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Schmid, Steffen K; Kemmler, Georg; Moser, Bernadette; Delazer, Margarete

    2018-01-15

    A number of neuropsychological alterations have been found in patients who have attempted suicide. Most studies investigating decision making (DM) abilities in suicide attempters so far have used one single DM task and included patients with a lifetime history of suicide attempts. These studies have yielded conflicting results. In this study, currently depressed in-patients who had a recent suicide attempt (within the last six months) (n = 21), depressed in-patients without a lifetime history of suicide attempts (n = 31) and a healthy control group (n = 26) were assessed with two tasks for the assessment of DM. The Game of Dice Task (GDT) measures DM under risk and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) DM under ambiguity. Further, depression severity, impulsiveness and suicidal intent of the current suicide attempt were assessed. Both depressed groups differed from controls with respect to marital and partnership status, smoking, impulsiveness and psychiatric family history. In terms of DM, IGT scores did not differ significantly between groups. However, suicide attempters made significantly more risky decisions as assessed with the GDT than both control groups (p < 0.05 for pairwise comparisons, p = 0.065 for overall comparison of the 3 groups). The available tasks assess DM under laboratory conditions which may not reflect the emotional status of suicidal individuals. No general cognitive assessment was included. Depressed suicide attempters differed with regard to DM under risk but not DM under ambiguity. When studying DM it appears crucial to take varying aspects of DM into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation and attempts among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Dupuis, Lorette C; Ray, Robin

    2017-04-01

    Suicide is a potentially preventable public health issue. It is therefore important to examine its immediate precursors, including suicidal ideation and attempts, to help in the development of future public health interventions. The present study reports the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts in the past 12 months in children and adolescents and identifies correlates of such behaviors in a large and diverse sample of middle and high school students. Data were drawn from a representative sample of Ottawa students (n=1922) aged 11-20 years (14.4±1.9 years) from three cycles (2009, 2011 and 2013) of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), a cross-sectional school-based appraisal of students in grades 7-12 across Ontario, Canada. Overall, 10.8% of students exhibited suicidal ideation and 3.0% reported suicide attempts in the past 12 months. The conditional probability of making an attempt was 25.5% among suicide ideators. Multivariable analyses indicated that being a girl and using alcohol and cannabis were positively associated with suicidal ideation, while tobacco was positively associated with suicide attempts. Being a victim of school bullying was significantly associated with reports of suicidal ideation and attempts, whereas school connectedness had protective effects against both suicidal ideation and attempts. These results indicate that suicidal ideation and attempts are related to other risky behaviors. Suicide-prevention efforts should be integrated within broader health-promoting initiatives.

  7. Therapeutic interventions for suicide attempts and self-harm in adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ougrin, Dennis; Tranah, Troy; Stahl, Daniel; Moran, Paul; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum

    2015-02-01

    Suicidal behavior and self-harm are common in adolescents and are associated with elevated psychopathology, risk of suicide, and demand for clinical services. Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of self-harm and links between self-harm and suicide and risk of suicide attempt, progress in reducing suicide death rates has been elusive, with no substantive reduction in suicide death rates over the past 60 years. Extending prior reviews of the literature on treatments for suicidal behavior and repetitive self-harm in youth, this article provides a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting efficacy of specific pharmacological, social, or psychological therapeutic interventions (TIs) in reducing both suicidal and nonsuicidal self-harm in adolescents. Data sources were identified by searching the Cochrane, Medline, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and PubMed databases as of May 2014. RCTs comparing specific therapeutic interventions versus treatment as usual (TAU) or placebo in adolescents (through age 18 years) with self-harm were included. Nineteen RCTs including 2,176 youth were analyzed. TIs included psychological and social interventions and no pharmacological interventions. The proportion of the adolescents who self-harmed over the follow-up period was lower in the intervention groups (28%) than in controls (33%) (test for overall effect z = 2.31; p = .02). TIs with the largest effect sizes were dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and mentalization-based therapy (MBT). There were no independent replications of efficacy of any TI. The pooled risk difference between TIs and TAU for suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm considered separately was not statistically significant. TIs to prevent self-harm appear to be effective. Independent replication of the results achieved by DBT, MBT, and CBT is a research priority. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by

  8. Increased fear-potentiated startle in major depressive disorder patients with lifetime history of suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Ionescu, Dawn F; Vande Voort, Jennifer L; Slonena, Elizabeth E; Franco-Chaves, Jose A; Zarate, Carlos A; Grillon, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Suicide is a common reason for psychiatric emergency and morbidity, with few effective treatments. Anxiety symptoms have emerged as potential modifiable risk factors in the time before a suicide attempt, but few studies have been conducted using laboratory measures of fear and anxiety. We operationally defined fear and anxiety as increased startle reactivity during anticipation of predictable (fear-potentiated startle) and unpredictable (anxiety-potentiated startle) shock. We hypothesized that a lifetime history of suicide attempt (as compared to history of no suicide attempt) would be associated with increased fear-potentiated startle. A post-hoc analysis of fear- and anxiety-potentiated startle was conducted in 28 medication-free patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) divided according to suicide attempt history. The magnitude of fear-potentiated startle was increased in depressed patients with lifetime suicide attempts compared to those without a lifetime history of suicide attempt (F(1,26)=5.629, p=.025). There was no difference in anxiety-potentiated startle by suicide attempt history. This is a post-hoc analysis of previously analyzed patient data from a study of depressed inpatients. Further replication of the finding with a larger patient sample is indicated. Increased fear-potentiated startle in suicide attempters suggests the role of amygdala in depressed patients with a suicide attempt history. Findings highlight the importance of anxiety symptoms in the treatment of patients at increased suicide risk. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Characteristics of suicide attempts in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Guillaume

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compared to other eating disorders, anorexia nervosa (AN has the highest rates of completed suicide whereas suicide attempt rates are similar or lower than in bulimia nervosa (BN. Attempted suicide is a key predictor of suicide, thus this mismatch is intriguing. We sought to explore whether the clinical characteristics of suicidal acts differ between suicide attempters with AN, BN or without an eating disorders (ED. METHOD: Case-control study in a cohort of suicide attempters (n = 1563. Forty-four patients with AN and 71 with BN were compared with 235 non-ED attempters matched for sex, age and education, using interview measures of suicidal intent and severity. RESULTS: AN patients were more likely to have made a serious attempt (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-7.9, with a higher expectation of dying (OR = 3.7,95% CI 1.1-13.5, and an increased risk of severity (OR = 3.4,95% CI 1.2-9.6. BN patients did not differ from the control group. Clinical markers of the severity of ED were associated with the seriousness of the attempt. CONCLUSION: There are distinct features of suicide attempts in AN. This may explain the higher suicide rates in AN. Higher completed suicide rates in AN may be partially explained by AN patients' higher desire to die and their more severe and lethal attempts.

  10. A STUDY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL AND CLINICAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ADOLESCENT SUICIDE ATTEMPTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, C.T. Sudir; Chandrasekaran, R.

    2000-01-01

    There is a good deal of research showing that suicide attempts increase markedly during adolescence. This study aims at studying the demographic and clinical variables of adolescent suicide attempters and comparing certain potential risk factors between adolescent and adult suicide attempters. It was found that adolescents in our study sample differ significantly from adults in the levels of depression, hopelessness, lethality of attempt and stressful life events. These findings are important...

  11. Familial Transmission of Suicidal Behavior: Factors Mediating the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Offspring Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Beth S.; Mann, J. John; Stanley, Barbara; Tin, Adrienne; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Zelazny, Jamie; Burke, Ainsley Keller; Melhem, Nadine; Brent, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Self-reported childhood sexual abuse is associated with major depression and with suicidal behavior. The current study investigates the relationship between reported childhood abuse and the familial transmission of suicidal behavior and other related risk factors. Method 507 offspring of 271 parent probands with DSM-IV major depressive disorder were compared according to the reported childhood abuse history on demographic, diagnostic, and clinical variables related to risk for suicidal behavior. Both self-report and clinical interview measures assessed history of childhood physical and sexual abuse. The study was conducted from May 1997 to February 2004. Results Reported childhood sexual abuse, but not physical abuse, in the proband correlated with suicide attempts, posttraumatic stress disorder, earlier onset of major depressive disorder, higher levels of impulsivity, and greater likelihood of childhood sexual abuse in the offspring and was rarely perpetrated by the affected parent. A reported history of childhood physical abuse was related to more lifetime aggression in the offspring. Conclusions Reported childhood sexual abuse is a risk factor for suicidal behavior in parent and offspring. Transmission of suicide risk across generations is related to the familial transmission of sexual abuse and impulsivity. Sexual abuse is not directly transmitted by the victim to the next generation and may be related to family dynamics related to sexual abuse. PMID:18373384

  12. The Relationship of Childhood Abuse and Neglect with Suicide Attempts in an Adult Unipolar Depression Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Feride; Küçükgöncü, Suat; Beştepe, Engin Emrem; Yildirim, Murat Serkan

    2014-06-01

    Unipolar depression is an important psychiatric disorder that leads to an increased risk of suicide. However, not all depression patients attempt suicide. This reflects the presence of other factors that may be related to suicide other than the sole presence of psychopathology. Drawing upon the clinical evidence linking childhood abuse and neglect experiences with suicide; this study aimed at investigating the relationship of childhood abuse and neglect experiences with suicide attempts in patients with unipolar depression. One hundred six unipolar depressed patients between the ages of 18 and 65 were included in the study. Patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders, neurological disorders, alcohol-substance abuse problems, and a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score of Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), and the Suicide Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) were administered to all patients. Suicidal and non-suicidal cases were determined according to clinic interviews and the patients' responses in the SBQ. Sixty-four patients have previously attempted suicide. Although there was no significant difference between unipolar depression patients with a history of suicide attempts and patients with no history of suicide attempts in terms of average age, education and marital status, however, female/male ratio in the former group was determined to be significantly higher. BDI, STAXI continuous anger and outward anger average scores, and average CTQ-28 emotional abuse, physical abuse and total scores were significantly higher in the group with a history of suicide attempts. The predictors of suicide attempts were higher BDI and CTQ-28 physical abuse scores and female gender. The predictors for average SBQ scores were determined as higher BDI, CTQ-28 sexual abuse, and STAXI outward anger and continuous anger scores. Childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences are important factors in evaluating the presence of suicide

  13. [Follow-up interventions after suicide attempt. What tools, what effects and how to assess them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaigne, E; Hardy, P; Mouaffak, F

    2017-02-01

    After attempting suicide, 60 to 70% of patients are discharged from emergency departments and referred to outpatient treatment which entails psychosocial strategies, pharmacological strategies or a combination. The main objective of outpatient care consists in preventing recurrent suicidal behavior. Yet suicide attempters have been found to be very difficult to engage in treatment. Between 11% and 50% of attempters refuse outpatient treatment or drop out of outpatient therapy very quickly. In order to address this extremely serious issue, for the past 20 years monitoring or follow up interventions has been presented as a promising approach. Follow-up intervention is defined as a service that aims at both increased access to and engagement in care as well as to prevent suicide and related behaviors. This approach consists in "stay in contact" or "connectedness" protocols using phone calls or tele-assistance, sending letters, email or mobile phone messages and medical visits or nursing at home. From one study to another these tools have been used separately, associated to one another or reinforced by motivational interviewing or brief psychotherapy. To our knowledge, since 1993 16 controlled and randomized controlled studies assessed the effectiveness of diverse follow-up. Four studies assessing telephone follow up reported a significant decrease in suicide reattempt while one study evaluating a sending letters strategy reported positive results. Among five studies assessing engagement in healthcare, only two (one using phone follow up and the other sending letters reported significantly positive results. The refusal rate of monitoring strategies has not exceeded 11% attesting to the high applicability of these methods. Despite several positive results, we cannot draw firm conclusions on replicability of these results. This is largely due to methodological issues: lack of standardization of interventions, lack of consensus on definition of the main measured variables

  14. Repetition of attempted suicide among teenagers in Europe: frequency, timing and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultén, A; Jiang, G X; Wasserman, D; Hawton, K; Hjelmeland, H; De Leo, D; Ostamo, A; Salander-Renberg, E; Schmidtke, A

    2001-09-01

    Adolescents in many countries show high rates of suicide attempts and repetitions of attempts as a common feature. Attempted suicide is the best predictor of future suicide. Repetition of attempts further increases the risk of suicide. The present study sought to identify patterns and risk factors for repetition of attempts in older teenagers. Data were collected by uniform procedures in a longitudinal follow-up study in seven European centres participating in the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour. Information on attempted suicide in the 15-19-year age group during the period 1989-1995 was analysed. A total of 1,720 attempts by 1,264 individuals over a mean follow-up period of 204 weeks (SD 108.9) were recorded. When life-table analysis was performed, 24% of the individuals who had previously attempted suicide made another attempt within one year after the index attempt, compared with 6.8% of the "first-evers", with no major gender difference. Cox regression analysis revealed that previous attempted suicide (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.4-4.4) and use of "hard" methods (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1) were both significantly associated with repetition of attempted suicide. Stepwise Cox regression analysis showed that a history of previous attempted suicide was the most important independent predictor of repetition (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.4-4.4). For young suicide attempters, follow-up and adequate aftercare are very important if repetition and risk of suicide are to be reduced. This applies particularly to those who have already made more than one attempt.

  15. Suicide Attempt Risk in Youths: Utility of the Harkavy-Asnis Suicide Scale for Monitoring Risk Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan; McArthur, David; Hughes, Jennifer; Barbery, Veronica; Berk, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The Harkavy-Asnis Suicide Scale (HASS), one of the few self-report scales assessing suicidal behavior was evaluated and ideation, was evaluated and predictors of suicide attempts (SAs) were identified with the goal of developing a model that clinicians can use for monitoring SA risk. Participants were 131 pediatric emergency department (ED)…

  16. Are suicide attempts by young Latinas a cultural idiom of distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Luis H.; Gulbas, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    The high rates of suicide attempts among adolescent Hispanic females in the United States have been well established by epidemiological and clinical studies. In this paper, we review the research history of Latina suicide attempts and their characteristics. Then we apply multifaceted conceptual and empirical criteria found in the anthropological and psychiatric literature about cultural idioms of distress to the suicide attempts of young Latinas. We contrast the suicide-attempt phenomenon to the well-known ataque de nervios and propose that the phenomenon may reflect a developmental or cultural variant of the ataque. The attempt-as-idiom proposition is intended to invite discussion that can deepen our understanding of the cultural roots of the suicide attempts and their possible designation as cultural idiom. Establishing the meaning of suicide attempts within a cultural perspective can assist psychological and psychiatric research and clinical interventions. PMID:23075802

  17. Are suicide attempts by young Latinas a cultural idiom of distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Luis H; Gulbas, Lauren E

    2012-11-01

    The high rates of suicide attempts among adolescent Hispanic females in the United States have been well established by epidemiological and clinical studies. In this paper, we review the research history of Latina suicide attempts and their characteristics. Then we apply multi-faceted conceptual and empirical criteria found in the anthropological and psychiatric literature about cultural idioms of distress to the suicide attempts of young Latinas. We contrast the suicide-attempt phenomenon to the well-known ataque de nervios and propose that the phenomenon may reflect a developmental or cultural variant of the ataque. The attempt-as-idiom proposition is intended to invite discussion that can deepen our understanding of the cultural roots of the suicide attempts and their possible designation as cultural idiom. Establishing the meaning of suicide attempts within a cultural perspective can assist psychological and psychiatric research and clinical interventions.

  18. Suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and occupations among employed adults aged 18–64 years in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Beth; Crosby, Alex E.; Ortega, LaVonne A.G.; Parks, Sharyn E.; Compton, Wilson M.; Gfroerer, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objective Approximately 70% of all US suicides are among working-age adults. This study was to determine whether and how 12-month suicidal ideation and suicide attempt were associated with specific occupations among currently employed adults aged 18–64 in the U.S. Methods Data were from 184,300 currently employed adults who participated in the 2008–2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). NSDUH provides nationally representative data on suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. Results Among currently employed adults aged 18–64 in the U.S., 3.5% had suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (3.1% had suicidal ideation only, and 0.4% had suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). Compared with adults in farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (model adjusted prevalence (MAP) = 1.6%), adults in the following occupations were 3.0–3.6 times more likely to have suicidal ideation in the past year (model adjusted relative risks (MARRs) = 3.0–3.6): lawyers, judges, and legal support workers (MAP = 4.8%), social scientists and related workers (MAP = 5.4%), and media and communication workers (MAP = 5.8%). Conclusions Among employed adults aged 18–64 in the U.S., the 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation varies by occupations. Adults in occupations that are at elevated risk for suicidal ideation may warrant focused suicide prevention. PMID:26995251

  19. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bethany A; Swahn, Monica H; McCarty, Frances

    2010-08-01

    The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. We used data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior, as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys). Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89). Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74), weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48), dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60), forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72), and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04) were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96), weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66), forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60), huffing glue (OR=1.63), hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18), and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52) were significantly associated with suicide attempts. These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide-prevention strategies directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention, clinical practice, and intervention strategies to prevent suicidal behaviors

  20. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West, Bethany A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts, and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys. Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89. Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48, dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60, forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72, and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66, forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60, huffing glue (OR=1.63, hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18, and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in terms of the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide prevention strategies that are directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention

  1. Religiosity/spirituality: Relationships with non-suicidal self-harm behaviors and attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Wiederman, Michael W

    2015-12-01

    The relationships between religiosity/spirituality (RS) and self-harm behavior, including non-suicidal self-harm behavior (NS-SHB) and suicide attempts/completions, remain of keen interest. Whereas the majority of studies strongly suggest that RS protects against suicide attempts/completions, relationships between RS and NS-SHB have been rarely studied. In this study, we examined RS in relationship to both NS-SHB (six explicit behaviors) and past history of suicide attempts. In a cross-sectional sample of 306 consecutive primary care outpatients, we administered four self-report assessments for RS (extent participant considered self a religious person, extent participant considered self a spiritual person, extent religion is involved in understanding/dealing with stressful situations, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp-12)) as well as examined seven items on the Self-Harm Inventory: six items reflecting NS-SHB and one item reflecting a past suicide attempt. While two RS items yielded no significant findings (extent participant considered self a spiritual person, extent religion is involved in understanding/dealing with stressful situations), the remaining two items were associated with a lowered risk of self-harm behavior, particularly the FACIT-Sp-12. Some but not all aspects of RS are associated with lowered risk for self-harm. In this study, considering oneself a religious person and reporting a general sense of RS well-being offered the most protective effect to participants, particularly the latter. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Is parenting style a predictor of suicide attempts in a representative sample of adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    Donath, Carolin; Graessel, Elmar; Baier, Dirk; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are serious but not rare conditions in adolescents. However, there are several research and practical suicide-prevention initiatives that discuss the possibility of preventing serious self-harm. Profound knowledge about risk and protective factors is therefore necessary. The aim of this study is a) to clarify the role of parenting behavior and parenting styles in adolescents’ suicide attempts and b) to identify other statistically significa...

  3. Risk for attempted suicide in children and youths after contact with somatic hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Stenager, E

    2012-01-01

    A range of studies have found an association between some somatic diseases and increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide. These studies are mostly analyses of adult populations and illnesses related to adulthood.......A range of studies have found an association between some somatic diseases and increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide. These studies are mostly analyses of adult populations and illnesses related to adulthood....

  4. Predicting Future Suicide Attempts Among Adolescent and Emerging Adult Psychiatric Emergency Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Adam G.; Czyz, Ewa K.; King, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine specific characteristics of suicidal ideation in combination with histories of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) to best evaluate risk for a future attempt among high-risk adolescents and emerging adults. Method Participants in this retrospective medical record review study were 473 (53% female; 69% Caucasian) consecutive patients, ages 15–24 years (M = 19.4 years) who presented for psychiatric emergency (PE) services during a 9-month period. These patients’ medical records, including a clinician-administered Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, were coded at the index visit and at future visits occurring within the next 18 months. Logistic regression models were used to predict suicide attempts during this period. Results SES, suicidal ideation severity (i.e., intent, method), suicidal ideation intensity (i.e., frequency, controllability), a lifetime history of suicide attempt, and a lifetime history of NSSI were significant independent predictors of a future suicide attempt. Suicidal ideation added incremental validity to the prediction of future suicide attempts above and beyond the influence of a past suicide attempt, whereas a lifetime history of NSSI did not. Sex moderated the relationship between the duration of suicidal thoughts and future attempts (predictive for males, but not females). Conclusions Results suggest value in incorporating both past behaviors and current thoughts into suicide risk formulation. Furthermore, suicidal ideation duration warrants additional examination as a potential critical factor for screening assessments evaluating suicide risk among high-risk samples, particularly for males. PMID:24871489

  5. Methods of suicide predict the risks and method-switching of subsequent suicide attempts: a community cohort study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang YC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Chi Huang,1 Ya-Wen Wu,2 Chih-Ken Chen,3 Liang-Jen Wang41Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung and Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, TaiwanObjective: Suicide is a major public health concern. This study aimed to determine the predictors of repeated suicide attempts, focusing on whether lethality level of the suicidal method predicts the risk of subsequent suicide attempts.Methods: All consecutive individuals (N=2,070 with an episode of nonfatal self-harm registered in a surveillance database provided by the Department of Health of Keelung City Government in Taiwan from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010 were enrolled and followed up until the end of 2011. The earliest attempt recorded in the database was defined as the index attempt. Subjects were classified according to suicide method into low-lethal and high-lethal groups. Data on time of and methods chosen for subsequent suicide attempts during the follow-up period were analyzed.Results: Of the total people screened for the study, 18.1% made a repeated suicide attempt. Subjects in the high-lethal group were more likely to be male; aged 35–64 years; and single, divorced, or widowed. Compared to other time intervals, most subsequent suicide attempts occurred within 6 months from the index attempt. The independent predictors for repeated suicide attempts were the use of low-lethal methods in the index attempt and being 35–49 years old. Using high-lethal methods and being older than 50 years were associated with changing suicide method for the second attempt.Conclusion: Lethality level of

  6. Youth, suicide attempts and low level of education: A Danish historical register-based cohort study of the outcome of suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Larsen, Kim Juul; Bilenberg, Niels; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2015-12-01

    In Denmark, it is a political goal that 95% of all young people should complete an upper secondary education. For some young people, this goal can be difficult to achieve. An association has been established between suicidal behaviour and school performance. We hypothesise that young people who have attempted suicide have a lower chance of finishing secondary education. We used Danish historical population registers to perform a longitudinal cohort design and extended Cox regression modelling to estimate crude and adjusted estimates of the effect of suicide attempt on secondary education. We used the birth cohorts 1983-1989, and all subjects were followed from birth until the end of 2011 (n = 355,725). For suicide attempters, the likelihood of completing secondary education was one-third of non-attempters (crude hazard ratio = 0.38). A part of the impact can be explained by confounding factors. Individuals with a suicide attempt at age 16-20 years or with multiple suicide attempts were most likely not to complete secondary education. Compared to mentally ill non-attempters, suicide attempters with mental illness were more likely not to finish secondary education. A suicide attempt is not necessarily causal for not finishing secondary education, but it is a marker, and it predicts an increased likelihood of not finishing secondary education. We need to identify individuals at risk for suicide attempts and subsequently provide the necessary support. Completing secondary education is important, as it provides better chances of employment, higher wages and more opportunities for individuals in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide: A 24-months Follow-Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Gysin-Maillart

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attempted suicide is the main risk factor for suicide and repeated suicide attempts. However, the evidence for follow-up treatments reducing suicidal behavior in these patients is limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP in reducing suicidal behavior. ASSIP is a novel brief therapy based on a patient-centered model of suicidal behavior, with an emphasis on early therapeutic alliance.Patients who had recently attempted suicide were randomly allocated to treatment as usual (n = 60 or treatment as usual plus ASSIP (n = 60. ASSIP participants received three therapy sessions followed by regular contact through personalized letters over 24 months. Participants considered to be at high risk of suicide were included, 63% were diagnosed with an affective disorder, and 50% had a history of prior suicide attempts. Clinical exclusion criteria were habitual self-harm, serious cognitive impairment, and psychotic disorder. Study participants completed a set of psychosocial and clinical questionnaires every 6 months over a 24-month follow-up period. The study represents a real-world clinical setting at an outpatient clinic of a university hospital of psychiatry. The primary outcome measure was repeat suicide attempts during the 24-month follow-up period. Secondary outcome measures were suicidal ideation, depression, and health-care utilization. Furthermore, effects of prior suicide attempts, depression at baseline, diagnosis, and therapeutic alliance on outcome were investigated. During the 24-month follow-up period, five repeat suicide attempts were recorded in the ASSIP group and 41 attempts in the control group. The rates of participants reattempting suicide at least once were 8.3% (n = 5 and 26.7% (n = 16. ASSIP was associated with an approximately 80% reduced risk of participants making at least one repeat suicide attempt (Wald χ21 = 13.1, 95% CI 12.4-13.7, p < 0

  8. Outcome of patients with major depressive disorder after serious suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Kirsi; Haukka, Jari; Valtonen, Hanna M; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the outcome of subjects with major depressive disorder after serious suicide attempt and to examine the effect of psychotic symptoms on their outcome. The study population included all individuals aged 16 years or older in Finland who were hospitalized with ICD-10 diagnoses of major depressive disorder and attempted suicide from 1996 to 2003 (N = 1,820). The main outcome measures were completed suicides, overall mortality, and repeated suicide attempts during drug treatment versus no treatment. During the 4-year follow-up period, 13% of patients died, 6% completed suicide, and 31% made a repeat suicide attempt. Subjects with major depression with psychotic features completed suicide more often than subjects without psychotic features during the follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 3.32; 95% CI, 1.95 - 5.67). Antidepressant treatment reduced all-cause mortality by 24% (HR 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56 - 0.97) but did not reduce suicide mortality (HR 1.06; 95% CI, 0.71 - 1.58). Psychotic symptoms during major depressive episode increase the risk of completed suicide after serious suicide attempt. The quality of treatment for major depression with psychotic features after attempted suicide should be improved to prevent suicide. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts among sexual minority youth in Ireland during their emerging adult years.

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Emmet; Coughlan, Helen; Clarke, Mary; Kelleher, Ian; Lynch, Fionnuala; Connor, Dearbhla; Fitzpatrick, Carol; Harley, Michelle; Cannon, Mary

    2015-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to examine whether or not sexual minority youth constitute an at-risk group for nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal ideation or suicide attempts during their emerging adult years. METHODS: Using data from the Challenging Times Study, a population-based study of psychopathology and suicide in Ireland, analyses were conducted to test the associations between sexual minority status and the odds of any lifetime experience of nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal thoughts or sui...

  10. Suicidal Career in Severe Depression among Long-Term Survivors: In a Followup after 37–53 Years Suicide Attempts Appeared to End Long before Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Crona; Alexander Mossberg; Louise Brådvik

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the suicidal career in the long-term course of severe depression. Subjects and Method. Seventy-five former in-patients were interviewed by telephone about course of depression and suicide attempts 37–53 years after index admission. Medical records were read in many cases. Results. 29 subjects had attempted suicide, 13 repeated, 10 made severe, and 13 violent attempts. The risk of suicide attempt decreased by 10% for every decade spent depressed. Suicide attempts were ma...

  11. Risk factors of suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in South Korea: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Beom Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a serious public health concern worldwide, and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. Few studies have focused on risk factors for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors and develop prediction models for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in the Korean population. Method This study included 1567 men and 3726 women aged 20 years and older who had suicidal ideation from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2012. Among them, 106 men and 188 women attempted suicide. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise elimination was performed to find risk factors for suicide attempt. Sub-group analysis, dividing participants into under 50 and at least 50 years old was also performed. Results Among people with suicidal ideation, age, education, cancer, and depressive disorder were selected as risk factors for suicide attempt in men. Age, education, national basic livelihood security, daily activity limitation, depressive disorder, stress, smoking, and regular exercise were selected in women. Area under curves of our prediction models in men and women were 0.728 and 0.716, respectively. Conclusions It is important to pay attention to populations with suicidal ideation and the risk factors mentioned above. Prediction models using the determined risk factors could be useful to detect high-risk groups early for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. It is necessary to develop specific action plans for these high-risk groups to prevent suicide.

  12. Risk factors of suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in South Korea: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Beom; Lee, Wanhyung; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Kim, Deok Won

    2017-06-15

    Suicide is a serious public health concern worldwide, and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. Few studies have focused on risk factors for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors and develop prediction models for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in the Korean population. This study included 1567 men and 3726 women aged 20 years and older who had suicidal ideation from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2012. Among them, 106 men and 188 women attempted suicide. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise elimination was performed to find risk factors for suicide attempt. Sub-group analysis, dividing participants into under 50 and at least 50 years old was also performed. Among people with suicidal ideation, age, education, cancer, and depressive disorder were selected as risk factors for suicide attempt in men. Age, education, national basic livelihood security, daily activity limitation, depressive disorder, stress, smoking, and regular exercise were selected in women. Area under curves of our prediction models in men and women were 0.728 and 0.716, respectively. It is important to pay attention to populations with suicidal ideation and the risk factors mentioned above. Prediction models using the determined risk factors could be useful to detect high-risk groups early for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. It is necessary to develop specific action plans for these high-risk groups to prevent suicide.

  13. Differences between Impulsive and Non-Impulsive Suicide Attempts among Individuals Treated in Emergency Rooms of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Meerae; Lee, Soojung

    2016-01-01

    Objective A considerable proportion of suicide attempts are the result of sudden desires. Understanding such impulsive suicide attempts is necessary for effective interventions. We evaluated the impulsivity of suicide attempters treated in emergency rooms. The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of impulsive suicide attempts by comparing these individuals to those who attempted to commit suicide in a non-impulsive manner. Methods This study analyzed suicide attempters who visited the emergency departments of seven selected university hospitals. A total of 269 medical records in which impulsivity of suicide attempt were confirmed were subject to be analyzed. The impulsivity of the suicide attempt was examined using a summative score of items 6 and 15 on the Suicide Intent Scale. Results A total of 48.0% of the participants were impelled by sudden inclinations to attempt suicide. Impulsive attempters were younger, unmarried and less physical illness than non-impulsive attempters, whereas no significant differences were found on psychiatric history and previous suicide history. Impulsive suicide attempters had suicide ideations that were not as severe (χ2=55.33, psuicide attempts were better than non-impulsive suicide attempts (t=-3.77, psuicide attempts were the result of sudden inclinations. Impulsive attempts were made in relatively earlier stages of suicide ideation; consequently, they have less intent than non-impulsive attempts. PMID:27482239

  14. Suicide and suicide attempts in adolescents and young adults in Kraków in the years 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polewka, Andrzej; Bolechała, Filip; Kołodziej, Jan; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Groszek, Barbara; Trela, Franciszek; Foryś, Zofia

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present the increasingly alarming phenomenon of completed suicide in adolescents and young adults. The material analysed had been drawn from the records of post-mortem examinations conducted by the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Kraków. The analysis covered cases of completed suicide committed by 15-30 years old inhabitants of Kraków or its environs between the September 2002 and the September 2003. The group of subjects analysed comprised 47 individuals (9 females and 38 males); 57.4% of these had resided in a big city (Kraków), and the remaining 42.6%--in villages or little towns near Kraków. The data regarding cases of completed suicide were compared with the data regarding suicide attempts by self-intoxication in the period under consideration, extracted from the documentation of the Department of Clinical Toxicology in Kraków. The latter data encompassed 233 cases of suicide attempts by individuals ranging in age from 15 to 29 years, with females constituting 62.2% of these, and males--37.8%. 65% of the attempters had been residents of Kraków. The analysis of the data from the Institute of Forensic Medicine revealed that nearly half of the suicide victims concerned had been treated for mental disorders, mainly depression and addictive disorders. The occurrence of suicide attempts prior to the fatal act was established in the case of 17 subjects (18.5%). Over half of the subjects (48.9%) committed suicide by hanging themselves, 17%--by falling from a height, 8.6%--by drowning, and 19.1%--by self-intoxication with medicaments. 77.2% of the subjects committed suicide at home. In the case of 23 subjects (48.9%), the post-mortem examination revealed the presence of alcohol. The analysis of the cases of suicide attempts by self-intoxication revealed a significant percentage of depressive disorders (26%)--of high occurrence especially in the case of females, whereas alcohol addiction was the predominant diagnosis in the case of

  15. Comparison of Families with and without a Suicide Prevention Plan Following a Suicidal Attempt by a Family Member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-wook; Jeong, Du-shin; Hong, Sae-yong

    2015-07-01

    The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared 50 recruited families that were divided into 2 groups, with Group A (31 families) employing a familial suicide prevention plan after a suicide attempt by a family member, and Group B (19 families) not doing so. The strategy that was employed most frequently to prevent a reoccurrence among both populations was promoting communication among family members, followed by seeking psychological counseling and/or psychiatric treatment. Contrary to our expectation, the economic burden from medical treatment after a suicide attempt did not influence the establishment of a familial suicide prevention plan. It is a pressing social issue that 38% (19 of 50) of families in this study did not employ a familial suicide prevention plan, even after a family member had attempted suicide. Regional suicide prevention centers and/or health authorities should pay particular attention to these patients and their families.

  16. Attitudes of acceptability and lack of condemnation toward suicide may be predictive of post-discharge suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galynker, Igor; Yaseen, Zimri S; Briggs, Jessica; Hayashi, Fumitaka

    2015-04-16

    Suicide attempts (SA) after psychiatric hospitalization continue to be a major cause of morbidity. Implicit measures may enhance our ability to assess suicide risk. In this context, we describe the first use of the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ) to identify post-discharge suicide attempters. Adult psychiatric inpatients admitted for suicidality (N = 91) were administered a battery of measures including the SOQ, and forty were reached and reassessed for SA at two months post-discharge. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on items associated with suicidality was performed to identify latent constructs. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to optimize factor combination for suicide identification. Results were compared with explicit measures of suicidality, and logistic regression was used to control for other risk factors. Finally, a simplified 9-item scale was derived from the results and its performance compared to that of the linear discriminant function. Twenty items differed between patients with and without SA at intake or follow-up. EFA on these identified two factors: suicide attempters indicated greater acceptability and less moral condemnation of suicide. The LDA-derived discriminant function and 9-item scale was significantly sensitive and specific for post-discharge SA. Attitudes of acceptability and lack of condemnation toward suicide may constitute an implicit measure of suicidality that could contribute to risk assessment in a high-risk population.

  17. Individual and environmental contingencies associated with multiple suicide attempts among U.S. military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Rudd, M David; Wertenberger, Evelyn

    2016-08-30

    Suicidal behavior among U.S. military personnel persists as a significant public health issue. Previous research indicates the primary motive for suicide attempts among military personnel is the desire to reduce or alleviate emotional distress, a finding that converges with studies in nonmilitary samples. Much less is understood about the consequences of a first suicide attempt that could influence the occurrence of additional suicide attempts. In order to identify these contingencies, 134 active duty Soldiers who had attempted suicide (n=69 first-time attempters, n=65 multiple attempters) participated in structured interviews focused on their experiences immediately following their first attempt. Soldiers were more likely to have made multiple suicide attempts if they were younger at the time of their first attempt, were not admitted to a hospital or treatment program after their first attempt, or experienced emotional and psychological relief immediately afterwards. Results suggest that Soldiers who experience emotional and/or psychological relief immediately after their first suicide attempt or do not receive treatment are more likely to make additional suicide attempts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Variables Associated with Repeated Suicide Attempt in a Criminal Justice Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakansson, Anders; Bradvik, Louise; Schlyter, Frans; Berglund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with repeated suicide attempts among criminal justice clients examined for substance abuse using the Addiction Severity Index. Among suicide attempters (n = 1,404), repeaters (two or more attempts, n = 770) were compared to nonrepeaters. In logistic regression, repetition was associated with…

  19. Resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala in suicide attempters with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Gul; Na, Kyoung-Sae; Choi, Jae-Won; Kim, Jeong-Hee; Son, Young-Don; Lee, Yu Jin

    2017-07-03

    In this study, we investigated the difference in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the amygdala between suicide attempters and non-suicide attempters with major depressive disorder (MDD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This study included 19 suicide attempters with MDD and 19 non-suicide attempters with MDD. RSFC was compared between the two groups and the regression analyses were conducted to identify the correlation between RSFC and Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) scores in the suicide attempt group. Statistical significance was set at p-value (uncorrected) suicide attempters, suicide attempters showed significantly increased RSFC of the left amygdala with the right insula and left superior orbitofrontal area, and increased RSFC of the right amygdala with the left middle temporal area. The regression analysis showed a significant correlation between the SSI total score and RSFC of the right amygdala with the right parahippocampal area in the suicide attempt group. The present RSFC findings provide evidence of a functional neural basis and will help reveal the pathophysiology underlying suicidality in subjects with MDD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Correlates of Attempted Suicide from the Emergency Room of 2 General Hospitals in Montreal, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Nancy C. P.; Lamarre, Suzanne; Daneau, Diane; Habel, Youssef; Turecki, Gustavo; Bonin, Jean-Pierre; Morin, Suzanne; Szkrumelak, Nadia; Singh, Santokh; Lesage, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The epidemiology of attempted suicide has not been well characterized because of lack of national data or an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code for suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective chart review in 2 adult general hospitals (tertiary and community) in Montreal, Canada, in 2009-2010 to 1) describe the characteristics of men and women who presented to the emergency department (ED) and/or were hospitalized following a suicide attempt, 2) identify factors associated with attempts requiring hospitalizations, and 3) validate the use of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes for “intentional self-harm” as a method to detect suicide attempts from hospital abstract summary records. Method: All potential suicide attempts were identified from hospital abstract summary records and ED nursing triage file using ICD-10 codes and keywords suggestive of suicide attempts. All identified charts were examined, and those with confirmed suicide attempts were fully reviewed. Results: Of the 5746 identified charts, 369 were fully reviewed. Of these, 176 were for suicide attempters treated in the ED and 193 for hospitalized attempters, of whom 46% had an ICD-10 code for intentional self-harm. Poisoning (46%) was the most frequent method of suicide used. Half of attempters were younger than 34 years, 53% were female, and 75% had a history of mental disorders. Conclusion: About half of individuals who seek medical care for attempted suicide are admitted to hospital. About half of attempters use poisoning as a method of suicide, and a quarter do not have a history of mental disorders. Intentional self-harm codes capture only about half of hospitalized attempters.

  1. Attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on social media: an exploratory study of Chinese microblogs

    OpenAIRE

    Ang Li; Xiaoxiao Huang; Bibo Hao; Bridianne O’Dea; Helen Christensen; Tingshao Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Broadcasting a suicide attempt on social media has become a public health concern in many countries, particularly in China. In these cases, social media users are likely to be the first to witness the suicide attempt, and their attitudes may determine their likelihood of joining rescue efforts. This paper examines Chinese social media (Weibo) users’ attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on Weibo. Methods. A total of 4,969 Weibo posts were selected from a customised Weibo ...

  2. Evaluation of pregnant patients admitted to the emergency department with suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Zengin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the pregnancy period, the incidence of suicide attempt is lower compared to other life-periods. However, according to the recent studies, suicide attempts may lead life-threatening consequences in high-risk pregnant women. The aim of this study is to compare pregnant patients admitted to the emergency department for suicide attempt in terms of their sociodemographic and clinical properties and suicide attempt methods. Methods: In this study, 56 patients admitted to the emergency department of university for suicide attempt between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, were included and they were classified according to suicide attempt methods into 2 groups as violent ones. Group 1 included violent methods as hanging, jumping, shooting and Group 2 included non-violent method as drugs. The study was a retrospective cross-sectional study. The sociodemographic, psychiatric and clinical properties of the patients were identified by patient registry system and patient files, and inter-group differences were compared. Results: In this study, 15 (26.7% patients in the violent suicide attempt group, and 41 (73.3% patients in the non-violent suicide attempt group, totally 56 patients were included. In the non-violent suicide attempt group, cigarette smoking, suicide attempt due to boredom, and live birth was significantly higher as compared to violent group; hospitalization period and fetal death was lower (p=0.04; p=0.006; p=0.004; p=0.004, respectively. Conclusion: Most of our pregnant suicide attempt patients are in the non-violent group, however, violent suicide attempt increased hospitalization period and fetal mortality significantly. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 115-120

  3. Degree of Suicide Intent and the Lethality of Means Employed: A Study of Chinese Attempters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; Xu, Huilan

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if there is a relationship between the degree of suicide intent and the lethality of means employed by those who try to kill themselves. The study sample consists of 74 suicide attempters admitted to emergency rooms in a northeastern area of China. Structured interviews were performed with the patients and their companions to the hospital if necessary. It was found that the reason for the suicide attempt claimed by the highest percentage of attempters (35 ...

  4. [Isolated burns after white-spirit ingestion in attempted suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, J L; Tardy, B; Barthélémy, C; Cambazard, F

    1994-01-01

    We report an unusual complications of prolonged contact with white spirit leading to caustic burns. A 20-year-old patient was seen for caustic perianal burns several hours after ingesting one-half liter of white spirit in an attempted suicide. Motor diarrhoea also occurred quickly and a prolonged anal evacuation of white spirit. Complementary examinations did not reveal any lesions of the buccal, oesophageal, gastric or rectosigmoidal mucosa. Necrosis of the skin due to prolonged contact with petrol products is well known. Usually due to the delapidating action of dissolved petrol products on the superficial hydrolipid film and subjacent cell membranes. The absence of digestive tract lesions could be explained by the rapid onset of motor diarrhoea which may have limited the time of contact and thus protected the digestive tract mucosa which has a high content of mucopoly-saccharides and a low lipid content.

  5. Attempted Suicide by Massive Warfarin Ingestion Conservatively Managed Using Phytonadione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. March

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment strategies for acute toxicity following massive ingestion of warfarin are not well described in the literature. Warfarin is the primary oral anticoagulation agent used in the treatment of thromboembolic disease, and patients with acute toxicity are at risk for life-threatening hemorrhages. Treatment options include phytonadione (vitamin K1, fresh frozen plasma (FFP, and prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs used alone or in combination. FFP and PCC can be associated with volume complications, undesirable thromboembolic events, and increased costs. We describe the case of a 63-year-old female with acute warfarin toxicity following a massive ingestion of warfarin (420 mg–450 mg in an attempt to commit suicide. Upon arrival to the emergency department, serial INR checks were initiated to help guide dosing strategy and later adjusted based on INR response to treatment using only phytonadione.

  6. Attempted suicide in Denmark. IV. A five-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B; Wang, A G; Brille-Brahe, U

    1990-01-01

    behaviour and to try to identify relevant factors for evaluation of future suicide risk. During the follow-up period 11.6% of the attempters committed suicide, the majority within the first year after the index attempt. Seventy-five percent of the suicides were committed less than 6 months after the last...... contact with the psychiatric ward. Predictors for future suicide were chronic somatic disease, depression, abuse of medicine, and chronic alcohol abuse. The authors emphasize the need for a thorough medical evaluation of patients attempting suicide, to be able to identify and eventually treat......From October 1, 1980 to April 20, 1981, 207 patients were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, after attempting suicide. Information on physical, mental and social conditions was collected. The patients were then followed for 5 years, to register subsequent suicidal...

  7. Attempted suicide in Denmark. IV. A five-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Brille-Brahe, U; Nielsen, B

    1990-01-01

    From October 1, 1980 to April 20, 1981, 207 patients were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, after attempting suicide. Information on physical, mental and social conditions was collected. The patients were then followed for 5 years, to register subsequent suicidal...... behaviour and to try to identify relevant factors for evaluation of future suicide risk. During the follow-up period 11.6% of the attempters committed suicide, the majority within the first year after the index attempt. Seventy-five percent of the suicides were committed less than 6 months after the last...... contact with the psychiatric ward. Predictors for future suicide were chronic somatic disease, depression, abuse of medicine, and chronic alcohol abuse. The authors emphasize the need for a thorough medical evaluation of patients attempting suicide, to be able to identify and eventually treat...

  8. Duration of suicide process among suicide attempters and characteristics of those providing window of opportunity for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Sarkar, Siddharth; Menon, Vikas; Muthuramalingam, Avin; Nancy, Premkumar

    2016-01-01

    There is limited cross-cultural literature on the duration of suicide process among attempters. The primary aim was to assess the duration of suicide process among suicide attempters attending the Crisis Intervention Clinic. We also aimed to identify the characteristics of those who reported a longer duration for this process. In this retrospective record-based study, we collected the duration of the suicidal process from the records of all the suicide attempters evaluated over a 3-year period (n = 319). Attempters were divided into four groups based on the quartile value of the duration of the suicidal process. For analysis, the characteristics of those in the last quartile with suicide process time of >120 min (n = 75) were compared with those in the first three (n = 244). Those in the last quartile were considered to provide a window of opportunity for intervention. The median time for the suicidal process was 30 min (interquartile range of 5 min to 120 min). Seventy-five (23.5%) subjects belonged to the fourth quartile (duration of suicide process >120 min). A significant proportion of them came from urban areas (P = 0.011), had a diagnosis of mood disorder (P = 0.028), had visited a health professional in the recent past (P = 0.015), and had lower rates of attempt under intoxication (P = 0.005). A lesser proportion of them showed problem-focused disengagement style of coping strategy (P = 0.015). The suicide process time among Indian suicide attempters is short. However, a quarter of them has suicide process duration of 2 h which provides some scope for intervention. Individual and community level interventions need further evaluation for their potential efficacy in preventing the progress of the suicidal process.

  9. Parental Self-Efficacy to Support Teens During a Suicidal Crisis and Future Adolescent Emergency Department Visits and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Ewa K; Horwitz, Adam G; Yeguez, Carlos E; Ewell Foster, Cynthia J; King, Cheryl A

    2017-07-17

    This study of adolescents seeking emergency department (ED) services and their parents examined parents' self-efficacy beliefs to engage in suicide prevention activities, whether these beliefs varied based on teens' characteristics, and the extent to which they were associated with adolescents' suicide-related outcomes. Participants included 162 adolescents (57% female, 81.5% Caucasian), ages 13-17, and their parents. At index visit, parents rated their self-efficacy to engage in suicide prevention activities and their expectations regarding their teen's future suicide risk. Adolescents' ED visits for suicide-related concerns and suicide attempts were assessed 4 months later. Parents endorsed high self-efficacy to engage in most suicide prevention activities. At the same time, they endorsed considerable doubt in being able to keep their child safe if the teen has thoughts of suicide and in their child not attempting suicide in the future. Parents whose teens experienced follow-up suicide-related outcomes endorsed, at clinically meaningful effect sizes, lower self-efficacy for recognizing suicide warning signs, for obtaining the teen's commitment to refrain from suicide, and for encouraging their teen to cope, as well as lower confidence that their teen will not attempt suicide; self-efficacy to recognize warning signs was at trend level. Despite endorsing high self-efficacy for the majority of suicide prevention activities, parents of high-risk teens expressed less confidence in their capacity to influence their teen's suicidal behavior, which could undermine parents' effort to implement these strategies. The relationship between parental self-efficacy and youth suicide-related outcomes points to its potential value in guiding clinical decision making and interventions.

  10. The investigation of factors related to suicide attempts in Southeastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Ibiloglu A

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu, Abdullah Atli, Suleyman Demir, Mehmet Gunes, Mehmet Cemal Kaya, Mahmut Bulut, Aytekin Sir Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey Background: Suicide is an important health problem in Turkey as it is in all regions of the world. Suicidal behavior has multiple causes, which are broadly divided into those related to proximal stressors and those due to predisposition. Suicide statistics may be associated with mental health disorders, which are among the foremost predictors of suicide attempts. More than 90% of patients who commit suicide have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder, usually a major depressive disorder. Other major risk factors for suicide attempts are history of suicide attempts in the family, stressful life events, sleep disturbances, poor income, unemployment, severity of symptoms of depression, and anxiety. Sleep is a complex phenomenon. Sleep disturbances can therefore be contributed to the emergence of suicidal behavior allowing for the possibility of predicting future suicides. Methods: We evaluated 106 patients who were admitted after suicide attempts to the Department of Psychiatry at Dicle University Faculty of Medicine. The recruited subjects were assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, and the intensity of symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The mean values of the subjects attempting multiple and single suicides were compared using appropriate inferential statistical tests. Results: Most suicide attempts are believed to be preventable. Our results revealed that a great variety of risk factors are associated with an increased risk for multiple suicide attempts. Most of these attempts appeared to be spontaneous and impulsive rather than planned. In particular, this study highlights the importance of previous suicide attempts, history of

  11. Lifetime trauma and suicide attempts in people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret

    2014-08-01

    We examined associations among six forms of common lifetime traumatic/adverse events and lifetime suicide attempts while controlling for gender, psychiatric symptoms, self-injury, and substance use in 371 community mental health clients with severe mental illness. Most clients (88.1%) reported at least one traumatic event, and more than half had attempted suicide at least once. Regression revealed that three factors were significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempts: lifetime self-injurious behaviors, lifetime physical abuse, and alcohol use. Having been physically abused appears to be uniquely associated with lifetime suicide attempts when other key risk factors are controlled. Limitations include the cross-sectional design.

  12. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students...

  13. Impulsive aggression, delay discounting, and adolescent suicide attempts: effects of current psychotropic medication use and family history of suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Reynolds, Brady; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Sheftall, Arielle H; Ackerman, John; Stevens, Jack; Mendoza, Kristen; Campo, John V; Brent, David A

    2015-03-01

    Impulsive-aggressive behaviors have been consistently implicated in the phenomenology, neurobiology, and familial aggregation of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to extend previous work by examining laboratory behavioral measures of delayed reward impulsivity and impulsive aggression in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDQ), the authors examined delay discounting and impulsive aggression in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13-18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Overall, suicide attempters and comparison subjects performed similarly on the PSAP and DDQ. There was a significant group by current psychotropic medication use interaction (p=0.013) for mean aggressive responses on the PSAP. Group comparisons revealed that attempters emitted more aggressive responses per provocation than comparison subjects, only in those not on psychotropic medication (p=0.049), whereas for those currently treated with psychotropic medication, there were no group differences (p>0.05). This interaction effect was specific to current antidepressant use. Among all subjects, family history of suicidal behavior (suicide or suicide attempt) in first degree relatives was significantly correlated with both delay discounting (r=-0.22, p=0.049), and aggressive responding (r=0.27, p=0.015). Family history of suicidal behavior was associated with delay discounting, but not with aggressive responding on the PSAP, after controlling for relevant covariates. In this study, impulsive-aggressive responding was associated with suicide attempt only in those not being treated with antidepressants. Future work to replicate and extend these findings could have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of depressed suicide attempters, many of whom are affected by impulsive aggression.

  14. Hopelessness Predicts Suicide Ideation But Not Attempts: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tianyou; Klonsky, E David; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-12-01

    Hopelessness is one of the most commonly cited risk factors for suicidal behaviors. However, several retrospective studies suggest that hopelessness, while strongly correlated with suicide ideation, does not distinguish attempters from ideators without attempts. This study is the first to utilize a prospective design to disambiguate the relationship of hopelessness to ideation versus attempts. Participants were 142 depressed patients followed up over 10 years. Hopelessness and suicidality (ideation and attempts) were assessed using validated questionnaires and structured interviews. Both retrospective and prospective analyses revealed that hopelessness was higher among those reporting any suicidality (ideation or attempts) compared with nonsuicidal individuals. However, hopelessness failed to meaningfully distinguish attempters from ideators in both retrospective and prospective analyses. Taken together with results from previous studies, our findings suggest hopelessness is best conceptualized as a risk factor for suicide ideation but not progression from ideation to attempts. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  15. Sleep problems and suicide attempts among adolescents: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyawala, Neel; Stevens, Jack; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Cannon, Elizabeth A; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    This study used a case-control design to compare sleep disturbances in 40 adolescents who attempted suicide with 40 never-suicidal adolescents. Using hierarchical logistic regression analyses, we found that self-reported nighttime awakenings were significantly associated with attempted suicide, after controlling for antidepressant use, antipsychotic use, affective problems, and being bullied. In a separate regression analysis, the parent-reported total sleep problems score also predicted suicide attempt status, controlling for key covariates. No associations were found between suicide attempts and other distinct sleep problems, including falling asleep at bedtime, sleeping a lot during the day, trouble waking up in the morning, sleep duration, and parent-reported nightmares. Clinicians should be aware of sleep problems as potential risk factors for suicide attempts for adolescents.

  16. Suicide Attempts Among Individuals With Specific Learning Disorders: An Underrecognized Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Carroll, Samara Z; Yang, Wook

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have linked specific learning disorders (SLDs) with suicidal ideation, but less is known about the disorders' association with suicide attempts. This gap in the literature is addressed via the 2012 nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey ( n = 21,744). The prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts among those with an SLD was much higher than those without (11.1% vs. 2.7%, p attempted suicide, even after adjusting for most known risk factors (e.g., childhood adversities, history of mental illness and substance abuse, sociodemographics; odds ratio = 1.46, 95% CI [1.05, 2.04]). The largest attenuation in the association between SLD and suicidal attempts was accounted for by adverse childhood experiences. Among those with SLDs ( n = 745), a history of witnessing chronic parental domestic violence and ever having had a major depressive disorder were associated with substantially higher odds of suicide attempts.

  17. Prognosis after Adolescent Suicide Attempt: Mental Health, Psychiatric Treatment, and Suicide Attempts in a Nine-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health and suicidal behavior was examined 8 to 10 years after an adolescent suicide attempt. Of 71 persons, 79% had at least one psychiatric disorder (mean 1.7) at follow-up, most commonly depression (46%), personality disorder (46%), and anxiety disorder (42%). The stability of diagnoses was moderate. The suicide…

  18. The risk of depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, J J; Penfold, R B; Primatesta, P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sparse information is available concerning mental health issues in psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. OBJECTIVE: To estimate risk of depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in patients with psoriasis, PsA and AS, respectively......, compared with the general population. METHODS: This population-based cohort study analysed 36 214 psoriasis patients, 5138 PsA patients and 1878 AS patients who were frequency-matched with a general population cohort. Annual incidence rate of depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was calculated...... separately for psoriasis, PsA and AS. RESULTS: There was an increased risk of depression in the three cohorts; adjusted IRR: psoriasis, 1.14 (95% CI, 1.11, 1.17); PsA, 1.22 (95% CI, 1.16, 1.29); AS, 1.34 (95% CI, 1.23, 1.47). There was no significantly increased risk for suicidal ideations or suicide attempt...

  19. Prevalence of Suicide Attempts among College Students in China: A Meta-Analysis: e0116303

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin-Sheng Yang; Zhi-Hua Zhang; Liang Sun; Ye-Huan Sun; Dong-Qing Ye

    2015-01-01

      Background Suicide is the leading cause of death among 15-34 year olds in China, but no national data are available on the suicide and suicide attempts rates of college students, a sub-group of youth with 23 million...

  20. Risk factors for repeated suicidal attempts: a 6 –year retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Among patients who have attempted suicide, the risk of later suicide is much increased and mortality due to suicide has continued to increase over the years both in developed and developing countries. Few studies in this environment have looked at the risk factors and psychiatric morbidity among patients with ...

  1. Personality Correlates of People Who Have Attempted Suicide and Those Who Have Seriously Considered It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Sarah; Chrisler, Joan C.

    Depression and low self-esteem are commonly considered to be at the root of suicidal ideation. Previous research has examined the correlations between a lack of purpose in life and depression, low self-esteem, substance abuse and suicidal thoughts. This study investigated personality differences among student groups who have attempted suicide.…

  2. The relationship between therapeutic alliance and patient's suicidal thoughts, self-harming behaviours and suicide attempts: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunster-Page, Charlotte; Haddock, Gillian; Wainwright, Laura; Berry, Katherine

    2017-12-01

    Suicidality is a common concern for people with mental health problems. The interpersonal nature of suicidality suggests that therapeutic alliance may be important when working clinically with suicidal patients. This paper is a systematic review of studies investigating the association between alliance and treatment outcome relating to suicidal ideation and behaviours. Systematic searches of PsychINFO, MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, Web of Science and CINAHL were completed using words that captured the concepts of alliance and suicidality. Eligible studies: involved participants aged 18-years-old or over; used a validated measure of therapeutic alliance; and reported associations between alliance and suicidality. Abstracts, qualitative studies and articles not written in English were excluded. Twelve studies were included. Findings indicated that alliance is associated with suicidality. Alliance was related to suicidality in eleven of the papers. Self-harming behaviours had the strongest association with patient-rated alliance. Suicide attempts had the weakest association, possibly due to the infrequency of suicide attempts in the studies reviewed. The twelve studies were heterogeneous in terms of the measure of alliance used, method of assessing suicidality, clinical setting and professional-type. This variability limited the degree to which findings could be synthesised. Therapists, care-coordinators and mental health teams should recognise the importance of building a strong therapeutic alliance with suicidal patients. Researchers should use consistent methods of measuring alliance and assessing suicidality in future studies. Clinicians and researchers should note that suicidal thoughts, self-harm and suicide attempts may be related to alliance in different ways and therefore should be assessed as separate constructs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Risk of Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Iranian Women with Psychiatric Disorders as Quantified by the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shakeri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed. Methods: Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R. Results: About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%. However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320. Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively. Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001. Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004. Conclusion: About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts.

  4. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among adults with psychotic experiences: data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVylder, Jordan E; Lukens, Ellen P; Link, Bruce G; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death, especially among individuals with psychotic disorders, and may also be common among nonclinical populations of adults with subthreshold psychotic experiences. Understanding this association has the potential to critically bolster suicide prevention efforts. To examine the association between 12-month suicidality and 12-month psychotic experiences and to test the hypotheses that psychotic experiences are associated with increased prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts during the concurrent period and with greater severity of suicidal behavior. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from a large general population-based sample of households in the United States identified through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (2001-2003). Adult household residents (n = 11,716) were selected using a clustered multistage sampling design with oversampling of racial/ethnic minority groups. Logistic regression models were adjusted for potential demographic confounders and co-occurring DSM-IV mental health conditions. Twelve-month psychotic experiences assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0 psychosis screen. Twelve-month suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Respondents reporting psychotic experiences were more likely to report concurrent suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR], 5.24; 95% CI, 2.85-9.62) and suicide attempts (OR, 9.48; 95% CI, 3.98-22.62). Most respondents with psychotic experiences (mean [SE], 65.2% [4.2%]) met criteria for a DSM-IV depressive, anxiety, or substance use disorder. Among respondents with suicidal ideation, those with psychotic experiences were likely to make an attempt during the concurrent 12-month period (OR, 3.49; 95% CI, 1.05-11.58) when adjusting for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In contrast, depressive (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 0.62-4.52), anxiety (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.40-6.09), and substance use disorders (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 0

  5. Prevalence and risk factors associated with suicide ideation and attempts in korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Seok; Kim, Sukil; Choi, Inyoung; Lee, Kyuong-Uk

    2008-06-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death in college age students. Identification of the associated risk factors has important implications for how to prevent and respond to this population; however, few studies have been performed on this topic in this age group. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with suicide ideation and attempts in college students. Three hundred sixty-eight college students participated in this cross-sectional observational study. The recent (over two weeks) suicide ideation and lifetime suicide attempts were defined according to Moscicki's suicide behavior index. Sociodemographic variables were assessed and psychopathology measured using the Beck Depression Inventory, the Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. A hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the significant risk factors related to suicide ideation and attempts. The two-week prevalence of suicidal ideation was 9.8%, and the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was 3.3%. The univariate analysis showed that students who had more severe depression (pacademic achievement (pdepression (pdepression, probability for bipolar disorder and academic achievement, and the risks identified for suicide attempts were socioeconomic status and probability of bipolar disorder. Suicide ideation and attempts were common in college students. The results of this study suggest that early identification and management of mood disorders and other sociodemographic risk factors may have implications for intervention and prevention.

  6. Suicidal ideation and attempts in patients with stroke: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Ho; Kim, Jung Bin; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-10-01

    Stroke is known to be associated with an increase in the risk for suicide. However, there are very few population-based studies investigating the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts in patients with stroke. The purpose of this study was to compare the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts between patients with stroke and population without stroke using nationwide survey data. Individual-level data were obtained from 228,735 participants (4560 with stroke and 224,175 without stroke) of the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey. Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, physical health status, and mental health status were compared between patients with stroke and population without stroke. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate the independent effects of the stroke on suicidal ideation and attempts. Stroke patients had more depressive mood (12.6 %) than population without stroke (5.7 %, p suicidal ideation (24.4 %) and attempts (1.3 %) than population without stroke (9.8 and 0.4 %, respectively; both p suicidal ideation (OR 1.65, 95 % CI 1.52-1.79) and suicidal attempts (OR 1.64, 95 % CI 1.21-2.22), adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic factors, and physical health and mental health factors. We found that stroke increased the risk for suicidal ideation and attempts, independent of other factors that are known to be associated with suicidality, suggesting that stroke per se may be an independent risk factor for suicidality.

  7. Stressful life events, hopelessness, and coping strategies among impulsive suicide attempters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Kattimani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicides are among the most important causes of death in the economically productive population. Characteristics of impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters may differ which would have a bearing on planning preventive measures. Aims: This study aimed to characterize the clinical and psychological profile of impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters. Settings and Design: This retrospective comprehensive chart-based study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods: The study utilized records of patients over a period of 3 years. An attempt was considered impulsive if the time between suicidal idea and the attempt was <30 min. Stressful life events were assessed using presumptive stressful life events scale; hopelessness was evaluated using Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS and coping was measured using Coping Strategies Inventory Short Form. Statistical Analysis Used: Impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters were compared using appropriate inferential statistical tests. Results: Of 316 patients, 151 were classified as having an impulsive suicidal attempt (47.8% of the sample. The impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters did not differ on demographic characteristics. Use of natural plant products was more common in impulsive attempters (27.2% vs. 12.7%, while physical methods like hanging was less common (0.7% vs. 7.3%. Those with an impulsive attempt were more likely to have a recent contact with a health professional (24.5% vs. 4.5%. Impulsive suicide attempters had higher scores on BHS (Mann-Whitney U = 7680.5, P < 0.001, and had recollected greater number of stressors. Conclusion: Impulsive suicide attempters differ from nonimpulsive suicide attempters in clinical features like methods of attempt, presence of hopelessness, and stressors.

  8. A longitudinal study of predictors of suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Liu, Richard T

    2013-04-01

    This short-term prospective study examined general and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-specific risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in an ethnically diverse sample of LGBT youth (N = 237, 47.7 % male). A structured psychiatric interview assessed clinical depression and conduct disorder symptoms, as well as past and prospective suicide attempts over a 1-year follow-up period (91 % retention). Participants completed questionnaires measuring general risk factors for suicide attempts, including hopelessness, impulsiveness, and perceived social support. They also completed measures of LGBT-specific suicide risk factors, including gender nonconformity, age of first same-sex attraction, and LGBT victimization. Correlation and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine the relations between predictors and suicide attempt, and to identify mediators. Of nine variables examined, seven were related to lifetime history of attempted suicide: hopelessness, depression symptoms, conduct disorder symptoms, impulsivity, victimization, age of first same-sex attraction, and low family support. Depressive symptoms and hopelessness mediated the relation between multiple risk and resilience factors and suicide attempts. Suicide attempt history was the strongest predictor of prospective suicide attempts. Participants who previously attempted suicide (31.6 % of the sample) had more than 10 times greater odds of making another attempt in the 1-year follow-up period than were those who had made no previous attempt. These results highlight the need for suicide prevention programs for LGBT youth and suggest the importance of addressing depression and hopelessness as proximal determinants and family support and victimization, which have more distal effects.

  9. Suicide Attempts in a Longitudinal Sample of Adolescents Followed Through Adulthood: Evidence of Escalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, David B.; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Heilbron, Nicole; Doyle, Otima; Weller, Bridget; Sapyta, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to examine escalation in repeat suicide attempts from adolescence through adulthood, as predicted by sensitization models (and reflected in increasing intent and lethality with repeat attempts, decreasing amount of time between attempts, and decreasing stress to trigger attempts) Method In a prospective study of 180 adolescents followed through adulthood after a psychiatric hospitalization, suicide attempts and antecedent life events were repeatedly assessed (M = 12.6 assessments, SD = 5.1) over an average of 13 years, 6 months (SD = 4 years, 5 months). Multivariate logistic, multiple linear, and negative binomial regression models were used to examine patterns over time. Results After age 17-18, the majority of suicide attempts were repeat attempts (i.e., made by individuals with prior suicidal behavior). Intent increased both with increasing age, and with number of prior attempts. Medical lethality increased as a function of age but not recurrent attempts. The time between successive suicide attempts decreased as a function of number of attempts. The amount of precipitating life stress was not related to attempts. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults show evidence of escalation of recurrent suicidal behavior, with increasing suicidal intent and decreasing time between successive attempts. However, evidence that sensitization processes account for this escalation was inconclusive. Effective prevention programs that reduce the likelihood of individuals attempting suicide for the first time (and entering this cycle of escalation), and relapse prevention interventions that interrupt the cycle of escalating suicidal behavior among individuals who already have made attempts are critically needed. PMID:25622200

  10. Suicide attempts in a longitudinal sample of adolescents followed through adulthood: Evidence of escalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, David B; Daniel, Stephanie S; Erkanli, Alaattin; Heilbron, Nicole; Doyle, Otima; Weller, Bridget; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Mayfield, Andrew; Faulkner, Madelaine

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to examine escalation in repeat suicide attempts from adolescence through adulthood, as predicted by sensitization models (and reflected in increasing intent and lethality with repeat attempts, decreasing amount of time between attempts, and decreasing stress to trigger attempts). In a prospective study of 180 adolescents followed through adulthood after a psychiatric hospitalization, suicide attempts, and antecedent life events were repeatedly assessed (M = 12.6 assessments, SD = 5.1) over an average of 13 years 6 months (SD = 4 years 5 months). Multivariate logistic, multiple linear, and negative binomial regression models were used to examine patterns over time. After age 17-18, the majority of suicide attempts were repeat attempts (i.e., made by individuals with prior suicidal behavior). Intent increased both with increasing age, and with number of prior attempts. Medical lethality increased as a function of age but not recurrent attempts. The time between successive suicide attempts decreased as a function of number of attempts. The amount of precipitating life stress was not related to attempts. Adolescents and young adults show evidence of escalation of recurrent suicidal behavior, with increasing suicidal intent and decreasing time between successive attempts. However, evidence that sensitization processes account for this escalation was inconclusive. Effective prevention programs that reduce the likelihood of individuals attempting suicide for the first time (and entering this cycle of escalation), and relapse prevention interventions that interrupt the cycle of escalating suicidal behavior among individuals who already have made attempts are critically needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A population-based longitudinal study of risk factors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, James M; Pagura, Jina; Enns, Murray W; Grant, Bridget; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-10-01

    No longitudinal study has examined risk factors for future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to investigate baseline sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, specific depressive symptoms, and previous suicidal behavior as potential risk factors for suicide attempts at 3 years follow-up. Data came from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC), a large nationally representative longitudinal survey of mental illness in adults [Wave 1 (2001-2002); Wave 2 (2004-2005) n=34,653]. Logistic regression examined associations between risk factors present at Wave 1 and suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=169) among individuals with major depressive disorder at baseline assessment (n=6004). Risk factors for incident suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=63) were identified among those with major depressive disorder at Wave 1 and no lifetime history of suicide attempts (n=5170). Results revealed specific comorbid anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders to be associated with incident suicide attempts at Wave 2. Comorbid borderline personality disorder was strongly associated with suicide attempts in all models. Several comorbid disorders were strongly associated with suicide attempts at Wave 2 even after adjusting for previous suicidal behavior, notably posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.27-3.83) and dependent personality disorder (AOR=4.43; 95% CI 1.93-10.18). These findings suggest that mental illness comorbidity confers an increased risk of future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder that is not solely accounted for by past suicidal behavior.

  12. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Torres Portugal Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words “bipolar disorder,” “suicide attempts,” “cannabis,” “marijuana,” “early age at onset,” and “early onset.” Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6–42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5–60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15–42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear.

  13. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Rafaela Torres Portugal; Nogueira, Sarah de Oliveira; do Nascimento, João Paulo Rodrigues; de Lima, Laisa Soares; da Nóbrega, Taís Bastos; Virgínio, Mariana da Silva; Moreno, Lucas Monte da Costa; Sampaio, Bruno Henrique Barbosa; de Matos E Souza, Fábio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD) implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO) of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words "bipolar disorder," "suicide attempts," "cannabis," "marijuana," "early age at onset," and "early onset." Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6-42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5-60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15-42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD) was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear.

  14. Prediction by data mining, of suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: a national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae SM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sung Man Bae,1 Seung A Lee,2 Seung-Hwan Lee2,3 1Department of Counseling Psychology, The Cyber University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 2Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Objective: This study aimed to develop a prediction model for suicide attempts in Korean adolescents.Methods: We conducted a decision tree analysis of 2,754 middle and high school students nationwide. We fixed suicide attempt as the dependent variable and eleven sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and extrapersonal variables as independent variables.Results: The rate of suicide attempts of the total sample was 9.5%, and severity of depression was the strongest variable to predict suicide attempt. The rates of suicide attempts in the depression and potential depression groups were 5.4 and 2.8 times higher than that of the non-depression group. In the depression group, the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt was delinquency, and the rate of suicide attempts in those in the depression group with higher delinquency was two times higher than in those in the depression group with lower delinquency. Of special note, the rate of suicide attempts in the depressed females with higher delinquency was the highest. Interestingly, in the potential depression group, the most impactful factor to predict a suicide attempt was intimacy with family, and the rate of suicide attempts of those in the potential depression group with lower intimacy with family was 2.4 times higher than that of those in the potential depression group with higher intimacy with family. And, among the potential depression group, middle school students with lower intimacy with family had a 2.5-times higher rate of suicide attempts than high school students with lower intimacy with family. Finally, in the non-depression group, stress level was the most powerful factor to

  15. Risk and protective factors that distinguish adolescents who attempt suicide from those who only consider suicide in the past year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J

    2014-02-01

    Data from the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey was analyzed to identify risk and protective factors that distinguished adolescents across three groups: no suicidality, suicidal ideation only, and suicide attempt. The population-based sample included 70,022 students in grades 9 and 12. Hopelessness and depressive symptoms emerged as important risk factors to distinguish youth who reported suicidal ideation or behavior from those without a history of suicidality. However, these factors were not as important in differentiating adolescents who attempted suicidal from those who considered suicide but did not act on their thoughts. Instead, for both genders, self-injury represented the most important factor to distinguish these youth. Other risk factors that differentiated the latter groups, but not the former groups, for males were dating violence victimization and cigarette smoking, and for females was a same-sex sexual experience. Running away from home also seemed to increase the risk of a suicide attempt among youth in this study. Parent connectedness and academic achievement emerged as important protective factors to differentiate all the groups, yet neighborhood safety appeared to protect against the transition from suicidal thoughts to behavior. Findings from this study suggest risk and protective factors practitioners should target in clinical assessments and intervention programs to help prevent suicidal behavior among youth at greatest risk. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  16. Temperament, character, and suicide attempts in unipolar and bipolar mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jylhä, Pekka J; Rosenström, Tom; Mantere, Outi; Suominen, Kirsi; Melartin, Tarja K; Vuorilehto, Maria S; Holma, Mikael K; Riihimäki, Kirsi A; Oquendo, Maria A; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Isometsä, Erkki T

    2016-02-01

    Personality features may indicate risk for both mood disorders and suicidal acts. How dimensions of temperament and character predispose to suicide attempts remains unclear. Patients (n = 597) from 3 prospective cohort studies (Vantaa Depression Study [VDS], Jorvi Bipolar Study [JoBS], and Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study [PC-VDS]) were interviewed at baseline, at 18 months, and, in VDS and PC-VDS, at 5 years (1997-2003). Personality was measured with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), and follow-up time spent in major depressive episodes (MDEs) as well as lifetime (total) and prospectively ascertained suicide attempts during the follow-up were documented. Overall, 219 patients had 718 lifetime suicide attempts; 88 patients had 242 suicide attempts during the prospective follow-up. The numbers of both the total and prospective suicide attempts were associated with low self-directedness (β = -0.266, P = .004, and β = -0.294, P attempts were linked to high novelty seeking (β = 0.195, P = .05). Prospective, but not total, suicide attempts were associated with high harm avoidance (β = 0.322, P attempts during MDEs were included. After adjustment was made for total time spent in MDEs, only high persistence predicted suicide attempts (β = 0.190, P attempts indicated significant mediated effect through time at risk in MDEs, but no significant direct effect. Among mood disorder patients, suicide attempt risk is associated with temperament and character dimensions. However, their influence on predisposition to suicide attempts is likely to be mainly indirect, mediated by more time spent in depressive episodes. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  17. Attempted suicide among transgender persons: The influence of gender-based discrimination and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Marx, Rani; Katz, Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    To determine the independent predictors of attempted suicide among transgender persons we interviewed 392 male-to-female (MTF) and 123 female-to-male (FTM) individuals. Participants were recruited through targeted sampling, respondent-driven sampling, and agency referrals in San Francisco. The prevalence of attempted suicide was 32% (95% CI = 28% to 36%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis younger age (history of substance abuse treatment, a history of forced sex, gender-based discrimination, and gender-based victimization were independently associated with attempted suicide. Suicide prevention interventions for transgender persons are urgently needed, particularly for young people. Medical, mental health, and social service providers should address depression, substance abuse, and forced sex in an attempt to reduce suicidal behaviors among transgender persons. In addition, increasing societal acceptance of the transgender community and decreasing gender-based prejudice may help prevent suicide in this highly stigmatized population.

  18. Correlates of suicide ideation and attempts in children and adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan; Mahr, Fauzia; Aggarwal, Richa; Arnold, Mariah

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study determining correlates of suicide behavior in children with eating disorders using multiple sleep, psychological, and demographic variables. Mothers rated suicide ideation and attempts in 90 children ages 7-18 with bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosa. Suicide ideation was more prevalent in children with bulimia nervosa (43%) than children with anorexia nervosa (20%). All children with bulimia nervosa who experienced ideation attempted suicide, whereas only 3% of children with anorexia nervosa attempted suicide. Correlates of ideation were externalizing behavior problems and sleep disturbances. Correlates of attempts were bulimia nervosa, self-induced vomiting, nightmares, and physical or sexual abuse. These problems should be assessed and targeted for intervention because of their association with suicide behavior.

  19. Preventing repetition of attempted suicide-II. The Amager Project, a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Marianne; Vangborg, Kerstin; Sørensen, Holger J

    2010-01-01

    Repetition after attempted suicide is high but only few effect studies have been carried out. The Baerum Model from Norway offers practical and affordable intervention for those not being offered psychiatric treatment. During a period from 2005-2007, all attempted suicide patients except those...... was 6 months. After this intervention period, all patients were followed passively for an extra 6 months. The design was an intent-to-treat one. The outcomes were: 1) repetition of attempted suicide or suicide, and 2) total number of suicidal acts. A total of 200 patients were offered participation, 67...... refused. Of the 133 participants, 69 were randomized to the OPAC programme and 64 to the (non-intervention) control group. Four in each group dropped out after initial participation. There was a significant lower proportion who repeated a suicide attempt the intervention group (proportion 8.7%) than...

  20. Suicide Attempts and Deaths in Sofala, Mozambique, From 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Bradley H; Raunig-Berhó, Manuela; Cumbe, Vasco; Rao, Deepa; Napúa, Manuel; Sherr, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    Mozambique was recently estimated to have the highest suicide rate in Africa. To fill a knowledge gap on suicide attempts and deaths in Mozambique. We reviewed a census of 898 emergency psychiatric consultations from March 2013 to July 2014 and 1,173 violent death autopsy records from June 2011 to August 2014 at Beira Central Hospital in Sofala, Mozambique. In all, 18.0% of emergency psychiatric consultations were suicide attempts. Females were disproportionately represented (68.3%, p attempts, followed by unspecified methods (19.8%), and unspecified poisoning (6.8%). Of the violent death autopsies, 10% were suicides. Suicide deaths were more likely to be male (67.3%, p attempts, but deaths due to suicide are more frequent among males. Females more often use toxic substances, whereas males more often use lethal methods, such as hanging. Policies to reduce the availability or toxicity of rat poison should be considered.

  1. SELF-RATED EXPECTATIONS OF SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR PREDICT FUTURE SUICIDE ATTEMPTS AMONG ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT PSYCHIATRIC EMERGENCY PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Ewa K; Horwitz, Adam G; King, Cheryl A

    2016-06-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the predictive validity and clinical utility of a brief measure assessing youths' own expectations of their future risk of suicidal behavior, administered in a psychiatric emergency (PE) department; and determine if youths' ratings improve upon a clinician-administered assessment of suicidal ideation severity. The outcome was suicide attempts up to 18 months later. In this medical record review study, 340 consecutively presenting youths (ages 13-24) seeking PE services over a 7-month period were included. Subsequent PE visits and suicide attempts were retrospectively tracked for up to 18 months. The 3-item scale assessing patients' perception of their own suicidal behavior risk and the clinician-administered ideation severity scale were used routinely at the study site. Cox regression results showed that youths' expectations of suicidal behavior were independently associated with increased risk of suicide attempts, even after adjusting for key covariates. Results were not moderated by sex, suicide attempt history, or age. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses indicated that self-assessed expectations of risk improved the predictive accuracy of the clinician-administered suicidal ideation measure. Youths' ratings indicative of lower confidence in maintaining safety uniquely predicted follow-up attempts and provided incremental validity over and above the clinician-administered assessment and improved its accuracy, suggesting their potential for augmenting suicide risk formulation. Assessing youths' own perceptions of suicide risk appears to be clinically useful, feasible to implement in PE settings, and, if replicated, promising for improving identification of youth at risk for suicidal behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide: meta-analyses and meta-regression of correlates of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo; H Moreno, Doris; Turecki, Gustavo; Reis, Catherine; Cassidy, Frederick; Sinyor, Mark; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Ha, Kyooseob; Goldstein, Tina; Weizman, Abraham; Beautrais, Annette; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Diazgranados, Nancy; Levitt, Anthony J; Zarate, Carlos A; Rihmer, Zoltán; Yatham, Lakshmi N

    2015-02-01

    Bipolar disorder is associated with a high risk of suicide attempts and suicide death. The main objective of the present study was to identify and quantify the demographic and clinical correlates of attempted and completed suicide in people with bipolar disorder. Within the framework of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide, a systematic review of articles published since 1980, characterized by the key terms bipolar disorder and 'suicide attempts' or 'suicide', was conducted, and data extracted for analysis from all eligible articles. Demographic and clinical variables for which ≥ 3 studies with usable data were available were meta-analyzed using fixed or random-effects models for association with suicide attempts and suicide deaths. There was considerable heterogeneity in the methods employed by the included studies. Variables significantly associated with suicide attempts were: female gender, younger age at illness onset, depressive polarity of first illness episode, depressive polarity of current or most recent episode, comorbid anxiety disorder, any comorbid substance use disorder, alcohol use disorder, any illicit substance use, comorbid cluster B/borderline personality disorder, and first-degree family history of suicide. Suicide deaths were significantly associated with male gender and first-degree family history of suicide. This paper reports on the presence and magnitude of the correlates of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in bipolar disorder. These findings do not address causation, and the heterogeneity of data sources should limit the direct clinical ranking of correlates. Our results nonetheless support the notion of incorporating diagnosis-specific data in the development of models of understanding suicide in bipolar disorder. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Impulsive suicide attempts: a systematic literature review of definitions, characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkeviciene, Jurgita; O'Gorman, John; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-15

    Extensive research on impulsive suicide attempts, but lack of agreement on the use of this term indicates the need for a systematic literature review of the area. The aim of this review was to examine definitions and likely correlates of impulsive attempts. A search of Medline, Psychinfo, Scopus, Proquest and Web of Knowledge databases was conducted. Additional articles were identified using the cross-referencing function of Google Scholar. 179 relevant papers were identified. Four different groups of research criteria used to assess suicide attempt impulsivity emerged: (a) time-related criteria, (b) absence of proximal planning/preparations, (c) presence of suicide plan in lifetime/previous year, and (d) other. Subsequent analysis used these criteria to compare results from different studies on 20 most researched hypotheses. Conclusions regarding the characteristics of impulsive attempts are more consistent than those on the risk factors specific to such attempts. No risk factors were identified that uniformly related to suicide attempt impulsivity across all criteria groups, but relationships emerged between separate criteria and specific characteristics of suicide attempters. Only published articles were included. Large inconsistencies in methods of the studies included in this review prevented comparison of effect sizes. The vast disparities in findings on risk factors for impulsive suicide attempts among different criteria groups suggest the need to address the methodological issues in defining suicide attempt impulsivity before further research into correlates of such attempts can effectively progress. Specific recommendations are offered for necessary research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Suicide attempts and threats on one college campus: policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilman, P W; Pattis, J A; Kraus-Zeilmann, D

    1994-01-01

    Because of a university policy requiring a mental health evaluation of every student who is cause for worry with respect to his or her own safety, the counseling center at the College of William and Mary has been able to examine almost all situations in which students are suicidal or thought to be suicidal. Over the course of 1 calendar year, counseling center clinicians recorded data on every case of students who attempted or threatened suicide or were otherwise of concern to residence life staff or faculty or administrators because of a perceived potential for suicidality. Sixty such situations, including 11 suicide attempts and 14 threats, arose. No completed suicides were recorded. The rate of suicide attempts was 14.5 per 10,000 students, and the rate of suicide threats was 18.4 per 10,000 students, a total of 32.9 cases per 10,000 students. Findings by race, gender, and class are outlined, although low base rates did not yield adequate statistical power to make comparisons practical within these groupings. The most prevalent risk factor found in suicide attempters was work or school failure; for suicide threateners, it was difficulty in a relationship; and for those found to be nonsuicidal, the major problem was social isolation. Follow-up therapy was the most frequently used intervention for attempts and threats, whereas instructions for using the emergency on-call system was the most used option in the otherwise worrisome cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. How to Talk to a Preschool Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to Talk to a Preschool Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to inform and guide adults when talking with a ... to go to the hospital.”) Talking to your preschool age child after a suicide attempt in the ...

  6. Toward an Integrative Model of Suicide Attempt: A Cognitive Psychological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieserud, Gudrun; Roysamb, Espen; Ekeberg, Oivind; Kraft, Pal

    2001-01-01

    Applying a cognitive approach, this study expanded previous research on stress vulnerability models of depression and problem solving deficits, as it relates to suicide attempt. Results indicated a two path model of suicide attempt. The importance of addressing both depression/hopelessness, and problem solving deficits when working with suicide…

  7. Emotional Antecedents and Consequences of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Alexander L.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.

    2007-01-01

    Emotional experiences immediately prior to (emotional antecedents) and following (emotional consequences) deliberate self-harm and suicide attempts in female inmates (N = 63) were examined. Anger was the antecedent emotion reported by the largest proportion of individuals who had engaged in deliberate self-harm (45.16%), suicide attempts (40.9%),…

  8. How to Talk to a School Age Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age child after a suicide attempt in the family It is important to talk to your child after the suicide attempt to help her understand what has happened. Without support of family/friends, children may try to make sense of ...

  9. A Life History of a Korean Adolescent Girl Who Attempted Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sungeun

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the life history of a South Korean adolescent girl who attempted suicide. The study focuses on how sociocultural values affected her suicide attempt and how she made meaning out of the experience. The results revealed that her life history was a process of seeking independence and autonomy, and freeing herself from…

  10. Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of depression during the treatment of adolescents with depression who had recently attempted suicide. Method: Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to 18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating…

  11. Suicide attempt predicted by academic performance and childhood IQ: a cohort study of 26 000 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörberg Wallin, A; Zeebari, Z; Lager, A; Gunnell, D; Allebeck, P; Falkstedt, D

    2017-11-08

    Academic performance in youth, measured by grade point average (GPA), predicts suicide attempt, but the mechanisms are not known. It has been suggested that general intelligence might underlie the association. We followed 26 315 Swedish girls and boys in population-representative cohorts, up to maximum 46 years of age, for the first suicide attempt in hospital records. Associations between GPA at age 16, IQ measured in school at age 13 and suicide attempt were investigated in Cox regressions and mediation analyses. There was a clear graded association between lower GPA and subsequent suicide attempt. With control for potential confounders, those in the lowest GPA quartile had a near five-fold risk (HR 4.9, 95% CI 3.7-6.7) compared to those in the highest quartile. In a mediation analysis, the association between GPA and suicide attempt was robust, while the association between IQ and suicide attempt was fully mediated by GPA. Poor academic performance in compulsory school, at age 16, was a robust predictor of suicide attempt past young adulthood and seemed to account for the association between lower childhood IQ and suicide attempt. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy: A Brief Intervention for Psychiatric Inpatients Admitted After a Suicide Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Cox, Daniel W.; Greene, Farrah N.

    2012-01-01

    To date, no empirically based inpatient intervention for individuals who have attempted suicide exists. We present an overview of a novel psychotherapeutic approach, Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT), currently under development and empirical testing for inpatients who have been admitted for a recent suicide attempt. PACT is adapted from an…

  13. How to Talk to a Teenager about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to Talk to a Teenager about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to help inform and guide adults when talking with a ... to the hospital for help.”) Talking to your teenager after a suicide attempt in your family It ...

  14. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Depressed Patients with Single and Multiple Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andover, Margaret S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Miller, Ivan W.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown both childhood physical and sexual abuse to be associated with later suicide attempts, although some studies have not supported these findings. However, few studies have investigated differences in physical and sexual abuse histories among single and multiple suicide attempters. The goals of the current study were two-fold: (a)…

  15. A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

  16. Gender distribution of suicide attempts among immigrants in European countries. An international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bursztein Lipsicas, C.; Makinen, I.H.; Wasseman, D.; Apter, A.; De Leo, D.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Michel, K.; Renberg, S.; Schmidtke, A.; van Heeringen, K.; Vamik, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies report high rates of suicide attempts for female immigrants. This study assesses variations in the distribution of suicide attempts across gender in immigrant and non-immigrant groups in Europe. Method: Data on 64 native and immigrant groups, including 17 662 local and 3755

  17. Repetition and severity of suicide attempts across the life cycle: a comparison by age group between suicide victims and controls with severe depression

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund Mats; Brådvik Louise

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Suicide attempts have been shown to be less common in older age groups, with repeated attempts generally being more common in younger age groups and severe attempts in older age groups. Consistently, most studies have shown an increased suicide risk after attempts in older age. However, little is known about the predictive value of age on repeated and severe suicide attempts for accomplished suicide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reduced incidence for...

  18. Railway suicide attempts are associated with amount of sunlight in recent days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadotani, Hiroshi; Nagai, Yumiko; Sozu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    To assess the relationship between hours of sunlight and railway suicide attempts, 3-7 days before these attempts. All railway suicide attempts causing railway suspensions or delays of 30 min or more between 2002 and 2006. We used a linear probability model to assess this relationship. This study was conducted at Tokyo, Kanagawa, and Osaka prefectures in Japan. Data were collected from the railway delay incident database of the Japanese Railway Technical Research Institute and public weather database of the Japan Meteorological Agency. About 971 railway suicides attempts occurred between 2002 and 2006 in Tokyo, Kanagawa, and Osaka. Less sunlight in the 7 days leading up to the railway suicide attempts was associated with a higher proportion of attempts (p=0.0243). Sunlight over the 3 days before an attempt had a similar trend (p=0.0888). No difference was found in sunlight hours between the days with (median: 5.6 [IQR: 1.1-8.8]) and without (median: 5.7 [IQR: 1.0-8.9]) railway suicide attempts in the evening. Finally, there was no apparent correlation between the railway suicide attempts and the monthly average sunlight hours of the attempted month or those of a month before. Railway suicides were not the main suicidal methods in Japan, We observed an increased proportion of railway suicide attempts after several days without sunlight. Light exposure (blue light or bright white light) in trains may be useful in reducing railway suicides, especially when consecutive days without sunshine are forecasted. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction by data mining, of suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung Man; Lee, Seung A; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a prediction model for suicide attempts in Korean adolescents. We conducted a decision tree analysis of 2,754 middle and high school students nationwide. We fixed suicide attempt as the dependent variable and eleven sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and extrapersonal variables as independent variables. The rate of suicide attempts of the total sample was 9.5%, and severity of depression was the strongest variable to predict suicide attempt. The rates of suicide attempts in the depression and potential depression groups were 5.4 and 2.8 times higher than that of the non-depression group. In the depression group, the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt was delinquency, and the rate of suicide attempts in those in the depression group with higher delinquency was two times higher than in those in the depression group with lower delinquency. Of special note, the rate of suicide attempts in the depressed females with higher delinquency was the highest. Interestingly, in the potential depression group, the most impactful factor to predict a suicide attempt was intimacy with family, and the rate of suicide attempts of those in the potential depression group with lower intimacy with family was 2.4 times higher than that of those in the potential depression group with higher intimacy with family. And, among the potential depression group, middle school students with lower intimacy with family had a 2.5-times higher rate of suicide attempts than high school students with lower intimacy with family. Finally, in the non-depression group, stress level was the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt. Among the non-depression group, students who reported high levels of stress showed an 8.3-times higher rate of suicide attempts than students who reported average levels of stress. Based on the results, we especially need to pay attention to depressed females with higher delinquency and those with potential depression with lower

  20. Prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents: A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiande; Dong, Yonghai; Chen, Xiaodan; Liu, Yun; Ma, Dongyang; Liu, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Ruizhi; Mao, Xiangqun; Chen, Ting; He, Wei

    2015-08-01

    According to World Health Organization, for every committed suicide there were 20 suicide attempts at least. In the last decade, despite the increasing awareness on suicide attempts among adolescents in China, there has been no comprehensive system reporting vital statistics. Consequently, the prevalence of suicide attempts reported in some studies ranged variedly. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide the first meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies of suicide attempts to fill this gap. Two reviewers independently screened potentially relevant cross-sectional studies of suicide attempts through PubMed-Medline, Embase, Wanfang Data, Chongqing VIP and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases using the core terms 'suicid*'/'suicide attempt*'/'attempted suicide' and 'adolescen*'/'youth'/'child*'/'student*' and 'China'/'Chinese' in the article titles, abstracts and keywords. Chi-square based Q test and I(2) statistic assessed the heterogeneity. Forest plot was used to display results graphically. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot, Begg's and Egger's test. In total, 43 studies with 200,124 participants met the eligibility criteria. The pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents was 2.94% (95% CI: 2.53%-3.41%). Substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates was revealed. Subgroup analyses showed that the prevalence for males was 2.50% (95% CI: 2.08%-3.01%), and for females was 3.17% (95% CI: 2.56%-3.91%). In sum, abstracting across the literatures, the prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents was moderate compared with other countries around the world. Necessary measures should be set out prevent them in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Common Pesticides Used in Suicide Attempts Following the 2012 Paraquat Ban in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Won; Hwang, Il-Woong; Kim, Jae-Wook; Moon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Suyeon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To determine the change in pesticides used during suicide attempts after the 2012 paraquat (PQ) ban, we evaluated the annual number of suicide attempts by pesticide ingestion between 2011 and 2014. We extracted demographic, clinical outcome, and pesticide class data from the medical records of 1,331 patients that attempted suicide by pesticide ingestion. Pesticides were sorted into 5 groups: herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, other pesticides, and combined pesticides. Each group was subdivided into various classes based on publications by the respective Resistance Action Committees. The chi-square test for trends was used to compare the annual incidence of categorical variables. The total number of suicide attempts decreased each year, from 399 in 2011 to 245 in 2014. Simultaneously, PQ ingestion decreased from 253 patients in 2011 to 60 in 2014. The proportion of PQ to pesticides also decreased from 63.4% in 2011 to 24.5% in 2014. Furthermore, the rate of decrease in the proportion of PQ to all herbicide categories increased by calendar year. In conclusion, there is a significant trend in increased annual number of suicides and proportion of suicides using glyphosates and glufosinates versus total herbicides. However, the number of suicide attempts using glyphosate and glufosinate is lower than that using PQ. The ratio of persons completing suicide to those attempting suicide after pesticide ingestion has decreased every year after the PQ ban.

  2. Patterns of presentation for attempted suicide: analysis of a cohort of individuals who subsequently died by suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Sharon; Rosato, Michael; Galway, Karen; Hughes, Lynette; Rondon-Sulbaran, Janeet; McConkey, Sam; Leavey, Gerard

    2015-06-01

    All suicides and related prior attempts occurring in Northern Ireland over two years were analyzed, focusing on number and timing of attempts, method, and mental health diagnoses. Cases were derived from coroner's records, with 90% subsequently linked to associated general practice records. Of those included, 45% recorded at least one prior attempt (with 59% switching from less to more lethal methods between attempt and suicide). Compared with those recording one attempt, those with 2+ attempts were more likely to have used less lethal methods at the suicide (OR = 2.77: 95% CI = 1.06, 7.23); and those using less lethal methods at the attempts were more likely to persist with these into the suicide (OR = 3.21: 0.79, 13.07). Finally, those with preexisting mental problems were more likely to use less lethal methods in the suicide: severe mental illness (OR = 7.88: 1.58, 39.43); common mental problems (OR = 3.68: 0.83, 16.30); and alcohol/drugs related (OR = 2.02: 0.41, 9.95). This analysis uses readily available data to highlight the persisting use of less lethal methods by visible and vulnerable attempters who eventually complete their suicide. Further analysis of such conditions could allow more effective prevention strategies to be developed. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  3. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Suicide Re-attempts in Persons with Chronic Mental Disabilities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sun-Jin; Ko, Jung-A; Park, Jung-Suk; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Kyung-Min; Lee, Myung-Soo

    2016-07-01

    Suicide re-attempters are clinically different from single-episode attempters and are at higher risk of completed suicide. This study explored psychosocial risk factors and modifiable factors related to suicide re-attempt in a representative sample of 441 chronic mentally disabled individuals in Seoul, Korea. The participants were listed on the public sector registry based on the Act for the Welfare of Disabled Persons. Individualized interviews were conducted, and the authors analyzed the data via multiple logistic regression analysis. The results showed that physical illness (under treatment OR 1.7; left untreated OR 4.2) and no leisure activities (OR 1.9) were factors related to a higher risk of re-attempted suicide. Unmet and modifiable needs in addition to mental health services should be considered to prevent suicide re-attempts in the chronic mentally disabled.

  4. Examining the impact of psychiatric diagnosis and comorbidity on the medical lethality of adolescent suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H; Berzin, Stephanie C

    2012-08-01

    Specific psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidity patterns were examined to determine if they were related to the medical lethality of suicide attempts among adolescents presenting to an urban general hospital (N=375). Bivariate analysis showed that attempters with substance abuse disorders had higher levels of lethality than attempters without substance abuse. Regression results indicated having depression comorbid with any other diagnosis was not associated with medical lethality. However, having a substance abuse disorder was associated with higher suicide attempt lethality, highlighting the importance of substance abuse as a risk factor for lethal suicide attempts in adolescents. This finding stimulates critical thinking around the understanding of suicidal behavior in youth and the development and implementation of treatment strategies for suicidal adolescents with substance abuse disorders. © 2012 The American Association of Suicidology.

  5. Incidence and risk factors for suicide attempts in a general population of young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul; Agerbo, Esben

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from...... a total cohort of all individuals born between 1983 and 1989 and living in Denmark to calculate incidence rates. From the cohort, we identified all who have attempted suicide, and matched 50 controls to each case. A nested case-control design was used to estimate the impact from risk factors on the risk...... for index suicide attempts. We established a link to the biological parents and identified risk factors for two generations. Risk factors were analyzed in a conditional logistic regression model. RESULTS: We identified 3718 suicide attempters and 185,900 controls (189,618 individuals, aged 10-21 years). We...

  6. [Suicide attempt with antidepressants ordered from the Internet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Michael; Bosma, Margriet S; van der Klooster, Johan M

    2011-01-01

    Since its launch, the Internet has developed into a mass medium with 1.6 billion people using it worldwide. Due to anonymity, its wide reach and the infinite stream of information from the Internet, almost anything can be found on it. This includes medicines that can normally only be acquired by way of a doctor's prescription. A 27-year-old man made a suicide attempt using psychoactive drugs he got from an illegal website in India. This caused him to develop status epilepticus, rhabdomyolysis, renal insufficiency and pulmonary oedema for which he had to be admitted to intensive care. The patient was treated with medicine, cardioversion, ventilation and haemofiltration and recovered. He was referred to a psychiatric centre. The number of illegal online pharmaceutical websites on the Internet has increased drastically in the last decade. These websites sell medicines without prescription to consumers and the traditional doctor/patient consultation does not therefore take place. Many medicines that are delivered contain the wrong concentration or the wrong active ingredient and are often contaminated with other substances. The ease with which this life-threatening medicine can be ordered online without a doctor's supervision is a possible risk to public health.

  7. Penetrating Brain Injury after Suicide Attempt with Speargun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ross Williams

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating cranial injury by mechanisms other than are exceedingly rare, and so strategies and guidelines for the management of PBI are largely informed by data from higher-velocity penetrating injuries. Here we present a case of penetrating brain injury by the low velocity mechanism of a harpoon from an underwater fishing speargun in an attempted suicide by a 56-year-old Caucasian male. The case raised a number of interesting points in management of lower-velocity penetrating brain injury (LVPBI, including benefit in delaying foreign body removal to allow for tamponade; the importance of history taking in establishing the social/legal significance of the events surrounding the injury; the use of cerebral angiogram in all cases of PBI; advantages of using DECT to reduce artifact when available; and antibiotic prophylaxis in the context of idiosyncratic histories of usage of penetrating objects before coming in contact with the intracranial environment. We present here the management of the case in full along with an extended discussion and review of existing literature regarding key points in management of LVPBI vs. higher velocity forms of intracranial injury.

  8. Suicide attempt with acetonitrile ingestion in a nursing mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Borrasca-Fernandes, Carla Fernanda; Branco Pimenta, Maíra; Prado, Camila Carbone; Soubhia, Paula Christiane; Lanaro, Rafael; Mello Moreira, Sueli; Linden, Rafael; Nóbrega, Helena Valle; Bucaretchi, Fábio; Costa, José Luiz

    2017-09-01

    Acetonitrile (ACN) is a solvent rapidly absorbed through lungs and intestinal tract, and is slowly metabolized to cyanide (CN) by enzymatic processes mediated by CYP2E1. To describe the clinical and laboratory evolution, ACN elimination half-life, and its presence in breast milk in a nursing mother who attempted suicide. A 25-year-old 2-month nursing mother ingested an estimated dose of 2.1 g/kg of ACN. Blood and urine samples were collected 24 h later for ACN, CN and thiocyanate analysis, and 12.5 g sodium thiosulfate i.v. in 1-h infusion was started and repeated every 24 h for 4 days. ACN results showed 200 mg/L in blood and 235 mg/L in urine. ACN analysis in the breast milk at Day 6 showed level of 21 mg/L compared to 27 mg/L in blood collected at the same time, suggesting a possible relationship of 1.3:1.0 ratio. An elimination half-life of 40.4 h was calculated, compared to 32 and 36 h showed in other studies. The clinical management must involve the use of CN antidotes for more than 24 h depending on the symptoms and blood levels of ACN. Furthermore, our data showed the possible existence of a close relationship between plasma and breast milk levels.

  9. Suicide attempts presenting to trauma centers: trends across age groups using the National Trauma Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Eva M; Woodward, Christopher J; Musso, Mandi W; Jones, Glenn N

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to examine the epidemiology and mortality of violent suicide attempts presenting to trauma centers and to describe differences in male and female suicide attempters presenting to trauma centers by decade of age. Data from the National Trauma Data Bank (American College of Surgeons) years 2010-2012 were used for this study. E-codes indicative of self-inflicted injury (e950-e959) were used to identify violent suicide attempts. Incidents were categorized by decade of age at admission. We examined the effects of age and sex on rates of violent suicide attempts, mechanism used, and mortality. In all, 36035 violent suicide attempts were identified in the National Trauma Data Bank. Proportion of in-hospital mortality differed significantly with age (Pattempts with 15.6% mortality, whereas individuals aged 80 plus year had fewer attempts but with 45.9% mortality. There were significant interactions between sex and age on lethality of suicide attempts (Pattempts across sex and age. There are significant differences in rate of attempts, lethality of mechanism, and in-hospital mortality. Future studies should continue to investigate violent suicide attempts to design and implement effective treatment strategies targeted toward specific populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between Non-Suicidal Self-Injuries and Suicide Attempts in Chinese Adolescents and College Students: A Cross-Section Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Tang; Yizhen Yu; Yu Wu; Yukai Du; Ying Ma; Huiping Zhu; Ping Zhang; Zhuoya Liu

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study examined the association between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents and college students. METHODS: A total sample of 2013 Chinese students were randomly selected from five schools in Wuhan, China, including 1101 boys and 912 girls with the age ranging between 10 and 24 years. NSSI, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and depressive symptoms were measured by self-rated questionnaires. Self-reported suicide attempts were regressed ...

  11. Relationships between attempted suicide, temperamental vulnerability, and violent criminality in a Swedish forensic psychiatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålenheim, E G

    2001-11-01

    The relationship between suicide attempts and different vulnerability factors was investigated in 61 male subjects during forensic psychiatric examination. Personality traits and psychopathy were determined by means of the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Clinical diagnoses were determined by the use of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). Platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was investigated in 58 subjects. Suicide attempters had extremely low socialization and high impulsive aggression. This was independent of a history of repeatedly criminal violence or not. They had higher PCL-R scores and lower levels of platelet MAO activity than non-attempters. No relationship was found between suicide attempts and repeated violent criminality. However, among the subjects with repeated criminal violence there was a highly significant difference between suicide attempters and non-attempters, indicating different personality profiles in violent offenders with and without suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior was significantly associated with borderline personality disorder, but not with any other single DSM-III-R disorder. The results show a far more severe personality disturbance in suicide attempters than in other violent patients in this type of population. Suicidal behavior should therefore be evaluated and treated per se.

  12. Comorbid panic disorder as an independent risk factor for suicide attempts in depressed outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoon-Young; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Roh, Daeyoung

    2016-05-01

    Although comorbid panic disorder is associated with more severe symptoms and poorer therapeutic response in depressive patients, the relationship between panic disorder and risk of suicide attempt has not been confirmed. This study aimed to examine the relationship between comorbid panic disorder and clinical characteristics associated with suicidal risk as well as the likelihood of suicide attempt. A total of 223 outpatients with current major depressive disorder participated in the study. Both subjects with panic disorder (33%) and those without panic disorder (67%) were compared based on history of suicide attempts, current psychopathologies, and traits of impulsivity and anger. Subjects with panic disorder had higher levels of impulsivity, depression, and hopelessness and were more likely to report a history of suicide attempts. Subjects with panic disorder were younger at the time of first suicide attempt than those without panic disorder. Logistic regression analyses indicated that comorbid panic disorder was significantly associated with a history of suicide attempts after adjusting for other clinical correlates (odds ratio = 2.8; p depressive disorder may be associated with a more severe burden of illness and may independently increase the likelihood of suicide attempt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts among sexual minority youth in Ireland during their emerging adult years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Emmet; Coughlan, Helen; Clarke, Mary; Kelleher, Ian; Lynch, Fionnuala; Connor, Dearbhla; Fitzpatrick, Carol; Harley, Michelle; Cannon, Mary

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to examine whether or not sexual minority youth constitute an at-risk group for nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal ideation or suicide attempts during their emerging adult years. Using data from the Challenging Times Study, a population-based study of psychopathology and suicide in Ireland, analyses were conducted to test the associations between sexual minority status and the odds of any lifetime experience of nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts among Irish youth aged 19-24 years. Sexual minority youth had 6.6-fold (95% CI 1.7-24.7) increased risk of nonsuicidal self-injury, a 5.0-fold (95% CI 1.3-18.3) increased risk of suicidal ideation, a 7.7-fold (95% CI 1.8-32.0) increased risk of suicide intent and a 6.8-fold (95% CI 1.6-27.6) increased risk of a suicide attempt during their lifetime compared to their heterosexual peers. This study shows that emerging adulthood is a period of risk for suicide and nonsuicidal self-injurious behaviour among sexual minority youth. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Stressful life events, hopelessness, and suicidal intent in patients admitted with attempted suicide in a tertiary care general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, S V; Faye, A D; Gore, S P; Shah, H R; Kamath, R M

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a psychiatric emergency. Stressors in life and social variables (like marital status, family, and social support) are among the determinants of suicide. Hopelessness and suicidal intent are among the psychological variables that have shown promise in the prediction of suicide. To assess stressful life events, hopelessness, suicidal intent, and sociodemographic variables in patients of attempted suicide. Fifty consecutive patients admitted with attempted suicide were interviewed. Presumptive Stressful Life Event Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, and Beck Suicidal Intent Scale were used along with a semistructured pro forma for interview. Data were analyzed with statistical tests. Sixty-six percent of the participants were females, 72% were less than 30 years of age. Sixty-six percent of the patients had stressful life event score between 101 and 200 with the mean score of 127. The stressful life event score in those who considered they are in need of psychiatric help was significantly high. Most of the patients had mild (34%) and moderate (40%) degrees of hopelessness, and the mean score was 9.64. The mean suicidal intent in the participants was 25.14, when correlated with hopelessness score significant positive correlation was found. Lethality of the attempt increases with the increase in hopelessness.

  15. Stressful life events, hopelessness, and suicidal intent in patients admitted with attempted suicide in a tertiary care general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a psychiatric emergency. Stressors in life and social variables (like marital status, family, and social support are among the determinants of suicide. Hopelessness and suicidal intent are among the psychological variables that have shown promise in the prediction of suicide. Aims and Objectives: To assess stressful life events, hopelessness, suicidal intent, and sociodemographic variables in patients of attempted suicide. Materials and Methods: Fifty consecutive patients admitted with attempted suicide were interviewed. Presumptive Stressful Life Event Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, and Beck Suicidal Intent Scale were used along with a semistructured pro forma for interview. Data were analyzed with statistical tests. Results: Sixty-six percent of the participants were females, 72% were less than 30 years of age. Sixty-six percent of the patients had stressful life event score between 101 and 200 with the mean score of 127. The stressful life event score in those who considered they are in need of psychiatric help was significantly high. Most of the patients had mild (34% and moderate (40% degrees of hopelessness, and the mean score was 9.64. The mean suicidal intent in the participants was 25.14, when correlated with hopelessness score significant positive correlation was found. Conclusion: Lethality of the attempt increases with the increase in hopelessness.

  16. Predicting frequency of suicide attempts of adolescent outpatients at Weskoppies Hospital using clinical and demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Fine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of suicide, particularly adolescent suicide, remains one of the biggest challenges in psychiatry. Objectives. To ascertain: (i clinical and demographic characteristics; and (ii possible associations between these characteristics and suicide attempt frequency in a selected patient group at Weskoppies Hospital over 4 months. Methods. Fifty adolescent outpatients aged between 13 and 17 years with a history of one or more suicide attempts were interviewed to obtain demographic and clinical features. Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests assessed associations between these features and suicide attempt frequency. Results. Of the subjects, 79% were aged between 15 and 17 years; they were predominantly female (62% and Caucasian (83%. Mainstream and special education schools were equally represented. Three-quarters had reached grades 8 - 10, and 14% lived with both biological parents, 33% in places of safety and 37% with one divorced parent. The minority of caregivers had a history of alcohol abuse and other substance use. Twenty-nine per cent of the subjects had attempted suicide on more than 10 occasions and 23% had made a single attempt. The most common methods were wounding (74%, tablet overdose (34% and hanging (20%. Psychiatric diagnoses included major depressive disorder (64%, bipolar disorder (38%, alcohol abuse (18% and other substance abuse (24%. Familial features included depression, substance abuse, antisocial behaviour and suicide. Familial suicidal behaviour included suicide attempts by parents (85%, siblings (36%, aunts and uncles (31% and cousins (44%. Physical and sexual abuse was reported in 52% of families. Conclusion. Many findings and profiles of other studies were confirmed and point to school and home environments, family psychopathology and psychiatric diagnoses as factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts. Associations between the frequency of suicide attempts and the demographic and clinical

  17. Childhood Bullying Behaviors as a Risk for Suicide Attempts and Completed Suicides: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2009-01-01

    The examination of the data from a sample of 5,302 Finnish children who were born in 1981 finds that bullying at age eight years and later is associated with later suicide attempts and completed suicide for boys but not after controlling for conduct and depression symptoms. For girls, the association is still seen even after controlling for…

  18. Prevalence of Suicide Attempts among College Students in China: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin-Sheng; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Sun, Liang; Sun, Ye-Huan; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide is the leading cause of death among 15–34 year olds in China, but no national data are available on the suicide and suicide attempts rates of college students, a sub-group of youth with 23 million. Several studies have reported the prevalence of suicide attempts among college students, however, no meta-analysis pooling the prevalence of suicide attempts is found. Objective and Methods This study aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China. The relevant studies up to August 2014 were systematically searched via electronic databases (PubMed-Medline, Embase, Chinese Wanfang database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese VIP database). We only selected original articles that either reported the prevalence of suicide attempts or sufficient data for calculating the prevalence. Results A total of 29 eligible studies, with 88,225 college students, were finally included. The maximum and minimum reported prevalences of suicide attempts among college students in China were 0.4% and 10.5%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of suicide attempts was 2.8% (95%CI: 2.3%–3.3%). Subgroup analyses showed that the pooled estimate of prevalence of life time suicide attempts was 2.7% (95%CI: 2.1%–3.3%), and 12-month suicide attempts was 2.9% (95%CI: 2.0%–3.8%). The prevalence for males was 2.4% (95%CI: 1.8%–3.0%), and for females was 2.7% (95%CI: 1.9%–3.7%). The prevalences among college students in grade 1 through 4 were 2.8% (95%CI: 1.7%–3.8%), 1.8% (95%CI: 1.2%–2.3%), 2.0% (95%CI: 0.8%–3.1%), and 2.9% (95%CI: 0.1%–6.7%), respectively. The prevalences among college students from rural and urban areas were 5.1% (95%CI: 2.8%–7.5%) and 3.7% (95%CI: 1.4%–5.9%), respectively. Conclusions 2.8% prevalence of suicide attempts and more than 600,000 suicide attempters among college students indicate that suicide attempt among college students is an important public health problem in China

  19. Prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin-Sheng; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Sun, Liang; Sun, Ye-Huan; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among 15-34 year olds in China, but no national data are available on the suicide and suicide attempts rates of college students, a sub-group of youth with 23 million. Several studies have reported the prevalence of suicide attempts among college students, however, no meta-analysis pooling the prevalence of suicide attempts is found. This study aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China. The relevant studies up to August 2014 were systematically searched via electronic databases (PubMed-Medline, Embase, Chinese Wanfang database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese VIP database). We only selected original articles that either reported the prevalence of suicide attempts or sufficient data for calculating the prevalence. A total of 29 eligible studies, with 88,225 college students, were finally included. The maximum and minimum reported prevalences of suicide attempts among college students in China were 0.4% and 10.5%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of suicide attempts was 2.8% (95%CI: 2.3%-3.3%). Subgroup analyses showed that the pooled estimate of prevalence of life time suicide attempts was 2.7% (95%CI: 2.1%-3.3%), and 12-month suicide attempts was 2.9% (95%CI: 2.0%-3.8%). The prevalence for males was 2.4% (95%CI: 1.8%-3.0%), and for females was 2.7% (95%CI: 1.9%-3.7%). The prevalences among college students in grade 1 through 4 were 2.8% (95%CI: 1.7%-3.8%), 1.8% (95%CI: 1.2%-2.3%), 2.0% (95%CI: 0.8%-3.1%), and 2.9% (95%CI: 0.1%-6.7%), respectively. The prevalences among college students from rural and urban areas were 5.1% (95%CI: 2.8%-7.5%) and 3.7% (95%CI: 1.4%-5.9%), respectively. 2.8% prevalence of suicide attempts and more than 600,000 suicide attempters among college students indicate that suicide attempt among college students is an important public health problem in China. More attention should be paid to the current situation.

  20. Prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Sheng Yang

    Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among 15-34 year olds in China, but no national data are available on the suicide and suicide attempts rates of college students, a sub-group of youth with 23 million. Several studies have reported the prevalence of suicide attempts among college students, however, no meta-analysis pooling the prevalence of suicide attempts is found.This study aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China. The relevant studies up to August 2014 were systematically searched via electronic databases (PubMed-Medline, Embase, Chinese Wanfang database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese VIP database. We only selected original articles that either reported the prevalence of suicide attempts or sufficient data for calculating the prevalence.A total of 29 eligible studies, with 88,225 college students, were finally included. The maximum and minimum reported prevalences of suicide attempts among college students in China were 0.4% and 10.5%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of suicide attempts was 2.8% (95%CI: 2.3%-3.3%. Subgroup analyses showed that the pooled estimate of prevalence of life time suicide attempts was 2.7% (95%CI: 2.1%-3.3%, and 12-month suicide attempts was 2.9% (95%CI: 2.0%-3.8%. The prevalence for males was 2.4% (95%CI: 1.8%-3.0%, and for females was 2.7% (95%CI: 1.9%-3.7%. The prevalences among college students in grade 1 through 4 were 2.8% (95%CI: 1.7%-3.8%, 1.8% (95%CI: 1.2%-2.3%, 2.0% (95%CI: 0.8%-3.1%, and 2.9% (95%CI: 0.1%-6.7%, respectively. The prevalences among college students from rural and urban areas were 5.1% (95%CI: 2.8%-7.5% and 3.7% (95%CI: 1.4%-5.9%, respectively.2.8% prevalence of suicide attempts and more than 600,000 suicide attempters among college students indicate that suicide attempt among college students is an important public health problem in China. More attention should be paid to the current situation.

  1. The independent effects of child sexual abuse and impulsivity on lifetime suicide attempts among female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daray, Federico M; Rojas, Sasha M; Bridges, Ana J; Badour, Christal L; Grendas, Leandro; Rodante, Demián; Puppo, Soledad; Rebok, Federico

    2016-08-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a causal agent in many negative adulthood outcomes, including the risk for life-threatening behaviors such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Traumatic events such as CSA may pose risk in the healthy development of cognitive and emotional functioning during childhood. In fact, high impulsivity, a risk factor for suicidal behavior, is characteristic of CSA victims. The current study aims to understand the relations among CSA, impulsivity, and frequency of lifetime suicide attempts among a female patient sample admitted for suicidal behavior. Participants included 177 female patients between the ages of 18 and 63 years admitted at two hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Number of previous suicide attempts and CSA were assessed via structured interviews, while impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). A model of structural equations was employed to evaluate the role of impulsivity in the relation between CSA and suicide attempts. CSA (β=.18, p.05). CSA and impulsivity are independently associated with lifetime suicide attempts among female patients with recent suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tobacco use and suicide attempt: longitudinal analysis with retrospective reports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Berlin

    Full Text Available Suicide has been associated with smoking/tobacco use but its association of and change in smoking/tobacco use status with suicide attempt (SA is not well established.We investigated whether persistent, former tobacco use, initiation, quitting tobacco use, relapse to tobacco use, and DSM-IV nicotine dependence predict independently SA using Wave 1 and 2 data of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Data from 34,653 US adults interviewed at Wave 1 (2001-02 and Wave 2 (2004-05 were analyzed. The main outcome measure was SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2 as reported at Wave 2.Among the 1,673 respondents reporting lifetime SA at Wave 2, 328 individuals reported SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2. Current and former tobacco use at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 SA independently of socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and prior SA (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13-1.95, AOR: 1.31; 95% CI:1.01-1.69, respectively versus never tobacco users. The strongest association with SA was observed among former tobacco users who relapsed after Wave 1 (AOR: 4.66; 95% CI: 3.49-6.24 and among tobacco use initiators after Wave 1 (AOR: 3.16; 95% CI: 2.23-4.49. Persistent tobacco use (current tobacco use at both Wave 1 and Wave 2 also had an increased risk of SA (AOR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.47-2.42. However, former tobacco users in both Waves 1 and 2 did not show a significantly elevated risk for SA in Wave 2 (AOR:1.09, 95% CI: 0.78-1.52 suggesting that the risk resided mainly in Wave 1 former tobacco users who relapsed to tobacco use by Wave 2. DSM-IV nicotine dependence did not predict SA at Wave 2.In a representative sample of US adults, relapse, tobacco use initiation, and persistent tobacco use, which are amenable to intervention, were associated with risk of SA.

  3. Classification of Suicide Attempts through a Machine Learning Algorithm Based on Multiple Systemic Psychiatric Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jihoon; Yun, Kyongsik; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Classification and prediction of suicide attempts in high-risk groups is important for preventing suicide. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the information from multiple clinical scales has classification power for identifying actual suicide attempts. Patients with depression and anxiety disorders (N = 573) were included, and each participant completed 31 self-report psychiatric scales and questionnaires about their history of suicide attempts. We then trained an artificial neural network classifier with 41 variables (31 psychiatric scales and 10 sociodemographic elements) and ranked the contribution of each variable for the classification of suicide attempts. To evaluate the clinical applicability of our model, we measured classification performance with top-ranked predictors. Our model had an overall accuracy of 93.7% in 1-month, 90.8% in 1-year, and 87.4% in lifetime suicide attempts detection. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was the highest for 1-month suicide attempts detection (0.93), followed by lifetime (0.89), and 1-year detection (0.87). Among all variables, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire had the highest contribution, and the positive and negative characteristics of the scales similarly contributed to classification performance. Performance on suicide attempts classification was largely maintained when we only used the top five ranked variables for training (AUROC; 1-month, 0.75, 1-year, 0.85, lifetime suicide attempts detection, 0.87). Our findings indicate that information from self-report clinical scales can be useful for the classification of suicide attempts. Based on the reliable performance of the top five predictors alone, this machine learning approach could help clinicians identify high-risk patients in clinical settings. PMID:29038651

  4. Classification of Suicide Attempts through a Machine Learning Algorithm Based on Multiple Systemic Psychiatric Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihoon Oh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Classification and prediction of suicide attempts in high-risk groups is important for preventing suicide. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the information from multiple clinical scales has classification power for identifying actual suicide attempts. Patients with depression and anxiety disorders (N = 573 were included, and each participant completed 31 self-report psychiatric scales and questionnaires about their history of suicide attempts. We then trained an artificial neural network classifier with 41 variables (31 psychiatric scales and 10 sociodemographic elements and ranked the contribution of each variable for the classification of suicide attempts. To evaluate the clinical applicability of our model, we measured classification performance with top-ranked predictors. Our model had an overall accuracy of 93.7% in 1-month, 90.8% in 1-year, and 87.4% in lifetime suicide attempts detection. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC was the highest for 1-month suicide attempts detection (0.93, followed by lifetime (0.89, and 1-year detection (0.87. Among all variables, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire had the highest contribution, and the positive and negative characteristics of the scales similarly contributed to classification performance. Performance on suicide attempts classification was largely maintained when we only used the top five ranked variables for training (AUROC; 1-month, 0.75, 1-year, 0.85, lifetime suicide attempts detection, 0.87. Our findings indicate that information from self-report clinical scales can be useful for the classification of suicide attempts. Based on the reliable performance of the top five predictors alone, this machine learning approach could help clinicians identify high-risk patients in clinical settings.

  5. Sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters among the rural agrarian community of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirod Kumar Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicides, attempted suicides and different form of suicidal behaviors are on the rise in most part of the world. It is generally assumed that official suicidal rate are underestimated from the true rate by 20-100 % due to prevailing socio-cultural issues, religious attitude, stigma attached, and legal process involved. Attempted suicides occur 8-20 times more frequently than complete suicide. Statistics on attempted suicide or deliberate self harm are not usually available officially. Materials and Methods: All the cases of attempted suicide who were admitted and referred for psychiatric evaluation and management to a rural medical college of central India during a period of one Year (April 13-March-14, following initial recovery they were evaluated on a semi-structured performa on socio demographic profile, mode of attempt and reason for attempt. Data collected was analyzed using suitable statistical methods. Results: Total 68 cases were evaluated during the study period. 43% of the cases were involved in farming. Among 85% of the study population pesticide consumption was the common mode of attempt, which is easily available among the agrarian community of rural India. Interpersonal conflict in the family due to indebtedness, financial loss due to crop failure was the commonest reason for attempt. Conclusion: Though there is reduced reporting in the incidents of suicide cases in media from this region, still quite a number of people attempt suicide due to financial constraint from crop failure, ongoing indebtedness, and poor socioeconomic condition culminating into poor mental health among the rural agrarian community of central Maharashtra.

  6. Classification of Suicide Attempts through a Machine Learning Algorithm Based on Multiple Systemic Psychiatric Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jihoon; Yun, Kyongsik; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Classification and prediction of suicide attempts in high-risk groups is important for preventing suicide. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the information from multiple clinical scales has classification power for identifying actual suicide attempts. Patients with depression and anxiety disorders (N = 573) were included, and each participant completed 31 self-report psychiatric scales and questionnaires about their history of suicide attempts. We then trained an artificial neural network classifier with 41 variables (31 psychiatric scales and 10 sociodemographic elements) and ranked the contribution of each variable for the classification of suicide attempts. To evaluate the clinical applicability of our model, we measured classification performance with top-ranked predictors. Our model had an overall accuracy of 93.7% in 1-month, 90.8% in 1-year, and 87.4% in lifetime suicide attempts detection. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was the highest for 1-month suicide attempts detection (0.93), followed by lifetime (0.89), and 1-year detection (0.87). Among all variables, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire had the highest contribution, and the positive and negative characteristics of the scales similarly contributed to classification performance. Performance on suicide attempts classification was largely maintained when we only used the top five ranked variables for training (AUROC; 1-month, 0.75, 1-year, 0.85, lifetime suicide attempts detection, 0.87). Our findings indicate that information from self-report clinical scales can be useful for the classification of suicide attempts. Based on the reliable performance of the top five predictors alone, this machine learning approach could help clinicians identify high-risk patients in clinical settings.

  7. Recurrent suicide attempts in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders: the role of borderline personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Barbara; van Meijel, Berno; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Koekkoek, Bauke; Licht, Carmilla M M; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2013-10-01

    The presence of a comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be associated with an increase of suicidal behaviors in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the role of borderline personality traits on recurrent suicide attempts. The Netherlands Study on Depression and Anxiety included 1838 respondents with lifetime depressive and/or anxiety disorders, of whom 309 reported at least one previous suicide attempt. A univariable negative binomial regression analysis was performed to examine the association between comorbid borderline personality traits and suicide attempts. Univariable and multivariable negative binomial regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for the number of recurrent suicide attempts in four clusters (type and severity of axis-I disorders, BPD traits, determinants of suicide attempts and socio-demographics). In the total sample the suicide attempt rate ratio increased with 33% for every unit increase in BPD traits. A lifetime diagnosis of dysthymia and comorbid BPD traits, especially the symptoms anger and fights, were independently and significantly associated with recurrent suicide attempts in the final model (n=309). The screening of personality disorders was added to the NESDA assessments at the 4-year follow-up for the first time. Therefore we were not able to examine the influence of comorbid BPD traits on suicide attempts over time. Persons with a lifetime diagnosis of dysthymia combined with borderline personality traits especially difficulties in coping with anger seemed to be at high risk for recurrent suicide attempts. For clinical practice, it is recommended to screen for comorbid borderline personality traits and to strengthen the patient's coping skills with regard to anger. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The association of military and premilitary sexual trauma with risk for suicide ideation, plans, and attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Bryan, AnnaBelle O; Clemans, Tracy A

    2015-06-30

    Military sexual trauma is a strong predictor of psychiatric disorders and negative health outcomes among military personnel and veterans, but little is known about its relationship with suicide risk. The current study investigates the association of military sexual trauma with suicide risk among 464 U.S. military personnel and veterans enrolled in college classes. Results indicate that premilitary sexual assault was associated with significantly increased risk for later suicide ideation, plans, and attempts during military service. Unwanted sexual experiences occurring during military service was associated with significantly increased risk for suicide ideation and suicide plans for male participants. When considered simultaneously, premilitary sexual trauma showed relatively stronger associations with suicide risk among women whereas military sexual trauma showed relatively stronger associations with suicide risk among men. Results suggest differences in the relation of sexual trauma to suicide risk among male and female military personnel and veterans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A suicidal recovery theory to guide individuals on their healing and recovering process following a suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Long, Ann

    2013-09-01

    To develop a theory to guide the recovery process of a recent suicide attempt. Suicide is one of the 10 leading causes of death in many countries. Many nations have set targets to reduce the high incidence of suicide by aiming to prevent people from taking their own lives and also providing care to promote the healing of those who attempt suicide. A qualitative grounded theory approach was used. Data were collected in 2011-2012 in a Taiwanese hospital until data saturation occurred. Twenty participants were interviewed, comprising patients who recovered from suicide attempts (N = 14) and their caregivers (N = 6). Data were analysed using open, axial, and selective coding and using the constant comparison technique. A substantive theory was formulated to guide the recovery process of people who have recently attempted suicide. The core category that emerged from the data collected was 'Striving to accept the value of self-in-existence'. Other key categories linked to and embraced in this core category were: becoming flexible and open-minded, re-building a positive sense of self, and endeavouring to live a peaceful and contented life. Nurses could use this theory as a theoretical framework to guide people who are recovering from a suicide attempt by affording them the opportunity to grow and heal, and facilitating the re-building a positive sense of self, acknowledging the uncertainties of life, and inspiring hope. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Spirituality and Religion in Youth Suicide Attempters’ Trajectories of Mental Health Service Utilization: The Year before a Suicide Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Marie; Nadeau, Lucie; Renaud, Johanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective Youth suicide attempters are high-risk for suicide. Many have untreated mental disorders and are not receiving services. It is crucial to understand potential influences associated with service use. Spirituality/religion are one influence in youths’ mental health service trajectories. This study explored youths’ experiences of spirituality/religion as it relates to their help-seeking the year before their suicide attempt. Method: Fifteen youth (aged 14–18) who made a suicide attempt(s) one to two years prior were consecutively recruited through the Depressive Disorders Program of a psychiatric hospital and interviewed using a mixed-methods design, including an adapted psychological autopsy method. Results: Three themes emerged: religious community members acted as a bridge, step, or provider to mental health services; religious/spiritual discourses were encountered within services; and many youths reported changes in spirituality/religious beliefs the year before their suicide attempt. Conclusions: Spirituality/religion can have a role in these youths’ service trajectories. How this confers protection or challenges needs to be clarified. Our findings can inform policies supporting training religious leaders about suicide intervention to foster coordination with mental health services, and service-providers in judiciously approaching spiritual/religious themes in suicide prevention. PMID:22876264

  11. Clinical characteristics of depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts: results from the CRESCEND study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Tae-Suk; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Jeong, Seung Hee; Lee, Chul; Lee, Chang-Uk; Kim, Jae-Min; Jung, Sung-Won; Lee, Min-Soo; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2010-10-01

    South Korea is a country with one of the highest suicide rates in the world, and the suicide rate is still on the rise. The purpose of this study was to determine the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of suicide attempts and risk factors related to suicide attempts among depressed patients in South Korea. Among the 1183 participants, 21.4% had a history of a suicide attempt. When the severity of depression was controlled, the risk factors for patients who attempted suicide included younger age, experienced significant life events before 12 years of age, psychotic symptoms, and previous depressive episodes. The characteristics of attempted suicide in depressed patients in South Korea can be summarized as a high suicide attempt rate with no difference in the number of suicide attempts and lethality between males and females. This unique tendency is probably related to the sociodemographic and cultural characteristics of South Korea.

  12. Effect of assertive outreach after suicide attempt in the AID (assertive intervention for deliberate self harm) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Britt; Krogh, Jesper; Erlangsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether an assertive outreach intervention after suicide attempt could reduce the frequency of subsequent suicidal acts, compared with standard treatment.......To assess whether an assertive outreach intervention after suicide attempt could reduce the frequency of subsequent suicidal acts, compared with standard treatment....

  13. Toxoplasmosis Titers and past Suicide Attempts Among Older Adolescents Initiating SSRI Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, William; Yolken, Robert; Butcher, Brandon; Burns, Trudy; Dindo, Lilian; Schlechte, Janet; Calarge, Chadi

    2016-01-01

    Latent infection with toxoplasmosis is a prevalent condition that has been linked in animal studies to high-risk behaviors, and in humans, to suicide and suicide attempts. This analysis investigated a relationship between suicide attempt history and toxoplasmosis titers in a group of older adolescents who had recently begun treatment with an SSRI. Of 108 participants, 17 (15.7 %) had a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt. All were given structured and unstructured diagnostic interviews and provided blood samples. Two individuals (11.9%) with a past suicide attempt, and two (2.1%) without this history, had toxoplasmosis titers ≥ 10 IU/ml (p = 0.166). Those with a past suicide attempt had mean toxoplasmosis titers that were significantly different (p = 0.018) from those of patients who lacked this history. An ROC analysis suggested a lower optimal threshold for distinguishing patients with and without suicide attempts (3.6 IU/ml) than that customarily used to identify seropositivity. Toxoplasmosis titers may quantify a proneness to suicidal behavior in younger individuals being treated with antidepressants.

  14. The Indirect Effect of Perceived Criticism on Suicide Ideation and Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Christopher R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-07-03

    The effect of perceived criticism from others is one potentially important risk factor for suicide that has received scant attention, despite decades of research on the role of criticism in the treatment and course of mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and mood disorders. This study analyzed the effect of perceived criticism's association with suicidal ideation and attempts as well as its connection with the suicide related constructs thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness as described in the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide. Fifty participants (66% female, MAge = 18.7), 18 of whom had previously made one or more suicide attempts, completed a battery of self-report assessments as well as two in-person, structured clinical interviews. Analyses demonstrated that perceived parental criticism is a significant indicator of suicide ideation (β = .297, p = .003) and attempts (β = .373, p attempts (β = .297, p = .006). Perceived criticism has a strong indirect effect on suicide ideation and attempts through its effect on thwarted belongingness, but not perceived burdensomeness, while controlling for mental illnesses. Some limitations of this study include the cross-sectional design and the use of a relatively small, restricted age sample. Treatment designed to mitigate perceived criticism and thwarted belongingness may be an important component in combatting suicidal ideation and attempts, particularly among young adults.

  15. Cognitive therapy for the prevention of suicide attempts: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory K; Ten Have, Thomas; Henriques, Gregg R; Xie, Sharon X; Hollander, Judd E; Beck, Aaron T

    2005-08-03

    Suicide attempts constitute a major risk factor for completed suicide, yet few interventions specifically designed to prevent suicide attempts have been evaluated. To determine the effectiveness of a 10-session cognitive therapy intervention designed to prevent repeat suicide attempts in adults who recently attempted suicide. Randomized controlled trial of adults (N = 120) who attempted suicide and were evaluated at a hospital emergency department within 48 hours of the attempt. Potential participants (N = 350) were consecutively recruited from October 1999 to September 2002; 66 refused to participate and 164 were ineligible. Participants were followed up for 18 months. Cognitive therapy or enhanced usual care with tracking and referral services. Incidence of repeat suicide attempts and number of days until a repeat suicide attempt. Suicide ideation (dichotomized), hopelessness, and depression severity at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. From baseline to the 18-month assessment, 13 participants (24.1%) in the cognitive therapy group and 23 participants (41.6%) in the usual care group made at least 1 subsequent suicide attempt (asymptotic z score, 1.97; P = .049). Using the Kaplan-Meier method, the estimated 18-month reattempt-free probability in the cognitive therapy group was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.85) and in the usual care group was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.44-0.70). Participants in the cognitive therapy group had a significantly lower reattempt rate (Wald chi2(1) = 3.9; P = .049) and were 50% less likely to reattempt suicide than participants in the usual care group (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.26-0.997). The severity of self-reported depression was significantly lower for the cognitive therapy group than for the usual care group at 6 months (P= .02), 12 months (P = .009), and 18 months (P = .046). The cognitive therapy group reported significantly less hopelessness than the usual care group at 6 months (P = .045). There were no significant differences

  16. Risk factors for fatal and nonfatal repetition of suicide attempts: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beghi M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Massimiliano Beghi,1,2 Jerrold F Rosenbaum,3 Cesare Cerri,1,4 Cesare M Cornaggia1,51Psychiatry Clinic, University of Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy; 2Department of Psychiatry, Salvini Hospital, Rho, Italy; 3Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Zucchi Clinical Institute, Carate Brianza, Italy; 5Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Castiglione delle Stiviere, Mantua, ItalyObjectives: This review aimed to identify the evidence for predictors of repetition of suicide attempts, and more specifically for subsequent completed suicide.Methods: We conducted a literature search of PubMed and Embase between January 1, 1991 and December 31, 2009, and we excluded studies investigating only special populations (eg, male and female only, children and adolescents, elderly, a specific psychiatric disorder and studies with sample size fewer than 50 patients.Results: The strongest predictor of a repeated attempt is a previous attempt, followed by being a victim of sexual abuse, poor global functioning, having a psychiatric disorder, being on psychiatric treatment, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse or dependence. For other variables examined (Caucasian ethnicity, having a criminal record, having any mood disorders, bad family environment, and impulsivity there are indications for a putative correlation as well. For completed suicide, the strongest predictors are older age, suicide ideation, and history of suicide attempt. Living alone, male sex, and alcohol abuse are weakly predictive with a positive correlation (but sustained by very scarce data for poor impulsivity and a somatic diagnosis.Conclusion: It is difficult to find predictors for repetition of nonfatal suicide attempts, and even more difficult to identify predictors of completed suicide. Suicide ideation and alcohol or substance abuse/dependence, which are, along with depression, the most consistent predictors for initial nonfatal

  17. Suicide attempts in a prospective cohort of patients with schizophrenia treated with sertindole or risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocq, M A; Naber, D; Lader, M H; Thibaut, F; Drici, M; Everitt, B; Hall, G C; Le Jeunne, C; Mittoux, A; Peuskens, J; Priori, S; Sturkenboom, M; Thomas, S H L; Tanghøj, P; Toumi, M; Mann, R; Moore, N D

    2010-12-01

    The incidence of suicide attempts (fatal and non-fatal) was analysed in a prospective cohort of patients with schizophrenia randomly assigned to sertindole (4905 patients) or risperidone (4904 patients) in a parallel-group open-label study with blinded classification of outcomes (the sertindole cohort prospective study--SCoP). The total exposure was 6978 and 7975 patient-years in the sertindole and risperidone groups, respectively. Suicide mortality in the study was low (0.21 and 0.28 per 100 patients per year with sertindole and risperidone, respectively). The majority (84%) of suicide attempts occurred within the first year of treatment. Cox's proportional hazards model analysis of the time to the first suicide attempt, reported by treating psychiatrists and blindly reviewed by an independent expert group according to the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (both defining suicide attempts by association of suicidal act and intent to die), showed a lower risk of suicide attempt for sertindole-treated patients than for risperidone-treated patients. The effect was statistically significant with both evaluation methods during the first year of randomized treatment (hazard ratios [95% CI]: 0.5 [0.31-0.82], p=0.006; and 0.57 [0.35-0.92], p=0.02, respectively). With classification by an independent safety committee using a broader definition including all incidences of intentional self-harm, also those without clear suicidal intent, the results were not significant. A history of previous suicide attempts was significantly associated with attempted suicides in both treatment groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum triglycerides, but not cholesterol or leptin, are decreased in suicide attempters with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Graça Cantarelli, Maria; Nardin, Patrícia; Buffon, Andréia; Eidt, Murilo Castilhos; Antônio Godoy, Luiz; Fernandes, Brisa S; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Many peripheral biomarkers, including low cholesterol and its fractions, have been examined to identify suicidal behavior. Herein, we assessed serum lipid profile and some proteins putatively associated with suicidal behavior in subjects with mood disorder (bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) with a recent suicide attempt and with no lifetime history of suicide attempts. Fifty subjects had presented an episode of attempted suicide during the last 15 days, and 36 subjects had no history of any suicide attempt. We measured total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides as well as serum leptin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), S100B and C-reactive protein (CRP). Individuals that had attempted suicide presented decreased body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. After adjusting for these confounders, we found that triglycerides were decreased in attempted suicide subjects. We found no differences among total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL or leptin, S100B, CRP and BDNF. This is a cross-sectional study, and we cannot therefore assess whether a decrease in triglycerides caused a mood episode with suicidal ideation that led to a suicide attempt or if the presence of a mood episode originated a loss of appetite and consequent loss of weight, therefore decreasing triglyceride levels. These results do not support the hypothesis that lower levels of cholesterol are associated with suicidal behavior in a mood disorder sample. However, our data support the idea that adiposity is differentiated in these patients (reduced BMI, waist circumference and serum triglycerides), which could lead to an altered communication between the adipose tissue and brain. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Suicide attempts in the county of Basel: results from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavio, Muheim; Martin, Eichhorn; Pascal, Berger; Stephanie, Czernin; Gabriela, Stoppe; Merle, Keck; Anita, Riecher-Rössler

    2013-05-28

    This article presents epidemiological and clinical findings from the Basel research centre parti-cipating in the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour. Between January 2003 and December 2006, 984 suicide attempts were documented for patients presenting at medical institutions with a suicide attempt. The mean suicide attempt rate was 164/100,000 inhabitants. Women attempted suicide nearly twice as often as men. The highest suicide attempt rates were found for women aged 20-24 years, for men aged 30-34 years, and for people who were unmarried, of foreign nationality, and of low education or low employment status. 'Soft methods' were used significantly more often than 'hard methods'. Of the suicide attempt methods employed, a relatively high proportion was accounted for by self-poisoning with drugs (X60-64), especially with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, benzodiazepines and antidepressants. Significant gender differences were found in the various methods and in the frequency of psychiatric diagnoses. A total of 98.7% of the attempters were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder according to ICD-10; 35% suffered from an affective disorder. Men were significantly more frequently affected by substance abuse disorder or psychosis, whereas in women adjustment disorders and personality disorders were diagnosed significantly more often. This study offers the first published representative data of an entire Swiss county. Established sociodemographic and clinical risk factors for suicide attempts were reproduced. The identification of risk factors contributes to developing local targeted prevention strategies, for example education of risk groups and caregivers, and pharmacolegal consequences for package sizes. Gender- and age-specific prevention and aftercare programmes are indicated.

  20. Attempted suicide in Denmark. IV. A five-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B; Wang, A G; Brille-Brahe, U

    1990-01-01

    From October 1, 1980 to April 20, 1981, 207 patients were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, after attempting suicide. Information on physical, mental and social conditions was collected. The patients were then followed for 5 years, to register subsequent suicidal...... contact with the psychiatric ward. Predictors for future suicide were chronic somatic disease, depression, abuse of medicine, and chronic alcohol abuse. The authors emphasize the need for a thorough medical evaluation of patients attempting suicide, to be able to identify and eventually treat...

  1. Association between non-suicidal self-injuries and suicide attempts in Chinese adolescents and college students: a cross-section study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study examined the association between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents and college students. METHODS: A total sample of 2013 Chinese students were randomly selected from five schools in Wuhan, China, including 1101 boys and 912 girls with the age ranging between 10 and 24 years. NSSI, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and depressive symptoms were measured by self-rated questionnaires. Self-reported suicide attempts were regressed on suicidal ideation and NSSI, controlling for participants' depressive symptoms, and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The self-reported prevalence rates of NSSI, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were 15.5%, 8.8%, and 3.5%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses indicated that NSSI was significantly associated with self-reported suicide attempts. Analyses examining the conditional association of NSSI and suicidal ideation with self-reported suicide attempts revealed that NSSI was significantly associated with greater risk of suicide attempts in those not reporting suicidal ideation than those reporting suicidal ideation in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the importance of NSSI as a potentially independent risk factor for suicide attempts among Chinese/Han adolescents and college students.

  2. Association between non-suicidal self-injuries and suicide attempts in Chinese adolescents and college students: a cross-section study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Wu, Yu; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhu, Huiping; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Zhuoya

    2011-04-08

    This study examined the association between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents and college students. A total sample of 2013 Chinese students were randomly selected from five schools in Wuhan, China, including 1101 boys and 912 girls with the age ranging between 10 and 24 years. NSSI, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and depressive symptoms were measured by self-rated questionnaires. Self-reported suicide attempts were regressed on suicidal ideation and NSSI, controlling for participants' depressive symptoms, and demographic characteristics. The self-reported prevalence rates of NSSI, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were 15.5%, 8.8%, and 3.5%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses indicated that NSSI was significantly associated with self-reported suicide attempts. Analyses examining the conditional association of NSSI and suicidal ideation with self-reported suicide attempts revealed that NSSI was significantly associated with greater risk of suicide attempts in those not reporting suicidal ideation than those reporting suicidal ideation in the past year. These findings highlight the importance of NSSI as a potentially independent risk factor for suicide attempts among Chinese/Han adolescents and college students.

  3. Association between Non-Suicidal Self-Injuries and Suicide Attempts in Chinese Adolescents and College Students: A Cross-Section Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhu, Huiping; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Zhuoya

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the association between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents and college students. Methods A total sample of 2013 Chinese students were randomly selected from five schools in Wuhan, China, including 1101 boys and 912 girls with the age ranging between 10 and 24 years. NSSI, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and depressive symptoms were measured by self-rated questionnaires. Self-reported suicide attempts were regressed on suicidal ideation and NSSI, controlling for participants' depressive symptoms, and demographic characteristics. Results The self-reported prevalence rates of NSSI, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were 15.5%, 8.8%, and 3.5%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses indicated that NSSI was significantly associated with self-reported suicide attempts. Analyses examining the conditional association of NSSI and suicidal ideation with self-reported suicide attempts revealed that NSSI was significantly associated with greater risk of suicide attempts in those not reporting suicidal ideation than those reporting suicidal ideation in the past year. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of NSSI as a potentially independent risk factor for suicide attempts among Chinese/Han adolescents and college students. PMID:21494656

  4. Association between sleep duration, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempts among Chinese adolescents: The moderating role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan; Xu, Yan; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Li, Pengsheng; Wu, Hong; Pan, Siyuan; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2017-01-15

    Suicidal ideation and attempts are still currently serious problems among adolescents worldwide, and there is evidence that sleep problem may be associated with increased rates of mental disorder. This study aimed to examine the associations between sleep duration and suicidal ideation and attempts among adolescents and to test whether depressive symptoms have moderating effects on the associations. A 3-stage, stratified cluster, random sampling method was used to collect data from 20,130 high school students in southeast China. The weighted prevalence of short sleep among Chinese adolescents was 5.6% (95% CI, 5.3-6.0%), and the weighted prevalence of long sleep was 2.7% (95% CI, 2.5-3.0%). The final results demonstrated that short sleep was positively associated with suicidal ideation (AOR=2.28, 95% CI=1.96-2.66) and suicidal attempts (AOR=3.20, 95% CI=2.46-4.16), and long sleep was only significantly associated with suicidal attempts (AOR=2.47, 95% CI=1.70-3.58). Stratification analyses conducted separately for students with and without depressive symptoms demonstrated that depressive symptoms may have moderating effects on the associations between sleep duration and suicidality. Our study sample only included school students, and causal inference could not be examined due to the cross-sectional design. Sleep duration was associated with suicidal ideation and attempts, and the association between sleep duration and suicidal attempts was U-shaped. These findings support that proper treatments services with the potential to restore adolescent normal sleep would be helpful in preventing suicidality among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Is transition to disability pension in young people associated with changes in risk of attempted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer-Rutz, E; Alexanderson, K; Westerlund, H; Lange, T

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate trajectories of suicide attempt risks before and after granting of disability pension in young people. The analytic sample consisted of all persons 16-30 years old and living in Sweden who were granted a disability pension in the years 1995-1997; 2000-2002 as well as 2005-2006 (n = 26,624). Crude risks and adjusted odds ratios for suicide attempt were computed for the 9-year window around the year of disability pension receipt by repeated-measures logistic regressions. The risk of suicide attempt was found to increase continuously up to the year preceding the granting of disability pension in young people, after which the risk declined. These trajectories were similar for women and men and for disability pension due to mental and somatic diagnoses. Still, the multivariate odds ratios for suicide attempts for women and for disability pension due to mental disorders were 2.5- and 3.8-fold increased compared with the odds ratios for men and disability pension due to somatic disorders, respectively. Trajectories of suicide attempts differed for young individuals granted a disability pension during 2005-2006 compared with those granted during 1995-1997 and 2000-2002. We found an increasing risk of suicide attempt up until the granting of a disability pension in young individuals, after which the risk decreased. It is of clinical importance to monitor suicide attempt risk among young people waiting for the granting of a disability pension.

  6. The Relationship between Ghrelin and Copeptin Levels, and Anxiety and Depression Levels in Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atescelik, Metin; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Sevda; Goktekin, Mehmet Cagri; Gurger, Mehtap; Ilhan, Nevin

    2017-08-31

    It was aimed to detect acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UG) and copeptin levels in patients with suicide attempts and to determine if these biomarkers are risk factors for suicide attempts. Serum copeptin, AG and GU levels were screened in 128 patients who were admitted to emergency department with suicide attempts and 59 healthy controls. Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were applied simultaneously, and the data were compared statistically. AG, UG and copeptin levels were higher in the patient group compared with the healthy control group. BAI scores of patients were found to be positively correlated with BDI scores. While there was a significant difference (p=0.0064) between psychiatric and non-psychiatric patients with suicide attempts in terms of BAI scores, there were no differences in BDI scores and levels of biomarkers. We found significantly increased BDI and BAI scores and increased levels of AG, UG and copeptin in psychiatric and non-psychiatric patients compared with healthy individuals. The specificities yielded by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in patients with suicide attempts were as follows: 91.53% for AG, 72.88% for UG and 94.92% for copeptin. Serum levels of AG, UG and copeptin increase with increasing anxiety and depression in patients with suicide attempts. Increased levels of AG, UG and copeptin could be considered a risk factor for suicide attempts.

  7. Coping skills among adolescent suicide attempters: results of a multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Bojan; Labelle, Réal; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Belloncle, Vincent; Bodeau, Nicolas; Knafo, Alexandra; Condat, Agnès; Bapt-Cazalets, Nathalie; Marguet, Christophe; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Cohen, David; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-02-01

    A multisite study was undertaken to advance our understanding of how coping skills, depression, and suicidal ideation are related among adolescents who attempt suicide. Two hypotheses were postulated: productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with lower and higher depression scores when age, sex, and stressful life events (SLEs) were controlled; and productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with the presence and absence of suicidal ideation when age, sex, and SLEs were controlled. Participants were 167 adolescents (13 to 17 years of age) hospitalized for attempting suicide in 5 pediatric departments across France. Four instruments were administered: the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version, the Adolescent Coping Scale, the Life Events Questionnaire, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Descriptive analyses and univariate and multiple regression models were completed. Both hypotheses were confirmed. Focus on the positive emerged as a significant variable in both models; depression emerged as a significant variable in the suicidal ideation model. The only sex difference observed was that girls made greater use of wishful thinking and seek social support. These findings suggest that coping skills are important mechanisms through which depression and suicidal ideation are maintained after attempting suicide. In intervening with adolescents who have attempted suicide, it may be useful to emphasize cognitive work geared to looking on the bright side, positive thinking, and fighting depression.

  8. Adolescents Transitioning to High School: Sex Differences in Bullying Victimization Associated With Depressive Symptoms, Suicide Ideation, and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan G; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Wornell, Cory; Finnegan, Heather

    2017-12-01

    Adolescents transitioning to high school may be at greater risk of depression and suicide if they are victims of bullying behavior. This study explored sex differences in bullying victimization (physical, verbal/social, and cyberbullying) and the impact on depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in ninth-grade students ( N = 233). Females reported significantly more verbal/social and cyberbullying than male students. There were no significant sex differences in physical bullying; male students who reported physical bullying victimization were more likely to experience depressive symptoms. Verbal/social bullying predicted depressive symptoms in males and females. Females who reported being victims of cyberbullying were more likely to report depressive symptoms, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts. Eighteen students reported suicide attempts, and each also experienced verbal/social bullying. School nurses are positioned to reach out to transitioning students, screen for mental health issues, provide a safe place to talk about bullying experiences, and promote positive mental health.

  9. Sociodemografic and Clinical Characteristics of Suicidal Cases who Attempted to Emergency Services in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma ERCAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the sociodemografic and clinical characteristics of suicide attempted cases who were admitted to the emergency departments of the hospitals in the first six months of 2010 in Ankara. Methods: Data were obtained by examining the suicide attempted registration forms that were filled out in the emergency services of hospitals working for the Ministry of Health retrospectively. Results: The incidence of suicide attempts in women (76.5% is higher than men (23.5%. Suicide attempts are high in 15-24 group of age (59.3 %. The rate of suicide attempts is high in patients who were single (57.9 % and students who were in education level of secondary (44.6 % and high school (40.2 %. The most common hospitals that were applied are Ankara Training and Researsch Hospital (29.8% and Keçiören Training and Research Hospital (12.4%. Also Mamak (19.7% and Keçiören (17.2% are towns that cases were seen mostly. The most applied method of suicide attempted is the usage of drugs and toxic substances with the 96.2%. The increment ratio of the suicide attempts is seen paticularly from January to June. Family (16.0% and psychiatric disorder (15.2% are mainly stressors leading to suicide attempted. Discussion: All attempted suicide patients who applied to Emergency Department should be directed to Crisis Intervention Unit immediately and following-up the cases with psychiatric consultation must become obligatory as well as medical treatments. The findings have been discussed with the literature. [JCBPR 2016; 5(1.000: 5-12

  10. Hopelessness as a predictor of attempted suicide among first admission patients with psychosis: A 10-year cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Klonsky, E. David; Kotov, Roman; Bakst, Shelly; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of hopelessness to attempted suicide in psychotic disorders. The present study addresses this gap by assessing hopelessness and attempted suicide at multiple time-points over 10-years in a first-admission cohort with psychosis (n=414). Approximately 1 in 5 participants attempted suicide during the 10-year follow-up, and those who attempted suicide scored significantly higher at baseline on the Beck Hopelessness Scale. In general, a given ass...

  11. Tedium vitae, death wishes, suicidal ideation and attempts in Kenya-prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Omollo, Ray; Ongeri, Linnet; Sifuna, Peter; Ongecha, Michael; Mboroki, James Kingora; Kiima, David; Ogutu, Bernhards

    2015-08-08

    There has been no previous household population study of suicidal ideation and attempts in Kenya. Therefore this study aimed to establish the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts in a rural population in Kenya, and to assess risk factors. An epidemiological survey of a household population, using standardised structured interviews. We examined the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts and the predictors of suicidal thoughts and attempts, using STATA to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios. A quarter of the sample (24.1 %) had thought that life was not worth living (tedium vitae) at some point in their lives, while a fifth had experienced death wishes at some stage. About 7.9 % reported suicidal thoughts and 1.9 % had made actual suicide attempts at some point in their lives. It can be seen that the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was 0.7 %, 4.2 %, 3.7 % and 7.9 % for last week, last year, at some other time, and lifetime respectively, while the prevalence of suicidal attempts was 0.5 %, 1.2 %, 0.7 and 1.9 % respectively. In the adjusted analysis of factors associated with suicidal thoughts, being female (OR 1.8, p = 0.017), having CMD (OR 2.7, p = 0.001), having a number of recent life events (OR 2.3, p = 0.001 for 2-3 life events and OR 2.6, p = 0.004 for 4 or more life events), and having a large social group size (OR 7.7, p = 0.006 for social group size of 4-8 and OR 9.1, p = 0.003 for social group size of 9 or more) were all associated with increased rates of life time suicidal thoughts, but psychotic symptoms were no longer significant after adjustment for the other variables. In the adjusted analysis of suicide attempts, having any psychotic symptoms (OR 5.1, p = 0.001) was the only factor associated with suicide attempts after adjustment for other factors significant at the bivariate level. Suicidal ideation and attempts pose a significant public health burden in this poor rural area of Kenya. The findings are relevant for

  12. Emotional face recognition in adolescent suicide attempters and adolescents engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E; Jones, Richard N; Cushman, Grace K; Galvan, Thania; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying and differentiating suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Adolescents who attempt suicide or engage in NSSI often report significant interpersonal and social difficulties. Emotional face recognition ability is a fundamental skill required for successful social interactions, and deficits in this ability may provide insight into the unique brain-behavior interactions underlying suicide attempts versus NSSI in adolescents. Therefore, we examined emotional face recognition ability among three mutually exclusive groups: (1) inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide (SA, n = 30); (2) inpatient adolescents engaged in NSSI (NSSI, n = 30); and (3) typically developing controls (TDC, n = 30) without psychiatric illness. Participants included adolescents aged 13-17 years, matched on age, gender and full-scale IQ. Emotional face recognition was evaluated using the diagnostic assessment of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA-2). Compared to TDC youth, adolescents with NSSI made more errors on child fearful and adult sad face recognition while controlling for psychopathology and medication status (ps Adolescent inpatients engaged in NSSI showed greater deficits in emotional face recognition than TDC, but not inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide. Further results suggest the importance of psychopathology in emotional face recognition. Replication of these preliminary results and examination of the role of context-dependent emotional processing are needed moving forward.

  13. Is Drug Use Related to the Choice of Potentially More Harmful Methods in Suicide Attempts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartiu Xavier Da Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify whether drug abuse is a risk factor for potentially more harmful methods of suicide attempts that could predict suicide completion in the future. Methods: The study involved the assessment of 86 patients who attempted suicide and who were admitted to the emergency ward of a Southwestern Brazilian general hospital. Results: Most patients were women (84.9%, young adults (30.53 ± 10.4 years, and single (61.6%. Recent drug use was reported by 53.5%, and 25.6% reported the use of drugs during the 24-hour period immediately before the suicide attempt. Most patients (75.6% ingested pills when attempting suicide–-a method considered potentially less harmful. Hanging, jumping, gas inhaling, and wrist cutting accounted for 22.2% of the attempts. Considering dual diagnoses, 54.7% presented with a depressive disorder, 8.1% with a disorder on the impulse control spectrum, and 26.7% reported an associated clinical condition. Recent drug use was predictive of the severity of the suicide attempt, as it was reported by 81% of those who engaged in more harmful attempts and by 46.2% of those who used less harmful methods ( P < 0.01; odds ratio = 4.96; confidence interval: 1.5–16.4. Conclusion: The identified variables associated with the use of potentially more harmful methods in suicide attempts were gender (male, presence of an impulsive control disorder, and recent use of psychoactive drugs.

  14. [Prevalence of social distance and restriction among college students with suicide attempts in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wo; Ai, Ming; Kuang, Li; Chen, Jian-Mei; Gan, Yao; Zeng, Yan; Lou, Dan-Dan; Liu, Wan-Ting; Niu, Ya-Juan; Phillips, Michael R

    2011-04-01

    To explore the attitude towards 10 different populations with different characteristics on their social distance and acceptance among those people with or without suicidal attempts among college students in Chongqing. 9808 college students were randomly selected from 11 universities in Chongqing and administered a self-constructed questionnaire "Suicide Attitude and Mental Health Status Questionnaire". A t-test was employed to analyze the social distance and degree of acceptance of college students with or without suicide attempts towards different groups as criminals, hypertensive, with suicide actions, homosexuals, depressive disorder, HIV infection, drug addiction, death of family members, hospitalization history in mental service and alcohol addiction. 169 college students had suicide attempts; the reporting rate of suicide attempts was 1.7%. Among college students, the scores higher than 50 on nine items related to social distance towards strangers with those 10 different characteristics and the top three were on those with HIV infection, drug addiction and hospitalization history in mental service. There were differences (P attitude towards strangers with drug addiction (with suicide attempts 83.38 ± 21.82, without suicide attempts 78.55 ± 21.55, t = 2.88), hospitalization history in mental service (79.27 ± 21.23, 75.67 ± 21.31, t = 2.17), homosexuality (66.87 ± 24.77, 74.14 ± 21.94, t = -4.25), alcohol addiction (66.72 ± 21.80, 61.00 ± 22.80, t = 3.23) and hypertension (56.65 ± 20.40, 53.36 ± 21.05, t = 2.01) between college students with or without suicide attempts. College students scored higher than 50 in 7 items of social rejective attitudes towards acquaintances, of those with hospitalization history in mental service, drug and alcohol addiction ranked the top three. It showed statistical significances in social rejection attitudes towards acquaintances with homosexuality (35.28 ± 30.38, 42.83 ± 30.76, t = -3.14), severe depression (56.59

  15. Hopelessness as a Predictor of Attempted Suicide among First Admission Patients with Psychosis: A 10-Year Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonsky, E. David; Kotov, Roman; Bakst, Shelly; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of hopelessness to attempted suicide in psychotic disorders. This study addresses this gap by assessing hopelessness and attempted suicide at multiple time-points over 10 years in a first-admission cohort with psychosis (n = 414). Approximately one in five participants attempted suicide during…

  16. Self-mutilative behavior in adolescents who attempt suicide by overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, T; Lloyd-Richardson, E; Spirito, A; Donaldson, D; Boergers, J

    2001-09-01

    To examine the cognitive/affective and behavioral symptoms of adolescent suicide attempters with self-mutilative behavior (SMB). Adolescents evaluated after a suicide attempt that occurred between 1996 and 2000 were divided into two groups: suicide attempters with a history of SMB (n = 52) and suicide attempters without SMB (n = 43). The groups were then compared on psychiatric diagnosis, suicide intent, depression, hopelessness, loneliness, anger, reckless behavior, substance use, and family functioning. Carving on the skin and picking at a wound were the most commonly reported SMBs, occurring in about one third of the sample. The SMB group was significantly more likely to be diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder, major depression, and dysthymia and had higher scores on measures of hopelessness, loneliness, anger, risk taking, reckless behavior, and alcohol use than did the non-SMB group. Loneliness increased the odds of SMB almost 6-fold. Adolescent suicide attempts with SMB are associated with greater cognitive/affective and behavioral symptoms. Adolescent suicide attempters should be routinely screened for SMB.

  17. [The relation of selected psychiatric disorders to occurrence of suicide attempts among teenage psychiatrically hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Katarzyna; Gawlik-Kotelnicka, Oliwia; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Suicide is the third cause of death globally in the age group 10-19. Multiple risk factors (genetic, psychiatric, psychological, familial, social) increased number of suicide attempts. The aim of this study was to explore whether mental disorders are associated with the number of suicide attempts among psychiatric hospitalized adolescents. Retrospective, chart-based analysis of 119 patients, aged 13-18, treated in 2013-2014 in the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź. Inclusion criteria was diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, behavioral and emotional disorders according to ICD 10. Exclusion criteria were other psychiatric diagnosis, incomplete information about intention of self-harm behaviors. For statistical analysis used Statistica 9.1. Among psychiatricaly hospitalized patients, 51.2% of people attempted suicide. No relationship was found (p > 0.05) between psychiatric diagnosis and frequency of suicide attempts in adolescents, but the most common suicide attempts related to people with a diagnosis of mood disorders (59.3%) and neurotic disorders (54.6%), and least frequently in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia , schizotypal and delusional disorders (40%) and behavioral and emotional disorders (44.4%). There is no relation between the occurrence of suicide attempts and the type of mental disorders among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  18. The incidence of hospital-treated attempted suicide in Oviedo, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Trevino, Luis; Saiz, Pilar A; Corcoran, Paul; Garcia-Portilla, M Paz; Buron, Patricia; Garrido, Marlen; Diaz-Mesa, Eva; Al-Halabi, Susana; Bobes, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hospital-treated attempted suicide has not been well established in Spain. To determine the incidence of suicide attempters presenting to a hospital in Oviedo, Spain, to describe the nature of the suicidal behavior, and to identify sociodemographic subgroups of the population with high rates. All admitted to the Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, during the period 1 May 2008 to 30 April 2009 were examined and those meeting the internationally-recognized case definition were identified. A total of 308 suicide attempt presentations (39% male, 61% female) were made by 279 individuals. Almost 90% of the suicide attempts involved a drug overdose. The age-adjusted total, male, and female attempted suicide rates were 83, 66, and 99 per 100,000, respectively. The highest rate was among 35-44-year-olds for men and women (141.1 and 191.8 per 100,000, respectively). Incidence rates varied widely by sociodemographic characteristics with especially high rates among separated/divorced men (2.4%) and women (1.1%). The reported incidence of hospital-treated attempted suicide is below average in the European context but higher than that reported by previous Spanish studies. Persons separated or divorced constitute a high-risk group.

  19. Do suicide attempts occur more frequently in the spring too? A systematic review and rhythmic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, Daniel Gomes; Pereira E Silva, Aline Cristine; de Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando; Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; de Siqueira Figueredo, Diego; Araújo Santos, José Luiz; Barbosa, Mayara Rodrigues; de Medeiros Alves, Veronica; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; de Andrade, Tiago Gomes

    2016-05-15

    Seasonal variations in suicides have been reported worldwide, however, there may be a different seasonal pattern in suicide attempts. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review on seasonality of suicide attempts considering potential interfering variables, and a statistical analysis for seasonality with the collected data. Observational epidemiological studies about seasonality in suicide attempts were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases with terms attempted suicide, attempt and season. Monthly or seasonal data available were evaluated by rhythmic analysis softwares. Twenty-nine articles from 16 different countries were included in the final review. It was observed different patterns of seasonality, however, suicide attempts in spring and summer were the most frequent seasons reported. Eight studies indicated differences in sex and three in the method used for suicide attempts. Three articles did not find a seasonal pattern in suicide attempts. Cosinor analysis identified an overall pattern of seasonal variation with a suggested peak in spring, considering articles individually or grouped and independent of sex and method used. A restricted analysis with self-poisoning in hospital samples demonstrated the same profile. Grouping diverse populations and potential analytical bias due to lack of information are the main limitations. The identification of a seasonal profile suggests the influence of an important environmental modulator that can reverberate to suicide prevention strategies. Further studies controlling interfering variables and investigating the biological substrate for this phenomenon would be helpful to confirm our conclusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Suicide attempts and psychological risk factors in patients with bipolar and unipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Joanna; Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Monika; Skibińska, Maria; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Maciukiewicz, Małgorzata; Czerski, Piotr; Hauser, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is an important clinical problem in psychiatric patients. The highest risk of suicide attempts is noted in affective disorders. The aim of the study was looking for suicide risk factors among personality dimensions and value system in patients with diagnosis of unipolar and bipolar affective disorder (n=189 patients, n=101 controls). To establish the diagnosis, we used SCID (Structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition) questionnaire, TCI (Temperament and Character Inventory) questionnaire and Value Survey--to assess the personality. The main limitations of the study are number of participants, lack of data about stressful life events and treatment with lithium. Novelty seeking and harm avoidance dimensions constituted suicide attempt risk factors in the group of patients with affective disorders. Protective role of cooperativeness was discovered. Patients with and without suicide attempt in lifetime history varied in self-esteem position in Value Survey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Factors related to suicide attempts in a Tunisian sample of patients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, S; M'solly, M; Benhawala, S; Jones, Y; El-Hechmi, Z

    2013-02-01

    The mortality rate in schizophrenia is 4.5 times higher than in the general population. Suicide is one of the main causes of premature death in this affection. Life time prevalence of this behavior ranges from 10 to 15%, which represents a risk 20 to 50 times higher than in the general population. In addition, 40 to 93% of patients who committed suicide had attempted suicide previously. Thus, assessment of correlated variables with suicide attempts is a fundamental issue for developing preventive and therapeutic strategies in suicidal behavior. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic study has yet investigated suicide attempts in an Arabic Muslim population with schizophrenia, although many authors have demonstrated cultural differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables related to suicide attempts within many geographic areas around the world. The objectives of this study were to assess the frequency and characteristics of lifetime suicide attempts in Tunisian schizophrenic outpatients and to determine the correlated socio-demographic, clinical and therapeutic variables. A total of 134 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who attended the outpatient department of the university psychiatric hospital of Tunis were included. The main demographic and lifetime clinical variables considered were: gender, marital status, family history of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts, age at time of recruitment, age at onset of illness, duration of untreated psychosis defined as the interval between the onset of the illness and the first antipsychotic treatment, the type and dose of current treatment, dose of antipsychotic drugs converted to chlorpromazine equivalents, extrapyramidal side effects assessed with the Simpson Angus rating scale, number of hospitalizations, comorbid substance abuse, cigarette smoking, severity of psychopathology measured with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and history of at least one suicide attempt

  2. Association of suicide attempts with acne and treatment with isotretinoin: retrospective Swedish cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, Lars; Sjölin-Forsberg, Gunilla; Gerdén, Barbro; Bergman, Ulf; Jokinen, Jussi

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the risk of attempted suicide before, during, and after treatment with isotretinoin for severe acne. Design Retrospective cohort study linking a named patient register of isotretinoin users (1980-9) to hospital discharge and cause of death registers (1980-2001). Setting Sweden, 1980-2001. Population 5756 patients aged 15 to 49 years prescribed isotretinoin for severe acne observed for 17 197 person years before, 2905 person years during, and 87 120 person years after treatment. Main outcome measures Standardised incidence ratio (observed number divided by expected number of suicide attempts standardised by sex, age, and calendar year), calculated up to three years before, during, and up to 15 years after end of treatment. Results 128 patients were admitted to hospital for attempted suicide. During the year before treatment, the standardised incidence ratio for attempted suicide was raised: 1.57 (95% confidence interval 0.86 to 2.63) for all (including repeat) attempts and 1.36 (0.65 to 2.50) counting only first attempts. The standardised incidence ratio during and up to six months after treatment was 1.78 (1.04 to 2.85) for all attempts and 1.93 (1.08 to 3.18) for first attempts. Three years after treatment stopped, the observed number of attempts was close to the expected number and remained so during the 15 years of follow-up: standardised incidence ratio 1.04 (0.74 to 1.43) for all attempts