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Sample records for attapulgite

  1. Effect of Attapulgite on The Oral Bioavailability of Ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Zamrotul Izzah; Veronica Gratia; Toetik Aryani; Suharjono

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of attapulgite on the bioavailability of a single orallyadministered ciprofloxacin. Six New Zealand white rabbits received each of the following treatments in a randomized, three-way crossover sequence, separated by a 7-day washout period: (i) ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW) alone; (ii) ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW) given simultaneously with attapulgite (28 mg/ kgBW); (iii) ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW) given 2 hours after attapulgite (28 mg/kgBW). Blood s...

  2. ADSORPTION OF METHYLENE BLUE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION ON ATTAPULGITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution using attapulgite as adsorbent. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, contact time, the pH value, and attapulgite dosage on the adsorption performance were investigated. The standard curve and regression equation were established by spectrophotometry. The adsorption experimental results showed that the adsorption equilibrium data were well in accord with Langmuir adsorptive model. The optimal result was acquired under the experimental condition of attapulgite dosage 0.18g, MB concentration 50.0mg/L, pH 10, and adsorption time 20min at room temperature.

  3. Effect of Attapulgite on The Oral Bioavailability of Ciprofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effect of attapulgite on the bioavailability of a single orallyadministered ciprofloxacin. Six New Zealand white rabbits received each of the following treatments in a randomized, three-way crossover sequence, separated by a 7-day washout period: (i ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW alone; (ii ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW given simultaneously with attapulgite (28 mg/ kgBW; (iii ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW given 2 hours after attapulgite (28 mg/kgBW. Blood samples (1 mL were collected from the marginal ear vein up to 240 minutes postdose. The plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were determined by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. The maximum concentration and oral bioavailability (AUC0-240 min of ciprofloxacin were significantly decreased by 49 % and 32 % when administered concomitantly with attapulgite (p < 0.001. Attapulgite appeared to have no significant effect on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin when administered 2 hours before ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, the oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was markedly reduced when administered concomitantly with attapulgite. This drug-drug interaction may decrease clinical efficacy and promote microbial resistance to ciprofloxacin. However, the interaction could be minimized by separating the adminsitration of these drugs at least 2 hours.

  4. Attapulgite, a decontaminating medium, research tool in the radioprotection field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gels based on attapulgite, obtained by mixing attapulgite, a clay, with water or chemicals have been used as decontaminating agents. The method has been optimized through extensive scale laboratory experiments carried out under standard conditions. A wide variety of materials, used in nuclear technologies, and significant radionuclides have been tested. Gels obtained with water only in some cases allow full decontamination, when acids are added to clay, complete contamination removal, is possible except for extreme pHs radionuclides solution and on non-passivated or porous surfaces. The optimized decontaminating technique has successively been set up and applied on materials contaminated by routine or accident. Laboratory scale results have been confirmed through practical use. Process data are reported. This method is simple to perform and requires no special equipment. No liquid radioactive waste arises from the process and the resulting solid waste can be conditioned with cement

  5. Mechanical properties of attapulgite clay reinforced polyurethane shape-memory nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Bin; Huang, W.M.; Pei, Y.T.; Chen, Zhenguo; Kraft, A.; Reuben, R.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Fu, Y.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on attapulgite clay and shape-memory polyurethane were fabricated by mechanical mixing. The mechanical properties of samples were evaluated using a micro-indentation tester. The untreated commercial attapulgite clay resulted in a significant decrease in glass transition temperat

  6. Preparation and Characteristics of Polystyrene/Attapulgite Composites Via In-siu Suspension Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kunyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of polystyrene/attapulgite composites were synthesized through suspension polymerization. The composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction. FTIR results show that there was no significant change in the peak positions and the peak intensity for polystyrene/attapulgite composites compared to the pure polystyrene. There is a rise in thermal stability of composites compared to pure polystyrene. Attapulgite acts as an effective thermal barrier and thereby hinders the degradtion of polystyrene.

  7. STUDY ON THE ADSORPTION BEHAVIOR OF Pb(Ⅱ) ON NANOMETER ATTAPULGITE BY FAAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The adsorptive behavior of nanometer attapulgite modified by acid to Pb(II) was investigated by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) in this paper. The mainly effect parameters on the adsorptive efficiency of Pb(II), such as the acidity of the solution, the amount of attapulgite, oscillation time and static time were studied. Also the influencing factors of the recovery efficiency of Pb(II), including the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the volume of hydrochloric acid, oscillation time and static time were investigated. The adsorptive capacity of Pb(II) on nanometer attapulgite was 26.5mg/g and the adsorptive capacity of first cycle and second cycle regenerated nanometer attapulgite were 26.5mg/g and 26.3mg/g, respectively. The results obtained indicated that the regenerated effect was good.

  8. STUDY ON THE ADSORPTION BEHAVIOR OF Pb(Ⅱ) ON NANOMETER ATTAPULGITE BY FAAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunxiang; LIU Aiqin; XU Wanzhen; YAN Yongsheng

    2007-01-01

    The adsorptive behavior of nanometer attapulgite modified by acid to Pb(Ⅱ) was investigated by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) in this paper. The mainly effect parameters on the adsorptive efficiency of Pb(Ⅱ), such as the acidity of the solution, the amount of attapulgite, oscillation time and static time were studied. Also the influencing factors of the recovery efficiency of Pb(Ⅱ), including the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the volume of hydrochloric acid, oscillation time and static time were investigated. The adsorptive capacity of Pb(Ⅱ) on nanometer attapulgite was 26.5mg/g and the adsorptive capacity of first cycle and second cycle regenerated nanometer attapulgite were 26.5mg/g and 26.3mg/g, respectively. The results obtained indicated that the regenerated effect was good.

  9. Increased maize yield using slow-release attapulgite-coated fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Yu; Song, Chao; Gan, Yantai; Li, Feng-Min

    2014-01-01

    International audience Slow-release fertilizers could improve the productivity of field crops and reduce environmental pollution. So far, no slow-release fertilizers are suited for maize cultivation in semiarid areas of China. Therefore, we tested attapulgite-coated fertilizers. Attapulgite-coated fertilizers were prepared by dividing chemical fertilizers into three parts according to the nutrient demand of maize in its three main growth stages and coating each part with a layer of attapul...

  10. Mechanical & morphological properties of attapulgite/NR composites: Effect of mixing time variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nor, Nor Aina Mohd, E-mail: ayena90@yahoo.com; Othman, Nadras, E-mail: srnadras@usm.my; Ismail, Hanafi, E-mail: ihanafi@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The development of composite material based on attapulgite clay (ATP) as a filler and natural rubber (NR) matrices were prepared by combination of melt mixing and latex compounding methods. Sonication technique was chosen in this work to disperse the attapulgite suspension. 6 phr of attapulgite loading was fabricated using different time of mixing ranging from 30 minutes until 2 hours and sonication time was kept constant at 15 minutes. Then, co-coagulating HA latex with attapulgite clay suspension through latex compounding method produced the masterbatch. The masterbatch was compounded with natural rubber by melt mixing method. The mechanical and morphological characteristics were investigated in this work. From mechanical testing, M1 showed the highest value of tensile and tear strength. By comparing with M30 and M2, M1 shows high 300% tensile modulus and lower crosslink density. However, when the time of mixing was prolonged to 2 hours, the results for tensile strength, elongation at break and tear strength were decreased. This is due to flocculation of attapulgite particles. Sonication techniques also proved that the tensile strength and elongation at break of these three samples were higher compared to gum NR (NR) and attapulgite compounded with NR using a conventional method (in-situ 6). From field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) results, it revealed that M1 had good dispersion in the NR system. It is proved that the higher tensile strength was due to good dispersion of attapulgite clay in the NR matrix. It was also supported from crosslink density, which is lower than NR and in-situ 6 results. It showed that the penetration of toluene solvent into rubber compound was restricted. The optimum time, M1 give the best results, which can be compared to control the sample.

  11. Effective NH{sub 2}-grafting on attapulgite surfaces for adsorption of reactive dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Ailian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Key Lab for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhou, Shouyong; Zhao, Yijiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Key Lab for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Lu, Xiaoping, E-mail: xplu@njut.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China); Han, Pingfang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} We prepared a new amine functionalized adsorbent derived from clay-based material. {yields} Attapulgite surface was modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. {yields} Some modification parameters affecting the adsorption potential were investigated. {yields} Enhance the attapulgite adsorptive capacity for reactive dyes from aqueous solutions. - Abstract: The amine moiety has an important function in many applications, including, adsorption, catalysis, electrochemistry, chromatography, and nanocomposite materials. We developed an effective adsorbent for aqueous reactive dye removal by modifying attapulgite with an amino-terminated organosilicon (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES). Surface properties of the APTES-modified attapulgite were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. We evaluated the impact of solvent, APTES concentration, water volume, reaction time, and temperature on the surface modification. NH{sub 2}-attapulgite was used to remove reactive dyes in aqueous solution and showed very high adsorption rates of 99.32%, 99.67%, and 96.42% for Reactive Red 3BS, Reactive Blue KE-R and Reactive Black GR, respectively. These powerful dye removal effects were attributed to strong electrostatic interactions between reactive dyes and the grafted NH{sub 2} groups.

  12. Preliminary characterization in the development of the nano composite low density polyethylene with attapulgite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was a preliminary study of the physical, thermal and rheological properties of the materials to be used in the development of nano composite low density polyethylene (LDPE) with Brazilian attapulgite clay (ATP), with and without the use of a compatibilizing agent interfacial, polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and torque rheometry. The materials were characterized and potentially could be developed polymeric nano composites with technological applications using attapulgite fibers in the nanometer scale. (author)

  13. Determination of attapulgite and nifuroxazide in pharmaceutical formulations by sequential digital derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, M Inés; Paine, Maximiliano; Leyton, Patricio; Richter, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    A new method for the sequential determination of attapulgite and nifuroxazide in pharmaceutical formulations by first- and second-derivative spectrophotometry, respectively, has been developed. In order to obtain the optimal conditions for nifuroxazide stability, studies of solvent, light, and temperature effects were performed. The results show that a previous hydrolysis of 2 h in 1.0 x 10(-1)M NaOH solution is necessary in order to obtain stable compounds for analytical purposes. Subsequently, the first- and second-derivative spectra were evaluated directly in the same samples. The sequential determination of the drugs can be performed using the zero-crossing method; the attapulgite determination was carried out using the first derivative at 278.0 nm and the nifuroxazide determination, using the second derivative at 282.0 nm. The determination ranges were 5.7 x 10(-6)-1.0 x 10(-4) and 3.7 x 10(-8) -1.2 x 10(-4)M for attapulgite and nifuroxazide, respectively. Repeatability (relative standard deviation) values of 1.2 and 3.0% were observed for attapulgite and nifuroxazide, respectively. The ingredients commonly found in commercial pharmaceutical formulations do not interfere. The proposed method was applied to the determination of these drugs in tablets. Further, infrared spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry studies were carried out in order to obtain knowledge of the decomposition products of nifuroxazide. PMID:15675443

  14. Helical polyurethane-attapulgite nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and study of optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (BM-ATT) based on R-1,1'-binaphthyl-2',2-diol (R-BINOL) composite was prepared after the surface modification of attapulgite (ATT). BM-ATT was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HTEM) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy. FT-IR and XRD analyses indicate that the helical polyurethane has been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of the modified ATT without destroying the original crystalline structure of ATT. BM-ATT exhibits the rod-like structure by SEM, TEM, and HTEM photographs. BM-ATT displays obvious Cotton effect for some absorbance in VCD spectrum, and its optical activity results from the singlehanded conformation of helical polyurethane. - Graphical Abstract: Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (BM-ATT) based on R-1,1'-binaphthyl-2',2-diol (R-BINOL) nanocomposite was prepared after surface modification of attapulgite (ATT). This rod-like composite is coated by the optically active polyurethane shell on the surfaces.

  15. 3ynamic Adsorption of Microwave Modified Attapulgite on Micro-polluted Phenol Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to study the dynamic adsorption of microwave modified attapulgite on micro-polluted phenol wastewater. [Method] Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CATB) modified attapulgite was used to modify attapulgite, and conducted dynamic test on micro-polluted phenol wastewater. The dynamic charac- teristics of phenol removal were also studied. [Result] Attapulgite modified by CATB has strong adsorption ability on phenol in micro-polluted water, the phenol removal rate increased with the decrease of flow rate of wastewater. When pH value was 6- 8, phenol concentration in wastewater was 17.74 mg/L, flow rate was 2 m/s and ad- sorption time was 25 rain, the removal rate reached 93.07%. The modified atta- pulgite could be regenerated with alkali, and its adsorption ability after regeneration had no obvious decline. The dynamic adsorption process of phenol accorded with the first-order kinetic equation. [Conclusion] The study provided basis for further study on "organic matter removal in wastewater.

  16. Synthesis of attapulgite/N-isopropylacrylamide and its use in drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaomo [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin (China); Zhong, Hui, E-mail: huizhong@hytc.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin (China); Li, Xiaorong, E-mail: lxr206206@163.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Jia, Feifei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin (China); Cheng, Zhipeng; Zhang, Lili; Yin, Jingzhou; An, Litao [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp078@nenu.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin (China)

    2014-12-01

    Environmentally sensitive hydrogels as one of the most potential drug delivery systems have gained considerable interest in recent years. In the present study, we synthesized a newly temperature-responsive composite hydrogel based on attapulgite (ATP) and poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) as the localized drug carriers for drug delivery. The as-prepared ATP/PNIPAM hydrogel has large aperture which significantly improved the quantity of adsorption of drugs, exhibiting the excellent properties of drug release. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the ATP/PNIPAM. The swelling/deswelling behaviors and the release of ciprofloxacin lactate were studied. When the temperature was below the low critical solution temperature (LCST), the swelling property of hydrogels was excellent and the swelling rate was large. And, the drug release rate increased with the increase of the content of attapulgite in the composite hydrogel when it was put in the buffer solution (pH 7.38) at 37.0 °C. Therefore, the composite hydrogels might be very useful for its application in biomedical fields. - Highlights: • Attapulgite/N-isopropylacrylamide hydrogels were synthesized and characterized. • The swelling property of hydrogels was excellent when temperature was below 34.0 °C. • The composite hydrogels were used for the release of ciprofloxacin lactate. • The drug release rate increased with the increase of the content of attapulgite.

  17. Obtaining and characterization of composites PHBV/attapulgite;Obtencao e caracterizacao de compositos de PHBV/atapulgita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Liliane C.A.; Thire, Rossana M.S.M., E-mail: lilianealcantara@ms [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Barreto, Ledjane S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/attapulgite (PHBV/AT) composites were prepared by solution intercalation method. The microstructure and thermal properties of the composites were studied by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses. Experimental results suggest the insertion of the polymeric chains in the channels of the clay. There were no significant changes in the thermogravimetric profile of the films due to the presence of attapulgite. (author)

  18. Adsorption potential of bentonite and attapulgite clays applied for the desalination of sea water

    OpenAIRE

    Nel, Monica; Waanders, Frans B.; Fosso-Kankeu, Elvis

    2014-01-01

    A possible new process for the partial desalination of seawater is to use bentonite clay or attapulgite as an adsorbent. The ion exchange property of these clays, which is a result of the characteristic t-o-t layer structure, enables the use of these materials as adsorbents. This technique has the opportunity to be used as a pre-treatment as current commercial seawater desalination processes are very expensive. The clay was characterized using XRD, XRF and SEM analyses. ...

  19. Characterization of nanocomposites PHBV/attapulgite organophilic; Caracterizacao de nanocompositos PHBV/atapulgita organofilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.C.A.; Barreto, L.S., E-mail: lilianealcantara@msn.co [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Thire, R.M.S.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEMM/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) - PHBV is a biodegradable polyester which have been studied as an option for the production of disposable goods. This thermoplastic has some disadvantages that limit its use in industrial scale applications: the relative difficulty of processing, high degree of crystallinity and high cost of production relative to conventional polymers. An alternative to improve the properties of PHBV is the incorporation of small amounts of clay to the polymer. The aim of this work was to produce and characterize PHBV nanocomposites reinforced with organophilic attapulgite in different compositions. Natural attapulgite was modified with hexadecylmethylammonium chloride. The nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, SEM and Thermal analysis. It was observed reduction of the degree of crystallinity, melting and glass transition temperatures and the thermal stability of polymer in function on the addition of clay to the matrix of the PHBV. The best results were obtained for PHBV films containing 3% and 5% attapulgite. These films presented a slight increasing in processing window and decreasing in crystalline temperature and in degree of crystallinity as compared to pure PHBV. (author)

  20. Attapulgite Nanofiber-Cellulose Nanocomposite with Core-Shell Structure for Dye Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Song, Xiaoxue; Sun, Yihe

    2016-01-01

    Nanocomposite particle used for adsorption has attracted continuous attention because of large specific surface area and adjustable properties from nanocomponent. Herein nanocomposite particle with cellulose core and attapulgite nanofibers shell was prepared. The size of cellulose core was about 2 mm and the thickness of nanofibers shell is about 300 μm. Adsorption capacity of nanocomposite particle to methylene blue can reach up to 11.07 mg L−1 and the best adsorption effect occurs at pH = 8...

  1. Geochemical Study of Rare Earth Elements on Four Attapulgite Clay Deposits in Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天虎; 徐晓春; 鲁安怀; 岳书仓; 汪家权; 彭书传

    2003-01-01

    This paper discussed in detail about the REE component and the characteristics of the different kinds of attapulgite clay ores as well as basalts, weathered basalts in four localities of attapulgite clay deposits of Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces of China. It is concluded that the half-weathered basalts have not distinct REE fractionation and strong weathered basalts have HREE loss in the process of the basalts weathered to form smectite group minerals. And the lateritic montmorillonite clays that formed from the basalts weathering have a distinct Ce positive anomaly, a little MREE loss and LREE and HREE renew enrichment. That reflects the particular oxidation condition in the Earth's surface and the adsorption of the colloid solution of the lake water in the basin of the continent in the time of the clays formed. The attapulgite clays produced by the reaction between basalts with lake water in the original place of the basin have same REE characteristics as that of the basalts and the weathered basalts. This shows that REE does not transfer heavily in the progressive chemical weathering process. The sedimentary attapulgite clays have also a similar REE component and characteristic parameters to the basalts and the weathered basalts, and have a distinct Eu negative anomaly and a big value of LREE/HREE, which shows that the sedimentary clay came from the weathered basalts, and REE partitioning patterns characters of the clays are controlled by the residual material of the weathered basalts.

  2. Adsorption of Hg{sup 2+} from aqueous solution onto polyacrylamide/attapulgite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yijiang, E-mail: cyjzhao@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department of Huaiyin Teachers College, Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Chen Yan [Chemistry Department of Huaiyin Teachers College, Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China); Li Meisheng; Zhou Shouyong; Xue Ailian [Chemistry Department of Huaiyin Teachers College, Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Xing Weihong [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2009-11-15

    Polyacrylamide/attapulgite (PAM/ATP) was prepared by the solution polymerization of acrylamide (AM) onto {gamma}-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH-570)-modified attapulgite (ATP). PAM/ATP was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH of the initial solution on the adsorption capacities for Hg{sup 2+} were investigated. The adsorption process was rapid; 88% of adsorption occurred within 5 min and equilibrium was achieved at around 40 min. The equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir sorption isotherms well, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Hg{sup 2+} onto PAM/ATP was found to be 192.5 mg g{sup -1}. The adsorption kinetics of PAM/ATP fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Our results suggest that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting steps in the process of Hg{sup 2+} adsorption. Hg{sup 2+} adsorbed onto PAM/ATP could be effectively desorbed in hot acetic acid solution, and the adsorption capacity of the regenerated adsorbents could still be maintained at 95% by the sixth cycle.

  3. Properties of natural rubber/attapulgite composites prepared by latex compounding method: Effect of filler loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muttalib, Siti Nadzirah Abdul, E-mail: sitinadzirah.amn@gmail.com; Othman, Nadras, E-mail: srnadras@usm.my; Ismail, Hanafi, E-mail: ihanafi@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This paper reports on the effect of filler loading on properties of natural rubber (NR)/attapulgite (ATP) composites. The NR/ATP composites were prepared by latex compounding method. It is called as masterbatch. The masterbatch was subsequently added to the NR through melt mixing process. The vulcanized NR/ATP composites were subjected to mechanical, swelling and morphological tests. All the results were compared with NR/ATP composites prepared by conventional system. The composites from masterbatch method showed better results compared to composites prepared by conventional method. They have higher tensile properties, elongation at break and tear strength. The images captured through scanning electron microscopy test revealed the improvement of tensile strength in masterbatch NR/ATP composites. It can be seen clearly that masterbatch NR/ATP have better filler dispersion compared to conventional method NR/ATP composites.

  4. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil catalyzed by immobilized Burkholderia cepacia lipase on modified attapulgite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Lipase from Burkholderia cepacia was immobilized on modified attapulgite by cross-linking reaction for biodiesel production with jatropha oil as feedstock. Effects of various factors on biodiesel production were studied by single-factor experiment. Results indicated that the best conditions for biodiesel preparation were: 10 g jatropha oil, 2.4 g methanol (molar ratio of oil to methanol is 1:6.6) being added at 3h intervals, 7 wt% water, 10 wt% immobilized lipase, temperature 35°C, and time 24h. Under these conditions, the maximum biodiesel yield reached 94%. The immobilized lipase retained 95% of its relative activity during the ten repeated batch reactions. The half-life time of the immobilized lipase is 731 h. Kinetics was studied and the Vmax of the immobilized lipases were 6.823 mmol L(-1). This immobilized lipase catalyzed process has potential industrial use for biodiesel production to replace chemical-catalyzed method.

  5. Mineralogical characterization of Brazilians attapulgite to magnetic nano composites uses; Caracterizacao mineralogica de atapulgitas brasileiras para utilizacao em nanocompositos magneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middea, Antonieta; Neumann, Reiner, E-mail: amiddea@cetem.gov.br [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral - CETEM, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Spinelli, Luciana S.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Magnetic polymeric nano composites represent a potential alternative in the treatment of contaminated water. This work aims to investigate the potential of uses of a Brazilian clay (an attapulgite), abundant in the northeast, in the preparation of polymeric nano composites for application in the removal of organic material present in aquifers, using magnetic field. The techniques used for mineralogical characterization were X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed the presence of palyigorskite in all samples as well as other mineral phases (quartz, kaolinite, smectite and anatase). The microscopic analysis permitted to identify the fibrous appearance of palyigorskite. The presence of palyigorskite is a strong indication of the possible use of attapulgite in obtaining magnetic nano composites by the adsorption of iron ion to the surface. (author)

  6. Direct electrochemistry of Cytochrome c on natural nano-attapulgite clay modified electrode and its electrocatalytic reduction for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ji-ming [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-dimensional Materials, Huaiyin Teachers College, Jiangsu 223300 (China)]. E-mail: xujm68@sohu.com; Li, Wei [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Yanbian University, Jilin 133002 (China); Yin, Qi-fan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-dimensional Materials, Huaiyin Teachers College, Jiangsu 223300 (China); Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Yanbian University, Jilin 133002 (China); Zhu, Yu-lan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-dimensional Materials, Huaiyin Teachers College, Jiangsu 223300 (China)

    2007-03-01

    Natural nano-structural attapulgite clay was purified by mechanical stirring with the aid of ultrasonic wave and its structure and morphology was investigated by XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cytochrome c was immobilized on attapulgite modified glassy carbon electrode. The interaction between Cytochrome c and attapulgite clay was examined by using UV-vis spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. The direct electron transfer of the immobilized Cytochrome c exhibited a pair of redox peaks with formal potential (E{sup 0'}) of about 17mV (versus SCE) in 0.1mol/L, pH 7.0, PBS. The electrode reaction showed a surface-controlled process with the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) of 7.05s{sup -1} and charge-transfer coefficient ({alpha}) of 0.49. Cytochrome c immobilized on the attapulgite modified electrode exhibits a remarkable electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The calculated apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}{sup app}) was 470{mu}mol/L, indicating a high catalytic activity of Cytochrome c immobilized on attapulgite modified electrode to the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Based on these, a third generation of reagentless biosensor can be constructed for the determination of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  7. Preliminary characterization in the development of the nano composite low density polyethylene with attapulgite clay; Caracterizacao preliminar no desenvolvimento de nanocompositos polietileno de baixa densidade/argila atapulgita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Luanda G.; Rego, Jose K.M.A. do [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, PPGCEM/UFRN, Natal, RN (Brazil); Ito, Edson N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Depto de Engenharia de Materiais, DEMat/UFRN, Natal, RN(Brazil); Acchar, Wilson [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Depto de Fisica, DF/UFRN, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was a preliminary study of the physical, thermal and rheological properties of the materials to be used in the development of nano composite low density polyethylene (LDPE) with Brazilian attapulgite clay (ATP), with and without the use of a compatibilizing agent interfacial, polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and torque rheometry. The materials were characterized and potentially could be developed polymeric nano composites with technological applications using attapulgite fibers in the nanometer scale. (author)

  8. Enhanced Hydrothermal Stability and Catalytic Performance of HKUST-1 by Incorporating Carboxyl-Functionalized Attapulgite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Yin, Xiao-Qian; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Li, Xing-Yang; Sun, Lin-Bing

    2016-06-29

    Much attention has been paid to metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) due to their large surface areas, tunable functionality, and diverse structure. Nevertheless, most reported MOFs show poor hydrothermal stability, which seriously hinders their applications. Here a strategy is adopted to tailor the properties of MOFs by means of incorporating carboxyl-functionalized natural clay attapulgite (ATP) into HKUST-1, a well-known MOF. A new type of hybrid material was thus fabricated from the hybridization of HKUST-1 and ATP. Our results indicated that the hydrothermal stability of the MOFs as well as the catalytic performance was apparently improved. The frameworks of HKUST-1 were severely destroyed after hydrothermal treatment (hot water vapor, 60 °C), while that of the hybrid materials was maintained. For the hybrid materials containing 8.4 wt % of ATP, the surface area reached 1302 m(2)·g(-1) and was even higher than that of pristine HKUST-1 (1245 m(2)·g(-1)). In the ring-opening of styrene oxide, the conversion reached 98.9% at only 20 min under catalysis from the hybrid material, which was obviously higher than that over pristine HKUST-1 (80.9%). Moreover, the hybrid materials showed excellent reusability and the catalytic activity was recoverable without loss after six cycles. Our materials provide promising candidates for heterogeneous catalysis owing to the good catalytic activity and reusability. PMID:27268731

  9. Attapulgite-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposite for photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiazhang; Zhang, Zuosong; Yao, Chao; Lu, Xiaowang; Zhao, Xiaobing; Ni, Chaoying

    2016-02-01

    Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposites were synthesized by microwave assisted assembly method. The structures of the nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis, XPS and in situ TEM. The photocatalytic activities of ATP-CeO2/MoS2 composites were investigated by degradating dibenzothiophene (DBT) in gasoline under visible light irradiation. The effect of the mass ratio of CeO2 to MoS2 on photocatalytic activity was investigated. The results indicate that the three-dimensional network structure is firmly constructed by ATP skeleton, CeO2 particles and MoS2 nanosheet which effectively increase the surface area of the composites and promote the separation of electrons and holes by resulting electronic transmission channels of multi-channel in space. The degradation rate of DBT can reach 95% under 3 h irradiation when the mass ratio of CeO2/MoS2 is 4/10. A plausible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of this nanocomposite is put forward.

  10. Hydrogen Generation from Catalytic Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid by Ni/Attapulgite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishuang Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid derived from the aqueous portion of bio-oil for hydrogen production was investigated using different Ni/ATC (Attapulgite Clay catalysts prepared by precipitation, impregnation and mechanical blending methods. The fresh and reduced catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption–desorption, TEM and temperature program reduction (H2-TPR. The comprehensive results demonstrated that the interaction between active metallic Ni and ATC carrier was significantly improved in Ni/ATC catalyst prepared by precipitation method, from which the mean of Ni particle size was the smallest (~13 nm, resulting in the highest metal dispersion (7.5%. The catalytic performance of the catalysts was evaluated by the process of steam reforming of acetic acid in a fixed-bed reactor under atmospheric pressure at two different temperatures: 550 °C and 650 °C. The test results showed the Ni/ATC prepared by way of precipitation method (PM-Ni/ATC achieved the highest H2 yield of ~82% and a little lower acetic acid conversion efficiency of ~85% than that of Ni/ATC prepared by way of impregnation method (IM-Ni/ATC (~95%. In addition, the deactivation catalysts after reaction for 4 h were analyzed by XRD, TGA-DTG and TEM, which demonstrated the catalyst deactivation was not caused by the amount of carbon deposition, but owed to the significant agglomeration and sintering of Ni particles in the carrier.

  11. Synthesis of Cu/TiO2/organo-attapulgite fiber nanocomposite and its photocatalytic activity for degradation of acetone in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaoke; Wang, He; Guo, Sheng; Wang, Junting; Liu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The Cu/TiO2/organo-attapulgite fiber (CTOA) nanocomposite was synthesized by a facile method and was used for photocatalytic degradation of acetone in air under UV light irradiation. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-vis DRS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry and N2 adsorption-desorption measurement. The results showed that the structure of organo-attapulgite (OAT) had no obvious change as compared to unmodified attapulgite (AT) and the attapulgite fibers in the OAT were well-dispersed. Both micropores and mesopores exist in the CTOA catalyst. The CTOA catalysts prepared at the Cu/TiO2 molar ratio of 0.003 shows an excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of acetone in air. The synergistic effect of Cu species and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide modification can be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CTOA catalyst. The mechanism of the photocatalytic degradation of acetone by the CTOA catalyst was discussed.

  12. PREPARATION OF SURFACE ION-IMPRINTED ATTAPULGITE-SUPPORTED POLYMER AND ITS ADSORPTION BEHAVIORS OF Sr(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Jianming; YAN Yongsheng; LI Chunxiang

    2008-01-01

    The surface ion-imprinting concept and chitosan incorporated sol-gel process were applied to the preparation of a new attapulgite-supported organic-inorganic hybrid polymer for selective separation of Sr(Ⅱ) from aqueous solution.The prepared polymer was characterized with SEM, IR and XRD.The results showed that as a sorbent, it had good configuration and binding sites.Its adsorption behaviors for Sr(Ⅱ) was investigated by FAAS and ICP-AES.The effects on adsorption capacities, including pH, quiescent time, and adsorbent amount were discussed, and the adsorption isothermal curve was obtained.Then the Kd a parameter estimating relative adsorbability, was conducted to study the selectivity towards Sr(Ⅱ) of the prepared polymer.Under the optimum conditions, the ion-imprinted polymer offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption of Sr(Ⅱ) and the maximum capacity was 12.9mg/g.The Kd and K parameters estimating relative adsorbability towards target ion, suggested that selective recognition of the ion-imprinted polymer towards Sr(Ⅱ) was much higher than that of the non-imprinted polymer and attapulgite.Furthermore, the ion-imprinted polymer is of great regeneration capacity.The prepared functional polymer was shown to be promising for selective preseparation and enrichment of trace Sr(Ⅱ) in environmental samples.

  13. Highly sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on nickel nanoparticle-attapulgite-reduced graphene oxide-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zongxu; Gao, Wenyu; Li, Pei; Wang, Xiaofang; Zheng, Qing; Wu, Hao; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun; Wu, Songmei; Yu, Yu; Ding, Kejian

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a fast and sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor is reported utilizing a glassy carbon electrode modified by synthesizing nanocomposites of nickel nanoparticle-attapulgite-reduced graphene oxide (Ni NPs/ATP/RGO). A facile one-step electrochemical co-deposition approach is adopted to synthesize Ni NPs-ATP-RGO nanocomposites via electrochemical reduction of mixed precursor solution containing graphene oxide (GO), attapulgite (ATP) and nickel cations (Ni(2+)) at the cathode potentials. This strategy results in simultaneous depositions of ATP, cathodic reduction of Ni(2+) into nickel nanoparticles under acidic conditions, and in situ reduction of GO. The as-prepared NiNPs/ATP/RGO-based glucose sensor exhibits outstanding performance for enzymeless glucose sensing with sensitivity (1414.4 μAmM(-1)cm(-2)), linear range (1-710μM) and detection limit (0.37μM). What is more, the sensor has excellent stability and selectivity against common interferences in real sample. PMID:27474298

  14. Direct Electron Transfer of Glucose Oxidase and Glucose Biosensor Based on Nano-structural Attapulgite Clay Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU, Jiming; HAN, Wenxia; YIN, Qifan; SONG, Jie; ZHONG, Hui

    2009-01-01

    The direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) was achieved based on the immobilization of GOD on a natural nano-structural attapulgite (ATP) clay film modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The immobilized GOD displayed a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks with a formal potential (E~0) of -457.5 mV (vs. SCE) in 0.1 mol·L~(-1) pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution. The peak current was linearly dependent on the scan rate, indicating that the direct electrochemistry of GOD in that case was a surface-controlled process. The immobilized glucose oxidase could retain bioactivity and catalyze the oxidation of glucose in the presence of ferrocene monocarboxylic acid (FMCA) as a mediator with the apparent Michaclis-Menten constant K_m~(app) of 1.16 mmol·L~(-1) The electrocatalytic response showed a linear dependence on the glucose concentration ranging widely from 5.0×10~(-6) to 6.05×10~(-4) mol·L~(-1) (with correlation coefficient of 0.9960). This work demonstrated that the nano-structural attapulgite clay was a good candidate material for the direct electrochemistry of the redox-active enzyme and the construction of the related enzyme biosensors. The proposed biosensors were applied to determine the glucose in blood and urine samples with satisfactory results.

  15. PREPARATION OF SURFACE ION-IMPRINTED ATTAPULGITE-SUPPORTED POLYMER AND ITS ADSORPTION BEHAVIORS OF Sr(II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The surface ion-imprinting concept and chitosan incorporated sol-gel process were applied to the preparation of a new attapulgite-supported organic-inorganic hybrid polymer for selective separation of Sr(II) from aqueous solution. The prepared polymer was characterized with SEM, IR and XRD. The results showed that as a sorbent, it had good configuration and binding sites. Its adsorption behaviors for Sr(II) was investigated by FAAS and ICP-AES. The effects on adsorption capacities, including pH, quiescent time, and adsorbent amount were discussed, and the adsorption isothermal curve was obtained. Then the Kd a parameter estimating relative adsorbability, was conducted to study the selectivity towards Sr(II) of the prepared polymer. Under the optimum conditions, the ion-imprinted polymer offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption of Sr(II) and the maximum capacity was 12.9mg/g. The Kd and K parameters estimating relative adsorbability towards target ion, suggested that selective recognition of the ion-imprinted polymer towards Sr(II) was much higher than that of the non-imprinted polymer and attapulgite. Furthermore, the ion-imprinted polymer is of great regeneration capacity. The prepared functional polymer was shown to be promising for selective preseparation and enrichment of trace Sr(II) in environmental samples.

  16. [Stabilization of Cadmium Contaminated Soils by Ferric Ion Modified Attapulgite (Fe/ATP)--Characterizations and Stabilization Mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yang; Li, Rong-bo; Zhou, Yong-li; Chen, Jing; Wang, Lin-ling; Lu, Xiao-hua

    2015-08-01

    Ferric ion modified attapulgite (Fe/ATP) was prepared by impregnation and its structure and morphology were characterized. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effect of Cadmium( Cd) stabilization in soil with the addition of attapulgite (ATP) and Fe/ATP. The stabilization mechanism of Cd was further elucidated by comparing the morphologies and structure of ATP and Fe/ATP before and after Cd adsorption. Fe/ATP exhibited much better adsorption capacity than ATP, suggesting different adsorption mechanisms occurred between ATP and Fe/ATP. The leaching concentrations of Cd in soil decreased by 45% and 91% respectively, with the addition of wt. 20% ATP and Fe/ATP. The former was attributed to the interaction between Cd2 and --OH groups by chemical binding to form inner-sphere complexes in ATP and the attachment between Cd2+ and the defect sites in ATP framework. Whereas Cd stabilization with Fe/ATP was resulted from the fact that the active centers (--OH bonds or O- sites) on ATP could react with Fe3+ giving Fe--O--Cd-- bridges, which helped stabilize Cd in surface soil. What'more, the ferric oxides and metal hydroxides on the surface of ATP could interact with Cd, probably by the formation of cadmium ferrite. In conclusion, Fe/ATP, which can be easily prepared, holds promise as a potential low-cost and environmental friendly stabilizing agent for remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals.

  17. Rod like attapulgite/poly(ethylene terephthalate nanocomposites with chemical bonding between the polymer chain and the filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Fu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET nanocomposites containing rod-like silicate attapulgite (AT were prepared via in situ polymerization. It is presented that PET chains identical to the matrix have been successfully grafted onto simple organically pre-modified AT nanorods (MAT surface during the in situ polymerization process. The covalent bonding at the interface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The content of grafted PET polymer on the surface of MAT was about 26 wt%. This high grafting density greatly improved the dispersion of fillers, interfacial adhesion as well as the significant confinement of the segmental motion of PET, as compared to the nanocomposites of PET/pristine AT (PET/AT. Owing to the unique interfacial structure in PET/MAT composites, their thermal and mechanical properties have been greatly improved. Compared with neat PET, the elastic modulus and the yield strength of PET/MAT were significantly improved by about 39.5 and 36.8%, respectively, by incorporating only 2 wt % MAT. Our work provides a novel route to fabricate advanced PET nanocomposites using rod-like attapulgite as fillers, which has great potential for industrial applications.

  18. Progress on Surface Organic Modification of Attapulgite Clay%纳米凹凸棒石粘土有机表面修饰的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国庆; 孙小婉; 邵晶; 尹振燕

    2013-01-01

    凹凸棒石是具有纤维状晶体结构的天然粘土矿物,属于一维纳米材料.由于其晶体结构和特殊性能,使得凹凸棒石粘土作为优异的补强材料广泛应用于聚合物复合材料.为了提高凹凸棒石粘土在聚合物中的分散性和相容性,对其进行表面改性处理是很必要的.本文综述了纳米凹凸棒石粘土有机表面修饰的研究现状,提出了研究领域现存的问题及其解决方法,分析了产业发展趋势及前景.%Attapulgite is a kind of natural clay mineral with fibrous crystal structure and a typical one-dimensional nanophase material. Owing to its special crystal structure and superficial character, it is useful as an excellent filler for polymer composites. In order to improve the dispersivity and compatibility of attapulgite in polymer system, it is necessary to cany on surface modification. Study on surface treatment of attapulgite and application researches of attapulgite as reinforced filler in silicone rubber are presented and come up with ways to improve it.At the end of this paper, the foreground progress of Attapulgite was introduced to the area.The Research of the solving method on the Question of the surface organic modification was showed.and the aspects in which deeper research is needed were discussed.

  19. An ion-imprinted polymer supported by attapulgite with a chitosan incorporated sol-gel process for selective separation of Ce(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Xiang Li; Jian Ming Pan; Jie Gao; Yong Sheng Yan; Gan Qing Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The surface ion-imprinting concept and chitosan incorporated sol-gel process were applied to the synthesis of a new attapulgite-supported polymer for selective separation of Ce(Ⅲ) from aqueous solution. The imprinting mechanism of prepared ion-imprinted polymer were discussed with the Characteristics of FT-IR and SEM. Results from the experiments of adsorption capacity and selectivity suggested that ion-imprinted polymer offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption of Ce(Ⅲ) under the optimum conditions. Its maximum adsorption capacity was 38.02 mg/g, and the selective recognition towards Ce(Ⅲ) was much higher than that of the non-imprinted polymer and attapulgite. The prepared functional polymer was shown to be promising for selective separation and enrichment of trace Ce(Ⅲ) in environmental samples.

  20. The glass transition temperature of polyurethane shape memory polymer reinforced with treated/non-treated attapulgite (playgorskite) clay in dry and wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, G. H.; Huang, W. M.; Ng, Z. C.; Liu, N.; Phee, S. J.

    2008-08-01

    Attapulgite (playgorskite), a kind of nanosized fibrous clay mineral, may provide a simple and cheap alternative to improve the stiffness and actuation stress of shape memory polymers (SMPs). As a first step, in this paper, we investigate the glass transition temperature of a polyurethane SMP reinforced with treated/non-treated attapulgite in wet and dry conditions. In addition to confirming the strong influence of moisture, the results reveal that non-treated clay significantly reduces the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composites, while the influence of treated clay on Tg is limited. However, for composites mixed with non-treated clay, after drying, the well pre-wetted samples have a much higher Tg than that of the dry ones. A partial detachment mechanism is proposed to explain this interesting phenomenon.

  1. The glass transition temperature of polyurethane shape memory polymer reinforced with treated/non-treated attapulgite (playgorskite) clay in dry and wet conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attapulgite (playgorskite), a kind of nanosized fibrous clay mineral, may provide a simple and cheap alternative to improve the stiffness and actuation stress of shape memory polymers (SMPs). As a first step, in this paper, we investigate the glass transition temperature of a polyurethane SMP reinforced with treated/non-treated attapulgite in wet and dry conditions. In addition to confirming the strong influence of moisture, the results reveal that non-treated clay significantly reduces the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composites, while the influence of treated clay on Tg is limited. However, for composites mixed with non-treated clay, after drying, the well pre-wetted samples have a much higher Tg than that of the dry ones. A partial detachment mechanism is proposed to explain this interesting phenomenon

  2. Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol in groundwater by surfactant-modified attapulgite%有机改性凹土对地下水中2,4-二氯酚的吸附

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海鹰; 程阳; 秦庆东

    2012-01-01

    为了寻求修复地下水中氯酚污染物的高效吸附剂,采用十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(HDTMA)对凹凸棒土进行有机改性,考察了有机改性凹土对地下水中2,4-二氯苯酚(DCP)的吸附性能.实验结果表明,有机改性能显著提高凹凸棒土对DCP的吸附效果.当DCP浓度为20 mg/L、吸附剂投量为1.2 g/L时,有机改性凹土对DCP的去除率达到91.5%,而凹凸棒原土则仅为27.8%.有机改性凹土吸附DCP的最佳投量为1.2 g/L,最佳吸附时间为30 min.Langmuir模型和Freundlich模型均能较好地拟合DCP的等温吸附线,且前者的拟合结果更好.DCP在有机改性凹土上的饱和吸附量可达107.53 mg/g,而在凹凸棒土原土上仅为39.06 mg/g.此外,重金属离子的存在会降低有机改性凹土对DCP的吸附能力.Pb2存在时DCP在有机改性凹土上的饱和吸附容量为45.70 mg/g,Cd2+存在时则为31.20 mg/g,分别为无重金属离子存在时的42.4%和29.0%.%To seek an efficient adsorbents of chlorophenol remediation in groundwater, the adsorbent hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) attapulgite was obtained by modifying attapulgite with HDTMA, and its adsorption behaviors for 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) in groundwater samples were investigated. The experimental results show that the adsorption of DCP on HDTMA-attapulgite can be significantly enhanced by organic modification. When the concentration of DCP is 20 mg/L and the dosage of the adsorbent is 1. 2 g/L, the removal efficiency of DCP by HDTMA-attapulgite is 91.5% while it is only 27.8% by original attapulgite. The optimal dosage of HDTMA-attapulgite is 1.2 g/L and the optimal adsorption time is 30 min. The adsorption isotherms can be well described by the Langmuir and Freundlich models, and the former fits better with the experimental data. The adsorption capacities of DCP on HDTMA-attapulgite and original attapulgite are 107. 53 and 39. 06 mg/g, respectively. In addition, the adsorption capacity of DCP on HDTMA-attapulgite

  3. Dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of benzoylurea insecticides in honey samples with a β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite as sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panjie; Cui, Xiangqian; Yang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Gao, Haixiang; Lu, Runhua

    2016-01-01

    A β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite was prepared and used as a dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction sorbent for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in honey samples. Parameters that may influence the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of the eluent, the amount of the sorbent, the extraction time and the ionic strength were investigated and optimized using batch and column procedures. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained for all of the tested compounds, with R(2) values of at least 0.9834. The limits of detection were determined in the range of 0.2-1.0 μg/L. The recoveries of the four benzoylurea insecticides in vitex honey and acacia honey increased from 15.2 to 81.4% and from 14.2 to 82.0%, respectively. Although the β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite did not show a brilliant adsorption capacity for the selected benzoylurea insecticides, it exhibited a higher adsorption capacity toward relatively hydrophobic compounds, such as chlorfluazuron and hexaflumuron (recoveries in vitex honey samples ranged from 70.0 to 81.4% with a precision of 1.0-3.7%). It seemed that the logPow of the benzoylurea insecticides is related to their recoveries. The results confirmed the possibility of using cyclodextrin-modified palygorskite in the determination of relatively hydrophobic trace pharmaceutical residues.

  4. Optically active helical polyurethane-attapulgite composites: Effect of optical purity of S-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diol on infrared emissivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhiqiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Zhou Yuming, E-mail: ymzhou@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Sun Yanqing; Mei Zhenyu; Miao Yuee [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (HPU-ATT) composites were prepared after the surface modification of the rod-like attapulgite (ATT). HPU-ATT composites based on S-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diol (S-BINOL) with different optical purity (O.P.) were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicate that the helical polyurethane has been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of the modified ATT without destroying the original crystalline structure of ATT. The rod-like nanoparticles were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Infrared emissivity values of HPU-ATT composites have been investigated, and the results indicate that the optical purity of monomer plays a very important role in the infrared emissivity for HPU-ATT owing to the effect of helical conformation and interchain hydrogen bonds. Along with the increased optical purity of S-BINOL, the infrared emissivity of HPU-ATT is reduced evidently. Infrared emissivity value of HPU-ATT based on S-BINOL with 100% optical purity is the lowest one (0.431).

  5. Optically active helical polyurethane-attapulgite composites: Effect of optical purity of S-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diol on infrared emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (HPU-ATT) composites were prepared after the surface modification of the rod-like attapulgite (ATT). HPU-ATT composites based on S-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diol (S-BINOL) with different optical purity (O.P.) were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicate that the helical polyurethane has been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of the modified ATT without destroying the original crystalline structure of ATT. The rod-like nanoparticles were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Infrared emissivity values of HPU-ATT composites have been investigated, and the results indicate that the optical purity of monomer plays a very important role in the infrared emissivity for HPU-ATT owing to the effect of helical conformation and interchain hydrogen bonds. Along with the increased optical purity of S-BINOL, the infrared emissivity of HPU-ATT is reduced evidently. Infrared emissivity value of HPU-ATT based on S-BINOL with 100% optical purity is the lowest one (0.431).

  6. Adsorption of doxycycline on attapulgite%强力霉素在凹凸棒土上的吸附行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美兰; 邓月华; 孙成; 杨绍贵

    2012-01-01

    通过等温吸附平衡法研究了强力霉素在凹凸棒土上的吸附行为,考察了pH、反应时间、离子强度和离子类型等因素对吸附的影响,探讨了吸附机理.结果表明,pH=8.5时,饱和吸附容量最大,为293.35μmol.g-1;强力霉素在凹凸棒土上的吸附可用Langmuir型等温方程和准二级动力学方程很好地拟合;离子强度对强力霉素的吸附影响不是很明显;0.05 mol.L-1NaOH能显著地将强力霉素从凹凸棒土上解吸下来.红外表征结果说明凹凸棒土对强力霉素的吸附可能是化学吸附,酸性条件下,强力霉素主要通过阳离子交换、静电作用、氢键作用等吸附在凹凸棒土上,部分H+可能通过强力霉素质子化吸附到凹凸棒土上.弱碱性条件下主要通过水桥接,与凹凸棒土层间阳离子配位以及结合于凹凸棒土边缘吸附位点达到吸附.%The adsorption of doxycycline on attapulgite was investigated by isothermal adsorption method.The parameters affecting adsorption capacity such as adsorbent addition,pH,reaction time,ionic strength and iron type as well as adsorption mechanism were examined in detail.The experimental results showed that the adsorption capacity reached 292.35 μmol · g-1 at pH 8.5.The adsorption reaction of doxycycline was best described with Langmuir isotherm equation and pseudo-second-order kinetic model.Ionic strength had no obvious effect on the adsorption.Doxycycline desorbed remarkably in 0.05 mol · L-1 sodium hydroxide.FTIR spectra demonstrated that the major interaction force between doxycycline and attapulgite was chemical adsorption.At acidic condition,most of H+ adsorbed through the protonation of doxycycline.And cation exchange,electrostatic interaction and hygrogen bonding may be the dominate adsorption mechanisms.At weak alkali condition,doxycycline could interact with attapulgite through water bridge,coordinating with the interlayer cation of attapulgite and bonding with adsorption

  7. Effects of double roller treatment on physicochemical and adsorption properties of attapulgite clay%对辊处理对凹凸棒黏土理化性能和吸附性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颉晓玲; 汪琴; 王文波; 郑茂松

    2012-01-01

    Attapulgite clay was treated by double roller for 1~5 times,respectively,and the effect of rolling times on the micro-structure and physicochemical properties of attapulgite clay was investigated through infrared spectroscopy,scanning electronic microscopy,specific surface area and ξ potential techniques. On this basis,the adsorption properties of the double rolled attapulgite clay for diclofenac sodium were evaluated. The results showed that the aggregation of attapulgite clay was basically dissociated, and the increasing trends of specific surface area becomes weaker, and the lowest ξ potential value in distille d water was observed, after rolling for 2 times. The attapulgite clay rolling for 5 times has the greatest specific surface area, but the lowest adsorption capacities for diclofenac sodium. This indicates that the adsorption capacities of attapulgite clay were not only related to its specific surface area,but also to its surface charges as well as the polarities of the adsorbed substance.%将凹凸棒黏土分别经1~5次对辊处理后,通过红外光谱、扫描电镜、比表面积和ζ电位的测定,考察了对辊次数对凹凸棒黏土微结构和理化性能的影响.在此基础上,考察了对辊处理凹凸棒黏土对双氯芬酸钠的吸附性能.结果表明,经过2次对辊处理后,凹凸棒黏土聚集体己经基本解离,比表面积增加趋势变缓,在蒸馏水中的ζ电位最小.对辊处理5次时,比表面积最大,但对双氯芬酸钠吸附容量却最小.结果表明,凹凸棒黏土的吸附性能不仅与比表面积有关,还与凹凸棒黏土的表面电荷及所吸附物质的极性有关.

  8. Characterization of two clays - attapulgite and sepiolite - before and after acid activation; Caracterizacao de duas argilas - atapulgita e sepiolita - antes e apos ativacao acida com HCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Soares, G.A., E-mail: renataoliveira@poli.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Barreto, L.S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Among the special clays, two of them are distinguished by their large surface area: attapulgite and sepiolite. Although, being natural clays, when they are removed from the formation sites, their structural channels may be filled of impurities. The process done to clean these channels is called acid activation. The present work aim to treated samples from both clays by using 3M and 5M HCl solution under ultrasonic waves for 1 hour. The characterization of the clays before and after activation was carried out by SEM/EDS, XRD and surface area measure by method BET. The acid treatments employed were too aggressive, in special that with 5M HCl solution, which results in partial lixiviation of these clays. (author)

  9. 凹凸棒石粘土的物化性质研究进展%Research Progress on Physical and Chemical Properties of Attapulgite Clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦灼; 任珺; 陶玲; 刘丽莉; 刘辉

    2013-01-01

    Attapulgite clay has adsorption, carrier, cation exchange capacity, rheological properties, catalysis and other physical and chemical properties. Meanwhile, the treatment of acid, heat, salt exchange, purification and organic modification can effect and significantly improve the physicochemical properties of attapulgite clay. Among them, the acid changes its charged, adsorption, cation exchange capacity and specific surface area; With the rise of temperature, heat makes its surface area increasing to a maximum and then declined sharply; Purification improves colloid performance; Organic modification makes the particle surface of clay translate from full hydropho-bic to part hydrophilic, changes the specific surface area and cation exchange capacity, enhances the performance of colloidal suspension.%凹凸棒石粘土具有吸附性、载体性、阳离子交换能力、流变性、催化性等物化性质.同时,酸、热、提纯和有机改性等处理方式会对凹凸棒石粘土物化性质产生影响,能显著改善和提高凹凸棒石粘土的物化性质.其中,酸改变其带电性、吸附活性、阳离子交换容量和比表面积;随着温度的升高,热处理使其比表面积不断提高到最大值再急剧下降;提纯可以改善胶体性能;有机改性可以使粘土颗粒表面由完全的亲水性转变为部分疏水性,改变比表面积和阳离子交换容量,增强胶体悬浮性能.

  10. PBS对PLA/凹凸棒石黏土复合材料性能的影响%The Influence of PBS on the Properties of PLA/Attapulgite Clay Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢玉献; 徐惠; 程晓春; 金叶玲; 吴洁

    2012-01-01

    在140℃,氮气保护的条件下,使L-丙交酯开环与凹凸棒石黏土(AT)表面上的(Si-OH)发生反应,生成的低分子量聚乳酸接枝到经过处理的凹凸棒石黏土上,然后将接枝凹凸棒石黏土与聚乳酸(PLA)聚丁二酸丁二醇酯(PBS)进行熔融共混,制备PLA/PBS/凹凸棒石黏土(AT)复合材料.通过FTIR、SEM、力学性能测试及维卡软化测试仪对复合材料进行分析和表征.实验结果表明,凹凸棒石黏土的最佳加入量为1.5%;PBS的加入可以大大提高PLA的韧性,当加入量为25%时,综合力学性能最佳.%The L-lactide was reacted with Si-OH on attapulgite clay surface via a ring-opening under the protection of nitrogen at 140 ℃ to produce polylactic acid oligomers, which were grafted onto the treated attapulgite clay(AT),and then they melted blending with polylactic acid (PLA) and poly (butylene succi-nate) (PBS) to obtain PLA/PBS/attapulgite clay (AT) composites. They were analysed and characterized by means of FTIR ,SEM .mechanical property testing and Vicat softening tester . The results showed that the best content of attapulgite was 1. 5%. The addition of PBS could greatly improve the toughness of PLA;for best mechanical properties,the optimal amount was 25%.

  11. 改性凹凸棒土覆盖抑制底泥磷释放的影响和效果%Efficiency of modified attapulgite in controlling phosphorus release from sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕾; 郑西来; 刘杰

    2011-01-01

    采用等温吸附实验和动力学实验,考察了改性凹土对磷酸盐的吸附特性.研究了无覆盖层、沙土覆盖和改性凹土覆盖对底泥总磷释放的抑制效果,并分析了不同覆盖层厚度、温度和粒径等因素对改性凹土抑制底泥总磷释放的影响.研究结果表明:Freundlich方程式能较好地描述改性凹土对磷酸盐的等温吸附行为,可决系数R2在0.98以上;改性凹土与磷酸盐的反应速度很快,在30min内基本达到平衡;与未加覆盖相比,沙土覆盖和改性凹土覆盖都可以抑制底泥磷的释放,且凹土覆盖优于沙土覆盖;厚度对改性凹土覆盖抑制底泥总磷释放的效率影响较大,%The characteristics of adsorption of phosphate on modified attapulgite were investigated through isothermal adsorptive and kinetic experiments. The efficiency of controlling TP release from sediments was studied under the conditions of non - barrier, sand barrier and modified attapulgitc barrier. The factors affecting release, including barrier thickness, temperature and grain size, were analysed. The results show that Freundlich isotherm can match the isothermal adsorptive characteristic of phosphate on modified attapulgite with a correlation coefficient of more than 0.98. The reaction between modified attapulgite and phosphate is fast and reaction may reach equilibrium within 30 minutes. Compared to the no - barrier case, both sand and modified attapulgite barriers are able to control the TP release from the sediment, and the former is better than the latter. The barrier thickness is a major factor for the control of phosphorus release. More phosphorus is released with the increase of thickness and temperature. A small grain size of modified attapulgite is beneficial to the control of phosphorus release from the sediment.

  12. 以硫代乙酰胺/凹凸棒石复合物为载体的钙离子选择性电极%A New Calcium Electrode Based on the Composite Thioacetamide/attapulgite as Ionophore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文卓; 黄方伦; 王健龙

    2012-01-01

    报道了以硫代乙酰胺/凹凸棒石有机无机复合物为载体的新型钙离子选择性电极的研制.探讨了该有机无机复合物中硫代乙酰胺与凹凸棒石的组成比例、增塑剂用量、被测溶液pH等因素对钙电极性能的影响.结果表明新制钙电极对溶液中的钙离子有较好的近能斯特响应,响应斜率为15.2 mV decade-1,最低检出下限为1.0×10-6mol L-1.新制钙电极具有很好的稳定性,其可应用在溶液pH=6.0~10.0范围内.新电极对常见阳离子表现出好的抗干扰性.利用红外、紫外、相关电导率实验等方法研究了有机无机复合物型电活性物质的结构及所制钙电极的工作机理.%A kind of novel organic/inorganic composites as ionophore in the membrane of calcium ion selective electrode,which were made of thioacetamide and attapulgite,had been prepared.Thioacetamide is a type of small organic molecule with functional groups including amino groups and carbon-sulfur double bonds.Attapulgite has been characterized by a high negative charge at its surface,a large specific surface area,and a large micropore volume due to the existence of intercrystalline cavities.Thioacetamide molecules can carry positive charges when their amino groups get protons from hydroxyl groups of attapulgite.So thioacetamide molecules with positive charges can be adsorbed on the negative surface of attapulgite by electrostatic interaction as well as hydrogen-bonding,to form a super-molecular host-guest structure.Considering the stagger arranged pores on the outer surface of attapulgite,we inferred that adsorbed thioacetamide molecules should be around the edge of pore mouth of the attapulgite.Experiments proved that the organic/inorganic complex structure promoted the ability of attapulgite adsorbing more calcium ions from the solution.Based on the attapulgite/thioacetamide composite as ionophore,the calcium ion selective electrodes were prepared using 7.0 wt% of ionophore,43.0 wt

  13. Effects of the ion-exchange on physicochemical of attapulgite clay and adsorption properties for diclofenac sodium%盐交换凹凸棒黏土的理化性质及其对双氯芬酸钠吸附性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颉晓玲; 王文波; 汪琴; 李冲

    2011-01-01

    将凹凸棒黏土采用不同价态的硫酸盐和相同价态不同用量硫酸盐交换后,通过红外光谱、扫描电镜、比表面积和ζ电位的测定,考察了盐交换处理对凹凸棒黏土微结构和理化性能的影响.在此基础上,考察了处理凹凸棒黏土对双氯芬酸钠的吸附影响.结果表明,金属盐交换凹凸棒黏土对双氯芬酸钠的吸附量不仅与所交换金属离子的价态有关,更与凹凸棒黏土的微孔比表面积和微孔体积有关.当硫酸铝用量为凹凸棒黏土量的0.5%时,其交换凹凸棒黏土对双氯芬酸钠的吸附量最大,达到了126mg/g,与凹凸棒黏土原矿相比,吸附量提高了近4倍.%Attapulgite clay were ion-exchanged with different valences sulfate and different amounts of sulfate in the same valence. The effects of the ion-exchanged on the microstructure and physicochemical properties of attapulgite clay were investigated by FTIR spectra,SEM, specific surface area and ξ potential. The adsorption properties of the ion-exchanged attapulgite clay for diclofenac sodium were studied.The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of modified attapulgite clay for diclofenac sodium was related with not only the valence of ion-exchanged metal ions but also the micropore area and micropore volume. When the amount of aluminum sulfate was 0. 5% to that of attapulgite clay, the adsorption capacity of modified attapulgite for diclofenac sodium was the largest of 126 mg/g. Compared to that of nature attapulgite clay,the adsorption capacity of modified attapulgite for diclofenac sodium increased about four times.

  14. Efficient biosynthesis of γ-decalactone in ionic liquids by immobilized whole cells of Yarrowia lipolytica G3-3.21 on attapulgite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuping; Xu, Yan; Jiang, Changxing

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the biosynthesis of γ-decalactone (GDL) was successfully conducted in an ionic liquid (IL)-containing cosolvent system using immobilized cells of Yarrowia lipolytica G3-3.21 on attapulgite (ATG). We found the immobilized Y. lipolytica G3-3.21 cells in N-butyl-pyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([BPy]BF4) solution gave the highest activity of C16-Acyl-CoA oxidase and the maximum yield of GDL. The optimum immobilization conditions for the highest yield of GDL were 20 g/L of ATG, 1.5 % of CaCl2 and 2 % of sodium alginate (NaAlg). The optimal [BPy]BF4 content, buffer pH, reaction temperature, shaking speed, castor oil and glucose contents were 7.5 %, 26 °C, 150 rpm, 100 g/L and 10 %, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the GDL yield was up to 8.05 g/L. After ten times of reuse, the GDL yield was 7.51 g/L, corresponding to 93.3 % of that obtained in the first batch, suggesting a good reusability and potential for industrial applications. PMID:26091898

  15. Sorption of Am(III) on attapulgite/iron oxide magnetic composites. Effect of pH, ionic strength and humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attapulgite/iron oxide magnetic (ATP/IOM) composites was prepared, and the sorption behavior of Am(III) on that composites was studied as a function of pH, ionic strength, the solid-to-liquid ratio (m/V), contact time, and the concentration of Am(III) under ambient conditions using batch technique. The time to achieve the sorption equilibrium was less than 5 h. The sorption of Am(III) on ATP/IOM composites was strongly affected by pH and ionic strength. Though ion exchange reaction contributed to Am(III) sorption over low pH range and low ionic strength, the sorption was mainly dominated by surface complexion (i.e., outer- and/or inner-sphere complexes) in the whole observed pH range. In the presence of humic acid (HA), the sorption edge of Am(III) on ATP/IOM composites obviously shifted to lower pH; but Am(III) sorption gradually became weak after pH exceeded 4, which may be mainly in terms of the soluble complexes of HA-Am(III). (orig.)

  16. 凹凸棒土/聚合铝铁絮凝剂制备因素的研究%Study on The Factor of Preparation Attapulgite/Polymeric Iron Alum Fiocculant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺晓娟; 梁卫东; 曹丰龙

    2011-01-01

    以亚铁盐和铝盐为原料,采用分步滴定法制备凹凸棒土/聚合铝铁复合絮凝剂(APAFC),考察了原料配比、反应温度、pH值对复合絮凝剂性能的影响.结果表明:在pH值为3、m(凹凸棒土):m(FeSO4):m(AICl3)为1:0.05:0.1、反应温度为60℃条件下,复合絮凝剂絮凝性能最佳.COD去除率为80%以上,浊度去除率为90%以上.%Attapulgite - existed aluminium and iron compound flocculating agent (APAFC) was prepared from ferrite salt and aluminium salt by the method of step-by-step dripping reaction. The effect of the quality ratio of raw materials, reaction temperature and pH value were observed. The experimental results showed that the best conditions of preparing attapulgite - existed iron and aluminium compound flocculating agent were that the mass ratio of attapulgite and FeSO4 and AlCl3 was 1: 0.05: 0.1, the reaction temperature was 60℃ and pH value was 3, the removal rate of COD and turbidity were more than 80% and 90% ,respectively.

  17. Preparation and characterization of attapulgite/starch grafted AM-AMPS superabsorbent nanocomposite%凹凸棒/淀粉接枝AM-AMPS纳米复合吸水材料的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨双桥; 周明; 何浏; 熊亚春; 刘利; 杨雨佳

    2013-01-01

    在反应温度为30℃,引发剂质量分数为0.02%,交联剂质量分数为0.02%,反应时间为10 min的条件下,原位插层聚合制备了凹凸棒/淀粉接枝AM-AMPS纳米复合材料.通过正交实验研究了复合材料在蒸馏水和质量分数为2%盐水中的吸水倍率的优化工艺条件.通过红外光谱研究发现,复合材料形成了致密的柱状网络结构,凹凸棒与高分子基体有较多粘连.X射线衍射(XRD)结果发现,复合材料中凹凸棒片层(001)面的层间距增大到2.13 nm,形成了剥离型纳米插层复合吸水材料.%Attapulgite/starch grafted AM-AMPS superabsorbent nanocomposite is prepared by in situ intercalation polymerization under the following condition: 30℃ of reaction temperature, 0. 02% mass fraction of initiator and 10 minutes of reaction time. The water absorbency of the obtained superabsorbent nanocomposite in distilled water and 2% salt solution is optimized by the orthogonal experiment. The result of IR shows that the nanocomposite forms the compact columnar network structure. There is much adhesion between attapulgite and polymer matrix. The result of XRD show that layer to layer spacing between attapulgite sheet layers (001 ) increases to 2. 13 nm and forms the peelable type superabsorbent intercalated nanocomposite.

  18. 凹土-氯化钙复合吸附剂的制冷性能%Adsorption Refrigeration Characteristic of Attapulgite Based Calcium Chloride Composite Adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万意; 李全国; 芮正球; 崔群; 陈海军; 王海燕; 姚虎卿

    2012-01-01

    采用凹凸棒粘土和氯化钙为主要原料,用溶解-混合法制备了复合吸附剂;采用正压重量法测量了复合吸附剂对氨的吸附等温线;并测定了吸附剂-氨工质对的制冷特性.结果表明:吸附温度30℃下,复合吸附剂对氨的平衡吸附量为1.1 kg/kg,与氯化钙对氨的平衡吸附量相当.在装填密度为600kg/m3,吸附温度为30℃、蒸发压力为0.25MPa、解吸温度为300℃条件下,对氨的吸附量达到0.89~0.92kg/kg,循环吸附量为0.55~0.58kg/kg,是纯氯化钙的1.7倍:复合吸附剂-氨工质对制冷量可达761.84kJ/kg,比氯化钙-氨工质对提高了70%.而且,复合吸附剂具有良好的吸附解吸稳定性能.%The composite absorbent is mainly consisted of attapulgite and CaCI2as the resources, which were prepared by the dissolution-mixed method, and the content of attapulgite in composite absorbent is 10%. Adsorption isotherms of ammonia on absorbents were determined by positive gravimetric method. Adsorption-desorption cycle performance and cooling characteristics of composite absorbent -ammonia working pairs was evaluated by self-made adsorption-desorption measuring device. Experimental results show that the equilibrium capacity of ammonia on the composite absorbent is up to l.lkg/kg at 30℃, which is equal to that of CaCl2. The conditions of loading density 600kg/m3, adsorption temperature 30℃, ammonia evaporation pressure 0.25 MPa, desorption temperature 300℃, adsorption capacity of ammonia in the composite absorbent and its cyclic adsorption capacity is 0.89-0.92 kg/kg and 0.55~0.58 kg/kg, respectively, which is 1.7 times than that of CaCl2-ammonia working pairs. The cooling capacity is up to 761.84kJ/kg, which is increased by 70% compared to CaCl2/ ammonia. What's more, composite absorbent has excellent adsorption and desorption stability.

  19. Effervescence-assisted β-cyclodextrin/attapulgite composite for the in-syringe dispersive solid-phase extraction of pyrethroids in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Panjie; Li, Xiaobing; Hu, Lu; Gao, Haixiang; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Lu, Runhua

    2016-06-01

    In this research, an effervescence-assisted β-cyclodextrin/attapulgite composite (β-CD/ATP) for the in-syringe dispersive solid-phase extraction (EAIS-DSPE) of pyrethroids in environmental samples was developed for the first time. A syringe was used to conduct the extraction procedure and a small amount of β-CD/ATP was dispersed into the solution with the release of carbon dioxide when the effervescent tablet components dissolved in water. Then, the sorbent was recovered using a filter membrane, and the analytes were directly eluted using acetonitrile. In the process, the β-CD/ATP sorbent resulted in an excellent extraction efficiency compared to commercially available sorbents such as C18 and HLB. Moreover, in the extraction procedure, both the β-cyclodextrin inclusion interactions (especially the hydrophobic effects) and the special structure of the ATP contributed to the efficient enrichment of pyrethroids in aqueous media. The amount of β-CD/ATP sorbent, the volume of desorption, the ratio of NaH2PO4/Na2CO3, the volume of the sample, and the pH were screened using a Plackett-Burman design. All factors affecting the procedure were optimized by applying a central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, a good repeatability (RSDs) ranging from 1.7 to 2.3, linearity (2.5-500μgL(-1)), limits of detection (LODs) (0.15-1.03μgL(-1)), and an acceptable recoveries (76.8-86.5%) were achieved. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of pyrethroids in environmental samples including river water, reservoir water and lake water. PMID:27130127

  20. 淀粉/凹凸棒粘土复合吸附絮凝材料的研究%Study on Starch/Attapulgite Adsorbent and Flocculent Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱忠湛; 马喜君

    2015-01-01

    采用接枝聚合法在硅烷化凹凸棒粘土(OATP)表面接枝淀粉,制备淀粉/凹凸棒粘土(ATP)复合吸附絮凝材料.采用傅里叶变换红外光谱(FT-IR)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对淀粉/ATP进行了表征,并对其制备条件进行了优化.结果表明,当淀粉质量分数(相对OATP质量)为100%,聚合反应时间为3 h,引发剂质量分数为0.003%,反应温度为60℃时,制备的淀粉/ATP对镉离子的最大吸附容量可达到36.78 mg/g.与ATP、OATP相比,淀粉/ATP对镉离子的吸附容量增大了2倍以上.复合材料具有比OATP更强的捕获能力,所形成的絮凝体大而密实,比淀粉絮凝剂具有更好的沉降性能.%Graft polymerization, starch/attapulgite( ATP) adsorbent was synthesized by grafting starch onto the silane coupling reagent modified ATP( OATP).The preparing conditions of the starch/ATP were investigated, and the analysis by FT/IR and SEM were conducted to characterize the synthesized starch/ATP.Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy( FT-IR) , scanning e-lectron microscopy( SEM) of starch/ATP were characterized and optimized its preparation conditions.The results show that the prepared starch/ATP gives a maximum Cd2+ adsorption capacity of 36.78 mg·g-1 under following conditions:starch mass con-centration of 100.0%( relative to OATP mass, the same hereinafter) , reaction time of 3 h, initiator dosage of 0.003%( weight) and reaction temperature of 60℃.It was found that the Cd2+ adsorption capacity of the Starch/ATP prepared under the above con-ditions is more than 2 folds compared with those of the ATP and OATP.The captured ability of the composite material is better than OATP, forming large and dense flocs, its settlement capacity is superior to starch flocculants.

  1. Preparation and Adsorption Properties of Three Dimensional Attapulgite Hydrophobic Material%三维凹凸棒疏水材料的制备及其吸附性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁卫东; 王睿; 陈品松; 王源瑞; 吴叶

    2015-01-01

    采用溶液聚合法制备聚丙烯酰胺/凹凸棒(PAM/ATP)复合吸附材料,经冷冻干燥处理、氮气保护条件下高温碳化制备出三维网络凹凸棒复合材料(APM),通过聚二甲基硅氧烷(PDMS)的化学气相沉积(CVD)有机改性APM得到三维凹凸棒疏水材料(PAPM)。采用XRD、SEM、BET、FT-IR等多种方法进行了表征,结果显示,PAM成功接枝到ATP表面,且APM表面疏松多孔;平均孔径从ATP的9.105 nm增加至APM的11.205 nm;PDMS成功改性APM,与ATP相比,PAPM对有机物的吸附量增大6倍以上,表明PAPM是一种良好的油/水分离吸附材料,具有选择性吸附性能。%In this work, three dimensional attapulgite hydrophobic material (PAPM) was synthesized by using solution polymerization, freeze-drying method, thermolysis treatment and modiifcation with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Then, the samples were investigated by XRD, SEM, BET, FT-IR and other methods. Observation showed that the polypropylene amide (PAM) was successfully grafted onto the surface of the attapulgite (ATP) and the three dimensional network attapulgite composite (APM) was the spongy structure. The average pore size increased from 9.105 nm of ATP to 11.205 nm of APM. The APM was successfully modiifed by using PDMS, which was characterized by FT-IR. It was found that organic solvents adsorption capacity of the PAPM is more than 6 folds compared with those of the ATP. It indicates that the PAPM is a good material for oil/water separation and possesses excellent selective adsorption.

  2. 松香凹凸棒石粘土包膜尿素的制备及缓释性能的研究%Synthesis of urea coating with attapulgite-rosin and study on its slow release properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鸿杰; 陈天虎; 彭书传

    2011-01-01

    矿物和有机物复合包膜有利于提高肥料的利用效率.以松香的无水乙醇溶液为粘结剂,凹凸棒石粘土作为内包层,石蜡作为外层,采用熔融喷雾包膜的方法制备一种缓释包膜尿素.通过扫描电镜( SEM)分析得出,尿素内部形成一层以松香和凹凸棒石粘土为内包层的均匀膜,根据水浸泡试验和抗压强度测定表明,添加凹凸棒石粘土增加了包膜层的强度,松香粘结剂有利于增强膜的致密性与牢固性.缓释效果理想的样品初期释放率(24h)≤15%,28 d累积的释放率≤75%,能够达到缓控释肥料的国家标准或行业标准的要求.%Coating of fertilizer with mineral and organic matter can enhance efficiency of fertilizer. In this paper, attapulgite clay mineral with rosin as the inner cladding and paraffin wax as the outer layer of package were employed to synthesize an engineering materials by using molten spray method. According to SEM analysis, the formation of uniform inner cladding film between urea and attapulgite with rosin bonder. Addition of attapulgite clay mineral and rosin bonder increased the strength and density of coating film respectively in terms of water immersion test and compressive strength measurement. The ideal product initial release rate (24 h) was more than 15% , 28 days accumulated release rate was more than 75% , which could achieve national standards or industry standards of sustained and controlled release fertilizers.

  3. Study on selective oxidation of H2S with the desulfurizer catalyst of attapulgite clay%凹凸棒黏土脱硫催化剂选择氧化H2S的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李澜; 俞树荣; 王青宁; 张飞龙; 赵秋萍

    2011-01-01

    以1.0 moL/L盐酸改性活化的凹凸棒黏土为载体,采用单因素法对脱硫催化剂的活性剂进行筛选,采用正交实验,对脱硫催化剂选择氧化H2S气体进行研究.利用IR技术对脱硫反应前后和再生后的样品进行表征.结果表明,脱硫催化剂的最佳活性剂及其含量为:凹凸棒黏土70%,TiO2 10%,Fe2O3 10%,Al2O3 5%,MnO2 5%,在脱硫温度240℃,硫化氢流量200 mL/min,氧硫比1.8的工艺条件下,脱硫催化剂对H2S有很高的去除率,并且H2S可被选择性的氧化为单质硫,生成的单质硫质量最大可以占到催化剂的18.496,硫容大于24.O%.%The active agent of desulfurizer catalyst was shifted by single-factor method with attapulgite clay modified by 1.0 mol/L HC1 solution as supporter.The selective oxidation of H2S with the desulfurizer catalyst was studied by orthogonal experiment.Properties of the desulfurizer catalyst of attapulgite clay before and after reaction were characterized by IR.The results indicated that the best active agent and content of desulfurizer catalyst were as follows: attapulgite clay 70% ,TiO2 10% ,Fe2O3 10% , A12O3 5% ,MnO2 5% , desulfurization temperature 240 ℃ ,flow rate of H2S 200 mL/min, ratio of oxgen to sulfur 1.8.Under above reaction condition,H2S could prepare sulfur by selective oxidation,the maxmum content of sulfur was 18.4% catalyst,sulfur capacity was over 24.0%.

  4. Study on the Properties of Natural Rubber Filled with Attapulgite Modiifed by Silica%二氧化硅改性凹凸棒土/天然橡胶复合材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继虎; 陈大俊; 杨涛; 苏月

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, purified attapulgite modified by silica (AS) was prepared. The morphology of the filler particles was described by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reinforcement effect of natural rubber composites iflled by different content ifller was studied. TEM indicated that silica nanoparticles had a good dispersion on the surface of attapulgite powder. The smooth surface of attapulgite became rough. Compared with blank sample, the performance of AS/NR nanocomposites improved signiifcant. The tensile strength and coefifcient of nanocomposites were increased and the trend when iflling content of AS increased. The optimum properties of composites were iflled with 1 g. The tensile strength of AS41/NR nanocomposite was up to 26.10 MPa, increased by 70% compared to the neat natural rubber sample. AS particles could improve the heat resistance of natural rubber composites.T5% andTmax were increased 40~70℃ and 20℃ than natural rubber.%以提纯凹凸棒土表面负载纳米二氧化硅粒子(AS)作为补强剂,将其填充到天然橡胶(NR)中,制备了复合材料。采用透射电镜(TEM)观察了凹凸棒土的形貌,分析了复合材料的力学性能。结果表明,棒状结构的凹凸棒土表面分散了纳米级的二氧化硅,光滑的表面变得粗糙。随着AS含量的增加,复合材料的拉伸强度,补强系数先上升后下降。当AS添加量为1 g时,复合材料的性能最佳,AS41/NR硫化胶拉伸强度达26.10 MPa,比空白样品提高了70%。AS粉体可以提高天然橡胶复合材料的耐热性能,T5%和Tmax比纯天然橡胶分别提高了40~70℃和20℃。

  5. 氮掺杂碳包覆凹凸棒石的制备及其电化学性能研究%Preparation and electrochemical performance of attapulgite coated with nitrogen-doped carbon from polyaniline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘信东; 应宗荣; 卢建建; 任振波; 万慧

    2016-01-01

    利用苯胺原位化学聚合合成聚苯胺包覆凹凸棒石,再经过高温热处理得到氮掺杂碳包覆凹凸棒石。采用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)、傅立叶转换红外线光谱(FTIR)、差热分析法(DTA)对样品形貌和化学结构进行表征,利用循环伏安法、恒电流充放电及交流阻抗技术研究其用作超级电容器电极材料时的电化学性能。研究表明,氮掺杂碳包覆凹凸棒石在6 mol·L–1的KOH电解液中具有较好的电容性能,在20 mV·s–1的扫速下质量比电容可达161.9 F·g–1,且该复合材料具有较小的内阻和良好的电容稳定性。%The attapulgite coated with nitrogen-doped carbon was prepared by high temperature heat treatment of the attapulgite coated with polyaniline, which was synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization of aniline. The morphology and chemical structure of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), conversion analysis for differential thermal analysis (DTA). The electrochemical performances of the composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, gslvsnostantic changing-discharging and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the attapulgite coated with nitrogen-doped carbon from polyaniline has a good capacitance performance in 6 mol·L–1 aqueous KOH solution, its specific capacitance can reach 161.9 F·g–1 at the scan rate of 20 mV·s–1 and it also exhibits a low inter resisitance and a good stability of the temperature coefficient of capacitance.

  6. Sewage treatment effect in cold rural region by attapulgite combined with stabilization pond%凹凸棒土-稳定塘工艺提高严寒地区农村生活污水处理效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙楠; 田伟伟; 李晨洋

    2014-01-01

    针对严寒地区农村生活污水处理面临的低效率、高能耗、排水不达标的典型问题,首次提出凹凸棒土—稳定塘模式处理严寒地区农村生活污水。该研究创新的通过PLC(programmable logic controller)自控试验设计,考察在低温10℃条件下工艺的最优运行参数,经过平行对比试验研究凹凸棒土作为载体填料对低温生活污水处理效果的影响。结果表明,pH值在7.2~7.8之间,兼性塘水力停留时间为4d,好氧塘的水力停留时间与曝气时间分别为36、4 h时,工艺对化学需氧量(chemical oxygen demand,COD)、氨氮(ammonia nitrogen,ammonia-N)、总磷(total phosphorus,TP)的平均去除率分别为91.5%、87.7%、84.1%,平均出水质量浓度分别为35.6、4.5、1.0 mg/L,满足国家二级排放标准,而单一式稳定塘工艺的低温生活污水处理效果显著降低,COD、氨氮、TP的去平均去除率分别降低了3.6%、6.0%、4.7%。凹凸棒土—稳定塘工艺可以有效的去除严寒地区农村生活污水中有机物及氮磷污染物,对削减农村水污染、降低水环境负荷及改善农村生态环境具有重要作用,同时也为凹凸棒土的应用拓展了新的方向。%In this study, an attapulgite-stabilization pond model was first proposed to deal with the practical problems of domestic sewage treatment such as low efficiency, high energy consumption, and drainage substandard in cold rural regions. A stabilization pond was assembled by a facultative pond reactor and aerobic reactor. Both reactors are cylinders, and the effective volume was 150 L. Before running the experiment, the facultative pond reactor was inoculated with anaerobic activated sludge and the aerobic pond reactor was inoculated with aerobic activated sludge to achieve a fast start of the experimental device. During running the experiment, the experimental procedure was that first the low temperature sewage was

  7. 熔融复合法制备聚乳酸/凹凸棒土纳米复合材料%Preparation of Polylactide/Attapulgite Nanocomposites by Melt Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄韦; 贾海军; 岳邦毅; 孙小强

    2009-01-01

    对凹凸棒土(AT)进行有机改性后,采用熔融复合法制备了AT的质量分数为1wt%、3wt%、5w%的聚乳酸/凹凸棒土纳米复合材料(PLA/OAT-x),对复合材料进行红外、SEM、DSC等表征.SEM结果表明,凹凸棒土粒子在复合材料中实现了均匀稳定分散,通过对复合材料的综合热性能分析和力学性能分析,PLA/OAT-3复合材料的拉伸强度、杨氏模量比纯PLA分别增加78.8%和119.3%.同时.复合材料的溶液降解性能也明显加快.%Organic-attapulgite (OAT) was obtained by pretreating attapulgite, then the polylactide acid (PLA)/OAT nanocomposie was prepared by melt polymerization. The nanocompositc was characterized by using infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR), scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and DSC, the mechanical and degradable capability of the nanocomposie was measured. Results show equably uniform dispersion and good interracial compatibility between PLA and OAT. Compared with pure PLA, the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the PLA/OAT-3 arc respectively improved by 78.8% and 119.3%. It also shows that the degradation capability of PLA/OAT-x is obviously speeded up.

  8. Influence Factors of Nitrogen Release Characteristics of Urea Coated with Styrene-acrylate Emulsion,Paraffin Wax and Attapulgite%影响苯丙乳液-石蜡-凹凸棒石复合包膜尿素缓释效果因素的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁; 彭书传; 陈天虎; 周正发

    2011-01-01

    [目的]改进笨丙乳液-石蜡-凹凸棒石复合包膜尿素的生产技术.[方法]通过分别改变各种包膜材料(苯丙乳液、石蜡和凹凸棒石粉末)的用量、干燥时间以及干燥温度,制得不同的苯丙乳液-石蜡-凹凸棒石复合包膜尿素,并且利用水浸泡试验研究制得的不同包膜尿素在水中的溶解特征.[结果]苯丙乳液-石蜡-凹凸棒石复合包膜尿素的制备最佳工艺参数为:每包膜100克尿素,石蜡用量为20 g,凹凸棒石粘土用量为3g,苯丙乳液用量为50~60ml,干燥温度为60℃,干燥时间为120 min.[结论]各种膜材料用量、干燥时间以及干燥温度均影响着该复合包膜尿素的缓释效果.%[Objective] The research aimed to improve the production technology of urea coated with styrene-acrylate emulsion, paraffin wax and attapulgite. [ Method] Different kinds of controlled-release coated urea were prepared from normal urea by coating with styrene-acrylate e-mulsion, paraffin wax and attapulgite by changing coating material. Consumptions, drying time and drying temperature. Their nitrogen slow-release characteristics were investigated by water immersion research. [ Result] The best process parameters of the urea coated with styrene-acrylate emulsion, paraffin wax and attapulgite preparation were as follows: in 100 grams urea per parcel, the amount of paraffin wax was 20 grams, attapulgite was 3 grams, the amount of styrene-acrylic emulsion was 50-60 ml, drying temperature was 60 oC, and the drying time was 120 minutes. [Conclusion]Coating material (styrene-acrylate emulsion, paraffin wax and attapulgite) consumptions, drying time and drying temperature influenced the coated urea's slow release effect.

  9. 凹凸棒土/聚丙烯酸钠保水保肥树脂制备及性能%Preparation on Water and Fertilizer Retaining Agent of Attapulgite/sodium Polyacrylate Resin and Its Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松; 杨勇

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the optimum condition for preparing attapulgite/sodium polyacrylate compound resin and its properties of retaining water and fertilizer. [ Method] The attapulgite/sodium polyacrylate compound resin were synthesized by the aqueous solufion polymerization method, thè optimum conditions for preparing the water and fertilizer retaining agent were confirmed through the orthogonal test and the property indexes of the water and fertilizer retaining agent prepared under the optimum conditions were determined through the property reseach test. [ Result] The optimum conditions of preparing the water and fertilizer retaining agent were as follows: the weight ratio of crosslinking agent, attapulgite and initiator to resin monomer was 0.050%, 15% and 0.450%, resp.; the reaction temperature was 75 ℃ and the neutralization degree was 90%. The property indexes of the water and fertilizer retaining agent prepared under the optimum conditions were as follows: the alsorbency of distilled water was 762 g/g; the water evaporation rate of the agent at room temperature for 24 h was less than 10.00%and that in water bath at 50 ℃ for 10 h was 99. 11%. [Conclusion] The agent had good properties of retoining water and fertilizer. Its absorbency in 10.0 g/L urea solution was 500 g/g and the urea residue rate of sol-fertilizer made by using 0. 1 g resin to saturate and adsorb 15% urea solution was 34.4% after dynamic leaching with 50mi distilled water.%[目的]探讨凹凸棒土/聚丙烯酸钠复合树脂制备的最佳条件及其保水保肥性能.[方法]采用水溶液聚合法合成出高吸水性能的凹凸棒土/聚丙烯酸钠复合树脂,通过正交试验确定制备保水剂的最佳条件,并通过性能研究试验确定最佳条件下制备的保水剂性能指标.[结果]制备吸水剂的最佳条件为:交联剂、凹凸棒土、引发剂用量分别占树脂单体质量的0.050%、15.000%、0.450%,温度为75

  10. 脱除H2S用铁/凹凸棒石的优化制备及性能评价%Optimization of preparation conditions and performance evaluation of Fe/attapulgite for H2S removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智宏; 梁慧军; 杜晓刚; 左晓亮

    2012-01-01

    用均相沉淀法制备了铁/凹凸棒石复合物用于H2s的脱除.考察了反应物配比、反应时间和反应温度对铁转化率、体系pH值和Fe3+浓度变化的影响;用透射电镜对不同条件制得的脱硫剂的形貌进行了表征,以模拟工业尾气为气源做H2s动态吸附实验.结果表明,体系pH值的上升是Fe3+完全沉淀的标志;体系OH-浓度主要受反应温度的影响,升高反应液温度有利于提高铁转化率,而反应物配比对其影响不大;升高温度会使沉淀速度过快,引起凹凸棒石表面铁分散性下降,形貌发生变化,导致脱硫剂性能下降.%The Fe/attapulgite desulfurizers for H2S removal were prepared by homogeneous precipitation. The effects of preparation conditions on the conversion efficiency of iron, pH and Fe3+ concentration were investigated by changing the reactant ratio, reaction time and temperature. The morphology of desulfurizers prepared under various conditions was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dynamic adsorption experiments were carried out with simulated industrial off-gases as gas source. The results showed that the conversion efficiency of ferric increased with reaction temperature rather than the reactant ratio, because the concentration of OH - in the system strongly depends on the reaction temperature. The increase of pH value in the solution is a sign of complete precipitation of Fe3+ At the elevated temperature, the accelerated sedimentation caused the dispersion of iron substance on the attapulgite to reduce and its morphology to ehange. Therefore, the sulfur capacity of desulfurizers declined.

  11. 熔融复合法制备邻甲酚醛环氧树脂/凹凸棒土纳米复合材料%Preparation of O-cresol Formaldehyde Epoxy Resin/Attapulgite Nanocomposites by Melt Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪清林; 曹青华; 王菊花; 俞强; 庄韦; 陈强

    2011-01-01

    通过对凹凸棒土(AT)进行有机改性,得到有机化凹凸棒土(OAT),并对其进行FTIR和XRD表征,结果表明,表面活性剂是以物理吸附形式存在于凹凸棒土棒晶的外表面上.采用熔融复合法制备了AT质量分数为1%~5%的邻甲酚醛环氧树脂/凹凸棒土纳米复合材料(ECN/OAT-x),并对复合材料进行SEM、DMA和TGA等表征.SEM结果表明OAT的加入使复合材料断裂由脆性断裂向韧性断裂转变.通过对复合材料的综合热性能分析和力学性能分析,ECN/OAT-3复合材料的拉伸强度、冲击强度和Tg比纯ECN分别高出54.3%、83.5%和39.6℃;复合材料的热稳定性也有明显提高.%Organic-attapulgite (OAT) was obtained by organic modification, and we characterized it by FTIR and XRD.The results showed that the physical adsorption was present in the outer surface of attapulgite crystal rods. Then the ECN/OAT-x (x=1 wt% to 5wt%) nanocomposites were respectively prepared by melt polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, DMA, TGA and so on. The results showed that the addition of OAT made the compounds transform from brittle fraction to ductile fracture. The mechanical capability and thermal analysis of the nanocomposies were also measured. In contrast with pure ECN, the tensile strength, impact strength and Tg of ECN/OAT-3 were respectively improved by 54.3%, 83.5% and 39.6℃. The thermal stability of nanocomposites was markedly improved.

  12. Study on Desulfurization of SO_2 by Attapulgite/Calcium Oxide Compond Desulfurization Agent%凹凸棒石复合氧化钙脱硫剂脱除SO_2的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞树荣; 张婷; 戴虎虎; 王毅; 冯辉霞; 赵霞

    2009-01-01

    采用甘肃临泽产凹凸棒石(ATTP)与CaO复合,制成了具有吸附催化作用的脱硫剂.实验主要研究了CaO含量、脱硫剂含水率、床层温度对脱硫效率的影响.试验结果表明,CaO含量为20%~30%,脱硫荆含水率在20%-30%、床层温度为常温时,凹凸棒石基新型脱硫剂脱硫效果最好,硫容最大可达17.12%.%Attapulgite(ATTP), produced in Gansu Linze, and metal oxides CaO, which was used as a conventional desulfurizer, were used to prepare a kind of new desulfurizer. The influences of content of CaO, water content rate of desulfurizer, bed temperature on desulfurization had been studied. As a rusult, the sulfur tolerance of the desulfurizer reached 17.12%, when CaO is about 20%~30%, water content rate of desulfurizer is about 20%~30% and bed temperature is nomal.

  13. 凹凸棒负载TiO2对偶氮染料和纺织废水光催化脱污%TiO2/attapulgite photocatalyst for solar detoxification of azo dyes and textile wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春; 王怡中

    2001-01-01

    A solar decontamination process for water was developed using TiO2 photocatalysts supported on attapulgite. The supported catalyst was systematically optimized with respect to catalyst dosage and calcination temperature. Methyl orange etc. azo dyes and wool textile wastewater were decolorized under solar illumination using optimal supported catalyst. The results indicates that this kind of supported catalyst illuminated by solar is very effective to destroy the most refractory compounds. and displayed high stability for circulation use.%通过浸渍的方法,制备了天然粘土矿石凹凸棒负载的P25 TiO2固化催化剂.实验了催化剂的负载量和煅烧温度对催化剂活性的影响.研究了最佳固化催化剂对5种生物难降解的偶氮染料和纺织废水的太阳光催化脱污.结果证实该固定化催化剂能利用太阳能光催化脱污偶氮染料及毛纺织废水,而且具有高的稳定性,可重复使用.

  14. Synthesis of attapulgite clay at the rate of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ composite via ionic liquid and its application in the oxidation of elemental mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attapulgite clay at the rate Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (ATP at the rate Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/) composite was prepared by a one-pot calcination process via the ionic liquid (IL), (bmim)PF6, using two cheap, ecofriendly materials (i.e., Fe(NO/sub3/)sub 3/9H/sub 2/O and ATP, which is a magnesium aluminum silicate that is abundant in nature). The resulting composite was characterized by different techniques. IR spectra indicated that the ATP clay has been successfully modified by the functional Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ species. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the natural ATP still existed in ATP at the rate Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ composite and plays the role as a template. The specific surface areas determined by the BET method from N2 sorption isotherms decreased with the entrance of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The activity for oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg) in flue gases was investigated, which exhibited the highest efficiency value of 91% at 220 degree C. The results showed that this composite was qualified for controlling and removing Hg in flue gases as a low-cost, sustainable, effective catalyst. (author)

  15. Research on Wearability of nano-Attapulgite/Chloroprene Rubber Composites%纳米凹凸棒土/氯丁橡胶复合材料耐磨性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋帅帅; 姚亮; 吴友平

    2013-01-01

    Attapulgite(AT)/chloroprene rubber(CR) composites was prepared by using mechnical mixing technology,and effects of AT content, modifier kinds and content and curing systems on wear-ability of the composites were discussed,and the surface morphology of Akron abrasion of the composites having the different modifiers was observed, too. The results showed that the wearability of the composites was the best when the amount of AT was 30 phr; Modifier KH —550 was an effective coupling agent in increasing the wearability of the composites,and the optimal content was 3% of AT content; The wearability was different by using different curing systems. The wearability of the composites was the best when curing agents MgO/ZnO/DCP mass ratio was 4/5/1.%采用机械共混法制备了凹凸棒土(AT)/氯丁橡胶(CR)纳米复合材料,探讨了AT用量、改性剂种类及用量和硫化剂体系等对复合材料耐磨性能的影响,还观察了使用不同改性剂制备的复合材料阿克隆磨耗表面形态.结果表明,AT用量为30份时复合材料耐磨性最好;改性剂KH-550能显著提高硫化胶耐磨性,其最佳用量为AT用量的3%;硫化体系不同时复合材料的耐磨性有所不同,采用MgO/ZnO/DCP(质量比为4/5/1)并用硫化体系时复合材料耐磨性最好.

  16. Research on Polyester Synthesis Catalyzed by Ti-Complex Supported on Nano-attapulgite%络合钛复合纳米凹凸棒土催化聚酯反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔爱军; 李静; 田俊凯; 姚超; 何明阳; 陈群

    2014-01-01

    以钛酸四丁酯、柠檬酸为基本原料制备了一种新型络合钛聚酯催化剂,并将其与纳米凹凸棒土(ATP)复合,得到一类复合催化剂,对络合钛及复合催化剂分别进行了红外和透射电镜表征,证实了金属钛与柠檬酸配体发生了络合,复合催化剂具有良好的分散状态。通过催化聚酯反应对络合钛及多种复合催化剂的性能进行了评价,结果表明:与常规聚酯催化剂Sb2O3相比较,络合钛催化活性约为Sb2O3的6倍,但产品色相b值较高(大于15.60);将络合钛与纳米凹凸棒土以2:1的质量比负载后,催化反应得到的聚酯b值从16.30降为3.79,综合反应速度和聚酯色相的结果,认为络合钛与凹凸棒土的合适质量配比为5:2。此外,讨论了复合催化剂对聚酯物化性能的影响,通过DSC、TGA等测试手段,发现络合钛复合纳米凹凸棒土作催化剂制备的聚酯的结晶温度比Sb2O3催化制备的聚酯要高7℃以上,熔点高6℃左右,二甘醇含量更低,其热降解性能相近。%A Ti-complex catalyst for polyester synthesis was prepared with tetrabutyl titanate and citric acid as starting materials. Then, the catalyst was supported on nano-attapulgite (ATP), and a series of composite catalysts were obtained and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and TEM. The IR and TEM results show that the Ti is complexed with citric acid, and the Ti-complex could disperse on the ATP to increase the catalyst surface. The catalytic performances of the prepared catalysts were evaluated by the polyester reaction, and the results show that the activity of Ti-complex catalyst is 6 times higher than that of the commonly used catalyst Sb2O3. However, using Ti-complex catalyst, the hue b (more than 15.6) of the produced polyester is larger than that of polyester produced by using Sb2O3 as catalyst. After the Ti-complex catalyst was supported on nano-attapulgite with mass ratio of 2

  17. 凹凸棒黏土对甜叶菊水提液吸附絮凝作用研究%Adsorption and Flocculation Effect of Attapulgite on Water Extract of Stevia Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洁; 熊清平; 石莹莹; 袁雪莉

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the adsorption and flocculation effect of attapulgite(ATP) on water extract of stevia leaves. METHODS The factors influencing adsorptive and flocculate properties of ATP such as the temperature, pH value, the concentration of the water extract of stevia leaves and the amount of ATP addition were investigated by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. RESULTS The optimum condition abtained were 60℃ temperature and pH 8, respectively, and the addition of ATP was 0.4 g for 30 mL water extract. The adsorption method of ATP showed the higher retention rate of rebaudioside A (92.2%) and solids (70.5%) than the chemical ones (62.6% and 57.3%, respectively). CONCLUSION ATP can be used as a new flocculant for isolation and purification of Chinese herb extracts.%目的 研究凹凸棒黏土(凹土)对甜叶菊水提液的吸附絮凝作用.方法 采用单因素和正交实验,考察了吸附絮凝温度、水提液pH值、凹土加入量以及水提液浓度对吸附絮凝效果的影响.结果 凹土吸附絮凝法的最佳吸附条件为在pH 8的30 mL甜叶菊水提液中加入0.4g凹土于60℃时所得澄清效果最佳,凹土吸附絮凝法对水提液中莱鲍迪A苷(RA苷)保留率和固形物保留率分别为92.2%和70.5%,明显优于化学絮凝法的62.6%,57.3%.结论 凹土可以作为一种新型吸附絮凝剂应用于中药提取液的分离纯化.

  18. 凹凸棒黏土负载型固体酸催化合成乙酰水杨酸%Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid over Attapulgite Supported Solid Acid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洁; 蒋金龙; 钱晓敏

    2011-01-01

    Attapulgite (ATP) supported H+ and AlCl3 solid acid catalysts (H+/ATP and AlCl3/ATP) were prepared and their catalytic activities for synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid (AA) from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride were compared with the free acids.The results suggested that the solid acid catalysts exhibited higher activity than those of the free acids, especially AlCl3/ATP catalyst.Under the optimum conditions of AlCl3/ATP catalyst mass fraction 5% (based on salicylic acid), reaction temperature 80 ℃, reaction time 30 min and mole ratio of acetic anhydride to salicylic acid 2.0, the yield and the purity of AA reached 92.5% and 99.5% respectively.The synthesized AA was characterized by means of FTIR and 1H NMR.The AA yield still reached 89.2% after it was regenerated and reused for 5 times.%以凹凸棒黏土(ATP)为载体,制备了负载H+和AlCl3的固体酸催化剂(分别标记为H+/ATP,AlCl3/ATP),比较了负载前后催化剂对乙酰水杨酸合成反应的催化活性.实验结果表明,固体酸催化剂的活性高于游离酸催化剂,其中AlCl3/ATP催化剂的活性最高.以AlCl3/ATP为催化剂催化合成乙酰水杨酸的最佳工艺条件为:催化剂用量为5%(基于水杨酸质量),n(乙酸酐):n(水杨酸)=2.0,反应温度80℃,反应时间30 min;在此条件下,乙酰水杨酸收率达92.5%,纯度为99.5%.用FTIR和1H NMR表征了产物结构.AlCl3/ATP催化剂经活化再生重复使用5次后,乙酰水杨酸收率仍可达89.2%,表明AlCl3/ATP催化剂具有一定的稳定性,可实现再生利用.

  19. 天然橡胶基凹凸棒土纳米复合材料制备及性能研究%Study on Preparation and Properties of Attapulgite Reinforced Natural Rubber Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国璋; 施利毅; 卓靖; 冯欣; 丁鹏; 付继芳

    2011-01-01

    采用机械共混法制备了天然橡胶(NR)基凹凸棒土(AT)纳米复合材料,研究了复合材料的微观结构、力学性能及硫化特性,探讨了AT补强NR的机理.结果表明,改性后的AT能在NR基体中达到均匀分散并形成良好的聚合物-填料界面,显示出优异的补强效果.AT不但在胶料硫化过程中充当了交联点,而且在试样拉伸过程中沿拉伸方向取向,起了诱导结晶的作用.复合材料的拉伸结晶行为与填料量及填料粒子表面交联点数量有关.改性剂不同导致胶料交联行为存在差异,从而影响复合材料的拉伸结晶及应力-应变行为.改性及胶料混炼未破坏AT的层链结构.%Attapulgite (AT) reinforced natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites were prepared by mechanical compounding. The microstructures, mechanical properties and curing characteristics of the nanocomposites were investigated. The reinforcement mechanism of AT in NR was clarified. The results show that the modified AT exhibited outstanding reinforcement due to its homogeneous dispersion in the NR matrix and the strong polymer-filler interactions. AT needles not only act as crosslink points during the vulcanization, but also orient along the stretch direction and thus induce crystallization when the samples were stretched. The strain-induced crystallization of the nanocomposites is associated with the filler loading and the crosslink density on the surfaces of AT needles. Different modifiers result in different crosslinking characteristics, and affect the strain-induced crystallization and stress-stain behaviors of the nanocomposites. The layer-chain structure of AT is not influenced by the modification and mechanical compounding.

  20. 海藻酸钠接枝丙烯酸-丙烯酰胺共聚物/凹凸棒石复合材料的制备与表征%Preparation and Characterization of Sodium Alginate with Acrylic Acid-acrylamide Copolymers/Attapulgite Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡盛; 姚雪; 周红艳; 段雯怡; 田大听; 张升晖

    2012-01-01

    Sodium alginate grafted acrylic acid-acrylamide copolymers/attapulgite composite using sodium alginate( SA), acrylic acid( AA), acrylamide( AM)was synthesized by aqueous solution polymerization with and attapulgite(AT)as raw material, potassium persulfate as initiator, and N, N-methylene-bis-acrylamide as crosslinker. The effects of the synthesis factors on water absorbency were investigated. The composites were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The results showed that when the mass ratio of acrylamide: acrylic acid was 5:1, the content of sodium alginate, attapulgite, crosslinker and initiator was 15% , 25% , 0. 095% , 0. 55%(compare to the mass of monomer), respectively, and the absorbency of the composites was highest and the water absorbent rate of the sample was 1 693.3 g·g-1 at 80℃. The FT-IR spectra showed that sodium alginate and AT participated in graft polymerization reaction with A A and AM. The structure of the sodium alginate with acrylic acid-acrylamide copolymers/attapulgite composites shown by SEM was tight but own porous surface and different sizes of holes which are beneficial to improve the water absorbent rate.%以凹凸棒石(AT)为原料、过硫酸钾为引发剂、N,N-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺为交联剂、丙烯酰胺(AM)、丙烯酸(AA)两种单体同时对海藻酸钠(sA)进行接枝改性,采用水溶液聚合法制备了海藻酸钠接枝丙烯酸-丙烯酰胺共聚物/凹凸棒石复合材料.考察了各合成因素对复合材料吸液倍率的影响,并采用FTIR、SEM对复合材料进行了表征.结果表明,当丙烯酰胺与丙烯酸的质量比为5∶1、海藻酸钠质量分数为15%(占单体丙烯酸质量,下同)、凹凸棒石用量为25%、交联剂用量为0.095%、引发剂用量为0.55%和反应温度为80℃时,制备的复合材料的吸蒸馏水倍率最高,达到l 693.3 g/g.FTIR表明,海藻酸钠、丙烯酸、丙烯酰胺和凹凸棒石共同参与了接枝聚合反应.SEM表明,凹凸棒石的引入,

  1. 知识服务环境下图书馆特色数据库建设--以“凹土资源特色数据库”建设为例%To Study the Knowledge Service of Special Library Database Construction-For Example with the Database Construction of Attapulgite Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程桂练; 仲超生

    2015-01-01

    With the database construction of attapulgite resource as example ,this paper discusses that the database construction must meet the users’ demand under the environment of knowledge services .The library should implant science research process through cooperation and provide services w hich based on knowledge discovery、knowledge integration and knowledge sharing .%以“凹土资源特色数据库”建设为例,论述了知识服务环境下图书馆特色数据库建设应以用户需求为导向,通过合作建库嵌入科研一线,立足知识发现、知识重组与知识共享开展服务。

  2. Synthesis of CuO/attapulgite composite material and their adsorption and antibacterial properties%CuO/凹凸棒石黏土复合材料的制备及其吸附、抑菌性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐惠; 唐靖; 彭振军; 黄剑

    2012-01-01

    Attapulgite was used as the matrix of CuO to synthesize a novel kind of composite (CuO/ATP) by depositing CuO on the surface of ATP via hydrothermal reaction method,after 450℃ calcined attapulg-ite load porous copper oxide composite, the adsorption and properties of bacteriostaic were investigated. The results indicated that CuO/ATP composite lead an improvement to the antibacterial action of Staphy-lococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. When the CuO quality score for 50% in composite material, the effects of CuO/ATP composite has remarkably enhanced degradation rate of the methylene blue which de-grees above the removal rate of up to 80%.%以凹凸棒石粘土为载体,采用共混水热法制备了纳米氧化铜/凹凸棒石黏土复合材料前驱体,450℃煅烧后得到凹凸棒石黏土负载的多孔氧化铜复合材料,考察了其吸附、抑菌性能.结果表明,复合材料中CuO的质量分数为50%时,亚甲基蓝色度的去除率达80%以上,对金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌的增长具有良好的抑制作用.

  3. MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYLACTIDE/ATTAPULGITE NANOCOMPOSITES%聚乳酸/凹凸棒土纳米复合材料的结构与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章越; 徐军; 郭宝华

    2012-01-01

    The polylactide/attapulgite nanocomposites (PLA-Att composites) were prepared by melt mixing. The elongation at break and the tensile strength of PLA-Att composites increased first with increasing Att content and then decreased when Att content exceeded 10 wt%. The SEM results showed that the Att nanorods were well dispersed in PLA matrix. The DSC curves during the cooling and the second heating run showed that Att can enhance the crystallization rate of PLA. Furthermore, the rheological behaviors were investigated. When the content of Att was larger than 8 wt% , the storage modulus curve of PLA nanocomposites demonstrated a plateau region at the low frequency range, indicating the formation of a network structure in the composite, where the Att nanorods acted as the physical entanglement points to increase the relaxation time of the PLA-Att composites. FTIR spectrum of the extracted Att fillers from the nanocomposites showed that Att had strong interaction with PLA. PLA chains could be adsorbed at the surface of Att nanorods, reducing the thickness of the matrix layer. We suggest that the addition of Att nanorods changes the strained condition of the samples from the 3-dimensional stress to the 2-dimensional plane strain state and the maximum shear stress could reach the yield strength of PLA matrix so as to induce brittle-ductile transition of the sample.%采用熔融复合方法制备了不同填料质量分数的聚乳酸/纳米凹凸棒土复合材料,纳米凹凸棒土的加入可以显著提高聚乳酸纳米复合材料的拉伸强度和断裂伸长率.扫描电镜结果表明,凹凸棒土粒子在复合材料中实现了均匀分散.DSC曲线在降温过程中出现明显结晶峰,说明纳米凹凸棒土对聚乳酸有一定的成核作用.当纳米凹凸棒填料含量>8%时,在聚合物基体中可形成完善的网络状结构.填料粒子作为体系中的物理缠结点使得复合材料熔体的应力松弛时间延长.红外谱图显示纳米

  4. Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Attapulgite/Poly(Lactic Acid) Nano-composites%凹凸棒石/聚乳酸纳米复合材料的力学性能和流变性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 王永仁; 左玉萍; 蒋玉梅; 韩舜愈

    2012-01-01

    采用熔融共混法制备凹凸棒石(ATT)质量分数分别为1%、3%和5%的ATT/聚乳酸(PLA)纳米复合材料,研究了ATT/PLA纳米复合材料的力学性能和流变性能。红外光谱分析结果表明:ATT与PLA基体之间存在较强的相互作用,使得二者之间具有较好的相容性。当ATT含量低于5%时,其可均匀分散在PLA基体中,而达到5%时,则会发生部分团聚。添加ATT后,PLA基体从脆性材料变为韧性材料,ATT起到增韧作用,并显著提高了复合材料的力学性能。当ATT含量为3%时,断裂伸长率达到26.36%,比纯PLA增加了297.6%,并且复合材料的冲击强度也比纯PLA增加了19.7%。ATT/PLA纳米复合材料的复数黏度、储能模量和损耗模量随ATT含量的增加呈先增大后减小趋势。由于ATT与PLA之间有良好的结合力,ATT的加入增大了复合材料的弹性和黏性,且低频区的变化明显高于高频区的变化。%The nano-composite materials of attapulgite and poly(lactic acid)(ATT/PLA) were prepared at various ATT content (mass fraction) of 1%, 3% and 5% by a melting blend method. The rheology and mechanical properties of the nano-composite materials were investigated. The results show that the ATT has a good compatibility with PLA when the ATT content is 〈 5%. However, the ATT particles become the aggreates when the content is 〉 5%. The results also show that there exists an interaction between the ATT particles and the PLA matrix. The nano-composite of ATT/PLA could transform from brittle to tough materials when the ATT was added into the PLA matrix. Besides, the mechanical properties of the nano-composites could be improved with adding the ATT. The elongation at the break of the nano-composite with ATT of 3% is 26.36%, which is 297.6% greater than that of the PLA without any ATT. Also, the izod impact strength is 19.7% which is greater than that of the PLA without any ATT. This

  5. 金属氧化物改性凹凸棒石脱除烟气中的单质汞%Mercury Removal from Flue Gas by Metal Oxide-Loaded Attapulgite Mineral Sorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳芳; 张军营; 赵永椿; 郑楚光

    2014-01-01

    利用固定床反应器在模拟烟气条件下研究凹凸棒石天然吸附剂对单质汞的脱除能力,并利用金属氧化物MnO2和 Co3O4对凹凸棒石进行改性,制备出金属氧化物改性的矿物吸附剂,研究了烟气组分对改性吸附剂脱汞效果的影响.结果表明,MnO2和 Co3O4改性后的凹凸棒石极大地提高了脱汞效率,由原来的12.2%分别提高到了87.9%和84.1%;O2和HCl促进单质汞的脱除,氧气体积分数为4%时,其脱汞率分别提高至92.1%和88.1%,HCl体积分数为10×10-6时,脱汞率分别提高至90.1%和90.7%;SO2和NO竞争吸附降低单质汞的脱除效率,SO2体积分数为400×10-6时,MnO2和Co3,O4改性后的凹凸棒石其脱汞率分别降至84.7%和64.5%,NO体积分数为50×10-6时,其脱汞率分别降至86.1%和81%.%Attapulgite sorbent was tested in a fixed-bed reactor system to evaluate its mercury removal performance from simulated flue gas. The sorbent was modified by MnO2 and Co3O4 respectively to promote its ability of mercury removal. The characterization of the sorbent was analyzed using accelerated surface area porosity and X-ray diffrac-tion(XRD). The Hg0 concentrations were detected using VM3000 online mercury analyzer. The effect of fuel gas components was tested. The result shows that the sorbent modified by MnO2 and Co3O4 can promote mercury removal obviously from 12.2% to 87.9% and 84.1% respectively;that 4% of O2 can promote Hg0 removal efficiency to 92.1%and 88.1%,that 10×10-6 of HCl can promote Hg0 removal efficiency to 90.1% and 90.7%,that 400×10-6 of SO2may decrease Hg0 removal efficiency to 84.7% and 64.5% respectively,and that 50×10-6 of NO may decrease Hg0 removal efficiency to 86.1% and 81% respectively.

  6. 聚(丙烯酸-co-丙烯酰胺)/凹凸棒复合材料对亚甲蓝的吸附性能%Adsorption Behaviour of Methylene Blue onto Poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/Attapulgite Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永生; 孔莲; 牛文花; 宋海; 任雪峰; 王爱勤

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption properties of cationic dye methylene blue (MB) onto poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/attapulgite composite clay were investigated.The effects of various experimental parameters such as pH, concentration of the dye, temperature, contact time, adsorbent dosage, ionic strength and surfactant on adsorption process have been investigated.The equilibrium isotherms for the adsorption of the dye were measured experimentally.Results were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich equation at different temperatures and the characteristic parameters for the adsorption isotherm were determined.The adsorption process has been found endothermic for MB in nature.The thermodynamic parameters such as the Gibbs free energy, the change in enthalpy and change in entropy have been calculated.The maximum adsorption capacity for MB was obtained as 1 273.3 mg · g-1 at the temperature of 60 ℃.It was observed that the kinetic data fitted well with a pseudo second-order equation.The results showed that the composite attapulgite clay could be employed as the low-cost alternatives to the traditional agent in the wastewater treatment for the removal of color.%将聚(丙烯酸-co-丙烯酰胺)/凹凸棒复合吸附剂用于亚甲蓝的吸附,研究了时间、浓度、酸度、表面活性剂和离子强度等因素对吸附性能的影响.复合吸附剂对亚甲蓝的吸附是吸热过程,60 ℃时吸附量达到1 273.3 mg·g-1,吸附过程符合Langmuir单分子层吸附等温模式,并计算了热力学常数ΔG、ΔH和ΔS.在实验考察范围内吸附过程均符合准二级动力学特征.该复合吸附剂具有高吸附容量和较快的吸附速率,是良好的亚甲蓝吸附剂.

  7. 凹凸棒土负载铁盐吸附剂的制备及其对As(Ⅴ)的吸附性能%Preparation of attapulgite loaded with ferrihydrite adsorbent and its adsorption propreties of As(Ⅴ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰冰; 李嫚; 徐红波; 王舰; 何璐

    2014-01-01

    Attapulgite ( ATP ) loaded with ferrihydrite adsorbent was prepared, and its adsorption propreties of As(Ⅴ) were studied. The effects of various parameters such as solution pH, heat modified temperature, particle size of ATP, and concentrations of ferrihydrite on the adsorption rate of As(Ⅴ) were assessed. The results showed that 600 ℃ modified ATP loaded with ferrihydrite sorbent had better arsenate adsorption efficiency than 200℃ and 400℃ modified ATP . Equilibrium data of arsenic adsorption fitted well with Freundlich isotherm model. The 200-400 mesh of ATP loaded with 0. 50 mol·L-1 ferric nitrate sorbent reached adsorption equilibrium in 24 h and had a substantial binding capacity at pH 6. 0. The maximum static adsorption capacity of the sorbent for As(Ⅴ) was 1.1669 mg·g-1 . The sorbent showed good stability and reusability towards As(Ⅴ) . The sorbent can potentially be used for the treatment of waste water containing arsenate.%研究凹凸棒土负载铁盐吸附剂的制备及其对As(Ⅴ)的吸附性能.考察了pH、凹凸棒土热改性温度、粒度、铁盐浓度等因素对吸附As(Ⅴ)性能的影响.结果表明,热改性温度为600℃的凹凸棒土负载铁盐吸附剂吸附As(Ⅴ)效果比200℃和400℃都好,其对As(Ⅴ)的吸附行为符合Freundlich模型.当pH值6.0时,600℃热改性200-400目的凹凸棒土负载0.5 mol·L-1 Fe( NO3)3吸附剂的最大吸附量为1.1669 mg·g-1,重复使用时性能稳定,具有处理含As(Ⅴ)废水的应用前景.

  8. ADSORPTION BEHAVIOUR OF Mn(Ⅱ) AND Zn(Ⅱ) ON ATTAPULGITE WITH FAAS METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Active attapulbgite as adsorptive reagent, the adsorptive behavior of Mn(II) and Zn(II) was studied with Flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) method. The mainly factors of influencing the adsorption and desorption of Mn(II) and Zn(II) were discussed. The interference of coexisting ions was investigated, and the actual sample determination from adzuki beans, mung beans and phosphating waste water was conducted with good result.

  9. Synthesis of HTEMPO Grafted the Surface of Attapulgite by γ-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.L.Wei; Y.P.Wang; B.Wang; L.Yuan

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Living free radical polymerization has undergone tremendous advancement in the past few years, particularly in the area of nitroxide mediated free radical polymerization. In 1980s, the use of nitroxyl free radicals such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl(TEMPO) to moderate free radical polymerizations was first reported by Rizzardo,et al[1], more and more people began to interested in the polymerization methods which controlled by nitroxide stable free radicals. Recently, some people int...

  10. Influence of The Activated Qatari Attapulgite Clay Admixture on The Mechanical Properties and Hydration Kinetics of Ordinary Portland Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Noaimi, Kawkab Kh. [كوكب النعيمي

    2001-01-01

    Blended cements are types of cements containing additives other than those used m Portland cement, which have considerable technological interest, because such addition increases the chemical resistance to sulfate and chloride attack. The present investigation represents a laboratory study, which provides a unique opportunity to introduce an effective practical attempt to deal with the problem of concrete deterioration m Qatar and the Arabian Gulf region, and to provide a solution to the prob...

  11. RETRACTED: Sodium alginate films modified by raw and functionalized attapulgite for use of thorium(IV) adsorption: A thermodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Denis L.; Viana, Rúbia R.; da Costa, Luiz P.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2009-11-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors of the Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids as fraudulent results have been found in this article and other publications in Elsevier journals by the same authors, namely: J. Colloid Interface Sci., 337 (2009) 122-130, doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2009.05.013. Inorg. Chem. Commun., 12 (2009) 1145-1149, doi:10.1016/j.inoche.2009.08.029. J. Environ. Radioact., 101 (2010) 122-133, doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.09.005. Process Safety Environ. Prot., 88 (2010) 53-61, doi:10.1016/j.psep.2009.10.002. J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 70 (2009) 1413-1421, doi:10.1016/j.jpcs.2009.08.012. Appl. Surf. Sci., 256 (2009) 702-709, doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.08.045. Inorg. Chem. Commun., 11 (2008) 20-23, doi:10.1016/j.inoche.2007.09.029. Inorg. Chem. Commun., 12 (2009) 1107-1111, doi:10.1016/j.inoche.2009.08.033. J. Hazard. Mat., 172 (2009) 507-514, doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.016. J. Hazard. Mat., 171 (2009) 514-523, doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.032. J. Colloid Interface Sci., 338 (2009) 30-39, doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2009.06.004. Publication of an article in a peer-reviewed journal is an important building-block in the development of science. Elsevier has defined policies and ethical guidelines and takes its duties of guardianship over the scholarly record extremely seriously. The Editors of the Elsevier journals involved found that the allegations of fraud are conclusive and they have decided that these papers should be retracted from the journals.

  12. A unique technology to transform inorganic nanorods into nano-networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Dongqing; Wu Zhengyan; Jiang Jiang; Tong Liping; Yu Zengliang [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Ding Kejian [Institute of Lifescience and Bioengineering, School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Chu, Paul K [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk, E-mail: zlyu@ipp.ac.cn

    2009-06-24

    An inorganic nano-network of attapulgite is formed from rigid nanorods using ion beam bombardment. The structure of the nano-networks depends on the ion beam fluence for the same ion energy. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that ion beam bombardment improves the dispersion of the attapulgite particles and the change in the shape of the rod-shaped attapulgite particles stems from the thermal stress induced by ion beam bombardment. This phenomenon is more obvious for higher ion fluences. The bent or twisted rod-shaped attapulgite particles cross-link to form a network structure, which is stable in water, and when the ion fluence is increased further, the cross-linked points are permanently sealed. The improved materials are more useful than clava attapulgite particles.

  13. ENFORCING EFFECT OF NANO-ATTAPULGITE ON CHOPPED CARBON FIBER/BMI COMPOSITE%纳米凹凸棒土对碳纤维/BMI树脂复合材料的增强与增韧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德安; 梁辉; 贾静; 徐廷献

    2000-01-01

    采用预浸料模压工艺制备了纳米凹凸棒土/短碳纤维/BMI树脂复合材料.实验并分析了纳米凹凸棒土对复合材料的增强与增韧作用.当其质量百分比为5%~6%时,弯曲强度和冲击强度分别提高了30%和57%.

  14. The Study on the Water Absorption Ability of Potassium Humate/Attapulgite Clay/Polyacrylic Acid Composite Superabsorbent%腐植酸钾-凹凸棒-聚丙烯酸复合树脂的吸液性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新华; 胡福田; 廖列文; 崔英德

    2009-01-01

    以过硫酸钠-亚硫酸氢钠为引发剂,N,N'-亚甲基丙烯酰胺为交联剂,采用静态溶液聚合制备了腐殖酸钾-凹凸棒-聚丙烯酸复合吸水树脂.研究了凹凸棒、腐殖酸钾对复合吸水树脂吸蒸馏水倍率、吸盐水倍率以及吸水速率的影响,并对比了各种复合吸水树脂的吸液性能.结果表明,当凹凸棒含量由5%增至40%时,复合树脂吸蒸馏水和吸盐水倍率呈快-缓-快的变化趋势,其中凹凸棒含量由10%增至20%时,吸液倍率变化不大,复合树脂的吸水速率则先增大后下降,凹凸棒土用量为10%,复合树脂的吸水速率最快.腐植酸钾的加入可提高树脂的吸蒸馏水倍率、吸盐水倍率和吸水速率.复合改性前后的吸液性能从大到小依次为:腐植酸钾复合吸水树脂(w(腐植酸钾)=5%)>腐植酸钾/凹凸棒/聚丙烯酸三元复合吸水树脂(w(凹凸棒)=20%,w(腐植酸钾)=5%)>聚丙烯酸树脂吸水树脂>凹凸棒复合吸水树脂(w(凹凸棒)=20%).

  15. Preparation and Properties of Poly (acrylic acid-potassium acrylate)/Attapulgite Superabsorbent Composite%聚丙烯酸(钾)/凹凸棒吸水剂的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安; 王爱勤; 陈建敏

    2004-01-01

    在凹凸棒存在的情况下,以丙烯酸为单体,以N,N-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺(MBA)为交联剂,过硫酸钾(KPS)为引发剂,采用水溶液聚合法合成了聚丙烯酸(钾)/凹凸棒吸水剂.用TGA和SEM对产物进行了表征.IR分析证实了凹凸棒与丙烯酸发生了接枝共聚反应.研究了引发剂的用量、交联剂的用量和粘土的用量等反应条件对复合吸水剂吸水性的影响.当凹凸棒w=0.10时,复合吸水材料在蒸馏水和生理盐水中的吸水倍数分别大于1 200和100.

  16. Effects of attapulgite on crystallization and thermal stability properties of poly(lactic acid)%凹凸棒黏土对聚乳酸结晶性能和热稳定性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 蒋玉梅

    2013-01-01

    采用熔融共混法分别制备了凹凸棒黏土质量分数为1%、3%和5%的纳米凹凸棒黏土(ATT)/聚乳酸(PLA)复合材料,研究了ATT对PLA结晶性能和热稳定性能的影响.结果表明,ATT与PLA基体具有较好的相容性,当ATT含量低于3%时,可以均匀的分散在PLA基体中,而达到5%时则会发生团聚.FTIR结果表明,ATT与PLA基体之间存在较强的相互作用.ATT可明显促进PLA的结晶,起到异相成核的作用.ATT纳米颗粒的添加引起了PLA冷结晶峰向低温方向移动,使冷结晶温度从114.4℃降低至103℃左右.含ATT体系结晶速率比纯PLA快,表明ATT的加入可以促进PLA的结晶,说明ATT是PLA有效的成核剂之一.添加ATT可明显加快PLA的结晶速率并减小球晶尺寸.当添加3%ATT时,ATT/PLA复合材料的热分解温度比纯PLA提高了11℃,这主要是由于ATT/PLA网络密度的提高,使ATT在PLA的降解过程中能够起到较好的阻隔作用,抑制了PLA的降解自加速过程.

  17. Preparation of Organic Attapulgite-collagen Nano-compositeand its Adsorption of Tannic Acid%OAT/胶原纳米复合材料的制备及其对单宁酸吸附的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏帝翰; 李昌朋; 林炜

    2012-01-01

    采用皮粉胶原和改性凹凸棒(OAT)合成了OAT/胶原纳米复合材料,用FTIR和DSC分别研究了胶原改性前后的结构和热稳定性的变化,考查了皮粉胶原与OAT不同质量配比对复合材料吸附单宁酸的影响,并用HPLC分析了复合材料对单宁酸的选择性吸附性能。结果表明:OAT与胶原通过氢键和静电作用形成的OAT/皮粉胶原纳米复合材料,成型性好,热稳定性明显提高。OAT为2%(g/g)的复合材料对单宁酸的单位吸附量最大,而且对单宁酸具有很好的选择性吸附性能。%Collagen and organical attapulgite(OAT) were utilized to prepare OAT-collagen nano-composite as a novel adsorbant.FTIR and DSC were used to examine the molecular interaction and thermal stability of the composite.The absorption capacity for tannin was investigated as a function of the weight ratio of OAT to collagen in the composites,and the selective adsorption ability was studied by HPLC.The experimental results show that the composite adsorbants has good mouldability due to the OAT acting as a crosslinker in the collagen powder matrix.And the thermal stability of the collagen materials is improved after the introduction of OAT.The OAT-collagen nanocomposite adsorbant with 2 wt% OAT has a maximum adsorption capacity and exhibits a selective adsorption for tannin acid.

  18. 硅橡胶/有机凹凸棒土纳米复合材料的制备及性能%Preparation and Properties of Silicone Rubber/organic-attapulgite Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方守林; 吴礼林

    2009-01-01

    采用硅烷偶联剂KH-570对纯化的凹凸棒土进行表面处理,将经表面处理的凹凸棒土(OAT)与硅橡胶(SR)通过机械共混法制成纳米复合材料.借助FHR、TEM测试技术对凹凸棒土的有机改性进行了表征.研究了纳米复合材料的硫化行为、力学性能和热稳定性能.结果表明,OAT的加入降低了硅橡胶的正硫化时间.提高了最小和最大扭矩值,起到促进硫化的作用;复合材料的拉伸强度随OAT含量的增加而提高,但断裂伸长率在20份OAT添加量时达到了最大值,说明凹凸棒土可以用作硅橡胶的有效补强剂;热重分析(TGA)表明.OAT的加入提高了纳米复合材料的热稳定性能.

  19. Influence of Attapulgite Clay on Electrical Property of Carbon Black/Epoxy Resin Composites%凹凸棒粘土对炭黑/环氧复合材料电性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍宇彬; 李秋影; 李艳; 方菁; 吴驰飞

    2012-01-01

    通过溶液混合法制备了凹凸棒(ATT)/炭黑(CB)/环氧树脂(EP)复合材料。使用紫外可见光光谱仪(UV-Vis)和Zeta电位测试仪对CB和(或)ATT在丙酮溶剂中的分散稳定性进行了研究。使用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和电阻仪分别研究了不同填料比例以及含量对EP复合材料微观结构和电阻率的影响。结果表明,ATT的加入可以有效增强CB在溶剂中的分散稳定性并促进EP基体中导电网络的形成。当CB与ATT质量比为5∶1时,复合材料的电阻率比不添加ATT时下降了2个数量级;其渗流阈值(1%)(质量分数,下同)小于具有相同填料含量的CB/EP复合材料(1.8%)。最后探讨了ATT对CB/EP复合材料电性能影响的可能机理。%Attapulgite(ATT)/carbon black(CB)/epoxy(EP) composites were prepared by liquid mixing method.The stability of CB and(or) ATT suspensions in acetone was analyzed by UV-Vis and Zeta potential.The microstructures and volume resistivity of the composites were examined by scanning electron microscope(SEM) and resistance meter.The results indicate that ATT can effectively improve the dispersion of CB in solution and form conductive networks in the matrix.When the mass ratio of CB to ATT is 5∶1,the resistivity of composite is two orders of magnitude lower than that of composites with CB alone.The percolation threshold of ATT/CB/EP composites is 1%,which is lower than that of composites with CB alone(1.8%).The possible mechanism for the influence of ATT on the CB/EP composites was further investigated.

  20. 凹土的表面改性及其在雨靴面胶中的应用%Surface Modification of Attapulgite Clay and Its Application in Boot Vamp Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱运华; 金叶玲

    2005-01-01

    用硬脂酸对凹凸棒石黏土(凹土)进行改性,改性的最佳条件为硬脂酸用量为2%、改性温度为80℃、改性时间为30min,所得改性凹土的活化指数达0.95.改性凹土在雨靴面胶中的填充试验表明,改性凹土可以完全替代轻钙.

  1. PVA/atapulgite hydrogels; Hidrogeis de PVA/atapulgita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Soares, G.A., E-mail: nunes@metalmat.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Paranhos, C.M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil); Barreto, L.S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    PVA hydrogels can be used as wound-healing as a consequence of their biocompatibility, flexibility, etc. In order to improve mechanical resistance of wound-healing, polymeric hydrogels reinforced with clay have been studied. Among national clays, attapulgite stands out. Once it is a natural material, acid treatment can be required in order to remove impurities. In the present work, PVA hydrogels reinforced with attapulgite were produced and they were characterized by swelling behavior, XRD, DSC and traction test. Among all properties studied, hydrogels reinforced with activated attapulgite showed better mechanical resistance and Young module than the other samples. (author)

  2. PVA/atapulgite hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PVA hydrogels can be used as wound-healing as a consequence of their biocompatibility, flexibility, etc. In order to improve mechanical resistance of wound-healing, polymeric hydrogels reinforced with clay have been studied. Among national clays, attapulgite stands out. Once it is a natural material, acid treatment can be required in order to remove impurities. In the present work, PVA hydrogels reinforced with attapulgite were produced and they were characterized by swelling behavior, XRD, DSC and traction test. Among all properties studied, hydrogels reinforced with activated attapulgite showed better mechanical resistance and Young module than the other samples. (author)

  3. RELATIVE MESOTHELIOMA INDUCTION IN RATS BY MINERAL FIBERS: COMPARISON WITH RESIDUAL PULMONARY MINERAL FIBER NUMBER AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were performed in Fischer 344 rats comparing relative tumorigeneses of chrysotile, krokidolite asbestos, erionite and attapulgite by intrapleural injection and chrysotile, krokidolite and erionite by intratracheal instillation. Tumor fiber ratios were computed employi...

  4. Remediation of copper polluted red soils with clay materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gangya Zhang; Yunqing Lin; Mingkuang Wang

    2011-01-01

    Attapulgite and montmorillonite were utilized to remediate heavy metal polluted red soils in Guixi City, Jiangxi Province, China.The effects of clay minerals on availability, chemical distribution, and biotoxicity of Cu and Zn were evaluated.The results provided a reference for the rational application of clay materials to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils.From the sorption experiment,the maximum adsorbed Cu2+ by attapulgite and montmorillonite was 1501 and 3741 mg/kg, respectively.After polluted red soil was amended with attapulgite or montmorillonite and cultured at 30 and 60 days, soil pH increased significantly compared to the control.An 8% increase in the amount of montmorillonite in soil and 30 days incubation decreased acid exchangeable Cu by 24.7% compared to the control red soil.Acid exchangeable Cu decreased with increasing amounts of attapulgite and montmorillonite, with best remediation effect reached at a dose of 8%.Results also showed that the Cu poisoning effect on earthworms was reduced with the addition of attapulgite and montmorillonite.Montmoriilonite showed the best effect, with the addition of a 2% dose the mortality of earthworms decreased from 60% to zero compared to the control.Our results indicated that the bioavailability of Cu in soils was reduced more effectively with the application of montmorillonite than attapulgite.

  5. Synthesis and catalytic cracking performance of Fe/Ti-ZSM-5 zeolite from attapulgite mineral%以天然凹凸棒石为原料合成Fe/Ti-ZSM-5沸石分子筛及其催化裂化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓兆; 刘艳; 孟祥举; 申宝剑; 肖丰收

    2013-01-01

    以天然凹凸棒石为硅源、铁源和钛源,一步合成了Fe/Ti-ZSM-5分子筛.X射线衍射、扫描电镜和N2吸附等温线测定结果表明,所合成的样品具有良好的结晶度和较大的比表面积;NH3程序升温脱附和H2程序升温还原结果表明,该样品具有强的酸性和氧化还原性能.更为重要的是,与常规方法制备的ZSM-5沸石相比,Fe/Ti-ZSM-5在催化裂解原料油(LGO,加拿大)的测试中,丙烯的产率提高0.21%,总轻烯烃的产率提高0.33%.由此可见,Fe与Ti物种在ZSM-5沸石分子筛中的存在有利于提高轻烯烃的产率,有望在石油炼制过程中提高烯烃产率.

  6. 钴负载凹凸棒石基复合吸附脱硫剂脱除SO2的实验研究%STUDY ON DESULFURIZATION OF SO2 BY COBALT-CONTAINING ATTAPULGITE-BASE DESULPHURIZATION AGENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 俞树荣; 冯辉霞; 王毅

    2008-01-01

    以甘肃产凹凸棒石(ATTP)为基体,辅以活性氧化铝、成型刺等成分,经造粒后附载过渡金属氧化物Co3O4,制得了一种新型复合吸附脱硫剂Co3O4-AlO3/ATTP.通过对该物质的动态脱硫实验,研究发现ATTP含量、焙烧温度、脱硫剂含水率及过渡金属浸渍液浓度对SO2脱除性能均有影响,当ATTP含量为60%~70%,焙烧温度为600℃,Co(N03)z浸渍液浓度为20%左右,且脱硫荆的含水率达到15%~30%时,该复合吸附脱硫剂具有较强的吸附性能和催化脱硫能力,其硫客可高达19.74%,脱硫效果优于CuO-γ-Al2O3/ATTP脱硫剂和CuO/γ-Al2O3脱硫荆.

  7. Preparation and characterization of adsorbents for treatment of water associated with oil production

    KAUST Repository

    Sueyoshi, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Two sets of adsorbents were prepared from locally available raw materials, characterized and tested. The first set consists of crushed natural attapulgite and crushed attapulgite mixed with petroleum tank-bottom sludge and carbonized at 650 °C. Another set was prepared using trunk of date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera) activated at 700 and 800°C. Both sets were characterized using BET surface area and pore distributions, FTIR, XRD, SEM and TEM. Natural attapulgite and attapulgite/sludge composite exhibited different characteristics and adsorptive capacities for oil removal from oily water. Adsorptive capacities were calculated from the breakthrough curves of a column test. An oily water solution of about 500 mg-oil/L was passed through both the attapulgite and attapulgite/sludge columns until the column effluent concentration exceeded a reference limit of 10 mg-oil/L. Uptake was calculated at this limit at 155 and 405 mg-oil/g-adsorbent, respectively. This was lower than the performance of a commercial activated carbon sample (uptake calculated at 730 mg-oil/g-adsorbent). Relatively, the date palm, carbonaceous-based adsorbent samples showed less significant differences in both bulk and surface properties. Uptake significantly improved to 1330-1425 mg-oil/g-adsorbent. Attempt was made to associate this performance with the difference in the surface areas between the two sets. However, other factors are found to be important as the second set has a range of surface area less than that of the commercial sample. As evidenced by FTIR, XRD and TEM, the activated carbonaceous materials developed porous structures which form defective graphitic sheet ensembles that serve as additional adsorption sites in the sample. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. COMPARATIVE MESOTHELIOMA INDUCTION IN RATS BY ASBESTOS AND NON-ASBESTOS MINERAL FIBERS: POSSIBLE CORRELATION WITH HUMAN EXPOSURE DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer 344 rats were injected intrapleurally with chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos, erionite and attapulgite and observed for their entire lifespan. etailed analysis of the number per unit mass of the various size categories of the fibers for each mineral species was determin...

  9. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients-Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice

  10. Polycarbonate/Polypropylene/Fibrillar Silicate Ternary Nanocomposites via Two-step Blending Process: Degradation and Morphology%两步共混工艺制备聚碳酸酯/聚丙烯/针状硅酸盐三元纳米复合材料:降解与形态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛立新; 高翔; 张猛响; 金日光

    2006-01-01

    The method of two-step melt blending was used to prepare polycarbonate/polypropylene/attapulgite ternary nanocomposite, and the various techniques including gel permeation chromatography, rheometer, transmission electron microscope, dynamic mechanical analysis were used to examine the degradation of polycarbonate (PC)and the nanocomposite morphology. The results showed that the molecular weight degradation of PC triggered by attapulgite (AT) during the direct blending process was inhibited effectively by using two-step melt blending, in which AT was blended with polypropylene (PP) prior to compound with PC. The morphology of encapsulation was formed in the PC matrix, where PP encapsulates AT fibrillar single crystals to form a core-shell inclusion. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) measurements showed that the PC/PP/AT ternary nanocomposites were more effective than conventional PC/PP blends in reinforcement, meanwhile the addition of AT in the ternary nanocomposites shifted the glass transition temperature of the PP phase to a higher value.

  11. Clay-based geothermal drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Lee, L.J.; Bernhard, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concentrated brines. Attapulgite- and sepiolite-based fluids have been autoclaved at temperatures in the range from 70 to 800/sup 0/F with the addition of chlorides and hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The rheological properties (apparent and plastic viscosity, fluid loss, gel strength, yield point, and cake thickness) of the autoclaved fluids have been studied and correlated with the chemical and physical changes that occur in the clay minerals during the autoclaving process.

  12. A study on the effect of coating's sorption capacity on the porosity in lost foam aluminum alloy casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Effects of coating constituent, coating density, coating layer thickness and temperature on coating sorption capacity for polystyrene decomposition products have been studied systematically. It has been found that the effect of attapulgite clay on sorption capacity is the largest among coating constituents. The sorption capacity of the coating with 2 %attapulgite clay is elevated by 81%. The relationship between casting porosity and coating sorption capacity has been studied. It has been pointed out that higher coating sorption capacity for polystyrene decomposition products is helpful to decrease the casting porosity. Results also show that the sorption capacity of self- developed HW- 1 coating for polystyrene decomposition products is as good as that of Ashland coating from America.

  13. CuO nanoparticles encapsulated inside Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials via direct synthetic route

    OpenAIRE

    Chengli Huo; Jing Ouyang; Huaming Yang

    2014-01-01

    Highly ordered aluminum-containing mesoporous silica (Al-MCM-41) was prepared using attapulgite clay mineral as a Si and Al source. Mesoporous complexes embedded with CuO nanoparticles were subsequently prepared using various copper sources and different copper loadings in a direct synthetic route. The resulting CuO/Al-MCM-41 composite possessed p6mm hexagonally symmetry, well-developed mesoporosity, and relatively high BET surface area. In comparison to pure silica, these mesoporous material...

  14. Compositions and methods for removal of toxic metals and radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuero, Raul G. (Inventor); McKay, David S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for the removal of toxic metals or radionuclides from source materials. Toxic metals may be removed from source materials using a clay, such as attapulgite or highly cationic bentonite, and chitin or chitosan. Toxic metals may also be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan. Radionuclides may be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan.

  15. Study on effect of crystalline seeds addition on phosphorus recovery from biogas fermentative liquid%添加晶种对沼气发酵液磷回收的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹璇; 李亮; 王德汉; 邓加曦; 冯文谦; 李东; 孙永明

    2012-01-01

    以畜禽养殖废水经厌氧消化处理后的沼气发酵液为研究对象,采用曝气吹脱调节pH的处理方式。晶种采用海泡石粉、沸石粉和凹凸棒石粉3种天然矿物材料。考察了不同pH条件、晶种添加量和不同初始磷负荷对磷回收的影响,并利用扫描电镜-能谱分析仪(SEM-EDX)对产物进行了表征分析。结果表明:3种晶种材料中,凹凸棒石粉对磷回收的促进效果最好。在pH从7.5到8.5之间海泡石粉、沸石粉和凹凸棒石粉均可将Rp(t)提高10%以上,8.5到9.5之间,添加海泡石粉和沸石粉对Rp(t)的提升幅度降低,添加凹凸棒石粉可以达到14%左右的提升幅度。海泡石粉和沸石粉添加量增大后Rp(t)有小幅的提升,但变化不规律,凹凸棒石粉的最佳添加量为0.92 g/L。初始PO43--P为90 mg/L时凹凸棒石粉对磷回收有最好的促进效果。添加凹凸棒石粉的产物在SEM图片上可看到明显有晶体覆盖,EDX图上出现了明显的强度较大的P组分峰,从微观的角度证实了添加凹凸棒石粉的促进作用。%Taking the biogas fermentative liquid treated by anaerobic digestion process from livestock wastewater as the research object,using the treatment method of aeration stripping and using sepiolite powder,zeolite powder,attapulgite powder as crystalline seeds,the effects of different pH value,addition amount of crystalline seeds,initial phosphorus loads were investigated and characterization of crystalline product was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis(EDX).The results are as follows: The effect of attapulgite powder for phosphorus recovery is the best among the three kinds of seeds in this study.Rp(t) increased more than 10% with the addition of the three crystalline seeds when pH value ranged between 7.5 to 8.5.When pH value ranged between 8.5 to 9.5,Rp(t) increased 14% after adding attapulgite powder while

  16. Flowability of bulk solids used in shale fracturing grouts as determined by the Jenike and Johanson method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smooth operation of the shale fracturing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory requires that an even, uninterrupted flow of dry solids be delivered to a mixer at a rate of approximately 1200 lb/min. Some operational difficulties have been experienced with the dry solids system at the existing facility. Occasionally the solids flow from a bin was difficult to initiate or was irregular, particularly when the storage bin was nearly empty. A new shale fracturing facility is now being designed with a solids handling system that will eliminate the current problems. This report describes the tests made to obtain the necessary information about bulk-flow properties of the dry solids that are required for the facility modifications. Flow properties of fly ash, attapulgite, pottery clay, and a blended solids mix were determined in a Jenike and Johanson Flowfactor Tester. Tests with this unit involve the consolidation of a solid at a given pressure and the measurement of the force required to create a shear plane. The procedure is repeated several times at different consolidating pressures to determine a locus of points that can be displayed graphically. Results indicate that a bottom-hopper opening of about 4 ft will be required on the new, bulk storage bins if mass flow is to be achieved. It was also found that the existing bins are quite unsuitable for either their present function or their proposed function. Since these bins have served moderately well for 14 years, the effect of aeration is obviously major; these tests indicate only an upper limit to the size of the hopper opening that will be required. Pottery clay and attapulgite were found to have flow characteristics considerably inferior to blended solids. It is known, however, that attapulgite clay will flow from the existing bins, and modification of the bin bottoms to enlarge the openings does not appear to be justified

  17. Utilização de argilas para purificação de biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Juliana Almeida de Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the results of the purification of methyl biodiesel, obtained by oxidized soybean oil, using different methods. After the ester separation from the glycerin by decanting, the ester was purified each time with distillation, washing with water and adsorption with bauxite, bentonite and attapulgite. The removal of total contamination, unsaponifiable material, concentrations of free glycerin and soap were analyzed in the purified ester phase. The best result of purification was observed with the use of bentonite and bauxite, in the removal of soap and free glycerin respectively.

  18. Study of the physico-chemical behavior of transuranian elements in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranian chemistry is being studied in the geochemical context of the geological disposal of radioactive waste. The transuranians considered are plutonium, neptunium and americium. The first part, devoted to the chemistry of these elements in aqueous solutions, consists of a critical compilation of literature data with a view to resulting in producing the Eh-pH diagrams of transuranians in a complexing environment. The study of the retention by constituents of artificial clay barriers (bentonite and attapulgite) is the subject of the second part. The third part concerns the development of a measurement technique for transuranian elements at trace levels by the thermal lensing method

  19. Use of clays for purification of biodiesel; Utilizacao de argilas para purificacao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Andreia Juliana Almeida de; Kruegel, Marlus; Miranda, Joao Paulo; Rossi, Luciano Fernando dos Santos; Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos da, E-mail: pedroneto@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Depts. de Quimica, Biologia e Mecanica

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the results of the purification of methyl biodiesel, obtained by oxidized soybean oil, using different methods. After the ester separation from the glycerin by decanting, the ester was purified each time with distillation, washing with water and adsorption with bauxite, bentonite and attapulgite. The removal of total contamination, unsaponifiable material, concentrations of free glycerin and soap were analyzed in the purified ester phase. The best result of purification was observed with the use of bentonite and bauxite, in the removal of soap and free glycerin respectively. (author)

  20. Formulation verification study results for 241-AN-106 waste grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were conducted to determine whether the reference formulation and variations around the formulation are adequate for solidifying 241-AN-106 (106-AN) waste into a grout waste form. The reference formulation consists of 21 wt% type I/II Portland cement, 68 wt% fly ash, and 11 wt% attapulgite clay. The mix ratio is 8.4 lb/gal. Variations in dry blend component ratios, mix ratio, and waste concentration were assessed by using a statistically designed experimental matrix consisting of 44 grout compositions. Based on the results of the statistically designed variability study, the 106-AN grout formulations tested met all the formulation criteria except for the heat of hydration

  1. Fabrication of highly hydrophobic organic-inorganic hybrid magnetic polysulfone microcapsules: A lab-scale feasibility study for removal of oil and organic dyes from environmental aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yanan; Wang, Jiaojiao; Sun, Caiyun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-05-15

    In this work, three kinds of organic-inorganic hybrid materials (vinyl benzene linear polymer modified SBA-15, attapulgite and halloysite nanotubes) in the shape of powder and the corresponding magnetic polysulfone microcapsules were developed for removal of oil and dyes from environmental aqueous samples, respectively. As determined from the oil and dye adsorption studies, the developed magnetic polysulfone microcapsules exhibited high adsorption capacity of 13.8-17.3g/g for oil. The prepared functionalized materials and the corresponding microcapsules can remove 85.0-91.6% and 81.8-87.8% Sudan I in 80min and 7.6h, respectively. The results showed a significant improvement in their adsorption capacities and removal efficiencies compared to the parent matrices, indicating that the introducing of the vinyl benzene linear polymer was a major factor in the removal of the hydrophobic pollutants. At the same time, the adsorption capacity for the investigated pollutants also depended on the textural feature of matrix itself. In view of the utilization of low-cost clay minerals (attapulgite and halloysite nanotubes), these proposed functionalized materials and the corresponding magnetic polysulfone microcapsules had a great promise to be used as an efficient sorbent for removal of pollutants from environmental aqueous samples. PMID:26874312

  2. Remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soil using long-duration sodium thiosulfate supported by micro–nano networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lulu [School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wang, Min; Zhang, Guilong [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Qiu, Guannan [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Cai, Dongqing, E-mail: dqcai@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Zhengyan, E-mail: zywu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, Xin, E-mail: xinzhang@ahau.edu.cn [School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • This work aims to develop a long-duration remediation agent (LRA). • LRA was obtained using Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks. • ATP micro–nano networks was induced by high-energy electron beam irradiation. • LRA can effectively control the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). • LRA displayed high performance on the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. - Abstract: In this work, a long-duration remediation agent (LRA) on hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was developed using sodium thiosulfate (ST) supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks induced through high-energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The ATP networks could effectively reduce the leaching amount of Cr(VI) in soil. More importantly, the ATP networks could significantly control the leaching behavior of ST, and then prolong the duration and increase the reduction efficiency of ST on Cr(VI). As a result, LRA displayed high performance on controlling the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Additionally, pot experiment indicated that LRA could effectively decrease the absorbed amount of Cr(VI) in corn, and reduce the inhibition effect of Cr(VI) on the growth of corn. Therefore, this work could provide a facile approach to remediate the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil and lower the harmful effect of Cr(VI) on crop.

  3. Preparation and Coagulation Behavior of a Novel Multiple Flocculant Based on Cationic Polymer, Hydroxy Aluminum, and Clay Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-shan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cationic polymer, hydroxy aluminum, and clay minerals are three flocculants with different action mechanisms and a more cost-efficient multiple flocculant can be prepared by compositing them through appropriate technology. All of attapulgite (ATP, clay minerals containing magnesium, aluminum, and silicate, are porous environmental mineral material with good absorbability and have found wide applications in industrial sewage treatment. With polyaluminum chloride (PAC, poly(dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDMDAAC, and attapulgite (ATP clay being the main raw materials, multiple flocculant CMHa (liquid with good storage stability was prepared and its optimized blending mass percent was PDMDAAC of 2%-3%, ATP of 4%–6%, and PAC of 20%–30%. The liquid poly(dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDMDAAC was firstly loaded on solid material in kneader and then mixed in certain proportion with PAC and ATP to prepare solid CMHa convenient for storage and transportation. The optimized mass ratio is PAC : ATP : PDMDAAC = 80 : 10 : 2.4. When this multiple flocculant was used to treat domestic sewage, coal washing sewage, dyeing wastewater, and papermaking wastewater, its equivalent dosage was just 50% of PAC, while overall production cost has been reduced to about 40%, viewing showing broad application prospect.

  4. Preparation and properties of PAn/ATTP/PE conductive composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jian-hui; FENG Hui-xia

    2006-01-01

    Polyaniline/Attapugite/ PE(PAn-ATTP/PE)composites containing particles with core-shell structure were obtained via the two-step blending processs. The experimental condition is as follows: Organo-attapulgite and PAn was obtained by modifying attapulgite with laury benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt and,then added to PE. The electrical conductivity,structure and properties of the composites were studied. Under the function of shear stress,core-shell structure particles with ATTP as the core and PAn as the shell were formed in the composites. The structure of PAn-ATTP/PE composites were characterized by FTIR,XRD,SEM,etc,respectively. The effects of concentration of doping agent on the conductivity and mechanical property of the composites were investigated. The mechanical properties and impact fracture surface of the ternary composites were studied by means of the tensile tester,SEM,etc. The results show that polyaniline encapsulated ATTP enhances the strength of the PE. And the conductivity of PAn-ATTP/PE composites of is improved effectively when polyaniline encapsulated ATTP is added. The composite have good conductivity when 10% polyaniline encapsulated ATTP is added.

  5. 新型聚乳酸复合材料的制备与性能研究%Research on Synthesis and Performance of the Advanced Polylactic Acid Composite Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    酒巧娜; 卢玉献

    2014-01-01

    以聚乳酸为基体,以Z-6030及十六烷基三甲基溴化铵协同改性凹凸棒石黏土作为无机填料,聚氨酯作为增韧材料,制备出了一种新型复合材料,并考察了在改性凹凸棒石黏土含量不变的情况下,聚氨酯含量对复合材料性能的影响。结果表明: TPU含量为8%(ω)左右时,这种复合材料的性能最佳。%A new type of composite material was preprated which was using polylactic acid as matrix , Z-6030 and sixteen alkyl three methyl bromide combined with modified attapulgite clay as inorganic filler , polyurethane as the toughening materials , and the performance of it was studied under the effects of the modified attapulgite clay content unchanged and polyurethane changed.The results showed that the content of TPU was 8%(ω) or so, and the performance of this composite material was best.

  6. Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2011-09-28

    To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments.

  7. 改良剂对重金属复合污染土壤中菜用大豆品质及生理特性的影响%Effects of Amendments on Quality and Physiological Characteristics of Young Soybean Grown in Soil Contaminated by Heavy Metals in Combination.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王意锟; 方升佐; 王玉军; 郝秀珍; 周东美; 张焕朝

    2011-01-01

    Effects of soil amendments, including attapulgite ( 25 g · kg- 1 ), diatomite ( 25 g · kg- 1 ), peat ( 25 g ·kg - 1 ) and humic acid (4 g · kg- 1 ), on growth, quality and physiological characteristics of young soybean grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals in combinatioon were studied through pot experiment. Results show that compared with the clay minerals ( diatomite and attapulgite), the organic materials ( humic acid and peat) significantly increased yield and crude proteins content of the grains, and improved their eating quality. All the amendments mitigated the toxicity of heavy metals to the plant. Humic acid, peat and attapulgite obviously increased SOD activity in leaves of the plants at the seedling stage ( P<0.05), but diatomite did not, till the plants reached the maturing stage. Among the amendments, only humic acid increased significanfiy chlorophyll content in leaves of the plants at the seedling and maturing stages ( P < 0.05 ).And humic acid was also the most effective in lowering contents of heavy metals in grain and decreased the content of Zn,Cu, Cd and Pb by 28. 8%, 21.6%, 35.0% and 12. 5%, respectively, as compared with CK. Diatomite followed in the effect, however peat and attapulgite did not show any significant effect in this aspect.%通过盆栽试验,研究了在重度Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd复合污染土壤上,分别施用凹凸棒土(25 g·kg-1)、硅藻土(25g·kg-1)、泥炭(25 g·kg-1)和腐植酸(4 g·kg-1)4种改良剂对菜用大豆(Glycine max)(以下简称大豆)植株生长、籽粒食用品质及叶片生理特性的影响.结果表明:有机物料能有效提高大豆籽粒产量和粗蛋白含量,改善大豆籽粒的食用品质,但黏土矿物对大豆籽粒产量及品质的影响不明显;有机物料、黏土矿物能缓解重金属对植物的毒害,腐植酸、泥炭、凹凸棒土处理大豆叶片苗期SOD活性显著高于对照(P<0.05),而硅藻土处理大豆苗期SOD活性与

  8. Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2011-09-28

    To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments. PMID:21848295

  9. The Flammability of ABS/PET/APP Mixtures with Different Synergic Agents%不同协效剂对APP膨胀阻燃ABS/PET合金的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国栋; 潘治梁; 蔡绪福

    2011-01-01

    ABS/PET/APP mixtures with different synergic agents (SA) were prepared for investigating the effect of SA (2, 2' - bis ( 2 - oxazoline) (BOZ), thermoplastic phenolic resins (TPPF), manganese dioxide, montmorillonite (MMT), zinc borate, 4A Zeolite,zinc oxide (ZnO), and attapulgite on the flame retardancy of mixtures, and the thermal degradation and charring of ABS/PET/APP was analyzed. It was concluded that a novel intumescent flame retardant containing APP ( acid source and a blowing agent) and PET (carbon source) was obtained because APP mainly catalyzed PET to degrade into charring in ABS/PET/APP mixture on heating. The flammability of ABS/PET/APP mixtures with different SA was measured by the limited oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 tests. Except for ABS/PET/APP/attapulgite mixture, ABS/PET/APP mixtures with other SA all passed the V-0 rating in UL-94 tests, the LOI of which was improved compare with ABS/PET/APP mixture. Thermo-oxidative degradation behaviors of mixtures were analyzed by thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), which showed an increasing char yield of ABS/PET/APP mixtures due to the addition of SA. And scanning electron microcopy (SEM) showed the denser carbon layer formation on the surface of ABS/PET/APP mixtures with SA ( except for attapulgite) after burning.%研究了8种协效剂(双噁唑啉、热塑性酚醛树脂、二氧化锰、蒙脱土、硼酸锌、4A分子筛、氧化锌和凹凸棒)对APP膨胀阻燃ABS/PET合金的影响,并探讨了ABS/PET/APP体系的降解成炭行为.研究表明,APP主要促进了PET分解成炭从而与其成为一种新型膨胀阻燃体系.通过氧指数(LOI)和UL-94标准测试燃烧性能,除凹凸棒外,其它7种协效剂均提高了ABS/PET/APP体系的氧指数,并使其通过V-0级测试;热失重分析(TGA)表明,ABS/PET/APP/协效剂体系具有更高的成炭率;通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对炭层表面进行观察,除凹凸棒体系外,其它7种协效剂体系的炭层表面均具有更好的致密性.

  10. Formulation studies and grout development for fixation of variable phosphate/sulfate waste, Milestone 195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to develop a range of cement-based blended dry solids which, when mixed with variable phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW), produce grouts that are processible in the Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO) Transportable Grout Facility (TGF). The selected formula(s) will also utilize commerically available materials requiring no custom processing and meet all criteria as identified and quantified by RHO, not only for grouts made with the reference formula, but also for those grouts made with reasonable deviations from the reference formula expected during routine TGF operation. This report presents experimental data for processibility and solid performance as well as graphical representations of the data. Based upon the results of the preliminary study, several grout formulas were found that produced acceptable grouts. One such formula, composed of Type III Portland cement (50 wt%), class F fly ash (28 wt%), Attapulgite-150 clay (14 wt%), and Indian red pottery clay (IRPC) (8 wt%), produced acceptable grouts with several of the waste concentrations studied. When mixed with 100% sulfate waste, this blend produced acceptable grouts at mix ratios of 8, 8.5, and 9 lb/gal. This particular blend also produced acceptable grouts at waste concentrations of 25/75 and 75/25 PSW. 12 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs

  11. Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2010-12-01

    Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (MSOF) has been investigated to improve fertilizer use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution derived from fertilizer overdosage. The special fertilizer is based on natural attapulgite (APT) clay used as a matrix, sodium alginate used as an inner coating and sodium alginate-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/humic acid (SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA) superabsorbent polymer used as an outer coating. The coated multielement compound fertilizer granules were produced in a pan granulator, and the diameter of the prills was in the range of 2.5-3.5 mm. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrients release, were examined. In addition, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D of nutrients in MSOF. The degradation of the SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA coating was assessed by examining the weight loss with incubation time in soil. It is demonstrated that the product prepared by a simple route with good slow-release property may be expected to have wide potential applications in modern agriculture and horticulture. PMID:21058723

  12. Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2010-12-01

    Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (MSOF) has been investigated to improve fertilizer use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution derived from fertilizer overdosage. The special fertilizer is based on natural attapulgite (APT) clay used as a matrix, sodium alginate used as an inner coating and sodium alginate-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/humic acid (SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA) superabsorbent polymer used as an outer coating. The coated multielement compound fertilizer granules were produced in a pan granulator, and the diameter of the prills was in the range of 2.5-3.5 mm. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrients release, were examined. In addition, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D of nutrients in MSOF. The degradation of the SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA coating was assessed by examining the weight loss with incubation time in soil. It is demonstrated that the product prepared by a simple route with good slow-release property may be expected to have wide potential applications in modern agriculture and horticulture.

  13. Qualitative analysis of Pb liquid sample using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyanto, Hery; Rupiasih, Ni Nyoman; Winardi, T. B. [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University. Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Indonesia 80361 (Indonesia); Manurung, M. [Chemistry Dept, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University. Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Indonesia 80361 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, K. H. [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia)

    2013-09-03

    Qualitative analysis of liquid sample containing 1,000 ppm of Pb was performed by using LIBS technique. In order to avoid splashing off of the liquid sample during laser irradiation, a sample pretreatment was done, namely the liquid sample was absorbed by using commercial available stomach medicine. Two kinds of absorbent materials were chosen in this experiment, first containing 125 mg activated carbon and second 600 mg activated attapulgite. These absorbent materials were used since carbon sample gives better absorption of infrared laser irradiation used in this experiment. In order to characterize the absorption process, three treatments were conducted in this experiment; first, without heating the sample but varying the absorption time before laser irradiation; second by varying the heating temperature after certain time of absorption process and third by varying the temperature only. The maximum emission intensity of Pb I 405.7 nm was found in the second treatment of heating the sample till 85°C after 30 minutes absorption of the liquid sample in both absorbent materials.

  14. Polyolefin Nanocomposites with Enhanced Photostability Weathering Effect on Morphology and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Bishnu P.; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K.

    2014-09-01

    This research aims to study the effect of accelerated weathering conditions on the photodegradation characteristics for fibrillar silicate clay-filled Polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites in the presence of metallocene linear low density polyethylene (m-LLDPE). Silane-treated attapulgite (ATP) clay along with ethylene octene elastomer-grafted maleic anhydride (POE-g-MAH) was used to compatibilize both blend and nanocomposite system. The result showed that developed PP/m-LLDPE nanocomposites displayed good UV resistance with little change in retained stress-at-break and elongation-at-break values. Balanced loss of toughness values noted maintaining higher fracture toughness values for nanocomposites containing 5 phr ATP clay. Infrared analysis was used to detect progress of degradation followed by change in carbonyl index revealed predominated chain scission in late irradiation, while crosslinking was dominant for initial irradiation period. An increase in crystallinity during UV exposure (chemi-crystallization) was detected with exposure time for all compositions and virtually independent of initial structure of the polymer. The highest value of crystallization observed for PP and the lowest one for nanocomposites containing 5 phr of ATP clay revealed good oxidation stability. Surface morphology revealed induced degradation throughout cross-section of PP, while severity of the surface degradation was significantly reduced for developed nanocomposites.

  15. 聚苯胺无溶剂聚氨酯防锈涂料的研制%Preparation of Polyaniline Solvent-free Polyurethane Anti-rust Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵绍洪; 张辉耀; 刘志文

    2012-01-01

    介绍了以蓖麻油酸改性环氧酯为含羟基树脂,以二丁胺改性1,6-己二醇二缩水甘油醚为反应性稀释剂,配合聚苯胺/凹凸棒纳米复合材料、磷钛粉、吸水剂等组成A组分,采用含-NCO基的聚氨酯预聚体为B组分,将A组分和B组分按规定比例混合均匀后涂布在金属表面即形成一种无溶剂、不含重金属的新型环境友好金属防锈涂料。%A two-component anti-rust coatings formula is designed in this paper. The component A includes ricinoleic acid modified epoxy ester as hydroxyl resin, n-dibutylamine modified 1,6-hexylene glycol two glycidyl ether as reactive thinner, Polyaniline/Attapulgite nanocomposites, titanium phosphide powder and water absorbent. The component B includes --NCO polyurethane prepolymer. The two components are mixed at some proportion and applied on the metal surface to serve as non- solvent non-heavy metal environmental friendly metal anti-rust coatings.

  16. Variability in properties of grouted Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Transportable Grout Facility (TGF) is being constructed at the Hanford site in Washington State to convert various low-level liquid wastes to a grout waste form for onsite disposal. The TGF Project is managed by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has provided a grout formulation for Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste, the first waste stream scheduled for grouting beginning in late 1987. The formulation includes a blend of portland cement, fly ash, attapulgite clay, and an illitic clay. Grout will be produced by mixing the blend with Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste. These wastes result from decontamination and ion-exchange regeneration activities at Hanford's N-Reactor. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting studies on grouted Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste to verify that the grout can be successfully processed and, when hardened, that it will meet all performance and regulatory requirements. As part of these studies, PNL is assessing the variability that may be encountered when processing Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste grout. Sources of variability that may affect grout properties include the composition and concentrations of the waste and dry solids, temperature, efficiency of dry solids blending, and dry blend storage time. 13 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs

  17. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J. [Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA (United States); Adams, T.L. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to {open_quotes}activate{close_quotes} the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers.

  18. Hybrid systems based on "drug - in cyclodextrin - in nanoclays" for improving oxaprozin dissolution properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Paola; Maestrelli, Francesca; Aguzzi, Carola; Viseras, César

    2016-07-25

    A combined approach based on drug complexation with cyclodextrins, and complex entrapment in nanoclays has been investigated, to join in a single delivery system the benefits of these carriers and potentiate their ability to improve the dissolution properties of oxaprozin (OXA), a poorly water-soluble anti-inflammatory drug. Based on previous studies, randomly methylated ß-cyclodextrin (RAMEB) was chosen as the most effective cyclodextrin for OXA complexation. Adsorption equilibrium studies performed on three different clays (sepiolite, attapulgite, bentonite) allowed selection of sepiolite (SV) for its greater adsorption power towards OXA. DSC and XRPD studies indicated drug amorphization in both binary OXA-RAMEB coground and OXA-SV cofused products, due to its complexation or very fine dispersion in the clay structure, respectively. The drug amorphous state was maintained also in the ternary OXA-RAMEB-SV cofused system. Dissolution studies evidenced a clear synergistic effect of RAMEB complexation and clay nanoencapsulation in improving the OXA dissolution properties, with an almost 100% increase in percent dissolved and dissolution efficiency compared to the OXA-RAMEB coground system. Therefore, the proposed combined approach represents an interesting tool for improving the therapeutic effectiveness of poorly soluble drugs, and reducing the CD amount necessary for obtaining the desired drug solubility and dissolution rate increase. PMID:27188644

  19. Preparation and application of conducting polymer/Ag/clay composite nanoparticles formed by in situ UV-induced dispersion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Limin; Qiu, Jianhui; Yang, Chao; Sakai, Eiichi

    2016-02-03

    In this work, composite nanoparticles containing polypyrrole, silver and attapulgite (PPy/Ag/ATP) were prepared via UV-induced dispersion polymerization of pyrrole using ATP clay as a templet and silver nitrate as photoinitiator. The effects of ATP concentration on morphology, structure and electrical conductivity were studied. The obtained composite nanoparticles with an interesting beads-on-a-string morphology can be obtained in a short time (10 min), which indicates the preparation method is facile and feasible. To explore the potential applications of the prepared PPy/Ag/ATP composite nanoparticles, they were served as multifunctional filler and blended with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) matrix to prepare biodegradable composite material. The distribution of fillers in polymer matrix and the interfacial interaction between fillers and PBS were confirmed by scanning electron microscope, elemental mapping and dynamic mechanical analysis. The well dispersed fillers in PBS matrix impart outstanding antibacterial property to the biodegradable composite material as well as enhanced storage modulus due to Ag nanoparticles and ATP clay. The biodegradable composite material also possesses modest surface resistivity (10(6)~ 10(9) Ω/◻).

  20. 低分子量有机酸对粘土矿物吸附二氯喹啉酸的影响%Effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids on adsorption of quinclorac by clay minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽华; 龚道新; 袁雅洁; 肖浩; 周健; 孟磊; 陈宣宇; 丁春霞

    2013-01-01

    采用批量平衡法,研究了6种低分子量有机酸(柠檬酸、酒石酸、苹果酸、乙酸、草酸和丁二酸)对3种粘土矿物(高岭土、蒙脱石、凹凸棒石)吸附二氯喹啉酸的影响.结果表明:当低分子量有机酸存在时,供试3种粘土矿物对二氯喹啉酸的吸附过程可用Linear和Freundlich吸附等温方程描述,且Freundlich方程的拟合效果更好.供试6种有机酸对二氯喹啉酸在高岭土中吸附量的影响程度从低到高依次为苹果酸<柠檬酸<草酸<乙酸<酒石酸<丁二酸,在蒙脱石中的顺序为乙酸<草酸<苹果酸<丁二酸<酒石酸<柠檬酸,在凹凸棒石中的顺序为乙酸<丁二酸<草酸<苹果酸<酒石酸<柠檬酸.不同浓度低分子量有机酸对3种供试粘土矿物吸附二氯喹啉酸均能产生显著的影响,但影响程度因粘土矿物和有机酸种类的不同而有较大差异.%The effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids (citric acid,tartaric acid,malic acid,acetic acid,oxalic acid and succinic acid) on adsorption of quinclorac by three clay minerals (kaolinite,montmorillonite and attapulgite) was investigated by a batch experimental technique.The results showed that the adsorption isotherm of quinclorac in clay minerals could be well described by Freundlich and Linear equation under the presence of low-molecular-weight organic acids,but the Freundlich equation was more suitable.The tested six kinds of low-molecular-weight organic acid showed different effects on adsorption quantity of quinclorac on kaolinite.The order from low to high influence were:malic acid < citric acid < oxalic acid < acetic acid < tartaric acid < succinic acid; whereas on montmorillonite from low to high order were:acetic acid < oxalic acid < malic acid < succinic acid <tartaric acid < citric acid; on attapulgite:acetic acid < succinic acid < oxalic acid < malic acid < tartaric acid < citric acid.In conclusion

  1. Advances in the Application Research of New Reinforcing Fillers for Rubber%新型橡胶补强填料的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄家明; 胡浩; 朱嘉

    2015-01-01

    介绍木质素、蒙脱土、碳纳米管和凹凸棒(粘)土4种新型橡胶补强填料的特性和应用研究进展。4种新型橡胶补强填料改性后在天然橡胶、丁苯橡胶、顺丁橡胶、丁腈橡胶、硅橡胶和三元乙丙橡胶等中的补强效应显著。木质素用于高压丁腈橡胶胶管内层胶和外层胶中的用量最大可达到100份。采用共沉法制备的蒙脱土/丁苯橡胶纳米复合材料可用于轮胎胎面胶,采用熔融插层法制备的蒙脱土/三元乙丙橡胶纳米复合材料可用于轮胎内胎胶和气密层胶。碳纳米管与炭黑具有协同效应,碳纳米管与炭黑并用体系在低滚动阻力轮胎胎面胶中有潜在应用价值。凹凸棒土在丁腈橡胶中的用量可达70份,凹凸棒土/丁腈橡胶纳米复合材料在油田橡胶制品中应用前景广阔。指出开发新的改性方式、改进加工工艺是扩大这4种新型补强填料应用的研究重点。%This paper gives a review on the characteristics and application research progress of new reinforcing ifllers for rubber materials. The main types of new reinforcing ifllers are lignin, montmorillonite (MMT), carbon nanotube and attapulgite clay. In general, those ifllers after surface modiifcation provide good reinforcement on NR, SBR, BR, NBR, MVQ and EPDM. The addition level of lignin in the NBR for the inner and outer layer compounds of high pressure hose can reach 100 phr. The MMT/SBR nanocomposites prepared by latex co-coagulation method could be used in tire tread, and MMT/EPDM nanocomposites prepared by melt intercalation method are used in the tube compounds and inner liner compounds . Synergistic effect is found in joint use of carbon nanotube and carbon black, which shows application potential in the tread compounds for low rolling resistance tire. Attapulgite clay can be applied in NBR with addition level up to 70 phr and the resulted nanocomposites could ifnd various applications in oilifeld

  2. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabilization traps toxic contaminants (usually both chemically and physically) in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. Typical contaminants are metals (mostly transition metals) that exhibit the characteristic of toxicity. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP-the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC-the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California's and EPA's, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens). The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements

  3. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Stabilization is a best demonstrated available technology, or BDAT. This technology traps toxic contaminants in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California`s and EPA`s, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. The concentration in the leachate is approximately ten times higher for the STLC procedure than the TCLP. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens) when formulating a stabilization matrix, and they have a neutral pH. By using these clays and additives, LLNL`s highly concentrated wastewater treatment sludges have passed the TCLP and STLC tests. The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  4. Laboratory Far-infrared Spectroscopy Of Terrestrial Phyllosilicates To Support Analysis Of Cosmic Dust Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesiltas, Mehmet; Brusentsova, T.; Peale, R.; Maukonen, D.; Figueiredo, P.; Harlow, G. H.; Ebel, D. S.; Nissinboim, A.; Sherman, K.; Lisse, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Poster Abstract: 219th AAS Meeting M. Yesiltas1, T. Brusentsova1, R. E. Peale1, D. Maukonen1, P. Figueiredo1, G. E. Harlow2, D. S. Ebel2, A. Nissinboim2, K. Sherman2, and C. M. Lisse3 Remote spectral detection of hydrated minerals is of general interest in the solar system and dusty circumstellar disks. This paper presents spectroscopy of terrestrial phyllosilicate minerals in the wavelength range 15 - 250 µm to support interpretation of returned data from far-IR space-missions such as the Herschel Space Observatory. The far-IR spectral region beyond 15 micron wavelength is especially diagnostic of mineral composition and crystal structure. Relatively little far-IR spectral data exists in the literature on suitably-characterized naturally-occurring phyllosilicate minerals in the wavelength range 60-210 microns corresponding to the PACS instrument of Herschel Space Observatory. Extending the database of laboratory far-IR spectra of terrestrial mineral analogs is therefore desirable and timely. Seventeen phyllosilicate minerals expected in various astronomical environments were sampled from the American Museum of Natural History for diversity and astrophysical relevancy, based on their identification in Stardust, in stratospheric IDP samples, or in meteorites. These include serpentines (Antigorite and Chrysotile), smectites (Talc, Pyrophyllite, Vermiculite, Montmorillonite, Beidellite, Saponite, Nontronite and Hectorite), chlorites (Clinochlore), micas (Muscovite, Paragonite, Margarite, Clintonite, Biotite and Illite), and kaolinites (Dickite, Nacrite, Kaolinite, Halloysite, Attapulgite and Sepiolite). Spectra of micron-sized powder suspensions in polyethelyne pellets reveal prominent and characteristic far-IR features, which differ significantly in some cases from already published spectra, where available. Acknowledgements : This research was supported by NASA-JPL Contract # 1327221. 1Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando FL 32816 USA2

  5. On the mineral characteristics and geochemistry of the Florida phosphate of Four Corners and Hardee County mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdady, Ashraf R.; Howari, Fares M.; Al-Wakeel, Mohamed I.

    2016-08-01

    The Florida phosphate deposits in Four Corners and Hardee County mines are composed mainly of phosphate minerals and quartz in addition to subordinate proportions of feldspars, dolomite, calcite, gypsum, kaolinite, attapulgite and montmorillonite. These phosphorites contain three structurally different types of mudclasts: massive mudclasts, mudclasts with concentric structure and mudclasts consisting of agglomerates of apatite microparticles. The latter are represented by particles resembling phosphatized fossil bacteria associated with microbial filaments, and hollow apatite particles having surfacial coatings and connected to microbial filaments. The Florida phosphate particles are reworked and vary in mineral composition, color and shape. They are composed of a mixture of well-crystalline species including carbonate fluorapatite (francolite), carbonate apatite and fluorapatite. The color variation of the phosphate particles is related to difference in mineral composition, extent of diagenetic effects and reworking. The light-colored mudclasts are characterized by the presence of carbonate apatite and aluminum hydroxide phosphate minerals, whereas the dark mudclasts are rich in iron aluminum hydroxide phosphate minerals. The Florida phosphorites are suggested to be formed partially by authigenetic precipitation, replacement of the sea floor carbonate and diatomite, and microbial processes. With respect to elemental geochemistry, the analyzed particles contain small percentages of sulfur and iron which are related to the occurrence of pyrite. Traces of silica and alumina are recorded which may be attributed to the diagenetic. Some of the tested particles are relatively rich in phosphorous, fluorine, calcium, and magnesium, while poor in silicon, potassium and sulfur. Whereas, the bioclasts (especially teeth) are relatively rich in calcium, phosphorous and fluorine while poor in silicon, aluminum, magnesium and potassium. Hence, the microchemical analyses revealed

  6. 3种负载Cu2O的载体对印染废水处理的比较%Treatment Comparison of Dyeing Wastewater by Three Supporter Loaded Cu2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁伟夏

    2013-01-01

    Attapulgite, activated carbon and the supermicro porous polyurethane as the supporter, the three supporter load of Cu2O were prepared by liquid phase synthesis, and their photocatalytic oxidation effect was investigated by the adsorption and degradation of Rhodamine B. The results showed that when the simulated Rhodamine B dye wastewater initial concentration was 200mg/L, reaction time was 50 min, the loaded Cu2O dosage of three supporter was 11.0g/L, 9.0g/L and 5.0g/L, respectively, the removal rate of rhodamine B in the simulated wastewater were 81.64%, 87.21% and 78.46%, respectively. The removal rate of Rhodamine B was still better after five repeated use of the three catalysts.%  以凹凸棒石、活性炭和超微孔聚氨酯为载体,用液相合成法制备3种负载Cu2O的载体,并以吸附降解罗丹明B的效果,探讨其光催化氧化性能。试验结果表明,当模拟罗丹明B染料废水的初始质量浓度为200mg·L-1,反应时间为50min,该3种负载Cu2O的载体投加量分别为11.0g·L-1,9.0g·L-1和5.0g·L-1,对模拟染料废水中罗丹明B的去除率分别达到81.64%、87.21%和78.46%。5次重复使用该3种催化剂后对罗丹明B的去除率仍较好。

  7. EFFECT OF MINERAL FILLERS ON CRYSTALLIZATION AND MELTING BEHAVIOR OF POLY(LACTID ACID)/MINERAL FILLER COMPOSITES%聚乳酸/矿物填料复合材料的示差扫描量热研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹国享; 张鑫; 李炳健; 赵彩霞; 李锦春

    2012-01-01

    A series of poly ( lactid acid) ( PLA )/mineral filler composites have been prepared by melt blending. Crystallization and melting behaviors of PLA composites containing calcium carbonate ( CaCO3) , montmorillonite (MMT) and attapulgite (AT) have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) , respectively. The results exhibited that MMT and AT did not obviously influence the slow-cooling crystallization of PLA, whereas CaCO3 effectively facilitated the crystallization of PLA in this process. The crystallization enthalpy (△Hc) increased with increasing the content of CaCO3 at a cooling rate of 2. 5 K/min. Moreover, the type and content of the fillers played an important role in the cold crystallization and melting remarkably. Low-content mineral fillers would promote the nucleation in the cold crystallization of PLA, among which MMT was the best effective. Meanwhile, different mineral fillers with relatively high contents would affect the crystal structures of PLA, yielding various types of DSC curves.%通过熔融共混法制备了一系列聚乳酸( PLA)/矿物填料复合材料.采用示差扫描量热(DSC)研究了含有碳酸钙( CaCO3)、蒙脱土(MMT)和凹凸棒土(AT)的聚乳酸复合材料在不同热历程中的结晶和熔融行为.研究发现,MMT和AT对PLA的慢速降温结晶无明显影响,而碳酸钙在慢速降温过程中能够有效促进PLA结晶;在2.5 K/min的降温速率下,结晶热焓随碳酸钙含量增加而增加;填料种类和含量会对复合材料升温过程的冷结晶和熔融产生较大影响,低含量矿物填料主要对PLA的冷结晶起成核作用,其中MMT成核效果最好.较高含量下不同填料会对PLA晶体形态产生影响,从而得到多样的DSC曲线变化.

  8. Detection of Soluble and Fixed NH4+ in Clay Minerals by DTA and IR Reflectance Spectroscopy : A Potential Tool for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice, Bishop; Banin, A.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Klovstad, M. R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential element for life. It is the only element among the six major biogenic elements, C, O, S, O, P, H, whose presence in the Martian soil has not been positively and directly established. We describe here a study assessing the ability to detect NH4 in soils by two methods: differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy. Four standard clay minerals (kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite and attapulgite) and an altered tephra sample from Mauna Kea were treated with NH4 in this study. Samples of the NH4-treated and leached clays were analyzed by DTA and infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy to quantify the delectability of soluble and sorbed/fixed NH4. An exotherm at 270-280 C was clearly detected in the DTA curves of NH4-treated (non-leached) samples. This feature is assigned to the thermal decomposition reaction of NH4. Spectral bands observed at 1.56, 2.05, 2.12, 3.06, 3.3, 3.5, 5.7 and 7.0 microns in the reflectance spectra of NH4-treated and leached samples are assigned to the sorbed/fixed ammonium in the clays. The montmorillonite has shown the most intense absorbance due to fixed ammonium among the leached samples in this study, as a result of its high cation sorption capacity. It is concluded that the presence of sorbed or fixed NH4 in clays may be detected by infrared (IR) reflectance or emission spectroscopy. Distinction between soluble and sorbed NH4 may be achieved through the presence or absence of several spectral features assigned to the sorbed NH4 moietyi and, specifically, by use of the 4.2 micrometer feature assigned to solution NH4. Thermal analyses furnish supporting evidence of ammonia in our study through detection of N released at temperatures of 270-330 C. Based on these results it is estimated that IR spectra measured from a rover should be able to detect ammonia if present above 20 mg NH4/g sample in the surface layers. Orbital IR spectra and thermal analyses measured on a rover may be able to

  9. The Effect of Clay Kind on Properties of Corresponding Poly(Acrylic Acid/Acrylamide/Clay) Superabsorbents%粘土种类对聚丙烯酸俩烯酰胺高吸水树脂性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴紫平; 索红莉; 张腾; 袁慧萍; 王毅; 刘敏; 马磷

    2012-01-01

    选用含量相同的六种不同粘土(煅烧高岭土、蒙脱土、凹凸棒土、膨润土、海泡石和硅藻土),采用反相悬浮法制备了一系列聚(丙烯酸/丙烯酰胺/粘土)高吸水树脂,并比较了不同粘土对高吸水树脂结构、吸水倍率、吸盐水倍率以及保水性能、热稳定性的影响。通过比较发现,添加膨润土的高吸水树脂具有最高的吸水倍率(450 g/g)和吸盐水倍率(92 g/g);添加膨润土和煅烧高岭土均可提高高吸水树脂的保水性能。此外,煅烧高岭土可以更为有效地提高高吸水树脂的热稳定性。%A series of poly(acrylic acid/acrylamide/clay) superabsorbents with 10% different kinds clay,which including calcined kaolin,montmorillonite,attapulgite,bentonite,sepiolite and diatomite,were prepared by inverse suspension polymerization method.The effects of clay kinds on structure,equilibrium water absorbency,equilibrium 0.9% NaCl absorbency,the water-retention capability and thermal stability of the superabsorbent composites were also systematically investigated in the same condition.It is found that the superabsorbent incorporated with bentonite has the best equilibrium water absorbency(450 g/g) and equilibrium 0.9% NaCl absorbency(92 g/g).Moreover,bentonite and calcined kaolin ones show the best capability of maintenancewater.Besides,the calcined kaolin can enhance the thermal stability of corresponding superabsorbent to the highest degree.

  10. Removal of mercury vapor with sulfur-impregnated silicate sorbents%硫改性硅酸盐吸附剂脱汞性能的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁峰; 张军营; 赵永椿; 郑楚光

    2011-01-01

    Different modifiers on the S-containing natural silicate mineral material was modified to prepare different types of organic,inorganic S modified adsorbent.The performances of mercury removal efficiency for sorbents were investigated with a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor system in simulated flue gas.The sulfur-impregnated bentonite revealed 70% mercury removal efficiency at 70 ℃.Increasing of mercury removal efficiency was observed with rising temperature but the duration of mercury removal was shortened.60% mercury was removed from flue gas by cysteine-impregnated attapulgite between 120 ℃ to 150 ℃,temperature down to 70 ℃ will reduce the merucry removal rate.Sulfhydryl group and amino group existed in cysteine could trap mercury by chelation,but sulfhydryl group could not catch mercury alone.%利用不同含S改性剂对天然硅酸盐矿物材料进行改性,制备了不同种类的有机、无机S改性吸附剂.用固定床反应器在模拟烟气条件下研究了几种改性吸附剂对单质汞的脱除能力.结果表明:单质S改性膨润土在70℃能脱除70%以上的汞,温度升高有利于汞脱除率的提高,但会减少吸附剂有效脱汞的持续时间;半胱氨酸改性凹凸棒石能脱除60%的单质汞,在120℃到150℃间能够稳定吸附汞,温度降低到70℃会降低汞的脱除率;单纯的巯基改性硅酸盐吸附剂脱汞效果不明显,半胱氨酸改性吸附剂中的氨基和巯基能够螯合汞原子从而达到脱汞目的.

  11. 低温等离子体改性聚偏氟乙烯超滤膜的性能%Performance of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Ultrafiltration Membrane Modified by Low Temperature Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨庆; 李鹏; 丁昀; 许小艳; 刘俊洁; 张兆盼

    2013-01-01

    采用丙烯酸(AA)作为改性单体,对聚偏氟乙烯(PVDF)中空纤维膜进行等离子体化学沉积改性.通过傅里叶变换衰减全反射光谱仪(ATR-FT-IR)分析发现,改性后的膜表面引入了羧基、羟基等亲水性官能团.经低温等离子体改性后的膜,清水通量提高20% ~30%,膜面和膜孔的Zeta电位分别提高了694%和58.66%,在过滤分离凹凸棒悬浊液实验中,改性膜通量衰减百分比,较原膜平均降低了8.44%,仅经水力清洗后的改性膜通量恢复率,较原膜提高8%.%Acrylic acid was used as modified monomer to modify polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane by plasma modification.Through the attenuated total reflection infrared spectrum (ATR-FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements,the chemical composition and morphology change of the original and modified membranes surface were analyzed.The results show that hydrophilic functional groupssuch as carboxyl and hydroxyl were introduced onto the surface of modified membranes.The water flux of modified membranes,Zeta potential and flux response to pH before and after modification were studied by the contrast test.The results show that after modified by low-temperature plasma,membrane flux increases by 20% ~30%,membrane surface and membrane pore zeta potential increase by 694 % and 58.66% respectively,and the pollution-resistant ability of modified membranes increase by 8.44 % when they filtrated and separated attapulgite suspension liquid.Only after hydraulic cleaning,the flux recovery rate of the modified membrane is 8% higher than that of the original membrane.

  12. Effect of Nano-Packing on Storage Quality of Flammulina velutipes%纳米包装材料延长金针菇贮藏品质的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单楠; 杨芹; 杨文建; 刘音宏; 赵立艳; 辛志宏; 方勇; 胡秋辉; 安辛欣

    2012-01-01

    A polyethylene(PE) packing consisting of nano-Ag,nano-TiO2,and attapulgite was applied in the preservation of Flammulina velutipes.Meanwhile,the regular polyethylene(PE) packing was used as the control.Sensory quality and biochemical properties of Flammulina velutipes were analyzed.Flammulina velutipes with nano-packing stored at 4 ℃ for 15 days revealed a significant inhibition on opened mushroom parasol,browning,mold growth and decay when compared with the control.In addition,Flammulina velutipes with nano-packing had lower browning degree(1.56) and relative conductivity(6.27%)(P 0.01).Compared with the control,the contents of total sugar,reduce sugar and soluble protein of Flammulina velutipes packed by nanopackaging were 70.9,11.34 mg/g and 19.54 mg/g,respectively,which exhibited the enhancement of 10.52%,33.53% and 22.13%,respectively.Therefore,nano-packing had a potential to improve the preservation quality and storage time of Flammulina velutipes by reducing its aging and degradation process.%通过制备一种含纳米Ag、纳米TiO2和凹凸棒土等纳米粉体的聚乙烯(PE)薄膜,用于金针菇的包装贮藏。以普通聚乙烯(PE)薄膜为对照,研究4℃低温贮藏15d期间,纳米包装材料对金针菇保鲜品质的影响。结果表明,贮藏15d后,纳米处理组的金针菇与普通聚乙烯包装处理组相比,较好地保持了贮藏前的洁白色泽,且无明显开伞、水渍状斑块及霉变现象。纳米包装金针菇的褐变度为1.56,相对电导率为6.27%,均显著低于对照(P〈0.01)。而总糖、还原糖和可溶性蛋白质的保留量分别达70.9、11.34mg/g和19.54mg/g,分别高出对照组10.52%、33.53%和22.13%。纳米包装材料能够有效地减缓金针菇采后衰老和品质劣变进程,提高其综合贮藏品质,延长贮藏时间。

  13. 几种土壤及黏土矿物对多氯联苯吸附特性的研究%Adsorption Charcteristics of PCBs in Soils and Clay Minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司雄元; 王寅; 陈倩倩; 司友斌

    2012-01-01

    采用批量平衡试验,研究了不同土壤及长黏土矿物对多氯联苯吸附特性。结果表明:多氯联苯浓度范围为0.25~5.0mg L-1时,不同土壤及黏土矿物对多氯联苯的吸附均能用Freundlich方程很好地拟合,随着溶液中多氯联苯浓度的增加,土壤及黏土矿物对多氯联苯的吸附量增加;几种土壤对多氯联苯吸附量大小顺序为:红壤〉黄褐土〉砂姜黑土,土壤有机质、粘粒等对多氯联苯吸附起主要作用,土壤更易吸附高氯代PCB77;黏土矿物对多氯联苯吸附量大小顺序为:纳米蒙脱石〉纳米SiO2〉凹凸棒石,黏土矿物吸附多氯联苯能力的大小与黏土矿物的比表面积、粒径、层状结构等有关;多氯联苯本身分子的大小影响其在黏土矿物上的吸附;土壤中添加黏土矿物可以提高对多氯联苯的吸附。%Adsorption characteristics of PCBs in soils and clay minerals were studied using the batch equilibration technique.Results showed that the adsorption of PCBs conformed to the Freundlich equation when the concentrations of PCBs were from 0.25 mg L-1 to 5.0 mg L-1,and the adsorption of PCBs in soils and clay minerals increased with the increase of initial concentration.The adsorption capacity of soils for PCBs followed the order red soil yellow brown soil shajiang black soil.The contents of organic matter and clay in soil governed adsorption of PCBs,and the high chlorine of PCBs were easier to be absorbed by soils.The adsorption capacity of clay minerals for PCBs followed the order nanometer-sized montmorillonite nanometer-sized SiO2 attapulgite.The adsorption ability of clay minerals for PCBs related to the surface area,diameter and layered structure of clay minerals.The molecular size of PCBs also affected the adsorption.Adding clay minerals to soil could improve the adsorption ability.

  14. 水分缓释在柠条复合型包衣种子中的研究%Water release in composite coating of Caragana korshinskii seeds.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏立强; 李加国; 姜祛寒; 汪晓峰

    2015-01-01

    飞播包衣种子技术是沙区植被恢复与重建的重要手段,但目前该技术存在一个亟需解决的问题,即飞播种子的成活率低. 本文以沙生先锋植物柠条种子为材料,利用正交试验设置不同包衣材料组合,再通过研究不同组分的包衣种子发芽率、苗质量以及包衣种子的多项物理指标,确立了适合柠条种子的丸化包衣剂最佳配方,即乙基纤维素1. 5%、凹凸棒黏土和滑石粉的比例为2:1和10%的"旱可舒"保水剂,并且最终的丸化倍率为1. 0. 该丸化包衣种子具有一定的吸水功能,在丸化包衣的基础上,再筛选出"尤特奇(Eudragit) RS 30D"为成膜材料,制成厚度为10%的包衣薄膜,该薄膜可以有效"控制"柠条种子在不适合成苗的降雨量下的萌发,同时不影响在丰富降雨量条件下正常萌发与成苗. 毛乌素沙漠实地播种试验结果表明,经过丸化包衣处理的柠条种子,其成苗率提高了22%;对丸化包衣处理的柠条种子,再经过外敷薄膜包衣处理后,其成苗率提高了88%,明显高于丸化包衣处理的种子.这种复合型的丸化薄膜包衣种子可为毛乌素沙区的飞播治沙提供新的思路.%Aerial-seeding afforestation, as a quick, effective measure, has become an important approach for vegetation restoration and reconstruction in hinterland of Mu Us Sandy Land of northern China. However, the low survival rate of seedlings is a problem that needs to be resolved urgently. We selected Caragana korshinskii as the material, and set different combinations of coating agents by orthogonal experiment to pellet Caragana korshinskii seeds. After analysis of the germination rate, seedling growth, and the physical properties of each group, the optimum formula was obtained as 1. 5% ethyecellulose, ratio of attapulgite clay to talc 2:1, 10% super absorbent polymers, and the pelleting ratio 1. And the pelleted seeds had water-absorbing ability. After pelleting, eudragit

  15. Total allowable concentrations of monomeric inorganic aluminum and hydrated aluminum silicates in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, Calvin C; Ball, Gwendolyn L; McLellan, Clifton J

    2012-05-01

    Maximum contaminant levels are used to control potential health hazards posed by chemicals in drinking water, but no primary national or international limits for aluminum (Al) have been adopted. Given the differences in toxicological profiles, the present evaluation derives total allowable concentrations for certain water-soluble inorganic Al compounds (including chloride, hydroxide, oxide, phosphate and sulfate) and for the hydrated Al silicates (including attapulgite, bentonite/montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite) in drinking water. The chemistry, toxicology and clinical experience with Al materials are extensive and depend upon the particular physical and chemical form. In general, the water solubility of the monomeric Al materials depends on pH and their water solubility and gastrointestinal bioavailability are much greater than that of the hydrated Al silicates. Other than Al-containing antacids and buffered aspirin, food is the primary source of Al exposure for most healthy people. Systemic uptake of Al after ingestion of the monomeric salts is somewhat greater from drinking water (0.28%) than from food (0.1%). Once absorbed, Al accumulates in bone, brain, liver and kidney, with bone as the major site for Al deposition in humans. Oral Al hydroxide is used routinely to bind phosphate salts in the gut to control hyperphosphatemia in people with compromised renal function. Signs of chronic Al toxicity in the musculoskeletal system include a vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia (deranged membranous bone formation characterized by accumulation of the osteoid matrix and reduced mineralization, reduced numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, decreased lamellar and osteoid bands with elevated Al concentrations) presenting as bone pain and proximal myopathy. Aluminum-induced bone disease can progress to stress fractures of the ribs, femur, vertebrae, humerus and metatarsals. Serum Al ≥100 µg/L has a 75-88% positive predictive value for Al bone disease. Chronic Al

  16. Effect of Nano-Packing Material on Improvement of Preservation Quality of Agaricus bisporus%纳米包装材料延长双孢蘑菇贮藏品质的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文建; 胡秋辉; 单楠; 杨芹; 方勇; 赵立艳; 安辛欣; 马宁; 刘音宏; 辛志宏

    2012-01-01

    [目的]通过制备一种含纳米Ag、纳米TiO2和凹凸棒土的纳米包装聚乙烯(PE)包装薄膜,研究双孢蘑菇在4℃下贮藏10d期间,纳米包装材料对其感官品质、生理指标和营养指标变化的影响.[方法]跟踪检测贮藏过程中双孢蘑菇的失重率、白度、相对电导率、多酚氧化酶活性、丙二醛、总糖和可溶性蛋白含量等指标的变化,分析纳米包装材料和普通聚乙烯材料对双孢蘑菇感官品质、生理指标和营养指标的影响.[结果]与普通聚乙烯包装材料相比,添加纳米粒子的包装材料能够较好地抑制双孢蘑菇发生失水萎蔫和褐变现象,使其保持贮藏前洁白色的感官品质.贮藏10d后,纳米包装材料处理组双孢蘑菇的失重率、相对电导率、丙二醛含量和多酚氧化酶活性分别为1.46%、22.5%、3.50 μmol·kg-1、161.89 U·g-1·min-1,显著低于对照处理组的1.86%、30.2%、4.66μm01·kg-1和233.84 U.g-1·min-1,(P<0.05),而总糖和可溶性蛋白等营养成分的保留量均显著高于对照组的含量.[结论]纳米包装材料能够有效抑制贮藏期间双孢蘑菇感官品质的劣变,降低营养价值的损失,提高综合贮藏品质,延长贮藏时间.%[Objective] A polyethylene (PE) packing material containing nano-Ag, nano-TiO2, and attapulgite was prepared and applied in the preservation of Agaricus bisporus, and its effects on sensory quality and physiological and nutritional properties of Agaricus bisporus were analyzed and determined during the 10 days storage at 4 ℃. [Method] The effect of nano-packing material on sensory quality, physiological indexes and main nutritional value of Agaricus bisporus was studied by tracking the changes of weight loss, whiteness, relative conductivity, polyphenoloxidase activity, and MDA, total sugar and soluble protein contents. The normal PE material was used as control. [Result] Compared with the control, water loss and browning of

  17. Les formations marines et continentales intervolcaniques des îles Canaries orientales (Grande Canarie. Fuerteventura et Lanzarote: Stratigraphie et signiflcation paleoclimatique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meco, J.

    1985-08-01

    especies de Patella, y de carácter fresco (Meco, 1977 se habían relacionado con episodios volcánicos datados por K/Ar (Meco y Stearns, 1981 y se relacionan ahora, por primera vez, con algunos trazos rápidos de la pedogénesis, consecuencia de la evaporación y neoformación arcillosa en materiales volcánicos constantemente renovados. A medida que las series volcánicas fosilizan alteraciones se eliminan algunos efectos acumulativos del tiempo en los paleosuelos. La presencia de cuarzo sahariano, mineral ausente en los productos volcánicos, y la coexistencia de los extremos más alejados de la evolución pedológica, como las costras yesíferas o con attapulgita desérticas y las bauxitas niquelíferas con talco de regiones tropicales húmedas (pomel, 1985 permiten, en todo caso, obtener conclusiones coherentes.
    Faune et sols fossilisés par des volcans actifs depuis plus de 20 M. A. à l'époque actuel le attestent une alternance d'influences guinéennes chaudes et humides et de flux sahariens secs liés à l'apport d'eaux lusitaniques fraîches. Les preuves paléontologiques sont fondées sur la présence du Strombus coronatus au Pliocene inférieur et du Strombus bubonius au Pleistocéne supérieur et de Patella au Pleistocene moyen et supérieur el: au Holocene (Meco, 1977. Les preuves pédologiques reposent sur la présence de quartz saharien, minéral absent dans les produits volcaniques et sur la coexistence des póles les plus extremes de l'évolution pédologique : croûtes gypseuses ou à attapulgite désertiques et bauxites nickeliféres a talc des régions tropicales humides (Pomel, 1984.

  18. Evidence-Based Evaluation and Selection of Essential Medicine for Township Health Centre in China: 8.Acute Gastroenteritis%我国示范乡镇卫生院基本药物循证评价与遴选之八:急性胃肠炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萃萃; 李筱; 杨宗霞; 李向莲; 李幼平; 李鸿浩; 王应强; 杨晓妍; 王莉; 钟大可; 沈建通

    2012-01-01

    期妇女及儿童不使用本品).建议今后的临床研究和实践应规范、统一诊断及标准,提高临床研究设计和实施质量,并全面开展药物适用性和经济性的原始研究,生产高质量本土化证据.%Objective To evaluate and select essential medicine for acute gastroenteritis using evidence-based approaches based on the burden of disease for township health centers located in eastern, central and western regions of China. Methods By means of the approaches, criteria, and workflow set up in the second article of this series, we referred to the recommendations of evidence-based or authority guidelines from inside and outside China, collected relevant evidence from domestic clinical studies, and recommended essential medicine based on evidence-based evaluation. Data were analyzed by Review Manager (RevMan) 5.1 and GRADE profiler 3.6 to evaluate quality of evidence. Results (1) Five guidelines were included, two of which were evidence-based. (2) Recommended medicines included eight antidiarrheals (of four classes) and three antemetics. (3) According to WHOEML (2011), NEML (2009), CNF (2010), other guidelines and the quantity and quality of evidence, we offered a weak recommendation for ondansetron, metoclopra-mide, smectite, racecadotril and loperamide applied in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis. We made a recommendation against antibiotics, dexamethasone, kaolin-pectin, activated charcoal, attapulgite and bismuth subsalicylate. (4) Evidence from domestic studies: a result of 14 CCTs (n=1 635, low quality) indicated that in the significant efficiency and total efficiency, smectite (smecta) was superior to routine liquid infusion, norfloxacin, gentamicin or furaxone. Among these 14 CCTs, two CCTs reported smectite (smecta) caused nausea and vomiting (three cases); one CCT reported pain and dis-tention in the abdomen (one case) and general discomfort (one case); and the rest reported no adverse reaction. A result of 10 CCTs (n=1