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Sample records for attapulgite

  1. ADSORPTION OF METHYLENE BLUE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION ON ATTAPULGITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Deping; LV Pengfei; YAN Yongsheng; LIU Hui; WANG Guanjun

    2007-01-01

    Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution using attapulgite as adsorbent. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, contact time, the pH value, and attapulgite dosage on the adsorption performance were investigated. The standard curve and regression equation were established by spectrophotometry. The adsorption experimental results showed that the adsorption equilibrium data were well in accord with Langmuir adsorptive model. The optimal result was acquired under the experimental condition of attapulgite dosage 0.18g, MB concentration 50.0mg/L, pH 10, and adsorption time 20min at room temperature.

  2. Polyurethane Grafted Attapulgite as Novel Fillers for Nylon 6 Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jianshe; YANG Xujie; HAN Qiaofeng; WANG Xin; LU Lude

    2011-01-01

    Attapulgite fibers were modified by polyurethane,forming polyurethane grafted attapulgite (AT-PU),which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR),X-ray diffraction (XRD)and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS).Nylon 6/AT-PU nanocomposites of different modified attapulgite loadings were prepared by melt blending in a twin screw extruder.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)observation on the fracture surfaces of the nanocomposites showed not only a uniform dispersion of AT-PU but also a strong interfacial adhesion with the matrix.Differential scanning calorimeter(DSC)and Thermogravimetric analyzer(TGA)were used to illustrate the influence of AT-PU particles on the thermal properties of the nylon 6/AT-PU nanocomposites.The results indicated that the addition of attapulgite probably induced the heterogeneous nucleation and was favorable for the formation of γ-crystalline form,and that the higher thermal stability was obtained for the composites.

  3. Preparation and Characteristics of Polystyrene/Attapulgite Composites Via In-siu Suspension Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Kunyan

    2016-01-01

    A series of polystyrene/attapulgite composites were synthesized through suspension polymerization. The composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction. FTIR results show that there was no significant change in the peak positions and the peak intensity for polystyrene/attapulgite composites compared to the pure polystyrene. There is a rise in thermal stability of composites compared to pure polystyrene. Attapulgite a...

  4. Mechanical properties of attapulgite clay reinforced polyurethane shape-memory nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Bin; Huang, W.M.; Pei, Y.T.; Chen, Zhenguo; Kraft, A.; Reuben, R.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Fu, Y.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on attapulgite clay and shape-memory polyurethane were fabricated by mechanical mixing. The mechanical properties of samples were evaluated using a micro-indentation tester. The untreated commercial attapulgite clay resulted in a significant decrease in glass transition temperat

  5. Preparation and Characteristics of Polystyrene/Attapulgite Composites Via In-siu Suspension Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kunyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of polystyrene/attapulgite composites were synthesized through suspension polymerization. The composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction. FTIR results show that there was no significant change in the peak positions and the peak intensity for polystyrene/attapulgite composites compared to the pure polystyrene. There is a rise in thermal stability of composites compared to pure polystyrene. Attapulgite acts as an effective thermal barrier and thereby hinders the degradtion of polystyrene.

  6. Increased maize yield using slow-release attapulgite-coated fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Yu; Song, Chao; Gan, Yantai; Li, Feng-Min

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Slow-release fertilizers could improve the productivity of field crops and reduce environmental pollution. So far, no slow-release fertilizers are suited for maize cultivation in semiarid areas of China. Therefore, we tested attapulgite-coated fertilizers. Attapulgite-coated fertilizers were prepared by dividing chemical fertilizers into three parts according to the nutrient demand of maize in its three main growth stages and coating each part with a layer of attapulgi...

  7. Mechanical & morphological properties of attapulgite/NR composites: Effect of mixing time variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nor, Nor Aina Mohd, E-mail: ayena90@yahoo.com; Othman, Nadras, E-mail: srnadras@usm.my; Ismail, Hanafi, E-mail: ihanafi@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The development of composite material based on attapulgite clay (ATP) as a filler and natural rubber (NR) matrices were prepared by combination of melt mixing and latex compounding methods. Sonication technique was chosen in this work to disperse the attapulgite suspension. 6 phr of attapulgite loading was fabricated using different time of mixing ranging from 30 minutes until 2 hours and sonication time was kept constant at 15 minutes. Then, co-coagulating HA latex with attapulgite clay suspension through latex compounding method produced the masterbatch. The masterbatch was compounded with natural rubber by melt mixing method. The mechanical and morphological characteristics were investigated in this work. From mechanical testing, M1 showed the highest value of tensile and tear strength. By comparing with M30 and M2, M1 shows high 300% tensile modulus and lower crosslink density. However, when the time of mixing was prolonged to 2 hours, the results for tensile strength, elongation at break and tear strength were decreased. This is due to flocculation of attapulgite particles. Sonication techniques also proved that the tensile strength and elongation at break of these three samples were higher compared to gum NR (NR) and attapulgite compounded with NR using a conventional method (in-situ 6). From field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) results, it revealed that M1 had good dispersion in the NR system. It is proved that the higher tensile strength was due to good dispersion of attapulgite clay in the NR matrix. It was also supported from crosslink density, which is lower than NR and in-situ 6 results. It showed that the penetration of toluene solvent into rubber compound was restricted. The optimum time, M1 give the best results, which can be compared to control the sample.

  8. Effective NH{sub 2}-grafting on attapulgite surfaces for adsorption of reactive dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Ailian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Key Lab for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhou, Shouyong; Zhao, Yijiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Key Lab for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Lu, Xiaoping, E-mail: xplu@njut.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China); Han, Pingfang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} We prepared a new amine functionalized adsorbent derived from clay-based material. {yields} Attapulgite surface was modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. {yields} Some modification parameters affecting the adsorption potential were investigated. {yields} Enhance the attapulgite adsorptive capacity for reactive dyes from aqueous solutions. - Abstract: The amine moiety has an important function in many applications, including, adsorption, catalysis, electrochemistry, chromatography, and nanocomposite materials. We developed an effective adsorbent for aqueous reactive dye removal by modifying attapulgite with an amino-terminated organosilicon (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES). Surface properties of the APTES-modified attapulgite were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. We evaluated the impact of solvent, APTES concentration, water volume, reaction time, and temperature on the surface modification. NH{sub 2}-attapulgite was used to remove reactive dyes in aqueous solution and showed very high adsorption rates of 99.32%, 99.67%, and 96.42% for Reactive Red 3BS, Reactive Blue KE-R and Reactive Black GR, respectively. These powerful dye removal effects were attributed to strong electrostatic interactions between reactive dyes and the grafted NH{sub 2} groups.

  9. Effective NH2-grafting on attapulgite surfaces for adsorption of reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ailian; Zhou, Shouyong; Zhao, Yijiang; Lu, Xiaoping; Han, Pingfang

    2011-10-30

    The amine moiety has an important function in many applications, including, adsorption, catalysis, electrochemistry, chromatography, and nanocomposite materials. We developed an effective adsorbent for aqueous reactive dye removal by modifying attapulgite with an amino-terminated organosilicon (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES). Surface properties of the APTES-modified attapulgite were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. We evaluated the impact of solvent, APTES concentration, water volume, reaction time, and temperature on the surface modification. NH(2)-attapulgite was used to remove reactive dyes in aqueous solution and showed very high adsorption rates of 99.32%, 99.67%, and 96.42% for Reactive Red 3BS, Reactive Blue KE-R and Reactive Black GR, respectively. These powerful dye removal effects were attributed to strong electrostatic interactions between reactive dyes and the grafted NH(2) groups.

  10. Synthesis of attapulgite/N-isopropylacrylamide and its use in drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaomo [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin (China); Zhong, Hui, E-mail: huizhong@hytc.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin (China); Li, Xiaorong, E-mail: lxr206206@163.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Jia, Feifei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin (China); Cheng, Zhipeng; Zhang, Lili; Yin, Jingzhou; An, Litao [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp078@nenu.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin (China)

    2014-12-01

    Environmentally sensitive hydrogels as one of the most potential drug delivery systems have gained considerable interest in recent years. In the present study, we synthesized a newly temperature-responsive composite hydrogel based on attapulgite (ATP) and poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) as the localized drug carriers for drug delivery. The as-prepared ATP/PNIPAM hydrogel has large aperture which significantly improved the quantity of adsorption of drugs, exhibiting the excellent properties of drug release. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the ATP/PNIPAM. The swelling/deswelling behaviors and the release of ciprofloxacin lactate were studied. When the temperature was below the low critical solution temperature (LCST), the swelling property of hydrogels was excellent and the swelling rate was large. And, the drug release rate increased with the increase of the content of attapulgite in the composite hydrogel when it was put in the buffer solution (pH 7.38) at 37.0 °C. Therefore, the composite hydrogels might be very useful for its application in biomedical fields. - Highlights: • Attapulgite/N-isopropylacrylamide hydrogels were synthesized and characterized. • The swelling property of hydrogels was excellent when temperature was below 34.0 °C. • The composite hydrogels were used for the release of ciprofloxacin lactate. • The drug release rate increased with the increase of the content of attapulgite.

  11. 3ynamic Adsorption of Microwave Modified Attapulgite on Micro-polluted Phenol Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to study the dynamic adsorption of microwave modified attapulgite on micro-polluted phenol wastewater. [Method] Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CATB) modified attapulgite was used to modify attapulgite, and conducted dynamic test on micro-polluted phenol wastewater. The dynamic charac- teristics of phenol removal were also studied. [Result] Attapulgite modified by CATB has strong adsorption ability on phenol in micro-polluted water, the phenol removal rate increased with the decrease of flow rate of wastewater. When pH value was 6- 8, phenol concentration in wastewater was 17.74 mg/L, flow rate was 2 m/s and ad- sorption time was 25 rain, the removal rate reached 93.07%. The modified atta- pulgite could be regenerated with alkali, and its adsorption ability after regeneration had no obvious decline. The dynamic adsorption process of phenol accorded with the first-order kinetic equation. [Conclusion] The study provided basis for further study on "organic matter removal in wastewater.

  12. Determination of attapulgite and nifuroxazide in pharmaceutical formulations by sequential digital derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, M Inés; Paine, Maximiliano; Leyton, Patricio; Richter, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    A new method for the sequential determination of attapulgite and nifuroxazide in pharmaceutical formulations by first- and second-derivative spectrophotometry, respectively, has been developed. In order to obtain the optimal conditions for nifuroxazide stability, studies of solvent, light, and temperature effects were performed. The results show that a previous hydrolysis of 2 h in 1.0 x 10(-1)M NaOH solution is necessary in order to obtain stable compounds for analytical purposes. Subsequently, the first- and second-derivative spectra were evaluated directly in the same samples. The sequential determination of the drugs can be performed using the zero-crossing method; the attapulgite determination was carried out using the first derivative at 278.0 nm and the nifuroxazide determination, using the second derivative at 282.0 nm. The determination ranges were 5.7 x 10(-6)-1.0 x 10(-4) and 3.7 x 10(-8) -1.2 x 10(-4)M for attapulgite and nifuroxazide, respectively. Repeatability (relative standard deviation) values of 1.2 and 3.0% were observed for attapulgite and nifuroxazide, respectively. The ingredients commonly found in commercial pharmaceutical formulations do not interfere. The proposed method was applied to the determination of these drugs in tablets. Further, infrared spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry studies were carried out in order to obtain knowledge of the decomposition products of nifuroxazide.

  13. Characterization of nanocomposites PHBV/attapulgite organophilic; Caracterizacao de nanocompositos PHBV/atapulgita organofilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.C.A.; Barreto, L.S., E-mail: lilianealcantara@msn.co [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Thire, R.M.S.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEMM/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) - PHBV is a biodegradable polyester which have been studied as an option for the production of disposable goods. This thermoplastic has some disadvantages that limit its use in industrial scale applications: the relative difficulty of processing, high degree of crystallinity and high cost of production relative to conventional polymers. An alternative to improve the properties of PHBV is the incorporation of small amounts of clay to the polymer. The aim of this work was to produce and characterize PHBV nanocomposites reinforced with organophilic attapulgite in different compositions. Natural attapulgite was modified with hexadecylmethylammonium chloride. The nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, SEM and Thermal analysis. It was observed reduction of the degree of crystallinity, melting and glass transition temperatures and the thermal stability of polymer in function on the addition of clay to the matrix of the PHBV. The best results were obtained for PHBV films containing 3% and 5% attapulgite. These films presented a slight increasing in processing window and decreasing in crystalline temperature and in degree of crystallinity as compared to pure PHBV. (author)

  14. Geochemical Study of Rare Earth Elements on Four Attapulgite Clay Deposits in Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天虎; 徐晓春; 鲁安怀; 岳书仓; 汪家权; 彭书传

    2003-01-01

    This paper discussed in detail about the REE component and the characteristics of the different kinds of attapulgite clay ores as well as basalts, weathered basalts in four localities of attapulgite clay deposits of Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces of China. It is concluded that the half-weathered basalts have not distinct REE fractionation and strong weathered basalts have HREE loss in the process of the basalts weathered to form smectite group minerals. And the lateritic montmorillonite clays that formed from the basalts weathering have a distinct Ce positive anomaly, a little MREE loss and LREE and HREE renew enrichment. That reflects the particular oxidation condition in the Earth's surface and the adsorption of the colloid solution of the lake water in the basin of the continent in the time of the clays formed. The attapulgite clays produced by the reaction between basalts with lake water in the original place of the basin have same REE characteristics as that of the basalts and the weathered basalts. This shows that REE does not transfer heavily in the progressive chemical weathering process. The sedimentary attapulgite clays have also a similar REE component and characteristic parameters to the basalts and the weathered basalts, and have a distinct Eu negative anomaly and a big value of LREE/HREE, which shows that the sedimentary clay came from the weathered basalts, and REE partitioning patterns characters of the clays are controlled by the residual material of the weathered basalts.

  15. Adsorption of Hg2+ from aqueous solution onto polyacrylamide/attapulgite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yijiang; Chen, Yan; Li, Meisheng; Zhou, Shouyong; Xue, Ailian; Xing, Weihong

    2009-11-15

    Polyacrylamide/attapulgite (PAM/ATP) was prepared by the solution polymerization of acrylamide (AM) onto gamma-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH-570)-modified attapulgite (ATP). PAM/ATP was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH of the initial solution on the adsorption capacities for Hg(2+) were investigated. The adsorption process was rapid; 88% of adsorption occurred within 5 min and equilibrium was achieved at around 40 min. The equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir sorption isotherms well, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Hg(2+) onto PAM/ATP was found to be 192.5 mg g(-1). The adsorption kinetics of PAM/ATP fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Our results suggest that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting steps in the process of Hg(2+) adsorption. Hg(2+) adsorbed onto PAM/ATP could be effectively desorbed in hot acetic acid solution, and the adsorption capacity of the regenerated adsorbents could still be maintained at 95% by the sixth cycle.

  16. Adsorption of Hg{sup 2+} from aqueous solution onto polyacrylamide/attapulgite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yijiang, E-mail: cyjzhao@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department of Huaiyin Teachers College, Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Chen Yan [Chemistry Department of Huaiyin Teachers College, Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China); Li Meisheng; Zhou Shouyong; Xue Ailian [Chemistry Department of Huaiyin Teachers College, Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Xing Weihong [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2009-11-15

    Polyacrylamide/attapulgite (PAM/ATP) was prepared by the solution polymerization of acrylamide (AM) onto {gamma}-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH-570)-modified attapulgite (ATP). PAM/ATP was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH of the initial solution on the adsorption capacities for Hg{sup 2+} were investigated. The adsorption process was rapid; 88% of adsorption occurred within 5 min and equilibrium was achieved at around 40 min. The equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir sorption isotherms well, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Hg{sup 2+} onto PAM/ATP was found to be 192.5 mg g{sup -1}. The adsorption kinetics of PAM/ATP fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Our results suggest that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting steps in the process of Hg{sup 2+} adsorption. Hg{sup 2+} adsorbed onto PAM/ATP could be effectively desorbed in hot acetic acid solution, and the adsorption capacity of the regenerated adsorbents could still be maintained at 95% by the sixth cycle.

  17. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil catalyzed by immobilized Burkholderia cepacia lipase on modified attapulgite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Lipase from Burkholderia cepacia was immobilized on modified attapulgite by cross-linking reaction for biodiesel production with jatropha oil as feedstock. Effects of various factors on biodiesel production were studied by single-factor experiment. Results indicated that the best conditions for biodiesel preparation were: 10 g jatropha oil, 2.4 g methanol (molar ratio of oil to methanol is 1:6.6) being added at 3h intervals, 7 wt% water, 10 wt% immobilized lipase, temperature 35°C, and time 24h. Under these conditions, the maximum biodiesel yield reached 94%. The immobilized lipase retained 95% of its relative activity during the ten repeated batch reactions. The half-life time of the immobilized lipase is 731 h. Kinetics was studied and the Vmax of the immobilized lipases were 6.823 mmol L(-1). This immobilized lipase catalyzed process has potential industrial use for biodiesel production to replace chemical-catalyzed method.

  18. Properties of natural rubber/attapulgite composites prepared by latex compounding method: Effect of filler loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muttalib, Siti Nadzirah Abdul, E-mail: sitinadzirah.amn@gmail.com; Othman, Nadras, E-mail: srnadras@usm.my; Ismail, Hanafi, E-mail: ihanafi@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This paper reports on the effect of filler loading on properties of natural rubber (NR)/attapulgite (ATP) composites. The NR/ATP composites were prepared by latex compounding method. It is called as masterbatch. The masterbatch was subsequently added to the NR through melt mixing process. The vulcanized NR/ATP composites were subjected to mechanical, swelling and morphological tests. All the results were compared with NR/ATP composites prepared by conventional system. The composites from masterbatch method showed better results compared to composites prepared by conventional method. They have higher tensile properties, elongation at break and tear strength. The images captured through scanning electron microscopy test revealed the improvement of tensile strength in masterbatch NR/ATP composites. It can be seen clearly that masterbatch NR/ATP have better filler dispersion compared to conventional method NR/ATP composites.

  19. Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Properties of Attapulgite/CeO2 Nanocomposite Films for Decomposition of Rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaowang; Li, Xiazhang; Qian, Junchao; Chen, Feng; Chen, Zhigang

    2015-08-01

    ATP(attapulgite)/CeO2 nanocomposite films were prepared on the glass substrates via a sol-gel and dip-coating route. The ATP/CeO2 nanocomposite films were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed that the ATP/CeO2 nanocomposite films were free from cracks and the nanoparticles were attached onto the surface of attapulgite. The ATP/CeO2 nanocomposite films displayed excellent catalytic activity for decomposition of Rhodamine B. The COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal rate of rhodamine B using ATP/CeO2 nanocomposite films as catalyst reached as high as 94% when the weight ratio of ATP to CeO2 was 2:1.

  20. Efficient visible and near-infrared photoluminescent attapulgite-based lanthanide one-dimensional nanomaterials assembled by ion-pairing interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Ye; Chen, Hao; Liu, Weisheng; Tang, Yu

    2014-06-07

    Attapulgite, a one-dimensional fibrillar nanomaterial present in nature, with its extreme stability, is a promising material to act as a new carrier of luminescent lanthanide complexes for further applications. Herein, a series of lanthanide complexes Na[Ln(TTA)4] have been attached to attapulgite (Atta) via ion-pairing interactions, generating the first example of attapulgite-based visible and near-infrared (NIR) luminescent lanthanide one-dimensional nanomaterials, where TTA is 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate and Ln is Eu, Sm, Nd, Er or Yb. The hybrid materials were characterized by CHN elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetry (TG), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis absorption spectra. In order to investigate the photophysical behaviours of these materials, the visible and NIR luminescent spectra and the energy transfer process have been systematically investigated. Moreover, efforts have been made to produce Eu- and Sm-based plastic attapulgite materials by utilizing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrices, and the dispersibility of the lanthanide-doped hybrids in PMMA provides them with a high mechanical strength. The lanthanide-doped attapulgite appears to be an interesting material for photophysical applications. The results of this work would have potential significance for the design and assembly of luminescent lanthanide materials for light-emitting diodes (LED), sunlight-conversion films, optical amplifiers, solar concentrators, and lasers.

  1. Preliminary characterization in the development of the nano composite low density polyethylene with attapulgite clay; Caracterizacao preliminar no desenvolvimento de nanocompositos polietileno de baixa densidade/argila atapulgita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Luanda G.; Rego, Jose K.M.A. do [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, PPGCEM/UFRN, Natal, RN (Brazil); Ito, Edson N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Depto de Engenharia de Materiais, DEMat/UFRN, Natal, RN(Brazil); Acchar, Wilson [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Depto de Fisica, DF/UFRN, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was a preliminary study of the physical, thermal and rheological properties of the materials to be used in the development of nano composite low density polyethylene (LDPE) with Brazilian attapulgite clay (ATP), with and without the use of a compatibilizing agent interfacial, polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and torque rheometry. The materials were characterized and potentially could be developed polymeric nano composites with technological applications using attapulgite fibers in the nanometer scale. (author)

  2. Pleural carcinogenic potency of mineral fibers (asbestos, attapulgite) and their cytotoxicity on cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaurand, M C; Fleury, J; Monchaux, G; Nebut, M; Bignon, J

    1987-10-01

    The carcinogenicity of several samples of mineral fibers was tested following injection of 20 mg in the pleural cavity of noninbred Sprague-Dawley rats. Three samples of chrysotile asbestos (mean length: 3.2, 2.1, and 1.2 micron) induced mesotheliomas at a rate of 48, 52, and 19%, respectively. The first sample was acid leached prior to intrapleural injection; in that group, the percentage of mesotheliomas was reduced to 25%. Treatment with amosite and crocidolite resulted in the occurrence of 57 and 56% of mesotheliomas. Acid-treatment of amphiboles did not significantly modify the percentage of mesotheliomas. When the Stanton's fiber dimensions were taken into consideration to correlate with mesothelioma incidence, the observed number of mesotheliomas in the chrysotile-treated animals was much lower than that expected, suggesting that other fiber parameters (chemistry, physicochemistry) play a role in the carcinogenicity. Attapulgite fibers (mean length: 0.77 micron) did not induce tumor, and the mean survival time was of the same order as that observed in the control groups. The injection of quartz resulted in no mesothelioma but did result in 6 malignant histiocytic lymphomas (17%) and 2 malignant schwannomas (6%). In vitro experiments did not show strong correlation between cytotoxicity and the carcinogenic potency of these minerals, but the qualitative cellular responses might give some indications on the fiber's potency. In addition, the in vitro effects of the fibers seem to be modulated by their size.

  3. Attapulgite-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposite for photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiazhang; Zhang, Zuosong; Yao, Chao; Lu, Xiaowang; Zhao, Xiaobing; Ni, Chaoying

    2016-02-01

    Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposites were synthesized by microwave assisted assembly method. The structures of the nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis, XPS and in situ TEM. The photocatalytic activities of ATP-CeO2/MoS2 composites were investigated by degradating dibenzothiophene (DBT) in gasoline under visible light irradiation. The effect of the mass ratio of CeO2 to MoS2 on photocatalytic activity was investigated. The results indicate that the three-dimensional network structure is firmly constructed by ATP skeleton, CeO2 particles and MoS2 nanosheet which effectively increase the surface area of the composites and promote the separation of electrons and holes by resulting electronic transmission channels of multi-channel in space. The degradation rate of DBT can reach 95% under 3 h irradiation when the mass ratio of CeO2/MoS2 is 4/10. A plausible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of this nanocomposite is put forward.

  4. Hydrogen Generation from Catalytic Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid by Ni/Attapulgite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishuang Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid derived from the aqueous portion of bio-oil for hydrogen production was investigated using different Ni/ATC (Attapulgite Clay catalysts prepared by precipitation, impregnation and mechanical blending methods. The fresh and reduced catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption–desorption, TEM and temperature program reduction (H2-TPR. The comprehensive results demonstrated that the interaction between active metallic Ni and ATC carrier was significantly improved in Ni/ATC catalyst prepared by precipitation method, from which the mean of Ni particle size was the smallest (~13 nm, resulting in the highest metal dispersion (7.5%. The catalytic performance of the catalysts was evaluated by the process of steam reforming of acetic acid in a fixed-bed reactor under atmospheric pressure at two different temperatures: 550 °C and 650 °C. The test results showed the Ni/ATC prepared by way of precipitation method (PM-Ni/ATC achieved the highest H2 yield of ~82% and a little lower acetic acid conversion efficiency of ~85% than that of Ni/ATC prepared by way of impregnation method (IM-Ni/ATC (~95%. In addition, the deactivation catalysts after reaction for 4 h were analyzed by XRD, TGA-DTG and TEM, which demonstrated the catalyst deactivation was not caused by the amount of carbon deposition, but owed to the significant agglomeration and sintering of Ni particles in the carrier.

  5. A hydrogen peroxide sensor based on Ag nanoparticles electrodeposited on natural nano-structure attapulgite modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huihui; Zhang, Zhe; Cai, Dongqing; Zhang, Shengyi; Zhang, Bailin; Tang, Jilin; Wu, Zhengyan

    2011-10-30

    A novel strategy to fabricate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) sensor was developed by electrodepositing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on a glassy carbon electrode modified with natural nano-structure attapulgite (ATP). The result of electrochemical experiments showed that such constructed sensor had a favorable catalytic ability to reduce H(2)O(2). The good catalytic activity of the sensor was ascribed to the ATP that facilitated the formation and homogenous distribution of small Ag NPs. The resulted sensor achieved 95% of the steady-state current within 2s and had a 2.4 μM detection limit of H(2)O(2).

  6. Synthesis of Cu/TiO2/organo-attapulgite fiber nanocomposite and its photocatalytic activity for degradation of acetone in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaoke; Wang, He; Guo, Sheng; Wang, Junting; Liu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The Cu/TiO2/organo-attapulgite fiber (CTOA) nanocomposite was synthesized by a facile method and was used for photocatalytic degradation of acetone in air under UV light irradiation. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-vis DRS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry and N2 adsorption-desorption measurement. The results showed that the structure of organo-attapulgite (OAT) had no obvious change as compared to unmodified attapulgite (AT) and the attapulgite fibers in the OAT were well-dispersed. Both micropores and mesopores exist in the CTOA catalyst. The CTOA catalysts prepared at the Cu/TiO2 molar ratio of 0.003 shows an excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of acetone in air. The synergistic effect of Cu species and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide modification can be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CTOA catalyst. The mechanism of the photocatalytic degradation of acetone by the CTOA catalyst was discussed.

  7. PREPARATION OF SURFACE ION-IMPRINTED ATTAPULGITE-SUPPORTED POLYMER AND ITS ADSORPTION BEHAVIORS OF Sr(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Jianming; YAN Yongsheng; LI Chunxiang

    2008-01-01

    The surface ion-imprinting concept and chitosan incorporated sol-gel process were applied to the preparation of a new attapulgite-supported organic-inorganic hybrid polymer for selective separation of Sr(Ⅱ) from aqueous solution.The prepared polymer was characterized with SEM, IR and XRD.The results showed that as a sorbent, it had good configuration and binding sites.Its adsorption behaviors for Sr(Ⅱ) was investigated by FAAS and ICP-AES.The effects on adsorption capacities, including pH, quiescent time, and adsorbent amount were discussed, and the adsorption isothermal curve was obtained.Then the Kd a parameter estimating relative adsorbability, was conducted to study the selectivity towards Sr(Ⅱ) of the prepared polymer.Under the optimum conditions, the ion-imprinted polymer offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption of Sr(Ⅱ) and the maximum capacity was 12.9mg/g.The Kd and K parameters estimating relative adsorbability towards target ion, suggested that selective recognition of the ion-imprinted polymer towards Sr(Ⅱ) was much higher than that of the non-imprinted polymer and attapulgite.Furthermore, the ion-imprinted polymer is of great regeneration capacity.The prepared functional polymer was shown to be promising for selective preseparation and enrichment of trace Sr(Ⅱ) in environmental samples.

  8. [Stabilization of Cadmium Contaminated Soils by Ferric Ion Modified Attapulgite (Fe/ATP)--Characterizations and Stabilization Mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yang; Li, Rong-bo; Zhou, Yong-li; Chen, Jing; Wang, Lin-ling; Lu, Xiao-hua

    2015-08-01

    Ferric ion modified attapulgite (Fe/ATP) was prepared by impregnation and its structure and morphology were characterized. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effect of Cadmium( Cd) stabilization in soil with the addition of attapulgite (ATP) and Fe/ATP. The stabilization mechanism of Cd was further elucidated by comparing the morphologies and structure of ATP and Fe/ATP before and after Cd adsorption. Fe/ATP exhibited much better adsorption capacity than ATP, suggesting different adsorption mechanisms occurred between ATP and Fe/ATP. The leaching concentrations of Cd in soil decreased by 45% and 91% respectively, with the addition of wt. 20% ATP and Fe/ATP. The former was attributed to the interaction between Cd2 and --OH groups by chemical binding to form inner-sphere complexes in ATP and the attachment between Cd2+ and the defect sites in ATP framework. Whereas Cd stabilization with Fe/ATP was resulted from the fact that the active centers (--OH bonds or O- sites) on ATP could react with Fe3+ giving Fe--O--Cd-- bridges, which helped stabilize Cd in surface soil. What'more, the ferric oxides and metal hydroxides on the surface of ATP could interact with Cd, probably by the formation of cadmium ferrite. In conclusion, Fe/ATP, which can be easily prepared, holds promise as a potential low-cost and environmental friendly stabilizing agent for remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals.

  9. PREPARATION OF SURFACE ION-IMPRINTED ATTAPULGITE-SUPPORTED POLYMER AND ITS ADSORPTION BEHAVIORS OF Sr(II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The surface ion-imprinting concept and chitosan incorporated sol-gel process were applied to the preparation of a new attapulgite-supported organic-inorganic hybrid polymer for selective separation of Sr(II) from aqueous solution. The prepared polymer was characterized with SEM, IR and XRD. The results showed that as a sorbent, it had good configuration and binding sites. Its adsorption behaviors for Sr(II) was investigated by FAAS and ICP-AES. The effects on adsorption capacities, including pH, quiescent time, and adsorbent amount were discussed, and the adsorption isothermal curve was obtained. Then the Kd a parameter estimating relative adsorbability, was conducted to study the selectivity towards Sr(II) of the prepared polymer. Under the optimum conditions, the ion-imprinted polymer offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption of Sr(II) and the maximum capacity was 12.9mg/g. The Kd and K parameters estimating relative adsorbability towards target ion, suggested that selective recognition of the ion-imprinted polymer towards Sr(II) was much higher than that of the non-imprinted polymer and attapulgite. Furthermore, the ion-imprinted polymer is of great regeneration capacity. The prepared functional polymer was shown to be promising for selective preseparation and enrichment of trace Sr(II) in environmental samples.

  10. Direct Electron Transfer of Glucose Oxidase and Glucose Biosensor Based on Nano-structural Attapulgite Clay Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU, Jiming; HAN, Wenxia; YIN, Qifan; SONG, Jie; ZHONG, Hui

    2009-01-01

    The direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) was achieved based on the immobilization of GOD on a natural nano-structural attapulgite (ATP) clay film modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The immobilized GOD displayed a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks with a formal potential (E~0) of -457.5 mV (vs. SCE) in 0.1 mol·L~(-1) pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution. The peak current was linearly dependent on the scan rate, indicating that the direct electrochemistry of GOD in that case was a surface-controlled process. The immobilized glucose oxidase could retain bioactivity and catalyze the oxidation of glucose in the presence of ferrocene monocarboxylic acid (FMCA) as a mediator with the apparent Michaclis-Menten constant K_m~(app) of 1.16 mmol·L~(-1) The electrocatalytic response showed a linear dependence on the glucose concentration ranging widely from 5.0×10~(-6) to 6.05×10~(-4) mol·L~(-1) (with correlation coefficient of 0.9960). This work demonstrated that the nano-structural attapulgite clay was a good candidate material for the direct electrochemistry of the redox-active enzyme and the construction of the related enzyme biosensors. The proposed biosensors were applied to determine the glucose in blood and urine samples with satisfactory results.

  11. Rod like attapulgite/poly(ethylene terephthalate nanocomposites with chemical bonding between the polymer chain and the filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Fu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET nanocomposites containing rod-like silicate attapulgite (AT were prepared via in situ polymerization. It is presented that PET chains identical to the matrix have been successfully grafted onto simple organically pre-modified AT nanorods (MAT surface during the in situ polymerization process. The covalent bonding at the interface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The content of grafted PET polymer on the surface of MAT was about 26 wt%. This high grafting density greatly improved the dispersion of fillers, interfacial adhesion as well as the significant confinement of the segmental motion of PET, as compared to the nanocomposites of PET/pristine AT (PET/AT. Owing to the unique interfacial structure in PET/MAT composites, their thermal and mechanical properties have been greatly improved. Compared with neat PET, the elastic modulus and the yield strength of PET/MAT were significantly improved by about 39.5 and 36.8%, respectively, by incorporating only 2 wt % MAT. Our work provides a novel route to fabricate advanced PET nanocomposites using rod-like attapulgite as fillers, which has great potential for industrial applications.

  12. An ion-imprinted polymer supported by attapulgite with a chitosan incorporated sol-gel process for selective separation of Ce(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Xiang Li; Jian Ming Pan; Jie Gao; Yong Sheng Yan; Gan Qing Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The surface ion-imprinting concept and chitosan incorporated sol-gel process were applied to the synthesis of a new attapulgite-supported polymer for selective separation of Ce(Ⅲ) from aqueous solution. The imprinting mechanism of prepared ion-imprinted polymer were discussed with the Characteristics of FT-IR and SEM. Results from the experiments of adsorption capacity and selectivity suggested that ion-imprinted polymer offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption of Ce(Ⅲ) under the optimum conditions. Its maximum adsorption capacity was 38.02 mg/g, and the selective recognition towards Ce(Ⅲ) was much higher than that of the non-imprinted polymer and attapulgite. The prepared functional polymer was shown to be promising for selective separation and enrichment of trace Ce(Ⅲ) in environmental samples.

  13. Tubelike Gold Sphere-Attapulgite Nanocomposites with a High Photothermal Conversion Ability in the Near-Infrared Region for Enhanced Cancer Photothermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Deng, Dan; Gao, Jingwen; Cai, Chenxin

    2016-04-27

    Near-infrared (NIR)-induced photothermal therapy (PTT) is now considered to be a promising and highly efficient method for tumor therapy. Photothermal agents play a crucial role in PTT, and they are required to possess the ability to harvest NIR light and transform the photon energy into heat energy. This work reports a facile method to synthesize a new PTT agent, which is based on the electrostatic binding of the Au nanospheres (Au NSs, ∼15 nm) to the surface of a nanometer-sized mineral, attapulgite, to form tubelike Au-attapulgite nanocomposites. These nanocomposites consist of numerous Au NSs, which are linked to each other along the attapulgite surface. The nanocomposites exhibit similar localized surface plasmon resonance absorption characteristics to those of Au nanorods with a longitudinal absorption mode that shifts to the NIR region (∼670 nm). Moreover, the nanocomposites have a high Cabs/Csca ratio (cross section of absorption to scattering) and photothermal conversion efficiency of 25.6%. Their photothermal therapy effect is studied using A549 cells and A549 cell-bearing nude mice as examples. The results indicate that the nanocomposites can be effectively taken up by the cells, and the nanocomposites show good biocompatibility. The A549 cells almost died after they were incubated with the nanocomposites (at 100 μg mL(-1)) for 12 h and irradiated by an 808 nm laser with a power density of 0.5 W cm(-2) for 15 min. The tumors of nude mice can also be effectively ablated without regrowth during the period of observation (at least 10 d) after photothermal therapy.

  14. Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol in groundwater by surfactant-modified attapulgite%有机改性凹土对地下水中2,4-二氯酚的吸附

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海鹰; 程阳; 秦庆东

    2012-01-01

    为了寻求修复地下水中氯酚污染物的高效吸附剂,采用十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(HDTMA)对凹凸棒土进行有机改性,考察了有机改性凹土对地下水中2,4-二氯苯酚(DCP)的吸附性能.实验结果表明,有机改性能显著提高凹凸棒土对DCP的吸附效果.当DCP浓度为20 mg/L、吸附剂投量为1.2 g/L时,有机改性凹土对DCP的去除率达到91.5%,而凹凸棒原土则仅为27.8%.有机改性凹土吸附DCP的最佳投量为1.2 g/L,最佳吸附时间为30 min.Langmuir模型和Freundlich模型均能较好地拟合DCP的等温吸附线,且前者的拟合结果更好.DCP在有机改性凹土上的饱和吸附量可达107.53 mg/g,而在凹凸棒土原土上仅为39.06 mg/g.此外,重金属离子的存在会降低有机改性凹土对DCP的吸附能力.Pb2存在时DCP在有机改性凹土上的饱和吸附容量为45.70 mg/g,Cd2+存在时则为31.20 mg/g,分别为无重金属离子存在时的42.4%和29.0%.%To seek an efficient adsorbents of chlorophenol remediation in groundwater, the adsorbent hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) attapulgite was obtained by modifying attapulgite with HDTMA, and its adsorption behaviors for 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) in groundwater samples were investigated. The experimental results show that the adsorption of DCP on HDTMA-attapulgite can be significantly enhanced by organic modification. When the concentration of DCP is 20 mg/L and the dosage of the adsorbent is 1. 2 g/L, the removal efficiency of DCP by HDTMA-attapulgite is 91.5% while it is only 27.8% by original attapulgite. The optimal dosage of HDTMA-attapulgite is 1.2 g/L and the optimal adsorption time is 30 min. The adsorption isotherms can be well described by the Langmuir and Freundlich models, and the former fits better with the experimental data. The adsorption capacities of DCP on HDTMA-attapulgite and original attapulgite are 107. 53 and 39. 06 mg/g, respectively. In addition, the adsorption capacity of DCP on HDTMA-attapulgite

  15. Dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of benzoylurea insecticides in honey samples with a β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite as sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panjie; Cui, Xiangqian; Yang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Gao, Haixiang; Lu, Runhua

    2016-01-01

    A β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite was prepared and used as a dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction sorbent for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in honey samples. Parameters that may influence the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of the eluent, the amount of the sorbent, the extraction time and the ionic strength were investigated and optimized using batch and column procedures. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained for all of the tested compounds, with R(2) values of at least 0.9834. The limits of detection were determined in the range of 0.2-1.0 μg/L. The recoveries of the four benzoylurea insecticides in vitex honey and acacia honey increased from 15.2 to 81.4% and from 14.2 to 82.0%, respectively. Although the β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite did not show a brilliant adsorption capacity for the selected benzoylurea insecticides, it exhibited a higher adsorption capacity toward relatively hydrophobic compounds, such as chlorfluazuron and hexaflumuron (recoveries in vitex honey samples ranged from 70.0 to 81.4% with a precision of 1.0-3.7%). It seemed that the logPow of the benzoylurea insecticides is related to their recoveries. The results confirmed the possibility of using cyclodextrin-modified palygorskite in the determination of relatively hydrophobic trace pharmaceutical residues.

  16. The development and application of attapulgite clay in textile dyeing and printing%凹凸棒粘土及其在纺织印染中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉环; 王改侠; 李敏; 王建庆

    2011-01-01

    介绍了凹凸棒粘土的基本结构和特性(吸附特性、流变性、可塑性、离子交换能力、催化性、填充性、化学特性)、各种改性方法(热处理法、酸化法、偶联剂处理法、阳离子表面活性剂处理法、超声波分散法、微波处理法)及在不同领域的应用情况,叙述了凹凸棒粘土在纺织印染行业(涂料、高分子材料、纺织印染加工、印染废水处理)中的应用.%The basic structure of attapulgite clay, characteristics (adsorption character, theological property,plasticity, ion exchange capacity, catalytic capability, filling property and chemical characteristics), modification methods (treatment process, acidification method, coupling finish, cationic surfactant treatment, ultrasonic dispersion and microwave treatment) and the application in different fields were mainly introducesd.The application of attapulgite clay in the textile dyeing and printing industry (pigment, polymers, textile dyeing and printing and dyeing wastewater treatment) was described.

  17. Adsorption of doxycycline on attapulgite%强力霉素在凹凸棒土上的吸附行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美兰; 邓月华; 孙成; 杨绍贵

    2012-01-01

    通过等温吸附平衡法研究了强力霉素在凹凸棒土上的吸附行为,考察了pH、反应时间、离子强度和离子类型等因素对吸附的影响,探讨了吸附机理.结果表明,pH=8.5时,饱和吸附容量最大,为293.35μmol.g-1;强力霉素在凹凸棒土上的吸附可用Langmuir型等温方程和准二级动力学方程很好地拟合;离子强度对强力霉素的吸附影响不是很明显;0.05 mol.L-1NaOH能显著地将强力霉素从凹凸棒土上解吸下来.红外表征结果说明凹凸棒土对强力霉素的吸附可能是化学吸附,酸性条件下,强力霉素主要通过阳离子交换、静电作用、氢键作用等吸附在凹凸棒土上,部分H+可能通过强力霉素质子化吸附到凹凸棒土上.弱碱性条件下主要通过水桥接,与凹凸棒土层间阳离子配位以及结合于凹凸棒土边缘吸附位点达到吸附.%The adsorption of doxycycline on attapulgite was investigated by isothermal adsorption method.The parameters affecting adsorption capacity such as adsorbent addition,pH,reaction time,ionic strength and iron type as well as adsorption mechanism were examined in detail.The experimental results showed that the adsorption capacity reached 292.35 μmol · g-1 at pH 8.5.The adsorption reaction of doxycycline was best described with Langmuir isotherm equation and pseudo-second-order kinetic model.Ionic strength had no obvious effect on the adsorption.Doxycycline desorbed remarkably in 0.05 mol · L-1 sodium hydroxide.FTIR spectra demonstrated that the major interaction force between doxycycline and attapulgite was chemical adsorption.At acidic condition,most of H+ adsorbed through the protonation of doxycycline.And cation exchange,electrostatic interaction and hygrogen bonding may be the dominate adsorption mechanisms.At weak alkali condition,doxycycline could interact with attapulgite through water bridge,coordinating with the interlayer cation of attapulgite and bonding with adsorption

  18. Effects of double roller treatment on physicochemical and adsorption properties of attapulgite clay%对辊处理对凹凸棒黏土理化性能和吸附性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颉晓玲; 汪琴; 王文波; 郑茂松

    2012-01-01

    Attapulgite clay was treated by double roller for 1~5 times,respectively,and the effect of rolling times on the micro-structure and physicochemical properties of attapulgite clay was investigated through infrared spectroscopy,scanning electronic microscopy,specific surface area and ξ potential techniques. On this basis,the adsorption properties of the double rolled attapulgite clay for diclofenac sodium were evaluated. The results showed that the aggregation of attapulgite clay was basically dissociated, and the increasing trends of specific surface area becomes weaker, and the lowest ξ potential value in distille d water was observed, after rolling for 2 times. The attapulgite clay rolling for 5 times has the greatest specific surface area, but the lowest adsorption capacities for diclofenac sodium. This indicates that the adsorption capacities of attapulgite clay were not only related to its specific surface area,but also to its surface charges as well as the polarities of the adsorbed substance.%将凹凸棒黏土分别经1~5次对辊处理后,通过红外光谱、扫描电镜、比表面积和ζ电位的测定,考察了对辊次数对凹凸棒黏土微结构和理化性能的影响.在此基础上,考察了对辊处理凹凸棒黏土对双氯芬酸钠的吸附性能.结果表明,经过2次对辊处理后,凹凸棒黏土聚集体己经基本解离,比表面积增加趋势变缓,在蒸馏水中的ζ电位最小.对辊处理5次时,比表面积最大,但对双氯芬酸钠吸附容量却最小.结果表明,凹凸棒黏土的吸附性能不仅与比表面积有关,还与凹凸棒黏土的表面电荷及所吸附物质的极性有关.

  19. Characterization of two clays - attapulgite and sepiolite - before and after acid activation; Caracterizacao de duas argilas - atapulgita e sepiolita - antes e apos ativacao acida com HCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Soares, G.A., E-mail: renataoliveira@poli.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Barreto, L.S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Among the special clays, two of them are distinguished by their large surface area: attapulgite and sepiolite. Although, being natural clays, when they are removed from the formation sites, their structural channels may be filled of impurities. The process done to clean these channels is called acid activation. The present work aim to treated samples from both clays by using 3M and 5M HCl solution under ultrasonic waves for 1 hour. The characterization of the clays before and after activation was carried out by SEM/EDS, XRD and surface area measure by method BET. The acid treatments employed were too aggressive, in special that with 5M HCl solution, which results in partial lixiviation of these clays. (author)

  20. 凹凸棒石粘土的物化性质研究进展%Research Progress on Physical and Chemical Properties of Attapulgite Clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦灼; 任珺; 陶玲; 刘丽莉; 刘辉

    2013-01-01

    Attapulgite clay has adsorption, carrier, cation exchange capacity, rheological properties, catalysis and other physical and chemical properties. Meanwhile, the treatment of acid, heat, salt exchange, purification and organic modification can effect and significantly improve the physicochemical properties of attapulgite clay. Among them, the acid changes its charged, adsorption, cation exchange capacity and specific surface area; With the rise of temperature, heat makes its surface area increasing to a maximum and then declined sharply; Purification improves colloid performance; Organic modification makes the particle surface of clay translate from full hydropho-bic to part hydrophilic, changes the specific surface area and cation exchange capacity, enhances the performance of colloidal suspension.%凹凸棒石粘土具有吸附性、载体性、阳离子交换能力、流变性、催化性等物化性质.同时,酸、热、提纯和有机改性等处理方式会对凹凸棒石粘土物化性质产生影响,能显著改善和提高凹凸棒石粘土的物化性质.其中,酸改变其带电性、吸附活性、阳离子交换容量和比表面积;随着温度的升高,热处理使其比表面积不断提高到最大值再急剧下降;提纯可以改善胶体性能;有机改性可以使粘土颗粒表面由完全的亲水性转变为部分疏水性,改变比表面积和阳离子交换容量,增强胶体悬浮性能.

  1. Attapulgite of Loaded TiO2 to Degradation of Direct Dark Blue%凹土负载TiO2光催化剂降解印染废水的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金德宽; 严群芳

    2012-01-01

    TiO2/attapulgite photocatalyst loaded with different TiO2 was prepared through attapulgite loading TiO2 nanopowder synthesized by Sol-gel, the composition and crystal phase of TiO2/Attapulgite was analysed taking advantage of XRD and SEM. Using the samples of TiO2/attapulgite prepared as photocatalysts, the effects of some factors, such as dosage of catalyst, and pH values on the photodegradation of direct dark blue are discussed and the feasibility of repeated utilization is confirmed. The experimental results show that the maximum removal rate is achieved when TiO2 loading is 25% , the amount of TiO2/attapulgite photocatalyst is 8 g/L, the pH is 3, and the decolorization ratio is 91. 30% when used 7 times.%通过溶胶-凝胶法制备纳米TiO2,并将其负载在凹土上,制备出不同TiO2负载量的TiO2/凹土光催化剂,用XRD、SEM对光催化剂进行表征.用制备的光催化剂处理直接深蓝模拟印染废水,通过改变TiO2/凹土光催化剂投加量、pH值,考察TiO2/凹土光催化剂对直接深蓝模拟印染废水的脱色情况,同时考察了TiO2/凹土光催化剂的重复使用能力.结果表明:负载量25%,催化剂用量8g/L,pH =3时处理效果最佳;重复使用7次,其脱色率仍高达91.30%.

  2. Flocculation ofchlorella by composite of modified starch and attapulgite%改性阳离子淀粉-凹凸棒土复合絮凝剂絮凝采收小球藻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董锐; 王元; 刘婷婷

    2015-01-01

    Cationic starch-dimethyl diallylammonium chloride (CS-DMDAAC)/attapulgite is a new composite flocculant. It is used in the flocculation and recovery process ofchlorella and has a much more broader application prospect in environmental protection,chemical engineering and material industry. In this paper,CS-DMDAAC copolymer was selected by comparing CS-DMDAAC with cationicstarch (CS) in terms of the flocculating effects onchlorella,and then this composite starch was blended with attapulgite at a specific ratio. The effect of pH,ratio of CS-DMDAAC/ attapulgite,dosage of composite starch and deposition time on the flocculation rate ofchlorellawas discussed. On the basis of single factor experiment,the flocculation process of CS-DMDAAC/ attapulgite onchlorella was optimized by means of orthogonal test. The shape of attapulgite, CS-DMDAAC/attapulgite and the mixture of composite flocculant andchlorella were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The optimal conditions were:pH=9,CS-DMDAAC/attapulgite ratio in flocculant 1∶9,dosage of composite starch 0.04g and deposition time 210 min. Parallel experiments were made under the optimal conditions,and flocculation rate ofchlorella was up to 99.1%. The results of this paper could provide valuable reference for modifications of CS-DMDAAC and recovery ofalga.%二元接枝改性阳离子淀粉(CS-DMDAAC)/凹凸棒土是一种新型复合絮凝剂,用于小球藻的絮凝采收环节,在环保、化工、材料等领域具有更广阔的应用前景。为提高小球藻的絮凝采收率,通过单因素实验考察阳离子淀粉(CS)和CS-DMDAAC对小球藻的絮凝效果,并对CS-DMDAAC与凹凸棒土进行复配,通过单因素实验探讨了 pH 值、CS-DMDAAC/凹凸棒土复配比、阳离子淀粉投加量及沉降时间对小球藻絮凝率的影响,在单因素实验的基础上,以正交试验法优化CS-DMDAAC/凹凸棒土对小球藻的絮凝工艺。用扫描电镜(SEM)对凹凸棒

  3. 以硫代乙酰胺/凹凸棒石复合物为载体的钙离子选择性电极%A New Calcium Electrode Based on the Composite Thioacetamide/attapulgite as Ionophore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文卓; 黄方伦; 王健龙

    2012-01-01

    报道了以硫代乙酰胺/凹凸棒石有机无机复合物为载体的新型钙离子选择性电极的研制.探讨了该有机无机复合物中硫代乙酰胺与凹凸棒石的组成比例、增塑剂用量、被测溶液pH等因素对钙电极性能的影响.结果表明新制钙电极对溶液中的钙离子有较好的近能斯特响应,响应斜率为15.2 mV decade-1,最低检出下限为1.0×10-6mol L-1.新制钙电极具有很好的稳定性,其可应用在溶液pH=6.0~10.0范围内.新电极对常见阳离子表现出好的抗干扰性.利用红外、紫外、相关电导率实验等方法研究了有机无机复合物型电活性物质的结构及所制钙电极的工作机理.%A kind of novel organic/inorganic composites as ionophore in the membrane of calcium ion selective electrode,which were made of thioacetamide and attapulgite,had been prepared.Thioacetamide is a type of small organic molecule with functional groups including amino groups and carbon-sulfur double bonds.Attapulgite has been characterized by a high negative charge at its surface,a large specific surface area,and a large micropore volume due to the existence of intercrystalline cavities.Thioacetamide molecules can carry positive charges when their amino groups get protons from hydroxyl groups of attapulgite.So thioacetamide molecules with positive charges can be adsorbed on the negative surface of attapulgite by electrostatic interaction as well as hydrogen-bonding,to form a super-molecular host-guest structure.Considering the stagger arranged pores on the outer surface of attapulgite,we inferred that adsorbed thioacetamide molecules should be around the edge of pore mouth of the attapulgite.Experiments proved that the organic/inorganic complex structure promoted the ability of attapulgite adsorbing more calcium ions from the solution.Based on the attapulgite/thioacetamide composite as ionophore,the calcium ion selective electrodes were prepared using 7.0 wt% of ionophore,43.0 wt

  4. Effects of the ion-exchange on physicochemical of attapulgite clay and adsorption properties for diclofenac sodium%盐交换凹凸棒黏土的理化性质及其对双氯芬酸钠吸附性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颉晓玲; 王文波; 汪琴; 李冲

    2011-01-01

    将凹凸棒黏土采用不同价态的硫酸盐和相同价态不同用量硫酸盐交换后,通过红外光谱、扫描电镜、比表面积和ζ电位的测定,考察了盐交换处理对凹凸棒黏土微结构和理化性能的影响.在此基础上,考察了处理凹凸棒黏土对双氯芬酸钠的吸附影响.结果表明,金属盐交换凹凸棒黏土对双氯芬酸钠的吸附量不仅与所交换金属离子的价态有关,更与凹凸棒黏土的微孔比表面积和微孔体积有关.当硫酸铝用量为凹凸棒黏土量的0.5%时,其交换凹凸棒黏土对双氯芬酸钠的吸附量最大,达到了126mg/g,与凹凸棒黏土原矿相比,吸附量提高了近4倍.%Attapulgite clay were ion-exchanged with different valences sulfate and different amounts of sulfate in the same valence. The effects of the ion-exchanged on the microstructure and physicochemical properties of attapulgite clay were investigated by FTIR spectra,SEM, specific surface area and ξ potential. The adsorption properties of the ion-exchanged attapulgite clay for diclofenac sodium were studied.The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of modified attapulgite clay for diclofenac sodium was related with not only the valence of ion-exchanged metal ions but also the micropore area and micropore volume. When the amount of aluminum sulfate was 0. 5% to that of attapulgite clay, the adsorption capacity of modified attapulgite for diclofenac sodium was the largest of 126 mg/g. Compared to that of nature attapulgite clay,the adsorption capacity of modified attapulgite for diclofenac sodium increased about four times.

  5. Ce1-xSmxO2-δ-attapulgite nanocomposites:synthesis via simple microwave approach and investigation of its catalytic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞章; 胡宗林; 赵晓兵; 陆晓旺

    2013-01-01

    Ce1-xSmxO2-δ-attapulgite (ATP) nanocomposites were successfully prepared via a facile microwave approach. This was a facile and rapid process requiring only low power of microwave irradiation (160 W). The catalytic performance of the Ce1-xSmxO2-δ-ATP nanocomposites with different Sm contents for degradation of methylene blue (MB) was systematically evaluated. The Ce1-xSmxO2-δ-ATP nanocomposites showed enhanced catalytic activities compared with pure CeO2/ATP. Specifically, the cata-lytic activities of Ce1-xSmxO2-δ-ATP nanocomposites increased with increase in Sm content from x=0.0 to 0.3. The introduction of an optimal amount of Sm3+into CeO2 contributed to the formation of structure defects and electronic defects in the oxide lattice, which could increase concentration of oxygen vacancies. However, further increasing Sm content to x=0.4 induced the formation of more agglomerates, leading to decreased catalytic activity. It was believed that this facile, rapid microwave-assisted strategy was scalable and could be applied to synthesize other nanocomposites for different applications.

  6. Rapid removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by chitosan-g-poly(acrylic acid)/attapulgite/ sodium humate composite hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junping; Jin, Yeling; Wang, Aiqin

    2011-04-01

    A series of novel granular chitosan-g-poly(acrylic acid)/attapulgite/sodium humate (CTS-g-PAA/APT/SH) composite hydrogels were successfully prepared by one-step free radical graft polymerization and applied as adsorbents for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The effects of adsorbent composition (including the contents of APT, SH and CTS) on adsorption capacity and adsorption rate were investigated in detail. Results from kinetic experiments showed that the rate of Pb(II) adsorption on the composite hydrogels was quite fast, that more than 90% of the equilibrium adsorption capacity occurs within two minutes and that the adsorption equilibrium could be achieved within 10 minutes. The adsorption kinetics fit well with the pseudo-second order equation. The introduced SH is helpful for both adsorption capacity and adsorption rate. The -COOH and -COO of PAA, -NH2 of CTS, Ph-O and -COO- of SH, as well as cation exchange and Si-OH of APT, participate in adsorption of Pb(II). The synergistic effect of these groups is responsible for the high adsorption capacity and rate.

  7. 不同制备方法对凹凸棒石/天然橡胶复合材料性能的影响%Influence of Different Preparation Methods on The Properties of Attapulgite/natural Rubber Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡盛; 杨眉; 田大听; 周红艳; 胡卫兵; 谭远斌; 曹贞虎

    2011-01-01

    Attapulgite/natural rubber composites(M-ANRC) and modified attapulgite/natural rubber composites(M-MANRC) were prepared by mechanical blending. Attapulgite/natural rubber composites (C-ANRC) and modified attapulgite/natural rubber composites(C-MANRC) were prepared by co-coagulating rubber latex and clay aqueous suspension. The mechanical properties suggested that C-ANRC prepared by co-coagulating rubber latex and clay aqueous suspension were better than M-ANRC. The tensile strength, tear strength and tensile modulus at 200% of the C-ANRC increased by 77.5 %, 35.9 %, 125.6%, respectively. The mechanical properties of the C-MANRC prepared by co-coagulating rubber latex and clay aqueous suspension was the best. The structure of the C-ANRC, C-MANRC shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) is tight.Attapulgite inserted into natural rubber matrix in C-ANRC and C-MANRC more uniformly dispersive than in M-ANRC is basically composed of nano-rods. Attapulgite combines well with natural rubber matrix. The process of co-coagulating rubber latex and clay aqueous suspension was analyzed.%采用机械共混法制备了凹凸棒石/天然橡胶复合材料(M-ANRC)和改性凹凸棒石/天然橡胶复合材料(M-MANRC),采用乳液共混共凝法制备了凹凸棒石/天然橡胶复合材料(C-ANRC)和改性凹凸棒石/天然橡胶复合材料(C-MANRC).力学性能测试结果表明,与M-ANRC的力学性能相比,C-ANRC的扯断强度、撕裂强度、200%定伸强度分别提高了77.5%、35.9%、125.6%; C-MANRC的综合力学性能最好.SEM分析结果显示,C-ANRC和C-MANRC中的凹凸棒石比M-ANRC和M-MANRC中的凹凸棒石在天然橡胶基体中分散得更加均匀且棒径更小;C-MANRC结构致密,凹凸棒石基本上都呈纳米棒状,且较均匀地分布在天然橡胶基体中,与天然橡胶基体结合良好.同时,对乳液共混共凝过程进行了初步分析.

  8. 瓜尔豆胶对凹凸棒石黏土胶体黏度的影响%Inlfuences of Adding Guar Gum on Viscosity of Attapulgite Colloid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金覃; 尹琳; 陆现彩

    2015-01-01

    向粉碎至150μm的凹凸棒石黏土中添加不同比例的瓜尔豆胶,然后用不同的制浆方法制备盐饱和胶体,并分别测试胶体的黏度和筛余量。结果表明:剪切能力强的搅拌机有助于凹凸棒石黏土分散成胶,提高胶体黏度降低筛余量;瓜尔豆胶能增加凹凸棒石胶体的黏度,但添加过量后会导致胶体絮凝从而降低胶体黏度;用筛余量表征添加了瓜尔胶的凹凸棒石黏土胶体的絮凝情况有一定局限性。%In order to make colloid with saturated salt water of higher viscosity, adding various amounts of guar gum into attapulgite clay with sizes less than150μm and several methods of colloid preparation were optimized in this study. The measured colloidal viscosity and its sieve remains indicate that addition of guar gum can clearly increase the viscosity of clay colloid, but excessive addition leads to viscosity decreasing and sieve remains increasing due to colloidal lfocculation. Stronger stir-force mixer can be used to improve the viscosity of attapulgite colloid and reduce colloidal sieve remains. It is also found that the parameter of sieve remains has limitation to represent viscosity and lfocculation of attapulgite colloid.

  9. Influence of the Purity of Attapuigite on Water Absorbency of Carboxymethyl-cellulose Sodium/Poly(acrylic acid)/Attapulgite Superabsorbent Composites%凹凸棒黏土纯度对复合高吸水性树脂吸水性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 王文波; 王爱勤

    2011-01-01

    Carboxymethylcellulose sodium-g-poly ( acrylic acid )/attapulgite superabsorbent composites were prepared by aqueous solution polymerization, using N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide as crosslinker and ammonium petrsulfate as an initiator in the presence of different purity of attapulgite.The influence of the purity of attapulgite on water absorbency, water absorption rate and swelling properties in different pH medium were studied.FTIR spectra demonstrates that acrylic acid monomers were grafted onto the backbone of earboxymethylcellulose sodium backbone, and attapulgite participated in polymerization through its active silanol groups.FESEM observation shows that attapulgite fibrils led to a better dispersion in the polymeric matrix and improved the surface porous strueture of the matrix.More Ca2+ and Mg2+ in attapulgite are conducive to improving the swelling behaviors of the superabsorbent composites with the same content of attapulgite.%将凹凸棒黏土分级处理后,以不同纯度的凹凸棒黏土为无机组分,过硫酸铵为引发剂,N,N'-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺为交联剂,制备了羧甲基纤维素接枝丙烯酸/凹凸棒黏土复合高吸水性树脂,考察了复合高吸水性树脂的吸水倍率、吸水速率和在不同pH介质中的溶胀性能.红外光谱表明,丙烯酸已接枝到羧甲基纤维素的骨架上,凹凸棒黏土参与了聚合反应.扫描电镜观察表明,凹凸棒黏土在高吸水性树脂中有良好的分散性能,改善了基体表面的多孔结构.研究表明,在相同添加量下,凹凸棒黏土中含有更多的Ca和Mg离子,有助于改善复合高吸水性树脂的综合性能.

  10. 凹土-氯化钙复合吸附剂的制冷性能%Adsorption Refrigeration Characteristic of Attapulgite Based Calcium Chloride Composite Adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万意; 李全国; 芮正球; 崔群; 陈海军; 王海燕; 姚虎卿

    2012-01-01

    采用凹凸棒粘土和氯化钙为主要原料,用溶解-混合法制备了复合吸附剂;采用正压重量法测量了复合吸附剂对氨的吸附等温线;并测定了吸附剂-氨工质对的制冷特性.结果表明:吸附温度30℃下,复合吸附剂对氨的平衡吸附量为1.1 kg/kg,与氯化钙对氨的平衡吸附量相当.在装填密度为600kg/m3,吸附温度为30℃、蒸发压力为0.25MPa、解吸温度为300℃条件下,对氨的吸附量达到0.89~0.92kg/kg,循环吸附量为0.55~0.58kg/kg,是纯氯化钙的1.7倍:复合吸附剂-氨工质对制冷量可达761.84kJ/kg,比氯化钙-氨工质对提高了70%.而且,复合吸附剂具有良好的吸附解吸稳定性能.%The composite absorbent is mainly consisted of attapulgite and CaCI2as the resources, which were prepared by the dissolution-mixed method, and the content of attapulgite in composite absorbent is 10%. Adsorption isotherms of ammonia on absorbents were determined by positive gravimetric method. Adsorption-desorption cycle performance and cooling characteristics of composite absorbent -ammonia working pairs was evaluated by self-made adsorption-desorption measuring device. Experimental results show that the equilibrium capacity of ammonia on the composite absorbent is up to l.lkg/kg at 30℃, which is equal to that of CaCl2. The conditions of loading density 600kg/m3, adsorption temperature 30℃, ammonia evaporation pressure 0.25 MPa, desorption temperature 300℃, adsorption capacity of ammonia in the composite absorbent and its cyclic adsorption capacity is 0.89-0.92 kg/kg and 0.55~0.58 kg/kg, respectively, which is 1.7 times than that of CaCl2-ammonia working pairs. The cooling capacity is up to 761.84kJ/kg, which is increased by 70% compared to CaCl2/ ammonia. What's more, composite absorbent has excellent adsorption and desorption stability.

  11. 壳聚糖改性凹凸棒土絮凝采收小球藻的研究%Study of Chitosan Modified Attapulgite to the Flocculation and Harvest of Chlorella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴乔林; 陈智栋; 许伟; 邵荣

    2013-01-01

    以壳聚糖改性凹凸棒土作为普通小球藻Chlorella vulgaris的絮凝剂,CaCl2为助凝剂,研究了絮凝采收小球藻的工艺条件.结果表明,最佳絮凝条件为:絮凝剂0.4g/L、壳聚糖/凹凸棒土为1∶12、助凝剂CaCl2为0.2g/L、溶液的pH为9.0,此条件下小球藻絮凝率达到95%以上.絮凝剂的扫描电镜图和BET比表面积(BET)数据显示,改性后的凹凸棒土以一定的空间结构状吸附连接壳聚糖,有效增加了絮凝剂的比表面积,有利于小球藻的吸附.研究采用的原料价格低廉、安全环保,絮凝剂的制备简单且絮凝效率高,可广泛用于工业化生产中微藻的采收.%Chitosan modified attapulgite is used as the flocculant for precipitating Chlorella vulgaris with adding CaCl2 as the coagulant. For Chlorella vulgaris, the optimal flocculation conditions showed as following: flocculant is 0. 4g/L, the ratio of chitosan and attapulgite in flocculant is 1:12, CaCl2 coagulant dosage is 0. 2g/L, and pH of the solution is 9. 0. Under the best conditions, the flocculation rate of Chlorella vulgaris can reach up to 95%. The scanning electron micrographs and the BET specific surface area data (BET) of flocculant show that the modified attapulgite adsorbs and connects with chitosan to a certain degree of spatial structure, which effectively increases the surface area of flocculant and is conducive to the adsorption of Chlorella. The raw materials used in this article could have the advantages of low cost, safety and low impact on the environment. And the high efficiency of flocculation can obtain with sample method of preparing the flocculant, which can be widely used for the harvest of microalgae in industrial production.

  12. 松香凹凸棒石粘土包膜尿素的制备及缓释性能的研究%Synthesis of urea coating with attapulgite-rosin and study on its slow release properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鸿杰; 陈天虎; 彭书传

    2011-01-01

    矿物和有机物复合包膜有利于提高肥料的利用效率.以松香的无水乙醇溶液为粘结剂,凹凸棒石粘土作为内包层,石蜡作为外层,采用熔融喷雾包膜的方法制备一种缓释包膜尿素.通过扫描电镜( SEM)分析得出,尿素内部形成一层以松香和凹凸棒石粘土为内包层的均匀膜,根据水浸泡试验和抗压强度测定表明,添加凹凸棒石粘土增加了包膜层的强度,松香粘结剂有利于增强膜的致密性与牢固性.缓释效果理想的样品初期释放率(24h)≤15%,28 d累积的释放率≤75%,能够达到缓控释肥料的国家标准或行业标准的要求.%Coating of fertilizer with mineral and organic matter can enhance efficiency of fertilizer. In this paper, attapulgite clay mineral with rosin as the inner cladding and paraffin wax as the outer layer of package were employed to synthesize an engineering materials by using molten spray method. According to SEM analysis, the formation of uniform inner cladding film between urea and attapulgite with rosin bonder. Addition of attapulgite clay mineral and rosin bonder increased the strength and density of coating film respectively in terms of water immersion test and compressive strength measurement. The ideal product initial release rate (24 h) was more than 15% , 28 days accumulated release rate was more than 75% , which could achieve national standards or industry standards of sustained and controlled release fertilizers.

  13. 氮掺杂碳包覆凹凸棒石的制备及其电化学性能研究%Preparation and electrochemical performance of attapulgite coated with nitrogen-doped carbon from polyaniline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘信东; 应宗荣; 卢建建; 任振波; 万慧

    2016-01-01

    利用苯胺原位化学聚合合成聚苯胺包覆凹凸棒石,再经过高温热处理得到氮掺杂碳包覆凹凸棒石。采用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)、傅立叶转换红外线光谱(FTIR)、差热分析法(DTA)对样品形貌和化学结构进行表征,利用循环伏安法、恒电流充放电及交流阻抗技术研究其用作超级电容器电极材料时的电化学性能。研究表明,氮掺杂碳包覆凹凸棒石在6 mol·L–1的KOH电解液中具有较好的电容性能,在20 mV·s–1的扫速下质量比电容可达161.9 F·g–1,且该复合材料具有较小的内阻和良好的电容稳定性。%The attapulgite coated with nitrogen-doped carbon was prepared by high temperature heat treatment of the attapulgite coated with polyaniline, which was synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization of aniline. The morphology and chemical structure of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), conversion analysis for differential thermal analysis (DTA). The electrochemical performances of the composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, gslvsnostantic changing-discharging and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the attapulgite coated with nitrogen-doped carbon from polyaniline has a good capacitance performance in 6 mol·L–1 aqueous KOH solution, its specific capacitance can reach 161.9 F·g–1 at the scan rate of 20 mV·s–1 and it also exhibits a low inter resisitance and a good stability of the temperature coefficient of capacitance.

  14. Facile synthesis of multifunctional attapulgite/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/polyaniline nanocomposites for magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction of benzoylurea insecticides in environmental water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoling; Qiao, Kexin; Ye, Yiren; Yang, Miyi; Li, Jing; Gao, Haixiang; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Lu, Runhua, E-mail: rhlu@cau.edu.cn

    2016-08-31

    In this study, the superparamagnetic attapulgite/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/polyaniline (ATP/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI) nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by a one-pot method. Fe (III) was applied as both the oxidant for the oxidative polymerization of aniline and the single iron source of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} formed by the redox reaction between aniline and Fe (III). The ATP/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI was used as sorbent for magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE) of benzoylurea insecticides (BUs) in environmental water samples. The as-prepared nanocomposite sorbents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometry. Various experimental parameters affecting the ATP/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI-based MDSPE procedure, including the composition of the nanocomposite sorbents, amount of ATP/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI nanocomposites, vortex time, pH, and desorption conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, a good linearity was observed for all target analytes, with correlation coefficients (r{sup 2}) ranging from 0.9985 to 0.9997; the limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 0.02–0.43 μg L{sup −1}, and the recoveries of analytes using the proposed method ranged between 77.37% and 103.69%. The sorbents exhibited an excellent reproducibility in the range of 1.52–5.27% in extracting the five target analytes. In addition, the intra-day and inter-day precision values were found to be in the range of 0.78–6.86% and 1.66–8.41%, respectively. Finally, the proposed ATP/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI-based MDSPE method was successfully applied to analyze river water samples by rapid preconcentration of BUs. - Highlights: • A novel superparamagnetic ATP/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI nanocomposite was first introduced in MDSPE. • ATP/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI nanocomposites exhibited fast adsorption and desorption

  15. Crystallization Behavior of Polypropylene/Attapulgite Composites%聚丙烯/凹凸棒土复合材料的结晶行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马少君; 于贵春; 王玉芬; 王立岩; 丁贵龙

    2011-01-01

    通过双螺杆挤出机熔融共混制备了聚丙烯(PP)/凹凸棒土(ATP)复合材料样品,分别采用偏光显微镜和差示扫描量热仪对其结晶行为进行了研究.研究表明,复合材料样品的偏光显微镜照片呈现球晶所特有的十字消光现象,球晶尺寸与纯PP球晶的尺寸相比有所减小.非等温结晶测试结果表明,复合材料样品的结晶温度随着ATP含量的增加向高温方向移动,而且半结晶期缩短,PP/ATP复合材料的总体结晶速率增加;ATP的加入改变了PP成核的机制,起到了异相成核的作用.随着降温速率的增大,PP及PP/ATP (95/5)复合材料的结晶起始温度和结晶峰值温度均向低温方向移动,半结晶期变短.%Polypropylene (PP)/attapulgite (ATP)composites were prepared in the melt blending method through twin screw extruder, and their crystallization behaviors were respectively studied by polarized light microscope and differential scanning calorimetry. The results showed that the polarized light photo of the composite assumed cross extinct appearance characteristic of spherulites, and the dimensions of the spherulites of PP/ATP composites were smaller than those of PP. The results of non-isothermal crystalline behavior of PP/ATP composites indicated that the crystallization temperature of the composites assumed an gradually increased, the half crystallization time shortened, and the total crystallization rate of PP/ATP composites increased as ATP content increased. The addition of ATP changed the mechanism of nucle-ation, and acted as heterogeneous nucleating agent. To and Tp of PP and PP/ATP composites shifted to lower temperature, and tα5 shortened as the cooling rate increased.

  16. Sewage treatment effect in cold rural region by attapulgite combined with stabilization pond%凹凸棒土-稳定塘工艺提高严寒地区农村生活污水处理效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙楠; 田伟伟; 李晨洋

    2014-01-01

    针对严寒地区农村生活污水处理面临的低效率、高能耗、排水不达标的典型问题,首次提出凹凸棒土—稳定塘模式处理严寒地区农村生活污水。该研究创新的通过PLC(programmable logic controller)自控试验设计,考察在低温10℃条件下工艺的最优运行参数,经过平行对比试验研究凹凸棒土作为载体填料对低温生活污水处理效果的影响。结果表明,pH值在7.2~7.8之间,兼性塘水力停留时间为4d,好氧塘的水力停留时间与曝气时间分别为36、4 h时,工艺对化学需氧量(chemical oxygen demand,COD)、氨氮(ammonia nitrogen,ammonia-N)、总磷(total phosphorus,TP)的平均去除率分别为91.5%、87.7%、84.1%,平均出水质量浓度分别为35.6、4.5、1.0 mg/L,满足国家二级排放标准,而单一式稳定塘工艺的低温生活污水处理效果显著降低,COD、氨氮、TP的去平均去除率分别降低了3.6%、6.0%、4.7%。凹凸棒土—稳定塘工艺可以有效的去除严寒地区农村生活污水中有机物及氮磷污染物,对削减农村水污染、降低水环境负荷及改善农村生态环境具有重要作用,同时也为凹凸棒土的应用拓展了新的方向。%In this study, an attapulgite-stabilization pond model was first proposed to deal with the practical problems of domestic sewage treatment such as low efficiency, high energy consumption, and drainage substandard in cold rural regions. A stabilization pond was assembled by a facultative pond reactor and aerobic reactor. Both reactors are cylinders, and the effective volume was 150 L. Before running the experiment, the facultative pond reactor was inoculated with anaerobic activated sludge and the aerobic pond reactor was inoculated with aerobic activated sludge to achieve a fast start of the experimental device. During running the experiment, the experimental procedure was that first the low temperature sewage was

  17. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers mining and processing of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Zirconium Silicate, Fuller's Earth, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that the extensive pulmonary damage in humans was the result of direct occupational inhalation of the dusts and noted that lesions seen in animals were affected by particle size, fiber length, and concentration. The Panel considers that most of the formulations are not respirable and of the preparations that are respirable, the concentration of the ingredient is very low. Even so, the Panel considered that any spray containing these solids should be formulated to minimize their inhalation. With this admonition to the cosmetics industry, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe as currently used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel did note that the cosmetic ingredient, Talc, is a hydrated magnesium silicate

  18. Influence Factors of Nitrogen Release Characteristics of Urea Coated with Styrene-acrylate Emulsion,Paraffin Wax and Attapulgite%影响苯丙乳液-石蜡-凹凸棒石复合包膜尿素缓释效果因素的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁; 彭书传; 陈天虎; 周正发

    2011-01-01

    [目的]改进笨丙乳液-石蜡-凹凸棒石复合包膜尿素的生产技术.[方法]通过分别改变各种包膜材料(苯丙乳液、石蜡和凹凸棒石粉末)的用量、干燥时间以及干燥温度,制得不同的苯丙乳液-石蜡-凹凸棒石复合包膜尿素,并且利用水浸泡试验研究制得的不同包膜尿素在水中的溶解特征.[结果]苯丙乳液-石蜡-凹凸棒石复合包膜尿素的制备最佳工艺参数为:每包膜100克尿素,石蜡用量为20 g,凹凸棒石粘土用量为3g,苯丙乳液用量为50~60ml,干燥温度为60℃,干燥时间为120 min.[结论]各种膜材料用量、干燥时间以及干燥温度均影响着该复合包膜尿素的缓释效果.%[Objective] The research aimed to improve the production technology of urea coated with styrene-acrylate emulsion, paraffin wax and attapulgite. [ Method] Different kinds of controlled-release coated urea were prepared from normal urea by coating with styrene-acrylate e-mulsion, paraffin wax and attapulgite by changing coating material. Consumptions, drying time and drying temperature. Their nitrogen slow-release characteristics were investigated by water immersion research. [ Result] The best process parameters of the urea coated with styrene-acrylate emulsion, paraffin wax and attapulgite preparation were as follows: in 100 grams urea per parcel, the amount of paraffin wax was 20 grams, attapulgite was 3 grams, the amount of styrene-acrylic emulsion was 50-60 ml, drying temperature was 60 oC, and the drying time was 120 minutes. [Conclusion]Coating material (styrene-acrylate emulsion, paraffin wax and attapulgite) consumptions, drying time and drying temperature influenced the coated urea's slow release effect.

  19. Effects of tribological test conditions on properties of attapulgite powders as lubricant additives%摩擦试验条件对凹凸棒石黏土润滑油添加剂摩擦学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲玲; 于鹤龙; 杨红军; 钱耀川

    2015-01-01

    Tribological properties of attapulgite natural mineral powders as lubricating oil additive were studied in the present paper. The orthogonal test design was adopted in tribological tests to research the effects of the four main factors including the applied load, reciprocating frequency, sliding time and concentration of solid powders in oil, on the anti-wear and friction reducing behaviors of attapulgite powders. The contact electric resistance between the tribopairs was measured during sliding to monitor the formation of tribofilm by attapulgite additive. The tribological mechanisms of attapulgite powders as lubricating oil additive were discussed based on the scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the worn surfaces. The results indicate that using surface-modified attapulgite powders as lubricating oil additive present excellent tribological properties. A nonconducting tribofilm, containing elements of Si, Mg, Al and O, and on which nano-scale silicate particles are distributed, is found on surface under the lubrication of oil with attapulgite powders. The formation of the tribofilm contributes to the good antiwear and friction-reducing properties. The pecking order about the effects of the four main factors (including the applied load, reciprocating frequency, sliding time and concentration of the solid powders in oil) on the tribological behaviors of the rod-like attapulgite particles as lubricating oil additive is applied load, reciprocating frequency, sliding time and concentration.%采用往复滑动磨损试验机评价凹凸棒石黏土天然矿物材料作为润滑油添加剂的摩擦学性能,利用4因素3水平正交试验方法系统研究摩擦过程中载荷、往复频率、滑动时间和凹凸棒石黏土含量对其作为添加剂的抗磨、减摩性能的影响。摩擦过程中,通过原位测量摩擦表面接触电阻的变化,监测凹凸棒石黏土形成摩擦反应膜的

  20. 鞣酸模板交联壳聚糖/凹凸棒粘土复合树脂的吸附性能%Adsorption Properties of Crosslinked Chitosan/Attapulgite Composite Resin with Tannic Acid as Template Molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洁; 张娟; 冯辉霞; 丁师杰; 许培

    2012-01-01

    以鞣酸(TA)为模板,采用乳化交联法制备了壳聚糖/凹凸棒粘土复合树脂(TA-CAR)。利用红外光谱(FT-IR)和扫描电镜(SEM)对树脂的结构和形态进行表征。结果表明,与非模板树脂相比,TA-CAR对TA的吸附量从185 mg/g提高到232 mg/g,且具有一定的吸附选择性,树脂的吸附等温线和动力学可以用Langmuir方程和伪二级动力学模型很好地拟合,TA-CAR较高的吸附能力归因于树脂中特异吸附位点的识别作用和表面吸附的协同作用。树脂的再生性能研究表明,凹土的加入不但提高了复合树脂的吸附量,而且显著改善了树脂的耐酸能力,可实现树脂的再生利用。%The crosslinked chitosan/attapulgite composite resin(TA-CAR) was prepared by emulsion cross-linking with tannic acid(TA) as template molecule.The structure and the morphology of the resin were characterized by FT-IR and SEM,respectively.Compared with non-template resin(185 mg/g),TA-CAR shows higher adsorption selectivity and higher adsorption capacity(232 mg/g) for TA at the same adsorption conditions.The study of adsorption kinetics and isotherms shows that the sorption processes are better fitted by the pseudo-second-order equation and the Langmuir equation,respectively.The higher adsorption capacity of TA-CAR maybe attribute to the synergistic effect of special recognition site and surface adsorption on the resin.Furthermore,the desorption study implies that the introduction of attapulgite not only improves the absorbability,but also enhances the acid resistance of the resin,which ensures the recyclable of the composite resin.

  1. 脱除H2S用铁/凹凸棒石的优化制备及性能评价%Optimization of preparation conditions and performance evaluation of Fe/attapulgite for H2S removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智宏; 梁慧军; 杜晓刚; 左晓亮

    2012-01-01

    用均相沉淀法制备了铁/凹凸棒石复合物用于H2s的脱除.考察了反应物配比、反应时间和反应温度对铁转化率、体系pH值和Fe3+浓度变化的影响;用透射电镜对不同条件制得的脱硫剂的形貌进行了表征,以模拟工业尾气为气源做H2s动态吸附实验.结果表明,体系pH值的上升是Fe3+完全沉淀的标志;体系OH-浓度主要受反应温度的影响,升高反应液温度有利于提高铁转化率,而反应物配比对其影响不大;升高温度会使沉淀速度过快,引起凹凸棒石表面铁分散性下降,形貌发生变化,导致脱硫剂性能下降.%The Fe/attapulgite desulfurizers for H2S removal were prepared by homogeneous precipitation. The effects of preparation conditions on the conversion efficiency of iron, pH and Fe3+ concentration were investigated by changing the reactant ratio, reaction time and temperature. The morphology of desulfurizers prepared under various conditions was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dynamic adsorption experiments were carried out with simulated industrial off-gases as gas source. The results showed that the conversion efficiency of ferric increased with reaction temperature rather than the reactant ratio, because the concentration of OH - in the system strongly depends on the reaction temperature. The increase of pH value in the solution is a sign of complete precipitation of Fe3+ At the elevated temperature, the accelerated sedimentation caused the dispersion of iron substance on the attapulgite to reduce and its morphology to ehange. Therefore, the sulfur capacity of desulfurizers declined.

  2. 凹凸棒负载TiO2对偶氮染料和纺织废水光催化脱污%TiO2/attapulgite photocatalyst for solar detoxification of azo dyes and textile wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春; 王怡中

    2001-01-01

    A solar decontamination process for water was developed using TiO2 photocatalysts supported on attapulgite. The supported catalyst was systematically optimized with respect to catalyst dosage and calcination temperature. Methyl orange etc. azo dyes and wool textile wastewater were decolorized under solar illumination using optimal supported catalyst. The results indicates that this kind of supported catalyst illuminated by solar is very effective to destroy the most refractory compounds. and displayed high stability for circulation use.%通过浸渍的方法,制备了天然粘土矿石凹凸棒负载的P25 TiO2固化催化剂.实验了催化剂的负载量和煅烧温度对催化剂活性的影响.研究了最佳固化催化剂对5种生物难降解的偶氮染料和纺织废水的太阳光催化脱污.结果证实该固定化催化剂能利用太阳能光催化脱污偶氮染料及毛纺织废水,而且具有高的稳定性,可重复使用.

  3. Research on Wearability of nano-Attapulgite/Chloroprene Rubber Composites%纳米凹凸棒土/氯丁橡胶复合材料耐磨性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋帅帅; 姚亮; 吴友平

    2013-01-01

    Attapulgite(AT)/chloroprene rubber(CR) composites was prepared by using mechnical mixing technology,and effects of AT content, modifier kinds and content and curing systems on wear-ability of the composites were discussed,and the surface morphology of Akron abrasion of the composites having the different modifiers was observed, too. The results showed that the wearability of the composites was the best when the amount of AT was 30 phr; Modifier KH —550 was an effective coupling agent in increasing the wearability of the composites,and the optimal content was 3% of AT content; The wearability was different by using different curing systems. The wearability of the composites was the best when curing agents MgO/ZnO/DCP mass ratio was 4/5/1.%采用机械共混法制备了凹凸棒土(AT)/氯丁橡胶(CR)纳米复合材料,探讨了AT用量、改性剂种类及用量和硫化剂体系等对复合材料耐磨性能的影响,还观察了使用不同改性剂制备的复合材料阿克隆磨耗表面形态.结果表明,AT用量为30份时复合材料耐磨性最好;改性剂KH-550能显著提高硫化胶耐磨性,其最佳用量为AT用量的3%;硫化体系不同时复合材料的耐磨性有所不同,采用MgO/ZnO/DCP(质量比为4/5/1)并用硫化体系时复合材料耐磨性最好.

  4. Research on Polyester Synthesis Catalyzed by Ti-Complex Supported on Nano-attapulgite%络合钛复合纳米凹凸棒土催化聚酯反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔爱军; 李静; 田俊凯; 姚超; 何明阳; 陈群

    2014-01-01

    以钛酸四丁酯、柠檬酸为基本原料制备了一种新型络合钛聚酯催化剂,并将其与纳米凹凸棒土(ATP)复合,得到一类复合催化剂,对络合钛及复合催化剂分别进行了红外和透射电镜表征,证实了金属钛与柠檬酸配体发生了络合,复合催化剂具有良好的分散状态。通过催化聚酯反应对络合钛及多种复合催化剂的性能进行了评价,结果表明:与常规聚酯催化剂Sb2O3相比较,络合钛催化活性约为Sb2O3的6倍,但产品色相b值较高(大于15.60);将络合钛与纳米凹凸棒土以2:1的质量比负载后,催化反应得到的聚酯b值从16.30降为3.79,综合反应速度和聚酯色相的结果,认为络合钛与凹凸棒土的合适质量配比为5:2。此外,讨论了复合催化剂对聚酯物化性能的影响,通过DSC、TGA等测试手段,发现络合钛复合纳米凹凸棒土作催化剂制备的聚酯的结晶温度比Sb2O3催化制备的聚酯要高7℃以上,熔点高6℃左右,二甘醇含量更低,其热降解性能相近。%A Ti-complex catalyst for polyester synthesis was prepared with tetrabutyl titanate and citric acid as starting materials. Then, the catalyst was supported on nano-attapulgite (ATP), and a series of composite catalysts were obtained and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and TEM. The IR and TEM results show that the Ti is complexed with citric acid, and the Ti-complex could disperse on the ATP to increase the catalyst surface. The catalytic performances of the prepared catalysts were evaluated by the polyester reaction, and the results show that the activity of Ti-complex catalyst is 6 times higher than that of the commonly used catalyst Sb2O3. However, using Ti-complex catalyst, the hue b (more than 15.6) of the produced polyester is larger than that of polyester produced by using Sb2O3 as catalyst. After the Ti-complex catalyst was supported on nano-attapulgite with mass ratio of 2

  5. Preparation and the Drug Release Behavior of Diclofenac Sodium-Loaded Psyllium-g-poly ( acrylic acid)/Attapulgite/Sodium Alginate Hydrogel Composite Beads%PSY-g-PAA/APT/SA载药复合凝胶小球的制备及释药性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨会霞; 张俊平; 王文波; 王爱勤

    2012-01-01

    采用离子凝胶法制备了欧车前胶-g聚丙烯酸/凹凸棒黏土/海藻酸钠(PSY-g-PAA/APT/SA)载药复合凝胶小球,以双氯芬酸钠为模型药物,考察了pH敏感性和凹凸棒黏土含量对凝胶小球的包封率、载药率、溶胀性能和药物释放行为的影响.结果表明,当释放介质为模拟胃液(pH=1.2)时,药物基本不释放;而为模拟肠液(pH=6.8)时,5h后累积释放率超过90%,复合凝胶小球具有明显的pH敏感性.随着凝胶小球中凹凸棒黏土含量的增加,溶胀率和药物累积释放率均减小,表明凹凸棒黏土的引入可以减缓药物的突释效应.%A novel psyllium-g-poly(acrylic acid)/attapulgite/sodium alginate(PSY-g-PAA/APT/SA) hydrogel composite beads were prepared by the ionic gelation technique. Effects of attapulgite( APT) content on the swelling property, encapsulation efficiency, drug release behaviors were investigated using diclofenac sodium(DS) as a model drug. pH-sensitive properties and in vitro release kinetics of DS from the hydrogel beads were also studied. The results indicated that with increasing attapulgite content of the prepared hydrogel beads, the swelling ratio and encapsulation efficiency were slowed down obviously. Moreover, DS was hardly released from the hydrogel beads in simulated gastric fluid (pH=l. 2), however, the cumulative release ratio was over 90% in simulated intestine fluid (pH=6. 8) after 5h, which indicated that the hydrogel beads had good pH-sensitive. In addition, the encapsulation efficiency, swelling ratio and DS cumulative release ratio decreased as the concentration of the APT increased, which revealed that incorporating APT into the hydrogel beads can improve the burst release effect of the drug.

  6. 魔芋葡甘聚糖/凹凸棒土复合纤维的试制及性能%Preparation and Properties of Konjac Glucomannan/Attapulgite Composite Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭志勤; 于金超; 覃岽益; 胡智文

    2013-01-01

    Attapulgite (AT) was introduced to modify konjac glucomannan (KGM) by solution blending, and KGM/AT blend aqueous solutions were obtained. KGM/AT fibers were prepared in the 95% alcohol coagulation bath using a syringe simulated wet spinning experiment. The spinnability of blend solutions with different AT loadings was investigated according to the longitudinal morphology of KGM/AT fibers. The mechanical properties as well as water absorbing capacity were also studied. It is found that KGM/AT solutions have certain spinnability while irregular structures of KGM/AT fibers such as weak-links, defects, increase with AT loadings increasing. AT nano-rods with proper amount is beneficial to the orientation of KGM molecules during the drafting progress, attribute to the improvement of the mechanical properties of KGM fibers. The water absorption of KGM fibers is improved by the addition of low AT loadings, thus the highest water absorbing capability increases by nearly 50 % .%采用凹凸棒土(AT)对魔芋葡甘聚糖(KGM)进行共混改性,制备了KGM/AT共混溶液,以95%的酒精为凝固浴,利用注射器模拟湿法纺丝制备了KGM/AT复合纤维,通过纤维的纵向形态结构观察初步研究了AT对KGM溶液可纺性的影响,并对纤维的力学性能、吸水性能进行了测试.结果表明,KGM/AT溶液具有一定的可纺性,但是在AT用量较高时,纤维呈现出的弱节、疵点等结构不均匀性更为明显;适量的AT经过适当的牵伸有助于分子链取向,可以提高复合纤维的力学性能;此外,AT用量较低时有助于KGM纤维吸水,最高吸水倍率提高了近50%.

  7. 纳米Fe3O4/凹凸棒石的制备及其吸波性能研究%Characterization and Microwave Absorbing Property of Fe3O4-Attapulgite Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡吉祥; 张学斌; 桂和仁; 丁辉; 万泽林; 赫丽华; 王智勇; 凤仪

    2016-01-01

    The Fe3O4-attapulgite (Fe3O4-ATP) composite material was fabricated by a co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and vector network analyzer. XRD and XPS characterized the phase of as-prepared sample and the oxidation state of iron bearing minerals, respectively. The HRTEM images revealed that the Fe3O4 magnetic parricles grew on the surface of the ATP needles which diameter distributes from 10 nm to 80 nm. The microwave absorption capacity of Fe3O4-ATP was measured in the frequency range of 2~18 GHz by a vector network analyzer. It can be seen that the optimal relfection loss (RL) of all the samples with different thickness are more than -13 dB and the biggest relfection loss (RL) could be about -28 dB at 12.6 GHz with a layer thickness of 3.5 mm. The results indicated that the ATP-Fe3O4 exhibited good microwave absorption capacity and could be used as a new type of absorber.%通过化学共沉积法制备纳米Fe3O4/凹凸棒石复合粉体,并采用XRD、XPS、HRTEM和矢量网络分析仪等手段对其微结构和吸波性能进行表征和分析。XRD和XPS分别证明了复合粉体的物相和铁的氧化价态。 HRTEM图像显示,Fe3O4磁性粒子均匀分布在凹凸棒石黏土表面,颗粒尺寸为10~80 nm。使用矢量网络分析仪在2~18 GHz范围测试不同厚度的Fe3O4/凹凸棒石的反射率。结果显示,不同厚度样品的峰值均超过-13 dB,其中厚度为3.5 mm的样品在12.6 GHz处反射峰为-28 dB,说明Fe3O4/凹凸棒石具有优良的吸波性能,有望成为一种新型的吸波材料。

  8. Intumescent Flame Retardant and Attapulgite Synergistic Flame-Retarded Polypropylene%凹凸棒土协同膨胀型阻燃剂阻燃聚丙烯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾飞; 任强; 李锦春

    2013-01-01

    研究了凹凸棒土(ATP)在膨胀阻燃聚丙烯(FRPP)复合材料中的协同作用,揭示了协同作用产生的机理.膨胀型阻燃剂(IFR)由聚磷酸铵和季戊四醇复配而成.探讨了ATP含量对复合材料的极限氧指数(LOI)、锥形量热参数、热稳定性能以及力学性能的影响.结果表明,当用少量ATP代替IFR时,可以提高复合材料的LOI,显著降低复合材料的热释放速率峰值和烟生成速率,提高复合材料在550℃以上高温区间的热稳定性.当复合材料中ATP质量分数在3.0%~7.0%时,复合材料的拉伸强度有提高.%Synergistic effects of attapulgite (ATP) on the intumescent flame-retardant PP (FRPP) composites were investigated,and the synergistic mechanism was revealed.The intumescent flame retardant (IFR) was composed of ammonium polyphosphate and pentaerythritol.The influence of ATP content on the limiting oxygen index (LOI),cone calorimetry parameters,thermal stability and mechanical property of the composites were studied.The results show that when a little ATP replaces IFR,the LOI of FRPP is increased,the peak values of heat release rate and smoke production rate of the composites are decreased,and thermal stability of the composites is also increased above 550 ℃.Tensile strength of the composites with 3.0%~7.0% ATP is increased compared with that of the composites without ATP.

  9. 凹凸棒黏土对甜叶菊水提液吸附絮凝作用研究%Adsorption and Flocculation Effect of Attapulgite on Water Extract of Stevia Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洁; 熊清平; 石莹莹; 袁雪莉

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the adsorption and flocculation effect of attapulgite(ATP) on water extract of stevia leaves. METHODS The factors influencing adsorptive and flocculate properties of ATP such as the temperature, pH value, the concentration of the water extract of stevia leaves and the amount of ATP addition were investigated by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. RESULTS The optimum condition abtained were 60℃ temperature and pH 8, respectively, and the addition of ATP was 0.4 g for 30 mL water extract. The adsorption method of ATP showed the higher retention rate of rebaudioside A (92.2%) and solids (70.5%) than the chemical ones (62.6% and 57.3%, respectively). CONCLUSION ATP can be used as a new flocculant for isolation and purification of Chinese herb extracts.%目的 研究凹凸棒黏土(凹土)对甜叶菊水提液的吸附絮凝作用.方法 采用单因素和正交实验,考察了吸附絮凝温度、水提液pH值、凹土加入量以及水提液浓度对吸附絮凝效果的影响.结果 凹土吸附絮凝法的最佳吸附条件为在pH 8的30 mL甜叶菊水提液中加入0.4g凹土于60℃时所得澄清效果最佳,凹土吸附絮凝法对水提液中莱鲍迪A苷(RA苷)保留率和固形物保留率分别为92.2%和70.5%,明显优于化学絮凝法的62.6%,57.3%.结论 凹土可以作为一种新型吸附絮凝剂应用于中药提取液的分离纯化.

  10. 凹凸棒黏土负载型固体酸催化合成乙酰水杨酸%Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid over Attapulgite Supported Solid Acid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洁; 蒋金龙; 钱晓敏

    2011-01-01

    Attapulgite (ATP) supported H+ and AlCl3 solid acid catalysts (H+/ATP and AlCl3/ATP) were prepared and their catalytic activities for synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid (AA) from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride were compared with the free acids.The results suggested that the solid acid catalysts exhibited higher activity than those of the free acids, especially AlCl3/ATP catalyst.Under the optimum conditions of AlCl3/ATP catalyst mass fraction 5% (based on salicylic acid), reaction temperature 80 ℃, reaction time 30 min and mole ratio of acetic anhydride to salicylic acid 2.0, the yield and the purity of AA reached 92.5% and 99.5% respectively.The synthesized AA was characterized by means of FTIR and 1H NMR.The AA yield still reached 89.2% after it was regenerated and reused for 5 times.%以凹凸棒黏土(ATP)为载体,制备了负载H+和AlCl3的固体酸催化剂(分别标记为H+/ATP,AlCl3/ATP),比较了负载前后催化剂对乙酰水杨酸合成反应的催化活性.实验结果表明,固体酸催化剂的活性高于游离酸催化剂,其中AlCl3/ATP催化剂的活性最高.以AlCl3/ATP为催化剂催化合成乙酰水杨酸的最佳工艺条件为:催化剂用量为5%(基于水杨酸质量),n(乙酸酐):n(水杨酸)=2.0,反应温度80℃,反应时间30 min;在此条件下,乙酰水杨酸收率达92.5%,纯度为99.5%.用FTIR和1H NMR表征了产物结构.AlCl3/ATP催化剂经活化再生重复使用5次后,乙酰水杨酸收率仍可达89.2%,表明AlCl3/ATP催化剂具有一定的稳定性,可实现再生利用.

  11. 知识服务环境下图书馆特色数据库建设--以“凹土资源特色数据库”建设为例%To Study the Knowledge Service of Special Library Database Construction-For Example with the Database Construction of Attapulgite Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程桂练; 仲超生

    2015-01-01

    With the database construction of attapulgite resource as example ,this paper discusses that the database construction must meet the users’ demand under the environment of knowledge services .The library should implant science research process through cooperation and provide services w hich based on knowledge discovery、knowledge integration and knowledge sharing .%以“凹土资源特色数据库”建设为例,论述了知识服务环境下图书馆特色数据库建设应以用户需求为导向,通过合作建库嵌入科研一线,立足知识发现、知识重组与知识共享开展服务。

  12. Synthesis of CuO/attapulgite composite material and their adsorption and antibacterial properties%CuO/凹凸棒石黏土复合材料的制备及其吸附、抑菌性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐惠; 唐靖; 彭振军; 黄剑

    2012-01-01

    Attapulgite was used as the matrix of CuO to synthesize a novel kind of composite (CuO/ATP) by depositing CuO on the surface of ATP via hydrothermal reaction method,after 450℃ calcined attapulg-ite load porous copper oxide composite, the adsorption and properties of bacteriostaic were investigated. The results indicated that CuO/ATP composite lead an improvement to the antibacterial action of Staphy-lococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. When the CuO quality score for 50% in composite material, the effects of CuO/ATP composite has remarkably enhanced degradation rate of the methylene blue which de-grees above the removal rate of up to 80%.%以凹凸棒石粘土为载体,采用共混水热法制备了纳米氧化铜/凹凸棒石黏土复合材料前驱体,450℃煅烧后得到凹凸棒石黏土负载的多孔氧化铜复合材料,考察了其吸附、抑菌性能.结果表明,复合材料中CuO的质量分数为50%时,亚甲基蓝色度的去除率达80%以上,对金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌的增长具有良好的抑制作用.

  13. Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Attapulgite/Poly(Lactic Acid) Nano-composites%凹凸棒石/聚乳酸纳米复合材料的力学性能和流变性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 王永仁; 左玉萍; 蒋玉梅; 韩舜愈

    2012-01-01

    采用熔融共混法制备凹凸棒石(ATT)质量分数分别为1%、3%和5%的ATT/聚乳酸(PLA)纳米复合材料,研究了ATT/PLA纳米复合材料的力学性能和流变性能。红外光谱分析结果表明:ATT与PLA基体之间存在较强的相互作用,使得二者之间具有较好的相容性。当ATT含量低于5%时,其可均匀分散在PLA基体中,而达到5%时,则会发生部分团聚。添加ATT后,PLA基体从脆性材料变为韧性材料,ATT起到增韧作用,并显著提高了复合材料的力学性能。当ATT含量为3%时,断裂伸长率达到26.36%,比纯PLA增加了297.6%,并且复合材料的冲击强度也比纯PLA增加了19.7%。ATT/PLA纳米复合材料的复数黏度、储能模量和损耗模量随ATT含量的增加呈先增大后减小趋势。由于ATT与PLA之间有良好的结合力,ATT的加入增大了复合材料的弹性和黏性,且低频区的变化明显高于高频区的变化。%The nano-composite materials of attapulgite and poly(lactic acid)(ATT/PLA) were prepared at various ATT content (mass fraction) of 1%, 3% and 5% by a melting blend method. The rheology and mechanical properties of the nano-composite materials were investigated. The results show that the ATT has a good compatibility with PLA when the ATT content is 〈 5%. However, the ATT particles become the aggreates when the content is 〉 5%. The results also show that there exists an interaction between the ATT particles and the PLA matrix. The nano-composite of ATT/PLA could transform from brittle to tough materials when the ATT was added into the PLA matrix. Besides, the mechanical properties of the nano-composites could be improved with adding the ATT. The elongation at the break of the nano-composite with ATT of 3% is 26.36%, which is 297.6% greater than that of the PLA without any ATT. Also, the izod impact strength is 19.7% which is greater than that of the PLA without any ATT. This

  14. 聚(丙烯酸-co-丙烯酰胺)/凹凸棒复合材料对亚甲蓝的吸附性能%Adsorption Behaviour of Methylene Blue onto Poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/Attapulgite Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永生; 孔莲; 牛文花; 宋海; 任雪峰; 王爱勤

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption properties of cationic dye methylene blue (MB) onto poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/attapulgite composite clay were investigated.The effects of various experimental parameters such as pH, concentration of the dye, temperature, contact time, adsorbent dosage, ionic strength and surfactant on adsorption process have been investigated.The equilibrium isotherms for the adsorption of the dye were measured experimentally.Results were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich equation at different temperatures and the characteristic parameters for the adsorption isotherm were determined.The adsorption process has been found endothermic for MB in nature.The thermodynamic parameters such as the Gibbs free energy, the change in enthalpy and change in entropy have been calculated.The maximum adsorption capacity for MB was obtained as 1 273.3 mg · g-1 at the temperature of 60 ℃.It was observed that the kinetic data fitted well with a pseudo second-order equation.The results showed that the composite attapulgite clay could be employed as the low-cost alternatives to the traditional agent in the wastewater treatment for the removal of color.%将聚(丙烯酸-co-丙烯酰胺)/凹凸棒复合吸附剂用于亚甲蓝的吸附,研究了时间、浓度、酸度、表面活性剂和离子强度等因素对吸附性能的影响.复合吸附剂对亚甲蓝的吸附是吸热过程,60 ℃时吸附量达到1 273.3 mg·g-1,吸附过程符合Langmuir单分子层吸附等温模式,并计算了热力学常数ΔG、ΔH和ΔS.在实验考察范围内吸附过程均符合准二级动力学特征.该复合吸附剂具有高吸附容量和较快的吸附速率,是良好的亚甲蓝吸附剂.

  15. The Preparation of Attapulgite Composite and Its Impact on Catalytic Oxidation Performance of Zero -valent Mercury%凹凸棒土复合催化剂的制备及对零价汞催化氧化性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建玲; 付澎; 王汪送; 陆玉; 许琦

    2015-01-01

    以天然的凹凸棒土(ATP )为原料,通过溶胶凝胶法(Sol-gel )、水热法、离子液体熔盐法与不同金属化合物(Fe2 O3,CeO2,FeVO4,CeVO4)复合制备催化剂。结果表明,Sol-gel、离子液体熔盐法制得的催化剂对Hg0的催化氧化效果较好,尤以Ce化合物改性ATP催化效果更佳。%Composite catalyst is prepared by the sol gel method (Sol - gel ) molten salt method ,hydrothermal method , ionic liquids with different metal compounds (Fe2O3 ,CeO2 ,FeVO4 ,CeVO4 ) composite and the natural attapulgite (ATP) as raw materials .The results show that the catalyst prepared by the method of Sol - gel and ionic liquid molten salt has better effects on properties of Hg0 ,especially on the catalytic effect of ATP modified by Ce compounds .

  16. 凹凸棒颗粒稳定的Pickering乳状液的制备条件及形成机理研究%Study on the Preparation Conditions of Olive Oil in Water Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Attapulgite Particles and Formation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 张晓优; 徐樟浩; 赵杰

    2013-01-01

    In this work, attapulgite was selected as emulsifier and the effects of pH value, particle concentration, volume fraction of oil phase and salts of different valences on stability of olive oil-in-water Pickering emulsion were systematically investigated. The results show that the pH value in the range of 4~9 favours the formation of stable emulsions. The increase in concentration of particles can enhance coalescence stability of emulsion. With the increasing volume fraction of oil phase, diameter of the emulsion droplets increases firstly and then decreases. Introduction of the inorganic salt into system doesn’t impact the volumes of the emulsion phase and water phase, but the size distribution of the emulsion droplets are significantly affected. Herein, the increase of NaCl concentration is conducive to the increase in average diameter of emulsion droplets. While CaCl2 concentration increases, average diameter of emulsion droplets increases first and then decreases. Microscope image shows attapulgite particles are mainly attached in the oil-water interface through network structure of aggregates, which plays a role in stabilizing emulsion droplets.%  选取凹凸棒作为乳化剂,系统研究pH值、颗粒质量分数、油相体积分数以及不同价态盐对橄榄油/水型Pickering乳状液稳定性的影响。结果表明,体系pH值在4~9范围内可制备出稳定的乳状液;颗粒质量分数提高可增强乳液的分层和聚结稳定性;乳液液滴直径随油相体积分数的增加先增大后减小;无机盐的引入不会对乳液相及水相体积产生影响,但对乳液液滴的尺寸分布影响显著,其中NaCl浓度的增加有利于乳状液液滴数均直径的增加,而CaCl2浓度增加时,乳状液液滴数均直径呈现先增大后减小的变化趋势。显微镜图片显示,凹凸棒颗粒主要以聚集体网状结构的方式附着在油-水界面处,从而起到稳定乳液液滴的效果。

  17. Preparation of Nano-TiO2 Catalyst Supported on Attapulgite and Its Catalytic Performance in Polyester Synthesis%纳米二氧化钛复合凹土催化剂的制备和催化聚酯反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 崔爱军; 李守青; 姚超; 何明阳; 陈群

    2012-01-01

    A type of nano-TiO2 with the main structure of anatase crystal was prepared and supported on attapulgite. All these materials were characterized by means of XRD and TEM. The catalytic performance of the materials was evaluated by polyester reaction, and the results show that the catalytic activity of nano-TiO2 is close to that of Sb2O3. However,the catalytic property is unstable,and the hue b of polyester is larger; after the nano-TiO2 was supported on attapulgite, the catalytic center presented ideal dispersion state, the catalyst property was also more stable, and the hue b of polyester was better (from 14. 05 to 8.17). Besides, the physical and chemical properties of the polyester influenced by the TiO2 -complex catalyst were discussed based on the analyses of DSC and TGA, and the results show that the crystallization temperature of polyester increased by using TiO2-complex catalyst, and the content of diethylene glycol and the thermal performance were close to those of normal polyester.%制备了一种以锐钛矿型为主的混晶纳米二氧化钛,并将其均匀复合于纳米凹凸棒土(ATP)上,得到了一类纳米复合催化剂,对二氧化钛及复合催化剂分别进行了 X 射线衍射和透射电镜表征.利用催化聚酯反应对二氧化钛及多种复合催化剂的性能进行了评价,结果表明,与常规聚酯催化剂Sb2O3相比较,纳米二氧化钛可达到与Sb2O3 相近的催化活性,但催化性能不稳定,聚酯产品b值较高;将二氧化钛与纳米凹凸棒土复合后,催化性能更加稳定,同时也改善了聚酯的色相,b值从14.05降为8.17.此外,讨论了复合催化剂对聚酯产品物化性能的影响,通过DSC、TGA等测试手段,发现复合催化剂制备的聚酯结晶温度升高,二甘醇含量和热降解性能与常规聚酯相近.

  18. Magnetic mixed hemimicelles dispersive solid-phase extraction based on ionic liquid-coated attapulgite/polyaniline-polypyrrole/Fe3O4 nanocomposites for determination of acaricides in fruit juice prior to high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoling; Qiao, Kexin; Liu, Fang; Wu, Xiaoling; Yang, Miyi; Li, Jing; Gao, Haixiang; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Lu, Runhua

    2017-05-01

    In this research, a novel method using magnetic mixed hemimicelles dispersive solid-phase extraction (MMHDSPE) based on C16mimBr-coated attapulgite/polyaniline-polypyrrole/Fe3O4 (ATP/PANI-PPY/Fe3O4) nanocomposites were investigated for enrichment and separation of three acaricides in fruit juice. In this method, we combined the simplicity and speed of dispersive solid-phase extraction, the advantages of mixed hemimicelles and the facility of the phase separation of the magnetic nanoparticles to develop a simple, rapid, sensitive, and effective method for detecting target analytes from the juice samples. ATP/PANI-PPY/Fe3O4 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using a one-pot method. The as-prepared nanocomposite sorbents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental factors affecting the extraction efficiency including the sorbent type, amount of ATP/PANI-PPY/Fe3O4 nanocomposites, volume of ILs, sonication time, pH, and desorption conditions were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, good linearity was observed for all target analytes, with correlation coefficients (r(2)) ranging from 0.9994 to 0.9999; the limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 0.16-0.57μgL(-1), and the recoveries of analytes using the proposed method ranged between 88.67% and 95.10%. The sorbents exhibited excellent repeatability in the range of 1.83-4.24% in extracting the three target analytes. In addition, the intra-day and inter-day precision values were found to be in the range of 0.19-6.24% and 2.23-8.36%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to analyze fruit juice samples by rapid preconcentration of acaricides.

  19. 凹凸棒土负载铁盐吸附剂的制备及其对As(Ⅴ)的吸附性能%Preparation of attapulgite loaded with ferrihydrite adsorbent and its adsorption propreties of As(Ⅴ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰冰; 李嫚; 徐红波; 王舰; 何璐

    2014-01-01

    Attapulgite ( ATP ) loaded with ferrihydrite adsorbent was prepared, and its adsorption propreties of As(Ⅴ) were studied. The effects of various parameters such as solution pH, heat modified temperature, particle size of ATP, and concentrations of ferrihydrite on the adsorption rate of As(Ⅴ) were assessed. The results showed that 600 ℃ modified ATP loaded with ferrihydrite sorbent had better arsenate adsorption efficiency than 200℃ and 400℃ modified ATP . Equilibrium data of arsenic adsorption fitted well with Freundlich isotherm model. The 200-400 mesh of ATP loaded with 0. 50 mol·L-1 ferric nitrate sorbent reached adsorption equilibrium in 24 h and had a substantial binding capacity at pH 6. 0. The maximum static adsorption capacity of the sorbent for As(Ⅴ) was 1.1669 mg·g-1 . The sorbent showed good stability and reusability towards As(Ⅴ) . The sorbent can potentially be used for the treatment of waste water containing arsenate.%研究凹凸棒土负载铁盐吸附剂的制备及其对As(Ⅴ)的吸附性能.考察了pH、凹凸棒土热改性温度、粒度、铁盐浓度等因素对吸附As(Ⅴ)性能的影响.结果表明,热改性温度为600℃的凹凸棒土负载铁盐吸附剂吸附As(Ⅴ)效果比200℃和400℃都好,其对As(Ⅴ)的吸附行为符合Freundlich模型.当pH值6.0时,600℃热改性200-400目的凹凸棒土负载0.5 mol·L-1 Fe( NO3)3吸附剂的最大吸附量为1.1669 mg·g-1,重复使用时性能稳定,具有处理含As(Ⅴ)废水的应用前景.

  20. Effect of ammonia concentration on the catalytic activity of Pd-Cu supported on attapulgite clay prepared by ammonia evaporation in CO oxidation at room temperature%氨浓度对氨蒸发法制备Pd-Cu/凹凸棒土催化剂常温CO氧化性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永钊; 范莉渊; 武瑞芳; 石晶; 李潇; 赵永祥

    2015-01-01

    With attapulgite clay ( APT ) as support, the Pd-Cu/APT catalysts were prepared by an ammonia evaporation method and characterized by N2-physisorption, XRD, FT-IR, TEM and H2-TPR. The effect of ammonia concentration on the catalytic performance of Pd-Cu/APT in CO oxidation at room temperature was investigated in a fixed-bed continuous flow microreactor. The results showed that CuO appears as the main Cu species in the Pd-Cu/APT catalysts prepared with over low or over high ammonia concentration, whereas the quantity of Cu2(OH)3Cl phase is much less. However, a proper concentration of ammonia is of benefits to forming stable Cu2( OH) 3 Cl species in Pd-Cu/APT;owing to its high dispersion, nano-platelet morphology and strong interaction with Pd species, the presence of stable Cu2 ( OH ) 3 Cl can significantly promote the catalytic performance of Pd-Cu/APT in CO oxidation. Under a gas hourly space velocity ( GHSV) of 6 000 h-1 for a feed stream containing 1. 5% CO and 3. 3% water, the Pd-Cu/APT catalyst exhibits excellent activity and stability in CO oxidation even at room temperature.%以凹凸棒土( APT)作载体,采用氨蒸发法制备了Pd-Cu/APT催化剂,以CO氧化为探针反应,在连续流动微反应装置上,考察了初始氨浓度对催化剂CO常温催化氧化性能的影响。通过N2-physisorption、XRD、FT-IR、TEM和H2-TPR等手段对催化剂的结构和性质进行了表征。结果表明,在较低或过高氨浓度条件下,制备的Pd-Cu/APT中Cu物种均主要以CuO为主,仅有少量Cu2(OH)3Cl;适宜的氨浓度有利于稳定Cu2(OH)3Cl物相的形成,其薄片状的形貌特征、良好的分散状态以及与Pd物种间较强的相互作用,显著提高了CO催化氧化性能。在空速6000 h-1、CO体积分数1.5%、水蒸气体积分数3.3%的反应条件下,Pd-Cu/APT催化剂表现出优异的CO室温催化氧化活性和稳定性。

  1. ADSORPTION BEHAVIOUR OF Mn(Ⅱ) AND Zn(Ⅱ) ON ATTAPULGITE WITH FAAS METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bingbing; LI Chunxiang; LIU Aiqin; XIAO Bo

    2008-01-01

    Active attapulbgite as adsorptive reagent, the adsorptive behavior of Mn(Ⅱ) and Zn(Ⅱ) was studied with Flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) method.The mainly factors of influencing the adsorption and desorption of Mn(Ⅱ) and Zn(Ⅱ) were discussed.The interference of coexisting ions was investigated, and the actual sample determination from adzuki beans, mung beans and phosphating waste water was conducted with good result.

  2. ADSORPTION BEHAVIOUR OF Mn(Ⅱ) AND Zn(Ⅱ) ON ATTAPULGITE WITH FAAS METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Active attapulbgite as adsorptive reagent, the adsorptive behavior of Mn(II) and Zn(II) was studied with Flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) method. The mainly factors of influencing the adsorption and desorption of Mn(II) and Zn(II) were discussed. The interference of coexisting ions was investigated, and the actual sample determination from adzuki beans, mung beans and phosphating waste water was conducted with good result.

  3. Synthesis of HTEMPO Grafted the Surface of Attapulgite by γ-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.L.Wei; Y.P.Wang; B.Wang; L.Yuan

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Living free radical polymerization has undergone tremendous advancement in the past few years, particularly in the area of nitroxide mediated free radical polymerization. In 1980s, the use of nitroxyl free radicals such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl(TEMPO) to moderate free radical polymerizations was first reported by Rizzardo,et al[1], more and more people began to interested in the polymerization methods which controlled by nitroxide stable free radicals. Recently, some people int...

  4. RETRACTED: Sodium alginate films modified by raw and functionalized attapulgite for use of thorium(IV) adsorption: A thermodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Denis L.; Viana, Rúbia R.; da Costa, Luiz P.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2009-11-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors of the Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids as fraudulent results have been found in this article and other publications in Elsevier journals by the same authors, namely: J. Colloid Interface Sci., 337 (2009) 122-130, doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2009.05.013. Inorg. Chem. Commun., 12 (2009) 1145-1149, doi:10.1016/j.inoche.2009.08.029. J. Environ. Radioact., 101 (2010) 122-133, doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.09.005. Process Safety Environ. Prot., 88 (2010) 53-61, doi:10.1016/j.psep.2009.10.002. J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 70 (2009) 1413-1421, doi:10.1016/j.jpcs.2009.08.012. Appl. Surf. Sci., 256 (2009) 702-709, doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.08.045. Inorg. Chem. Commun., 11 (2008) 20-23, doi:10.1016/j.inoche.2007.09.029. Inorg. Chem. Commun., 12 (2009) 1107-1111, doi:10.1016/j.inoche.2009.08.033. J. Hazard. Mat., 172 (2009) 507-514, doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.016. J. Hazard. Mat., 171 (2009) 514-523, doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.032. J. Colloid Interface Sci., 338 (2009) 30-39, doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2009.06.004. Publication of an article in a peer-reviewed journal is an important building-block in the development of science. Elsevier has defined policies and ethical guidelines and takes its duties of guardianship over the scholarly record extremely seriously. The Editors of the Elsevier journals involved found that the allegations of fraud are conclusive and they have decided that these papers should be retracted from the journals.

  5. Effects of Attapulgite Clay on Beer Stability%凹凸棒土对啤酒稳定性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丙云; 李志忠

    2007-01-01

    凹凸棒土经预处理后,对啤酒中单宁等物质有良好吸附性,考察了凹土添加量、吸附温度、吸附时间对啤酒稳定性的影响,通过正交试验结果表明,凹凸棒土用量0.4 g/L,在5℃下搅拌60 min,可显著提高啤酒的非生物稳定性,啤酒单宁量下降55.6%.

  6. 纳米凹凸棒石对磨损表面的摩擦改性%Tribological modification of nano attapulgite powders on wear surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博; 许一; 李晓英; 王晓丽; 高飞; 徐滨士

    2012-01-01

    将主要含有Mg、Al、O、Si等元素的凹凸棒石按质量分数0.5%添加在柴油机润滑油CD 15W/40中,配制成对比油样.分别利用X射线衍射(XRD)与透射电镜(TEM)分析凹凸棒石的物相组成及颗粒形貌,使用环一块摩擦磨损试验机进行摩擦实验,借助表面轮廓仪、聚焦离子束扫描电镜(focus ion-beam scanning electron microscope,FIBSEM)、能量弥散X射线探测器(energy dispersive X-ray detector,EDX)及TEM分析试样的磨损量及磨损表面的形貌、元素和物相组成,并探讨磨损表面的摩擦改性机理.结果表明:该凹凸棒石属于一维纳米材料,分散在CD 15W/40润滑油中使摩擦副的磨损量降低约66%,磨损表面光滑;摩擦过程中,纳米凹凸棒石与摩擦副表面发生复杂的化学反应,形成一层厚度约为10~20nm的摩擦改性层,其物相组成为晶态和非晶态的SiO2和铝硅酸盐,含有Al、Fe、Si、O、C等元素.

  7. MICROSTRUCTURE OF COPPER MODIFIED ATTAPULGITE/NANOTITANIA COMPOSITE POWDERS%铜改性凹凸棒石/纳米二氧化钛复合粉体的微观结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娣芳; 周杰; 刘宁

    2006-01-01

    以四氯化钛作前驱体,采用酸碱中和并流法制备了以铜改性凹凸棒石为载体的表面包覆纳米氧化钛的复合粉体.用高分辨透射电镜和X射线衍射(X-ray diffraction,XRD)对该纳米复合粉体的微观结构进行观察和分析.实验结果显示:二氧化钛以3~6nm的晶体颗粒粘附在一维纳米棒状的凹凸棒石表面.凹凸棒石和氧化钛均各自相互分离,没有团聚现象发生.纳米复合粉体中的氧化钛为单一类型的锐钛矿相,其XRD衍射峰和JCPDS的锐钛矿特征衍射峰一致.凹凸棒石的主要特征衍射峰位置没有发生较大变化.铜以多价态的形式存在于凹凸棒石表面.该复合粉体对大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的24h抑菌率分别达到了99.52%和99.15%.

  8. HCl、对甲基苯磺酸共掺杂聚苯胺/凹凸棒复合材料%Polyaniline/attapulgite Composites Codoped with HCl/p-Methylbenzene Sulfonic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐靖

    2014-01-01

    以凹凸棒(ATP)为载体,通过原位聚合法制备出盐酸、对甲基苯磺酸共掺杂(PANI/ATP)复合材料.利用Fourier红外光谱(FTIR)和扫描电镜(SEM)对制得的复合材料进行化学结构和形貌表征.实验研究了该复合材料对含痕量Cr(Ⅵ)废水的吸附,考察了物料配比、pH值、投料量和吸附时间对其吸附性能的影响.结果表明:当HCI浓度为0.5 mol/L、对甲基苯磺酸为1.0g,pH值为2,投料量为0.331g,吸附时间为4h时复合材料对Cr(Ⅵ)的吸附达到了最优.实验数据还表明该复合材料还具有良好的再生性能.

  9. Effects of Attapulgite Clay on Soil Aggregate and Wheat Growth%凹凸棒石粘土对土壤团粒结构及小麦生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘左军; 陈正宏; 袁惠君; 刘晓风; 郝远

    2010-01-01

    研究了凹凸棒石粘土(凹土)对土壤团粒结构和小麦生长的影响.结果表明:凹土能显著增加直径>0.25 mm和0.25~0.5 mm团聚体总数;凹土用量40~80 g kg~(-1)时提高小麦千粒重和淀粉含量,80 g khg~(-1)时千粒重最大,40 g kg~(-1)时淀粉含量最高;≥80 g kg~(-1)时降低苗率、株高、叶面积、穗粒数和穗粒重;20~40 g kg~(-1)时影响不明显.

  10. Bleaching of tallow with acid activated attapulgite treated by different dosage of sulfuric acid%酸活化凹土在牛羊油脱色中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡涛; 陈静; 陈勇; 丁石

    2009-01-01

    通过扫描电镜、X射线能谱、X射线衍射、傅立叶变换红外光谱和BET测试,对不同浓度的硫酸改性后的凹土进行分析.结果表明,经过合适浓度的硫酸处理的凹土可获得较好的脱色效果.对脱色前后油脂的紫外可见光谱分析表明,5%硫酸活化处理的凹土能有效地去除牛羊油中的色素.牛羊油中色素的脱除不仅与凹土比表面有关,更与合适的孔径有关.

  11. W/O Pickering emulsions prepared with organo-attapulgite particles%利用有机化凹凸棒石颗粒制备W/O型Pickering乳液

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳芳; 全丽娜; 陈浩; 赵杰

    2014-01-01

    选取我国储量丰富的凹凸棒石矿,对其表面进行十六烷基三甲氧基硅烷有机改性处理,将制备的纳米颗粒应用于乳液的制备.系统考察了体系pH、颗粒质量分数和油相体积分数等因素对Pickering乳液稳定性的影响.结果表明:随着分散体系pH的增加,乳液液滴尺寸先增大后减小又增大再减小;随着颗粒质量分数的提高,可用于稳定乳液的颗粒数量增多,乳液稳定性提高;随着油相体积分数的增大,乳液液滴尺寸先增大后减小又增大再减小.通过调节水相体系的pH,成功制备了由有机改性凹凸棒石颗粒单独稳定的W/O型乳液.

  12. 凹土的表面改性及其在雨靴面胶中的应用%Surface Modification of Attapulgite Clay and Its Application in Boot Vamp Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱运华; 金叶玲

    2005-01-01

    用硬脂酸对凹凸棒石黏土(凹土)进行改性,改性的最佳条件为硬脂酸用量为2%、改性温度为80℃、改性时间为30min,所得改性凹土的活化指数达0.95.改性凹土在雨靴面胶中的填充试验表明,改性凹土可以完全替代轻钙.

  13. ENFORCING EFFECT OF NANO-ATTAPULGITE ON CHOPPED CARBON FIBER/BMI COMPOSITE%纳米凹凸棒土对碳纤维/BMI树脂复合材料的增强与增韧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德安; 梁辉; 贾静; 徐廷献

    2000-01-01

    采用预浸料模压工艺制备了纳米凹凸棒土/短碳纤维/BMI树脂复合材料.实验并分析了纳米凹凸棒土对复合材料的增强与增韧作用.当其质量百分比为5%~6%时,弯曲强度和冲击强度分别提高了30%和57%.

  14. 改性凹凸棒石处理对啤酒非生物稳定性的影响%Influence of modified attapulgite on non-biological stability of beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史经略

    2015-01-01

    研究凹凸棒石的改性条件,以及改性后的凹凸棒石对啤酒中蛋白质的吸附性能,通过单因素试验结合响应面分析,对凹凸棒石的改性和处理条件进行优化,同时测定在不同添加量和不同吸附时间下,经改性凹凸棒石吸附后啤酒的非生物稳定性和泡沫稳定性,以及研究改性凹凸棒石的吸附专一性.结果表明,凹凸棒石在303℃下加热2.54 h改性后,对引起啤酒冷混浊的活性蛋白具有很强的亲和力;改性凹凸棒石的添加量为0.875 g/L,吸附时间为25 min,可使啤酒的SASPL值增加2.0左右,有效提高啤酒的稳定性,并且对啤酒泡沫稳定性无任何不利的影响.

  15. Preparation and performance of attapulgite-loaded zinc oxide-titania%凹凸棒土负载氧化锌-二氧化钛的制备与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志林; 安青珍; 郝永亮

    2011-01-01

    Attapulgiteloaded zinc oxide- titania ( ATP/ZnO -TiO2 ) nano-composite material was prepared by chemical precipitation method with TiOSO4 ,ZnSO4 ,and ( NH4 )2CO3 as raw materials and ATP as carrier. Samples were characterized by XRD and TEM. Photocatalytic activities were evaluated by degradation of activeness scarlet ( BES) and the conditions for preparing this composite material were optimized. Results showed that the optimum conditions for preparation of the nanocomposite material were as follows:mass ratio of ATP to TiO2 was 20% ,amount-of-substance ratio of TiO2 to ZnO was 10∶ 1, and calcined temperature was 450 ℃. Under these conditions, the effect of photocatalytic activity of the composite material to BES was the best. Compared with ATP/TiO2 and ATP/ZnO,the nano-composite material had better photocatalytic material performance under visible light.%以凹凸棒土(ATP)作载体,硫酸氧钛、硫酸锌及碳酸铵为原料,采用化学沉淀法制备凹凸棒土负载氧化锌-二氧化钛(ATP/ZnO-TiO2)纳米复合材料,并用XRD,TEM测试手段对样品进行了表征.以其对活性大红(BES)的降解效果作为评价其光催化性能的标准,对制备条件进行了优化.结果表明:ATP与二氧化钛的质量比为20%、二氧化钛与氧化锌的物质的量比为10:1、煅烧温度为450℃下制备的复合材料光催化降解活性大红的效果最佳;与凹凸棒土负载二氧化钛(ATP/TiO2)及凹凸棒土负载氧化锌(ATP/ZnO)相比,复合材料具有良好的可见光光催化性能.

  16. Vortex-assisted magnetic β-cyclodextrin/attapulgite-linked ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the fast determination of four fungicides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miyi; Xi, Xuefei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lu, Runhua; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zhang, Sanbing; Gao, Haixiang

    2015-02-13

    A novel microextraction technique combining magnetic solid-phase microextraction (MSPME) with ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) to determine four fungicides is presented in this work for the first time. The main factors affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized by the one-factor-at-a-time approach and the impacts of these factors were studied by an orthogonal design. Without tedious clean-up procedure, analytes were extracted from the sample to the adsorbent and organic solvent and then desorbed in acetonitrile prior to chromatographic analysis. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity and high enrichment factors were obtained for all analytes, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9998 to 1.0000 and enrichment factors ranging 135 and 159 folds. The recoveries for proposed approach were between 98% and 115%, the limits of detection were between 0.02 and 0.04 μg L(-1) and the RSDs changed from 2.96 to 4.16. The method was successfully applied in the analysis of four fungicides (azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, cyprodinil and trifloxystrobin) in environmental water samples. The recoveries for the real water samples ranged between 81% and 109%. The procedure proved to be a time-saving, environmentally friendly, and efficient analytical technique.

  17. Inhibiting effect of postharvest Attapulgite treatment on blue mold of pears (cv.Pingguoli)%采后Attapulgite处理对苹果梨青霉病的抑制效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文浩; 毕阳; 葛永红; 齐志国; 张海霞; 张霞玲

    2008-01-01

    在离体条件下,10、50 g/L和100 g/L的Attapulgite均可抑制Penicillium expansum菌丝的生长,其中以100 g/L的抑菌效果最好,对菌丝生长的抑制率可达55.9 %.采用50 g/L和100 g/L的Attapulgite以Tween60做表面活性剂对果实进行15 min真空渗透处理,可显著降低损伤接种P.expansum的病斑面积,其中100 g/L的处理效果优于50 g/L处理.生化分析结果表明,经Attapulgite处理的果实体内的苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)、几丁质酶(CHT)和β-1,3-葡聚糖酶(GLU)活性明显升高,总酚含量也有所增加.由此表明,Attapulgite处理对苹果梨果实青霉病的抑制与其的直接抑菌作用和诱导体内的抗性有关.

  18. Preparation and Properties of Poly (acrylic acid-potassium acrylate)/Attapulgite Superabsorbent Composite%聚丙烯酸(钾)/凹凸棒吸水剂的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安; 王爱勤; 陈建敏

    2004-01-01

    在凹凸棒存在的情况下,以丙烯酸为单体,以N,N-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺(MBA)为交联剂,过硫酸钾(KPS)为引发剂,采用水溶液聚合法合成了聚丙烯酸(钾)/凹凸棒吸水剂.用TGA和SEM对产物进行了表征.IR分析证实了凹凸棒与丙烯酸发生了接枝共聚反应.研究了引发剂的用量、交联剂的用量和粘土的用量等反应条件对复合吸水剂吸水性的影响.当凹凸棒w=0.10时,复合吸水材料在蒸馏水和生理盐水中的吸水倍数分别大于1 200和100.

  19. PVA/atapulgite hydrogels; Hidrogeis de PVA/atapulgita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Soares, G.A., E-mail: nunes@metalmat.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Paranhos, C.M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil); Barreto, L.S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    PVA hydrogels can be used as wound-healing as a consequence of their biocompatibility, flexibility, etc. In order to improve mechanical resistance of wound-healing, polymeric hydrogels reinforced with clay have been studied. Among national clays, attapulgite stands out. Once it is a natural material, acid treatment can be required in order to remove impurities. In the present work, PVA hydrogels reinforced with attapulgite were produced and they were characterized by swelling behavior, XRD, DSC and traction test. Among all properties studied, hydrogels reinforced with activated attapulgite showed better mechanical resistance and Young module than the other samples. (author)

  20. Remediation of copper polluted red soils with clay materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gangya Zhang; Yunqing Lin; Mingkuang Wang

    2011-01-01

    Attapulgite and montmorillonite were utilized to remediate heavy metal polluted red soils in Guixi City, Jiangxi Province, China.The effects of clay minerals on availability, chemical distribution, and biotoxicity of Cu and Zn were evaluated.The results provided a reference for the rational application of clay materials to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils.From the sorption experiment,the maximum adsorbed Cu2+ by attapulgite and montmorillonite was 1501 and 3741 mg/kg, respectively.After polluted red soil was amended with attapulgite or montmorillonite and cultured at 30 and 60 days, soil pH increased significantly compared to the control.An 8% increase in the amount of montmorillonite in soil and 30 days incubation decreased acid exchangeable Cu by 24.7% compared to the control red soil.Acid exchangeable Cu decreased with increasing amounts of attapulgite and montmorillonite, with best remediation effect reached at a dose of 8%.Results also showed that the Cu poisoning effect on earthworms was reduced with the addition of attapulgite and montmorillonite.Montmoriilonite showed the best effect, with the addition of a 2% dose the mortality of earthworms decreased from 60% to zero compared to the control.Our results indicated that the bioavailability of Cu in soils was reduced more effectively with the application of montmorillonite than attapulgite.

  1. Study on the Immobilization Technology of Bromelin with Attapulgite modified by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane%3-氨基丙基三乙氧基硅烷改性凹凸棒土固定化菠萝蛋白酶工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋荣; 单良; 王兴国

    2008-01-01

    [目的]确定利用3.氨基丙基三乙氧基硅烷改性凹凸棒土(3-APIS-凹凸棒土)固定菠萝蛋白酶的最佳工艺条件.[方法]以3-APIS-凹凸棒土为基质,在单因素试验的基础上,研究用固定菠萝蛋白酶的最佳工艺条件.[结果]确定菠萝蛋白酶固定化的条件为:0.4%戊二醛交联,温度38~44℃,pH值6.4,固定化时间4.5 h,最终产品的酶活为3 900 U/g,酶活回收率达80%.[结论]利用3-APIS-凹凸棒土固定的菠萝蛋白酶稳定性和利用率显著提高.

  2. 改性凹凸棒土复配PAC去除水源水中突发性重金属铜污染研究%Removal of emergent contamination of Cu2+ in source water by Modified Attapulgite Combined with PAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗硕; 孔利锋; 张琳; 绍彬

    2013-01-01

    以聚合氯化铝为絮凝剂采用强化混凝的处理方法,对水源水中突发性重金属铜的去除进行研究,考察混凝剂投加量和投加改性凹凸棒土等对Cu2去除率的影响.结果表明,常规工艺对铜的最大去除率为67%,加入改性凹凸棒土可显著提高混凝效果,组合工艺去除铜的最优条件是,聚合氯化铝投加量为30mg/L,改性凹凸棒土投加量为30mg/L,在混凝前1min投加,此时铜的去除率达85%以上.

  3. 安徽明光凹凸棒石黏土对锶、铯、钴的吸附特性研究%Study on Adsorption Performance of Attapulgite Clay from Mingguang City of Anhui Province for Strontium, Caesium and Cobalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王哲; 易发成; 刘艳

    2015-01-01

    采用静态吸附实验方法,研究了吸附时间、溶液pH、吸附剂投加量和溶液初始浓度等因素对凹凸棒石黏土吸附Sr2+、Cs+和Co2的性能,并通过等温吸附模型拟合对其吸附过程及吸附机理进行了探讨.结果表明:凹凸棒石黏土对Sr2+、Cs+和Co2的吸附效果依次为Co2> Cs+>Sr2;Freundlich和D-R等温吸附模型能较好地描述凹凸棒石黏土对Sr2+、Cs+和Co2+的吸附过程,其中,凹凸棒石黏土对Sr2和Cs+的吸附以物理吸附为主,而凹凸棒石对Co2+的吸附过程以化学吸附为主,并且其吸附方式主要为离子交换的方式发生.

  4. Organic modification and application of attapulgite on the waste water produced in the process of dehydrated onion%凹凸棒有机改性及其在脱水洋葱加工废水除臭中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵萍; 姚莹; 王雅; 张轶

    2008-01-01

    凹凸棒石的链层状结构具有特殊的物化性质及工艺性能,经有机改性后的凹凸棒对有机物的吸附性大大提高.着重叙述经常规有机改性和超声波法有机改性后的凹凸棒对脱水洋葱加工废水中的特征性风味的吸附作用,并用感官方法比较其对有机物的吸附能力,以臭强度等级作为标准.经比较证明,超声波法有机改性的凹凸棒石对水中含硫化舍物的吸附量最大,添加量为2.5g/50g时,脱水洋葱加工废水的特征性风味可以完全吸附.

  5. Reducing the pollution risk of pesticide using nano networks induced by irradiation and hydrothermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Liu, Zuojun; Zhang, Guilong; Qiu, Guannan; Zhong, Naiqin; Wu, Lifang; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    Traditional pesticides (TP) often do not adhere tightly to crop foliage. They can easily enter the surrounding environment through precipitation and volatilization. This can result in the pollution of the surrounding soil, water, and air. To reduce pesticide pollution, we developed a loss-control pesticide (LCP) by adding attapulgite with a nano networks structure fabricated using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment to TP. HEEB irradiation effectively dispersed originally aggregated attapulgite through modified thermal, charge, and physical effects. Hydrothermal treatment further enhanced the dispersion of attapulgite to form nano porous networks via thermal and wet expansion effects, which are beneficial for pesticide binding. An LCP has improved retention on crop leaf surfaces. It has a higher adhesion capacity, reduced leaching and volatilization, and extended residual activity compared with the TP formulation. The treatment increases the residual activity of pesticides on crop foliage and decreases environmental pollution.

  6. Preparation and characterization of adsorbents for treatment of water associated with oil production

    KAUST Repository

    Sueyoshi, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Two sets of adsorbents were prepared from locally available raw materials, characterized and tested. The first set consists of crushed natural attapulgite and crushed attapulgite mixed with petroleum tank-bottom sludge and carbonized at 650 °C. Another set was prepared using trunk of date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera) activated at 700 and 800°C. Both sets were characterized using BET surface area and pore distributions, FTIR, XRD, SEM and TEM. Natural attapulgite and attapulgite/sludge composite exhibited different characteristics and adsorptive capacities for oil removal from oily water. Adsorptive capacities were calculated from the breakthrough curves of a column test. An oily water solution of about 500 mg-oil/L was passed through both the attapulgite and attapulgite/sludge columns until the column effluent concentration exceeded a reference limit of 10 mg-oil/L. Uptake was calculated at this limit at 155 and 405 mg-oil/g-adsorbent, respectively. This was lower than the performance of a commercial activated carbon sample (uptake calculated at 730 mg-oil/g-adsorbent). Relatively, the date palm, carbonaceous-based adsorbent samples showed less significant differences in both bulk and surface properties. Uptake significantly improved to 1330-1425 mg-oil/g-adsorbent. Attempt was made to associate this performance with the difference in the surface areas between the two sets. However, other factors are found to be important as the second set has a range of surface area less than that of the commercial sample. As evidenced by FTIR, XRD and TEM, the activated carbonaceous materials developed porous structures which form defective graphitic sheet ensembles that serve as additional adsorption sites in the sample. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Highly selective capture of nucleosides with boronic acid functionalized polymer brushes prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ting; Zhu, Shuqiang; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-04-01

    The nucleoside or modified nucleoside level in biological fluids reflects the pathological or physiological state of the body. Boronate affinity absorbents are widely used to selectively extract nucleosides from complex samples. In this work, a novel functionalized absorbent was synthesized by attaching 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid to gold nanoparticles on modified attapulgite. The surface of the attapulgite was modified by poly(acryloyloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) by atom transfer radical polymerization, creating many polymer brushes on the surface. The resultant material exhibited superior binding capacity (30.83 mg/g) for adenosine and was able to capture cis-diol nucleosides from 1000-fold interferences. Finally, to demonstrate its potential for biomolecule extraction, this boronate affinity material was used to preconcentrate nucleosides from human urine and plasma.

  8. Fabrication and testing of engineered forms of self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous silica (SAMMS) material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, S.V.; Liu, J.; Fryxell, G.E.; Baskaran, S.; Gong, M.; Nie, Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Feng, X. [Ferro Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Klasson, K.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A number of engineered forms such as flexible extrudates, beads, and rods were fabricated using thiol-SAMMS (Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Silica) and tested for their mercury adsorption capacities. The flexible extrudate form had a mercury adsorption capacity of 340 mg/g but was found to be structurally unstable. A structurally sound bead form of thiol-SAMMS was fabricated with 5, 10, 25, and 40% by weight clay binder (attapulgite) and successfully functionalized. A structurally stable but non-optimized rod form of thiol-SAMMS was also fabricated. Bench-scale processes were developed to silanize and functionalize mesoporous silica beads made with attapulgite clay binder. Contact angle measurements were conducted to assess the degree of surface coverage by functional groups on mesoporous silica materials.

  9. A study on the effect of coating's sorption capacity on the porosity in lost foam aluminum alloy casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Effects of coating constituent, coating density, coating layer thickness and temperature on coating sorption capacity for polystyrene decomposition products have been studied systematically. It has been found that the effect of attapulgite clay on sorption capacity is the largest among coating constituents. The sorption capacity of the coating with 2 %attapulgite clay is elevated by 81%. The relationship between casting porosity and coating sorption capacity has been studied. It has been pointed out that higher coating sorption capacity for polystyrene decomposition products is helpful to decrease the casting porosity. Results also show that the sorption capacity of self- developed HW- 1 coating for polystyrene decomposition products is as good as that of Ashland coating from America.

  10. Polycarbonate/Polypropylene/Fibrillar Silicate Ternary Nanocomposites via Two-step Blending Process: Degradation and Morphology%两步共混工艺制备聚碳酸酯/聚丙烯/针状硅酸盐三元纳米复合材料:降解与形态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛立新; 高翔; 张猛响; 金日光

    2006-01-01

    The method of two-step melt blending was used to prepare polycarbonate/polypropylene/attapulgite ternary nanocomposite, and the various techniques including gel permeation chromatography, rheometer, transmission electron microscope, dynamic mechanical analysis were used to examine the degradation of polycarbonate (PC)and the nanocomposite morphology. The results showed that the molecular weight degradation of PC triggered by attapulgite (AT) during the direct blending process was inhibited effectively by using two-step melt blending, in which AT was blended with polypropylene (PP) prior to compound with PC. The morphology of encapsulation was formed in the PC matrix, where PP encapsulates AT fibrillar single crystals to form a core-shell inclusion. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) measurements showed that the PC/PP/AT ternary nanocomposites were more effective than conventional PC/PP blends in reinforcement, meanwhile the addition of AT in the ternary nanocomposites shifted the glass transition temperature of the PP phase to a higher value.

  11. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis. Volume 1, Narrative and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients-Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice.

  12. Controlling nitrogen migration through micro-nano networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan; Jiang, Jiang; Wu, Yuejin; Feng, Huiyun; Brown, Ian G.; Chu, Paul K.; Yu, Zengliang

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer unabsorbed by crops eventually discharges into the environment through runoff, leaching and volatilization, resulting in three-dimensional (3D) pollution spanning from underground into space. Here we describe an approach for controlling nitrogen loss, developed using loss control fertilizer (LCF) prepared by adding modified natural nanoclay (attapulgite) to traditional fertilizer. In the aqueous phase, LCF self-assembles to form 3D micro/nano networks via hydrogen bonds an...

  13. Argilas especiais: o que são, caracterização e propriedades Special clays: what they are, characterization and properties

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio C. Vieira Coelho; Pérsio de Souza Santos; Helena de Souza Santos

    2007-01-01

    Special clays are a group of clays different from the large volume of clay mineral products named "Industrial Clays": kaolins, ball clays, refractory clays, bentonites, fuller's earths, common clays. Two groups of special clays exist: rare, as in the case of hectorite and sepiolite and restricted areas, as in the case of white bentonite, halloysite and palygorskite (attapulgite). A review is given of the most important producers of the special clays and their properties in the Western World, ...

  14. Argilas especiais: o que são, caracterização e propriedades

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho,Antonio C. Vieira; Santos,Pérsio de Souza; Santos,Helena de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Special clays are a group of clays different from the large volume of clay mineral products named "Industrial Clays": kaolins, ball clays, refractory clays, bentonites, fuller's earths, common clays. Two groups of special clays exist: rare, as in the case of hectorite and sepiolite and restricted areas, as in the case of white bentonite, halloysite and palygorskite (attapulgite). A review is given of the most important producers of the special clays and their properties in the Western World, ...

  15. Use of clays for purification of biodiesel; Utilizacao de argilas para purificacao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Andreia Juliana Almeida de; Kruegel, Marlus; Miranda, Joao Paulo; Rossi, Luciano Fernando dos Santos; Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos da, E-mail: pedroneto@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Depts. de Quimica, Biologia e Mecanica

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the results of the purification of methyl biodiesel, obtained by oxidized soybean oil, using different methods. After the ester separation from the glycerin by decanting, the ester was purified each time with distillation, washing with water and adsorption with bauxite, bentonite and attapulgite. The removal of total contamination, unsaponifiable material, concentrations of free glycerin and soap were analyzed in the purified ester phase. The best result of purification was observed with the use of bentonite and bauxite, in the removal of soap and free glycerin respectively. (author)

  16. Utilização de argilas para purificação de biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Juliana Almeida de Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the results of the purification of methyl biodiesel, obtained by oxidized soybean oil, using different methods. After the ester separation from the glycerin by decanting, the ester was purified each time with distillation, washing with water and adsorption with bauxite, bentonite and attapulgite. The removal of total contamination, unsaponifiable material, concentrations of free glycerin and soap were analyzed in the purified ester phase. The best result of purification was observed with the use of bentonite and bauxite, in the removal of soap and free glycerin respectively.

  17. Remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soil using long-duration sodium thiosulfate supported by micro–nano networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lulu [School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wang, Min; Zhang, Guilong [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Qiu, Guannan [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Cai, Dongqing, E-mail: dqcai@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Zhengyan, E-mail: zywu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, Xin, E-mail: xinzhang@ahau.edu.cn [School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • This work aims to develop a long-duration remediation agent (LRA). • LRA was obtained using Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks. • ATP micro–nano networks was induced by high-energy electron beam irradiation. • LRA can effectively control the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). • LRA displayed high performance on the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. - Abstract: In this work, a long-duration remediation agent (LRA) on hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was developed using sodium thiosulfate (ST) supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks induced through high-energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The ATP networks could effectively reduce the leaching amount of Cr(VI) in soil. More importantly, the ATP networks could significantly control the leaching behavior of ST, and then prolong the duration and increase the reduction efficiency of ST on Cr(VI). As a result, LRA displayed high performance on controlling the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Additionally, pot experiment indicated that LRA could effectively decrease the absorbed amount of Cr(VI) in corn, and reduce the inhibition effect of Cr(VI) on the growth of corn. Therefore, this work could provide a facile approach to remediate the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil and lower the harmful effect of Cr(VI) on crop.

  18. Preparation and properties of PAn/ATTP/PE conductive composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jian-hui; FENG Hui-xia

    2006-01-01

    Polyaniline/Attapugite/ PE(PAn-ATTP/PE)composites containing particles with core-shell structure were obtained via the two-step blending processs. The experimental condition is as follows: Organo-attapulgite and PAn was obtained by modifying attapulgite with laury benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt and,then added to PE. The electrical conductivity,structure and properties of the composites were studied. Under the function of shear stress,core-shell structure particles with ATTP as the core and PAn as the shell were formed in the composites. The structure of PAn-ATTP/PE composites were characterized by FTIR,XRD,SEM,etc,respectively. The effects of concentration of doping agent on the conductivity and mechanical property of the composites were investigated. The mechanical properties and impact fracture surface of the ternary composites were studied by means of the tensile tester,SEM,etc. The results show that polyaniline encapsulated ATTP enhances the strength of the PE. And the conductivity of PAn-ATTP/PE composites of is improved effectively when polyaniline encapsulated ATTP is added. The composite have good conductivity when 10% polyaniline encapsulated ATTP is added.

  19. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis. Volume 2, Data presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients: Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) -- were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice. This report presents the mixture-experimental results and leach data.

  20. 新型聚乳酸复合材料的制备与性能研究%Research on Synthesis and Performance of the Advanced Polylactic Acid Composite Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    酒巧娜; 卢玉献

    2014-01-01

    以聚乳酸为基体,以Z-6030及十六烷基三甲基溴化铵协同改性凹凸棒石黏土作为无机填料,聚氨酯作为增韧材料,制备出了一种新型复合材料,并考察了在改性凹凸棒石黏土含量不变的情况下,聚氨酯含量对复合材料性能的影响。结果表明: TPU含量为8%(ω)左右时,这种复合材料的性能最佳。%A new type of composite material was preprated which was using polylactic acid as matrix , Z-6030 and sixteen alkyl three methyl bromide combined with modified attapulgite clay as inorganic filler , polyurethane as the toughening materials , and the performance of it was studied under the effects of the modified attapulgite clay content unchanged and polyurethane changed.The results showed that the content of TPU was 8%(ω) or so, and the performance of this composite material was best.

  1. Preparation and Coagulation Behavior of a Novel Multiple Flocculant Based on Cationic Polymer, Hydroxy Aluminum, and Clay Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-shan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cationic polymer, hydroxy aluminum, and clay minerals are three flocculants with different action mechanisms and a more cost-efficient multiple flocculant can be prepared by compositing them through appropriate technology. All of attapulgite (ATP, clay minerals containing magnesium, aluminum, and silicate, are porous environmental mineral material with good absorbability and have found wide applications in industrial sewage treatment. With polyaluminum chloride (PAC, poly(dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDMDAAC, and attapulgite (ATP clay being the main raw materials, multiple flocculant CMHa (liquid with good storage stability was prepared and its optimized blending mass percent was PDMDAAC of 2%-3%, ATP of 4%–6%, and PAC of 20%–30%. The liquid poly(dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDMDAAC was firstly loaded on solid material in kneader and then mixed in certain proportion with PAC and ATP to prepare solid CMHa convenient for storage and transportation. The optimized mass ratio is PAC : ATP : PDMDAAC = 80 : 10 : 2.4. When this multiple flocculant was used to treat domestic sewage, coal washing sewage, dyeing wastewater, and papermaking wastewater, its equivalent dosage was just 50% of PAC, while overall production cost has been reduced to about 40%, viewing showing broad application prospect.

  2. Controlling nitrogen migration through micro-nano networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan; Jiang, Jiang; Wu, Yuejin; Feng, Huiyun; Brown, Ian G.; Chu, Paul K.; Yu, Zengliang

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer unabsorbed by crops eventually discharges into the environment through runoff, leaching and volatilization, resulting in three-dimensional (3D) pollution spanning from underground into space. Here we describe an approach for controlling nitrogen loss, developed using loss control fertilizer (LCF) prepared by adding modified natural nanoclay (attapulgite) to traditional fertilizer. In the aqueous phase, LCF self-assembles to form 3D micro/nano networks via hydrogen bonds and other weak interactions, obtaining a higher nitrogen spatial scale so that it is retained by a soil filtering layer. Thus nitrogen loss is reduced and sufficient nutrition for crops is supplied, while the pollution risk of the fertilizer is substantially lowered. As such, self-fabrication of nano-material was used to manipulate the nitrogen spatial scale, which provides a novel and promising approach for the research and control of the migration of other micro-scaled pollutants in environmental medium.

  3. Adsorption of Several Adsorbents onto Atrazine and Electrokinetic Properties%几种吸附剂对阿特拉津的吸附及其Zeta电位特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹敏敏; 项艳; 司友斌; 陈涛

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption of atrazine onto montmorillonite, attapulgite, bamboo-charcoal and charcoal were studied by using adsorption equilibrium experiments, the effects of pH and ionic strength were investigated and the Zeta potential of these adsorbents were analysed. It showed that the adsorption of atrazine onto these adsorbents were well fitted by the Freundlich isotherm and bamboo-charcoal and charcoal had much higher adsorption capacity to atrazine than montmorillonite and attapulgite. The adsorption quantity of atrazine onto adsorbents increased with the increase of ionic strength of bulk solution, that was, it increased from S38.30 to 611.26 mg/kg and from 609.68 to 731.63 mg/kg when the ionic strength was increased from 10-3 to 10-2 mol/L NaNO, for montmorillonite and attapulgite, respectively. However, the adsorption quantity dramatically increased from I 439.89 to 1 714.29 mg/kg when the ionic strength was increased from 10-3 to 10-1 mol/L NaNO, for bamboo-charcoal. As the pH of bulk solution ranging from 3 to 8, the Zeta potentials of montmorillonite, attapulgite, bamboo-charcoal and charcoal suspensions possessed a negative value, indicating the pHiep (isoelectric point) of the above adsorbents lower than 3. Meanwhile, the Zeta potentials became more negative with the increases of pH and decreases of ionic strengths of bulk solution. The results would be helpful to understand the adsorption mechanisms of organic pollutions onto adsorbents.%通过振荡吸附平衡试验,研究了蒙脱石、凹凸棒石、竹炭、木炭对阿特拉律的吸附行为,讨论了pH值、离子强度对吸附的影响,并考察了吸附剂表面的Zeta电位变化.结果表明,几种吸附剂对阿特拉津的吸附均符合Freundlich方程:竹炭、木炭的吸附能力明显高于蒙脱石和凹凸棒石.吸附剂对阿特拉津的吸附量随着悬液离子强度的增加而增加,在悬液pH一定(pH=6),离子强度为10-3mol/L NaNO3时,蒙脱石、凹凸棒石对阿特

  4. 改良剂对重金属复合污染土壤中菜用大豆品质及生理特性的影响%Effects of Amendments on Quality and Physiological Characteristics of Young Soybean Grown in Soil Contaminated by Heavy Metals in Combination.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王意锟; 方升佐; 王玉军; 郝秀珍; 周东美; 张焕朝

    2011-01-01

    Effects of soil amendments, including attapulgite ( 25 g · kg- 1 ), diatomite ( 25 g · kg- 1 ), peat ( 25 g ·kg - 1 ) and humic acid (4 g · kg- 1 ), on growth, quality and physiological characteristics of young soybean grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals in combinatioon were studied through pot experiment. Results show that compared with the clay minerals ( diatomite and attapulgite), the organic materials ( humic acid and peat) significantly increased yield and crude proteins content of the grains, and improved their eating quality. All the amendments mitigated the toxicity of heavy metals to the plant. Humic acid, peat and attapulgite obviously increased SOD activity in leaves of the plants at the seedling stage ( P<0.05), but diatomite did not, till the plants reached the maturing stage. Among the amendments, only humic acid increased significanfiy chlorophyll content in leaves of the plants at the seedling and maturing stages ( P < 0.05 ).And humic acid was also the most effective in lowering contents of heavy metals in grain and decreased the content of Zn,Cu, Cd and Pb by 28. 8%, 21.6%, 35.0% and 12. 5%, respectively, as compared with CK. Diatomite followed in the effect, however peat and attapulgite did not show any significant effect in this aspect.%通过盆栽试验,研究了在重度Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd复合污染土壤上,分别施用凹凸棒土(25 g·kg-1)、硅藻土(25g·kg-1)、泥炭(25 g·kg-1)和腐植酸(4 g·kg-1)4种改良剂对菜用大豆(Glycine max)(以下简称大豆)植株生长、籽粒食用品质及叶片生理特性的影响.结果表明:有机物料能有效提高大豆籽粒产量和粗蛋白含量,改善大豆籽粒的食用品质,但黏土矿物对大豆籽粒产量及品质的影响不明显;有机物料、黏土矿物能缓解重金属对植物的毒害,腐植酸、泥炭、凹凸棒土处理大豆叶片苗期SOD活性显著高于对照(P<0.05),而硅藻土处理大豆苗期SOD活性与

  5. Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2011-09-28

    To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments.

  6. Carcinogenicity studies on fibres, metal compounds, and some other dusts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, F; Ziem, U; Reiffer, F J; Huth, F; Ernst, H; Mohr, U

    1987-01-01

    About 50 dusts were examined on their carcinogenicity in rats mainly after intraperitoneal injection and some after intratracheal instillation. In the i.p. test, very low doses between 0.05 and 0.5 mg asbestos led to tumour incidences of about 20 to 80%. Polyvinyl-pyridine-N-oxide prolonged the tumour latency after injection of actinolite. 60 mg attapulgite from three sources with short fibre lengths were not shown to be carcinogenic but an attapulgite sample with longer fibres had a moderate effect. Relatively thick rock and ceramic fibres (median greater than 1 micron) induced tumours, but slag and wollastonite fibres did not, probably because of their better solubility. Intratracheal instillations of glass microfibres (20 X 0.5 mg) led to lung tumours in 5 of 34 rats (0 in control). The carcinogenic potency of an inorganic fibre depends on its size and persistency, and possibly also on other properties, especially on the surface. Nickel powder, nickel oxide, nickel subsulfide and cadmium sulfide were all found to be carcinogenic in the two tests. Cadmium chloride and cadmium oxide could only be administered in very low doses because of their high acute toxicity. A high amount of magnetite (15 X 15 mg i.tr.) led to an unexpected lung tumour incidence of 69%. The i.p. test in rats proved to be very sensitive for detecting the carcinogenic potency of non-acute toxic natural and man-made mineral dusts as well as metal compounds. This means that, if a high dose of one of these dusts does not induce tumours in this test, no suspicion of carcinogenic potency can be substantiated.

  7. The Flammability of ABS/PET/APP Mixtures with Different Synergic Agents%不同协效剂对APP膨胀阻燃ABS/PET合金的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国栋; 潘治梁; 蔡绪福

    2011-01-01

    ABS/PET/APP mixtures with different synergic agents (SA) were prepared for investigating the effect of SA (2, 2' - bis ( 2 - oxazoline) (BOZ), thermoplastic phenolic resins (TPPF), manganese dioxide, montmorillonite (MMT), zinc borate, 4A Zeolite,zinc oxide (ZnO), and attapulgite on the flame retardancy of mixtures, and the thermal degradation and charring of ABS/PET/APP was analyzed. It was concluded that a novel intumescent flame retardant containing APP ( acid source and a blowing agent) and PET (carbon source) was obtained because APP mainly catalyzed PET to degrade into charring in ABS/PET/APP mixture on heating. The flammability of ABS/PET/APP mixtures with different SA was measured by the limited oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 tests. Except for ABS/PET/APP/attapulgite mixture, ABS/PET/APP mixtures with other SA all passed the V-0 rating in UL-94 tests, the LOI of which was improved compare with ABS/PET/APP mixture. Thermo-oxidative degradation behaviors of mixtures were analyzed by thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), which showed an increasing char yield of ABS/PET/APP mixtures due to the addition of SA. And scanning electron microcopy (SEM) showed the denser carbon layer formation on the surface of ABS/PET/APP mixtures with SA ( except for attapulgite) after burning.%研究了8种协效剂(双噁唑啉、热塑性酚醛树脂、二氧化锰、蒙脱土、硼酸锌、4A分子筛、氧化锌和凹凸棒)对APP膨胀阻燃ABS/PET合金的影响,并探讨了ABS/PET/APP体系的降解成炭行为.研究表明,APP主要促进了PET分解成炭从而与其成为一种新型膨胀阻燃体系.通过氧指数(LOI)和UL-94标准测试燃烧性能,除凹凸棒外,其它7种协效剂均提高了ABS/PET/APP体系的氧指数,并使其通过V-0级测试;热失重分析(TGA)表明,ABS/PET/APP/协效剂体系具有更高的成炭率;通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对炭层表面进行观察,除凹凸棒体系外,其它7种协效剂体系的炭层表面均具有更好的致密性.

  8. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat pleural mesothelial cells treated with mineral fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renier, A; Lévy, F; Pillière, F; Jaurand, M C

    1990-08-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was studied in confluent rat pleural mesothelial cells (RPMCs) arrested in G0/G1 with hydroxyurea (HU) and treated with various fibre types, i.e., chrysotile, crocidolite or attapulgite. In addition, the effects of UV light and of benzo[a]pyrene were determined as references. Using autoradiography after [3H]thymidine incorporation ([3H]dThd), RPMCs treated with 4 micrograms/cm2 of chrysotile fibres exhibited a low but significant enhancement of net grains compared to untreated cells. Treatment with higher doses of chrysotile was not possible because of the impairment of microscopic observation due to the presence of the fibres. Using liquid scintillation counting, RPMCs treated with chrysotile or crocidolite showed a significant dose-dependent increase in [3H]dThd incorporation compared to untreated cells. In contrast, attapulgite did not enhance [3H]dThd incorporation compared to untreated cells. Treatment of RPMCs with 1, 2 or 4 micrograms/ml of benzo[a]pyrene resulted in a significant increase in [3H]dThd incorporation. In order to discount a possible role of S cells in the augmentation of [3H]dThd incorporation, despite the presence of 5 mM HU, S cells were counted by autoradiography. Results indicated that the percentage of S cells was similar in asbestos-treated and untreated cultures. Stimulation of the S phase also seems unlikely because treatment of RPMCs with asbestos fibres in the absence of HU resulted in a reduction of [3H]dThd incorporation attributed to an impairment of the S phase by the fibres. 1-4 micrograms/ml benzo[a]pyrene or 10-50 J/m2 UV light resulted in an approximate doubling of [3H]dThd incorporation. The effects of inhibitors of DNA repair were determined in chrysotile-treated RPMCs. [3H]dThd incorporation was inhibited by cytosine arabinoside and nalidixic acid. These results show that asbestos produces UDS in RPMCs.

  9. Coagulation effects of persistent organic pollutant PFOA in water by PAFC%PAFC对水体中持久性有机污染物PFOA的混凝效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵莉; 杨柳; 常青; 李宗硕; 刘鹏宇; 高彩丽

    2013-01-01

    针对含全氟辛酸(PFOA)的工业废水及应对PFOA的污染突发事件,采用PAFC及其复配粘土矿物凹凸棒和沸石进行混凝实验,并对几个影响因素进行了考察.结果表明,在PAFC的最佳投加量10 mg/L时,PFOA和浊度的去除率分别达到70.25%和99.42%,PAFC混凝处理PFOA的效果优于PAC;pH值对PAFC去除PFOA有一定的影响,当pH大于6时有利于PFOA的去除;PFOA和浊度的去除率随原始浊度的增加而增加;活性炭、盐酸改性凹凸棒、盐酸改性沸石、CT-MAB改性的沸石复配PAFC均可提高PFOA的去除率;改性处理后的沸石应用于PFOA的处理中,有望降低处理成本.%Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) as one of emerging contaminants,has been attracting increasing concerns in recent years.Model solution was treated using primary flocculant polyaluminum ferric chloride (PAFC) and coagulant aid attapulgite or zeolite were conducted in this work.The experimental results showed that the removal rate of PFOA and turbidity reached 70.25% and 99.42%,respectively at the optimal PAFC dosage of 10 mg/L,and the removal effect of PFOA by PAFC was better than PAC.The removal rate of PFOA is significantly affected by the pH value of solution,and the maximum removal of PFOA is obtained at the near neutral solution pH value.The removal rate of PFOA and turbidity increases with the increasing in initial turbidity.The removal rate of PFOA is enhanced by PAFC combined with some coagulant aid,such as activited carbon,hydrochloric acid modified attapulgite and zeolite,CTMAB modified zeolite.Using PAFC and the modified zeolite maybe is an efficient and feasible method to remove PFOA from water.

  10. study on the decoloriZation of corn straW dilute acid hydrolysate With thermal modified attapulGite%凹凸棒土热改性对玉米秸秆稀酸水解液脱色的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭芬; 郭海军; 张海荣; 王璨; 杨会娟; 陈新德

    2014-01-01

    采用焙烧酸化法对凹凸棒土进行了改性,通过单因素实验对凹凸棒土的热改性条件进行了优化,且采用N2吸附-脱附、X射线衍射、扫描电镜等表征手段对其脱色机理进行了研究。结果表明,对玉米秸秆稀酸水解液的脱色效果最佳的凹凸棒土热改性条件:450℃焙烧2 h、酸浓度10%。酸化作用使凹土内粒间杂质胶结物和碳酸盐矿物分解,疏通内部孔道,H+与凹土结构内阳离子置换,增大比表面积,改善其表面特性;焙烧活化可除去不同状态的水,改变其结构,增大孔容和比表面积;两者结合处理使颗粒白土的吸附脱色能力提高。%The calcined acidified method was adopted to the modified attapulgite,and the optimized prepa-ration conditions was obtained by the single factor experiments. The decoloring mechanism of particle clay was studied by BET,XRD,FE-SEM and so on. The result shows that the decolorization rate was best with calcination temperature 450℃ and 2 h and sulfuric acid concentration 10%. The acid activation made the intergranular impurities inside the particle clay and carbonate minerals decomposition. That degradated the channel,increased the surface area and replaced the metal ions to improve the surface properties;the cal-cined thermal activation removed the water during the attapulgite to dredge the channel and improve the structure,increase the pore volume and the specific surface area. The combination of calcination and acid-ification improved the adsorption decolorizing ability of the particle clay.

  11. Screening of Decolorizing Agents for the Extracts from the Fruit and Stem of Schisandra chinensis%五味子果实和藤茎提取液脱色剂的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊霞; 逄世峰; 窦凤鸣; 金银萍; 王玉帅; 王英平

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To screen decolorizing agents suitable for the extracts from the fruit and stem of Schisandra chinen-sis. METHODS:HPLC was adopted to determine the contents of 4 kinds of lignans(schizandrin,schisandrol B,deoxyschizandrin and γ-schizandrin) in the extract solution from the fruit and stem of S. chinensis which was treated with 8 kinds of decolorizing agents (activated clay,activated carbon,diatomite,calcium bentonite,kaolin,activated aluminium oxide,magnesium oxide,at-tapulgite clay),and the decolourization rates of the samples of the fruit and stem of S. chinensis and the retention rates of lignans in such samples were calculated respectively. RESULTS:The above-mentioned decolorizing agents were arranged in order as fol-lows respectively based on the decolourization effects on the extract solution from the fruit and stem of S. chinensis:attapulgite clay>activated carbon>activated aluminium oxide>kaolin>magnesium oxide>diatomite>calcium bentonite>activated clay,and activated carbon>diatomite>attapulgite clay>magnesium oxide>kaolin>activated aluminium oxide>activated clay>calcium ben-tonite. The attapulgite clay and activated carbon have the best decolourization effects on the extracts from the fruit and stem of S. chinensis,with the decolourization rates of 60.47% and 69.24% respectively,and the retention rates of schizandrin,schisandrol B,deoxyschizandrin and γ-schizandrin were 77.43%,77.73%,77.07%,77.53%,and 72.18%,70.17%,70.32%,70.28%,re-spectively. CONCLUSIONS:Among the 8 decolorizing agents,attapulgite clay and activated carbon have the best decolourization effects on the extract solution from the fruit and stem of S. chinensis.%目的:筛选适合五味子果实和藤茎提取液的脱色剂。方法:采用高效液相色谱法测定使用8种脱色剂(活性白土、活性炭、硅藻土、钙质膨润土、高岭土、活性氧化铝、氧化镁、凹凸棒土)对五味子果实和藤茎提取液脱色后4种木脂素成分(五味子

  12. Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2010-12-08

    Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (MSOF) has been investigated to improve fertilizer use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution derived from fertilizer overdosage. The special fertilizer is based on natural attapulgite (APT) clay used as a matrix, sodium alginate used as an inner coating and sodium alginate-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/humic acid (SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA) superabsorbent polymer used as an outer coating. The coated multielement compound fertilizer granules were produced in a pan granulator, and the diameter of the prills was in the range of 2.5-3.5 mm. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrients release, were examined. In addition, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D of nutrients in MSOF. The degradation of the SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA coating was assessed by examining the weight loss with incubation time in soil. It is demonstrated that the product prepared by a simple route with good slow-release property may be expected to have wide potential applications in modern agriculture and horticulture.

  13. Age and compositional data of zircon from sepiolite drilling mud to identify contamination of ocean drilling samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Graham D. M.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Busby, Cathy J.; Brown, Sarah R.; Blum, Peter; Harvey, Janet. C.

    2016-08-01

    Zircon extracted from drilled oceanic rocks is increasingly used to answer geologic questions related to igneous and sedimentary sequences. Recent zircon studies using samples obtained from marine drill cores revealed that drilling muds used in the coring process may contaminate the samples. The JOIDES Resolution Science Operator of the International Ocean Discovery Program has been using two types of clays, sepiolite and attapulgite, which both have salt water viscosifier properties able to create a gel-like slurry that carries drill cuttings out of the holes several hundred meters deep. The dominantly used drilling mud is sepiolite originating from southwestern Nevada, USA. This sepiolite contains abundant zircon crystals with U-Pb ages ranging from 1.89 to 2889 Ma and continental trace element, δ18O, and ɛHf isotopic compositions. A dominant population of 11-16 Ma zircons in sepiolite drilling mud makes identification of contamination in drilled Neogene successions particularly challenging. Interpretation of zircon analyses related to ocean drilling should be cautious of zircon ages in violation of independently constrained age models and that have age populations overlapping those in the sepiolite. Because individual geochronologic and geochemical characteristics lack absolute discriminatory power, it is recommended to comprehensively analyze all dated zircon crystals from cores exposed to drill mud for trace element, δ18O, and ɛHf isotopic compositions. Zircon analyzed in situ (i.e., in petrographic sections) are assumed to be trustworthy.

  14. 木材液化物悬浮剂在种衣剂中的配伍性和稳定性%The Compatibility and Stability of Suspending Agent by Wood Liquefaction Sulfonation in Seed Coating Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢红璐; 史铁钧

    2013-01-01

    [目的]种衣剂贮存时容易分层、沉淀,加入木材液化物悬浮剂(WLS)可改善种衣剂贮存性能.[方法]以重复试验法测定WLS在玉米、小麦、水稻等种衣剂中的配伍性和稳定性.[结果]WLS复配后,体系WLS/Tween 80、WLS/LAS表面张力分别下降到36.1、31.6 mN/m;WLS/Tween 80和Attapulgite/WLS/Tween 80在玉米种衣剂中悬浮率分别为81%和92%,在高温时悬浮率分别下降20%和11%,后者黏度变化率更低.[结论]WLS与传统表面活性剂Tween 80、APG、LAS配伍,协同效应显著,有效保持种衣剂的悬浮稳定.

  15. 聚苯胺无溶剂聚氨酯防锈涂料的研制%Preparation of Polyaniline Solvent-free Polyurethane Anti-rust Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵绍洪; 张辉耀; 刘志文

    2012-01-01

    介绍了以蓖麻油酸改性环氧酯为含羟基树脂,以二丁胺改性1,6-己二醇二缩水甘油醚为反应性稀释剂,配合聚苯胺/凹凸棒纳米复合材料、磷钛粉、吸水剂等组成A组分,采用含-NCO基的聚氨酯预聚体为B组分,将A组分和B组分按规定比例混合均匀后涂布在金属表面即形成一种无溶剂、不含重金属的新型环境友好金属防锈涂料。%A two-component anti-rust coatings formula is designed in this paper. The component A includes ricinoleic acid modified epoxy ester as hydroxyl resin, n-dibutylamine modified 1,6-hexylene glycol two glycidyl ether as reactive thinner, Polyaniline/Attapulgite nanocomposites, titanium phosphide powder and water absorbent. The component B includes --NCO polyurethane prepolymer. The two components are mixed at some proportion and applied on the metal surface to serve as non- solvent non-heavy metal environmental friendly metal anti-rust coatings.

  16. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J. [Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA (United States); Adams, T.L. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to {open_quotes}activate{close_quotes} the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers.

  17. Mineral deposit formation in Phanerozoic sedimentary basins of north-east Africa: the contribution of weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Klaus; Schwarz, Torsten; Wipki, Mario

    1994-12-01

    The intra- and epicontinental basins in north-east Africa (Egypt, Sudan) bear ample evidence of weathering processes repeatedly having contributed to the formation of mineral deposits throughout the Phanerozoic. The relict primary weathering mantle of Pan-African basement rocks consists of kaolinitic saprolite, laterite (in places bauxitic) and iron oxide crust. On the continent, the reaccumulation of eroded weathering-derived clay minerals (mainly kaolinite) occurred predominantly in fluvio-lacustrine environments, and floodplain and coastal plain deposits. Iron oxides, delivered from ferricretes, accumulated as oolitic ironstones in continental and marine sediments. Elements leached from weathering profiles accumulated in continental basins forming silcrete and alunite or in the marine environment contributing to the formation of attapulgite/saprolite and phosphorites. The Early Paleozoic Tawiga bauxitic laterite of northern Sudan gives a unique testimony of high latitude lateritic weathering under global greenhouse conditions. It formed in close spatial and temporal vicinity to the Late Ordovician glaciation in north Africa. The record of weathering products is essentially complete for the Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary. From the continental sources in the south to the marine sinks in the north, an almost complete line of lateritic and laterite-derived deposits of bauxitic kaolin, kaolin, iron oxides and phosphates is well documented.

  18. Preparation and application of conducting polymer/Ag/clay composite nanoparticles formed by in situ UV-induced dispersion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Limin; Qiu, Jianhui; Yang, Chao; Sakai, Eiichi

    2016-02-03

    In this work, composite nanoparticles containing polypyrrole, silver and attapulgite (PPy/Ag/ATP) were prepared via UV-induced dispersion polymerization of pyrrole using ATP clay as a templet and silver nitrate as photoinitiator. The effects of ATP concentration on morphology, structure and electrical conductivity were studied. The obtained composite nanoparticles with an interesting beads-on-a-string morphology can be obtained in a short time (10 min), which indicates the preparation method is facile and feasible. To explore the potential applications of the prepared PPy/Ag/ATP composite nanoparticles, they were served as multifunctional filler and blended with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) matrix to prepare biodegradable composite material. The distribution of fillers in polymer matrix and the interfacial interaction between fillers and PBS were confirmed by scanning electron microscope, elemental mapping and dynamic mechanical analysis. The well dispersed fillers in PBS matrix impart outstanding antibacterial property to the biodegradable composite material as well as enhanced storage modulus due to Ag nanoparticles and ATP clay. The biodegradable composite material also possesses modest surface resistivity (10(6)~ 10(9) Ω/◻).

  19. 低分子量有机酸对粘土矿物吸附二氯喹啉酸的影响%Effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids on adsorption of quinclorac by clay minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽华; 龚道新; 袁雅洁; 肖浩; 周健; 孟磊; 陈宣宇; 丁春霞

    2013-01-01

    采用批量平衡法,研究了6种低分子量有机酸(柠檬酸、酒石酸、苹果酸、乙酸、草酸和丁二酸)对3种粘土矿物(高岭土、蒙脱石、凹凸棒石)吸附二氯喹啉酸的影响.结果表明:当低分子量有机酸存在时,供试3种粘土矿物对二氯喹啉酸的吸附过程可用Linear和Freundlich吸附等温方程描述,且Freundlich方程的拟合效果更好.供试6种有机酸对二氯喹啉酸在高岭土中吸附量的影响程度从低到高依次为苹果酸<柠檬酸<草酸<乙酸<酒石酸<丁二酸,在蒙脱石中的顺序为乙酸<草酸<苹果酸<丁二酸<酒石酸<柠檬酸,在凹凸棒石中的顺序为乙酸<丁二酸<草酸<苹果酸<酒石酸<柠檬酸.不同浓度低分子量有机酸对3种供试粘土矿物吸附二氯喹啉酸均能产生显著的影响,但影响程度因粘土矿物和有机酸种类的不同而有较大差异.%The effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids (citric acid,tartaric acid,malic acid,acetic acid,oxalic acid and succinic acid) on adsorption of quinclorac by three clay minerals (kaolinite,montmorillonite and attapulgite) was investigated by a batch experimental technique.The results showed that the adsorption isotherm of quinclorac in clay minerals could be well described by Freundlich and Linear equation under the presence of low-molecular-weight organic acids,but the Freundlich equation was more suitable.The tested six kinds of low-molecular-weight organic acid showed different effects on adsorption quantity of quinclorac on kaolinite.The order from low to high influence were:malic acid < citric acid < oxalic acid < acetic acid < tartaric acid < succinic acid; whereas on montmorillonite from low to high order were:acetic acid < oxalic acid < malic acid < succinic acid <tartaric acid < citric acid; on attapulgite:acetic acid < succinic acid < oxalic acid < malic acid < tartaric acid < citric acid.In conclusion

  20. Early containment of high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream in clay-bearing blended cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Olson, R.A.; Tennis, P.D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Center for Advanced Cement-Based Materials] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Portland cement blended with fly ash and attapulgite clay was mixed with high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream at a one-to-one weight ratio. Mixtures were adiabatically and isothermally cured at various temperatures and analyzed for phase composition, total alkalinity, pore solution chemistry, and transport properties as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Total alkalinity is characterized by two main drops. The early one corresponds to a rapid removal of phosphorous, aluminum, sodium, and to a lesser extent potassium solution. The second drop from about 10 h to 3 days is mainly associated with the removal of aluminum, silicon, and sodium. Thereafter, the total alkalinity continues descending, but at a lower rate. All pastes display a rapid flow loss that is attributed to an early precipitation of hydrated products. Hemicarbonate appears as early as one hour after mixing and is probably followed by apatite precipitation. However, the former is unstable and decomposes at a rate that is inversely related to the curing temperature. At high temperatures, zeolite appears at about 10 h after mixing. At 30 days, the stabilized crystalline composition Includes zeolite, apatite and other minor amounts of CaCO{sub 3}, quartz, and monosulfate Impedance spectra conform with the chemical and mineralogical data. The normalized conductivity of the pastes shows an early drop, which is followed by a main decrease from about 12 h to three days. At three days, the permeability of the cement-based waste as calculated by Katz-Thompson equation is over three orders of magnitude lower than that of ordinary portland cement paste. However, a further decrease in the calculated permeability is questionable. Chemical stabilization is favorable through incorporation of waste species into apatite and zeolite.

  1. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Stabilization is a best demonstrated available technology, or BDAT. This technology traps toxic contaminants in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California`s and EPA`s, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. The concentration in the leachate is approximately ten times higher for the STLC procedure than the TCLP. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens) when formulating a stabilization matrix, and they have a neutral pH. By using these clays and additives, LLNL`s highly concentrated wastewater treatment sludges have passed the TCLP and STLC tests. The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  2. Role of fibre characteristics on cytotoxicity and induction of anaphase/telophase aberrations in rat pleural mesothelial cells in vitro: correlations with in vivo animal findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegles, M; Janson, X; Dong, H Y; Renier, A; Jaurand, M C

    1995-11-01

    Thirteen samples of natural fibres and five samples of man-made fibres (MMF) were tested to determine their cytotoxicity and ability to produce chromosome missegregation in cultures in rat pleural mesothelial cells (RPMC). The natural samples included attapulgite, two amphiboles (amosite and crocidolite); seven consisted of chrysotile from various origins and three were obtained after chemical treatment of chrysotile. MMF included three refractory ceramic fibres (RCF) and two vitreous fibres (MMVF). All fibre samples were characterized by electron microscopic measurement of the fibre dimensions. Cytotoxicity was assayed on the basis of determination of mitochondrial integrity and chromosome missegregation by light microscopy examination of anaphases/telophases. The carcinogenic potency of 10 natural samples has been previously investigated using intrapleural inoculation in rats. It was therefore possible to establish correlations between in vitro and in vivo data obtained with the same set of samples. The various samples of chrysotile produced different in vitro effects, in agreement with the dispersion of response also observed in vivo. Cytotoxicity appears to be dependent on both fibre length and fibre diameter, as the longest or thickest fibres were the most toxic. The production of abnormal anaphases/telophases appears to depend on the presence of fibres of selected size, such as those previously defined by Stanton et al. (L > 8 micrograms; D < or = 0.25 microns); a threshold values was determined below which no abnormal anaphases/telophases were detected. This non-observable effect level was estimated to be 2.5 x 10(5) 'Stanton' fibres per cm2. There was no correlation between cytotoxicity and mesothelioma induction; in contrast, a correlation was found between the ability of a sample to produce chromosome missegregation in vitro and mesothelioma in vivo.

  3. On the mineral characteristics and geochemistry of the Florida phosphate of Four Corners and Hardee County mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdady, Ashraf R.; Howari, Fares M.; Al-Wakeel, Mohamed I.

    2016-08-01

    The Florida phosphate deposits in Four Corners and Hardee County mines are composed mainly of phosphate minerals and quartz in addition to subordinate proportions of feldspars, dolomite, calcite, gypsum, kaolinite, attapulgite and montmorillonite. These phosphorites contain three structurally different types of mudclasts: massive mudclasts, mudclasts with concentric structure and mudclasts consisting of agglomerates of apatite microparticles. The latter are represented by particles resembling phosphatized fossil bacteria associated with microbial filaments, and hollow apatite particles having surfacial coatings and connected to microbial filaments. The Florida phosphate particles are reworked and vary in mineral composition, color and shape. They are composed of a mixture of well-crystalline species including carbonate fluorapatite (francolite), carbonate apatite and fluorapatite. The color variation of the phosphate particles is related to difference in mineral composition, extent of diagenetic effects and reworking. The light-colored mudclasts are characterized by the presence of carbonate apatite and aluminum hydroxide phosphate minerals, whereas the dark mudclasts are rich in iron aluminum hydroxide phosphate minerals. The Florida phosphorites are suggested to be formed partially by authigenetic precipitation, replacement of the sea floor carbonate and diatomite, and microbial processes. With respect to elemental geochemistry, the analyzed particles contain small percentages of sulfur and iron which are related to the occurrence of pyrite. Traces of silica and alumina are recorded which may be attributed to the diagenetic. Some of the tested particles are relatively rich in phosphorous, fluorine, calcium, and magnesium, while poor in silicon, potassium and sulfur. Whereas, the bioclasts (especially teeth) are relatively rich in calcium, phosphorous and fluorine while poor in silicon, aluminum, magnesium and potassium. Hence, the microchemical analyses revealed

  4. 3种负载Cu2O的载体对印染废水处理的比较%Treatment Comparison of Dyeing Wastewater by Three Supporter Loaded Cu2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁伟夏

    2013-01-01

    Attapulgite, activated carbon and the supermicro porous polyurethane as the supporter, the three supporter load of Cu2O were prepared by liquid phase synthesis, and their photocatalytic oxidation effect was investigated by the adsorption and degradation of Rhodamine B. The results showed that when the simulated Rhodamine B dye wastewater initial concentration was 200mg/L, reaction time was 50 min, the loaded Cu2O dosage of three supporter was 11.0g/L, 9.0g/L and 5.0g/L, respectively, the removal rate of rhodamine B in the simulated wastewater were 81.64%, 87.21% and 78.46%, respectively. The removal rate of Rhodamine B was still better after five repeated use of the three catalysts.%  以凹凸棒石、活性炭和超微孔聚氨酯为载体,用液相合成法制备3种负载Cu2O的载体,并以吸附降解罗丹明B的效果,探讨其光催化氧化性能。试验结果表明,当模拟罗丹明B染料废水的初始质量浓度为200mg·L-1,反应时间为50min,该3种负载Cu2O的载体投加量分别为11.0g·L-1,9.0g·L-1和5.0g·L-1,对模拟染料废水中罗丹明B的去除率分别达到81.64%、87.21%和78.46%。5次重复使用该3种催化剂后对罗丹明B的去除率仍较好。

  5. Study on decolorization method of the synthetic ester%合成酯的脱色方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月萍; 赵平; 任鹏; 赵磊

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and performance of synthetic ester,the synthetic ester is firstly deacidified and then decolorized with extraction, distillation or adsorption, respectively. The results show that the free fatty acids and part of the coloring impurity can be removed with deacidification. The acid value reduces from 8. 75 to 0. 4 and the decoloring rate is 5.9%. However, the coloring impurity cannot be removed effectively with extraction and distillation except adsorption. The active carbon adsorbent displays better decolorization capability than active clay, neutral alumina, diatomite and attapulgite. The decolorization rate of synthetic ester with 6. 8% ( wt) of active carbon adsorbent at 811 after 55 minutes is 24. 8 %. The yellowish red synthetic ester became pale yellow through deacidification and decolorization, which makes it meet the quality requirement of product.%为提高合成酯产品的质量和性能,对合成酯先脱酸,再分别采用萃取、蒸馏和吸附3种方法进行脱色处理.实验结果表明,脱酸不仅能脱除合成酯当中的游离脂肪酸,还能脱除部分有色杂质,脱酸后酸值从8.75降到0.40,脱色率为5.9%;萃取脱色和蒸馏脱色均不能有效地去除合成酯当中的色素;活性白土、中性氧化铝、硅藻土、凹凸棒土作为脱色剂对色素的吸附效果均不及活性炭;以活性炭为吸附剂,脱色时间55 min,温度81℃,吸附剂用量为原料质量的6.8%,合成酯脱色率为24.8%;经过脱酸、活性炭吸附脱色处理,合成酯从黄红色变成浅黄色液体,产品质量符合要求.

  6. Detection of Soluble and Fixed NH4+ in Clay Minerals by DTA and IR Reflectance Spectroscopy : A Potential Tool for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice, Bishop; Banin, A.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Klovstad, M. R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential element for life. It is the only element among the six major biogenic elements, C, O, S, O, P, H, whose presence in the Martian soil has not been positively and directly established. We describe here a study assessing the ability to detect NH4 in soils by two methods: differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy. Four standard clay minerals (kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite and attapulgite) and an altered tephra sample from Mauna Kea were treated with NH4 in this study. Samples of the NH4-treated and leached clays were analyzed by DTA and infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy to quantify the delectability of soluble and sorbed/fixed NH4. An exotherm at 270-280 C was clearly detected in the DTA curves of NH4-treated (non-leached) samples. This feature is assigned to the thermal decomposition reaction of NH4. Spectral bands observed at 1.56, 2.05, 2.12, 3.06, 3.3, 3.5, 5.7 and 7.0 microns in the reflectance spectra of NH4-treated and leached samples are assigned to the sorbed/fixed ammonium in the clays. The montmorillonite has shown the most intense absorbance due to fixed ammonium among the leached samples in this study, as a result of its high cation sorption capacity. It is concluded that the presence of sorbed or fixed NH4 in clays may be detected by infrared (IR) reflectance or emission spectroscopy. Distinction between soluble and sorbed NH4 may be achieved through the presence or absence of several spectral features assigned to the sorbed NH4 moietyi and, specifically, by use of the 4.2 micrometer feature assigned to solution NH4. Thermal analyses furnish supporting evidence of ammonia in our study through detection of N released at temperatures of 270-330 C. Based on these results it is estimated that IR spectra measured from a rover should be able to detect ammonia if present above 20 mg NH4/g sample in the surface layers. Orbital IR spectra and thermal analyses measured on a rover may be able to

  7. 几种土壤及黏土矿物对多氯联苯吸附特性的研究%Adsorption Charcteristics of PCBs in Soils and Clay Minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司雄元; 王寅; 陈倩倩; 司友斌

    2012-01-01

    采用批量平衡试验,研究了不同土壤及长黏土矿物对多氯联苯吸附特性。结果表明:多氯联苯浓度范围为0.25~5.0mg L-1时,不同土壤及黏土矿物对多氯联苯的吸附均能用Freundlich方程很好地拟合,随着溶液中多氯联苯浓度的增加,土壤及黏土矿物对多氯联苯的吸附量增加;几种土壤对多氯联苯吸附量大小顺序为:红壤〉黄褐土〉砂姜黑土,土壤有机质、粘粒等对多氯联苯吸附起主要作用,土壤更易吸附高氯代PCB77;黏土矿物对多氯联苯吸附量大小顺序为:纳米蒙脱石〉纳米SiO2〉凹凸棒石,黏土矿物吸附多氯联苯能力的大小与黏土矿物的比表面积、粒径、层状结构等有关;多氯联苯本身分子的大小影响其在黏土矿物上的吸附;土壤中添加黏土矿物可以提高对多氯联苯的吸附。%Adsorption characteristics of PCBs in soils and clay minerals were studied using the batch equilibration technique.Results showed that the adsorption of PCBs conformed to the Freundlich equation when the concentrations of PCBs were from 0.25 mg L-1 to 5.0 mg L-1,and the adsorption of PCBs in soils and clay minerals increased with the increase of initial concentration.The adsorption capacity of soils for PCBs followed the order red soil yellow brown soil shajiang black soil.The contents of organic matter and clay in soil governed adsorption of PCBs,and the high chlorine of PCBs were easier to be absorbed by soils.The adsorption capacity of clay minerals for PCBs followed the order nanometer-sized montmorillonite nanometer-sized SiO2 attapulgite.The adsorption ability of clay minerals for PCBs related to the surface area,diameter and layered structure of clay minerals.The molecular size of PCBs also affected the adsorption.Adding clay minerals to soil could improve the adsorption ability.

  8. Preparation and Research on Filled Masterbatch with Weeding Function Used for Film%具有除草功能的薄膜用填充母料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张挺; 徐冬梅; 曾长春

    2015-01-01

    Using low density polyethylene (PE–LD)(2012TN26),PE–LD(1C7A),ethylene-vinyl acetate plastics(EVAC), linear low density polyethylene(PE–LLD),ethylene-octene copolymer,recycled PE,PE–LLD powder (7042) as the carrier respectively,using CaCO3, talcum powder,new type mineral filler N,attapulgite clay as nuclear materials,the filled masterbatch for film was prepared. The effects of carriers and nuclear materials on the processing performance of mastbatch were analyzed by torque rheometer,and the filled master batch which added herbicides was used to prepare film. The results show that when using PE–LD(1C7A) as carrier and CaCO3 as nuclear material,the masterbatch has good processability. Herbicides can be used to prepare filled masterbatch for film application. When the usage of herbicides is no more than 10%, the mechanical properties of the film only decrease a little, and as the same time, the film has a function of weed controlling. The application of masterbatch in plastic film processing could not only reduce costs,but also endow excellent performance for plastic films.%分别以低密度聚乙烯(PE–LD)(2012TN26)、PE–LD(1C7A)、乙烯–乙酸乙烯酯塑料(EVAC)、线性低密度聚乙烯(PE–LLD)、乙烯–辛烯共聚弹性体(POE)、PE回收料、PE–LLD粉料为载体树脂,以CaCO3、滑石粉、新型矿物质填料N、凹凸棒土为母料核制备了薄膜用填充母料,用转矩流变仪分析了载体树脂和母料核对母料加工性能的影响,并将添加除草剂等制成的填充母料应用于吹塑薄膜生产。结果表明,以PE–LD(1C7A)作为载体,CaCO3为母料核预制的填充母料的工艺性能较好;除草剂与填充剂一起加入制备母料的工艺可行;含除草剂的填充母料添加不超过10%时对薄膜的力学性能影响不大,并可赋予薄膜一定的除草功能。母料应用于塑料薄膜的加工不但可以降低成本,还赋予塑料薄膜优异的性能。

  9. 纳米包装材料对金针菇木质化及相关酶活性的影响%Effect of Nano-Packing on Lignification and Related Enzyme Activities ofFlammulina velutipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方东路; 常诗洁; 赵立艳; 安辛欣; 胡秋辉; 杨文建

    2016-01-01

    A polyethylene (PE) packing material containing nano-Ag, nano-TiO2, attapulgite and nano-SiO2 was prepared and applied in the preservation of Flammulina velutipes and its effects on sensory quality and lignification ofF. velutipes were determined during 14-day storage at 4 ℃. The influence of nano-packing material on the lignification of F. velutipeswas studied by tracking the changes in texture, weight loss, soluble protein contents, lignin contents, the activities of phenylalnine ammonialyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and peroxidase (POD) as well as cell microstructure. The normal PE material was used as control. After 14 days of storage, the maximum shearing force, weight loss, PAL, CAD and POD activities ofF. velutipes packed with nano-packing material were 1.191 kg, 0.51%, 20.72 U/mg, 41.23 U/mg, 10.09 U/mg, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of the control (P< 0.05). On the other hand, the lignin content in nano-packaging samples increased by 4.7% while that in the control increased by 14.2% compared with the initial level. Nano-packing material has the potential to maintain the preservation quality and extend the shelf life ofF. velutipes by inhibiting the accumulation of lignin and increasing the related enzyme activities.%添加纳米银、纳米二氧化钛、凹凸棒土和纳米二氧化硅等材料制备一种纳米聚乙烯包装袋。跟踪检测4℃、相对湿度90%~95%贮藏过程中金针菇的菌柄最大剪切力、质量损失率、可溶性蛋白含量、木质素含量、苯丙氨酸解氨酶活性、肉桂醇脱氢酶活性、过氧化物酶活性和细胞微观结构的变化,分析纳米材料和普通聚乙烯材料包装对金针菇木质化劣变的影响。贮藏14 d后,纳米包装袋内金针菇菌柄最大剪切力、质量损失率和苯丙氨酸解氨酶、肉桂醇脱氢酶、过氧化物酶活性分别为1.191 kg、0.51%和20.72、41.23、10.09 U/mg,显

  10. Preparation and Electrochemical Performance of Carbon Materials by Using NaY Molecular Sieves as the Template%凹凸棒NaY分子筛模板炭材料的制备及其电化学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵贤; 袁琦罡; 宏飞; 张峰博

    2014-01-01

    以凹凸棒为原料,采用水热原位晶化法合成了NaY分子筛,然后采用模板法以制备得到的纳米级NaY分子筛为模板,麦芽糖为碳源,制备得到一种微孔模板炭材料。采用XRD、FESEM、N2吸附/脱附等手段对NaY分子筛和微孔模板炭材料的物理性能进行表征。测试结果表明,NaY分子筛的粒径小于100 nm,比表面积为487 m2/g;模板炭材料的比表面积为789.2 m2/g、总孔容为0.62 m3/g,平均孔径为1.5 nm。随后,采用恒电流充放电测试、循环伏安测试对模板炭材料的电化学性能进行测试。恒电流充放电测试表明,当电流密度为600 mA/g时,材料的比电容可达163.3 F/g,循环伏安测试中材料表现出了良好的循环伏安曲线的矩形特征,较好的说明了材料具有良好的倍率性能。%Using attapulgite as raw materials, nano-scale NaY molecular sieves were synthesized by in-situ crystallization method. Then porous carbon materials were synthesized by using the NaY molecular sieves as hard template and maltose as carbon precursor. XRD, FESEM, N2 adsorption/desorption tests were conducted to investigate physical properties of NaY molecular sieves and porous carbon materials. The results show that the size of NaY molecular sieves is less than 100nm and BET area is 487 m2/g; specific surface area and pore volume of the porous carbon materials reach up to 789.2 m2/g, 0.62 cm3/g, respectively. The constant current charge/discharge tests and cyclic voltammetry tests were employed to investigate the electrochemical performance of the prepared porous carbon material. When the current density is 600 mA/g, the maximum specific capacitance of the material is 163.3 F/g. The cyclic voltammetry curves maintain a typical quasi-rectangular feature when the scan rate increases from 5 mV/s to 100 mV/s, which proves that the material has well rate performance.

  11. The High-value Utilization of Pyrolysis Oil from Combustible Solid Waste Under Reducing Atmosphere%还原性气氛下可燃固体废弃物热解油高值利用途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲兆平

    2016-01-01

    The main components of solid waste as waste cardboard, waste tire and waste PVC were chosen for the experiment in a tube reactor to produce pyrolysis oil. The yield and components data of each pyrolysis oil were obtained. Principal component alalysis was used to analyze the influence of NaOH, HY-51, original attapulgite (OA) and purified attapulgite (PA) on the pyrolysis oil of waste tire. It can be concluded that PA has great potential on catalyzing the pyrolysis of waste tire to produce aromatic hydrocarbons. Study on mixed pyrolysis of the three components shows that the optimized temperature of pyrolysis oil yield is the same as single component, and that when the blending rate of three mixed components is mean, their influence to each other is minimised. Column chromatography and catalytic esterification were chosen for upgrade research of pyrolysis oil of solid waste. The column chromatography experiment result shows that dichloromethane and acetone have good separation efficiency for hydrocarbons, which reaches 37.63%. The catalytic pyrolysis mechanism research of waste cardboard was carried out on a PY-GC/MS platform. The results show that HZSM-5 (HZ) has a good ability for cracking the oligomers, increasing the hydrocarbons and lowering the aldehydes and scids, which is being proved to be a good- performance catalyst. HY-51 would decrease the content of aldehydes and increase the yield of hydrocarbons, while do not promote the crack of oligomers, increase the content of acids, and get coking leading to inactivation. It indicates that HY-51 needs further modification for the using in the catalytic pyrolysis of waste cardboard despite its high catalytic activity. ReY shows a limited catalytic effect for the pyrolysis of waste cardboard, while PA performances an ignorable effect. Various active metal ions were loaded on catalyst HZSM-5 for modification. The catalytic pyrolysis mechanism research of waste tire was carried out on a PY-GC/MS platform. The

  12. Total allowable concentrations of monomeric inorganic aluminum and hydrated aluminum silicates in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, Calvin C; Ball, Gwendolyn L; McLellan, Clifton J

    2012-05-01

    Maximum contaminant levels are used to control potential health hazards posed by chemicals in drinking water, but no primary national or international limits for aluminum (Al) have been adopted. Given the differences in toxicological profiles, the present evaluation derives total allowable concentrations for certain water-soluble inorganic Al compounds (including chloride, hydroxide, oxide, phosphate and sulfate) and for the hydrated Al silicates (including attapulgite, bentonite/montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite) in drinking water. The chemistry, toxicology and clinical experience with Al materials are extensive and depend upon the particular physical and chemical form. In general, the water solubility of the monomeric Al materials depends on pH and their water solubility and gastrointestinal bioavailability are much greater than that of the hydrated Al silicates. Other than Al-containing antacids and buffered aspirin, food is the primary source of Al exposure for most healthy people. Systemic uptake of Al after ingestion of the monomeric salts is somewhat greater from drinking water (0.28%) than from food (0.1%). Once absorbed, Al accumulates in bone, brain, liver and kidney, with bone as the major site for Al deposition in humans. Oral Al hydroxide is used routinely to bind phosphate salts in the gut to control hyperphosphatemia in people with compromised renal function. Signs of chronic Al toxicity in the musculoskeletal system include a vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia (deranged membranous bone formation characterized by accumulation of the osteoid matrix and reduced mineralization, reduced numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, decreased lamellar and osteoid bands with elevated Al concentrations) presenting as bone pain and proximal myopathy. Aluminum-induced bone disease can progress to stress fractures of the ribs, femur, vertebrae, humerus and metatarsals. Serum Al ≥100 µg/L has a 75-88% positive predictive value for Al bone disease. Chronic Al

  13. Les formations marines et continentales intervolcaniques des îles Canaries orientales (Grande Canarie. Fuerteventura et Lanzarote: Stratigraphie et signiflcation paleoclimatique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meco, J.

    1985-08-01

    especies de Patella, y de carácter fresco (Meco, 1977 se habían relacionado con episodios volcánicos datados por K/Ar (Meco y Stearns, 1981 y se relacionan ahora, por primera vez, con algunos trazos rápidos de la pedogénesis, consecuencia de la evaporación y neoformación arcillosa en materiales volcánicos constantemente renovados. A medida que las series volcánicas fosilizan alteraciones se eliminan algunos efectos acumulativos del tiempo en los paleosuelos. La presencia de cuarzo sahariano, mineral ausente en los productos volcánicos, y la coexistencia de los extremos más alejados de la evolución pedológica, como las costras yesíferas o con attapulgita desérticas y las bauxitas niquelíferas con talco de regiones tropicales húmedas (pomel, 1985 permiten, en todo caso, obtener conclusiones coherentes.
    Faune et sols fossilisés par des volcans actifs depuis plus de 20 M. A. à l'époque actuel le attestent une alternance d'influences guinéennes chaudes et humides et de flux sahariens secs liés à l'apport d'eaux lusitaniques fraîches. Les preuves paléontologiques sont fondées sur la présence du Strombus coronatus au Pliocene inférieur et du Strombus bubonius au Pleistocéne supérieur et de Patella au Pleistocene moyen et supérieur el: au Holocene (Meco, 1977. Les preuves pédologiques reposent sur la présence de quartz saharien, minéral absent dans les produits volcaniques et sur la coexistence des póles les plus extremes de l'évolution pédologique : croûtes gypseuses ou à attapulgite désertiques et bauxites nickeliféres a talc des régions tropicales humides (Pomel, 1984.

  14. Study on biomass crust preparation to restore vegetation in drifting sand regions in Minqin%生物质结皮制剂在民勤流动沙区恢复植被的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞君; 陈正华; 王百田; 王宁; 何经纬

    2013-01-01

    A new kind of crust preparation, which was composed of biopolymer materials and mineral materials, could promote vegetation recovery of moving dunes in Minqin Country, Gansu Province. Minqin County is surrounded by the Tengger and Badain Jaran desert on the East, West and North sides. The average annual rainfall is 113 mm, while the evaporation is up to 2 646 mm, so Minqin Country belongs to the extremely arid continental climate zone. Area of desert and desertification land is up to 1.5× 107 hm2, which is 94.5%of the Minqin land area. The rest, only 5.5%, is the sole oasis area of Minqin Country. The length of the oasis edge is 408km. Minqin Country is a typical agricultural county in sandy areas. The experiment site was located at the frontier of a moving sand area. Crust preparation and seeds of Artemisia scoparia were used in this experiment. Crust preparation (applying for a patent) contained attapulgite, plaster, cellulose, lignin etc. First, the seeds was sown on the surface of a moving dune with a density of 1 000-2 000/m2. Second, the crust components were mixed with sand (crust preparations:sand (V/V)=3:1), and the mixture sprinkled evenly on the sand surface with a shovel. The thickness of the mixture was about 10 mm. Then water was sprayed onto the sand surface to form a crust. The dosage of water was about 2.5 L/m2. Finally, the test area was fenced to prevent access by human and animals. No more manual conservation was implemented later. The thickness of the crust was about 10mm, and its bearing strength was 1-2 kg/cm2 (varied according to the thickness of the crust) after two days. Controlled trials were set in the adjacent moving dune. All the materials and operations were the same, but without the crust preparation. The area of the control trials was approximately 2 200 m2. The project was carried out from August 8-10, 2009. About 10 days after construction, a large number of grass seeds germinated in the crust area, up to 1000/m2. Compared to the