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Sample records for attapulgite

  1. Effect of Attapulgite on The Oral Bioavailability of Ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Zamrotul Izzah; Veronica Gratia; Toetik Aryani; Suharjono

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of attapulgite on the bioavailability of a single orallyadministered ciprofloxacin. Six New Zealand white rabbits received each of the following treatments in a randomized, three-way crossover sequence, separated by a 7-day washout period: (i) ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW) alone; (ii) ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW) given simultaneously with attapulgite (28 mg/ kgBW); (iii) ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW) given 2 hours after attapulgite (28 mg/kgBW). Blood s...

  2. Effect of Attapulgite on The Oral Bioavailability of Ciprofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effect of attapulgite on the bioavailability of a single orallyadministered ciprofloxacin. Six New Zealand white rabbits received each of the following treatments in a randomized, three-way crossover sequence, separated by a 7-day washout period: (i ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW alone; (ii ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW given simultaneously with attapulgite (28 mg/ kgBW; (iii ciprofloxacin (23 mg/kgBW given 2 hours after attapulgite (28 mg/kgBW. Blood samples (1 mL were collected from the marginal ear vein up to 240 minutes postdose. The plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were determined by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. The maximum concentration and oral bioavailability (AUC0-240 min of ciprofloxacin were significantly decreased by 49 % and 32 % when administered concomitantly with attapulgite (p < 0.001. Attapulgite appeared to have no significant effect on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin when administered 2 hours before ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, the oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was markedly reduced when administered concomitantly with attapulgite. This drug-drug interaction may decrease clinical efficacy and promote microbial resistance to ciprofloxacin. However, the interaction could be minimized by separating the adminsitration of these drugs at least 2 hours.

  3. Characterization of organophilic attapulgite clay from state of Piaui

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attapulgite is mineral clay typically fibrous. It owns a superficial area around 125 to 210 m²/g, cationics transfer capacity from 20 to 30 mill equivalents per 100g of clay, high capacity of sorption, considerable decolourizer capacity, chemical inertia and maintenance of thixotropics properties in the presence of electrolytes. The objective of this work was to perform the chemical modification of attapulgite original from state of Piaui - Brazil, for applications in polymeric nanocomposites. The chemical composition of clay without modification was determined by X-Ray Diffraction. The natural clay and organophilizated one were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), and Foster's swelling. The obtained results indicated the presence of characteristics groups of the salt in the clay, alteration in its chemical composition, evidencing that the chemical modification in the clay was efficient, could the same be applied in preparation of polymeric nanocomposites. (author)

  4. Attapulgite, a decontaminating medium, research tool in the radioprotection field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gels based on attapulgite, obtained by mixing attapulgite, a clay, with water or chemicals have been used as decontaminating agents. The method has been optimized through extensive scale laboratory experiments carried out under standard conditions. A wide variety of materials, used in nuclear technologies, and significant radionuclides have been tested. Gels obtained with water only in some cases allow full decontamination, when acids are added to clay, complete contamination removal, is possible except for extreme pHs radionuclides solution and on non-passivated or porous surfaces. The optimized decontaminating technique has successively been set up and applied on materials contaminated by routine or accident. Laboratory scale results have been confirmed through practical use. Process data are reported. This method is simple to perform and requires no special equipment. No liquid radioactive waste arises from the process and the resulting solid waste can be conditioned with cement

  5. From natural attapulgite to phosphor materials: Characterization, photoluminescence and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sr2.965Al0.08Si0.92O5:0.025Ce3+, 0.01Eu2+ phosphor was synthesized from natural attapulgite. • Pure Sr3SiO5 phase can be easily obtained. • It provides a new application field as phosphor for natural attapulgite. - Abstract: Sr2.965Al0.08Si0.92O5:0.025Ce3+, 0.01Eu2+ (SrAlSiO:Ce3+, Eu2+) phosphor from natural attapulgite (ATP) was synthesized by solid-state reaction method. For the use of ATP as a source of Si and Al, pretreatment process including mechanical grinding and acid leaching were involved. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of silicates in a wide temperature field, whereas Sr3SiO5 within a single step. The ATP fibers were tuning into phosphor particles (about 1.5–3.0 μm) after calcination. Furthermore, photoluminescence spectra of the SrAlSiO:Ce3+, Eu2+ phosphor was also in good agreement with the literature results, indicating a promising potential application as an effective candidate for warm-white LEDs materials

  6. Mechanical properties of attapulgite clay reinforced polyurethane shape-memory nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Bin; Huang, W.M.; Pei, Y.T.; Chen, Zhenguo; Kraft, A.; Reuben, R.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Fu, Y.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on attapulgite clay and shape-memory polyurethane were fabricated by mechanical mixing. The mechanical properties of samples were evaluated using a micro-indentation tester. The untreated commercial attapulgite clay resulted in a significant decrease in glass transition temperat

  7. STUDY ON THE ADSORPTION BEHAVIOR OF Pb(Ⅱ) ON NANOMETER ATTAPULGITE BY FAAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The adsorptive behavior of nanometer attapulgite modified by acid to Pb(II) was investigated by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) in this paper. The mainly effect parameters on the adsorptive efficiency of Pb(II), such as the acidity of the solution, the amount of attapulgite, oscillation time and static time were studied. Also the influencing factors of the recovery efficiency of Pb(II), including the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the volume of hydrochloric acid, oscillation time and static time were investigated. The adsorptive capacity of Pb(II) on nanometer attapulgite was 26.5mg/g and the adsorptive capacity of first cycle and second cycle regenerated nanometer attapulgite were 26.5mg/g and 26.3mg/g, respectively. The results obtained indicated that the regenerated effect was good.

  8. Increased maize yield using slow-release attapulgite-coated fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Yu; Song, Chao; Gan, Yantai; Li, Feng-Min

    2014-01-01

    International audience Slow-release fertilizers could improve the productivity of field crops and reduce environmental pollution. So far, no slow-release fertilizers are suited for maize cultivation in semiarid areas of China. Therefore, we tested attapulgite-coated fertilizers. Attapulgite-coated fertilizers were prepared by dividing chemical fertilizers into three parts according to the nutrient demand of maize in its three main growth stages and coating each part with a layer of attapul...

  9. Mechanical & morphological properties of attapulgite/NR composites: Effect of mixing time variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of composite material based on attapulgite clay (ATP) as a filler and natural rubber (NR) matrices were prepared by combination of melt mixing and latex compounding methods. Sonication technique was chosen in this work to disperse the attapulgite suspension. 6 phr of attapulgite loading was fabricated using different time of mixing ranging from 30 minutes until 2 hours and sonication time was kept constant at 15 minutes. Then, co-coagulating HA latex with attapulgite clay suspension through latex compounding method produced the masterbatch. The masterbatch was compounded with natural rubber by melt mixing method. The mechanical and morphological characteristics were investigated in this work. From mechanical testing, M1 showed the highest value of tensile and tear strength. By comparing with M30 and M2, M1 shows high 300% tensile modulus and lower crosslink density. However, when the time of mixing was prolonged to 2 hours, the results for tensile strength, elongation at break and tear strength were decreased. This is due to flocculation of attapulgite particles. Sonication techniques also proved that the tensile strength and elongation at break of these three samples were higher compared to gum NR (NR) and attapulgite compounded with NR using a conventional method (in-situ 6). From field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) results, it revealed that M1 had good dispersion in the NR system. It is proved that the higher tensile strength was due to good dispersion of attapulgite clay in the NR matrix. It was also supported from crosslink density, which is lower than NR and in-situ 6 results. It showed that the penetration of toluene solvent into rubber compound was restricted. The optimum time, M1 give the best results, which can be compared to control the sample

  10. Mechanical & morphological properties of attapulgite/NR composites: Effect of mixing time variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nor, Nor Aina Mohd, E-mail: ayena90@yahoo.com; Othman, Nadras, E-mail: srnadras@usm.my; Ismail, Hanafi, E-mail: ihanafi@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The development of composite material based on attapulgite clay (ATP) as a filler and natural rubber (NR) matrices were prepared by combination of melt mixing and latex compounding methods. Sonication technique was chosen in this work to disperse the attapulgite suspension. 6 phr of attapulgite loading was fabricated using different time of mixing ranging from 30 minutes until 2 hours and sonication time was kept constant at 15 minutes. Then, co-coagulating HA latex with attapulgite clay suspension through latex compounding method produced the masterbatch. The masterbatch was compounded with natural rubber by melt mixing method. The mechanical and morphological characteristics were investigated in this work. From mechanical testing, M1 showed the highest value of tensile and tear strength. By comparing with M30 and M2, M1 shows high 300% tensile modulus and lower crosslink density. However, when the time of mixing was prolonged to 2 hours, the results for tensile strength, elongation at break and tear strength were decreased. This is due to flocculation of attapulgite particles. Sonication techniques also proved that the tensile strength and elongation at break of these three samples were higher compared to gum NR (NR) and attapulgite compounded with NR using a conventional method (in-situ 6). From field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) results, it revealed that M1 had good dispersion in the NR system. It is proved that the higher tensile strength was due to good dispersion of attapulgite clay in the NR matrix. It was also supported from crosslink density, which is lower than NR and in-situ 6 results. It showed that the penetration of toluene solvent into rubber compound was restricted. The optimum time, M1 give the best results, which can be compared to control the sample.

  11. Effective NH{sub 2}-grafting on attapulgite surfaces for adsorption of reactive dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Ailian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Key Lab for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhou, Shouyong; Zhao, Yijiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Key Lab for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Lu, Xiaoping, E-mail: xplu@njut.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China); Han, Pingfang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} We prepared a new amine functionalized adsorbent derived from clay-based material. {yields} Attapulgite surface was modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. {yields} Some modification parameters affecting the adsorption potential were investigated. {yields} Enhance the attapulgite adsorptive capacity for reactive dyes from aqueous solutions. - Abstract: The amine moiety has an important function in many applications, including, adsorption, catalysis, electrochemistry, chromatography, and nanocomposite materials. We developed an effective adsorbent for aqueous reactive dye removal by modifying attapulgite with an amino-terminated organosilicon (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES). Surface properties of the APTES-modified attapulgite were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. We evaluated the impact of solvent, APTES concentration, water volume, reaction time, and temperature on the surface modification. NH{sub 2}-attapulgite was used to remove reactive dyes in aqueous solution and showed very high adsorption rates of 99.32%, 99.67%, and 96.42% for Reactive Red 3BS, Reactive Blue KE-R and Reactive Black GR, respectively. These powerful dye removal effects were attributed to strong electrostatic interactions between reactive dyes and the grafted NH{sub 2} groups.

  12. Preliminary characterization in the development of the nano composite low density polyethylene with attapulgite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was a preliminary study of the physical, thermal and rheological properties of the materials to be used in the development of nano composite low density polyethylene (LDPE) with Brazilian attapulgite clay (ATP), with and without the use of a compatibilizing agent interfacial, polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and torque rheometry. The materials were characterized and potentially could be developed polymeric nano composites with technological applications using attapulgite fibers in the nanometer scale. (author)

  13. Helical polyurethane-attapulgite nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and study of optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (BM-ATT) based on R-1,1'-binaphthyl-2',2-diol (R-BINOL) composite was prepared after the surface modification of attapulgite (ATT). BM-ATT was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HTEM) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy. FT-IR and XRD analyses indicate that the helical polyurethane has been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of the modified ATT without destroying the original crystalline structure of ATT. BM-ATT exhibits the rod-like structure by SEM, TEM, and HTEM photographs. BM-ATT displays obvious Cotton effect for some absorbance in VCD spectrum, and its optical activity results from the singlehanded conformation of helical polyurethane. - Graphical Abstract: Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (BM-ATT) based on R-1,1'-binaphthyl-2',2-diol (R-BINOL) nanocomposite was prepared after surface modification of attapulgite (ATT). This rod-like composite is coated by the optically active polyurethane shell on the surfaces.

  14. Synthesis of attapulgite/N-isopropylacrylamide and its use in drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaomo [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin (China); Zhong, Hui, E-mail: huizhong@hytc.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin (China); Li, Xiaorong, E-mail: lxr206206@163.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Jia, Feifei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin (China); Cheng, Zhipeng; Zhang, Lili; Yin, Jingzhou; An, Litao [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp078@nenu.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin (China)

    2014-12-01

    Environmentally sensitive hydrogels as one of the most potential drug delivery systems have gained considerable interest in recent years. In the present study, we synthesized a newly temperature-responsive composite hydrogel based on attapulgite (ATP) and poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) as the localized drug carriers for drug delivery. The as-prepared ATP/PNIPAM hydrogel has large aperture which significantly improved the quantity of adsorption of drugs, exhibiting the excellent properties of drug release. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the ATP/PNIPAM. The swelling/deswelling behaviors and the release of ciprofloxacin lactate were studied. When the temperature was below the low critical solution temperature (LCST), the swelling property of hydrogels was excellent and the swelling rate was large. And, the drug release rate increased with the increase of the content of attapulgite in the composite hydrogel when it was put in the buffer solution (pH 7.38) at 37.0 °C. Therefore, the composite hydrogels might be very useful for its application in biomedical fields. - Highlights: • Attapulgite/N-isopropylacrylamide hydrogels were synthesized and characterized. • The swelling property of hydrogels was excellent when temperature was below 34.0 °C. • The composite hydrogels were used for the release of ciprofloxacin lactate. • The drug release rate increased with the increase of the content of attapulgite.

  15. 3ynamic Adsorption of Microwave Modified Attapulgite on Micro-polluted Phenol Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to study the dynamic adsorption of microwave modified attapulgite on micro-polluted phenol wastewater. [Method] Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CATB) modified attapulgite was used to modify attapulgite, and conducted dynamic test on micro-polluted phenol wastewater. The dynamic charac- teristics of phenol removal were also studied. [Result] Attapulgite modified by CATB has strong adsorption ability on phenol in micro-polluted water, the phenol removal rate increased with the decrease of flow rate of wastewater. When pH value was 6- 8, phenol concentration in wastewater was 17.74 mg/L, flow rate was 2 m/s and ad- sorption time was 25 rain, the removal rate reached 93.07%. The modified atta- pulgite could be regenerated with alkali, and its adsorption ability after regeneration had no obvious decline. The dynamic adsorption process of phenol accorded with the first-order kinetic equation. [Conclusion] The study provided basis for further study on "organic matter removal in wastewater.

  16. Determination of attapulgite and nifuroxazide in pharmaceutical formulations by sequential digital derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, M Inés; Paine, Maximiliano; Leyton, Patricio; Richter, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    A new method for the sequential determination of attapulgite and nifuroxazide in pharmaceutical formulations by first- and second-derivative spectrophotometry, respectively, has been developed. In order to obtain the optimal conditions for nifuroxazide stability, studies of solvent, light, and temperature effects were performed. The results show that a previous hydrolysis of 2 h in 1.0 x 10(-1)M NaOH solution is necessary in order to obtain stable compounds for analytical purposes. Subsequently, the first- and second-derivative spectra were evaluated directly in the same samples. The sequential determination of the drugs can be performed using the zero-crossing method; the attapulgite determination was carried out using the first derivative at 278.0 nm and the nifuroxazide determination, using the second derivative at 282.0 nm. The determination ranges were 5.7 x 10(-6)-1.0 x 10(-4) and 3.7 x 10(-8) -1.2 x 10(-4)M for attapulgite and nifuroxazide, respectively. Repeatability (relative standard deviation) values of 1.2 and 3.0% were observed for attapulgite and nifuroxazide, respectively. The ingredients commonly found in commercial pharmaceutical formulations do not interfere. The proposed method was applied to the determination of these drugs in tablets. Further, infrared spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry studies were carried out in order to obtain knowledge of the decomposition products of nifuroxazide. PMID:15675443

  17. Obtaining and characterization of composites PHBV/attapulgite;Obtencao e caracterizacao de compositos de PHBV/atapulgita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Liliane C.A.; Thire, Rossana M.S.M., E-mail: lilianealcantara@ms [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Barreto, Ledjane S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/attapulgite (PHBV/AT) composites were prepared by solution intercalation method. The microstructure and thermal properties of the composites were studied by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses. Experimental results suggest the insertion of the polymeric chains in the channels of the clay. There were no significant changes in the thermogravimetric profile of the films due to the presence of attapulgite. (author)

  18. Study on preparation, structure and thermal energy storage property of capric-palmitic acid/attapulgite composite phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Capric-palmitic acid/attapulgite composite PCMs are prepared by vacuum method. → The composite PCMs is form-stable. → There is no chemical reaction between the capric-palmitic acid and attapulgite. → The phase change temperature and the latent heat of the composite PCM is 21.71 oC and 48.2 J/g, respectively. - Abstract: Fatty acid phase change materials (PCMs) have some advantages such as less corrosivity, no separation of subcooling phase and low price. In this paper, capric acid and palmitic acid are composited according to a certain mass ratio to prepare binary fatty acid. Capric-palmitic acid are absorbed into attapulgite by vacuum method to prepare capric-palmitic acid/attapulgite composite PCMs. Analysis methods such as differential scanning analysis (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and specific surface analysis (BET method) are used to test the thermal properties, structure and composition of the prepared composite PCM. The results indicate that the pore structure of the caplic-paltimic acid/attapulgite composite PCM is open-ended tubular capillary, which is beneficial to the adsorption. Capric acid and palmitic acid can be absorbed uniformly into attapulgite and the optimum absorption ratio of capric-palmitic binary fatty acid is 35%. There is no chemical reaction between the capric-palmitic acid and attapulgite. The phase change temperature of the capric-palmitic acid/attapulgite composite PCM is 21.71 oC and the latent heat is 48.2 J/g.

  19. Adsorption potential of bentonite and attapulgite clays applied for the desalination of sea water

    OpenAIRE

    Nel, Monica; Waanders, Frans B.; Fosso-Kankeu, Elvis

    2014-01-01

    A possible new process for the partial desalination of seawater is to use bentonite clay or attapulgite as an adsorbent. The ion exchange property of these clays, which is a result of the characteristic t-o-t layer structure, enables the use of these materials as adsorbents. This technique has the opportunity to be used as a pre-treatment as current commercial seawater desalination processes are very expensive. The clay was characterized using XRD, XRF and SEM analyses. ...

  20. Characterization of nanocomposites PHBV/attapulgite organophilic; Caracterizacao de nanocompositos PHBV/atapulgita organofilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.C.A.; Barreto, L.S., E-mail: lilianealcantara@msn.co [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Thire, R.M.S.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEMM/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) - PHBV is a biodegradable polyester which have been studied as an option for the production of disposable goods. This thermoplastic has some disadvantages that limit its use in industrial scale applications: the relative difficulty of processing, high degree of crystallinity and high cost of production relative to conventional polymers. An alternative to improve the properties of PHBV is the incorporation of small amounts of clay to the polymer. The aim of this work was to produce and characterize PHBV nanocomposites reinforced with organophilic attapulgite in different compositions. Natural attapulgite was modified with hexadecylmethylammonium chloride. The nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, SEM and Thermal analysis. It was observed reduction of the degree of crystallinity, melting and glass transition temperatures and the thermal stability of polymer in function on the addition of clay to the matrix of the PHBV. The best results were obtained for PHBV films containing 3% and 5% attapulgite. These films presented a slight increasing in processing window and decreasing in crystalline temperature and in degree of crystallinity as compared to pure PHBV. (author)

  1. Attapulgite Nanofiber-Cellulose Nanocomposite with Core-Shell Structure for Dye Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Song, Xiaoxue; Sun, Yihe

    2016-01-01

    Nanocomposite particle used for adsorption has attracted continuous attention because of large specific surface area and adjustable properties from nanocomponent. Herein nanocomposite particle with cellulose core and attapulgite nanofibers shell was prepared. The size of cellulose core was about 2 mm and the thickness of nanofibers shell is about 300 μm. Adsorption capacity of nanocomposite particle to methylene blue can reach up to 11.07 mg L−1 and the best adsorption effect occurs at pH = 8...

  2. Purification of Sardine Oil Using Adsorbent (Active Filter) of Scallop Shells, Carp Scales and Attapulgite

    OpenAIRE

    Sugeng Heri Suseno; Yosephina M.J. Batafor; Nurjanah; Ayu Fitri Izaki

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil especially from sardine has contain great omega 3, but it needs purification because has poor quality. Fish oil purification can be done by using various types of adsorbents. One of them are scallop shells and carp scales. The purpose of this study is to choose the best type of active filter (adsorbent) to improve the quality of fish oil. Sardine oil is purified using an active filter (adsorbent) of carp scales, scallop shells and attapulgite. The result this study show that the best...

  3. Geochemical Study of Rare Earth Elements on Four Attapulgite Clay Deposits in Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天虎; 徐晓春; 鲁安怀; 岳书仓; 汪家权; 彭书传

    2003-01-01

    This paper discussed in detail about the REE component and the characteristics of the different kinds of attapulgite clay ores as well as basalts, weathered basalts in four localities of attapulgite clay deposits of Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces of China. It is concluded that the half-weathered basalts have not distinct REE fractionation and strong weathered basalts have HREE loss in the process of the basalts weathered to form smectite group minerals. And the lateritic montmorillonite clays that formed from the basalts weathering have a distinct Ce positive anomaly, a little MREE loss and LREE and HREE renew enrichment. That reflects the particular oxidation condition in the Earth's surface and the adsorption of the colloid solution of the lake water in the basin of the continent in the time of the clays formed. The attapulgite clays produced by the reaction between basalts with lake water in the original place of the basin have same REE characteristics as that of the basalts and the weathered basalts. This shows that REE does not transfer heavily in the progressive chemical weathering process. The sedimentary attapulgite clays have also a similar REE component and characteristic parameters to the basalts and the weathered basalts, and have a distinct Eu negative anomaly and a big value of LREE/HREE, which shows that the sedimentary clay came from the weathered basalts, and REE partitioning patterns characters of the clays are controlled by the residual material of the weathered basalts.

  4. Adsorption of Hg2+ from aqueous solution onto polyacrylamide/attapulgite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylamide/attapulgite (PAM/ATP) was prepared by the solution polymerization of acrylamide (AM) onto γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH-570)-modified attapulgite (ATP). PAM/ATP was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH of the initial solution on the adsorption capacities for Hg2+ were investigated. The adsorption process was rapid; 88% of adsorption occurred within 5 min and equilibrium was achieved at around 40 min. The equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir sorption isotherms well, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Hg2+ onto PAM/ATP was found to be 192.5 mg g-1. The adsorption kinetics of PAM/ATP fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Our results suggest that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting steps in the process of Hg2+ adsorption. Hg2+ adsorbed onto PAM/ATP could be effectively desorbed in hot acetic acid solution, and the adsorption capacity of the regenerated adsorbents could still be maintained at 95% by the sixth cycle.

  5. Adsorption of Hg{sup 2+} from aqueous solution onto polyacrylamide/attapulgite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yijiang, E-mail: cyjzhao@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department of Huaiyin Teachers College, Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Chen Yan [Chemistry Department of Huaiyin Teachers College, Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China); Li Meisheng; Zhou Shouyong; Xue Ailian [Chemistry Department of Huaiyin Teachers College, Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Xing Weihong [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2009-11-15

    Polyacrylamide/attapulgite (PAM/ATP) was prepared by the solution polymerization of acrylamide (AM) onto {gamma}-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH-570)-modified attapulgite (ATP). PAM/ATP was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH of the initial solution on the adsorption capacities for Hg{sup 2+} were investigated. The adsorption process was rapid; 88% of adsorption occurred within 5 min and equilibrium was achieved at around 40 min. The equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir sorption isotherms well, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Hg{sup 2+} onto PAM/ATP was found to be 192.5 mg g{sup -1}. The adsorption kinetics of PAM/ATP fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Our results suggest that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting steps in the process of Hg{sup 2+} adsorption. Hg{sup 2+} adsorbed onto PAM/ATP could be effectively desorbed in hot acetic acid solution, and the adsorption capacity of the regenerated adsorbents could still be maintained at 95% by the sixth cycle.

  6. Electric-field-induced structure and optical properties of electrorheological fluids with attapulgite nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attapulgite (ATP) is a type of crystalloid hydrous magnesium-aluminum silicate mineral with natural one-dimensional (1D) fibrous morphology. In this study, the authors investigated the optical and mechanical performances of ATP nanorods in silicone oil under an electric field. It was observed that the optical transmittance of ATP suspensions decreased rapidly under the low electric field, using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The results of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the electromigration of ATP nanorods was the major cause of such an aberrant optical phenomenon. Further, the electrorheological (ER) response of the samples was measured by the height-controlled method. The change trend of the normal force was illustrated by the dynamic assembly behavior of ATP in the applied electric field. This work provided intuitive evidence for an in-depth understanding of the mechanism of ER fluids containing 1D dielectric materials. (papers)

  7. Properties of natural rubber/attapulgite composites prepared by latex compounding method: Effect of filler loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the effect of filler loading on properties of natural rubber (NR)/attapulgite (ATP) composites. The NR/ATP composites were prepared by latex compounding method. It is called as masterbatch. The masterbatch was subsequently added to the NR through melt mixing process. The vulcanized NR/ATP composites were subjected to mechanical, swelling and morphological tests. All the results were compared with NR/ATP composites prepared by conventional system. The composites from masterbatch method showed better results compared to composites prepared by conventional method. They have higher tensile properties, elongation at break and tear strength. The images captured through scanning electron microscopy test revealed the improvement of tensile strength in masterbatch NR/ATP composites. It can be seen clearly that masterbatch NR/ATP have better filler dispersion compared to conventional method NR/ATP composites

  8. Properties of natural rubber/attapulgite composites prepared by latex compounding method: Effect of filler loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muttalib, Siti Nadzirah Abdul, E-mail: sitinadzirah.amn@gmail.com; Othman, Nadras, E-mail: srnadras@usm.my; Ismail, Hanafi, E-mail: ihanafi@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This paper reports on the effect of filler loading on properties of natural rubber (NR)/attapulgite (ATP) composites. The NR/ATP composites were prepared by latex compounding method. It is called as masterbatch. The masterbatch was subsequently added to the NR through melt mixing process. The vulcanized NR/ATP composites were subjected to mechanical, swelling and morphological tests. All the results were compared with NR/ATP composites prepared by conventional system. The composites from masterbatch method showed better results compared to composites prepared by conventional method. They have higher tensile properties, elongation at break and tear strength. The images captured through scanning electron microscopy test revealed the improvement of tensile strength in masterbatch NR/ATP composites. It can be seen clearly that masterbatch NR/ATP have better filler dispersion compared to conventional method NR/ATP composites.

  9. Mineralogical characterization of Brazilians attapulgite to magnetic nano composites uses; Caracterizacao mineralogica de atapulgitas brasileiras para utilizacao em nanocompositos magneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middea, Antonieta; Neumann, Reiner, E-mail: amiddea@cetem.gov.br [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral - CETEM, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Spinelli, Luciana S.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Magnetic polymeric nano composites represent a potential alternative in the treatment of contaminated water. This work aims to investigate the potential of uses of a Brazilian clay (an attapulgite), abundant in the northeast, in the preparation of polymeric nano composites for application in the removal of organic material present in aquifers, using magnetic field. The techniques used for mineralogical characterization were X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed the presence of palyigorskite in all samples as well as other mineral phases (quartz, kaolinite, smectite and anatase). The microscopic analysis permitted to identify the fibrous appearance of palyigorskite. The presence of palyigorskite is a strong indication of the possible use of attapulgite in obtaining magnetic nano composites by the adsorption of iron ion to the surface. (author)

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Properties of Attapulgite/CeO2 Nanocomposite Films for Decomposition of Rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaowang; Li, Xiazhang; Qian, Junchao; Chen, Feng; Chen, Zhigang

    2015-08-01

    ATP(attapulgite)/CeO2 nanocomposite films were prepared on the glass substrates via a sol-gel and dip-coating route. The ATP/CeO2 nanocomposite films were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed that the ATP/CeO2 nanocomposite films were free from cracks and the nanoparticles were attached onto the surface of attapulgite. The ATP/CeO2 nanocomposite films displayed excellent catalytic activity for decomposition of Rhodamine B. The COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal rate of rhodamine B using ATP/CeO2 nanocomposite films as catalyst reached as high as 94% when the weight ratio of ATP to CeO2 was 2:1. PMID:26369164

  11. Enhanced Hydrothermal Stability and Catalytic Performance of HKUST-1 by Incorporating Carboxyl-Functionalized Attapulgite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Yin, Xiao-Qian; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Li, Xing-Yang; Sun, Lin-Bing

    2016-06-29

    Much attention has been paid to metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) due to their large surface areas, tunable functionality, and diverse structure. Nevertheless, most reported MOFs show poor hydrothermal stability, which seriously hinders their applications. Here a strategy is adopted to tailor the properties of MOFs by means of incorporating carboxyl-functionalized natural clay attapulgite (ATP) into HKUST-1, a well-known MOF. A new type of hybrid material was thus fabricated from the hybridization of HKUST-1 and ATP. Our results indicated that the hydrothermal stability of the MOFs as well as the catalytic performance was apparently improved. The frameworks of HKUST-1 were severely destroyed after hydrothermal treatment (hot water vapor, 60 °C), while that of the hybrid materials was maintained. For the hybrid materials containing 8.4 wt % of ATP, the surface area reached 1302 m(2)·g(-1) and was even higher than that of pristine HKUST-1 (1245 m(2)·g(-1)). In the ring-opening of styrene oxide, the conversion reached 98.9% at only 20 min under catalysis from the hybrid material, which was obviously higher than that over pristine HKUST-1 (80.9%). Moreover, the hybrid materials showed excellent reusability and the catalytic activity was recoverable without loss after six cycles. Our materials provide promising candidates for heterogeneous catalysis owing to the good catalytic activity and reusability. PMID:27268731

  12. Attapulgite-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposite for photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiazhang; Zhang, Zuosong; Yao, Chao; Lu, Xiaowang; Zhao, Xiaobing; Ni, Chaoying

    2016-02-01

    Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposites were synthesized by microwave assisted assembly method. The structures of the nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis, XPS and in situ TEM. The photocatalytic activities of ATP-CeO2/MoS2 composites were investigated by degradating dibenzothiophene (DBT) in gasoline under visible light irradiation. The effect of the mass ratio of CeO2 to MoS2 on photocatalytic activity was investigated. The results indicate that the three-dimensional network structure is firmly constructed by ATP skeleton, CeO2 particles and MoS2 nanosheet which effectively increase the surface area of the composites and promote the separation of electrons and holes by resulting electronic transmission channels of multi-channel in space. The degradation rate of DBT can reach 95% under 3 h irradiation when the mass ratio of CeO2/MoS2 is 4/10. A plausible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of this nanocomposite is put forward.

  13. Preliminary characterization in the development of the nano composite low density polyethylene with attapulgite clay; Caracterizacao preliminar no desenvolvimento de nanocompositos polietileno de baixa densidade/argila atapulgita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Luanda G.; Rego, Jose K.M.A. do [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, PPGCEM/UFRN, Natal, RN (Brazil); Ito, Edson N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Depto de Engenharia de Materiais, DEMat/UFRN, Natal, RN(Brazil); Acchar, Wilson [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Depto de Fisica, DF/UFRN, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was a preliminary study of the physical, thermal and rheological properties of the materials to be used in the development of nano composite low density polyethylene (LDPE) with Brazilian attapulgite clay (ATP), with and without the use of a compatibilizing agent interfacial, polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and torque rheometry. The materials were characterized and potentially could be developed polymeric nano composites with technological applications using attapulgite fibers in the nanometer scale. (author)

  14. Rod like attapulgite/poly(ethylene terephthalate nanocomposites with chemical bonding between the polymer chain and the filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Fu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET nanocomposites containing rod-like silicate attapulgite (AT were prepared via in situ polymerization. It is presented that PET chains identical to the matrix have been successfully grafted onto simple organically pre-modified AT nanorods (MAT surface during the in situ polymerization process. The covalent bonding at the interface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The content of grafted PET polymer on the surface of MAT was about 26 wt%. This high grafting density greatly improved the dispersion of fillers, interfacial adhesion as well as the significant confinement of the segmental motion of PET, as compared to the nanocomposites of PET/pristine AT (PET/AT. Owing to the unique interfacial structure in PET/MAT composites, their thermal and mechanical properties have been greatly improved. Compared with neat PET, the elastic modulus and the yield strength of PET/MAT were significantly improved by about 39.5 and 36.8%, respectively, by incorporating only 2 wt % MAT. Our work provides a novel route to fabricate advanced PET nanocomposites using rod-like attapulgite as fillers, which has great potential for industrial applications.

  15. Direct Electron Transfer of Glucose Oxidase and Glucose Biosensor Based on Nano-structural Attapulgite Clay Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU, Jiming; HAN, Wenxia; YIN, Qifan; SONG, Jie; ZHONG, Hui

    2009-01-01

    The direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) was achieved based on the immobilization of GOD on a natural nano-structural attapulgite (ATP) clay film modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The immobilized GOD displayed a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks with a formal potential (E~0) of -457.5 mV (vs. SCE) in 0.1 mol·L~(-1) pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution. The peak current was linearly dependent on the scan rate, indicating that the direct electrochemistry of GOD in that case was a surface-controlled process. The immobilized glucose oxidase could retain bioactivity and catalyze the oxidation of glucose in the presence of ferrocene monocarboxylic acid (FMCA) as a mediator with the apparent Michaclis-Menten constant K_m~(app) of 1.16 mmol·L~(-1) The electrocatalytic response showed a linear dependence on the glucose concentration ranging widely from 5.0×10~(-6) to 6.05×10~(-4) mol·L~(-1) (with correlation coefficient of 0.9960). This work demonstrated that the nano-structural attapulgite clay was a good candidate material for the direct electrochemistry of the redox-active enzyme and the construction of the related enzyme biosensors. The proposed biosensors were applied to determine the glucose in blood and urine samples with satisfactory results.

  16. Highly sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on nickel nanoparticle-attapulgite-reduced graphene oxide-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zongxu; Gao, Wenyu; Li, Pei; Wang, Xiaofang; Zheng, Qing; Wu, Hao; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun; Wu, Songmei; Yu, Yu; Ding, Kejian

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a fast and sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor is reported utilizing a glassy carbon electrode modified by synthesizing nanocomposites of nickel nanoparticle-attapulgite-reduced graphene oxide (Ni NPs/ATP/RGO). A facile one-step electrochemical co-deposition approach is adopted to synthesize Ni NPs-ATP-RGO nanocomposites via electrochemical reduction of mixed precursor solution containing graphene oxide (GO), attapulgite (ATP) and nickel cations (Ni(2+)) at the cathode potentials. This strategy results in simultaneous depositions of ATP, cathodic reduction of Ni(2+) into nickel nanoparticles under acidic conditions, and in situ reduction of GO. The as-prepared NiNPs/ATP/RGO-based glucose sensor exhibits outstanding performance for enzymeless glucose sensing with sensitivity (1414.4 μAmM(-1)cm(-2)), linear range (1-710μM) and detection limit (0.37μM). What is more, the sensor has excellent stability and selectivity against common interferences in real sample. PMID:27474298

  17. [Stabilization of Cadmium Contaminated Soils by Ferric Ion Modified Attapulgite (Fe/ATP)--Characterizations and Stabilization Mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yang; Li, Rong-bo; Zhou, Yong-li; Chen, Jing; Wang, Lin-ling; Lu, Xiao-hua

    2015-08-01

    Ferric ion modified attapulgite (Fe/ATP) was prepared by impregnation and its structure and morphology were characterized. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effect of Cadmium( Cd) stabilization in soil with the addition of attapulgite (ATP) and Fe/ATP. The stabilization mechanism of Cd was further elucidated by comparing the morphologies and structure of ATP and Fe/ATP before and after Cd adsorption. Fe/ATP exhibited much better adsorption capacity than ATP, suggesting different adsorption mechanisms occurred between ATP and Fe/ATP. The leaching concentrations of Cd in soil decreased by 45% and 91% respectively, with the addition of wt. 20% ATP and Fe/ATP. The former was attributed to the interaction between Cd2 and --OH groups by chemical binding to form inner-sphere complexes in ATP and the attachment between Cd2+ and the defect sites in ATP framework. Whereas Cd stabilization with Fe/ATP was resulted from the fact that the active centers (--OH bonds or O- sites) on ATP could react with Fe3+ giving Fe--O--Cd-- bridges, which helped stabilize Cd in surface soil. What'more, the ferric oxides and metal hydroxides on the surface of ATP could interact with Cd, probably by the formation of cadmium ferrite. In conclusion, Fe/ATP, which can be easily prepared, holds promise as a potential low-cost and environmental friendly stabilizing agent for remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:26592037

  18. PREPARATION OF SURFACE ION-IMPRINTED ATTAPULGITE-SUPPORTED POLYMER AND ITS ADSORPTION BEHAVIORS OF Sr(II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The surface ion-imprinting concept and chitosan incorporated sol-gel process were applied to the preparation of a new attapulgite-supported organic-inorganic hybrid polymer for selective separation of Sr(II) from aqueous solution. The prepared polymer was characterized with SEM, IR and XRD. The results showed that as a sorbent, it had good configuration and binding sites. Its adsorption behaviors for Sr(II) was investigated by FAAS and ICP-AES. The effects on adsorption capacities, including pH, quiescent time, and adsorbent amount were discussed, and the adsorption isothermal curve was obtained. Then the Kd a parameter estimating relative adsorbability, was conducted to study the selectivity towards Sr(II) of the prepared polymer. Under the optimum conditions, the ion-imprinted polymer offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption of Sr(II) and the maximum capacity was 12.9mg/g. The Kd and K parameters estimating relative adsorbability towards target ion, suggested that selective recognition of the ion-imprinted polymer towards Sr(II) was much higher than that of the non-imprinted polymer and attapulgite. Furthermore, the ion-imprinted polymer is of great regeneration capacity. The prepared functional polymer was shown to be promising for selective preseparation and enrichment of trace Sr(II) in environmental samples.

  19. PREPARATION OF SURFACE ION-IMPRINTED ATTAPULGITE-SUPPORTED POLYMER AND ITS ADSORPTION BEHAVIORS OF Sr(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Jianming; YAN Yongsheng; LI Chunxiang

    2008-01-01

    The surface ion-imprinting concept and chitosan incorporated sol-gel process were applied to the preparation of a new attapulgite-supported organic-inorganic hybrid polymer for selective separation of Sr(Ⅱ) from aqueous solution.The prepared polymer was characterized with SEM, IR and XRD.The results showed that as a sorbent, it had good configuration and binding sites.Its adsorption behaviors for Sr(Ⅱ) was investigated by FAAS and ICP-AES.The effects on adsorption capacities, including pH, quiescent time, and adsorbent amount were discussed, and the adsorption isothermal curve was obtained.Then the Kd a parameter estimating relative adsorbability, was conducted to study the selectivity towards Sr(Ⅱ) of the prepared polymer.Under the optimum conditions, the ion-imprinted polymer offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption of Sr(Ⅱ) and the maximum capacity was 12.9mg/g.The Kd and K parameters estimating relative adsorbability towards target ion, suggested that selective recognition of the ion-imprinted polymer towards Sr(Ⅱ) was much higher than that of the non-imprinted polymer and attapulgite.Furthermore, the ion-imprinted polymer is of great regeneration capacity.The prepared functional polymer was shown to be promising for selective preseparation and enrichment of trace Sr(Ⅱ) in environmental samples.

  20. Progress on Surface Organic Modification of Attapulgite Clay%纳米凹凸棒石粘土有机表面修饰的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国庆; 孙小婉; 邵晶; 尹振燕

    2013-01-01

    凹凸棒石是具有纤维状晶体结构的天然粘土矿物,属于一维纳米材料.由于其晶体结构和特殊性能,使得凹凸棒石粘土作为优异的补强材料广泛应用于聚合物复合材料.为了提高凹凸棒石粘土在聚合物中的分散性和相容性,对其进行表面改性处理是很必要的.本文综述了纳米凹凸棒石粘土有机表面修饰的研究现状,提出了研究领域现存的问题及其解决方法,分析了产业发展趋势及前景.%Attapulgite is a kind of natural clay mineral with fibrous crystal structure and a typical one-dimensional nanophase material. Owing to its special crystal structure and superficial character, it is useful as an excellent filler for polymer composites. In order to improve the dispersivity and compatibility of attapulgite in polymer system, it is necessary to cany on surface modification. Study on surface treatment of attapulgite and application researches of attapulgite as reinforced filler in silicone rubber are presented and come up with ways to improve it.At the end of this paper, the foreground progress of Attapulgite was introduced to the area.The Research of the solving method on the Question of the surface organic modification was showed.and the aspects in which deeper research is needed were discussed.

  1. Photocatalytic hydrogen production from water under visible light irradiation using a dye-sensitized attapulgite nanocrystal photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2014-05-14

    Attapulgite (ATP), not only as a type of natural and low cost silicate clay mineral but also as a high quality nanosized material with large surface area, layered and lath-like structure, has been found to have a wide variety of industrial applications. The ideal composition of ATP is Mg5Si8O20(OH)2(OH2)4. However, according to previous reports from different countries in the world, it is very important for our research that the actual composition of ATP varies because of partial replacement of magnesium by aluminum, iron, titanium and other elements. Herein, we have successfully used this dye sensitized clay mineral (raw and purified) to effectively reduce water for hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation. Further chemical analysis as well as computational simulation (CS) proposed that the natural Fe-doping (two ATP crystal cells sharing one Fe atom) can promote the photocatalytic process. PMID:24676310

  2. Efficient visible light driven photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using attapulgite clay sensitized by CdS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen production through water splitting using photocatalysts with solar energy can produce clean fuel from renewable resources. In this study, CdS nanoparticle sensitized attapulgite (ATP) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by a facile approach. Under visible-light irradiation, the as-prepared photocatalysts were used for photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen evolution from aqueous solutions containing Na2SO3 and Na2S as sacrificial reagents even without the noble metals. Photocatalytic hydrogen production activity is ascribed to the presence of CdS nanocrystals that alter the energy levels of the conduction band and valence band in the coupled semiconductor system. Furthermore, the theoretical calculations show that the natural Fe doping (two ATP cells sharing one Fe atom) can promote the photocatalytic process. (paper)

  3. An ion-imprinted polymer supported by attapulgite with a chitosan incorporated sol-gel process for selective separation of Ce(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Xiang Li; Jian Ming Pan; Jie Gao; Yong Sheng Yan; Gan Qing Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The surface ion-imprinting concept and chitosan incorporated sol-gel process were applied to the synthesis of a new attapulgite-supported polymer for selective separation of Ce(Ⅲ) from aqueous solution. The imprinting mechanism of prepared ion-imprinted polymer were discussed with the Characteristics of FT-IR and SEM. Results from the experiments of adsorption capacity and selectivity suggested that ion-imprinted polymer offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption of Ce(Ⅲ) under the optimum conditions. Its maximum adsorption capacity was 38.02 mg/g, and the selective recognition towards Ce(Ⅲ) was much higher than that of the non-imprinted polymer and attapulgite. The prepared functional polymer was shown to be promising for selective separation and enrichment of trace Ce(Ⅲ) in environmental samples.

  4. The glass transition temperature of polyurethane shape memory polymer reinforced with treated/non-treated attapulgite (playgorskite) clay in dry and wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, G. H.; Huang, W. M.; Ng, Z. C.; Liu, N.; Phee, S. J.

    2008-08-01

    Attapulgite (playgorskite), a kind of nanosized fibrous clay mineral, may provide a simple and cheap alternative to improve the stiffness and actuation stress of shape memory polymers (SMPs). As a first step, in this paper, we investigate the glass transition temperature of a polyurethane SMP reinforced with treated/non-treated attapulgite in wet and dry conditions. In addition to confirming the strong influence of moisture, the results reveal that non-treated clay significantly reduces the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composites, while the influence of treated clay on Tg is limited. However, for composites mixed with non-treated clay, after drying, the well pre-wetted samples have a much higher Tg than that of the dry ones. A partial detachment mechanism is proposed to explain this interesting phenomenon.

  5. The glass transition temperature of polyurethane shape memory polymer reinforced with treated/non-treated attapulgite (playgorskite) clay in dry and wet conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attapulgite (playgorskite), a kind of nanosized fibrous clay mineral, may provide a simple and cheap alternative to improve the stiffness and actuation stress of shape memory polymers (SMPs). As a first step, in this paper, we investigate the glass transition temperature of a polyurethane SMP reinforced with treated/non-treated attapulgite in wet and dry conditions. In addition to confirming the strong influence of moisture, the results reveal that non-treated clay significantly reduces the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composites, while the influence of treated clay on Tg is limited. However, for composites mixed with non-treated clay, after drying, the well pre-wetted samples have a much higher Tg than that of the dry ones. A partial detachment mechanism is proposed to explain this interesting phenomenon

  6. Optically active helical polyurethane-attapulgite composites: Effect of optical purity of S-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diol on infrared emissivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhiqiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Zhou Yuming, E-mail: ymzhou@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Sun Yanqing; Mei Zhenyu; Miao Yuee [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (HPU-ATT) composites were prepared after the surface modification of the rod-like attapulgite (ATT). HPU-ATT composites based on S-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diol (S-BINOL) with different optical purity (O.P.) were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicate that the helical polyurethane has been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of the modified ATT without destroying the original crystalline structure of ATT. The rod-like nanoparticles were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Infrared emissivity values of HPU-ATT composites have been investigated, and the results indicate that the optical purity of monomer plays a very important role in the infrared emissivity for HPU-ATT owing to the effect of helical conformation and interchain hydrogen bonds. Along with the increased optical purity of S-BINOL, the infrared emissivity of HPU-ATT is reduced evidently. Infrared emissivity value of HPU-ATT based on S-BINOL with 100% optical purity is the lowest one (0.431).

  7. Optically active helical polyurethane-attapulgite composites: Effect of optical purity of S-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diol on infrared emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (HPU-ATT) composites were prepared after the surface modification of the rod-like attapulgite (ATT). HPU-ATT composites based on S-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diol (S-BINOL) with different optical purity (O.P.) were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicate that the helical polyurethane has been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of the modified ATT without destroying the original crystalline structure of ATT. The rod-like nanoparticles were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Infrared emissivity values of HPU-ATT composites have been investigated, and the results indicate that the optical purity of monomer plays a very important role in the infrared emissivity for HPU-ATT owing to the effect of helical conformation and interchain hydrogen bonds. Along with the increased optical purity of S-BINOL, the infrared emissivity of HPU-ATT is reduced evidently. Infrared emissivity value of HPU-ATT based on S-BINOL with 100% optical purity is the lowest one (0.431).

  8. Dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of benzoylurea insecticides in honey samples with a β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite as sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panjie; Cui, Xiangqian; Yang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Gao, Haixiang; Lu, Runhua

    2016-01-01

    A β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite was prepared and used as a dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction sorbent for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in honey samples. Parameters that may influence the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of the eluent, the amount of the sorbent, the extraction time and the ionic strength were investigated and optimized using batch and column procedures. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained for all of the tested compounds, with R(2) values of at least 0.9834. The limits of detection were determined in the range of 0.2-1.0 μg/L. The recoveries of the four benzoylurea insecticides in vitex honey and acacia honey increased from 15.2 to 81.4% and from 14.2 to 82.0%, respectively. Although the β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite did not show a brilliant adsorption capacity for the selected benzoylurea insecticides, it exhibited a higher adsorption capacity toward relatively hydrophobic compounds, such as chlorfluazuron and hexaflumuron (recoveries in vitex honey samples ranged from 70.0 to 81.4% with a precision of 1.0-3.7%). It seemed that the logPow of the benzoylurea insecticides is related to their recoveries. The results confirmed the possibility of using cyclodextrin-modified palygorskite in the determination of relatively hydrophobic trace pharmaceutical residues. PMID:26573895

  9. Adsorption of doxycycline on attapulgite%强力霉素在凹凸棒土上的吸附行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美兰; 邓月华; 孙成; 杨绍贵

    2012-01-01

    通过等温吸附平衡法研究了强力霉素在凹凸棒土上的吸附行为,考察了pH、反应时间、离子强度和离子类型等因素对吸附的影响,探讨了吸附机理.结果表明,pH=8.5时,饱和吸附容量最大,为293.35μmol.g-1;强力霉素在凹凸棒土上的吸附可用Langmuir型等温方程和准二级动力学方程很好地拟合;离子强度对强力霉素的吸附影响不是很明显;0.05 mol.L-1NaOH能显著地将强力霉素从凹凸棒土上解吸下来.红外表征结果说明凹凸棒土对强力霉素的吸附可能是化学吸附,酸性条件下,强力霉素主要通过阳离子交换、静电作用、氢键作用等吸附在凹凸棒土上,部分H+可能通过强力霉素质子化吸附到凹凸棒土上.弱碱性条件下主要通过水桥接,与凹凸棒土层间阳离子配位以及结合于凹凸棒土边缘吸附位点达到吸附.%The adsorption of doxycycline on attapulgite was investigated by isothermal adsorption method.The parameters affecting adsorption capacity such as adsorbent addition,pH,reaction time,ionic strength and iron type as well as adsorption mechanism were examined in detail.The experimental results showed that the adsorption capacity reached 292.35 μmol · g-1 at pH 8.5.The adsorption reaction of doxycycline was best described with Langmuir isotherm equation and pseudo-second-order kinetic model.Ionic strength had no obvious effect on the adsorption.Doxycycline desorbed remarkably in 0.05 mol · L-1 sodium hydroxide.FTIR spectra demonstrated that the major interaction force between doxycycline and attapulgite was chemical adsorption.At acidic condition,most of H+ adsorbed through the protonation of doxycycline.And cation exchange,electrostatic interaction and hygrogen bonding may be the dominate adsorption mechanisms.At weak alkali condition,doxycycline could interact with attapulgite through water bridge,coordinating with the interlayer cation of attapulgite and bonding with adsorption

  10. 以硫代乙酰胺/凹凸棒石复合物为载体的钙离子选择性电极%A New Calcium Electrode Based on the Composite Thioacetamide/attapulgite as Ionophore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文卓; 黄方伦; 王健龙

    2012-01-01

    报道了以硫代乙酰胺/凹凸棒石有机无机复合物为载体的新型钙离子选择性电极的研制.探讨了该有机无机复合物中硫代乙酰胺与凹凸棒石的组成比例、增塑剂用量、被测溶液pH等因素对钙电极性能的影响.结果表明新制钙电极对溶液中的钙离子有较好的近能斯特响应,响应斜率为15.2 mV decade-1,最低检出下限为1.0×10-6mol L-1.新制钙电极具有很好的稳定性,其可应用在溶液pH=6.0~10.0范围内.新电极对常见阳离子表现出好的抗干扰性.利用红外、紫外、相关电导率实验等方法研究了有机无机复合物型电活性物质的结构及所制钙电极的工作机理.%A kind of novel organic/inorganic composites as ionophore in the membrane of calcium ion selective electrode,which were made of thioacetamide and attapulgite,had been prepared.Thioacetamide is a type of small organic molecule with functional groups including amino groups and carbon-sulfur double bonds.Attapulgite has been characterized by a high negative charge at its surface,a large specific surface area,and a large micropore volume due to the existence of intercrystalline cavities.Thioacetamide molecules can carry positive charges when their amino groups get protons from hydroxyl groups of attapulgite.So thioacetamide molecules with positive charges can be adsorbed on the negative surface of attapulgite by electrostatic interaction as well as hydrogen-bonding,to form a super-molecular host-guest structure.Considering the stagger arranged pores on the outer surface of attapulgite,we inferred that adsorbed thioacetamide molecules should be around the edge of pore mouth of the attapulgite.Experiments proved that the organic/inorganic complex structure promoted the ability of attapulgite adsorbing more calcium ions from the solution.Based on the attapulgite/thioacetamide composite as ionophore,the calcium ion selective electrodes were prepared using 7.0 wt% of ionophore,43.0 wt

  11. Efficient biosynthesis of γ-decalactone in ionic liquids by immobilized whole cells of Yarrowia lipolytica G3-3.21 on attapulgite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuping; Xu, Yan; Jiang, Changxing

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the biosynthesis of γ-decalactone (GDL) was successfully conducted in an ionic liquid (IL)-containing cosolvent system using immobilized cells of Yarrowia lipolytica G3-3.21 on attapulgite (ATG). We found the immobilized Y. lipolytica G3-3.21 cells in N-butyl-pyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([BPy]BF4) solution gave the highest activity of C16-Acyl-CoA oxidase and the maximum yield of GDL. The optimum immobilization conditions for the highest yield of GDL were 20 g/L of ATG, 1.5 % of CaCl2 and 2 % of sodium alginate (NaAlg). The optimal [BPy]BF4 content, buffer pH, reaction temperature, shaking speed, castor oil and glucose contents were 7.5 %, 26 °C, 150 rpm, 100 g/L and 10 %, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the GDL yield was up to 8.05 g/L. After ten times of reuse, the GDL yield was 7.51 g/L, corresponding to 93.3 % of that obtained in the first batch, suggesting a good reusability and potential for industrial applications. PMID:26091898

  12. Sorption of Am(III) on attapulgite/iron oxide magnetic composites. Effect of pH, ionic strength and humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attapulgite/iron oxide magnetic (ATP/IOM) composites was prepared, and the sorption behavior of Am(III) on that composites was studied as a function of pH, ionic strength, the solid-to-liquid ratio (m/V), contact time, and the concentration of Am(III) under ambient conditions using batch technique. The time to achieve the sorption equilibrium was less than 5 h. The sorption of Am(III) on ATP/IOM composites was strongly affected by pH and ionic strength. Though ion exchange reaction contributed to Am(III) sorption over low pH range and low ionic strength, the sorption was mainly dominated by surface complexion (i.e., outer- and/or inner-sphere complexes) in the whole observed pH range. In the presence of humic acid (HA), the sorption edge of Am(III) on ATP/IOM composites obviously shifted to lower pH; but Am(III) sorption gradually became weak after pH exceeded 4, which may be mainly in terms of the soluble complexes of HA-Am(III). (orig.)

  13. Effervescence-assisted β-cyclodextrin/attapulgite composite for the in-syringe dispersive solid-phase extraction of pyrethroids in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Panjie; Li, Xiaobing; Hu, Lu; Gao, Haixiang; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Lu, Runhua

    2016-06-01

    In this research, an effervescence-assisted β-cyclodextrin/attapulgite composite (β-CD/ATP) for the in-syringe dispersive solid-phase extraction (EAIS-DSPE) of pyrethroids in environmental samples was developed for the first time. A syringe was used to conduct the extraction procedure and a small amount of β-CD/ATP was dispersed into the solution with the release of carbon dioxide when the effervescent tablet components dissolved in water. Then, the sorbent was recovered using a filter membrane, and the analytes were directly eluted using acetonitrile. In the process, the β-CD/ATP sorbent resulted in an excellent extraction efficiency compared to commercially available sorbents such as C18 and HLB. Moreover, in the extraction procedure, both the β-cyclodextrin inclusion interactions (especially the hydrophobic effects) and the special structure of the ATP contributed to the efficient enrichment of pyrethroids in aqueous media. The amount of β-CD/ATP sorbent, the volume of desorption, the ratio of NaH2PO4/Na2CO3, the volume of the sample, and the pH were screened using a Plackett-Burman design. All factors affecting the procedure were optimized by applying a central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, a good repeatability (RSDs) ranging from 1.7 to 2.3, linearity (2.5-500μgL(-1)), limits of detection (LODs) (0.15-1.03μgL(-1)), and an acceptable recoveries (76.8-86.5%) were achieved. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of pyrethroids in environmental samples including river water, reservoir water and lake water. PMID:27130127

  14. 淀粉/凹凸棒粘土复合吸附絮凝材料的研究%Study on Starch/Attapulgite Adsorbent and Flocculent Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱忠湛; 马喜君

    2015-01-01

    采用接枝聚合法在硅烷化凹凸棒粘土(OATP)表面接枝淀粉,制备淀粉/凹凸棒粘土(ATP)复合吸附絮凝材料.采用傅里叶变换红外光谱(FT-IR)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对淀粉/ATP进行了表征,并对其制备条件进行了优化.结果表明,当淀粉质量分数(相对OATP质量)为100%,聚合反应时间为3 h,引发剂质量分数为0.003%,反应温度为60℃时,制备的淀粉/ATP对镉离子的最大吸附容量可达到36.78 mg/g.与ATP、OATP相比,淀粉/ATP对镉离子的吸附容量增大了2倍以上.复合材料具有比OATP更强的捕获能力,所形成的絮凝体大而密实,比淀粉絮凝剂具有更好的沉降性能.%Graft polymerization, starch/attapulgite( ATP) adsorbent was synthesized by grafting starch onto the silane coupling reagent modified ATP( OATP).The preparing conditions of the starch/ATP were investigated, and the analysis by FT/IR and SEM were conducted to characterize the synthesized starch/ATP.Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy( FT-IR) , scanning e-lectron microscopy( SEM) of starch/ATP were characterized and optimized its preparation conditions.The results show that the prepared starch/ATP gives a maximum Cd2+ adsorption capacity of 36.78 mg·g-1 under following conditions:starch mass con-centration of 100.0%( relative to OATP mass, the same hereinafter) , reaction time of 3 h, initiator dosage of 0.003%( weight) and reaction temperature of 60℃.It was found that the Cd2+ adsorption capacity of the Starch/ATP prepared under the above con-ditions is more than 2 folds compared with those of the ATP and OATP.The captured ability of the composite material is better than OATP, forming large and dense flocs, its settlement capacity is superior to starch flocculants.

  15. 松香凹凸棒石粘土包膜尿素的制备及缓释性能的研究%Synthesis of urea coating with attapulgite-rosin and study on its slow release properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鸿杰; 陈天虎; 彭书传

    2011-01-01

    矿物和有机物复合包膜有利于提高肥料的利用效率.以松香的无水乙醇溶液为粘结剂,凹凸棒石粘土作为内包层,石蜡作为外层,采用熔融喷雾包膜的方法制备一种缓释包膜尿素.通过扫描电镜( SEM)分析得出,尿素内部形成一层以松香和凹凸棒石粘土为内包层的均匀膜,根据水浸泡试验和抗压强度测定表明,添加凹凸棒石粘土增加了包膜层的强度,松香粘结剂有利于增强膜的致密性与牢固性.缓释效果理想的样品初期释放率(24h)≤15%,28 d累积的释放率≤75%,能够达到缓控释肥料的国家标准或行业标准的要求.%Coating of fertilizer with mineral and organic matter can enhance efficiency of fertilizer. In this paper, attapulgite clay mineral with rosin as the inner cladding and paraffin wax as the outer layer of package were employed to synthesize an engineering materials by using molten spray method. According to SEM analysis, the formation of uniform inner cladding film between urea and attapulgite with rosin bonder. Addition of attapulgite clay mineral and rosin bonder increased the strength and density of coating film respectively in terms of water immersion test and compressive strength measurement. The ideal product initial release rate (24 h) was more than 15% , 28 days accumulated release rate was more than 75% , which could achieve national standards or industry standards of sustained and controlled release fertilizers.

  16. Preparation and Adsorption Properties of Three Dimensional Attapulgite Hydrophobic Material%三维凹凸棒疏水材料的制备及其吸附性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁卫东; 王睿; 陈品松; 王源瑞; 吴叶

    2015-01-01

    采用溶液聚合法制备聚丙烯酰胺/凹凸棒(PAM/ATP)复合吸附材料,经冷冻干燥处理、氮气保护条件下高温碳化制备出三维网络凹凸棒复合材料(APM),通过聚二甲基硅氧烷(PDMS)的化学气相沉积(CVD)有机改性APM得到三维凹凸棒疏水材料(PAPM)。采用XRD、SEM、BET、FT-IR等多种方法进行了表征,结果显示,PAM成功接枝到ATP表面,且APM表面疏松多孔;平均孔径从ATP的9.105 nm增加至APM的11.205 nm;PDMS成功改性APM,与ATP相比,PAPM对有机物的吸附量增大6倍以上,表明PAPM是一种良好的油/水分离吸附材料,具有选择性吸附性能。%In this work, three dimensional attapulgite hydrophobic material (PAPM) was synthesized by using solution polymerization, freeze-drying method, thermolysis treatment and modiifcation with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Then, the samples were investigated by XRD, SEM, BET, FT-IR and other methods. Observation showed that the polypropylene amide (PAM) was successfully grafted onto the surface of the attapulgite (ATP) and the three dimensional network attapulgite composite (APM) was the spongy structure. The average pore size increased from 9.105 nm of ATP to 11.205 nm of APM. The APM was successfully modiifed by using PDMS, which was characterized by FT-IR. It was found that organic solvents adsorption capacity of the PAPM is more than 6 folds compared with those of the ATP. It indicates that the PAPM is a good material for oil/water separation and possesses excellent selective adsorption.

  17. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers Hectorite was nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in a Draize primary skin irritation study. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate and Sodium Magnesium Silicate caused minimal eye irritation in a Draize eye irritation test. Bentonite caused severe iritis after injection into the anterior chamber of the eyes of rabbits and when injected intralamellarly, widespread corneal infiltrates and retrocorneal membranes were recorded. In a primary eye irritation study in rabbits, Hectorite was moderately irritating without washing and practically nonirritating to the eye with a washout. Rats tolerated a single dose of Zeolite A without any adverse reaction in the eye. Calcium Silicate had no discernible effect on nidation or on maternal or fetal survival in rabbits. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate had neither a teratogenic nor adverse effects on the mouse fetus. Female rats receiving a 20% Kaolin diet exhibited maternal anemia but no significant reduction in birth weight of the pups was

  18. 熔融复合法制备聚乳酸/凹凸棒土纳米复合材料%Preparation of Polylactide/Attapulgite Nanocomposites by Melt Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄韦; 贾海军; 岳邦毅; 孙小强

    2009-01-01

    对凹凸棒土(AT)进行有机改性后,采用熔融复合法制备了AT的质量分数为1wt%、3wt%、5w%的聚乳酸/凹凸棒土纳米复合材料(PLA/OAT-x),对复合材料进行红外、SEM、DSC等表征.SEM结果表明,凹凸棒土粒子在复合材料中实现了均匀稳定分散,通过对复合材料的综合热性能分析和力学性能分析,PLA/OAT-3复合材料的拉伸强度、杨氏模量比纯PLA分别增加78.8%和119.3%.同时.复合材料的溶液降解性能也明显加快.%Organic-attapulgite (OAT) was obtained by pretreating attapulgite, then the polylactide acid (PLA)/OAT nanocomposie was prepared by melt polymerization. The nanocompositc was characterized by using infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR), scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and DSC, the mechanical and degradable capability of the nanocomposie was measured. Results show equably uniform dispersion and good interracial compatibility between PLA and OAT. Compared with pure PLA, the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the PLA/OAT-3 arc respectively improved by 78.8% and 119.3%. It also shows that the degradation capability of PLA/OAT-x is obviously speeded up.

  19. 凹凸棒土/聚丙烯酸钠保水保肥树脂制备及性能%Preparation on Water and Fertilizer Retaining Agent of Attapulgite/sodium Polyacrylate Resin and Its Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松; 杨勇

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the optimum condition for preparing attapulgite/sodium polyacrylate compound resin and its properties of retaining water and fertilizer. [ Method] The attapulgite/sodium polyacrylate compound resin were synthesized by the aqueous solufion polymerization method, thè optimum conditions for preparing the water and fertilizer retaining agent were confirmed through the orthogonal test and the property indexes of the water and fertilizer retaining agent prepared under the optimum conditions were determined through the property reseach test. [ Result] The optimum conditions of preparing the water and fertilizer retaining agent were as follows: the weight ratio of crosslinking agent, attapulgite and initiator to resin monomer was 0.050%, 15% and 0.450%, resp.; the reaction temperature was 75 ℃ and the neutralization degree was 90%. The property indexes of the water and fertilizer retaining agent prepared under the optimum conditions were as follows: the alsorbency of distilled water was 762 g/g; the water evaporation rate of the agent at room temperature for 24 h was less than 10.00%and that in water bath at 50 ℃ for 10 h was 99. 11%. [Conclusion] The agent had good properties of retoining water and fertilizer. Its absorbency in 10.0 g/L urea solution was 500 g/g and the urea residue rate of sol-fertilizer made by using 0. 1 g resin to saturate and adsorb 15% urea solution was 34.4% after dynamic leaching with 50mi distilled water.%[目的]探讨凹凸棒土/聚丙烯酸钠复合树脂制备的最佳条件及其保水保肥性能.[方法]采用水溶液聚合法合成出高吸水性能的凹凸棒土/聚丙烯酸钠复合树脂,通过正交试验确定制备保水剂的最佳条件,并通过性能研究试验确定最佳条件下制备的保水剂性能指标.[结果]制备吸水剂的最佳条件为:交联剂、凹凸棒土、引发剂用量分别占树脂单体质量的0.050%、15.000%、0.450%,温度为75

  20. Synthesis of attapulgite clay at the rate of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ composite via ionic liquid and its application in the oxidation of elemental mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attapulgite clay at the rate Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (ATP at the rate Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/) composite was prepared by a one-pot calcination process via the ionic liquid (IL), (bmim)PF6, using two cheap, ecofriendly materials (i.e., Fe(NO/sub3/)sub 3/9H/sub 2/O and ATP, which is a magnesium aluminum silicate that is abundant in nature). The resulting composite was characterized by different techniques. IR spectra indicated that the ATP clay has been successfully modified by the functional Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ species. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the natural ATP still existed in ATP at the rate Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ composite and plays the role as a template. The specific surface areas determined by the BET method from N2 sorption isotherms decreased with the entrance of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The activity for oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg) in flue gases was investigated, which exhibited the highest efficiency value of 91% at 220 degree C. The results showed that this composite was qualified for controlling and removing Hg in flue gases as a low-cost, sustainable, effective catalyst. (author)

  1. Research on Wearability of nano-Attapulgite/Chloroprene Rubber Composites%纳米凹凸棒土/氯丁橡胶复合材料耐磨性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋帅帅; 姚亮; 吴友平

    2013-01-01

    Attapulgite(AT)/chloroprene rubber(CR) composites was prepared by using mechnical mixing technology,and effects of AT content, modifier kinds and content and curing systems on wear-ability of the composites were discussed,and the surface morphology of Akron abrasion of the composites having the different modifiers was observed, too. The results showed that the wearability of the composites was the best when the amount of AT was 30 phr; Modifier KH —550 was an effective coupling agent in increasing the wearability of the composites,and the optimal content was 3% of AT content; The wearability was different by using different curing systems. The wearability of the composites was the best when curing agents MgO/ZnO/DCP mass ratio was 4/5/1.%采用机械共混法制备了凹凸棒土(AT)/氯丁橡胶(CR)纳米复合材料,探讨了AT用量、改性剂种类及用量和硫化剂体系等对复合材料耐磨性能的影响,还观察了使用不同改性剂制备的复合材料阿克隆磨耗表面形态.结果表明,AT用量为30份时复合材料耐磨性最好;改性剂KH-550能显著提高硫化胶耐磨性,其最佳用量为AT用量的3%;硫化体系不同时复合材料的耐磨性有所不同,采用MgO/ZnO/DCP(质量比为4/5/1)并用硫化体系时复合材料耐磨性最好.

  2. Research on Polyester Synthesis Catalyzed by Ti-Complex Supported on Nano-attapulgite%络合钛复合纳米凹凸棒土催化聚酯反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔爱军; 李静; 田俊凯; 姚超; 何明阳; 陈群

    2014-01-01

    以钛酸四丁酯、柠檬酸为基本原料制备了一种新型络合钛聚酯催化剂,并将其与纳米凹凸棒土(ATP)复合,得到一类复合催化剂,对络合钛及复合催化剂分别进行了红外和透射电镜表征,证实了金属钛与柠檬酸配体发生了络合,复合催化剂具有良好的分散状态。通过催化聚酯反应对络合钛及多种复合催化剂的性能进行了评价,结果表明:与常规聚酯催化剂Sb2O3相比较,络合钛催化活性约为Sb2O3的6倍,但产品色相b值较高(大于15.60);将络合钛与纳米凹凸棒土以2:1的质量比负载后,催化反应得到的聚酯b值从16.30降为3.79,综合反应速度和聚酯色相的结果,认为络合钛与凹凸棒土的合适质量配比为5:2。此外,讨论了复合催化剂对聚酯物化性能的影响,通过DSC、TGA等测试手段,发现络合钛复合纳米凹凸棒土作催化剂制备的聚酯的结晶温度比Sb2O3催化制备的聚酯要高7℃以上,熔点高6℃左右,二甘醇含量更低,其热降解性能相近。%A Ti-complex catalyst for polyester synthesis was prepared with tetrabutyl titanate and citric acid as starting materials. Then, the catalyst was supported on nano-attapulgite (ATP), and a series of composite catalysts were obtained and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and TEM. The IR and TEM results show that the Ti is complexed with citric acid, and the Ti-complex could disperse on the ATP to increase the catalyst surface. The catalytic performances of the prepared catalysts were evaluated by the polyester reaction, and the results show that the activity of Ti-complex catalyst is 6 times higher than that of the commonly used catalyst Sb2O3. However, using Ti-complex catalyst, the hue b (more than 15.6) of the produced polyester is larger than that of polyester produced by using Sb2O3 as catalyst. After the Ti-complex catalyst was supported on nano-attapulgite with mass ratio of 2

  3. 凹凸棒黏土对甜叶菊水提液吸附絮凝作用研究%Adsorption and Flocculation Effect of Attapulgite on Water Extract of Stevia Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洁; 熊清平; 石莹莹; 袁雪莉

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the adsorption and flocculation effect of attapulgite(ATP) on water extract of stevia leaves. METHODS The factors influencing adsorptive and flocculate properties of ATP such as the temperature, pH value, the concentration of the water extract of stevia leaves and the amount of ATP addition were investigated by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. RESULTS The optimum condition abtained were 60℃ temperature and pH 8, respectively, and the addition of ATP was 0.4 g for 30 mL water extract. The adsorption method of ATP showed the higher retention rate of rebaudioside A (92.2%) and solids (70.5%) than the chemical ones (62.6% and 57.3%, respectively). CONCLUSION ATP can be used as a new flocculant for isolation and purification of Chinese herb extracts.%目的 研究凹凸棒黏土(凹土)对甜叶菊水提液的吸附絮凝作用.方法 采用单因素和正交实验,考察了吸附絮凝温度、水提液pH值、凹土加入量以及水提液浓度对吸附絮凝效果的影响.结果 凹土吸附絮凝法的最佳吸附条件为在pH 8的30 mL甜叶菊水提液中加入0.4g凹土于60℃时所得澄清效果最佳,凹土吸附絮凝法对水提液中莱鲍迪A苷(RA苷)保留率和固形物保留率分别为92.2%和70.5%,明显优于化学絮凝法的62.6%,57.3%.结论 凹土可以作为一种新型吸附絮凝剂应用于中药提取液的分离纯化.

  4. Influence of The Activated Qatari Attapulgite Clay Admixture on The Mechanical Properties and Hydration Kinetics of Ordinary Portland Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Noaimi, Kawkab Kh. [كوكب النعيمي

    2001-01-01

    Blended cements are types of cements containing additives other than those used m Portland cement, which have considerable technological interest, because such addition increases the chemical resistance to sulfate and chloride attack. The present investigation represents a laboratory study, which provides a unique opportunity to introduce an effective practical attempt to deal with the problem of concrete deterioration m Qatar and the Arabian Gulf region, and to provide a solution to the prob...

  5. RETRACTED: Sodium alginate films modified by raw and functionalized attapulgite for use of thorium(IV) adsorption: A thermodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Denis L.; Viana, Rúbia R.; da Costa, Luiz P.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2009-11-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors of the Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids as fraudulent results have been found in this article and other publications in Elsevier journals by the same authors, namely: J. Colloid Interface Sci., 337 (2009) 122-130, doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2009.05.013. Inorg. Chem. Commun., 12 (2009) 1145-1149, doi:10.1016/j.inoche.2009.08.029. J. Environ. Radioact., 101 (2010) 122-133, doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.09.005. Process Safety Environ. Prot., 88 (2010) 53-61, doi:10.1016/j.psep.2009.10.002. J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 70 (2009) 1413-1421, doi:10.1016/j.jpcs.2009.08.012. Appl. Surf. Sci., 256 (2009) 702-709, doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.08.045. Inorg. Chem. Commun., 11 (2008) 20-23, doi:10.1016/j.inoche.2007.09.029. Inorg. Chem. Commun., 12 (2009) 1107-1111, doi:10.1016/j.inoche.2009.08.033. J. Hazard. Mat., 172 (2009) 507-514, doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.016. J. Hazard. Mat., 171 (2009) 514-523, doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.032. J. Colloid Interface Sci., 338 (2009) 30-39, doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2009.06.004. Publication of an article in a peer-reviewed journal is an important building-block in the development of science. Elsevier has defined policies and ethical guidelines and takes its duties of guardianship over the scholarly record extremely seriously. The Editors of the Elsevier journals involved found that the allegations of fraud are conclusive and they have decided that these papers should be retracted from the journals.

  6. ENFORCING EFFECT OF NANO-ATTAPULGITE ON CHOPPED CARBON FIBER/BMI COMPOSITE%纳米凹凸棒土对碳纤维/BMI树脂复合材料的增强与增韧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德安; 梁辉; 贾静; 徐廷献

    2000-01-01

    采用预浸料模压工艺制备了纳米凹凸棒土/短碳纤维/BMI树脂复合材料.实验并分析了纳米凹凸棒土对复合材料的增强与增韧作用.当其质量百分比为5%~6%时,弯曲强度和冲击强度分别提高了30%和57%.

  7. The Study on the Water Absorption Ability of Potassium Humate/Attapulgite Clay/Polyacrylic Acid Composite Superabsorbent%腐植酸钾-凹凸棒-聚丙烯酸复合树脂的吸液性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新华; 胡福田; 廖列文; 崔英德

    2009-01-01

    以过硫酸钠-亚硫酸氢钠为引发剂,N,N'-亚甲基丙烯酰胺为交联剂,采用静态溶液聚合制备了腐殖酸钾-凹凸棒-聚丙烯酸复合吸水树脂.研究了凹凸棒、腐殖酸钾对复合吸水树脂吸蒸馏水倍率、吸盐水倍率以及吸水速率的影响,并对比了各种复合吸水树脂的吸液性能.结果表明,当凹凸棒含量由5%增至40%时,复合树脂吸蒸馏水和吸盐水倍率呈快-缓-快的变化趋势,其中凹凸棒含量由10%增至20%时,吸液倍率变化不大,复合树脂的吸水速率则先增大后下降,凹凸棒土用量为10%,复合树脂的吸水速率最快.腐植酸钾的加入可提高树脂的吸蒸馏水倍率、吸盐水倍率和吸水速率.复合改性前后的吸液性能从大到小依次为:腐植酸钾复合吸水树脂(w(腐植酸钾)=5%)>腐植酸钾/凹凸棒/聚丙烯酸三元复合吸水树脂(w(凹凸棒)=20%,w(腐植酸钾)=5%)>聚丙烯酸树脂吸水树脂>凹凸棒复合吸水树脂(w(凹凸棒)=20%).

  8. Influence of Attapulgite Clay on Electrical Property of Carbon Black/Epoxy Resin Composites%凹凸棒粘土对炭黑/环氧复合材料电性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍宇彬; 李秋影; 李艳; 方菁; 吴驰飞

    2012-01-01

    通过溶液混合法制备了凹凸棒(ATT)/炭黑(CB)/环氧树脂(EP)复合材料。使用紫外可见光光谱仪(UV-Vis)和Zeta电位测试仪对CB和(或)ATT在丙酮溶剂中的分散稳定性进行了研究。使用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和电阻仪分别研究了不同填料比例以及含量对EP复合材料微观结构和电阻率的影响。结果表明,ATT的加入可以有效增强CB在溶剂中的分散稳定性并促进EP基体中导电网络的形成。当CB与ATT质量比为5∶1时,复合材料的电阻率比不添加ATT时下降了2个数量级;其渗流阈值(1%)(质量分数,下同)小于具有相同填料含量的CB/EP复合材料(1.8%)。最后探讨了ATT对CB/EP复合材料电性能影响的可能机理。%Attapulgite(ATT)/carbon black(CB)/epoxy(EP) composites were prepared by liquid mixing method.The stability of CB and(or) ATT suspensions in acetone was analyzed by UV-Vis and Zeta potential.The microstructures and volume resistivity of the composites were examined by scanning electron microscope(SEM) and resistance meter.The results indicate that ATT can effectively improve the dispersion of CB in solution and form conductive networks in the matrix.When the mass ratio of CB to ATT is 5∶1,the resistivity of composite is two orders of magnitude lower than that of composites with CB alone.The percolation threshold of ATT/CB/EP composites is 1%,which is lower than that of composites with CB alone(1.8%).The possible mechanism for the influence of ATT on the CB/EP composites was further investigated.

  9. A unique technology to transform inorganic nanorods into nano-networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Dongqing; Wu Zhengyan; Jiang Jiang; Tong Liping; Yu Zengliang [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Ding Kejian [Institute of Lifescience and Bioengineering, School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Chu, Paul K [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk, E-mail: zlyu@ipp.ac.cn

    2009-06-24

    An inorganic nano-network of attapulgite is formed from rigid nanorods using ion beam bombardment. The structure of the nano-networks depends on the ion beam fluence for the same ion energy. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that ion beam bombardment improves the dispersion of the attapulgite particles and the change in the shape of the rod-shaped attapulgite particles stems from the thermal stress induced by ion beam bombardment. This phenomenon is more obvious for higher ion fluences. The bent or twisted rod-shaped attapulgite particles cross-link to form a network structure, which is stable in water, and when the ion fluence is increased further, the cross-linked points are permanently sealed. The improved materials are more useful than clava attapulgite particles.

  10. PVA/atapulgite hydrogels; Hidrogeis de PVA/atapulgita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Soares, G.A., E-mail: nunes@metalmat.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Paranhos, C.M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil); Barreto, L.S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    PVA hydrogels can be used as wound-healing as a consequence of their biocompatibility, flexibility, etc. In order to improve mechanical resistance of wound-healing, polymeric hydrogels reinforced with clay have been studied. Among national clays, attapulgite stands out. Once it is a natural material, acid treatment can be required in order to remove impurities. In the present work, PVA hydrogels reinforced with attapulgite were produced and they were characterized by swelling behavior, XRD, DSC and traction test. Among all properties studied, hydrogels reinforced with activated attapulgite showed better mechanical resistance and Young module than the other samples. (author)

  11. PVA/atapulgite hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PVA hydrogels can be used as wound-healing as a consequence of their biocompatibility, flexibility, etc. In order to improve mechanical resistance of wound-healing, polymeric hydrogels reinforced with clay have been studied. Among national clays, attapulgite stands out. Once it is a natural material, acid treatment can be required in order to remove impurities. In the present work, PVA hydrogels reinforced with attapulgite were produced and they were characterized by swelling behavior, XRD, DSC and traction test. Among all properties studied, hydrogels reinforced with activated attapulgite showed better mechanical resistance and Young module than the other samples. (author)

  12. RELATIVE MESOTHELIOMA INDUCTION IN RATS BY MINERAL FIBERS: COMPARISON WITH RESIDUAL PULMONARY MINERAL FIBER NUMBER AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were performed in Fischer 344 rats comparing relative tumorigeneses of chrysotile, krokidolite asbestos, erionite and attapulgite by intrapleural injection and chrysotile, krokidolite and erionite by intratracheal instillation. Tumor fiber ratios were computed employi...

  13. Synthesis and catalytic cracking performance of Fe/Ti-ZSM-5 zeolite from attapulgite mineral%以天然凹凸棒石为原料合成Fe/Ti-ZSM-5沸石分子筛及其催化裂化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓兆; 刘艳; 孟祥举; 申宝剑; 肖丰收

    2013-01-01

    以天然凹凸棒石为硅源、铁源和钛源,一步合成了Fe/Ti-ZSM-5分子筛.X射线衍射、扫描电镜和N2吸附等温线测定结果表明,所合成的样品具有良好的结晶度和较大的比表面积;NH3程序升温脱附和H2程序升温还原结果表明,该样品具有强的酸性和氧化还原性能.更为重要的是,与常规方法制备的ZSM-5沸石相比,Fe/Ti-ZSM-5在催化裂解原料油(LGO,加拿大)的测试中,丙烯的产率提高0.21%,总轻烯烃的产率提高0.33%.由此可见,Fe与Ti物种在ZSM-5沸石分子筛中的存在有利于提高轻烯烃的产率,有望在石油炼制过程中提高烯烃产率.

  14. Preparation and characterization of adsorbents for treatment of water associated with oil production

    KAUST Repository

    Sueyoshi, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Two sets of adsorbents were prepared from locally available raw materials, characterized and tested. The first set consists of crushed natural attapulgite and crushed attapulgite mixed with petroleum tank-bottom sludge and carbonized at 650 °C. Another set was prepared using trunk of date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera) activated at 700 and 800°C. Both sets were characterized using BET surface area and pore distributions, FTIR, XRD, SEM and TEM. Natural attapulgite and attapulgite/sludge composite exhibited different characteristics and adsorptive capacities for oil removal from oily water. Adsorptive capacities were calculated from the breakthrough curves of a column test. An oily water solution of about 500 mg-oil/L was passed through both the attapulgite and attapulgite/sludge columns until the column effluent concentration exceeded a reference limit of 10 mg-oil/L. Uptake was calculated at this limit at 155 and 405 mg-oil/g-adsorbent, respectively. This was lower than the performance of a commercial activated carbon sample (uptake calculated at 730 mg-oil/g-adsorbent). Relatively, the date palm, carbonaceous-based adsorbent samples showed less significant differences in both bulk and surface properties. Uptake significantly improved to 1330-1425 mg-oil/g-adsorbent. Attempt was made to associate this performance with the difference in the surface areas between the two sets. However, other factors are found to be important as the second set has a range of surface area less than that of the commercial sample. As evidenced by FTIR, XRD and TEM, the activated carbonaceous materials developed porous structures which form defective graphitic sheet ensembles that serve as additional adsorption sites in the sample. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  15. COMPARATIVE MESOTHELIOMA INDUCTION IN RATS BY ASBESTOS AND NON-ASBESTOS MINERAL FIBERS: POSSIBLE CORRELATION WITH HUMAN EXPOSURE DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer 344 rats were injected intrapleurally with chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos, erionite and attapulgite and observed for their entire lifespan. etailed analysis of the number per unit mass of the various size categories of the fibers for each mineral species was determin...

  16. A study on the effect of coating's sorption capacity on the porosity in lost foam aluminum alloy casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Effects of coating constituent, coating density, coating layer thickness and temperature on coating sorption capacity for polystyrene decomposition products have been studied systematically. It has been found that the effect of attapulgite clay on sorption capacity is the largest among coating constituents. The sorption capacity of the coating with 2 %attapulgite clay is elevated by 81%. The relationship between casting porosity and coating sorption capacity has been studied. It has been pointed out that higher coating sorption capacity for polystyrene decomposition products is helpful to decrease the casting porosity. Results also show that the sorption capacity of self- developed HW- 1 coating for polystyrene decomposition products is as good as that of Ashland coating from America.

  17. Clay-based geothermal drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Lee, L.J.; Bernhard, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concentrated brines. Attapulgite- and sepiolite-based fluids have been autoclaved at temperatures in the range from 70 to 800/sup 0/F with the addition of chlorides and hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The rheological properties (apparent and plastic viscosity, fluid loss, gel strength, yield point, and cake thickness) of the autoclaved fluids have been studied and correlated with the chemical and physical changes that occur in the clay minerals during the autoclaving process.

  18. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients-Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice

  19. Polycarbonate/Polypropylene/Fibrillar Silicate Ternary Nanocomposites via Two-step Blending Process: Degradation and Morphology%两步共混工艺制备聚碳酸酯/聚丙烯/针状硅酸盐三元纳米复合材料:降解与形态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛立新; 高翔; 张猛响; 金日光

    2006-01-01

    The method of two-step melt blending was used to prepare polycarbonate/polypropylene/attapulgite ternary nanocomposite, and the various techniques including gel permeation chromatography, rheometer, transmission electron microscope, dynamic mechanical analysis were used to examine the degradation of polycarbonate (PC)and the nanocomposite morphology. The results showed that the molecular weight degradation of PC triggered by attapulgite (AT) during the direct blending process was inhibited effectively by using two-step melt blending, in which AT was blended with polypropylene (PP) prior to compound with PC. The morphology of encapsulation was formed in the PC matrix, where PP encapsulates AT fibrillar single crystals to form a core-shell inclusion. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) measurements showed that the PC/PP/AT ternary nanocomposites were more effective than conventional PC/PP blends in reinforcement, meanwhile the addition of AT in the ternary nanocomposites shifted the glass transition temperature of the PP phase to a higher value.

  20. Utilização de argilas para purificação de biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia Juliana Almeida de Paula; Marlus Krügel; João Paulo Miranda; Luciano Fernando dos Santos Rossi; Pedro Ramos da Costa Neto

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the results of the purification of methyl biodiesel, obtained by oxidized soybean oil, using different methods. After the ester separation from the glycerin by decanting, the ester was purified each time with distillation, washing with water and adsorption with bauxite, bentonite and attapulgite. The removal of total contamination, unsaponifiable material, concentrations of free glycerin and soap were analyzed in the purified ester phase. The best result of purification wa...

  1. Compositions and methods for removal of toxic metals and radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuero, Raul G. (Inventor); McKay, David S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for the removal of toxic metals or radionuclides from source materials. Toxic metals may be removed from source materials using a clay, such as attapulgite or highly cationic bentonite, and chitin or chitosan. Toxic metals may also be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan. Radionuclides may be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan.

  2. Argilas especiais: o que são, caracterização e propriedades Special clays: what they are, characterization and properties

    OpenAIRE

    ANTONIO C. VIEIRA COELHO; Pérsio de Souza Santos; Helena de Souza Santos

    2007-01-01

    Special clays are a group of clays different from the large volume of clay mineral products named "Industrial Clays": kaolins, ball clays, refractory clays, bentonites, fuller's earths, common clays. Two groups of special clays exist: rare, as in the case of hectorite and sepiolite and restricted areas, as in the case of white bentonite, halloysite and palygorskite (attapulgite). A review is given of the most important producers of the special clays and their properties in the Western World, ...

  3. Organophilic clay suspension medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, G.G.; Parlman, R.M.; Stewart, W.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes an improved liquid suspension medium for particulate solids. The suspension medium having been formed by admixing an organophilic clay wherein the clay is selected from the group consisting of bentonite, attapulgite, sepiolite and hectorite and admixtures thereof present in the quantity of about 0.5-8 weight percent with a liquid hydrocarbon present in the quantity of about 99-70 weight percent and at least one activator selected from the group consisting of phenyl hydroxyalkyl ethers.

  4. CuO nanoparticles encapsulated inside Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials via direct synthetic route

    OpenAIRE

    Chengli Huo; Jing Ouyang; Huaming Yang

    2014-01-01

    Highly ordered aluminum-containing mesoporous silica (Al-MCM-41) was prepared using attapulgite clay mineral as a Si and Al source. Mesoporous complexes embedded with CuO nanoparticles were subsequently prepared using various copper sources and different copper loadings in a direct synthetic route. The resulting CuO/Al-MCM-41 composite possessed p6mm hexagonally symmetry, well-developed mesoporosity, and relatively high BET surface area. In comparison to pure silica, these mesoporous material...

  5. Flowability of bulk solids used in shale fracturing grouts as determined by the Jenike and Johanson method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smooth operation of the shale fracturing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory requires that an even, uninterrupted flow of dry solids be delivered to a mixer at a rate of approximately 1200 lb/min. Some operational difficulties have been experienced with the dry solids system at the existing facility. Occasionally the solids flow from a bin was difficult to initiate or was irregular, particularly when the storage bin was nearly empty. A new shale fracturing facility is now being designed with a solids handling system that will eliminate the current problems. This report describes the tests made to obtain the necessary information about bulk-flow properties of the dry solids that are required for the facility modifications. Flow properties of fly ash, attapulgite, pottery clay, and a blended solids mix were determined in a Jenike and Johanson Flowfactor Tester. Tests with this unit involve the consolidation of a solid at a given pressure and the measurement of the force required to create a shear plane. The procedure is repeated several times at different consolidating pressures to determine a locus of points that can be displayed graphically. Results indicate that a bottom-hopper opening of about 4 ft will be required on the new, bulk storage bins if mass flow is to be achieved. It was also found that the existing bins are quite unsuitable for either their present function or their proposed function. Since these bins have served moderately well for 14 years, the effect of aeration is obviously major; these tests indicate only an upper limit to the size of the hopper opening that will be required. Pottery clay and attapulgite were found to have flow characteristics considerably inferior to blended solids. It is known, however, that attapulgite clay will flow from the existing bins, and modification of the bin bottoms to enlarge the openings does not appear to be justified

  6. Use of clays for purification of biodiesel; Utilizacao de argilas para purificacao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Andreia Juliana Almeida de; Kruegel, Marlus; Miranda, Joao Paulo; Rossi, Luciano Fernando dos Santos; Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos da, E-mail: pedroneto@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Depts. de Quimica, Biologia e Mecanica

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the results of the purification of methyl biodiesel, obtained by oxidized soybean oil, using different methods. After the ester separation from the glycerin by decanting, the ester was purified each time with distillation, washing with water and adsorption with bauxite, bentonite and attapulgite. The removal of total contamination, unsaponifiable material, concentrations of free glycerin and soap were analyzed in the purified ester phase. The best result of purification was observed with the use of bentonite and bauxite, in the removal of soap and free glycerin respectively. (author)

  7. Study on rich alumina alkali-activated slag clay minerals cementitious materials for immobilization of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition and some properties of its pastes of rich alumina alkali-activated slag clay minerals (RAAASCM) cementitious materials for immobilization of radioactive waste are studied. Experimental results show that heat activated kaolinite, Xingjiang zeolite, modified attapulgite clay are better constituents of RAAASCM. RAAASCM cementitious materials pastes exhibit high strength, low porosity, fewer harmful pore, and high resistance to sulphate corrosion as well as gamma irradiation. The Sr2+, Cs+ leaching portion of the simulated radioactive waste forms based on RAAASCM, is low

  8. Argilas especiais: o que são, caracterização e propriedades Special clays: what they are, characterization and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Vieira Coelho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Special clays are a group of clays different from the large volume of clay mineral products named "Industrial Clays": kaolins, ball clays, refractory clays, bentonites, fuller's earths, common clays. Two groups of special clays exist: rare, as in the case of hectorite and sepiolite and restricted areas, as in the case of white bentonite, halloysite and palygorskite (attapulgite. A review is given of the most important producers of the special clays and their properties in the Western World, as well as a discussion of the occurrence of these types of clays in Brazil.

  9. Utilização de argilas para purificação de biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Juliana Almeida de Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the results of the purification of methyl biodiesel, obtained by oxidized soybean oil, using different methods. After the ester separation from the glycerin by decanting, the ester was purified each time with distillation, washing with water and adsorption with bauxite, bentonite and attapulgite. The removal of total contamination, unsaponifiable material, concentrations of free glycerin and soap were analyzed in the purified ester phase. The best result of purification was observed with the use of bentonite and bauxite, in the removal of soap and free glycerin respectively.

  10. Formulation verification study results for 241-AN-106 waste grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were conducted to determine whether the reference formulation and variations around the formulation are adequate for solidifying 241-AN-106 (106-AN) waste into a grout waste form. The reference formulation consists of 21 wt% type I/II Portland cement, 68 wt% fly ash, and 11 wt% attapulgite clay. The mix ratio is 8.4 lb/gal. Variations in dry blend component ratios, mix ratio, and waste concentration were assessed by using a statistically designed experimental matrix consisting of 44 grout compositions. Based on the results of the statistically designed variability study, the 106-AN grout formulations tested met all the formulation criteria except for the heat of hydration

  11. Study of the physico-chemical behavior of transuranian elements in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranian chemistry is being studied in the geochemical context of the geological disposal of radioactive waste. The transuranians considered are plutonium, neptunium and americium. The first part, devoted to the chemistry of these elements in aqueous solutions, consists of a critical compilation of literature data with a view to resulting in producing the Eh-pH diagrams of transuranians in a complexing environment. The study of the retention by constituents of artificial clay barriers (bentonite and attapulgite) is the subject of the second part. The third part concerns the development of a measurement technique for transuranian elements at trace levels by the thermal lensing method

  12. Preparation and properties of PAn/ATTP/PE conductive composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jian-hui; FENG Hui-xia

    2006-01-01

    Polyaniline/Attapugite/ PE(PAn-ATTP/PE)composites containing particles with core-shell structure were obtained via the two-step blending processs. The experimental condition is as follows: Organo-attapulgite and PAn was obtained by modifying attapulgite with laury benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt and,then added to PE. The electrical conductivity,structure and properties of the composites were studied. Under the function of shear stress,core-shell structure particles with ATTP as the core and PAn as the shell were formed in the composites. The structure of PAn-ATTP/PE composites were characterized by FTIR,XRD,SEM,etc,respectively. The effects of concentration of doping agent on the conductivity and mechanical property of the composites were investigated. The mechanical properties and impact fracture surface of the ternary composites were studied by means of the tensile tester,SEM,etc. The results show that polyaniline encapsulated ATTP enhances the strength of the PE. And the conductivity of PAn-ATTP/PE composites of is improved effectively when polyaniline encapsulated ATTP is added. The composite have good conductivity when 10% polyaniline encapsulated ATTP is added.

  13. Very low conductivity self-hardening slurry for permanent enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attapulgite clay and ground blast furnace slag cement can form a low solids slurry which, after setting and curing, exhibits very low permeability and substantial strength. Compared to better known cement bentonite slurries, the conductivity is 3 orders of magnitude lower and the strength is four times higher at a similar solids content. Coefficients of permeability have been measured in the 10-10 cm/sec. range. As a containment barrier, no chemical compound has had detrimental effects on the integrity of the material. Compatibility with leachates at a pH under 2 has been demonstrated. Compared to leachable Ordinary Portland Cement and to bentonite gel shrinkage in the presence of certain organic compounds, the attapulgite clay and the selected slag cement behave as remarkably inert. A number of successful applications as vertical barriers, trenched and by the vibrated beam method, have been installed at remedial sites. Applications by jet grouting have been implemented under utilities to provide continuity. The potential for placement of such materials to form horizontal barriers by jet grouting or frac-grouting/mud jacking techniques, offers the possibility of creating complete enclosures in soils. The purely mineral nature of these slurries ensures long term chemical stability necessary for permanent containment

  14. Remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soil using long-duration sodium thiosulfate supported by micro–nano networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lulu [School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wang, Min; Zhang, Guilong [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Qiu, Guannan [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Cai, Dongqing, E-mail: dqcai@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Zhengyan, E-mail: zywu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, Xin, E-mail: xinzhang@ahau.edu.cn [School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • This work aims to develop a long-duration remediation agent (LRA). • LRA was obtained using Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks. • ATP micro–nano networks was induced by high-energy electron beam irradiation. • LRA can effectively control the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). • LRA displayed high performance on the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. - Abstract: In this work, a long-duration remediation agent (LRA) on hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was developed using sodium thiosulfate (ST) supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks induced through high-energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The ATP networks could effectively reduce the leaching amount of Cr(VI) in soil. More importantly, the ATP networks could significantly control the leaching behavior of ST, and then prolong the duration and increase the reduction efficiency of ST on Cr(VI). As a result, LRA displayed high performance on controlling the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Additionally, pot experiment indicated that LRA could effectively decrease the absorbed amount of Cr(VI) in corn, and reduce the inhibition effect of Cr(VI) on the growth of corn. Therefore, this work could provide a facile approach to remediate the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil and lower the harmful effect of Cr(VI) on crop.

  15. Remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soil using long-duration sodium thiosulfate supported by micro–nano networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This work aims to develop a long-duration remediation agent (LRA). • LRA was obtained using Na2S2O3 supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks. • ATP micro–nano networks was induced by high-energy electron beam irradiation. • LRA can effectively control the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). • LRA displayed high performance on the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. - Abstract: In this work, a long-duration remediation agent (LRA) on hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was developed using sodium thiosulfate (ST) supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks induced through high-energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The ATP networks could effectively reduce the leaching amount of Cr(VI) in soil. More importantly, the ATP networks could significantly control the leaching behavior of ST, and then prolong the duration and increase the reduction efficiency of ST on Cr(VI). As a result, LRA displayed high performance on controlling the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Additionally, pot experiment indicated that LRA could effectively decrease the absorbed amount of Cr(VI) in corn, and reduce the inhibition effect of Cr(VI) on the growth of corn. Therefore, this work could provide a facile approach to remediate the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil and lower the harmful effect of Cr(VI) on crop

  16. Fabrication of highly hydrophobic organic-inorganic hybrid magnetic polysulfone microcapsules: A lab-scale feasibility study for removal of oil and organic dyes from environmental aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yanan; Wang, Jiaojiao; Sun, Caiyun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-05-15

    In this work, three kinds of organic-inorganic hybrid materials (vinyl benzene linear polymer modified SBA-15, attapulgite and halloysite nanotubes) in the shape of powder and the corresponding magnetic polysulfone microcapsules were developed for removal of oil and dyes from environmental aqueous samples, respectively. As determined from the oil and dye adsorption studies, the developed magnetic polysulfone microcapsules exhibited high adsorption capacity of 13.8-17.3g/g for oil. The prepared functionalized materials and the corresponding microcapsules can remove 85.0-91.6% and 81.8-87.8% Sudan I in 80min and 7.6h, respectively. The results showed a significant improvement in their adsorption capacities and removal efficiencies compared to the parent matrices, indicating that the introducing of the vinyl benzene linear polymer was a major factor in the removal of the hydrophobic pollutants. At the same time, the adsorption capacity for the investigated pollutants also depended on the textural feature of matrix itself. In view of the utilization of low-cost clay minerals (attapulgite and halloysite nanotubes), these proposed functionalized materials and the corresponding magnetic polysulfone microcapsules had a great promise to be used as an efficient sorbent for removal of pollutants from environmental aqueous samples. PMID:26874312

  17. Removal of uranium and thorium from artificially and routinely contaminated surfaces using attapulgus clay suspensions with and without mineral acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported for experiments in which standard samples, artificially contaminated with uranium and thorium salts, were decontaminated using a semi-solid material whose basic constituent was attapulgite (a hydrated magnesium silicate). The application of attapulgus clay suspensions with additions of mineral acids resulted in the almost complete removal of these actinides from various surfaces. Since the results obtained on a laboratory scale were quite satisfactory, the method was applied to real materials, namely a glove box utilized for some years in various and repeated manipulations of natural uranium. This method of decontamination caused no damage to the surface subjected to the treatment, was simple to perform and required no special equipment. No liquid radioactive waste was generated and we were able to recover the glove box for further use. (orig.)

  18. 改良剂对重金属复合污染土壤中菜用大豆品质及生理特性的影响%Effects of Amendments on Quality and Physiological Characteristics of Young Soybean Grown in Soil Contaminated by Heavy Metals in Combination.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王意锟; 方升佐; 王玉军; 郝秀珍; 周东美; 张焕朝

    2011-01-01

    Effects of soil amendments, including attapulgite ( 25 g · kg- 1 ), diatomite ( 25 g · kg- 1 ), peat ( 25 g ·kg - 1 ) and humic acid (4 g · kg- 1 ), on growth, quality and physiological characteristics of young soybean grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals in combinatioon were studied through pot experiment. Results show that compared with the clay minerals ( diatomite and attapulgite), the organic materials ( humic acid and peat) significantly increased yield and crude proteins content of the grains, and improved their eating quality. All the amendments mitigated the toxicity of heavy metals to the plant. Humic acid, peat and attapulgite obviously increased SOD activity in leaves of the plants at the seedling stage ( P<0.05), but diatomite did not, till the plants reached the maturing stage. Among the amendments, only humic acid increased significanfiy chlorophyll content in leaves of the plants at the seedling and maturing stages ( P < 0.05 ).And humic acid was also the most effective in lowering contents of heavy metals in grain and decreased the content of Zn,Cu, Cd and Pb by 28. 8%, 21.6%, 35.0% and 12. 5%, respectively, as compared with CK. Diatomite followed in the effect, however peat and attapulgite did not show any significant effect in this aspect.%通过盆栽试验,研究了在重度Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd复合污染土壤上,分别施用凹凸棒土(25 g·kg-1)、硅藻土(25g·kg-1)、泥炭(25 g·kg-1)和腐植酸(4 g·kg-1)4种改良剂对菜用大豆(Glycine max)(以下简称大豆)植株生长、籽粒食用品质及叶片生理特性的影响.结果表明:有机物料能有效提高大豆籽粒产量和粗蛋白含量,改善大豆籽粒的食用品质,但黏土矿物对大豆籽粒产量及品质的影响不明显;有机物料、黏土矿物能缓解重金属对植物的毒害,腐植酸、泥炭、凹凸棒土处理大豆叶片苗期SOD活性显著高于对照(P<0.05),而硅藻土处理大豆苗期SOD活性与

  19. Magnetic birefringence of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Barry R; Wilson, Stephen R; Ridler, Peter J

    2005-01-15

    The earliest reports of magnetically induced optical birefringence included data for liquids, magnetic fluids and colloidal suspensions. Recent work has shown that with relatively straightforward apparatus, when carefully designed and aligned, measurable effects can be recorded even for suspensions of relatively weak diamagnetic materials, including mineral particles. By recording the magnitude of the birefringence induced in magnetic fields of up to two Tesla, a method for the analysis of the magnetic and optical characteristics of these diamagnetic colloids is evidenced. The principles, apparatus and methodology involved are described and novel data reported for the minerals attapulgite, bentonite, hectorite, kaolinite, montmorillonite and vermiculite. Preliminary experiments using pulsed fields on vermiculite sols show that, in favourable circumstances, estimates of particle size can be made by analysing signal response rates. PMID:15571692

  20. Contribution to the Selection of Radioactive Tracers for Hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study was made of a number of anionic and cationic tracers in different terrains with distinct petrographic characteristics, allowance being made for the various physical and chemical parameters of the environment. The behaviour of 12 tracers (51Cr, 59Fe, 45Ca, 110Ag, 24Na, 137Cs, 3H, 32P, 35S, 14C, 131I, 82Br) was studied in six types of argillaceous rock (illite, vermiculite, interstratified illite-vermiculite, montmorillonite, attapulgite and kaolinite) and three sand types (siliceous, calcareous and dolomitic) in the presence of three types of water (demineralized, sea-water and various spring waters). On the basis of the results obtained from 5000 tests and measurements made during this study it is possible to select the tracer most suited to the characteristics of the terrain and the type of groundwater. (author)

  1. Contribution to the selection of radioactive tracers for hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study was made of a number of anionic and cationic tracers in different terrains with distinct petrographic characteristics, allowance being made for the various physical and chemical parameters of the environment. The behaviour of 12 tracers (51Cr, 59Fe, 45Ca, 110Ag, 24Na, 137Cs, 3H, 32P, 35S, 14C, 131I, 82Br) was studied in six types of argillaceous rock (illite, vermiculite, interstratified illite-vermiculite, montmorillonite, attapulgite and kaolinite) and three sand types (siliceous, calcareous and dolomitic) in the presence of three types of water (demineralized, sea-water and various spring waters). On the basis of the results obtained from 5000 tests and measurements made during this study it is possible to select the tracer most suited to the characteristics of the terrain and the type of groundwater. (author)

  2. Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2011-09-28

    To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments. PMID:21848295

  3. The Flammability of ABS/PET/APP Mixtures with Different Synergic Agents%不同协效剂对APP膨胀阻燃ABS/PET合金的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国栋; 潘治梁; 蔡绪福

    2011-01-01

    ABS/PET/APP mixtures with different synergic agents (SA) were prepared for investigating the effect of SA (2, 2' - bis ( 2 - oxazoline) (BOZ), thermoplastic phenolic resins (TPPF), manganese dioxide, montmorillonite (MMT), zinc borate, 4A Zeolite,zinc oxide (ZnO), and attapulgite on the flame retardancy of mixtures, and the thermal degradation and charring of ABS/PET/APP was analyzed. It was concluded that a novel intumescent flame retardant containing APP ( acid source and a blowing agent) and PET (carbon source) was obtained because APP mainly catalyzed PET to degrade into charring in ABS/PET/APP mixture on heating. The flammability of ABS/PET/APP mixtures with different SA was measured by the limited oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 tests. Except for ABS/PET/APP/attapulgite mixture, ABS/PET/APP mixtures with other SA all passed the V-0 rating in UL-94 tests, the LOI of which was improved compare with ABS/PET/APP mixture. Thermo-oxidative degradation behaviors of mixtures were analyzed by thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), which showed an increasing char yield of ABS/PET/APP mixtures due to the addition of SA. And scanning electron microcopy (SEM) showed the denser carbon layer formation on the surface of ABS/PET/APP mixtures with SA ( except for attapulgite) after burning.%研究了8种协效剂(双噁唑啉、热塑性酚醛树脂、二氧化锰、蒙脱土、硼酸锌、4A分子筛、氧化锌和凹凸棒)对APP膨胀阻燃ABS/PET合金的影响,并探讨了ABS/PET/APP体系的降解成炭行为.研究表明,APP主要促进了PET分解成炭从而与其成为一种新型膨胀阻燃体系.通过氧指数(LOI)和UL-94标准测试燃烧性能,除凹凸棒外,其它7种协效剂均提高了ABS/PET/APP体系的氧指数,并使其通过V-0级测试;热失重分析(TGA)表明,ABS/PET/APP/协效剂体系具有更高的成炭率;通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对炭层表面进行观察,除凹凸棒体系外,其它7种协效剂体系的炭层表面均具有更好的致密性.

  4. Formulation studies and grout development for fixation of variable phosphate/sulfate waste, Milestone 195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to develop a range of cement-based blended dry solids which, when mixed with variable phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW), produce grouts that are processible in the Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO) Transportable Grout Facility (TGF). The selected formula(s) will also utilize commerically available materials requiring no custom processing and meet all criteria as identified and quantified by RHO, not only for grouts made with the reference formula, but also for those grouts made with reasonable deviations from the reference formula expected during routine TGF operation. This report presents experimental data for processibility and solid performance as well as graphical representations of the data. Based upon the results of the preliminary study, several grout formulas were found that produced acceptable grouts. One such formula, composed of Type III Portland cement (50 wt%), class F fly ash (28 wt%), Attapulgite-150 clay (14 wt%), and Indian red pottery clay (IRPC) (8 wt%), produced acceptable grouts with several of the waste concentrations studied. When mixed with 100% sulfate waste, this blend produced acceptable grouts at mix ratios of 8, 8.5, and 9 lb/gal. This particular blend also produced acceptable grouts at waste concentrations of 25/75 and 75/25 PSW. 12 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs

  5. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J. [Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA (United States); Adams, T.L. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to {open_quotes}activate{close_quotes} the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers.

  6. Fixation of transuranics with different degrees of oxidation on clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution coefficient (Ksub(d)) measurements available in the literature relate to plutonium, without reference to any particular valence state. It would be of interest to be able to ascertain the behaviour of this element (and the transuranics in general) from the nature of the chemical species taking part in the interaction with a natural or artificial medium (radioactive waste containment barriers). The author cites the results of measurements made for Np(IV), Np(V), Pu(IV), Pu(VI) and Am(III). Two types of clay have been tried out - bentonite and attapulgite. When the transuranic has been oxidized to a suitable degree, preferably by an electrochemical technique, it is brought into contact with a clay suspension. After stirring, decantation and filtration, the transuranic is analysed in the aqueous phase, by photospectrometry when the concentration makes it possible to do so (for NpO2+ and PuO22+, which have high molar absorption coefficients epsilon), or else by counting techniques (liquid scintillation and gamma spectrometry). The results are given in the form of graphs (log Ksub(d) = f(pH)) or tables. Emphasis is given to the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The effect of several mineral or organic anions (EDTA) on the retention of Np(V) is considered. An analysis is made of the behaviour of plutonium in accordance with its degree of oxidation. (author)

  7. Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2010-12-01

    Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (MSOF) has been investigated to improve fertilizer use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution derived from fertilizer overdosage. The special fertilizer is based on natural attapulgite (APT) clay used as a matrix, sodium alginate used as an inner coating and sodium alginate-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/humic acid (SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA) superabsorbent polymer used as an outer coating. The coated multielement compound fertilizer granules were produced in a pan granulator, and the diameter of the prills was in the range of 2.5-3.5 mm. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrients release, were examined. In addition, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D of nutrients in MSOF. The degradation of the SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA coating was assessed by examining the weight loss with incubation time in soil. It is demonstrated that the product prepared by a simple route with good slow-release property may be expected to have wide potential applications in modern agriculture and horticulture. PMID:21058723

  8. Qualitative analysis of Pb liquid sample using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualitative analysis of liquid sample containing 1,000 ppm of Pb was performed by using LIBS technique. In order to avoid splashing off of the liquid sample during laser irradiation, a sample pretreatment was done, namely the liquid sample was absorbed by using commercial available stomach medicine. Two kinds of absorbent materials were chosen in this experiment, first containing 125 mg activated carbon and second 600 mg activated attapulgite. These absorbent materials were used since carbon sample gives better absorption of infrared laser irradiation used in this experiment. In order to characterize the absorption process, three treatments were conducted in this experiment; first, without heating the sample but varying the absorption time before laser irradiation; second by varying the heating temperature after certain time of absorption process and third by varying the temperature only. The maximum emission intensity of Pb I 405.7 nm was found in the second treatment of heating the sample till 85°C after 30 minutes absorption of the liquid sample in both absorbent materials

  9. 聚苯胺无溶剂聚氨酯防锈涂料的研制%Preparation of Polyaniline Solvent-free Polyurethane Anti-rust Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵绍洪; 张辉耀; 刘志文

    2012-01-01

    介绍了以蓖麻油酸改性环氧酯为含羟基树脂,以二丁胺改性1,6-己二醇二缩水甘油醚为反应性稀释剂,配合聚苯胺/凹凸棒纳米复合材料、磷钛粉、吸水剂等组成A组分,采用含-NCO基的聚氨酯预聚体为B组分,将A组分和B组分按规定比例混合均匀后涂布在金属表面即形成一种无溶剂、不含重金属的新型环境友好金属防锈涂料。%A two-component anti-rust coatings formula is designed in this paper. The component A includes ricinoleic acid modified epoxy ester as hydroxyl resin, n-dibutylamine modified 1,6-hexylene glycol two glycidyl ether as reactive thinner, Polyaniline/Attapulgite nanocomposites, titanium phosphide powder and water absorbent. The component B includes --NCO polyurethane prepolymer. The two components are mixed at some proportion and applied on the metal surface to serve as non- solvent non-heavy metal environmental friendly metal anti-rust coatings.

  10. Variability in properties of grouted Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Transportable Grout Facility (TGF) is being constructed at the Hanford site in Washington State to convert various low-level liquid wastes to a grout waste form for onsite disposal. The TGF Project is managed by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has provided a grout formulation for Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste, the first waste stream scheduled for grouting beginning in late 1987. The formulation includes a blend of portland cement, fly ash, attapulgite clay, and an illitic clay. Grout will be produced by mixing the blend with Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste. These wastes result from decontamination and ion-exchange regeneration activities at Hanford's N-Reactor. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting studies on grouted Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste to verify that the grout can be successfully processed and, when hardened, that it will meet all performance and regulatory requirements. As part of these studies, PNL is assessing the variability that may be encountered when processing Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste grout. Sources of variability that may affect grout properties include the composition and concentrations of the waste and dry solids, temperature, efficiency of dry solids blending, and dry blend storage time. 13 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Human epidemiology: a review of fiber type and characteristics in the development of malignant and nonmalignant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, J A

    1990-01-01

    Consideration of the human epidemiology of diseases arising from exposure to naturally occurring and man-made mineral fibers encompasses the several forms of asbestos (chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite-actinolite), other naturally occurring silicates (talc, sepiolite, erionite, attapulgite, vermiculite, and wollastonite), and man-made mineral fibers (glass continuous filament, glass/rock/slag insulation wools, ceramic and other refractory fibers, and glass microfibers). The diseases arising from exposures to some of these fibers include pleural thickening (plaques, diffuse pleural thickening, and calcification), pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancers, mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum, and other cancers). Risk factors important in assessing these diseases include assessment of latency, duration of exposure, cumulative exposure, fiber origin and characteristics (length and diameter), other possible confounding occupational or environmental exposures, and smoking. Methodological issues commonly presenting problems in evaluation of these data include assessment of the adequacy of environmental exposures, particularly in regard to fiber identification, distribution, and concentration over the duration of exposure, and the adequacy of study design to detect health effects (disease frequency, latency, and cohort size). Research priorities include further assessment and standardization of pleural thickening relative to fiber exposure, uniform mesothelioma surveillance, further epidemiological assessment of certain silicate and man-made mineral fiber cohorts with emphasis given to assessment of tremolite and small diameter glass and ceramic fibers. Further assessment of possible health risks of the general public should await improved definition of relevant fiber exposure in ambient air. PMID:2272325

  12. Hybrid systems based on "drug - in cyclodextrin - in nanoclays" for improving oxaprozin dissolution properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Paola; Maestrelli, Francesca; Aguzzi, Carola; Viseras, César

    2016-07-25

    A combined approach based on drug complexation with cyclodextrins, and complex entrapment in nanoclays has been investigated, to join in a single delivery system the benefits of these carriers and potentiate their ability to improve the dissolution properties of oxaprozin (OXA), a poorly water-soluble anti-inflammatory drug. Based on previous studies, randomly methylated ß-cyclodextrin (RAMEB) was chosen as the most effective cyclodextrin for OXA complexation. Adsorption equilibrium studies performed on three different clays (sepiolite, attapulgite, bentonite) allowed selection of sepiolite (SV) for its greater adsorption power towards OXA. DSC and XRPD studies indicated drug amorphization in both binary OXA-RAMEB coground and OXA-SV cofused products, due to its complexation or very fine dispersion in the clay structure, respectively. The drug amorphous state was maintained also in the ternary OXA-RAMEB-SV cofused system. Dissolution studies evidenced a clear synergistic effect of RAMEB complexation and clay nanoencapsulation in improving the OXA dissolution properties, with an almost 100% increase in percent dissolved and dissolution efficiency compared to the OXA-RAMEB coground system. Therefore, the proposed combined approach represents an interesting tool for improving the therapeutic effectiveness of poorly soluble drugs, and reducing the CD amount necessary for obtaining the desired drug solubility and dissolution rate increase. PMID:27188644

  13. 低分子量有机酸对粘土矿物吸附二氯喹啉酸的影响%Effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids on adsorption of quinclorac by clay minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽华; 龚道新; 袁雅洁; 肖浩; 周健; 孟磊; 陈宣宇; 丁春霞

    2013-01-01

    采用批量平衡法,研究了6种低分子量有机酸(柠檬酸、酒石酸、苹果酸、乙酸、草酸和丁二酸)对3种粘土矿物(高岭土、蒙脱石、凹凸棒石)吸附二氯喹啉酸的影响.结果表明:当低分子量有机酸存在时,供试3种粘土矿物对二氯喹啉酸的吸附过程可用Linear和Freundlich吸附等温方程描述,且Freundlich方程的拟合效果更好.供试6种有机酸对二氯喹啉酸在高岭土中吸附量的影响程度从低到高依次为苹果酸<柠檬酸<草酸<乙酸<酒石酸<丁二酸,在蒙脱石中的顺序为乙酸<草酸<苹果酸<丁二酸<酒石酸<柠檬酸,在凹凸棒石中的顺序为乙酸<丁二酸<草酸<苹果酸<酒石酸<柠檬酸.不同浓度低分子量有机酸对3种供试粘土矿物吸附二氯喹啉酸均能产生显著的影响,但影响程度因粘土矿物和有机酸种类的不同而有较大差异.%The effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids (citric acid,tartaric acid,malic acid,acetic acid,oxalic acid and succinic acid) on adsorption of quinclorac by three clay minerals (kaolinite,montmorillonite and attapulgite) was investigated by a batch experimental technique.The results showed that the adsorption isotherm of quinclorac in clay minerals could be well described by Freundlich and Linear equation under the presence of low-molecular-weight organic acids,but the Freundlich equation was more suitable.The tested six kinds of low-molecular-weight organic acid showed different effects on adsorption quantity of quinclorac on kaolinite.The order from low to high influence were:malic acid < citric acid < oxalic acid < acetic acid < tartaric acid < succinic acid; whereas on montmorillonite from low to high order were:acetic acid < oxalic acid < malic acid < succinic acid <tartaric acid < citric acid; on attapulgite:acetic acid < succinic acid < oxalic acid < malic acid < tartaric acid < citric acid.In conclusion

  14. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Stabilization is a best demonstrated available technology, or BDAT. This technology traps toxic contaminants in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California`s and EPA`s, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. The concentration in the leachate is approximately ten times higher for the STLC procedure than the TCLP. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens) when formulating a stabilization matrix, and they have a neutral pH. By using these clays and additives, LLNL`s highly concentrated wastewater treatment sludges have passed the TCLP and STLC tests. The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  15. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabilization traps toxic contaminants (usually both chemically and physically) in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. Typical contaminants are metals (mostly transition metals) that exhibit the characteristic of toxicity. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP-the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC-the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California's and EPA's, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens). The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements

  16. On the mineral characteristics and geochemistry of the Florida phosphate of Four Corners and Hardee County mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdady, Ashraf R.; Howari, Fares M.; Al-Wakeel, Mohamed I.

    2016-08-01

    The Florida phosphate deposits in Four Corners and Hardee County mines are composed mainly of phosphate minerals and quartz in addition to subordinate proportions of feldspars, dolomite, calcite, gypsum, kaolinite, attapulgite and montmorillonite. These phosphorites contain three structurally different types of mudclasts: massive mudclasts, mudclasts with concentric structure and mudclasts consisting of agglomerates of apatite microparticles. The latter are represented by particles resembling phosphatized fossil bacteria associated with microbial filaments, and hollow apatite particles having surfacial coatings and connected to microbial filaments. The Florida phosphate particles are reworked and vary in mineral composition, color and shape. They are composed of a mixture of well-crystalline species including carbonate fluorapatite (francolite), carbonate apatite and fluorapatite. The color variation of the phosphate particles is related to difference in mineral composition, extent of diagenetic effects and reworking. The light-colored mudclasts are characterized by the presence of carbonate apatite and aluminum hydroxide phosphate minerals, whereas the dark mudclasts are rich in iron aluminum hydroxide phosphate minerals. The Florida phosphorites are suggested to be formed partially by authigenetic precipitation, replacement of the sea floor carbonate and diatomite, and microbial processes. With respect to elemental geochemistry, the analyzed particles contain small percentages of sulfur and iron which are related to the occurrence of pyrite. Traces of silica and alumina are recorded which may be attributed to the diagenetic. Some of the tested particles are relatively rich in phosphorous, fluorine, calcium, and magnesium, while poor in silicon, potassium and sulfur. Whereas, the bioclasts (especially teeth) are relatively rich in calcium, phosphorous and fluorine while poor in silicon, aluminum, magnesium and potassium. Hence, the microchemical analyses revealed

  17. Interaction of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts with arsenic and other potentially toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbionts to arsenic, and arsenic interactions with phosphorus and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soils from a former arsenic mine, the Devon Great Consols, were investigated. The objective was to determine whether AM associations ameliorate arsenic toxicity in Plantago lanceolata and Agrostis capillaris, plants commonly found at abandoned mines. An exploratory investigation indicated the richness in biodiversity of AMF that colonised plants growing at the site. Arsenic was found at high concentrations and was strongly associated with copper and iron. P. lanceolata was always colonised by AMF, while colonisation of A. capillaris was variable. There was no evidence in the field of soil pH or PTEs influencing AMF colonisation and spore density. There was no strong correlation between arsenic content in plant and available arsenic, obtained through various extraction methods. Spore germination and infectivity in the mine soils were strongly influenced by the AMF genotype and to a lesser extent by the soil environment. P. lanceolata and A. capillaris root growth was inhibited at arsenic concentrations of ≥50 μg g-1 in agar. Bioavailability experiments using mine soils and Terra-GreenTM (calcined attapulgite) spiked with sodium arsenate gave no evidence that AMF-colonised plants translocated less arsenic to the shoots. Plants accumulated more arsenic in their roots than in their shoots, whether they were colonised by AMF or not. The A. capillaris genotype used in the present study translocated less of both arsenic and phosphorus to its shoots than P. lanceolata. High available phosphorus in Terra-GreenTM protected plants against arsenic toxicity, at -1 As. There was evidence for inhibition by arsenic in AMF colonisation of roots. For quantifying AMF extra radical hyphae contribution to arsenic transportation from growth medium to plant using a compartmented pot system, the use of low phosphorus medium and a longer

  18. Synthesis of novel inorganic–organic hybrid materials for simultaneous adsorption of metal ions and organic molecules in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Novel hybrid materials were synthesized and employed in the absorption of heavy metal and organic pollutants. ► A novel method for amphiphilic adsorbent material synthesis was first reported in this paper. ► The adsorbent material showed excellent adsorption capacity to Pb(II) and phenol. - Abstract: In this paper, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and radical grafting polymerization were combined to synthesize a novel amphiphilic hybrid material, meanwhile, the amphiphilic hybrid material was employed in the absorption of heavy metal and organic pollutants. After the formation of attapulgite (ATP) ATRP initiator, ATRP block copolymers of styrene (St) and divinylbenzene (DVB) were grafted from it as ATP-P(S-b-DVB). Then radical polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) was carried out with pendent double bonds in the DVD units successfully, finally we got the inorganic–organic hybrid materials ATP-P(S-b-DVB-g-AN). A novel amphiphilic hybrid material ATP-P(S-b-DVB-g-AO) (ASDO) was obtained after transforming acrylonitrile (AN) units into acrylamide oxime (AO) as hydrophilic segment. The adsorption capacity of ASDO for Pb(II) could achieve 131.6 mg/g, and the maximum removal capacity of ASDO towards phenol was found to be 18.18 mg/g in the case of monolayer adsorption at 30 °C. The optimum pH was 5 for both lead and phenol adsorption. The adsorption kinetic suited pseudo-second-order equation and the equilibrium fitted the Freundlich model very well under optimal conditions. At the same time FT-IR, TEM and TGA were also used to study its structure and property.

  19. Synthesis of novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials for simultaneous adsorption of metal ions and organic molecules in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xinliang [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Yanfeng, E-mail: liyf@lzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, Cui; Ma, Yingxia; Yang, Liuqing; Hu, Huaiyuan [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel hybrid materials were synthesized and employed in the absorption of heavy metal and organic pollutants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel method for amphiphilic adsorbent material synthesis was first reported in this paper. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorbent material showed excellent adsorption capacity to Pb(II) and phenol. - Abstract: In this paper, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and radical grafting polymerization were combined to synthesize a novel amphiphilic hybrid material, meanwhile, the amphiphilic hybrid material was employed in the absorption of heavy metal and organic pollutants. After the formation of attapulgite (ATP) ATRP initiator, ATRP block copolymers of styrene (St) and divinylbenzene (DVB) were grafted from it as ATP-P(S-b-DVB). Then radical polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) was carried out with pendent double bonds in the DVD units successfully, finally we got the inorganic-organic hybrid materials ATP-P(S-b-DVB-g-AN). A novel amphiphilic hybrid material ATP-P(S-b-DVB-g-AO) (ASDO) was obtained after transforming acrylonitrile (AN) units into acrylamide oxime (AO) as hydrophilic segment. The adsorption capacity of ASDO for Pb(II) could achieve 131.6 mg/g, and the maximum removal capacity of ASDO towards phenol was found to be 18.18 mg/g in the case of monolayer adsorption at 30 Degree-Sign C. The optimum pH was 5 for both lead and phenol adsorption. The adsorption kinetic suited pseudo-second-order equation and the equilibrium fitted the Freundlich model very well under optimal conditions. At the same time FT-IR, TEM and TGA were also used to study its structure and property.

  20. Detection of Soluble and Fixed NH4+ in Clay Minerals by DTA and IR Reflectance Spectroscopy : A Potential Tool for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice, Bishop; Banin, A.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Klovstad, M. R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential element for life. It is the only element among the six major biogenic elements, C, O, S, O, P, H, whose presence in the Martian soil has not been positively and directly established. We describe here a study assessing the ability to detect NH4 in soils by two methods: differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy. Four standard clay minerals (kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite and attapulgite) and an altered tephra sample from Mauna Kea were treated with NH4 in this study. Samples of the NH4-treated and leached clays were analyzed by DTA and infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy to quantify the delectability of soluble and sorbed/fixed NH4. An exotherm at 270-280 C was clearly detected in the DTA curves of NH4-treated (non-leached) samples. This feature is assigned to the thermal decomposition reaction of NH4. Spectral bands observed at 1.56, 2.05, 2.12, 3.06, 3.3, 3.5, 5.7 and 7.0 microns in the reflectance spectra of NH4-treated and leached samples are assigned to the sorbed/fixed ammonium in the clays. The montmorillonite has shown the most intense absorbance due to fixed ammonium among the leached samples in this study, as a result of its high cation sorption capacity. It is concluded that the presence of sorbed or fixed NH4 in clays may be detected by infrared (IR) reflectance or emission spectroscopy. Distinction between soluble and sorbed NH4 may be achieved through the presence or absence of several spectral features assigned to the sorbed NH4 moietyi and, specifically, by use of the 4.2 micrometer feature assigned to solution NH4. Thermal analyses furnish supporting evidence of ammonia in our study through detection of N released at temperatures of 270-330 C. Based on these results it is estimated that IR spectra measured from a rover should be able to detect ammonia if present above 20 mg NH4/g sample in the surface layers. Orbital IR spectra and thermal analyses measured on a rover may be able to

  1. The Effect of Clay Kind on Properties of Corresponding Poly(Acrylic Acid/Acrylamide/Clay) Superabsorbents%粘土种类对聚丙烯酸俩烯酰胺高吸水树脂性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴紫平; 索红莉; 张腾; 袁慧萍; 王毅; 刘敏; 马磷

    2012-01-01

    选用含量相同的六种不同粘土(煅烧高岭土、蒙脱土、凹凸棒土、膨润土、海泡石和硅藻土),采用反相悬浮法制备了一系列聚(丙烯酸/丙烯酰胺/粘土)高吸水树脂,并比较了不同粘土对高吸水树脂结构、吸水倍率、吸盐水倍率以及保水性能、热稳定性的影响。通过比较发现,添加膨润土的高吸水树脂具有最高的吸水倍率(450 g/g)和吸盐水倍率(92 g/g);添加膨润土和煅烧高岭土均可提高高吸水树脂的保水性能。此外,煅烧高岭土可以更为有效地提高高吸水树脂的热稳定性。%A series of poly(acrylic acid/acrylamide/clay) superabsorbents with 10% different kinds clay,which including calcined kaolin,montmorillonite,attapulgite,bentonite,sepiolite and diatomite,were prepared by inverse suspension polymerization method.The effects of clay kinds on structure,equilibrium water absorbency,equilibrium 0.9% NaCl absorbency,the water-retention capability and thermal stability of the superabsorbent composites were also systematically investigated in the same condition.It is found that the superabsorbent incorporated with bentonite has the best equilibrium water absorbency(450 g/g) and equilibrium 0.9% NaCl absorbency(92 g/g).Moreover,bentonite and calcined kaolin ones show the best capability of maintenancewater.Besides,the calcined kaolin can enhance the thermal stability of corresponding superabsorbent to the highest degree.

  2. 水分缓释在柠条复合型包衣种子中的研究%Water release in composite coating of Caragana korshinskii seeds.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏立强; 李加国; 姜祛寒; 汪晓峰

    2015-01-01

    飞播包衣种子技术是沙区植被恢复与重建的重要手段,但目前该技术存在一个亟需解决的问题,即飞播种子的成活率低. 本文以沙生先锋植物柠条种子为材料,利用正交试验设置不同包衣材料组合,再通过研究不同组分的包衣种子发芽率、苗质量以及包衣种子的多项物理指标,确立了适合柠条种子的丸化包衣剂最佳配方,即乙基纤维素1. 5%、凹凸棒黏土和滑石粉的比例为2:1和10%的"旱可舒"保水剂,并且最终的丸化倍率为1. 0. 该丸化包衣种子具有一定的吸水功能,在丸化包衣的基础上,再筛选出"尤特奇(Eudragit) RS 30D"为成膜材料,制成厚度为10%的包衣薄膜,该薄膜可以有效"控制"柠条种子在不适合成苗的降雨量下的萌发,同时不影响在丰富降雨量条件下正常萌发与成苗. 毛乌素沙漠实地播种试验结果表明,经过丸化包衣处理的柠条种子,其成苗率提高了22%;对丸化包衣处理的柠条种子,再经过外敷薄膜包衣处理后,其成苗率提高了88%,明显高于丸化包衣处理的种子.这种复合型的丸化薄膜包衣种子可为毛乌素沙区的飞播治沙提供新的思路.%Aerial-seeding afforestation, as a quick, effective measure, has become an important approach for vegetation restoration and reconstruction in hinterland of Mu Us Sandy Land of northern China. However, the low survival rate of seedlings is a problem that needs to be resolved urgently. We selected Caragana korshinskii as the material, and set different combinations of coating agents by orthogonal experiment to pellet Caragana korshinskii seeds. After analysis of the germination rate, seedling growth, and the physical properties of each group, the optimum formula was obtained as 1. 5% ethyecellulose, ratio of attapulgite clay to talc 2:1, 10% super absorbent polymers, and the pelleting ratio 1. And the pelleted seeds had water-absorbing ability. After pelleting, eudragit

  3. Total allowable concentrations of monomeric inorganic aluminum and hydrated aluminum silicates in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, Calvin C; Ball, Gwendolyn L; McLellan, Clifton J

    2012-05-01

    Maximum contaminant levels are used to control potential health hazards posed by chemicals in drinking water, but no primary national or international limits for aluminum (Al) have been adopted. Given the differences in toxicological profiles, the present evaluation derives total allowable concentrations for certain water-soluble inorganic Al compounds (including chloride, hydroxide, oxide, phosphate and sulfate) and for the hydrated Al silicates (including attapulgite, bentonite/montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite) in drinking water. The chemistry, toxicology and clinical experience with Al materials are extensive and depend upon the particular physical and chemical form. In general, the water solubility of the monomeric Al materials depends on pH and their water solubility and gastrointestinal bioavailability are much greater than that of the hydrated Al silicates. Other than Al-containing antacids and buffered aspirin, food is the primary source of Al exposure for most healthy people. Systemic uptake of Al after ingestion of the monomeric salts is somewhat greater from drinking water (0.28%) than from food (0.1%). Once absorbed, Al accumulates in bone, brain, liver and kidney, with bone as the major site for Al deposition in humans. Oral Al hydroxide is used routinely to bind phosphate salts in the gut to control hyperphosphatemia in people with compromised renal function. Signs of chronic Al toxicity in the musculoskeletal system include a vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia (deranged membranous bone formation characterized by accumulation of the osteoid matrix and reduced mineralization, reduced numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, decreased lamellar and osteoid bands with elevated Al concentrations) presenting as bone pain and proximal myopathy. Aluminum-induced bone disease can progress to stress fractures of the ribs, femur, vertebrae, humerus and metatarsals. Serum Al ≥100 µg/L has a 75-88% positive predictive value for Al bone disease. Chronic Al

  4. Effect of Nano-Packing Material on Improvement of Preservation Quality of Agaricus bisporus%纳米包装材料延长双孢蘑菇贮藏品质的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文建; 胡秋辉; 单楠; 杨芹; 方勇; 赵立艳; 安辛欣; 马宁; 刘音宏; 辛志宏

    2012-01-01

    [目的]通过制备一种含纳米Ag、纳米TiO2和凹凸棒土的纳米包装聚乙烯(PE)包装薄膜,研究双孢蘑菇在4℃下贮藏10d期间,纳米包装材料对其感官品质、生理指标和营养指标变化的影响.[方法]跟踪检测贮藏过程中双孢蘑菇的失重率、白度、相对电导率、多酚氧化酶活性、丙二醛、总糖和可溶性蛋白含量等指标的变化,分析纳米包装材料和普通聚乙烯材料对双孢蘑菇感官品质、生理指标和营养指标的影响.[结果]与普通聚乙烯包装材料相比,添加纳米粒子的包装材料能够较好地抑制双孢蘑菇发生失水萎蔫和褐变现象,使其保持贮藏前洁白色的感官品质.贮藏10d后,纳米包装材料处理组双孢蘑菇的失重率、相对电导率、丙二醛含量和多酚氧化酶活性分别为1.46%、22.5%、3.50 μmol·kg-1、161.89 U·g-1·min-1,显著低于对照处理组的1.86%、30.2%、4.66μm01·kg-1和233.84 U.g-1·min-1,(P<0.05),而总糖和可溶性蛋白等营养成分的保留量均显著高于对照组的含量.[结论]纳米包装材料能够有效抑制贮藏期间双孢蘑菇感官品质的劣变,降低营养价值的损失,提高综合贮藏品质,延长贮藏时间.%[Objective] A polyethylene (PE) packing material containing nano-Ag, nano-TiO2, and attapulgite was prepared and applied in the preservation of Agaricus bisporus, and its effects on sensory quality and physiological and nutritional properties of Agaricus bisporus were analyzed and determined during the 10 days storage at 4 ℃. [Method] The effect of nano-packing material on sensory quality, physiological indexes and main nutritional value of Agaricus bisporus was studied by tracking the changes of weight loss, whiteness, relative conductivity, polyphenoloxidase activity, and MDA, total sugar and soluble protein contents. The normal PE material was used as control. [Result] Compared with the control, water loss and browning of

  5. Les formations marines et continentales intervolcaniques des îles Canaries orientales (Grande Canarie. Fuerteventura et Lanzarote: Stratigraphie et signiflcation paleoclimatique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meco, J.

    1985-08-01

    especies de Patella, y de carácter fresco (Meco, 1977 se habían relacionado con episodios volcánicos datados por K/Ar (Meco y Stearns, 1981 y se relacionan ahora, por primera vez, con algunos trazos rápidos de la pedogénesis, consecuencia de la evaporación y neoformación arcillosa en materiales volcánicos constantemente renovados. A medida que las series volcánicas fosilizan alteraciones se eliminan algunos efectos acumulativos del tiempo en los paleosuelos. La presencia de cuarzo sahariano, mineral ausente en los productos volcánicos, y la coexistencia de los extremos más alejados de la evolución pedológica, como las costras yesíferas o con attapulgita desérticas y las bauxitas niquelíferas con talco de regiones tropicales húmedas (pomel, 1985 permiten, en todo caso, obtener conclusiones coherentes.
    Faune et sols fossilisés par des volcans actifs depuis plus de 20 M. A. à l'époque actuel le attestent une alternance d'influences guinéennes chaudes et humides et de flux sahariens secs liés à l'apport d'eaux lusitaniques fraîches. Les preuves paléontologiques sont fondées sur la présence du Strombus coronatus au Pliocene inférieur et du Strombus bubonius au Pleistocéne supérieur et de Patella au Pleistocene moyen et supérieur el: au Holocene (Meco, 1977. Les preuves pédologiques reposent sur la présence de quartz saharien, minéral absent dans les produits volcaniques et sur la coexistence des póles les plus extremes de l'évolution pédologique : croûtes gypseuses ou à attapulgite désertiques et bauxites nickeliféres a talc des régions tropicales humides (Pomel, 1984.

  6. Evidence-Based Evaluation and Selection of Essential Medicine for Township Health Centre in China: 8.Acute Gastroenteritis%我国示范乡镇卫生院基本药物循证评价与遴选之八:急性胃肠炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萃萃; 李筱; 杨宗霞; 李向莲; 李幼平; 李鸿浩; 王应强; 杨晓妍; 王莉; 钟大可; 沈建通

    2012-01-01

    期妇女及儿童不使用本品).建议今后的临床研究和实践应规范、统一诊断及标准,提高临床研究设计和实施质量,并全面开展药物适用性和经济性的原始研究,生产高质量本土化证据.%Objective To evaluate and select essential medicine for acute gastroenteritis using evidence-based approaches based on the burden of disease for township health centers located in eastern, central and western regions of China. Methods By means of the approaches, criteria, and workflow set up in the second article of this series, we referred to the recommendations of evidence-based or authority guidelines from inside and outside China, collected relevant evidence from domestic clinical studies, and recommended essential medicine based on evidence-based evaluation. Data were analyzed by Review Manager (RevMan) 5.1 and GRADE profiler 3.6 to evaluate quality of evidence. Results (1) Five guidelines were included, two of which were evidence-based. (2) Recommended medicines included eight antidiarrheals (of four classes) and three antemetics. (3) According to WHOEML (2011), NEML (2009), CNF (2010), other guidelines and the quantity and quality of evidence, we offered a weak recommendation for ondansetron, metoclopra-mide, smectite, racecadotril and loperamide applied in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis. We made a recommendation against antibiotics, dexamethasone, kaolin-pectin, activated charcoal, attapulgite and bismuth subsalicylate. (4) Evidence from domestic studies: a result of 14 CCTs (n=1 635, low quality) indicated that in the significant efficiency and total efficiency, smectite (smecta) was superior to routine liquid infusion, norfloxacin, gentamicin or furaxone. Among these 14 CCTs, two CCTs reported smectite (smecta) caused nausea and vomiting (three cases); one CCT reported pain and dis-tention in the abdomen (one case) and general discomfort (one case); and the rest reported no adverse reaction. A result of 10 CCTs (n=1