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Sample records for attacks avian flu

  1. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  2. Avian Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  3. Avian Flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  4. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Ali; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  5. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ACAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications. In such situation, people should avoid contact with infected birds or contaminated surface, and should be careful when handling and cooking poultry. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 345-353

  6. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Information on Avian Influenza Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  7. H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H5N1 Avian Flu - H5N1 Bird Flu H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian (bird) flu ... WhiteHouse.gov USA.gov GobiernoUSA.gov BusinessUSA.gov Flu Basics Symptoms (CDC) Prevention (CDC) Treatment (CDC) Vaccination ( ...

  8. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  9. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the extensive and semi-intensive system, that have large potential disease transmission occured between duck and wild. Illegal trade in the crossborder region and imports from countries that re-export it, ias alo become potential as well as the entry point to the bird flu virus in Indonesia. Ducks trade between regions by land transportation is difficult to control as well becomes the potential media to spread of the virus to a wider area. The economic impact of bird flu on duck business occured due to the death of ducks, decline in production and loss of job opportunities, while that on demand reduction was not significant. Small scale farmers that were bankrupt as a result of bird flu outbreaks may require technical assistance and access to capital for recovery. In the future, development of ducks business should be directed at duck farms into a semi-intensive and intensive system to facilitate the control of epidemic diseases

  10. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; George; Fu

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioinformatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  11. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Di; LIU Quan-He; WU Lin-Huan; LIU Bin; WU Jun; LAO Yi-Mei; LI Xiao-Jing; GAO George Fu; MA Jun-Cai

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioin-formatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  12. Influenza pandemics and avian flu

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Douglas Fleming is general practitioner in a large suburban practice in Birmingham. In this article he seeks to clarify clinical issues relating to potential pandemics of influenza, including avian influenza

  13. Early warning: Avian flu and nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avian flu has spread to 51 countries, 36 this year alone, many of which are densely populated and deprived. The joint FAO/IAEA programme is working on the rapid detection of emerging diseases, including bird flu, and using nuclear and radiation techniques in the process. The problems are serious and challenging, but nuclear technologies may offer a solution. For most developing countries, TAD (transboundary animal diseases) detection is still vital. The bottleneck is their inability to rapidly detect the virus and to determine early enough whether it is H5N1 or another subtype, so that authorities can take appropriate control measures. Serious efforts are focused on the early detection of the agents. Timely recognition of such viral infections would prevent the spread of the diseases to large animal populations in huge geographic areas. Thus, the development of novel, powerful diagnostic nuclear and nuclear-related assays is a crucial issue today in veterinary research and animal health care. Molecular virology offers a range of new methods, which are able to accelerate and improve the diagnosis of infectious diseases in animals and in man. The molecular detection assays, like the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technologies, provide possibilities for a very rapid diagnosis. The detection of viruses can be completed within hours or hopefully even within minutes with a sensitivity level of less than one pathogenic organism. Molecular approaches have contributed significantly to the rapid detection of well-established, as well as newly emerging, infectious agents such as Nipah and Hendra viruses or corona viruses in the SARS scenario and the detection and molecular characterisation of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 subtype that threatens the world today. The nucleic acid amplification assays, although they were at first expensive and cumbersome, have become relatively cheap and user-friendly tools in the diagnostic laboratories

  14. China's Cool Handling of Avian Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU

    2004-01-01

    ON January 27, 2004,the China National Avian Flu Reference Lab confirmed that in Dingdang Town, Long'an County,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region a duck had died of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to the SARS epidemic last year, this occurrence has been handled coolly and efficiently by the Chinese government and people in general.

  15. Scare of Avian Flu Revisits India: A Bumpy Road Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Kumar Rai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the threat of an avian flu pandemic once again looming over eastern India, issues regarding patents and affordability and accessibility of drugs have taken center stage. The key priority of India should be to remain prepared to address the public health crisis effectively, by stockpiling the drug tamiflu so that it can be easily distributed and administered to the needy.India had been confronted with a serious threat of avian flu in 2005-06, but past experience shows that, despite having some of the broadest and most comprehensive compulsory patent licensing laws, India's policymaking elite shied away from fully exploiting these legal 'flexibilities.' Fortunately, the danger of avian flu did not turn into a substantial public health crisis that year. Under this backdrop, this paper explores various ‘flexibilities’ available in the Indian patent law and suggests short term and long term strategies to effectively tackle the impending danger of an avian flu pandemic, and similar public health crises in future. This paper will discuss potential areas of conflict between the indigenous generic drug firms and the multi-national companies with respect to TRIPS compliance in the event that these flexibilities are exploited. This paper also highlights the administrative constraints and the economic viability of the compulsory licensing system. Finally, this paper shows how political will is often more critical than having well documented provisions in statute books to respond to such situations effectively.

  16. THE AVIAN FLU IMPACT ON THE ROMANIAN POULTRY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius Stanciu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat represents one of the most dynamic branches of the local meat production. The poultry sector represents a good quality protein source, at an acceptable price as compared to other animal production domains. There has been an ascending evolution of the sector after the year 2000, although there appeared a series of discontinuities that affected agricultural production, mainly on a short-term basis. The Avian Flu led to 190 million euros’ worth losses at the level of Romanian national economy. Low consumption due to the impact was a short-term consequence, being rapidly amortized by the Romanian producers. The lack of some business continuity insurance measures can further affect the poultry meat sector, which does not have the necessary robustness needed in case of larger shocks. The following article proposes an analysis of the Avian Flu crisis economic effects on the Romanian meat sector, and it is part of a general framework of research regarding the Romanian food chain resilience to critical situations.

  17. Risky Zoographies: The Limits of Place in Avian Flu Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Porter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Global anxieties about avian influenza stem from a growing recognition that highly-virulent, highly-mobile disease vectors infiltrate human spaces in ways that are difficult to perceive, and even more difficult to manage. This article analyses a participatory health intervention in Việt Nam to explore how avian influenza threats challenge long-held understandings of animals’ place in the environment and society. In this intervention, poultry farmers collaborated with health workers to illustrate maps of avian flu risks in their communities. Participant-observation of the risk-mapping exercises shows that health workers treated poultry as commodities, and located these animals in environments that could be transformed and dominated by humans. However, these maps did not sufficiently represent the physical and social landscapes where humans and poultry coexist in Việt Nam. As such, farmers located poultry in environments dominated by risky nonhuman forces such as winds, waterways, and other organisms. I argue that these divergent risk maps demonstrate how ecological factors, interpersonal networks, and global market dynamics combine to engender a variety of interspecies relationships, which in turn shape the location of disease risks in space. I develop the term risky zoographies to signal the emergence of competing descriptions of animals and their habitats in zoonotic disease contexts. This concept suggests that as wild animals, livestock products, and microbial pathogens continue to globalise, place-based health interventions that limit animals to particular locales are proving inadequate. Risky zoographies signal the inextricability of nonhuman animals from human spaces, and reveal interspecies interactions that transect and transcend environments.

  18. Strategic Analysis on Responding Human Avian Flu and Flu Pandemic in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The 20th century has witnessed three global influenza pandemics attacking mankind, namely the 1918 Spanish pandemic (H1N1 subgroup), the 1957 Asian pandemic (H2N2 subgroup) and the 1968 Hong Kong pandemic (H3N2 subgroup). The first pandemic swept throughout the entire world within six to nine months, which affected 400 million people, accounting for 20% of the total world population, and 40 to 50 million deaths which were more than the total deaths in World War I, resulting the worst catastrophe in the history of human infectious diseases[1]. At the moment, the world is threatened by an avian influenza pandemic and people are concerned about a potential worldwide human influenza pandemic.

  19. Avian influenza vaccines against H5N1 'bird flu'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjun; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2014-03-01

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have spread widely to more than 60 countries spanning three continents. To control the disease, vaccination of poultry is implemented in many of the affected countries, especially in those where H5N1 viruses have become enzootic in poultry and wild birds. Recently, considerable progress has been made toward the development of novel avian influenza (AI) vaccines, especially recombinant virus vector vaccines and DNA vaccines. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in vaccine development and use against H5N1 AIV in poultry. Understanding the properties of the available, novel vaccines will allow for the establishment of rational vaccination protocols, which in turn will help the effective control and prevention of H5N1 AI. PMID:24491922

  20. Social representation of a food risk: the Hong Kong avian bird flu epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hélène; Lee, N Y Louis

    2004-07-01

    The paper explores the social representation of the 2001 Hong Kong avian bird flu epidemic from the perspective of local women. Fifty women were asked to describe their first thoughts about the flu, and these were subsequently explored. Thematic analysis of the semi-structured interviews revealed that the first thoughts were characterized by: (a) the origin of the epidemic, (b) anchors for it, (c) emotions about it, and (d) images of it. Aspersion concerning the lack of hygiene of Mainland Chinese chicken rearers and chicken sellers in Hong Kong dominated the interviews. Other environmental factors were also stressed, as was regulation leniency and a drive to profit. Comparisons between old traditions and newer practices formed a central feature. The findings are discussed in terms of their continuity with western risk findings as well as their specific cultural nuances. PMID:15231054

  1. Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector for system of avian flu virus detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector system has been done. It is used for avian flu detection equipment. The requirements for the design are to protect detection system against shock, portable, and easy to maintain. The mechanical system consists of connectors, cable assemblies, holders, casing, housing and detectors cover. The selected material should have small gamma radiation absorption property in order to give optimum counts for the detector. The design result should give a system that is easy to operate, cheap and easy to assemble. (author)

  2. A mechanical design for positioning of gm detector for system of avian flu virus detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector system has been done. It is used for avian flu detection equipment. The requirements for the design are to protect detection system against shock, portable, and easy to maintain. The mechanical system consists of connectors, cable assemblies, holders, casing, housing and detectors cover. The selected material should have small gamma radiation absorption property in order to give optimum counts for the detector. The design result should give a system that is easy to operate, cheap and easy to assemble. (author)

  3. Understanding the risk of an avian flu pandemic: rational waiting or precautionary failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Marcello; Franzini, Maurizio

    2006-06-01

    The precautionary principle (PP) has been proposed as the proper guide for the decision-making criteria to be adopted in the face of the new catastrophic risks that have arisen in the last decades. This article puts forward a workable definition of the PP based on the so-called alpha-maximin expected utility approach, applying it to the possible outbreak of the avian flu disease among humans. Moreover, it shows how the shortage and/or lack of effective drugs against the infection of the virus A(H5N1) among humans can be considered a precautionary failure. PMID:16834622

  4. An Assessment of Hickam Air Force Base's Capability to Support Strategic Airlift Throughput when Operating under an Avian Flu Pandemic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Campbell, James R.; Doctor, Pamela G.; Johnson, Alan; Coomber, P.

    2006-03-10

    Hickam Air Force Base (AFB), Hawaii provides an ideal waypoint for U.S. strategic airlift aircraft to refuel and receive other services on their way to Northeast and Southeast Asia from the continental United States. Hickam AFB also serves as a critical aerial port of debarkation (APOD) for deploying U.S. forces and equipment to more distant lands as needed. Making use of the United States Transportation Command’s Aerial Port of Debarkation Plus model, this paper examines the ability of Hickam AFB to serve in its important role as an APOD when operating under the effects of a major avian flu pandemic. In this regard, the major influence on Hickam AFB will be a serious degradation to the number of available personnel to service aircraft and operate Hickam AFB’s aerial port. It is noted that the results presented herein are based on simplistic attrition rate assumptions. Nonetheless, it is envisioned that this work is applicable to more realistic input attrition rates as avian flu epidemiological models are refined, as well as attrition associated with other types of contagious pandemic disease or willful biological warfare attack.

  5. El virus influenza y la gripe aviar Influenza virus and avian flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una revisión del virus influenza,su biología,sus mecanismos de variación antigénica,las pandemias que ha producido y la prevención mediante las vacunas y medicamentos antivirales.Se analizan las razones por las cuales aparece el virus H5N1 que produce la fiebre aviar en humanos,la patogénesis de este virus y las estrategias para su prevención.Se informa sobre el plan de preparación para la pandemia en los niveles nacional e internacional.This article presents a review of Influenza virus,its biology,its mechanism of antigenic variation and its prevention by vaccination and the use of antivirals.The pandemics produced by this virus through history are presented.The appearance of the avian flu virus H5N1 is analyzed and its pathogenesis and strategies of prevention are discussed.National and international information about pandemic preparedness is presented.

  6. Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Alsharifi, Mohammed; Furuya, Yoichi; Bowden, Timothy R.; Lobigs, Mario; Koskinen, Aulikki; Regner, Matthias; Trinidad, Lee; Boyle, David B.; Müllbacher, Arno

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that γ-ray inactivated flu virus ...

  7. Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Alsharifi; Yoichi Furuya; Bowden, Timothy R.; Mario Lobigs; Aulikki Koskinen; Matthias Regner; Lee Trinidad; Boyle, David B.; Arno Müllbacher

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Influenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that gamma-ray inactivated flu v...

  8. Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharifi, Mohammed; Lobigs, Mario; Koskinen, Aulikki; Regner, Matthias; Trinidad, Lee; Boyle, David B.; Müllbacher, Arno

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that γ-ray inactivated flu virus can induce cross-reactive Tc cell responses. Methodology/Principal Finding Here, we report that intranasal administration of purified γ-ray inactivated human influenza A virus preparations (γ-Flu) effectively induces heterotypic and cross-protective immunity. A single intranasal administration of γ-A/PR8[H1N1] protects mice against lethal H5N1 and other heterotypic infections. Conclusions/Significance Intranasal γ-Flu represents a unique approach for a cross-protective vaccine against both seasonal as well as possible future pandemic influenza A virus infections. PMID:19401775

  9. Intranasal flu vaccine protective against seasonal and H5N1 avian influenza infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alsharifi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza A (flu virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that gamma-ray inactivated flu virus can induce cross-reactive Tc cell responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here, we report that intranasal administration of purified gamma-ray inactivated human influenza A virus preparations (gamma-Flu effectively induces heterotypic and cross-protective immunity. A single intranasal administration of gamma-A/PR8[H1N1] protects mice against lethal H5N1 and other heterotypic infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Intranasal gamma-Flu represents a unique approach for a cross-protective vaccine against both seasonal as well as possible future pandemic influenza A virus infections.

  10. A Multicenter Retrospective Review of Prone Position Ventilation (PPV in Treatment of Severe Human H7N9 Avian Flu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanda Xu

    Full Text Available Patients with H7N9 avian flu concurrent with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS usually have a poor clinical outcome. Prone position ventilation (PPV has been shown to improve the prognosis of patients with severe ARDS. This study explored the effects of PPV on the respiratory and circulatory mechanics of H7N9-infected patients with severe ARDS.Individuals admitted to four hospitals designated for H7N9 patients in Guangdong province were treated with PPV, and their clinical data were recorded before and after receiving PPV.Six of 20 critically ill patients in the ICU received PPV. After treatment with 35 PPV sessions, the oxygenation index (OI values of the six patients when measured post-PPV and post-supine position ventilation (SPV were significantly higher than those measured pre-PPV (P < 0.05.The six patients showed no significant differences in their values for respiratory rate (RR, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP, tidal volume (TV or arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 when compared pre-PPV, post-PPV, and post-SPV. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the mean values for arterial pressure (MAP, cardiac index (CI, central venous pressure (CVP, heart rate (HR, lactic acid (LAC levels or the doses of norepinephrine (NE administered when compared pre-PPV, post-PPV, and post-SPV.PPV provided improved oxygenation that was sustained after returning to a supine position, and resulted in decreased carbon dioxide retention. PPV can thus serve as an alternative lung protective ventilation strategy for use in patients with H7N9 avian flu concurrent with severe ARDS.

  11. Avian Flu School: A Training Approach to Prepare for H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Beltran-Alcrudo, Daniel; Bunn, David A.; Sandrock, Christian E.; Cardona, Carol J.

    2008-01-01

    Since the reemergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) in 2003, a panzootic that is historically unprecedented in the number of infected flocks, geographic spread, and economic consequences for agriculture has developed. The epidemic has affected a wide range of birds and mammals, including humans. The ineffective management of outbreaks, mainly due to a lack of knowledge among those involved in detection, prevention, and response, points to the need for training on H5N1 HPAI....

  12. Flu (Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Overview Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the flu and its complications every year. Seasonal Flu Seasonal flu refers to the flu outbreaks that ...

  13. Avian flu : multiple introductions of H5N1 in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducatez, M F; Olinger, C M; Owoade, A A; De Landtsheer, S; Ammerlaan, W; Niesters, H G M; Osterhaus, A D M E; Fouchier, R A M; Muller, C P

    2006-01-01

    As the avian influenza virus H5N1 swept from Asia across Russia to Europe, Nigeria was the first country in Africa to report the emergence of this highly pathogenic virus. Here we analyse H5N1 sequences in poultry from two different farms in Lagos state and find that three H5N1 lineages were indepen

  14. EPIDEMIOLOGI TERPADU AVIAN INFLUENZA (FLU BURUNG) BERBASIS TINDAKAN KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT DALAM RESPON PANDEMI INFLUENZA

    OpenAIRE

    Denas Symond

    2009-01-01

    The term surveillance is used in two rather different ways. First, surveillance can mean the continuous security of the factors that determine the occurrence and distribution of disease and other conditions of ill health The second use of the term refers to a special reporting system which is set u for a particularly important health problem or disease, for example the spread of communicable diseases in an epidemic like Avian Influenza (AI) or ( H5N1 ). Such a surveillance system like AI aim ...

  15. Inactivation of various influenza strains to model avian influenza (Bird Flu) with various disinfectant chemistries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberst, R. D.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Souza, Caroline Ann

    2005-12-01

    Due to the grave public health implications and economic impact possible with the emergence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A isolate, H5N1, currently circulating in Asia we have evaluated the efficacy of various disinfectant chemistries against surrogate influenza A strains. Chemistries included in the tests were household bleach, ethanol, Virkon S{reg_sign}, and a modified version of the Sandia National Laboratories developed DF-200 (DF-200d, a diluted version of the standard DF-200 formulation). Validation efforts followed EPA guidelines for evaluating chemical disinfectants against viruses. The efficacy of the various chemistries was determined by infectivity, quantitative RNA, and qualitative protein assays. Additionally, organic challenges using combined poultry feces and litter material were included in the experiments to simulate environments in which decontamination and remediation will likely occur. In all assays, 10% bleach and Sandia DF-200d were the most efficacious treatments against two influenza A isolates (mammalian and avian) as they provided the most rapid and complete inactivation of influenza A viruses.

  16. Current status, surveillance and control of avian flu in domestic and wild bird populations in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting several species of food producing birds (chickens, turkeys, quails, guinea fowl, etc.), as well as pet birds and wild birds. The AI viruses are divided in two groups based on their ability to cause disease (pathogenicity). Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus spreads rapidly, may cause serious disease and result in high mortality rates (up to 100% within 48 hours). The low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) can causes mild disease that may be undetected or no symptoms at all in some species of birds. Since 1997 millions of chicken have been reported to have died due to HPAI H5N1 in countries of South-East Asia. In 2003 AI virus H7N7 affected poultry farms in Netherlands, then penetrated to Belgium and Germany. It had been considered that among human community there were circulating A viruses of 3 subtypes of H type (H1, H2 and H3) and 2 subtypes of N type (N1 and N2). However, for the recent years it has established that AI viruses as a result of mutation have changed their biological features and acquired a capacity of overcoming an interspecies barrier and affecting humans, mostly with lethal outcome. Once domestic birds are infected, avian influenza outbreaks can be difficult to control and often cause major economic impacts for poultry farmers in affected countries, since mortality rates are high and infected fowl generally must be destroyed -- the technical term is 'culled' -- in order to prevent the spread of the disease. Anatidae (ducks, geese and swans) is a group of water birds that is ecologically dependent on wetlands for at least some aspects of their annual cycle. Anatidae species use a wide range of wetlands, from the high arctic tundra, rivers and estuaries, freshwater or saline lakes, and ponds or swamps to coastal lagoons and inter-tidal coastal areas such as mud-flats, bays and the open sea. They also utilize man-made wetlands such as rice fields and other agricultural

  17. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  18. Highlight the significance of genetic evolution of H5N1 avian flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jia-hai; ZHANG Ding-mei; WANG Guo-ling

    2006-01-01

    @@ Agrowing concern has focused on the recent identification of influenza A H5N1 virus in Asia.Previously thought to infect only wild birds and poultry, H5N1 has now infected humans, cats, pigs,and other mammals in an ongoing outbreak, often with fatal results. According to a report from the World Health Organization (WHO), 217 human H5N1 cases have been confirmed and 123 of them have been fatal as of May 19, 2006.1 But many questions remain unanswered, for example how the H5N1 virus could cross species barriers and acquire the ability to infect humans; when and how the H5N1 virus will transmit effectively between humans and cause an influenza pandemic; and what are the determinants of its high virulence. This article summarizes research progress on the origin of H5N1 virus, factors determining pathogenicity, the contribution of genetic evolution to H5N1 species barrier traversal, human-to-human transmission, and problems in prevention and treatment of H5N1 avian influenza virus.

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGI TERPADU AVIAN INFLUENZA (FLU BURUNG BERBASIS TINDAKAN KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT DALAM RESPON PANDEMI INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denas Symond

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The term surveillance is used in two rather different ways. First, surveillance can mean the continuous security of the factors that determine the occurrence and distribution of disease and other conditions of ill health The second use of the term refers to a special reporting system which is set u for a particularly important health problem or disease, for example the spread of communicable diseases in an epidemic like Avian Influenza (AI or ( H5N1 . Such a surveillance system like AI aim to provide quickly information which can be analyzed to determine frequency and to answer like questions: who, where and when.AI epidemiological surveillance has a number of major steps: (I to identify and confirm outbreaks to ensure that effective action to control the disease is being taken (2 to investigate diseases by clinics and laboratory (3 to investigate and confirm the cases (4 Data collection and public health consolidation (5 Data analysis (6 Feedback (7 Following step is taken . District health officer (DHO and District veterinary officer (DVO can use integrated AI surveillance epidemiological to collect such information to support the management and evaluation health activities to prevent community from AI disease. It can be concluded, DHO and DVO may participate together in and use local reporting and surveillance system to combat AI in community

  20. Paradoxical risk perception and behaviours related to Avian Flu outbreak and education campaign, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorvongseng Somchay

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Laos, small backyard poultry systems predominate (90%. The first lethal human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI occurred in 2007. Few studies have addressed the impact of outbreaks and education campaigns on a smallholder producer system. We evaluated awareness and behaviours related to educational campaigns and the 2007 HPAI outbreaks. Methods During a national 2-stage cross-sectional randomised survey we interviewed 1098 households using a pre-tested questionnaire in five provinces representative of the Southern to Northern strata of Laos. We used multivariate analysis (Stata, version 8; Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA to analyse factors affecting recollection of HPAI educational messages, awareness of HPAI, and behaviour change. Results Of the 1098 participants, 303 (27.6% received training on HPAI. The level of awareness was similar to that in 2006. The urban population considered risk to be decreased, yet unsafe behaviours persisted or increased. This contrasted with an increase in awareness and safe behaviour practices in rural areas. Reported behaviour changes in rural areas included higher rates of cessation of poultry consumption and dead poultry burial when compared to 2006. No participants reported poultry deaths to the authorities. Overall, 70% could recall an educational message but the content and accuracy differed widely depending on training exposure. Washing hands and other hygiene advice, messages given during the HPAI educational campaign, were not recalled. Trained persons were able to recall only one message while untrained participants recalled a broader range of messages. Factors associated with an awareness of a threat of AI in Laos were: having received HPAI training, literacy level, access to TV, recent information, living in rural areas. Conclusion We report a paradoxical relationship between unsafe behaviours and risk perception in urban areas, as well as exposure to

  1. Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection Questions & Answers Language: English Españ ...

  2. Pelacakan Kasus Flu Burung pada Ayam dengan Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction* (DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA IN CHICKENS BY REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza (AI or Bird Flu is a fatal zoonotic disease caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza(HPAI virus of H5N1 sub-type. The disease is still endemic in Indonesia. This study was conducted toinvestigate AI cases in chickens in Bali. Virus isolation was performed in 9 day-old embryonated chickeneggs, and then followed by serologic testing by haemaglutination (HA and Haemaglutination Inhibition(HI assay using standard microtiter procedure. All of the samples were further tested with reversetrancriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. All work has been done in the Biomedical and MolecularBiology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, during the period2009-2011. A total of ten samples were examined A total of ten chicken samples consisting of 6 fieldsamples and 4 meat samples have been confirmed to be AIV H5N1. All field cases showed clinical signsand gross pathology that were typical to the infection of avian influenza. The result indicates that AI casesare still prevalent among chickens in Bali.

  3. BIRD FLU MASKS

    OpenAIRE

    YASAR KESKIN; OÐUZ OZYARAL

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a disease of birds caused by influenza viruses closely related to human influenza viruses. The potential for transformation of avian influenza into a form that both causes severe disease in humans and spreads easily from person to person is a great concern for world health. The main purpose of a mask is to help prevent particles (droplets) being expelled into the environment by the wearer. Masks are also resistant to fluids, and help protect the wearer from splas...

  4. Computational analysis and determination of a highly conserved surface exposed segment in H5N1 avian flu and H1N1 swine flu neuraminidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandy Ashesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catalytic activity of influenza neuraminidase (NA facilitates elution of progeny virions from infected cells and prevents their self-aggregation mediated by the catalytic site located in the body region. Research on the active site of the molecule has led to development of effective inhibitors like oseltamivir, zanamivir etc, but the high rate of mutation and interspecies reassortment in viral sequences and the recent reports of oseltamivir resistant strains underlines the importance of determining additional target sites for developing future antiviral compounds. In a recent computational study of 173 H5N1 NA gene sequences we had identified a 50-base highly conserved region in 3'-terminal end of the NA gene. Results We extend the graphical and numerical analyses to a larger number of H5N1 NA sequences (514 and H1N1 swine flu sequences (425 accessed from GenBank. We use a 2D graphical representation model for the gene sequences and a Graphical Sliding Window Method (GSWM for protein sequences scanning the sequences as a block of 16 amino acids at a time. Using a protein sequence descriptor defined in our model, the protein sliding scan method allowed us to compare the different strains for block level variability, which showed significant statistical correlation to average solvent accessibility of the residue blocks; single amino acid position variability results in no correlation, indicating the impact of stretch variability in chemical environment. Close to the C-terminal end the GSWM showed less descriptor-variability with increased average solvent accessibility (ASA that is also supported by conserved predicted secondary structure of 3' terminal RNA and visual evidence from 3D crystallographic structure. Conclusion The identified terminal segment, strongly conserved in both RNA and protein sequences, is especially significant as it is surface exposed and structural chemistry reveals the probable role of this stretch in

  5. Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Screening in Patients with Fever and Flu-Like Symptoms in a Tertiary Hospital in an Area with Confirmed Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chao; Huang, Rui; Chen, Jianjun; Gu, Qin; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Kui; Chen, Quanjiao; Xiong, Chaochao; Liu, Yong; Li, Jiequan; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Ding, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    Novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was isolated in fatal patients in Yangtze River Delta of China in March 2013. We aimed to screen the virus in febrile patients in a tertiary hospital in an area with confirmed cases. Throat-swab specimens collected from consecutive patients with fever (≥38°C) and flu-like symptoms from April 15 to April 25, 2013 were subjected to detect novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus with real-time PCR. The clinical outcomes in the patients and close contacts were foll...

  6. Aktivitas Antiviral Minyak Atsiri Jahe Merah terhadap Virus Flu Burung (ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENSIAL OIL RED GINGER ON AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Tri Untari; Sitarina Widyarini; Michael Haryadi Wibowo

    2013-01-01

    The studies have reported that ginger have many activities such as antiemesis, anti-inflammatory,anti-bacterial and anti-parasites. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate antiviral effect of essentialred ginger oil againts Avian Influenza (AI) in ovo using hemagglutination test (HA). Avian Influenzaviruses were treated with 0,01%, 0,1% and 1% of essential red ginger oil, and then inoculated in chickenembryonated egg via allantoic sac. Allantoic fluid was harvested using for HA test ....

  7. Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus screening in patients with fever and flu-like symptoms in a tertiary hospital in an area with confirmed cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Huang, Rui; Chen, Jianjun; Gu, Qin; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Kui; Chen, Quanjiao; Xiong, Chaochao; Liu, Yong; Li, Jiequan; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Ding, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    Novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was isolated in fatal patients in Yangtze River Delta of China in March 2013. We aimed to screen the virus in febrile patients in a tertiary hospital in an area with confirmed cases. Throat-swab specimens collected from consecutive patients with fever (≥38°C) and flu-like symptoms from April 15 to April 25, 2013 were subjected to detect novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus with real-time PCR. The clinical outcomes in the patients and close contacts were followed up. Of total 200 patients screened, one (0.5%) was positive for avian influenza A(H7N9) virus and 199 others were negative. The infected patient experienced respiratory failure and had diffuse infiltrates in the right lower lobe in chest CT images. He received symptomatic and antibacterial treatments as well as oseltamivir. His condition was substantially improved within three days after admission; avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was not detected after 5 days' antiviral therapy. The hemagglutinin inhibition test showed that the serum titers against avian influenza A(H7N9) virus increased from <1∶20 at the early phase to 1∶80 at the convalescent phase. Follow-up of 23 close contacts showed that none of them developed fever and other symptoms within two weeks. Our findings suggest that although the infection rate of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in patients with fever and flu-like symptoms is rare, the screening is valuable to rapidly define the infection, which will be critical to improve the clinical outcomes. PMID:24367529

  8. Avian influenza A(H7N9 virus screening in patients with fever and flu-like symptoms in a tertiary hospital in an area with confirmed cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wu

    Full Text Available Novel avian influenza A(H7N9 virus was isolated in fatal patients in Yangtze River Delta of China in March 2013. We aimed to screen the virus in febrile patients in a tertiary hospital in an area with confirmed cases. Throat-swab specimens collected from consecutive patients with fever (≥38°C and flu-like symptoms from April 15 to April 25, 2013 were subjected to detect novel avian influenza A(H7N9 virus with real-time PCR. The clinical outcomes in the patients and close contacts were followed up. Of total 200 patients screened, one (0.5% was positive for avian influenza A(H7N9 virus and 199 others were negative. The infected patient experienced respiratory failure and had diffuse infiltrates in the right lower lobe in chest CT images. He received symptomatic and antibacterial treatments as well as oseltamivir. His condition was substantially improved within three days after admission; avian influenza A(H7N9 virus was not detected after 5 days' antiviral therapy. The hemagglutinin inhibition test showed that the serum titers against avian influenza A(H7N9 virus increased from <1∶20 at the early phase to 1∶80 at the convalescent phase. Follow-up of 23 close contacts showed that none of them developed fever and other symptoms within two weeks. Our findings suggest that although the infection rate of avian influenza A(H7N9 virus in patients with fever and flu-like symptoms is rare, the screening is valuable to rapidly define the infection, which will be critical to improve the clinical outcomes.

  9. Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Screening in Patients with Fever and Flu-Like Symptoms in a Tertiary Hospital in an Area with Confirmed Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Huang, Rui; Chen, Jianjun; Gu, Qin; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Kui; Chen, Quanjiao; Xiong, Chaochao; Liu, Yong; Li, Jiequan; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Ding, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    Novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was isolated in fatal patients in Yangtze River Delta of China in March 2013. We aimed to screen the virus in febrile patients in a tertiary hospital in an area with confirmed cases. Throat-swab specimens collected from consecutive patients with fever (≥38°C) and flu-like symptoms from April 15 to April 25, 2013 were subjected to detect novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus with real-time PCR. The clinical outcomes in the patients and close contacts were followed up. Of total 200 patients screened, one (0.5%) was positive for avian influenza A(H7N9) virus and 199 others were negative. The infected patient experienced respiratory failure and had diffuse infiltrates in the right lower lobe in chest CT images. He received symptomatic and antibacterial treatments as well as oseltamivir. His condition was substantially improved within three days after admission; avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was not detected after 5 days' antiviral therapy. The hemagglutinin inhibition test showed that the serum titers against avian influenza A(H7N9) virus increased from <1∶20 at the early phase to 1∶80 at the convalescent phase. Follow-up of 23 close contacts showed that none of them developed fever and other symptoms within two weeks. Our findings suggest that although the infection rate of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in patients with fever and flu-like symptoms is rare, the screening is valuable to rapidly define the infection, which will be critical to improve the clinical outcomes. PMID:24367529

  10. Aktivitas Antiviral Minyak Atsiri Jahe Merah terhadap Virus Flu Burung (ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENSIAL OIL RED GINGER ON AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Untari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The studies have reported that ginger have many activities such as antiemesis, anti-inflammatory,anti-bacterial and anti-parasites. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate antiviral effect of essentialred ginger oil againts Avian Influenza (AI in ovo using hemagglutination test (HA. Avian Influenzaviruses were treated with 0,01%, 0,1% and 1% of essential red ginger oil, and then inoculated in chickenembryonated egg via allantoic sac. Allantoic fluid was harvested using for HA test . Result of this studyshows that application of 1% of essential red ginger oil results in the reduction of titer HA . Interestingly,essential oil shows antiviral activity revealed HA titre 20 whereas the titre HA AI which AI virus treatedwith 0,01% and 0,1% essential red ginger oil, the HA titer was 25. The conclution of this study proved thatessensial oil 1% of the red gingger is the best concentration as antiviral activity .

  11. Establishing a laboratory network of influenza diagnosis in Indonesia: an experience from the avian flu (H5N1) outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawaty V; Pangesti KN; Sampurno OD

    2012-01-01

    Vivi Setiawaty, Krisna NA Pangesti, Ondri D SampurnoNational Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, IndonesiaAbstract: Indonesia has been part of the global influenza surveillance since the establishment of a National Influenza Center (NIC) at the National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD) by the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 1975. When the outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) occurred, the NIC and US Naval M...

  12. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Documents (General) Workers Employed at Commercial Swine Farms Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Questions & Answers Language: English ...

  13. Flu Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main symptoms of flu are: headache sore throat fever chills muscle aches stuffy nose dry cough Someone with the flu may have a high fever — for example, that person's temperature may be around ...

  14. Understanding Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Flu Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... McClain Whether the topic is seasonal influenza, bird flu or something called a pandemic, everyone seems to ...

  15. Diagnosing Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  16. "Stomach Flu"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? "Stomach Flu" KidsHealth > For Kids > "Stomach Flu" Print A A A Text Size en ... El virus estomacal" Many people talk about the "stomach flu" when they're feeling sick to their ...

  17. Flu Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. Most people with the flu get better on their own. But it can ... cause complications and sometimes even death. Getting the flu vaccine every year is the best way to ...

  18. A multi-scale problem arising in a model of avian flu virus in a seabird colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, C. F.; O'Callaghan, M. J. A.; Kelly, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of epidemics of novel pathogens such as the H5N1 strain of avian influenza is of crucial importance to public and veterinary health as well as wildlife ecology. We model the effect of a new virus on a seabird colony, where no pre-existing Herd Immunity exists. The seabirds in question are so-called K-strategists, i.e. they have a relatively long life expectancy and very low reproductive output. They live in isolated colonies which typically contain tens of thousands of birds. These densely populated colonies, with so many birds competing for nesting space, would seem to provide perfect conditions for the entry and spread of an infection. Yet there are relatively few reported cases of epidemics among these seabirds. We develop a SEIR model which incorporates some of the unusual features of seabird population biology and examine the effects of introducing a pathogen into the colony.

  19. A multi-scale problem arising in a model of avian flu virus in a seabird colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the dynamics of epidemics of novel pathogens such as the H5N1 strain of avian influenza is of crucial importance to public and veterinary health as well as wildlife ecology. We model the effect of a new virus on a seabird colony, where no pre-existing Herd Immunity exists. The seabirds in question are so-called K-strategists, i.e. they have a relatively long life expectancy and very low reproductive output. They live in isolated colonies which typically contain tens of thousands of birds. These densely populated colonies, with so many birds competing for nesting space, would seem to provide perfect conditions for the entry and spread of an infection. Yet there are relatively few reported cases of epidemics among these seabirds. We develop a SEIR model which incorporates some of the unusual features of seabird population biology and examine the effects of introducing a pathogen into the colony

  20. Establishing a laboratory network of influenza diagnosis in Indonesia: an experience from the avian flu (H5N1 outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawaty V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vivi Setiawaty, Krisna NA Pangesti, Ondri D SampurnoNational Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, IndonesiaAbstract: Indonesia has been part of the global influenza surveillance since the establishment of a National Influenza Center (NIC at the National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD by the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 1975. When the outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1 occurred, the NIC and US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 were the only diagnostic laboratories equipped for etiology confirmation. The large geographical area of the Republic of Indonesia poses a real challenge to provide prompt and accurate diagnosis nationally. This was the main reason to establish a laboratory network for H5N1 diagnosis in Indonesia. Currently, 44 laboratories have been included in the network capable of performing polymerase chain reaction testing for influenza A. Diagnostic equipment and standard procedures of biosafety and biosecurity of handling specimens have been adopted largely from World Health Organization recommendations.Keywords: influenza, laboratory, networking

  1. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ... not be shared without washing thoroughly first. The Flu Is Contagious You may be able to pass ...

  2. Cause of Flu (Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Cause About the Flu Virus Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the virus. Influenza A virus. Credit: CDC Where Influenza Comes From In nature, the flu virus is ...

  3. Flu.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pandemics Current Situation Global Activities Research Activities History Flu Symptoms & Severity The flu is different from a ... you know if you have the flu? (CDC) Flu Vaccine Finder Your browser does not support iframes. ...

  4. Hypertoxic flu

    OpenAIRE

    D. L. Sulima; V. E. Karev; K. V. Zhdanov

    2014-01-01

    In the presented supervision the adverse variant of a current of a seasonal flu at the young man, led to a lethal outcome in 38 hours from the moment of the beginning of disease is described. Character established pathomorphological changes testifies to the limited possibilities of rendering of specialised medical aid by the patient with the hypertoxic form of a flu in a phase of already developed disease.

  5. Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seasonal influenza; some of those illnesses result in death. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially ... flu each year. Since 2004-2005, flu-related deaths in children reported to CDC during regular flu seasons have ...

  6. Kepekaan Telur Spesific Pathogen Free dan Clean Egg Terhadap Virus Flu Burung (SENSITIVITY OF SPESIFIC PATHOGEN FREE EGGS AND CLEAN EGG TO THE AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUSES SUBTYPE H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza which is  in Indonesia  known as Flu Burung  is caused by the avian influenza virussubtype H5N1 (AIV-H5N1. Vaccination is one of the major strategies for preventing and eradicatingAIV-H5N1 in Indonesia. Several factors can affect the potential vaccine such as viral content and mediaused for the propagation of the virus. One of the media commonly used to propagate  the virus is pathogenspecific free (SPF embryonated chicken eggs. However, as the SPF eggs production is limited and expensive,the use of clean embryonated chicken eggs as an alternative need to examined. This study aimed todetermine the sensitivity of SPF and clean embryonated chicken eggs to the AIV-H5N1. The virus usedwas seed avian influenza virus (A/ Chicken/West Java (Subang/29/2007  which haa previously werepropagated  in SPF eggs and the Clean Eggs. The virus titer was determined as Embryo infective Dose 50%(EID50 using Reed and Muench method. Sensitivity of SPF eggs and Clean Egg to the VAI-H5N1 wascompared using  Chi-square statistical analysis. The titers of Avian Influenza Virus subtype H5N1 were106.83EID50/0.1ml in SPF eggs and 106.17EID50/0.1 ml in the Clean Eggs. Statistical analysis showed that,the sensitivity of SPF Eggs and Egg Clean  for the propagation of the VAI-H5N1 was not significantlydifferent.

  7. Help Stop the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or older). Find Flu Clinics Near You At www.flu.gov Use the Flu Vaccine Finder at www.flu.gov to find nearby locations offering flu ... html National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/Flu U.S. Department of ...

  8. The Spanish flu in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths for...... early wave of the flu occurred in the capital and major towns, but not in peripheral towns. Influenza incidence in 1918 peaked at age 5-15 y, closely followed by the age groups 1-5 y and 15-65 y, but the influenza mortality was highest in the age groups 0-1 y and 15-65 y, with a peak mortality at age 20...

  9. Avian influenza : a review article

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yalda; EMADI H; M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provides general information about avian influenza (bird flu) and specific information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1), that has caused infections in birds in Asia and Europe and in human in Asia. The main materials in this report are based on the World Health Organization (WHO) , world organization for animal health (OIE) , food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO) information and recommendations and review of th...

  10. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  11. FluView National Flu Activity Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FluView National Flu Activity Map is a complementary widget to the state-by-state flu map widget introduced in the 2007-2008 flu season. This interactive map...

  12. FLU : teoria

    OpenAIRE

    Ollikainen, Antti

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni FLU on mykkäsarjakuva, joka on toteutettu sekä paperiversiona että digitaalisena älypuhelimelle tarkoitettuna versiona. Kirjallisessa osuudessa perehdyn tarinankerronnan perinteeseen ja käyn läpi sarjakuvan tekemisen prosessinkulkua.

  13. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  14. SEKILAS TENTANG AVIAN INFLUENZA (AI)

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah Elytha

    2011-01-01

    Fluburung atau Avian Influenza (AI) adalah penyakit zoonosis fatal dan menular serta dapat menginfeksi semua jenis burung, manusia, babi, kuda dan anjing, Virus Avian Influenza tipe A (hewan) dari keluarga Drthomyxoviridae telah menyerang manusia dan menyebabkan banyak korban meninggal dunia. Saat ini avian Influenza telah menjadi masalah kesehatan global yang sangat serius, termasuk di Indonesia. Sejak Juli 2005 Sampai 12 April 2006 telah ditemukan 479 kasus kumulatif dan dicurigai flu burun...

  15. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

  16. Identifikasi Flu Burung H5N1 pada Unggas di Sekitar Kasus Flu Burung pada Manusia Tahun 2011 di Bekasi (AVIAN INFLUENZA H5N1 IDENTIFICATION IN AVIAN SPECIES SURROUNDING AVIAN INFLUENZA H5N1 HUMAN CASES IN BEKASI, WEST JAVA, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available H5N1 subtype Avian Influenza (AI virus is the causal agent  of AI disease in humans. In Indonesia,the first human AI occurred in Tangerang 2005.  Human AI in Indonesia has now spread into 12 provinces,including West Java, Jakarta, Banten, North Sumatra, East Java, Central Java, Lampung, South Sulawesi,West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Riau, and Bali. Until 2011, the total human AI cases were 182 cases  with150 deaths. This study was conducted to identify of H5N1 AI virus in birds in area surrounding a humanAI human case  in Bekasi city  in March 2011 and to investigate its role in the spread of AI to humans usingmethods of Hemaglutination Inhibition (HI , and Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction(RT-PCR. The result showed that 80% of birds in the area surrounding AI  surrounding H5N1 AI humancase in Bekasi 2011 were antibody negative  against  H5N1-AI virus. Antibody against H5N1-AI viruswith the titer less than 4 log 2 was detected in 4.4%  of birds and  with antibody titer 04 4-7 log 2 in 15%of birds. By RT-PCR, H5N1 AI virus was not detected in 47.6% of bird samples. H5 positive and N1negative  AI virus was detected in  30.2% samples.  Only 11.2% samples showed positive for H5N1 AI virus.The results suggest that H5N1-AI virus affecting birds may have a positive role in transmitting to thevirus to human in Bekasi 2011.

  17. Influenza - flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valčić Miroslav A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In epidemiology or in epizootiology, there are some infectious diseases that have potential for significant reduction of the susceptible species population. Over the past few decades, epidemiologists were concentrated on diseases that were 'modern' and made front-page news in tabloids. One should recall diseases like bovine spongiform encephalopathy, SARS and AIDS syndromes. However, we should always be aware of the most dangerous diseases such as our old friend, influenza, or simply, flu. In the past decade, we heard about 'bird' or 'swine' influenza. It is the same disease for different animal species as well as for man. Influenza owes its characteristics to specific virus biology as well as to the epidemiology-epizootiology characteristics of the susceptible species. Antigenic changes that took place thanks to reassortment mechanisms of the viral gene segments cause the onset of the new antigenic combinations of the hemaglutinin and neuraminidase molecules. As a result, new H and/or N antigenic formulas appear for the first time in totally susceptible animal and human populations. That means that in such circumstances, no person in the world is immune to the virus. In that case, such a virus can cause a pandemic with disastrous consequences since influenza is a disease with significant mortality, especially in some segments of the human (as well as animal population. Birds and swine are virus reservoirs, but these species are at the same time live test tubes in which the virus resides, changes and adapts itself not only to the original species but to other species as well. That means that there is no 'bird' or 'swine' flu. Influenza is an infection of several important animal species as well as man that have potential not only for the reduction of the population size but, in case of the human population, for influencing social and economic life. .

  18. Bat Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and South America. Does bat flu pose a threat to human health? Preliminary laboratory research at CDC ... a flu virus to attach to and gain entry into a human respiratory tract cell. Likewise, NA ...

  19. Virgin Coconut Oil Meningkatkan Aktivitas Fagositosis Makrofag Ayam Pedaging Pascavaksinasi Flu Burung (VIRGIN COCONUT OIL INCREASES THE PHAGOCYTOSIS ACTIVITY OF MACROPHAGE OF BROILER CHICKEN FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA VACCINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enny Yusuf Wachidah Yuniwarti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to find an alternative avian influenza prevention in broilers by increasinganimal’s antibody titer and macrophages phagocytic  activity.  Virgin coconut oil (VCO is a food supplementthat is proven safe for human consumption therefore it is assumed to be safe for the animal’s (chickens.Factorial design  2 vaccinated: unvaccinated x 4 (dose of VCO: 0, 5, 10 and 15 mL/kg feed were applied inthis study.  A total of 40 day day old chick were allocated in the eight treatments groups.  Feed and drinkingwater were available  ad libitum.  Antibody titers of the animals were detected using ELISA, whereasphagocytic activity of the macrophages were detected from spleen.  The result showed that the highestphagocytic activity and antibody titers were seen in chickens which were given VCO at 10 mL/kg feed.  It isconcluded that the VCO could increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages.

  20. Avoiding the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

  1. Investigations into Outbreaks of Black Fly Attacks and Subsequent Avian Haemosporidians in Backyard-Type Poultry and Other Exposed Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelli; Johnson, Nora; Yang, Sharon; Stokes, John; Smith, Whitney; Wills, Robert; Goddard, Jerome; Varela-Stokes, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    In late spring of 2009 and 2010, there were reports of severe black fly (Simulium spp., shown in Fig. 1) outbreaks in various counties in Mississippi, especially those in and around the Mississippi River Delta. Complaints were of black flies attacking multiple species of backyard poultry and causing high morbidity and mortality in affected flocks. At several affected locations, black flies were readily observed swarming around and feeding on birds. A large number of these parasites were easily trapped on fly strips (Fig. 2). Multifocal to coalescing cutaneous hemorrhagic lesions, consistent with fly bites, were seen on the birds. Upon necropsy examination, a large number of black flies were also observed in the digestive tract (Fig. 3). Although black flies may cause disease directly, such as cardiopulmonary collapse and anaphylactoid reactions, detection of Leucocytozoon in blood smears (Fig. 4) of affected birds prompted further investigations of this protozoan as a cause of disease. Leucocytozoon spp. are known to be transmitted by black flies and may be associated with morbidity and mortality in birds such as poultry. From June 2009 through July 2012, the investigation included a total collection of 1068 individual blood samples, representing 371 individual premises in 89 counties/parishes across Mississippi (59), Alabama (10), Louisiana (4), and Tennessee (16). Of the 371 premises where blood samples were collected, 96 (26%) were either positive or highly suspected to be positive for Leucocytozoon spp. by blood smear analysis, and 5 (1.2%) were positive for Haemoproteus spp. by blood smear analysis. Attempts to diagnose Leucocytozoon spp. by PCR analysis and sequencing were complicated by coinfections with two closely related haemosporidians (Haemoproteus spp. and Plasmodium spp.). A novel technique involving flow cytometry was also explored. This study discusses the black fly field outbreak, the involvement of haemosporidians, molecular methods for detection

  2. Influenza A aviária (H5N1: a gripe do frango Avian influenza A (H5N1: the bird flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo rever a literatura sobre o vírus influenza A aviária (H5N1. O levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado nos bancos de dados eletrônicos Medline, MD Consult, HighWire, Medscape e Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS, Literatura Latinoamericana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, e por pesquisa direta, referentes aos últimos dez anos. Foram selecionados 32 artigos originais abordando os surtos recentes de infecção por um subtipo de vírus influenza A aviária, o H5N1, em criações de aves domésticas na Ásia, que resultaram em importantes prejuízos econômicos e repercussões em saúde pública, além de casos de infecção humana de alta letalidade. A maioria dos casos está associada com a exposição direta a aves infectadas ou superfícies contaminadas com excrementos dessas aves, porém foi confirmada a transmissão entre humanos. O período de incubação foi de dois a quatro dias. As manifestações clínicas variaram de infecção assintomática e doença leve do trato respiratório superior a pneumonia grave e falência múltipla de órgãos. A radiografia de tórax pode apresentar infiltrado intersticial bilateral, colapso lobar, consolidação focal e broncograma aéreo sem derrame pleural. A presença de linfopenia indica pior prognóstico. O tratamento de suporte parece ser o único tratamento aceitável. Os fatores de risco para mau prognóstico incluem idade avançada, demora na hospitalização, envolvimento do trato respiratório inferior, baixa contagem de leucócitos totais e linfopenia à admissão. Controlar os surtos em aves domésticas e o contato entre seres humanos e tais aves deve ser a prioridade no manejo da doença em nível de saúde pública, e medidas e conhecimentos acerca da doença devem ser amplamente divulgados.The objective of this study was to review the literature related to avian influenza A (H5N1. The bibliographic research was

  3. Your baby and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babies and the flu; Your infant and the flu; Your toddler and the flu ... FLU SYMPTOMS IN INFANTS AND TODDLERS The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and (sometimes) lungs. Call your baby’s health care provider if you notice any of ...

  4. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu is to get vaccinated each year. Flu Vaccination Why should people get vaccinated against the flu? ... Vaccine Benefits What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ...

  5. Cancer, the Flu, and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flu Publications Stay Informed Cancer Home Cancer, the Flu, and You Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers Should Know About the Flu Everyone 6 months of age and older should ...

  6. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English Español Recommend ... flu vaccine . The Flu Shot is Safe for Pregnant Women The risk of premature labor and delivery ...

  7. Swine flu in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-01-01

    Emerging swine flu (variant H1N1 influenza virus infection)is a new problem in medicine.The outbreaks in Mexico,USA and Canada bring attention to medical scientists that thing infection might finalize in the global pandemic situation.In this specific paper,the author hereby discusses on the situation of swine flu in Asia.

  8. Swine Flu: Prevention to Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Padda

    2015-01-01

    Swine flu, also known as swine influenza, pig influenza, hog flu and pig flu, is a respiratory disease caused by viruses (influenza viruses) that infect the respiratory tract of pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, a barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behaviour. Swine flu produces most of the same symptoms in pigs as human flu produces in people. Mostly people who are closely associated with pigs (for example, pork processors and farmers) acquire the infection and similarly pigs ...

  9. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  10. Treating Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be used to treat influenza illness. Antiviral drugs fight influenza viruses in your body. They are different from ... chills and fatigue. Your doctor may prescribe antiviral drugs to treat your flu illness. Should Istill get aflu vaccine? Yes. Antiviral ...

  11. Fighting the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-08

    Wes Studi, Hollywood actor, urges Native peoples to know the facts about the flu.  Created: 3/8/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 3/8/2011.

  12. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breastfeeding women get a flu vaccine? Why should pregnant women get a flu shot? Flu is more ... Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) . Is it safe for pregnant women and their developing babies to get a ...

  13. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Siettou; Maria Saridi

    2012-01-01

    In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1), pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in ...

  14. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  15. Flu vaccination in populations with cardio/neurovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2013-01-01

    Invited seminar (part of an expert workshop on 'Flu vaccination in Elderly Populations') presenting the evidence based on our research on the link between influenza vaccination and cardiovascular disease including acute myocardial infarction and stroke or transient ischaemic attack and the implications of the findings for clinical practice and policy.

  16. College students and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007446.htm College students and the flu To use the sharing features ... and a lot of social activities make a college student more likely to catch the flu. This article ...

  17. The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ189, October 2015 PDF Format The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is influenza (the ...

  18. College students and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a lot of social activities make a college student more likely to catch the flu. This article will give you information about the flu and college students. This is not a substitute for medical advice ...

  19. Flu and People with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  20. Flu and People with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  1. Flu I.Q. Widget

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  2. Caring for Someone Sick (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  3. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siettou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1, pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in Pubmed data base mainly of the 2000 until 2009 and the words were used is pregnancy, flu vaccination, complications of the flu vaccination at the period of pregnancy. Results: Morbidity during periods of seasonal influenza in pregnant women is increased, while in times of pandemic are recorded fatalities. Based on this, specific recommendations have been made for a flu vaccination in pregnant women, both from the CDC, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in the U.S. and other official bodies like the World Health Organization, according to that the constitution of influenza vaccine in the pregnancy is necessary, given that the probability of morbidity in this period is increased at 10%. Conclusions: The studies so far to influenza vaccination in pregnancy, do not record serious complications for pregnant women and infants. However more research needs to be done on the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy.

  4. FluBreaks: Early Epidemic Detection from Google Flu Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Pervaiz, Fahad; Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

    2012-01-01

    Background The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an e...

  5. SERO SURVEI DAN ANALISA PENGETAHUAN SIKAP PENJAMAH UNGGAS TERHADAP PENYAKIT FLU BURUNG DI INDONESIA TAHUN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Endah Pracoyo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bird flu in Indonesia actually is Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 type. Is known bird flu virus in Humans occur if direct contact with infected poultry or through contact with environmental enclosure, and the carcasses of infected poultry products. The absence of the data if the handlers of poultry in the cases of bird flu virus has been exposed to the research conducted sero survey of bird flu antibody titers in handlers poultry  attitudes and knowledge of poultry against bird flu incident. The research objective measure antibodies against respondents tirer AI H5N1 virus, assess knowledge and attitudes against bird flu handlers through the interview. The study design was cross sectional. Handlers of poultry population in the region is ever going Extraordinary Cases of bird flu. Samples were responders/poultry handlers venous blood taken for H5N1 antibody titer by Ellisa, H5N1 conducted interviews using a questionnaire. The study used the respondents informed consent agreement. Research time in February to November 2007 in the island of Java. The number of samples of 80 samples of respondents. The results obtained are not found of H5N1 avian influenza antibody titer in responders. The results of the interview most of the handlers to wash Their hands after doing Their job (82.1%. A total of 52.9% residential handlers is more than a mile from where the management of poultry, (69% lived outside market handlers/Abattoir of poultry.Handler to act entered correctly (53.3%% and almost all handlers (97% would bring the patient/patient ill with signs of bird flu infection to health facilities. Keywords: poultry handlers, bird flu virus, knowledge and attitudes of poultry handlers Abstrak Yang dimaksud Flu burung di Indonesia sebetulnya adalah Virus Avian Influenza dengan tipe H5N1. Selama ini diketahui penularan virus flu burung pada manusia terjadi jika kontak langsung dengan unggas yang terinfeksi atau melalui kontak dengan lingkungan kandang

  6. Fighting Flu PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-15

    Wes Studi, Hollywood actor, urges American Indians and Alaska Natives to get vaccinated against seasonal flu.  Created: 2/15/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.   Date Released: 2/15/2011.

  7. Fighting Flu PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-15

    Wes Studi, Hollywood actor, urges American Indians and Alaska Natives to get vaccinated against seasonal flu.  Created: 2/15/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.   Date Released: 2/15/2011.

  8. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  9. On Flu Alert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On May 18, China Central Television (CCTV) interviewed Shu Yuelong, Director of the Chinese National Influenza Center, after it obtained the first A/H1N1 flu virus sample on the Chinese mainland from an imported case on May 17. Here are excerpts from the interview.

  10. Take Three: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting seasonal flu and spreading it to others by taking these three steps.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  11. Warning Signs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes the main symptoms of seasonal flu and when it is serious enough to seek medical help.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  12. Oseltamivir-Resistant Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-13

    Dr. Aaron Storms, an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer at CDC, discusses his paper about oseltamivir-resistant H1N1flu.  Created: 4/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/17/2012.

  13. Flu and Holiday Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-13

    This podcast explains the ways people can stay healthy and avoid the flu when traveling this winter.  Created: 12/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/13/2010.

  14. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  15. Expectant Mom's Flu Shot Protects 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158634.html Expectant Mom's Flu Shot Protects 2 Infants benefit when a woman gets ... strongly recommends that pregnant women get a flu shot during any trimester of pregnancy during flu season, ...

  16. Tapak Perlekatan Reseptor Virus Flu Burung yang Diisolasi dari Berbagai Unggas Sejak tahun 2003 sampai 2008 (RECEPTOR BINDING SITE OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS H5N1 ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS POULTRIES SINCE 2003 TO 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haryadi Wibowo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza (AI is an infectious disease in poultry, caused by type A of avian influenza virus(AIV, in the family of Orthomyxoviridae. Almost all birds’ species are sensitive to the AI. Beside theability to infect various species of poultry. AIV type A has a wide range of host including all bird species,mammals, dan human. Today some scientists reported that the cases of AI in mammals, including humansare increasing. This condition suggests that the AI virus circulated in the field may have some mutationsin the amino acid determinants responsible receptor binding site (RBS. A research was therefore designedto investigate the molecular level of HA gen fragment responsible for receptor binding site of AIV isolatedfrom various poultry since 2003 to 2008. Molecular characterization was based on the amplification ofreceptor binding site of HA gene by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. All RTPCRof HA gene positive products were sequenced to determine the nucleotide composition at the targetedfragment. Sequences yielded were analyzed by program Mega 4.0 versions, including multiple alignment,deductive amino acid prediction, and establishment of phylogenetic tree. The results show that all AIVisolates could be determined of some conserved amino acids residues responsible for RBS which indicatethe binding preference of avian like receptor, sialic acid ? 2, 3 galactose except isolate A/Layer/Jabar/MHW-RBS-02/2008 which could be found a deletion of amino acid at position of 129 dan mutation of 151isoleucine into threonine. Phylogenetic study showed that clustering of AIV did not base on species of birdor geographic origin of AI viruses which were studied.

  17. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    OpenAIRE

    Koh GCH; Wong TY; Cheong SK; Koh DSQ

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI) is endemic in Asia as a result of unre...

  18. Anticuerpos circulantes contra Influenza Aviar y Newcastle en zanates (Quiscalus mexicanus de la ciudad de Guatemala (Avian flu and Newcastle Antibodies in Great-tailed Grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus in Guatemala city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar, Luis E.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenAunque el zanate (Quiscalus mexicanus está distribuido en todaGuatemala y se encuentra estrechamente ligado a poblaciones humanas,se sabe muy poco acerca de su estado sanitario y su papel comoreservorio de enfermedades aviares de importancia. Esta investigacióngenera información sobre el papel del zanate en la epizootiología de la Influenza Aviar (IA; Orthomyxoviridae y de Newcastle (ENC;Paramixoviridae, midiendo los anticuerpos circulantes en zanates norelacionados a granjas avícolas. Se colectaron 71 muestras de suero dezanates urbanos asintomáticos del la ciudad de Guatemala entre abril yjulio de 2008 y se analizaron con la prueba de Inhibición de laHemoaglutinación.SummaryDespite the Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus is distributed in all Guatemala and it is so close to human populations, few is knownabout its sanitarian status and role as reservoir of important aviandiseases. This research provides information about the role of the Greattailed Grackle in the epizootiology of Avian Influenza (AI;Orthomyxoviridae and Newcastle Disease (NCD; Paramixoviridae,measuring the antibodies of Grackles non-related to avian farms. Wecollected 71 serum samples from urban Great-tailed Grackles without any symptoms in Guatemala City from April to June of 2008, and analyzed with hemagglutination Inhibition Test.

  19. Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

  20. [Christopher Columbus flu. A hypothesis for an ecological catastrophe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sanz, Agustín

    2006-05-01

    When Christopher Columbus and his men embarked on the second Colombian expedition to the New World (1493), the crew suffered from fever, respiratory symptoms and malaise. It is generally accepted that the disease was influenza. Pigs, horses and hens acquired in Gomera (Canary Islands) traveled in the same ship. The pigs may well have been the origin of the flu and the intermediary hosts for genetic recombination of other viral subtypes. The Caribbean archipelago had a large population of birds, the natural reservoir of the avian influenza virus. In this ecological scenario there was a concurrence of several biological elements that had never before coexisted in the New World: pigs, horses, the influenza virus and humans. We propose that birds are likely to have played an important role in the epidemiology of the flu occurring on the second Colombian trip, which caused a fatal demographic catastrophe, with an estimated mortality of 90% among the natives. PMID:16762260

  1. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot Flu vaccine comes in two forms: an injectable form (the flu shot) and a nasal spray. The nasal spray (or LAIV) ... pregnant women. Pregnant women should receive the flu shot. The nasal spray is for use in healthy ...

  2. Gambaran Sel Eosinofil, Monosit, dan Basofil Setelah Pemberian Spirulina pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi Virus Flu Burung (OBSERVATION OF EOSINOPHILS, MONOCYTES, AND BASOPHILS AFTER TREATED WITH SPIRULINA IN CHICKENS THAT INFECTED WITH AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High Pathogenecity Avian Influenza (HPAI viruses have high virulence and can frequently causesudden death on birds. The aims of this research was to know the role of Spirulina to a number ofmonocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of chickens which infected with the H5N1 virus. This researchconsisted of three levels of treatment in which each level given Spirulina 0%, 10%, 20% in the fresh wateralgae as drinking water. Each treatment consisted of seven replicates, and the treatment was done sincethe chickens at age 19 until 44 days ( for 25 days. Artificial infection of the chickens with the virus waschallenged by using AI (H5N1 104 EID 50 (A/Ck/Indonesia/BL/03 with route to the respiratory tract (nosedrops 0,1 mL starting on day 19. The results showed that there were a significant difference (p<0.05 ontreatment that given Spirulina at doses of 0%, 10% and 20% for the number ofn monocytes, eosinophils,whereas no significant difference (p > 0.05 was observed in basophils.

  3. Multiplex Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction untuk Deteksi Cepat Virus Flu Burung H5N1 (MULTIPLEX REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR RAPID DETECTION OF H5N1 AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Wasito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 (AIV H5N1 is highly pathogenic and fatal in poultry. The virusis still endemic with low virulence rate, although it may play a critical role in causing high morbidity andmortality rates in poultry in Indonesia. In general, diagnostic approach for AIV H5N1 is based onconventional serological and viral isolation methods that have the potential to produce consumings oftime and relatively expensive cost within the laboratory without compromising test utility. Thus, amolecular approach of multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR was developedand applied for the detection of matrix gene type A influenza viruses, AIV subtype subtype H5hemagglutinin gene with simultaneous detection of N1 nucleoprotein gene. Thirty sera specimens fromthe diseased commercial chickens that were specifically amplified positive-RT-PCR for AIV H5N1 wereselected for mRT-PCR. The mRT-PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and consistedof DNA fragments of AIV of 245 bp, 545 bp and 343 bp for M, H5 and N1 genes, respectively. Thus, themRT-PCR that can rapidly differentiate simultaneously between these genes is very important for thecontrol and even eradication of AIV transmission in poultry in Indonesia.

  4. Faktor Risiko Terkait Manajemen Kesehatan Unggas terhadap Infeksi Virus Flu Burung di Tempat Penampungan Ayam (THE RISK FACTOR OF POULTRY HEALTH MANAGEMENT TO THE INFECTION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN POULTRY COLLECTING FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaerul Basri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the association between the implementation of poultryhealth management and the spread of avian influenza virus in Poultry Collecting Facilities (PCFs.  Thestudy was performed by maintaining 7-8 sentinel chickens in 39 PCFs in Jakarta for three months.  Thevariables evaluated for poultry health management were health certificate, health inspection, healthinspector, health inspection method, and handling of sick and dead birds. Data on the variables werecollected by interview with supervisor of PCFs.  The AIV infection were detected by rt-PCR from the cloacaland tracheal swab of the dead birds with.  The results showed that the methodes of handling of sick birdswere significantly associated with infection of AIV (RR=2,00 ; 95% CI  = 1,31-3,05.  The other variables didnot show significance association.  The risk of AIV infection was twice higher  the sick keeping side birdsalive, or by separating, or treating the birds in the same cage than by slaughtering them. Poultry healthmanagement in PCFs need to be improved in order to prevent and control the spreading of AIV in Indonesia.

  5. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu viruses. What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ... of age and older). How are benefits of vaccination measured? Public health researchers measure how well flu ...

  6. Swine Flu Threatens the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic spreads from Mexico to other countries at an alarming rate How serious is the swine flu? It is so sensitive that the White House had to reassure reporters that U.S. President Barack Obama is still in good health after visiting Mexico in mid-April. Besides the United States and Canada, swine flu cases have appeared in Europe and Asia. The world now faces a "public health emergency of

  7. Panic Attack or Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panic Attack or Heart Attack? Diagnosing heart disease in women A Healthy Hearts Guide ® Heart disease in women is often mistaken for panic attack with shortness of breath, anxiety, palpitations and indigestion. ...

  8. Respons Antibodi terhadap Penyakit Tetelo pada Ayam yang Divaksin Tetelo dan Tetelo-Flu Burung (NEWCASTLE DISEASE/ND ANTIBODY RESPONSE OF CHICKENS VACCINATED WITH ND SINGLE AND COMBINED ND AND AVIAN INFLUENZA VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate antibody response of specific pathogen-free (SPF chickens vaccinatedwith single inactivated Newcastle disease (ND vaccine and combined inactive ND and avian influenza(AI vaccines and to known the efficacy of both vaccines. The vaccines used were killed ND vaccine andkilled ND-AI vaccine produced by PT. Sanbio Laboratories Bogor, West Java. SPF chickens were vaccinatedwith 3 different doses. Antibody titer of SPF chickens against ND virus were determined byhaemagglutination inhibition (HI test. As many as 130 two week old SPF chickens were used and theywere divided into 2 groups (A and B consisting of 60 chickens and 10 chickens were used as control withoutvaccine. Group A chickens were vaccinated with ND-K vaccine and group B were vaccinated with combinedkilled ND-AI vaccines. Each group was further divided into 3 subsgroups (1, 2 and 3 consisting 20 chickens.Subgroups 1, 2 and 3 were vaccinated intramuscularly respectively with intramuskular 1, 1/10 and 1/100doses of each vaccines. Antibody response of chickens against ND virus was examined before vaccinationand every three week after vaccination and was expresses as geometric mean titre (GMT HI units. Theresult showed that the titre antibody against ND increased at the second week following the vaccination.The antibody titer against ND virus of chickens vaccinated single killed ND at the second week in eachdose were 6.05 GMT HI unit, 4.05 GMT HI unit, and 0.9 GMT HI unit. The antibody titre at the third week were 7.90 GMT HI unit ,5.40 GMT HI unit and 2.20 GMT HI unit. The antibody titre against ND virus ofchickens vaccinated with combined ND-AI vaccine at the second week were 6.30 GMT HI unit , 4.15 GMTHI unit , and 2.05 GMT HI unit. At the third week, the antibody titre against ND virus of chickensvaccinated with combined ND-AI vaccine in each subgroup were 7.45 GMT HI unit, 5.60 GMT HI unit , and2.40 GMT HI unit . It showed that the antibody titers

  9. Global response to pandemic flu: more research needed on a critical front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Meng-Kin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract If and when sustained human-to-human transmission of H5N1 becomes a reality, the world will no longer be dealing with sporadic avian flu borne along migratory flight paths of birds, but aviation flu – winged at subsonic speed along commercial air conduits to every corner of planet Earth. Given that air transportation is the one feature that most differentiates present day transmission scenarios from those in 1918, our present inability to prevent spread of influenza by international air travel, as reckoned by the World Health Organization, constitutes a major weakness in the current global preparedness plan against pandemic flu. Despite the lessons of SARS, it is surprising that aviation-related health policy options have not been more rigorously evaluated, or scientific research aimed at strengthening public health measures on the air transportation front, more energetically pursued.

  10. A flu optical immunoassay (ThermoBioStar's FLU OIA): a diagnostic tool for improved influenza management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, S P; Cox, C; Steaffens, J

    2001-01-01

    ThermoBioStar's and Biota's flu optical immunoassay (FLU OIA) is a rapid test designed to diagnose influenza A and B infection using a variety of specimen types. The assay uses highly sensitive thin-film detection methods, coupled with specific monoclonal antibodies to the nucleoprotein. The test is simple to perform, requires no instrumentation and is intended to provide a result within 15 min of test initiation in the 'point-of-care' environment. In initial clinical studies, the assay was demonstrated to be equivalent to culture in identifying infected individuals. Subsequent independent studies using a variety of sample types have demonstrated sensitivity ranging from 48 to 100% and specificities ranging from 93 to 97%. In addition to detecting human strains, this assay has been demonstrated to be capable of detecting a variety of avian and non-human mammalian influenza viruses. The FLU OIA test has been used in large-scale surveillance schemes intended to provide rapid epidemiological data during normal influenza seasons and has demonstrated the potential for fulfilling a similar role for multispecies surveillance in, for example, conditions that offer challenges for conventional virus isolation methods. Conceivably, such use should facilitate the timely recognition of influenza outbreaks and prioritization of positive specimens for more conventional, laboratory characterization, leading to improved interpandemic surveillance and rapid reaction in the face of the next pandemic. PMID:11779392

  11. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) URL of this page: https:// ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages To use the ...

  12. With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158514.html With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything Vaccination seems to provide ... 2016 TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Flu shots may be more effective when people get them ...

  13. Flu Shot Might Cut Stillbirth Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158080.html Flu Shot Might Cut Stillbirth Risk Australian researchers find possible ... March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A seasonal flu shot may reduce a pregnant woman's risk of stillbirth, ...

  14. Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Flu activity this season started ...

  15. With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158514.html With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything Vaccination seems to ... 26, 2016 TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Flu shots may be more effective when people get ...

  16. Clinical presentation of the new emerging infectious disease,H6N1 bird flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy; Joob; Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    To the editor,The newest emerging influenza which has just been reported in November 2013 from Taiwan province is the H6N1 bird flu.This infeetion is the emerging zoonotic influenza which crosses species from avian to human beings[1.2].The first indexed case in Taiwan presented with acute respiratory illness,which is concordant with the clinical feature of acute influenza infection[1,2].

  17. Research priorities in modeling the transmission risks of H7N9 bird flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The epidemic of H7N9 bird flu in eastern China in early 2013 has caused much attention from researchers as well as public health workers. The issue on modeling the transmission risks is very interesting topic. In this article, this issue is debated and discussed in order to promote further researches on prediction and prevention of avian influenza viruses supported by better interdisciplinary datasets from the surveillance and response system. PMID:23927386

  18. Schiffert Health Center issues campus flu update

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Cases of seasonal flu virus infection on campus have diminished, and so far the flu season has been less active than health authorities expected. Schiffert Health Center reports a much lower number of students seeking treatment for seasonal flu infections compared to the fall semester.

  19. Don't Confuse Common Flu with a Flu Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    It is the time of year once again when students and staff members who are going around with coughs, colds, fevers, and sneezes abound in schools everywhere. Although it may seem more immediate to focus on the matter of how the seasonal/common flu will affect a particular school during the course of this school year, the fact of the situation is…

  20. Your baby and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or the child has not urinated for the last 8 hours. Alternative Names Babies and the flu; Your infant and the ... writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ... Institutes of Health Page last updated: 23 August 2016

  1. Conformation and Linkage Studies of Specific Oligosaccharides Related to H1N1, H5N1, and Human Flu for Developing the Second Tamiflu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eunsun

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between viral HA (hemagglutinin) and oligosaccharide of the host plays an important role in the infection and transmission of avian and human flu viruses. Until now, this interaction has been classified by sialyl(α2-3) or sialyl(α2-6) linkage specificity of oligosaccharide moieties for avian or human virus, respectively. In the case of H5N1 and newly mutated flu viruses, classification based on the linkage type does not correlate with human infection and human-to-human transmission of these viruses. It is newly suggested that flu infection and transmission to humans require high affinity binding to the extended conformation with long length sialyl(α2-6)galactose containing oligosaccharides. On the other hand, the avian flu virus requires folded conformation with sialyl(α2-3) or short length sialyl(α2-6) containing trisaccharides. This suggests a potential future direction for the development of new species-specific antiviral drugs to prevent and treat pandemic flu. PMID:24753813

  2. Application of Directigen FLU-A for the detection of influenza A virus in human and nonhuman specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Poirier, K A; Katz, J M; Webster, R G; Kawaoka, Y

    1992-01-01

    Directigen FLU-A, a new enzyme immunoassay membrane test, rapidly detects influenza A virus antigen in specimens from patients. Nasopharyngeal washes and pharyngeal gargles were used to determine the effectiveness of the assay as applied to different types of routinely collected clinical samples. All specimens had been previously shown to contain influenza A virus by virus isolation in tissue culture. Directigen FLU-A was 90% sensitive (95% confidence interval, 56 to 99.7%) with nasopharyngeal washes but only 39% sensitive (95% confidence interval, 17 to 64%) with pharyngeal gargles (P = 0.018) when used with samples containing similar amounts of infectious virus (50% tissue culture infective dose, 1.0 to 4.5). The intensity of the positive reaction with Directigen FLU-A did not correlate with the amount of virus in the specimens. Directigen FLU-A was found to detect cell-associated antigen more readily than free virus; only 20 infected cells were required to identify cell-associated influenza A virus antigen, whereas the limit of detection for free virus was 1.63 x 10(3) infectious virus particles. These findings suggest that Directigen FLU-A detects the cell-associated antigen present in clinical specimens rather than free virus. In addition, Directigen FLU-A detected avian and swine influenza A viruses in both cloacal swabs (75% sensitivity) and swine lung homogenates (86% sensitivity), indicating its potential usefulness in the surveillance of nonhuman influenza A viruses. PMID:1583103

  3. Avian Flu Concerns%关注禽流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾佳(译)

    2005-01-01

    据世界卫生组织(World Health Organization,WHO)最新报道,今年在越南北部出现的H5N1型禽流感病例提示该病毒正以某种方式发生变异,使之更易于感染人类,更有可能在人群中传播

  4. Fighting Avian Flu%应对禽流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾佳

    2006-01-01

    今年1月,各捐款国会聚中国,敦促各方筹集近20亿美元,建立一个全球性基金,用于防治H5N1型禽流感,减少人群大规模爆发的可能性。据大会主办方世界银行(world Bank)估算,发展中国家和中等收入国家至少需要动用12亿至14亿美元,以便采取必要措施,消除禽流感造成的威胁。

  5. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of avian influenza A in Asia, Africa, Europe, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Pacific, and the near East. Hundreds ... to detect abnormal breath sounds) Chest x-ray Culture from the nose or throat A method or ...

  6. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,Avian Research provides a unique opportunity to publish high quality contents that will be internationally accessible to any reader at no cost.

  7. Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159719.html Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study Effectiveness ... 2016 TUESDAY, July 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A flu shot during pregnancy protects newborns against the flu ...

  8. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Get Your Flu Shot! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents It's ... There are two types of vaccines: The flu shot — an inactivated vaccine (containing killed virus) that is ...

  9. Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... 1. Why get vaccinated? Influenza ("flu") is a contagious disease ... every year, usually between October and May. Flu is caused by ...

  10. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion of at...... attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants. © 2010 IEEE....

  11. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  12. SECONDARY INFECTIONS IN SWINE FLU

    OpenAIRE

    Duthade Mangala; Damle Ajit; Bhakare Jayshree; Bajaj.Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Swine influenza is respiratory disease of pigs ca used by type A influenza virus that causes regular outbr eak in pigs. Human to human transmission occurs. Some people develop severe respiratory symptoms and need ventilator. Patients can get secondary bacterial infections in the form of pneumonia if vi ral infections persist. Death of swine flu occurs d ue to secondary bacterial infections leading to bacter ial pneumonia...

  13. Cooperation bibliogram of bird flu

    OpenAIRE

    Stegmann, Johannes; Grohmann, Guenter

    2006-01-01

    The published literature on Bird Flu, now a pandemic animal disease with a possible potential of evolving into a devastating human disease, was analysed primarily with respect of national and international cooperations and networks of authors and countries. The output of research-relevant papers is now around 150 per year and was less than 100 papers per year before 2003. The field is highly cooperative; nearly 90% of the articles have two or more authors. National extramural cooperation is ...

  14. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  15. Predicted epitopes of H5N1 bird flu virus by bioinformatics method: a clue for further vaccine development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwnanitkit

    2006-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: Bird flu or avian flu, caused by H5N1 virus, is a new emerging infectious disease. It is noted that this H5N1 virus jumped the species barrier and caused severe disease with high mortality in humans in many countries. The continued westward dissemination of H5N1 influenza A viruses in avian populations and the nearly 50% mortality of humans infected with H5N1 are a source of great international concern.1Providing sufficient antiviral drugs and development and approval of new vaccines are the keys for control of the possible emerging pandemic of this atypical influenza.1,2 Based on the advance in bioinformatics, the immunomics becomes a new alternative in vaccine development.3

  16. Potential Economic Impacts of Avian Influenza in LAC

    OpenAIRE

    César Falconi

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discuses bird flu in two different related scenarios: as a disease that could affect the Poultry Sector and as a disease that could cause a Human Pandemic. The paper includes an analysis on what's at stake, risks and probabilities, costs, impacts and ways of prevention, as well as a series of conclusions. This presentation was created for the Seminar "The Mass Media and the Threat of Avian Influenza in Latin America" held in August of 2006.

  17. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... having another heart attack. These medicines include: aspirin, beta blockers, statins, ACE inhibitors and fish oil. Your doctor ... have had a stent placed in your heart. Beta blockers are a group of drugs that lower the ...

  18. Panic Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Scantamburlo, Gabrielle; Ansseau, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Panic attacks can occur unexpectedly and in almost any situation. The present article discusses the main features of anxiety states, the approach, the management and the practice guidelines for the treatment of panic disorder. Peer reviewed

  19. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A complication of swine flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Gupta, Anubhav; Aiyer, Palash; Jhajhria, Narender Singh; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in swine flu, or H1N1 influenza A infection, is a rare phenomenon and only few cases have been reported in children. We describe a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult infected with swine flu. PMID:25939913

  20. Swine flu vaccination for patients with cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    In oncology, vaccination is accepted as an important preventive measure. As a tertiary prevention protocol, several vaccines are recommended for the oncology patients. The newest vaccine in medicine is swine flu vaccine which is developed for prevention of novel H1N1 influenza virus infection. In this paper, the author will briefly discuss on swine flu vaccination for oncology patients.

  1. Take Three Actions to Fight Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-07

    This podcast explains how vaccination, everyday preventive actions, and the correct use of antiviral drugs can help you fight both seasonal flu and 2009 H1N1 flu.  Created: 10/7/2009 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/7/2009.

  2. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Zu Wu; Li-Min Huang

    2005-01-01

    Influenza is an old disease but remains vital nowadays. Three types of influenza viruses,namely A, B, C, have been identified; among them influenza A virus has pandemic potential.The first outbreak of human illness due to avian influenza virus (H5N1) occurred in1997 in Hong Kong with a mortality of 30%. The most recent outbreak of the avian influenzaepidemic has been going on in Asian countries since 2003. As of March 2005, 44 incidentalhuman infections and 32 deaths have been documented. Hum...

  3. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... of the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical ...

  4. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu What You Can Do to Stop the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents To ... Health and Human Services: http://flu.gov NIH Flu Research to Results Scientists at the National Institute ...

  5. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  6. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  7. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Chawla; Rakesh Kumar Sharma; Deepali Madaan; Neha Dubey; Rajesh Arora; Rajeev Goel; Shefali Singh; Vinod Kaushik; Pankaj Kumar Singh; Vivek Chabbra; Janak Raj Bhardwaj

    2009-01-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (pha...

  8. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Sheetu; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition. PMID:27051116

  9. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishtha Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition.

  10. BIRD FLU AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar KESKIN; Oguz OZYARAL

    2006-01-01

    Despite significant medical progress, recent events have shown that infectious diseases have not lost importance. Indeed, the threat of worldwide epidemics has increased. Due to their high infectious ness and rapid person-to-person transmissibility, the emergence of new influenza viruses with pandemic potential poses an especially alarming situation in this regard. During the last decade highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza virus, including the H5N1 subtype, crossed the species barrie...

  11. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ... to people with HIV/AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  12. Flu and Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Flu and Heart Disease & Stroke Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir People with Heart Disease* and Those Who Have Had a Stroke Are ...

  13. Getting a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Life Video Also in this series: Playing Cat-and-Mouse with the Flu Everyday Evolution What ... Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube RSS Feeds Page Footer NIGMS Home Site Map Contact Us ...

  14. Feeling the Pulse of The Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Traditional Chinese Medicine approach to dealing with A/H1 N1 flu In 2003, an herb called indigowoad root very quickly became popular and sold out of most Chinese drug stores. With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

  15. 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159679.html 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico Genetic analysis pinpoints source of the pandemic influenza ... in pigs in a small region of central Mexico, a new study reports. Researchers used genetic analysis ...

  16. Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flu Season Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents Give ... There are two types of flu vaccines: "Flu shots"—inactivated vaccines (containing killed virus) that are given ...

  17. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    OpenAIRE

    Nishtha Singh; Sheetu Singh; Bharat Bhushan Sharma; Virendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric ...

  18. Avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%. Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%. AI cases in Indonesia are more in male (62.5% and all have a symptom of fever. An influenza pandemic is a rare but recurrent event. An influenza pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. For this reason, avian H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential, since it might ultimately adapt into a strain that is contagious among humans. Impact of the pandemic could include high rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption. Historically, the number of deaths during a pandemic has varied greatly. Death rates are largely determined by four factors: the number of people who become infected, the virulence of the virus, the underlying characteristics and vulnerability of affected populations, and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Accurate predictions of mortality cannot be made before the pandemic virus emerges and begins to spread. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:125-8Keywords: Avian Influenza, Pandemic

  19. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%). Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%). AI cases...

  20. Kebijakan Pemerintah Dalam Rangka Pemulihan Ekonomi Dan Keterkaitannya Dengan Merebaknya Flu Burung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muryani Muryani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of the outbreak of bird flu on economic sectors in the sectoral and macro aspect is analized using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE models. Base on SNSE 2008 dataand some disagregation data sectors, two simulations are conducted. The result of the simulation studies indicate that there is the decrease in the production of poultry meat sector (traditional and medium-large and egg sectors impact on the micro and macro aspects of the economy. This research is the second step of my research deal with Avian flu and the economy.The first step was the negative impact of avian flu on economy which was already published on Asian Social Economic Journal by last year. The result of this research are : On the micro level in domestic market there are decresed production and increased prices in the poultry sector, eggs, other farms, restaurants and services. While in the foreign market there are decresed exports as well as imports. Similarly, there is a decline in consumption by the entire group of household due to a decline in the acceptance by all groups of households and firms. Government revenue also declined due to a decrease in taxes from households and firms.At the macro level there are a decline in GDP and a decline in the investment. The last  simulation illustrate  the increase of production and the impact of government policy on the micro aspects and the overall economy.  On the micro level in domestic market there are increased production and falling prices in the sector of poultry, eggs, other farms, restaurants and services. While in foreign market there are  increased exports and  decreased imports in almost all sectors. Similarly, there are an increase in consumption by the entire group of households due to an increse in the acceptance by all groups of households and firms. Government revenue also increased due to an increse in taxes from household and firms.

  1. Heart Attack Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Risk Assessment Updated:May 31,2016 We're sorry, but ... Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz Risk Assessment Patient Information Sheets: Heart Attack Heart Attack Personal ...

  2. Flu Shot Safe for Surgery Patients in Hospital: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157754.html Flu Shot Safe for Surgery Patients in Hospital: Study Findings ... risk for complications if they receive a flu shot in the hospital, a new study suggests. The ...

  3. What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters What You Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs Language: ... that can be used to treat flu illness. What are antiviral drugs? Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines ( ...

  4. Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best ... sneezing, and a sore throat. Is it a cold, flu, or allergies? It can be hard to ...

  5. Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency Share | Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency This ... is the best tool for prevention of the flu, should patients with immune deficiency be given the ...

  6. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Newsletters Guillain-Barré syndrome and Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English Español Recommend on ... in 1976 with GBS and the swine flu vaccine? In 1976 there was a small increased risk ...

  7. Flu: What to Do If You Get Sick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  8. Sirkulasi Virus Flu Burung Subtipe H5 pada Unggas di Jawa Barat, Banten, dan Jawa Timur Sepanjang Tahun 2008-2009 (CIRCULATION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA OF H5 SUBTYPE ON BIRDS IN WEST JAVA, BANTEN AND EAST JAVA DURING 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of avian influenza (AI in Indonesia initially occurred at the end of 2003 which caused100% death of the affected chickens. It was caused by avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5. Recent datashowed that highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI-H5N1 virus is still endemic among bird populationin Indonesia. A study was therefore conducted to find out the distribution of AIV-H5N1 in several regionsin Indonesia. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to detect the presenceof AI-H5 virus and hemagglutination inhibition (HI test was used to detect the presence of anti-AIV-H5antibody. Results showed that anti-AIV-H5 antibody was detected in 36 % and was not detected in 64% oftested birds in West Java, Banten and East Java. The AIV-H5 antibody titer varied from low to high titer.The AIV-H5 was detected in samples from Cianjur (30%, Blitar (1.9&, Serang (12.5% and pandeglang(17.5%. It was evident that AIV-H5 is still endemic in Indonesia.

  9. Performance Characteristics of Xpert Flu/RSV XC Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowitch, Elena B; Miller, Melissa B

    2015-08-01

    The Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay was compared to laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) (n = 207) and the Xpert Flu assay (n = 147) using archived nasopharyngeal swabs. The percentages of positive agreements with LDTs were 97.8% for influenza A, 97.2% for influenza B, and 89.3% for RSV. The sensitivity of influenza detection was improved with the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay compared to the Xpert Flu assay. PMID:26019209

  10. Attack warning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The North American Aerospace Defense Command, located at Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station, is responsible for warning the United States and Canadian leaders that North America is under air, missile, or space attack. The Air Force has been developing a replacement for NORAD's communications computer system, and it expects to spend about $281 million on this program-about $72 million for block I and $209 million for block II. Block I of the replacement system has experienced significant schedule and performance problems, such as the inability to meet the requirement for the unit to restore full mission capability within 267 minutes after a total loss of power, and the incompatibility of the unit with other computer equipment due to the wiring standard. These problems have pushed the planned installation data from 1986 to 1999. The Air Force intends to have the contractor correct the deficiencies during block II development. This report discusses how the replacement program should be reassessed.

  11. Is It a Cold or the Flu (For Parents)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Is It a Cold or the Flu? KidsHealth > For Parents > Is It a Cold or the Flu? Print A A A Text ... that's been going around? Or just a common cold ? Although the flu (or influenza ) usually causes symptoms ...

  12. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? Print A ... just found out that I'm 6 weeks pregnant. Do I need to get the flu vaccine ...

  13. [Differentiation of influenza (Flu) type A, type B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohiyama, Risa; Miyazawa, Takashi; Shibano, Nobuko; Inano, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Because it is not easy to differentiate Influenza virus (Flu) from RS virus (RSV) just by clinical symptoms, to accurately diagnose those viruses in conjunction with patient's clinical symptoms, rapid diagnostic kits has been used separately for each of those viruses. In our new study, we have developed a new rapid diagnostic kit, QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV. The kit can detect Flu A, Flu B, and RSV antigens with a single sample collection and an assay. Total of 2,873 cases (including nasopharyngeal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens) in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons were evaluated with QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV and a commercially available kit. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Flu type A, type B, and RSV were above 95% when compared to commercially available kits (QuickNavi™-Flu and QuickNavi™-RSV) and considered to be equivalent to the commercially available kits. In 2011/2012 season, RSV infections increased prior to Flu season and continued during the peak of the Flu season. The kit can contribute to accurate diagnosis of Flu and RSV infections since co-infection cases have also been reported during the 2011/2012 season. QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV is useful for differential diagnosis of respiratory infectious diseases since it can detect Flu type A, type B, and RSV virus antigens with a single sample collection. PMID:24694242

  14. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh GCH

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical.

  15. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  16. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza in Birds Language: English Español Recommend on ...

  17. BAHAN AKTIF DALAM KOMBINASI OBAT FLU DAN BATUK-PILEK, DAN PEMILIHAN OBAT FLU YANG RASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Gitawati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakFlu, salesma atau batuk pilek adalah infeksi saluran pernapasan akut (ISPA akibat virus, merupakan self-limiting disease dan hanya memerlukan pengobatan simtomatik. Obat-obat yang digunakan adalah obat bebas, umumnya dalam bentuk kombinasi tetap, dengan komposisi zat aktif bervariasi. Tulisan ini bertujuan mengkaji bahan aktif dalam preparat flu kombinasi tetap dan pemilihan obat flu yang rasional. Kajian dilakukan secara cross-sectional dengan sumber data berasal dari 56 referensi berupa buku, panduan, jurnal/artikel on-line maupun publikasi tercetak, menggunakan kata kunci ”common cold, cough, over-the-counter drugs, non-prescription, self-medication, analgetics, sympathomimetics, antihistamines, decongestant, antibiotics, immunomodulators, food supplement, flu, dan batuk-pilek”.Diperoleh sejumlah 191 preparat kombinasi tetap berbentuk tablet dan sirup yang diindikasikan untuk mengurangi gejala flu (common-cold, dengan komposisi zat aktif utama antihistamin dan dekongestan. Komponen tambahan lainnya adalah analgesik, antitusif, ekspektoran, stimulan. Kekuatan (strength dosis tiap komponen masih sesuai dengan dosis yang direkomendasi, namun tercatat masih ada preparat dengan dosis dekongestan (fenilpropanolamin yang lebih tinggi dari yang direkomendasi. Tidak ada preparat tunggal yang mampu mengatasi semua gejala flu sekaligus, sehingga preparat flu kombinasi menjadi pilihan utama. Dalam menggunakan preparat flu kombinasi perlu memilihproduk yang tepat dan rasional sesuai dengan gejala spesifik, karena kemungkinan tidak semua zat aktif dalam komposisi produk obat flu diperlukan oleh penderita.Kata kunci: flu, batuk-pilek, komposisi obat flu, simtomatik.AbstractFlu or common-cold is an acute upper respiratory tract infection mainly caused by virus, and a self-limiting disease which is requires only symptomatic treatments to alleviate the symptoms. Common-cold medication is usually an OTC drug and a fixed-dose combination of various

  18. Google Flu Trends Still Appears Sick: An Evaluation of the 2013-2014 Flu Season

    OpenAIRE

    Lazer, David M.; Kennedy, Ryan; King, Gary; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In response to its poor performance during the 2012-2013 flu season, Google Flu Trends (GFT) engineers announced a redesign of the GFT algorithm. Two changes were made: (1) dampening anomalous media spikes and (2) using ElasticNet, rather than regression, for estimation. This paper identifies several problems that persist in the new algorithm. First, the transparency problems identified in our earlier Science paper appear to have, if anything, become worse. Second, there are reasons to doubt ...

  19. Clean Hands Help Prevent the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-06

    Clean hands can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, such as flu. This podcast explains the proper way to wash your hands.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

  20. Flu - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Hmong (Hmoob) Japanese (日本語) Khmer (Khmer) ... préparer ? - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (हिन्दी) Home Care for Pandemic Flu Home ...

  1. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast explains why pregnant women need a flu shot.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  2. Flu-related Hospitalizations by Industry

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Sara Luckhaupt, a CDC medical officer, discusses which industries are most impacted by the flu.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/2/2012.

  3. Deck Yourself with Flu Protection Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-22

    This song (sung to the tune of Deck the Halls) describes actions you can take to protect yourself and others from the flu. Sing along!  Created: 12/22/2009 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 12/22/2009.

  4. Flu BM2 structure and function

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    Flu viruses package essential functions into a small integral membrane protein known as M2. Such small membrane proteins represent major challenges for structural biology. A new study presented in this issue details the structure and functions of the influenza B M2 protein through the use of functional domain–specific solution NMR spectroscopy.

  5. Is China Ready for Bird Flu?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Besides a clear plan to deal with bird flu, a leading epidemic expert warns the biggest challenge is raising public awareness Premier Wen Jiabao said in his government work report, presented March 5 at the annual session of the National People's Congress, China's top legislature, that the country is attaching great attention to the prevention and control of

  6. Personal Stories: Why Flu Vaccination Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-08

    In this podcast, moving personal stories help inform parents about the dangers of flu to children and the benefits of vaccination.  Created: 12/8/2008 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 12/8/2008.

  7. Influenza Forecasting with Google Flu Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Andrea F.; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a practical influenza forecast model, based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the number of influenza cases, thus allowing sufficient time to implement an intervention. Secondly, we evaluated how the addition of a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, would impact the forecasting capabilities of this model. Introduction Each year, influenza results in increased Emergency Department crowding which can be mitigated through early detection linked to an appropriate response. Although current surveillance systems, such as Google Flu Trends, yield near real-time influenza surveillance, few demonstrate ability to forecast impending influenza cases. Methods Forecasting models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004 – 2011) divided into training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear, and autoregressive methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. Models were developed and evaluated through statistical measures of global deviance and log-likelihood ratio tests. An additional measure of forecast confidence, defined as the percentage of forecast values, during an influenza peak, that are within 7 influenza cases of the actual data, was examined to demonstrate practical utility of the model. Results A generalized autoregressive Poisson (GARMA) forecast model integrating previous influenza cases with Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information providing significant forecast improvements (p = 0.00002). The final model, a GARMA intercept

  8. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 24,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  9. Influenza forecasting with Google Flu Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Freyer Dugas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We developed a practical influenza forecast model based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, designed to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the expected number of influenza cases, thus allowing for sufficient time to implement interventions. Secondly, we evaluated the effects of incorporating a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, and meteorological and temporal information on forecast accuracy. METHODS: Forecast models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004-2011 divided into seven training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear models (GLM, and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GARMA methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. RESULTS: A GARMA(3,0 forecast model with Negative Binomial distribution integrating Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. The model, on the average, predicts weekly influenza cases during 7 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 83% of estimates. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information to provide statistically significant forecast improvements over the base model in four of the seven out-of-sample verification sets. Overall, the p-value of adding this external information to the model is 0.0005. The other exogenous variables did not yield a statistically significant improvement in any of the verification sets. CONCLUSIONS: Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This

  10. Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Season Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot Past Issues / ... able to infect others for an even longer time. How serious is the flu? Certain people are ...

  11. It's Not Too Late to Get Vaccinated Against Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Vaccination It's Not Too Late to Get Vaccinated Against Flu ... older should get the flu vaccine each year. It usually takes two weeks after you are vaccinated ...

  12. Sellers to Preventive and Control Measures on Bird Flu, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated was the knowledge of preventive measures of avian influenza from farmers, live chicken sellers, and poultry veterinarian in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study using standardized questionnaire was conducted. Respondents included 236 poultry farmers, live chicken sellers (LCS, and veterinarian aged 12–70 years in contact with birds through husbandry. The study duration was from October 2010 to May 2011. Participants knowledge on transmission sources showed low understanding with highest being from bird-bird (57.3%. The medium most commonly utilized was electronic media (82.5% as information source. Respondents thought that vaccination of birds (80.6% would prevent infection. Farmers’ education on bird flu needs to be improved through veterinary public health and health promotion approach. Nonpharmaceutical preventive measures such as hand washing freely and avoidance of eye, nose, and mouth touching must be improved.

  13. FluBlok, a recombinant hemagglutinin influenza vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Manon M.J.; Patriarca, Peter A.; Treanor, John

    2008-01-01

    Abstract  FluBlok, a recombinant trivalent hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine produced in insect cell culture using the baculovirus expression system, provides an attractive alternative to the current egg‐based trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) manufacturing process. FluBlok contains three times more HA than TIV and does not contain egg‐protein or preservatives. This review discusses the four main clinical studies that were used to support licensure of FluBlok under the ‘Accelerated Appro...

  14. Continue to Vaccinate Patients and Staff Against the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-08

    This podcast is a reminder to health care providers about the importance of annual flu vaccination—it’s not too late! Health care providers should get their flu vaccine and continue offering and encouraging flu vaccination among their staff, colleagues, and patients.  Created: 2/8/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 2/14/2012.

  15. Preventing Flu During Pregnancy (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-26

    During the influenza season, pregnant women and infants under 6 months old are especially susceptible to severe complications from the flu. The seasonal flu vaccination is the best way to protect both mother and baby. In this podcast Dr. Stacie Greby discusses the importance of pregnant women receiving the flu vaccine.  Created: 9/26/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/26/2013.

  16. Multi-spectral fluorescent reporter influenza viruses (Color-flu) as powerful tools for in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Satoshi; Katsura, Hiroaki; Zhao, Dongming; Ozawa, Makoto; Ando, Tomomi; Shoemaker, Jason E; Ishikawa, Izumi; Yamada, Shinya; Neumann, Gabriele; Watanabe, Shinji; Kitano, Hiroaki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza A viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory disease; highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and the recently emerged H7N9 viruses cause severe infections in humans, often with fatal outcomes. Although numerous studies have addressed the pathogenicity of influenza viruses, influenza pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Here we generate influenza viruses expressing fluorescent proteins of different colours ('Color-flu' viruses) to facilitate the study of viral infection in in vivo models. On adaptation to mice, stable expression of the fluorescent proteins in infected animals allows their detection by different types of microscopy and by flow cytometry. We use this system to analyse the progression of viral spread in mouse lungs, for live imaging of virus-infected cells, and for differential gene expression studies in virus antigen-positive and virus antigen-negative live cells in the lungs of Color-flu-infected mice. Collectively, Color-flu viruses are powerful tools to analyse virus infections at the cellular level in vivo to better understand influenza pathogenesis. PMID:25807527

  17. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations. PMID:22702421

  18. [A simulation exercise in a flu clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthe, Juliette; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Lecapitaine, Anne-Lise; Lecompte, Françoise; Szwebel-Chikli, Céline

    2011-01-01

    A simulation exercise aimed at assessing the management and provision of ambulatory care in the context of a highly pathogenic influenza pandemic was conducted in a specifically dedicated consultation center (Centre de Consultation Dédié (CCD) à la grippe) based on official French guidelines. The exercise was carried out in a school in Paris equipped to simulate a "flu clinic". 3 practitioners provided treatment lasting 2 hours to nursing students acting as patients. The exercise highlighted a number of major organizational issues. Staff were found to be unable to manage the center and to perform patient transfers; face masks were not routinely and consistently worn by doctors and patients; and communication between professionals within the clinic was limited. The exercise showed that much remains to be done to ensure that "flu clinics" are effective and functional. The results suggest that the exercise will need to be repeated on a larger scale and over a longer period. PMID:22365047

  19. Active Linkability Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Schnoor, Henning; Woizekowski, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    We study linking attacks on communication protocols. We show that an active attacker is strictly more powerful in this setting than previously-considered passive attackers. We introduce a formal model to reason about active linkability attacks, formally define security against these attacks and give very general conditions for both security and insecurity of protocols. In addition, we introduce a composition-like technique that allows to obtain security proofs by only studying small component...

  20. Influenza Forecasting with Google Flu Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Freyer Dugas; Mehdi Jalalpour; Yulia Gel; Scott Levin; Fred Torcaso; Takeru Igusa; Rothman, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a practical influenza forecast model, based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the number of influenza cases, thus allowing sufficient time to implement an intervention. Secondly, we evaluated how the addition of a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, would impact the forecasting capabilities of this model. Introduction Each year, influenza results i...

  1. Model SIR untuk Penyebaran Penyakit Flu Burung

    OpenAIRE

    Mansyur, Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Model SIR untuk penyebaran penyakit flu burung merupakan model matematika yang menjelaskan interaksi antara kelompok populasi burung susceptible (S_b) dan infected (I_b) dengan kelompok populasi manusia susceptible (S_h), infected (I_h), dan recovered (R_h). Titik keseimbangan model meliputi titik keseimbangan bebas penyakit (E) dan titik keseimbangan endemik (E^+). Dari analisis kestabilan diperoleh bahwa kestabilan titik keseimbangan bergantung pada bilangan reproduksi dasar (R_0). Titik k...

  2. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  3. Recognizing flu-like symptoms from videos

    OpenAIRE

    Thi, Tuan Hue; Wang, Li; Ye, Ning; Jian ZHANG; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Cheng, Li

    2014-01-01

    Background Vision-based surveillance and monitoring is a potential alternative for early detection of respiratory disease outbreaks in urban areas complementing molecular diagnostics and hospital and doctor visit-based alert systems. Visible actions representing typical flu-like symptoms include sneeze and cough that are associated with changing patterns of hand to head distances, among others. The technical difficulties lie in the high complexity and large variation of those actions as well ...

  4. The Evolution of Norovirus, the "Gastric Flu"

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa C Lindesmith; Eric F Donaldson; LoBue, Anna D.; Jennifer L Cannon; Zheng, Du-Ping; Vinje, Jan; Baric, Ralph S.

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu), the symptoms of which include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. There is no treatment for infection with these highly contagious viruses. While most people recover within a few days, the very young and old may experience severe disease. Like influenza, large outbreaks (epidemics) of norovirus infection occur periodically (often in closed communities such as cruise ships), and most people have ...

  5. Public Health and Epidemiological Considerations For Avian Influenza Risk Mapping and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Dudley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are now widely recognized as important threats to agricultural biosecurity and public health, and as the potential source for pandemic human influenza viruses. Human infections with avian influenza viruses have been reported from Asia (H5N1, H5N2, H9N2, Africa (H5N1, H10N7, Europe (H7N7, H7N3, H7N2, and North America (H7N3, H7N2, H11N9. Direct and indirect public health risks from avian influenzas are not restricted to the highly pathogenic H5N1 "bird flu" virus, and include low pathogenic as well as high pathogenic strains of other avian influenza virus subtypes, e.g., H1N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Research has shown that the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origins, and during the past decade, fatal human disease and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed among persons infected with H5N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Our ability to accurately assess and map the potential economic and public health risks associated with avian influenza outbreaks is currently constrained by uncertainties regarding key aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses in birds and humans, and the mechanisms by which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are transmitted between and among wild birds, domestic poultry, mammals, and humans. Key factors needing further investigation from a risk management perspective include identification of the driving forces behind the emergence and persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses within poultry populations, and a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses between industrial poultry farms and backyard poultry flocks. More information is needed regarding the extent to which migratory bird populations to contribute to the transnational and transcontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and the potential for wild bird

  6. A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a

  7. Identifikasi Secara Serologi Galur Virus Flu Burung Subtipe H5N1 Clade 2.1.3 dan Clade 2.3.2 pada Ayam Petelur (SEROLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA STRAIN VIRUS SUBTYPE H5N1 CLADE 2.1.3 AND CLADE 2.3.2 FROM LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Kusumastuti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to know avian influenza (AI infection in field by using serology test in threemarketing area of AI vaccines. Haemagglutination inhibition methode was used in this test. There werefour antigen strains of AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (AIstrainA/Chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006, AIstrain A/Chicken/Garut/BBVW-223/2007, AI strain A/Chicken/West Java-Nagrak/30/2007, and AI strainA/Chicken/Pekalongan/BBVW-208/2007 and 2 antigen strains of AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (AI strainA/duck/Sukoharjo/BBVW-1428-9/2012 and AI strain A/duck/Sleman/BBVW-1463-10/2012 was used inthis study for HI test. The result presents that 93,33% chicken farms in three marketing area of PT. SanbioLaboratories have positive antibody titre to AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3. This titre may be obtained fromAI clade 2.1.3 vaccination. From 15 samples, 92,86% are positive to AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2A/duck/Sukoharjo/BBVW-1428-9/2012 and 92,31% are positive to A/duck/Sleman/BBVW-1463-10/2012 evenwithout AI clade 2.3.2 vaccination. This antibody titre may be obtained from AI clade 2.1.3 vaccine crossprotection or field infection.

  8. Diagnosis Molekuler Virus Flu Burung-A Subtipe H5 Berdasarkan Amplifikasi Gen M dan H5 dengan Metode Onestep Simplex RT-PCR (MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE A AND SUBTYPE H5 BY AMPLIFICATION OF ITS M AND H5 GENES USING ONE STEP SIMPLEX R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Haryanto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses which belong to the Family of Orthomyxoviridae are a group of viruses withsegmented ssRNA genome. The viruses can be subgroupped into many subtypes on the basis of theirsurface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA proteins. Among the HA subtypes, H5and H7 have been found to be the most pathogenic. Conventional diagnosis of the viruses is usuallyperformed by isolation of the viruses in embryonated eggs, and hemagglutination (HA and hemagglutinationinhibition test. Although those methods are sensitive and accurate, they are time consuming and requirelaboratory facilities with high biosafety level. Commercial methods such as emzyme-linked immonosorbentassay (ELISA and immunoflurescense assay also provide a rapid result but less sensitive and specificthan conventional methods. Molecular diagnosis by amplification of M and H5 genes using one strepsimplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain eraction (RT-PCR provices a rapid and accurate diagnosisfor the viruses. A study was therefore conducted to evaluate the accurate and rapidity of such the moleculartests for diagnosis of avian influenza A virus, subtype H5. As many as 10 sample of the virus isolateswhich were available at the Animal Desease investigation Center in Wates, Yogyakarta, were uses in thisstudy. The virus isolates were firstly propagated in specific antigen negative (SAN chicken embryos andtested by HA/HI test. The viruses were then subjected for the RT-PCR test with varying annealingtemperatures of 500C and 520C. The result showed that all 10 isolates were type A influenza virus and 8out of 10 were influenza A subtype H5 influenza virus. RT-PCR used in this study appears to be moresensitive, rapid and accurate as compared to those by serological and isolation of the virus in embryonatedeggs.

  9. Generating IDS Attack Pattern Automatically Based on Attack Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向尕; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    Generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is studied. The extending definition of attack tree is proposed. And the algorithm of generating attack tree is presented. The method of generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is shown, which is tested by concrete attack instances. The results show that the algorithm is effective and efficient. In doing so, the efficiency of generating attack pattern is improved and the attack trees can be reused.

  10. Stay Flu Free (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-04

    As fall turns to winter, the flu season will be upon us in force. The best way to avoid influenza is to get immunized. In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee discusses the importance of getting the flu vaccine.  Created: 12/4/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 12/4/2014.

  11. E-Learning's Potential Scrutinized in Flu Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The closing of hundreds of U.S. schools in recent weeks because of concerns about swine flu underscores the need for administrators to make plans for continuing their students' education during any extended shutdown, emergency experts and federal officials say. Fears about a severe flu pandemic had eased as of late last week, but experts say…

  12. Know and Share the Facts about Flu Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohskopf, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and sometimes can lead to death. Symptoms of flu can include fever or a feverish feeling, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headache, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Flu…

  13. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu...

  14. Preventing Flu During Pregnancy (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-26

    During the influenza season, pregnant women and infants under 6 months old are especially susceptible to severe complications from the flu. This podcast discusses the importance of pregnant women receiving the flu vaccine.  Created: 9/26/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/26/2013.

  15. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle becomes ...

  16. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000166.htm Pericarditis - after heart attack To use the sharing features on this page, ... occur in the days or weeks following a heart attack. Causes Two types of pericarditis can occur after ...

  17. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  18. The systemic nature of swine flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takis Fotopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Today’s global crisis is not just a multidimensional crisis extending from the economic to the ecological fields and from the political to the social; it is also a serious biological crisis which is expressed with the dramatic worsening of the public health, as a result of its deadly embrace by the pharmaceutical TNCs and the planetary catastrophe brought about by the intensive agricultural system that accompanied the flourishing of neoliberal globalisation and the reproduction of consumer society all over the world. Factory animal farming in particular has delivered enormous growth in global meat production over the last three decades, with consumers persuaded to buy its cheap products with the same ease as they were getting the freely-offered loans of the financial boom, without asking any questions on how such consumption could be sustained or what the eventual consequences might be. It is, therefore, not surprising at all that the outbreak of swine flu in Mexico is linked to industrialised farming methods designed to provide cheap food for consumers.The multidimensional crisis and now the biological crisis provide ample evidence that what is good for the elites who control not only our way of living but our survival itself is far from good for us. Furthermore, the elites’ actions show why it is so imperative to build a massive movement for the establishment of a genuine democracy, an Inclusive Democracy, so that it is ourselves, rather than criminal elites interested only in making more money, who decide what our needs are and how best to meet them.; CHAPTERS: The record so far; Plot theories on the swine flu; Irrationalism in medical practice and research; The systemic character of the swine flu and of the measures taken against it; Conclusions

  19. Online monitoring of flu in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroey, Dirk; Semaille, Pascal; Vansintejan, Johan; Vandevoorde, Jan; Van De Vijver, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Devroey et al. (2011) Online monitoring of flu in Belgium. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 351–356. Background  The diagnosis and treatment of patients with the A(H1N1) pandemic flu caused some serious burden for general practitioners (GPs) in the summer and autumn of 2009. Objective  The aim of this study was to track the incidence of influenza and influenza‐like illness (ILI) in Belgium and to describe the characteristics of the affected patients. Methods  In July 2009, the Belgian online influenza surveillance system (BOISS) was set up to monitor the spread of influenza and ILI. Registrations were made by 93 GPs from all 10 Belgian provinces who participated at least 1 week during the first 12 months of the registration. Only patients who met the WHO criteria for flu were recorded. Results  In total, 1254 patients (53% men) with influenza or ILI were included. Mainly younger persons were affected: 43% was under the age of 20 years. A risk factor for influenza‐related complications was determined in 19% of cases, mainly patients with chronic respiratory problems. A treatment with oseltamivir or zanamivir was prescribed in 13%, and 3% of the patients was admitted to a hospital. The time of the peak incidence (44th week) and the magnitude (623 cases per week per 100 000 inhabitants) corresponded with the figures of the existing paper‐based registration network. The small sample size and possible reporting biases may have influenced the findings of the study. Conclusions  The BOISS provides a good alternative to conduct surveillance activities for influenza and ILI in Belgium. It provides complementary information regarding ILI compared to the existing data capturing. PMID:21668686

  20. Mitigation approaches to combat the flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Chawla

    2009-01-01

    The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA, Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies, nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its effective implementation at national, state and local levels.

  1. Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents Give ... For those who do not receive a "flu-shot," a nasal-spray flu vaccine is available. Photo: ...

  2. Seven Deadliest Network Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, Stacy J [ORNL; Borkin, Michael [None; Kraus, Robert [Solutionary, Inc.

    2010-05-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need "Seven Deadliest Network Attacks". This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service; War Dialing; Penetration 'Testing'; Protocol Tunneling; Spanning Tree Attacks; Man-in-the-Middle; and, Password Replay. Knowledge is power, find out about the most dominant attacks currently waging war on computers and networks globally. Discover the best ways to defend against these vicious attacks; step-by-step instruction shows you how. Institute countermeasures, don't be caught defenseless again, learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable.

  3. What Is a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Attack? Español A heart attack happens when the flow ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  4. What Causes a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes a Heart Attack? Coronary Heart Disease A heart attack happens if ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  5. Life After a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart attacks and live active, ... a few weeks. Anxiety and Depression After a Heart Attack After a heart attack, many people worry about ...

  6. FLU, an amino acid substitution model for influenza proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gascuel Olivier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amino acid substitution model is the core component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they remain inappropriate for analyzing specific species, e.g., viruses. Emerging epidemics of influenza viruses raise the need for comprehensive studies of these dangerous viruses. We propose an influenza-specific amino acid substitution model to enhance the understanding of the evolution of influenza viruses. Results A maximum likelihood approach was applied to estimate an amino acid substitution model (FLU from ~113, 000 influenza protein sequences, consisting of ~20 million residues. FLU outperforms 14 widely used models in constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees for the majority of influenza protein alignments. On average, FLU gains ~42 log likelihood points with an alignment of 300 sites. Moreover, topologies of trees constructed using FLU and other models are frequently different. FLU does indeed have an impact on likelihood improvement as well as tree topologies. It was implemented in PhyML and can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/1000genomes/lsq/FLU or included in PhyML 3.0 server at http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/. Conclusions FLU should be useful for any influenza protein analysis system which requires an accurate description of amino acid substitutions.

  7. The Spanish flu as a worst case scenario?

    OpenAIRE

    John F. Moxnes; Christophersen, Olav Albert

    2011-01-01

    For preparation of pandemic plans for the H5N1 bird flu virus, it has been common practice among health authorities in several countries to use crude death figures from the Spanish flu pandemic as a worst case scenario. This has been done without taking into consideration either what is known about the molecular biology of malignant influenza viruses or the detailed statistical information that is available about the Spanish flu pandemic, as regards the variation of death risk as a function o...

  8. Avian influenza – Review

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Ahmet Faik

    2007-01-01

    Recent spread of avian influenza A H5N1 virus to poultry and wild birds has increased the threat of human infections with H5N1 virus worldwide In this review the epidemiology virolgy clinical and laboratory characteristics and management of avian influenza is described The virus has demonsrated considerable pandemic potential and is the most likely candidate of next pandemic threat For pandemic preparedness stockpiling antiviral agents and vaccination are the most important intervention measu...

  9. Editorial: Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong; Wang; Guangmei; Zheng

    2014-01-01

    <正>Welcome to Avian Research!This new journal is a continuation and enhancement of Chinese Birds,which has been and continues to be sponsored by the China Ornithological Society and Beijing Forestry University.In the four years since its inception,the original journal—the only one in China focusing on avian research—has published over 130 manuscripts,with authors from all continents across the world,garnering global respect in

  10. Nocturnal panic attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Fabiana L; Nardi Antonio E; Nascimento Isabella; Valença Alexandre M.; Zin Walter A.

    2002-01-01

    The panic-respiration connection has been presented with increasing evidences in the literature. We report three panic disorder patients with nocturnal panic attacks with prominent respiratory symptoms, the overlapping of the symptoms with the sleep apnea syndrome and a change of the diurnal panic attacks, from spontaneous to situational pattern. The implication of these findings and awareness to the distinct core of the nocturnal panic attacks symptoms may help to differentiate them from sle...

  11. Seven deadliest USB attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting USB technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest USB Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to USB, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: USB Hacksaw USB Switchblade USB Based Virus/Malicous Code Launch USB Device Overflow RAMdum

  12. Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Rob; Borkin, Mike; Alpern, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Microsoft products? Then you need Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Microsoft applications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Windows Operating System-Password AttacksActive Directory-Escalat

  13. Seven Deadliest Network Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Prowell, Stacy; Borkin, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need Seven Deadliest Network Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service War Dialing Penetration "Testing" Protocol Tunneling Spanning Tree At

  14. [Pandemic without drama. Influenza vaccination and Asian flu in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 1957/58 Asian flu in Germany is systematically presented for the first time. The focus is on flu vaccination, which is discussed as a yardstick of the perception of the pandemic. International expertise on influenza virology was predominantly based in Anglo-Saxon countries. German microbiologists issued no clear recommendation for preventative vaccination until 1960. Instead, quinine was relied upon as the traditional medicinal prophylaxis. Antibiotics were more frequently administered. In East Germany, little fuss was made over the Asian flu. In line with the authorities' social hygiene orientation, vaccination was accepted as a matter of principle. In the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the population rejected the vaccination largely. It was seen as a scandal that many employees were on sick leave because of the flu, thus adversely affecting the economy. PMID:24844113

  15. Is It Flu, or Is It Valley Fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160138.html Is It Flu, or Is It Valley Fever? Potentially fatal infection is found in ... often-overlooked infection, and about 160 die from it, the society says. "Valley fever is underdiagnosed in ...

  16. Bird Flu Outbreak Worries Global Experts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danile; Habet; 汪凯旋

    2004-01-01

    [提示]猴年春节前后,SARS的阴影尚未离开,一个新的可怕的名词"禽流感"(bird flu)又出现在我们的身边。何为"禽流感"?它是禽流行性感冒的简称,鸡和其它家禽及野鸟都能被感染。禽流感可分为高致病性,低致病性和非致病性三类。其中高致病性禽流感发病率和死亡性高,感染的鸡群常"全军覆没"。禽流感被发现100多年来,人类仅能以消毒、隔离、大量宰杀禽畜的方法来防止其蔓延。去年年底和今年1月,韩国、日本和越南相继爆发禽流感。禽流感与人类的流感的致病痛毒均为甲型流感病毒。甲型流感病毒可分为H1到H15和H7型,而人类主要对H1和H3型易感。本文指出,禽流感的可怕之处在于:If abird flu pandemic occurs,could it be stopped?Many experts fear not.但是,值得庆幸的是,迄今为止,我国尚未发现由于吃鸡肉和鸡蛋而受到感染的病例。

  17. What every Hepatologist should Know about Swine Flu?

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran Bagheri Lankarani

    2009-01-01

    As world is witnessing ever fastest growing pandemic, physicians with various specialties should adopt themselves to the new situation (1). Global death toll of swine flu by November 15, 2009, has raised to 6750. Many of those who died or were hospitalized suffered from comorbid conditions which increased either the severity or the risk of acquiring the disease (2). Swine flu may change the course of many chronic diseases. Thus, all physicians in different disciplines should realize and consi...

  18. Evaluation of the EuroFlu Bulletin: report summary.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, C S; Pereyaslov, D.; Antoniadou, E; Meerhoff, T.; Martirosyan, L.

    2010-01-01

    During February and March 2010, WHO/Europe undertook the task of performing an evaluation among EuroFlu Bulletin users, in order to determine its effectiveness. This evaluation took the form of two questionnaires, designed to collect information on use of the Bulletin, gauge the level of satisfaction among users, and gather suggestions for areas where the Bulletin can be enhanced. In addition to the survey, two other tools were used to evaluate the EuroFlu bulletin: the frequency of reporting...

  19. Flu fighters use the Web to track virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantanzaro, Michele

    2009-04-01

    Physicists in Italy have begun analysing data from a new Web-based project that seeks to model how flu spreads through a population. The project, known as Influweb, involved some 2000 ordinary Italians replying over the last six months to a weekly e-mailed questionnaire about their state of health and current geographical location. The project will be able to pin down the spread of flu in real time and with a spatial resolution on the level of a person's postcode.

  20. New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children's Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by Three-Fourths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts About CDC Calendar Resources Newsroom Resources Contact Media Relations Frequently Asked Questions Get Email Updates To receive ... For Immediate Release: Thursday, March 27, 2014 Contact: Media Relations (404) 639-3286 Getting a flu vaccine reduces ...

  1. [Food safety and animal diseases. The French Food Safety Agency, from mad cow disease to bird flu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology. PMID:18198116

  2. Effects of Avian Influenza on Consumer Purchasing Behavior in Tekirdağ

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Emine; Yılmaz, İsmail; Velioğlu, H. Murat; Uran, Harun

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the effects of avian flu on meat products consumption habits of public in Tekirdag city center were investigated. To this end, a questionnaire about this topic was used in a survey that has been performed with randomly selected 390 people. The surveys were made in Tekirdag province of Turkey in June, 2006. According to the results of the present study, the increase in the number of labourers in a family and the day-by-day improvement of the socioeconomic statue result to hig...

  3. EVALUATION OF OIL BASED AVIAN INFLUENZA VACCINE (H5NI PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF ADJUVANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. IQBAL, M. NISAR, ANWARUL-HAQ, S. NOOR AND Z. J. GILL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu vaccine from H5N1 strain of avian influenza virus was prepared with two concentrations of adjuvant (Montanide ISA 70MVG. Two vaccines (I and II were prepared containing 50 and 60% Montanide, respectively. Immune response of both the vaccines as single, as well as booster, dose was evaluated in layer birds through haemagglutination inhibition test. Single dose of both vaccines showed poor immune response, while booster dose gave better response with both the vaccines. However, the vaccine prepared with 60% Montanide provided better immune response compared with the vaccine containing 50% montanide.

  4. Mathematical Attacks on RSA Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad K. Salah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some of the most common attacks against Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman (RSA cryptosystem are presented. We describe the integer factoring attacks, attacks on the underlying mathematical function, as well as attacks that exploit details in implementations of the algorithm. Algorithms for each type of attacks are developed and analyzed by their complexity, memory requirements and area of usage.

  5. BFluenza: A Proteomic Database on Bird Flu

    OpenAIRE

    Salahuddin, Parveen; Khan, Asad U.

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as “bird flu” has been documented to cause an outbreak of respiratory diseases in humans. The unprecedented spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza type A is a threat to veterinary and human health. The BFluenza is a relational database which is solely devoted to proteomic information of H5N1 subtype. Bfluenza has novel features including computed physico-chemical properties data of H5N1 viral proteins, modeled structures of viral proteins, data ...

  6. Nocturnal panic attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Fabiana L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The panic-respiration connection has been presented with increasing evidences in the literature. We report three panic disorder patients with nocturnal panic attacks with prominent respiratory symptoms, the overlapping of the symptoms with the sleep apnea syndrome and a change of the diurnal panic attacks, from spontaneous to situational pattern. The implication of these findings and awareness to the distinct core of the nocturnal panic attacks symptoms may help to differentiate them from sleep disorders and the search for specific treatment.

  7. Signs of a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  8. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an ... a short time. The only difference between a stroke and TIA is that with TIA the blockage ...

  9. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  10. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for...

  11. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  12. Food Safety in France, from Mad Cow Disease to Avian Flu

    OpenAIRE

    Keck, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese Food Safety Law, that was voted in February 2009 and comes into effect in June, gives the Minister of Health a greater role in the management of food safety. It creates a Food Safety Commission to coordinate the action of previous governmental agencies such as the Minister of Agriculture or the Administration for Quality Surveillance, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ). It follows a series of crises revealing flaws in the Chinese food safety chain, such as the tainted milk scandal ...

  13. El virus influenza y la gripe aviar Influenza virus and avian flu

    OpenAIRE

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2008-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta una revisión del virus influenza,su biología,sus mecanismos de variación antigénica,las pandemias que ha producido y la prevención mediante las vacunas y medicamentos antivirales.Se analizan las razones por las cuales aparece el virus H5N1 que produce la fiebre aviar en humanos,la patogénesis de este virus y las estrategias para su prevención.Se informa sobre el plan de preparación para la pandemia en los niveles nacional e internacional.This article presents a re...

  14. Influenza pandemics and avian flu%流感大流行与禽流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas Fleming; 周海涛

    2005-01-01

    “大流行”一词用于描述在全球范围内几乎同一时间广泛流行的一种疾病。定义大流行的其他标准与致病的病毒相关。当出现一种完全新型的病毒时,可发生疾病大流行——即该病毒可显示较流感病毒持续改变(抗原漂移)更激烈的抗原变化(抗原转移),后者通常也与病情更加严重相关。英国过去常在冬季出现流感,但这种流感并不是在所有国家同时出现,也不是由新型病毒所致,因此不属于大流行。

  15. Bird Flu Outbreak Worries Global Experts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凯旋

    2004-01-01

    @@ 猴年春节前后,SARS的阴影尚未离开,一个新的可怕的名词"禽流感"(bird flu)又出现在我们的身边.何为"禽流感?"它是禽流行性感冒和简称,鸡和其它家禽及野鸟都能被感染.禽流感可分为高致性,低致病和非致病性三类.其中高致病性禽流感发病率和死亡性高,感染的鸡群常"全军覆没".禽流感被发现100多年来,人类仅能以消毒、隔离、大量宰杀禽畜的方法来防止其蔓延。去年年底和今年1月,韩国、日本和越南相继爆发禽流感.

  16. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease. PMID:23360036

  17. How to Boost Flu Vaccination Rates among Employees in Your Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Evans, Stefanie M.; Niemeier, Maureen T.

    2012-01-01

    Flu viruses are typically spread by droplets, when people who are sick with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. Less often, a person may get flu from touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching his own mouth, eyes, or nose. Flu can cause mild to severe illness and may even lead to death. Child care providers are at risk of…

  18. Learning to Trust Flu Shots: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from the 2009 Swine Flu Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Jürgen; Harris, Katherine M

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies consumer learning in influenza vaccination decisions. We examine consumer learning in influenza vaccine demand within a reduced form instrumental variable framework that exploits differences in risk characteristics of different influenza viruses as a natural experiment to distinguish the effects of learning based on previous influenza vaccination experiences from unobserved heterogeneity. The emergence of a new virus strain (influenza A H1N1/09) during the 2009 'Swine flu' pandemic resulted in two different vaccines being recommended for distinct population subgroups with some people, who were not usually targeted by seasonal vaccination programs, being specifically recommended for the new Swine flu vaccine. We use these differences in vaccination targeting to construct instrumental variables for estimating the effect of past influenza vaccination experiences on the demand for pandemic vaccine. We find large causal effects of previous seasonal vaccination on pandemic vaccination. Causal effects of past influenza vaccination experiences on perceived vaccination safety are likely to be an important pathway linking past vaccination experiences with future vaccine uptake. Our results suggest a significant role of learning in vaccination decisions. Current efforts to expand seasonal vaccination may thus have potentially important long-term effects on future influenza vaccination levels and pandemic preparedness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27381724

  19. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  20. Avian pox in ostriches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwright, D M; Burger, W P; Geyer, A; Wessles, J

    1994-03-01

    Nodular cutaneous and diphtheric oral lesions, resembling avian pox were observed in 2 flocks of young ostrich chicks. Typical eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were seen in histological sections and a pox virus was isolated from the lesions. A commercial fowl pox vaccine was used to protect young ostriches in the field. PMID:7745588

  1. Delayed Anaphylaxis to the flu vaccine unrelated to known non-viral components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J; Horbal, J; Tcheurekdjian, H; Sher, T H; Hostoffer, R

    2015-09-01

    On February 4, 2010 the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices voted for universal flu vaccination to expand protection against the flu throughout the United States. In addition to this administration expansion, six new influenza vaccines have been introduced into the market possibly introducing new allergenic potentials. We report two cases of delayed anaphylaxis to the flu vaccine. PMID:26357001

  2. Avian dark cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, J.; Plymale, D. R.; Shepard, D. L.; Hara, H.; Garry, Robert F.; Yoshihara, T.; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Bolton, M.; Kalkeri, R.; Fermin, Cesar D.

    2002-01-01

    Dark cells (DCs) of mammalian and non-mammalian species help to maintain the homeostasis of the inner ear fluids in vivo. Although the avian cochlea is straight and the mammalian cochlea is coiled, no significant difference in the morphology and/or function of mammalian and avian DCs has been reported. The mammalian equivalent of avian DCs are marginal cells and are located in the stria vascularis along a bony sheet. Avian DCs hang free from the tegmentum vasculosum (TV) of the avian lagena between the perilymph and endolymph. Frame averaging was used to image the fluorescence emitted by several fluorochromes applied to freshly isolated dark cells (iDCs) from chickens (Gallus domesticus) inner ears. The viability of iDCs was monitored via trypan blue exclusion at each isolation step. Sodium Green, BCECF-AM, Rhodamine 123 and 9-anthroyl ouabain molecules were used to test iDC function. These fluorochromes label iDCs ionic transmembrane trafficking function, membrane electrogenic potentials and Na+/K+ ATPase pump's activity. Na+/K+ ATPase pump sites, were also evaluated by the p-nitrophenyl phosphatase reaction. These results suggest that iDCs remain viable for several hours after isolation without special culturing requirements and that the number and functional activity of Na+/K+ ATPase pumps in the iDCs were indistinguishable from in vivo DCs. Primary cultures of freshly iDCs were successfully maintained for 28 days in plastic dishes with RPMI 1640 culture medium. The preparation of iDCs overcomes the difficulty of DCs accessability in vivo and the unavoidable contamination that rupturing the inner ear microenvironments induces.

  3. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Hsun Wang; Ching-Hao Mao; Hahn-Ming Lee

    2010-01-01

    Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of...

  4. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  5. Determinants of adults' intention to vaccinate against pandemic swine flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodwin Robin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is one of the cornerstones of controlling an influenza pandemic. To optimise vaccination rates in the general population, ways of identifying determinants that influence decisions to have or not to have a vaccination need to be understood. Therefore, this study aimed to predict intention to have a swine influenza vaccination in an adult population in the UK. An extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour provided the theoretical framework for the study. Methods Three hundred and sixty two adults from the UK, who were not in vaccination priority groups, completed either an online (n = 306 or pen and paper (n = 56 questionnaire. Data were collected from 30th October 2009, just after swine flu vaccination became available in the UK, and concluded on 31st December 2009. The main outcome of interest was future swine flu vaccination intentions. Results The extended Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted 60% of adults' intention to have a swine flu vaccination with attitude, subjective norm, perceived control, anticipating feelings of regret (the impact of missing a vaccination opportunity, intention to have a seasonal vaccine this year, one perceived barrier: "I cannot be bothered to get a swine flu vaccination" and two perceived benefits: "vaccination decreases my chance of getting swine flu or its complications" and "if I get vaccinated for swine flu, I will decrease the frequency of having to consult my doctor," being significant predictors of intention. Black British were less likely to intend to have a vaccination compared to Asian or White respondents. Conclusions Theoretical frameworks which identify determinants that influence decisions to have a pandemic influenza vaccination are useful. The implications of this research are discussed with a view to maximising any future pandemic influenza vaccination uptake using theoretically-driven applications.

  6. XQuery Injection Attack and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玉森

    2014-01-01

    As a database that allows data to be stored in XML format, XML database suffers from some similar attacks as traditional relational database does. These attacks include injection attack by XQuey function in application software. These include BaseX, eXist and MarkLogic. In order to defeat these attacks, countermeasures are proposed.

  7. Radiological and clinical course of pneumonia in patients with avian influenza H5N1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay, Ali [Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Van (Turkey)]. E-mail: bayalibay@yahoo.com; Etlik, Omer [Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Van (Turkey); Oner, A. Faik [Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Van (Turkey); Unal, Ozkan [Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Van (Turkey); Arslan, Halil [Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Van (Turkey); Bora, Aydin [Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Van (Turkey); Davran, Ramazan [Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Van (Turkey); Yuca, Sevil Ari [Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Van (Turkey); Dogan, Murat [Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Van (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    Introduction: We evaluated chest X-ray and clinical findings of patients with lower respiratory tract infection due to influenza H5N1 and presented the radiological findings and clinical course of the infection. Materials and methods: Between December 2005 and February 2006, eight hospitalized patients (median age 10, 5-15 years) with avian-flu were evaluated in this study. All patients were evaluated with chest X-ray and four of them with CT scan. Post mortem pathological characterization were also available for three of the patients. Results: A rapidly progressive pneumonia with high mortality rate was observed especially for cases with late admission. The major radiologic abnormalities were extensive pneumonic infiltration with segmental and multifocal distribution, mostly located in lower zones of the lung. No pleural effusion and hilar lymphadenopathy was noted. Conclusion: Avian flu may be presented as rapidly progressive pneumonia. The chest radiography has an important role in diagnosis and should be obtained daily because of rapid change of the findings that may necessitate prompt action.

  8. Radiological and clinical course of pneumonia in patients with avian influenza H5N1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: We evaluated chest X-ray and clinical findings of patients with lower respiratory tract infection due to influenza H5N1 and presented the radiological findings and clinical course of the infection. Materials and methods: Between December 2005 and February 2006, eight hospitalized patients (median age 10, 5-15 years) with avian-flu were evaluated in this study. All patients were evaluated with chest X-ray and four of them with CT scan. Post mortem pathological characterization were also available for three of the patients. Results: A rapidly progressive pneumonia with high mortality rate was observed especially for cases with late admission. The major radiologic abnormalities were extensive pneumonic infiltration with segmental and multifocal distribution, mostly located in lower zones of the lung. No pleural effusion and hilar lymphadenopathy was noted. Conclusion: Avian flu may be presented as rapidly progressive pneumonia. The chest radiography has an important role in diagnosis and should be obtained daily because of rapid change of the findings that may necessitate prompt action

  9. Weekly Sex May Prevent Colds And Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛国华

    1999-01-01

    正常的性生活对健康有利,这已经成为人们的共识。但是,究竟如何有利,却缺少有说服力的“证据”。本文为我们提供一个可靠的说法: Having sex once or twice a week gives a boost(推进)to the immune system(免疫系统)that could help ward off(避免)colds and flu. 更让我们惊叹的是研究人员的调查“取证”的方法:他们对11名大学生的唾液进行化验,将其中所含的免疫抗原(antigen)和被调查人上月的性生活次数对照分析。结论就这样出来了。 文中有两点值得注意: healthy sex life≠overactive sex life. 后者比没有性生活的具有更少的免疫抗原! 美国大学生的性生活可以堂而皇之地作如此调查,为国人所难以设想。其中有一个形容词celibate其含义可能是:未婚的。但是,我们却不能把它直译成“未婚的”,因为,那些有性生活的大学生也未必都是“已婚的”!

  10. Seven Deadliest Wireless Technologies Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Brad

    2010-01-01

    How can an information security professional keep up with all of the hacks, attacks, and exploits? One way to find out what the worst of the worst are is to read the seven books in our Seven Deadliest Attacks Series. Not only do we let you in on the anatomy of these attacks but we also tell you how to get rid of them and how to defend against them in the future. Countermeasures are detailed so that you can fight against similar attacks as they evolve. Attacks featured in this book include:Bluetooth AttacksCredit Card, Access Card, and Passport AttacksBad Encryption

  11. An overview on avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA), with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS) for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the confo...

  12. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-01-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to...

  13. A flu optical immunoassay (ThermoBioStar's FLU OIA): a diagnostic tool for improved influenza management.

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, S P; Cox, C.; Steaffens, J

    2001-01-01

    ThermoBioStar's and Biota's flu optical immunoassay (FLU OIA) is a rapid test designed to diagnose influenza A and B infection using a variety of specimen types. The assay uses highly sensitive thin-film detection methods, coupled with specific monoclonal antibodies to the nucleoprotein. The test is simple to perform, requires no instrumentation and is intended to provide a result within 15 min of test initiation in the 'point-of-care' environment. In initial clinical studies, the assay was d...

  14. FluShuffle and FluResort: new algorithms to identify reassorted strains of the influenza virus by mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Lun Aaron TL; Wong Jason WH; Downard Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Influenza is one of the oldest and deadliest infectious diseases known to man. Reassorted strains of the virus pose the greatest risk to both human and animal health and have been associated with all pandemics of the past century, with the possible exception of the 1918 pandemic, resulting in tens of millions of deaths. We have developed and tested new computer algorithms, FluShuffle and FluResort, which enable reassorted viruses to be identified by the most rapid and dire...

  15. SWINE FLU (H1N1 VIRUS, PREVENTION AND THEIR TREATMENT: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Amit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Swine flu has been confirmed in a number of countries and it is spreading from human to human, which could lead to what is referred to as a pandemic flu outbreak. Pandemic flu is different from ordinary flu because it’s a new flu virus that appears in humans and spreads very quickly from person to person worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO is closely monitoring cases of swine flu globally to see whether this virus develops into a pandemic. Because it’s a new virus, no one will have immunity to it and everyone could be at risk of catching it. This includes healthy adults as well as older people, young children and those with existing medical conditions. Tamiflu (Oseltamivir and Ralenza (Zanamivir can treat the H1 N1 swine flu strain.

  16. The avian haemophili.

    OpenAIRE

    Blackall, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    There are four currently recognized taxa to accommodate the avian haemophili: Haemophilus paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium, Pasteurella volantium, and Pasteurella species A (the last three being formerly united as Haemophilus avium). A range of other taxa has also been recognized, but they have been neither named nor assigned to a genus. All of these various taxa, legitimate and otherwise, have the common characteristic of requiring V factor, but not X factor, for in vitro growth. Several re...

  17. Avian psychology and communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the i...

  18. Avian mycoplasmosis update

    OpenAIRE

    ER Nascimento; VLA Pereira; MGF Nascimento; ML Barreto

    2005-01-01

    Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), M. synoviae (MS), and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI) is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorga...

  19. Applications of avian transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Benjamin B; Velho, Tarciso A; Sim, Shuyin; Lois, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The ability to introduce foreign DNA into the genome of an organism has proven to be one of the most powerful tools in modern biology. Methods for the manipulation of the animal genome have been developed at an impressive pace for 3 decades, but only in the past 5 years have useful tools for avian transgenesis emerged. The most efficient technique involves the use of replication-deficient lentiviral vectors to deliver foreign DNA into the avian germline. Although lentiviral-mediated transgenesis presents some constraints, progress in this area has garnered interest in both industry and academia for its potential applications in biological research, biotechnology, and agriculture. In this review we evaluate methods for the production of transgenic birds, focusing on the advantages and limitations of lentiviral-mediated transgenesis. We also provide an overview of future applications of this technology. The most exciting of these include disease-resistant transgenic poultry, genetically modified hens that produce therapeutic proteins in their eggs, and transgenic songbirds that serve as a model to study communication disorders. Finally, we discuss technological advances that will be necessary to make avian transgenesis a more versatile tool. PMID:21131712

  20. Fatal crocodile attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Shee, Biplab; Sukul, Biswajit

    2013-11-01

    Attacks on human beings by various animals leading to varied types of injuries and even death in some cases are not uncommon. Crocodile attacks on humans have been reported from a number of countries across the globe. Deaths in such attacks are mostly due to mechanical injuries or drowning. Bites by the crocodiles often cause the limbs to be separated from the body. The present case refers to an incident of a fatal attack by a crocodile on a 35 years old female where only the mutilated head of the female was recovered. Multiple lacerated wounds over the face and scalp along with fracture of the cranial bones was detected on autopsy. Two distinct bite marks in the form of punched in holes were noted over the parietal and frontal bones. Injuries on the head with its traumatic amputation from the body were sufficient to cause death. However, the presence of other fatal injuries on the unrecovered body parts could not be ruled out. PMID:24237838

  1. Outbreak of a New Strain of Flu at a Fair

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-28

    Dr. Karen Wong, an EIS officer with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, discusses her study about flu outbreaks at agricultural fairs.  Created: 2/28/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  2. Things You Can Do to Stay Away from the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-08

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids can do to help prevent infection with any infectious disease, including H1N1 flu.  Created: 5/8/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM).   Date Released: 5/8/2009.

  3. Flu Resistance to Antiviral Drug in North Carolina

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-12-19

    Dr. Katrina Sleeman, Associate Service Fellow at CDC, discusses resistance to an antiviral flu drug in North Carolina.  Created: 12/19/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/19/2011.

  4. "FluSpec": A Simulated Experiment in Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigger, Stephen W.; Bigger, Andrew S.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    The "FluSpec" educational software package is a fully contained tutorial on the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy as well as a simulator on which experiments can be performed. The procedure for each of the experiments is also contained within the package along with example analyses of results that are obtained using the software.

  5. Don't Get, Don't Spread: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting the seasonal flu and spreading it to others.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  6. Evaluation of the EuroFlu Bulletin: report summary.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, C.S.; Pereyaslov, D.; Antoniadou, E.; Meerhoff, T.; Martirosyan, L.

    2010-01-01

    During February and March 2010, WHO/Europe undertook the task of performing an evaluation among EuroFlu Bulletin users, in order to determine its effectiveness. This evaluation took the form of two questionnaires, designed to collect information on use of the Bulletin, gauge the level of satisfactio

  7. Science and Security Clash on Bird-Flu Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Censored papers on bird flu, which could help terrorists, have critics wondering if academic scientists can police their own work. The near-publication has brought out general critics of the federal panel, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the voluntary self-policing approach that it embraces instead of regulation. Members…

  8. Guidance for Schools on the Recent Flu Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The document provides a transcript of a conference call moderated by Bill Modzeleski, Director of the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The focus of the call was the recent outbreak of swine flu in Mexico and the United States. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) actions and recommendations to the education community were discussed. A comparison…

  9. H1N1 Flu and Antiviral Drugs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-02

    This podcast discusses the use of antiviral drugs for treating and preventing the H1N1 flu virus.  Created: 5/2/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/2/2009.

  10. New Flu Virus in Pigs Exhibited at Fairs in Ohio

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-21

    Dr. Andrew Bowman, a graduate research assistant in the Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine at The Ohio State University, discusses his study about flu virus in pigs at agricultural fairs.  Created: 5/21/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2013.

  11. Novel H1N1 Flu and Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-30

    This podcast gives tips to stay healthy and help prevent infection with novel H1N1 flu if your child or someone you know is going to camp.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  12. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  13. Analysing Twitter and web queries for flu trend prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media platforms encourage people to share diverse aspects of their daily life. Among these, shared health related information might be used to infer health status and incidence rates for specific conditions or symptoms. In this work, we present an infodemiology study that evaluates the use of Twitter messages and search engine query logs to estimate and predict the incidence rate of influenza like illness in Portugal. Results Based on a manually classified dataset of 2704 tweets from Portugal, we selected a set of 650 textual features to train a Naïve Bayes classifier to identify tweets mentioning flu or flu-like illness or symptoms. We obtained a precision of 0.78 and an F-measure of 0.83, based on cross validation over the complete annotated set. Furthermore, we trained a multiple linear regression model to estimate the health-monitoring data from the Influenzanet project, using as predictors the relative frequencies obtained from the tweet classification results and from query logs, and achieved a correlation ratio of 0.89 (p < 0.001). These classification and regression models were also applied to estimate the flu incidence in the following flu season, achieving a correlation of 0.72. Conclusions Previous studies addressing the estimation of disease incidence based on user-generated content have mostly focused on the english language. Our results further validate those studies and show that by changing the initial steps of data preprocessing and feature extraction and selection, the proposed approaches can be adapted to other languages. Additionally, we investigated whether the predictive model created can be applied to data from the subsequent flu season. In this case, although the prediction result was good, an initial phase to adapt the regression model could be necessary to achieve more robust results. PMID:25077431

  14. Cell Counting Attack and Browser Attack against TOR Network

    OpenAIRE

    Swati

    2014-01-01

    The onion router (TOR) allows to hide your identity various software under this categories are available that allows online anonymity network, supporting TCP applications over the Internet. It doesn't allow network surveillance or traffic analysis to get tracked but most of these software used equal size of cells (512B). In this paper we are comparing cell-counting attacks and browser attacks against TOR. Different from cell-counting attacks, these attacks can confirm anonymou...

  15. Avian influenza: Vaccination and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  16. Blocking of Brute Force Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Venkata Krishna Reddy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A common threat Web developers face is a password-guessing attack known as a brute-force attack. A brute-force attack is an attempt to discover a password by systematically trying every possible combination of letters, numbers, and symbols until you discover the one correct combination that works. If your Web site requires user authentication, you are a good target for a brute-force attack. An attacker can always discover a password through a brute-force attack, but the downside is that it could take years to find it. Depending on the password's length and complexity, there could be trillions of possible combinations. To speed things up a bit, a brute-force attack could start with dictionary words or slightly modified dictionary words because most people will use those rather than a completely random password. These attacks are called dictionary attacks or hybrid brute-force attacks. Brute-force attacks put user accounts at risk and flood your site with unnecessary traffic. Hackers launch brute-force attacks using widely available tools that utilize wordlists and smart rule set to intelligently and automatically guess user passwords. Although such attacks are easy to detect, they are not so easy to prevent

  17. Preparing for the Flu (Including 2009 H1N1 Flu): A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools" is to provide basic information and communication resources to help school administrators implement recommendations from CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12)…

  18. ATTACK PATTERNS FOR DETECTING AND PREVENTING DDOS AND REPLAY ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.MADHURI,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the methods for detecting and preventing the DDoS Attacks and Replay Attacks, which have been posing the problems for the Internet. We explained a scheme AMFDR (AttackPatterns for Marking Filtering DoS and Replay attacks that identifies the attack packets from the packets that are sent by legitimate users and filters the attack packets. A Denial of service attack is generally launched to make a service unavailable even to an unauthorized user. If this attack uses many computers across the world, it is called Distributed Denial of service attack. Replay attack is retransmission of a data transmission which used to gain authentication in a fraudulent manner. These replayed packets or attack packets are identified. This scheme is less expensive and the implementation of this scheme needs minimal interaction with routers. The scheme is like firewall system, so that the occurrence of an attack is recognized quickly and a punitive action is taken without any loss genuine packets.

  19. Simultaneous Attacks by Terrorist Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Deloughery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While terror attacks that are a part of a coordinated effort receive attention in the popular media, they have not received much attention in the academic literature. The decision to carry out simultaneous attacks should be examined as one of the choices a terrorist organisation makes about the method of attack. Determining the impact of simultaneous attacks vis-à-vis a single attack can explain why groups would use this method. Up to one quarter of all attacks coded in two major databases, GTD and ITERATE, may be part of a simultaneous campaign. Empirical analysis shows simultaneous attacks are more likely to be successful and cause more fatalities, though not in a one-to-one fashion. These results underline the importance of considering simultaneous attacks in empirical analysis.

  20. When women attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Bryan; Davis, Catasha; Coppini, David; Kim, Young Mie; Knisely, Sandra; McLeod, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The common assumption that female candidates on the campaign trail should not go on the attack, because such tactics contradict gender stereotypes, has not received consistent support. We argue that in some circumstances gender stereotypes will favor female politicians going negative. To test this proposition, this study examines how gender cues affect voter reactions to negative ads in the context of a political sex scandal, a context that should prime gender stereotypes that favor females. Using an online experiment involving a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 599), we manipulate the gender and partisan affiliation of a politician who attacks a male opponent caught in a sex scandal involving sexually suggestive texting to a female intern. Results show that in the context of a sex scandal, a female candidate going on the attack is evaluated more positively than a male. Moreover, while female participants viewed the female sponsor more favorably, sponsor gender had no effect on male participants. Partisanship also influenced candidate evaluations: the Democratic female candidate was evaluated more favorably than her Republican female counterpart. PMID:26399945

  1. LITERATURE SURVEY ON WORMHOLE ATTACK

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash S. Bundela

    2015-01-01

    Security plays an important role in Mobile Ad Hoc Network when data transmission is performed within un - trusted wireless scenario. Various attacks like Black hole, Wormhole, Gray hole and many more have been identified & corresponding solutions have been proposed. These attacks are caused by the malicious node hence ad hoc wireless network is unprotected from the attacks of the malicious node. Between all these attacks the wormhole att ...

  2. Outbreak Patterns of the Novel Avian Influenza (H7N9)

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Ya-Nan; Lou, Jing-Jing; Han, Xiao-Pu

    2013-01-01

    The attack of novel avian influenza (H7N9) in east China caused a serious health crisis and public panic. In this paper, we empirically analyze the onset patterns of human cases of the novel avian influenza and observe several spatial and temporal properties that are similar to other infective diseases. More deeply, using the empirical analysis and modeling studies, we find that the spatio-temporal network that connects the cities with human cases along the order of outbreak timing emerges tw...

  3. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsun Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of generating mutated XSS attacks in a fully automatic way. Mutated XSS attack generation depends on the analysis of attack vectors and the structural learning mechanism. For the kernel of the learning mechanism, we use a Hidden Markov model (HMM as the structure of the attack vector model to capture the implicit manner of the attack vector, and this manner is benefited from the syntax meanings that are labeled by the proposed tokenizing mechanism. Bayes theorem is used to determine the number of hidden states in the model for generalizing the structure model. The paper has the contributions as following: (1 automatically learn the structure of attack vectors from practical data analysis to modeling a structure model of attack vectors, (2 mimic the manners and the elements of attack vectors to extend the ability of testing tool for identifying XSS vulnerabilities, (3 be helpful to verify the flaws of blacklist sanitization procedures of Web applications. We evaluated the proposed mechanism by Burp Intruder with a dataset collected from public XSS archives. The results show that mutated XSS attack generation can identify potential vulnerabilities.

  4. Vaksin Polivalen Untuk Mencegah Penyakit Flu Burung (POLIVALEN VACCINE TO PREVENT BIRD FLU DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suartha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the use of bird flu polyvalent vaccines containing two or threeor more virus isolates representating of circulating viruses in the region. Three seed isolates of avianinfluenza H5N1 virus were used in this experiment. The isolates were Chicken/Denpasar/Unud-01/2004,Chicken/Klungkung/Unud-12/2006, and Chicken/Jembrana/Unud-17/2006. The seeds were inactivatedusing 0.01% formaldehide than mixed (AI3G alumunium hidroxide adjuvant and then injectedintramuscularly to Isa Brown layer chicken at 3 weeks of age and repeated at the age of 5 weeks. The doseof each seed virus was 27 HA units. Sera were collected at one and two weeks after the second vaccination.The result showed that the arithmetic meant titer (AMT of sera that tested with homologous isolate washigher than the test using a heterologous isolates, in the standard haemaglutination inhibition (HI assay.The mixed AI3G vaccine produced a uniform AMT against the constituent isolates, while vaccines withindividual isolate yielded a lower and more variation in AMT. Further experiments using a commercialhomologous H5N1 and heterologous H5N2 commercial vaccines has resulted AMT that 1-4 log lower thanAI3G vaccine. It is concluded that polyvalent vaccine with field seed isolates is recommended to be appliedin the poultry farm in Indonesia.

  5. Seven Deadliest Unified Communications Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Unified Communications technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest Unified Communication Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Unified Communications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks featured in this book include: UC Ecosystem Attacks Insecure Endpo

  6. Improving Attack Graph Visualization through Data Reduction and Attack Grouping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Homer; Ashok Varikuti; Xinming Ou; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-09-01

    Various tools exist to analyze enterprise network systems and to produce attack graphs detailing how attackers might penetrate into the system. These attack graphs, however, are often complex and difficult to comprehend fully, and a human user may find it problematic to reach appropriate configuration decisions. This paper presents methodologies that can 1) automatically identify portions of an attack graph that do not help a user to understand the core security problems and so can be trimmed, and 2) automatically group similar attack steps as virtual nodes in a model of the network topology, to immediately increase the understandability of the data. We believe both methods are important steps toward improving visualization of attack graphs to make them more useful in configuration management for large enterprise networks. We implemented our methods using one of the existing attack-graph toolkits. Initial experimentation shows that the proposed approaches can 1) significantly reduce the complexity of attack graphs by trimming a large portion of the graph that is not needed for a user to understand the security problem, and 2) significantly increase the accessibility and understandability of the data presented in the attack graph by clearly showing, within a generated visualization of the network topology, the number and type of potential attacks to which each host is exposed.

  7. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yi-Hsun; Lee, Hahn-Ming; 10.4204/EPTCS.35.2

    2010-01-01

    Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of generating mutated XSS attacks in a fully automatic way. Mutated XSS attack generation depends on the analysis of attack vectors and the structural learning mechanism. For the kernel of the learning mechanism, we use a Hidden Markov model (HMM) as the structure of the attack vector model to capture the implicit manner of the attack vector, and this manner is benefited from the syntax meanings that are labeled by the proposed tokenizing mechanism. Bayes theorem is used to determine the number of hidden states in the model...

  8. The Impacts of Flu/Cold Incidents and Retail OJ Promotion on OJ Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonq-Ying

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examine the impacts of retail promotions and flu/cold incidences on the demand for orange juice using weekly Nielsen grocery orange juice sales statistics and the flu/cold incidences reported by Surveillance Data Inc. The cross-section time-series pooling technique proposed by Parks was used to estimate the demand parameters. Results show that flu/cold incidences increased the effectiveness of retail promotions on the demand for orange juice.

  9. Impacts of Flu/Cold Incidences and Retail Orange Juice Promotion on Orange Juice Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonq-Ying; Brown, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examine the impacts of retail promotions and flu/cold incidences on the demand for orange juice using weekly Nielsen grocery orange juice sales statistics and the flu/cold incidences reported by Surveillance Data Inc. The cross-section time-series pooling technique proposed by Parks was used to estimate the demand parameters. Results show that flu/cold incidences increased the effectiveness of retail promotions on the demand for orange juice.

  10. Are Pink Slips Better Than Flu Shots? The Effects of Employment on Influenza Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Markowitz; Erik Nesson; Joshua Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The seasonal influenza virus afflicts between five and twenty percent of the U.S. population each year, imposing significant costs on those who fall ill, their families, employers, and the health care system. The flu is transmitted via droplet spread or close contact, and certain environments, such as schools or offices, promote transmission. In this paper, we examine whether increases in labor market activities are associated with an increased incidence of the flu. Flu data come from the Cen...

  11. Protecting Against the Flu: Advice for Caregivers of Children Less than 6 Months Old. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that children less than 5 years of age are at high risk of serious flu-related complications. It is estimated that more than 20,000 children less than 5 years old are hospitalized due to flu each year in the U.S. Many more have to go to a doctor, an urgent care center, or the emergency room because of flu. Complications from the…

  12. Evaluation of the Xpert Flu Rapid PCR Assay in High-Risk Emergency Department Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsamakis, Alexandra; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Forman, Michael; Hardick, Justin; Kidambi, Pranav; Amin, Sharmeen; Gupta, Alisha; Rothman, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated the performance of Cepheid's GeneXpert Xpert Flu assay in a target population of 281 adults presenting to the emergency department with an acute respiratory illness who met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for recommended antiviral treatment. Compared with the Prodesse ProFlu+ assay, Xpert Flu had an overall sensitivity of 95.3% and specificity of 99.2%. PMID:25253792

  13. The attack navigator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Willemson, Jan; Pieters, Wolter

    2016-01-01

    The need to assess security and take protection decisions is at least as old as our civilisation. However, the complexity and development speed of our interconnected technical systems have surpassed our capacity to imagine and evaluate risk scenarios. This holds in particular for risks that are...... caused by the strategic behaviour of adversaries. Therefore, technology-supported methods are needed to help us identify and manage these risks. In this paper, we describe the attack navigator: a graph-based approach to security risk assessment inspired by navigation systems. Based on maps of a socio...

  14. Attacks on computer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan V. Vuletić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems are a critical component of the human society in the 21st century. Economic sector, defense, security, energy, telecommunications, industrial production, finance and other vital infrastructure depend on computer systems that operate at local, national or global scales. A particular problem is that, due to the rapid development of ICT and the unstoppable growth of its application in all spheres of the human society, their vulnerability and exposure to very serious potential dangers increase. This paper analyzes some typical attacks on computer systems.

  15. Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, and seasonal influenza in Japan under social and demographic influence: review and analysis using the two-population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    When cumulative numbers of patients (X) and deaths (Y) associated with an influenza epidemic are plotted using the log-log scale, the plots fall on an ascending straight line generally expressed as logY = k(logX - logN0). For the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the slope k was ~0.6 for Mexico and ~2 for other countries. The two-population model was proposed to explain this phenomenon (Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2012;65:279-88; Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:411-2; and Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:482-4). The current article reviews and analyzes previous influenza epidemics in Japan to examine whether the two-population model is applicable to them. The slope k was found to be ~2 for the Spanish flu during 1918-1920 and the Asian flu during 1957-1958, and ~1 for the Hong Kong flu and seasonal influenza prior to 1960-1961; however, k was ~0.6 for seasonal influenza after 1960-1961. This transition of the slope k of seasonal influenza plots from ~1 to ~0.6 corresponded to the shift in influenza mortality toward the older age groups and a drastic reduction in infant mortality rates due to improvements in the standard of living during the 1950s and 1960s. All the above observations could be well explained by reconstitution of the influenza epidemic based on the two-population model. PMID:25056069

  16. Avian Influenza Infection Dynamics in Minor Avian Species

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran Dols, Kateri

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) has become one of the most important challenges that ever emerged from animal reservoirs. The constant outbreaks detected worldwide in domestic and wild bird species are of concern to the economics of the poultry industry, wildlife conservation, and animal and public health. Susceptibility to AI viruses (AIVs) varies deeply among avian species, as well as their possible role as sentinels, intermediate hosts or reservoirs. To date, several experimental studies and natural ...

  17. Use of Protective Gear in Bird Flu Outbreak Response

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-29

    CDC's Dr. Oliver Morgan discusses how the use of masks and other protective gear impacted whether workers dealing with an outbreak of bird flu in England became sick. The paper is published in the January 2009 issue of CDC’s journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 12/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2008.

  18. HEALTH CARE DATA WAREHOUSE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR INFLUENZA (FLU) DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Rajib Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Data Warehouse is the most reliable technology used by the company for planning, forecasting and management. Critical business management data was contained in several unrelated and disconnected databases, both internally managed and from external sources. Client was unable to view the data from an integrated viewpoint. The data warehousing is one of the best technique to integrate data. This paper presents the Influenza (Flu) diseases specific data warehouse architecture for h...

  19. Preschool Flu Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-03-06

    In the U.S., many young children go to day-care centers and preschools. These environments put them at higher risk for influenza, including potential serious complications, such as hospitalization and even death. An annual flu vaccine is recommended for all children six months and older. In this podcast, Dr. Erin Kennedy discusses the importance of getting your preschooler vaccinated against influenza.  Created: 3/6/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  20. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-04

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.  Created: 3/4/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/4/2009.

  1. Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  2. How Is a Heart Attack Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Treated? Early treatment for a heart attack can ... or years after the procedure. Other Treatments for Heart Attack Other treatments for heart attack include: Medicines Medical ...

  3. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose a heart attack ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  4. What every Hepatologist should Know about Swine Flu?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Bagheri Lankarani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available As world is witnessing ever fastest growing pandemic, physicians with various specialties should adopt themselves to the new situation (1. Global death toll of swine flu by November 15, 2009, has raised to 6750. Many of those who died or were hospitalized suffered from comorbid conditions which increased either the severity or the risk of acquiring the disease (2. Swine flu may change the course of many chronic diseases. Thus, all physicians in different disciplines should realize and consider the impact of the current pandemic on their daily practice.As the new pandemic flu virus 2009 (H1N1 has been circulating only in the past nine months, there is still not much evidence on the interaction of this pandemic with chronic diseases. However, presumably, much of this interaction is expected to be similar to other circulating influenza type A viruses. But there are clear differences with the current pandemic , for example, near one-third of severe cases had no underlying conditions and their median age was much lower than the usual seasonal flu (3.Hepatologists caring for both acute and chronic liver diseases anywhere in the world would probably see much about this interaction in upcoming months and even years. In this review, we tried to somehow classify our current knowledge on possible interactions between swine flu and various liver diseases. Much of the described effects are from the older evidence mostly related to influenza type A, and as was mentioned before, with expansion of the current pandemic and growing our knowledge about the nature of this new virus, these suggestions might be changed later on.Liver damage by flu virus.Liver damage with influenza virus has been shown in animal models. Indeed, the mouse/influenza B virus is a well-established model for Reye's syndrome with a histological picture resembling human disease including microvesicular steatosis and minimal inflammation (4. The primary infected cells in these animals are

  5. Evaluation of Detection System of Fault Attacks based on Neural Network into a Java Virtual Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhame El farissi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Java Card technology provides a secure environment for developing smart card application based on Java while also respecting some constraints such as the limited memory and processing card. In addition to the security and cryptography APIs offered by the Java Card technology, the smart card is protected against some threats. But, the fault attacks based on the variation of the physical parameters are able to disrupt its operation. In order to enhance the smart card security, we thought to add an intelligent component able to distinguish between the smooth functioning and the attack. This component is a Neural Network that we developed in C language and integrated in open source Virtual Machine (Avian in order to simulate the attack effect and the network behavior. In this context, the detection rate of the attacks is 96% with no false positive.

  6. Recent "phishing" attacks

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few weeks there has been a marked increase in the number of attacks on CERN made by cybercriminals. Typical attacks arrive in the form of e-mail messages purporting to come from the CERN Help Desk, Mail Service, or some similarly official-sounding entity and suggest that there is a problem with your account, such as it being over-quota. They then ask you to click on a link or to reply and give your password. Please don’t! Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. NEVER provide your password or other details if these are requested. These messages try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer, and anti-virus software cannot be relied on to detect all cases. In case of questions on this topic, you may contact mailto:helpdesk@cern.ch. CERN Comput...

  7. Low Speed Avian Maneuvering Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Ros, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Low speed avian maneuvering flight is an ecologically crucial behavior that has contributed to the explosive diversification of several avian taxa by allowing access to complex spatial environments. Negotiating a sharp aerial turn requires finely tuned interactions between an animal's sensory-motor system and its environment. My thesis work focuses on how aerodynamic forces, wing and body dynamics, and sensory feedback interact during aerial turning in the pigeon (Columba livea).

  8. The Avian Development Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  9. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders. PMID:26771317

  10. Comparison: Flu prescription sales data from a retail pharmacy in the US with Google Flu trends and US ILINet (CDC) data as flu activity indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Bilkovski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') for five years' aggregate data (2007-2011) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94). The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.98). PMID:22952719

  11. Comparison: Flu prescription sales data from a retail pharmacy in the US with Google Flu trends and US ILINet (CDC data as flu activity indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Patwardhan

    Full Text Available The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r' for five years' aggregate data (2007-2011 was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94. The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r' was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.98.

  12. FLOODING ATTACK AWARE SECURE AODV

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavi, S; K. Duraiswamy

    2013-01-01

    Providing security in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a challenging task due to its inherent nature. Flooding is a type of Denial of Service (DoS) attack in MANET. Intentional flooding may lead to disturbances in the networking operation. This kind of attack consumes battery power, storage space and bandwidth. Flooding the excessive number of packets may degrade the performance of the network. This study considers hello flooding attack. As the hello packets are continuously flooded by the ...

  13. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müllauer, Wolfram, E-mail: wolf_m@gmx.at; Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  14. Seven Deadliest Web Application Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Shema, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting web applications? Then you need Seven Deadliest Web Application Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to web applications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. .. .. Attacks detailed in this book include: ..: ..; Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) ..; Cross-Site Request Fo

  15. Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Timm, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting social networks? Then you need Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Social Networking Infrastruct

  16. Single assay for simultaneous detection and differential identification of human and avian influenza virus types, subtypes, and emergent variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metzgar

    Full Text Available For more than four decades the cause of most type A influenza virus infections of humans has been attributed to only two viral subtypes, A/H1N1 or A/H3N2. In contrast, avian and other vertebrate species are a reservoir of type A influenza virus genome diversity, hosting strains representing at least 120 of 144 combinations of 16 viral hemagglutinin and 9 viral neuraminidase subtypes. Viral genome segment reassortments and mutations emerging within this reservoir may spawn new influenza virus strains as imminent epidemic or pandemic threats to human health and poultry production. Traditional methods to detect and differentiate influenza virus subtypes are either time-consuming and labor-intensive (culture-based or remarkably insensitive (antibody-based. Molecular diagnostic assays based upon reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR have short assay cycle time, and high analytical sensitivity and specificity. However, none of these diagnostic tests determine viral gene nucleotide sequences to distinguish strains and variants of a detected pathogen from one specimen to the next. Decision-quality, strain- and variant-specific pathogen gene sequence information may be critical for public health, infection control, surveillance, epidemiology, or medical/veterinary treatment planning. The Resequencing Pathogen Microarray (RPM-Flu is a robust, highly multiplexed and target gene sequencing-based alternative to both traditional culture- or biomarker-based diagnostic tests. RPM-Flu is a single, simultaneous differential diagnostic assay for all subtype combinations of type A influenza viruses and for 30 other viral and bacterial pathogens that may cause influenza-like illness. These other pathogen targets of RPM-Flu may co-infect and compound the morbidity and/or mortality of patients with influenza. The informative specificity of a single RPM-Flu test represents specimen-specific viral gene sequences as determinants of virus type, A

  17. Time To Talk About Natural Products for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z 5 Tips: Natural Products for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say? Share: It's that time of year again— ... But do they really work? What does the science say? Vaccination is the best ... natural product is useful against the flu. Zinc taken ...

  18. ‘Tis the Season for Flu Vaccine (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-12-10

    Flu season typically runs from late fall through early spring. In this podcast, Dr. Lisa Grohskopf discusses the importance of getting vaccinated against the flu.  Created: 12/10/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 12/10/2015.

  19. Swine flu-have we learnt any lesson from the past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sankalp; Rawal, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The world has suffered the pandemics due to swine flu in the past. The present epidemic in India has claimed many lives. Even, after the first outbreak of swine flu in 2009 no concrete efforts are done to prevent this infection. There is an urgent need to take radical steps to prevent such epidemics. PMID:26848365

  20. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  1. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Felix

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork. We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu" in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180 or Europe (N = 148. Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation.

  2. Swine-Flu Plans Put E-Learning in the Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R.; Ash, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Last school year, many educators were caught unprepared when schools closed in response to cases of swine flu. This time around, both the federal government and school districts are putting specific online-learning measures in place to get ready for possible closures or waves of teacher and student absences because of a flu outbreak. To prepare…

  3. Conceptual Representations of Flu and Microbial Illness Held by Students, Teachers, and Medical Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa J.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students', teachers', and medical professionals' conceptions of flu and microbial illness. Participants constructed a concept map on "flu" and participated in a semi-structured interview. The results showed that these groups of students, teachers and medical professionals held and structured their…

  4. Avian mycoplasmosis update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ER Nascimento

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG, M. synoviae (MS, and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorganisms, whereas all other mycoplasmas are considered facultative intracellular organisms. Their pathogenic mechanism for disease include adherence to host target cells, mediation of apoptosis, innocent bystander damage to host cell due to intimate membrane contact, molecular (antigen mimicry that may lead to tolerance, and mitotic effect for B and/or T lymphocytes, which could lead to suppressed T-cell function and/or production of cytotoxic T cell, besides mycoplasma by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. Moreover, mycoplasma ability to stimulate macrophages, monocytes, T-helper cells and NK cells, results in the production of substances, such as tumor necrosing factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1, 2, 6 and interferon (a, b, g. The major clinical signs seen in avian mycoplasmosis are coughing, sneezing, snicks, respiratory rales, ocular and nasal discharge, decreased feed intake and egg production, increased mortality, poor hatchability, and, primarily in turkeys, swelling of the infraorbital sinus(es. Nevertheless, chronic and unapparent infections are most common and more threatening. Mycoplasmas are transmitted horizontally, from bird to bird, and vertically, from dam to offspring through the eggs. Losses attributed to mycoplasmosis, mainly MG and MS infections, result from decreased egg production and egg quality, poor hatchability (high rate of embryonic mortality and culling of day-old birds, poor feed efficiency, increase in

  5. Thrombolytic drugs for heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attack URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007488.htm Thrombolytic drugs for heart attack To use the sharing features on this page, ... the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report ... myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology ...

  6. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus;

    2011-01-01

    information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security of...... string model. While our protocol is classical, it is sound against a cheating unbounded quantum prover and computational zero-knowledge even if the verifier is allowed a superposition attack. Finally, we consider multiparty computation and show that for the most general type of attack, simulation based...... several primitives in this model. We show that a secret-sharing scheme that is secure with threshold $t$ in the standard model is secure against superposition attacks if and only if the threshold is lowered to $t/2$. We use this result to give zero-knowledge proofs for all of NP in the common reference...

  7. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explore the consequences of modeling decisions on inference about avian seasonal fecundity we generalize previous Markov chain (MC) models of avian nest success to formulate two different MC models of avian seasonal fecundity that represent two different ways to model renestin...

  8. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  9. Analyses on Avian Influenza Related Literature Indexed by PubMed and CNKI from 1994-2014%1994-2014年国内外禽流感文献的计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰

    2015-01-01

    自禽流感爆发以来,中国与国外的研究者对禽流感研究都高度关注,发表了大量文献。选择PubMed、CNKI数据库,检索1994-2014年的中外文禽流感文献,确定了禽流感的重要期刊,如Avian Dis 等外文期刊和《中国动物检疫》等中文期刊。确定了禽流感领域里的国外的多产作者及其所属研究机构,国内研究的重要机构如中国农业科学院哈尔滨兽医研究所等。这些将对禽流感研究人员的研究工作提供一定帮助和参考。%The paper selected the database of CNKI and PubMed,retrieval avian influenza literature from 1994-2014. The important journals about Avian flu is Avian Dis and other international medical journals, and Journal of Chinese Animal Quarantine in china etc.. It also determined the productive authors in the field of avian flu in foreign countries and institutes, and important domestic research institutions such as “the Chinese academy of agricultural sciences”etc.. These will provide certain help and reference for avian influenza researchers.

  10. Avian infectious laryngotracheitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, T J; Jones, R C; Guy, J S

    2000-08-01

    Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause sporadic cases of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sources of transmission of ILT infection are three-fold, namely: chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, latently infected 'carrier' fowls which excrete infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) when stressed, and all fomites (inanimate articles as well as the personnel in contact with infected chickens). Infectious laryngotracheitis virus infectivity can persist for weeks to months in tracheal mucus or carcasses. Rigorous site biosecurity is therefore critical in ILT disease control. Furthermore, while current (modified live) ILT vaccines can offer good protection, the strains of ILTV used in vaccines can also produce latent infections, as well as ILT disease following bird-to-bird spread. The regional nature of reservoirs of ILTV-infected flocks will tend to interact unfavourably with widely varying ILT control practices in the poultry industry, so as to periodically result in sporadic and unexpected outbreaks of ILT in intensive poultry industry populations. Precautions for trade-related movements of chickens of all ages must therefore include an accurate knowledge of the ILT infection status, both of the donor and recipient flocks. PMID:10935275

  11. Demystifying FluMist, a new intranasal, live influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2003-09-01

    FluMist--a cold-adapted, live-attenuated, trivalent, intranasal influenza virus vaccine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on June 17, 2003--has been shown to be safe and effective, but its role in the general prevention of influenza is yet to be defined. Intranasal administration is expected to be more acceptable than parenteral, particularly in children, but the potential for the shedding of live virus may pose a risk to anyone with a compromised immune system. PMID:14518575

  12. Full-spectrum disease response : beyond just the flu.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knazovich, Michael Ward; Cox, Warren B.; Henderson, Samuel Arthur

    2010-04-01

    Why plan beyond the flu: (1) the installation may be the target of bioterrorism - National Laboratory, military base collocated in large population center; and (2) International Airport - transport of infectious agents to the area - Sandia is a global enterprise and staff visit many foreign countries. In addition to the Pandemic Plan, Sandia has developed a separate Disease Response Plan (DRP). The DRP addresses Category A, B pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The DRP contains the Cities Readiness Initiative sub-plan for disbursement of Strategic National Stockpile assets.

  13. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  14. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  15. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan M; Trevor Francis Fernandez and Feroz Mohammed.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe dise...

  16. Multi-antigen vaccines based on complex adenovirus vectors induce protective immune responses against H5N1 avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, David H; Wang, Danher; Raja, Nicholas U; Luo, Min; Moore, Kevin M; Woraratanadharm, Jan; Mytle, Nutan; Dong, John Y

    2008-05-19

    There are legitimate concerns that the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus could adapt for human-to-human transmission and cause a pandemic similar to the 1918 "Spanish flu" that killed 50 million people worldwide. We have developed pandemic influenza vaccines by incorporating multiple antigens from both avian and Spanish influenza viruses into complex recombinant adenovirus vectors. In vaccinated mice, these vaccines induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses against pandemic influenza virus antigens, and protected vaccinated mice against lethal H5N1 virus challenge. These results indicate that this multi-antigen, broadly protective vaccine may serve as a safer and more effective approach than traditional methods for development of a pandemic influenza vaccine. PMID:18395306

  17. The Cyber-Physical Attacker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The world of Cyber-Physical Systems ranges from industrial to national interest applications. Even though these systems are pervading our everyday life, we are still far from fully understanding their security properties. Devising a suitable attacker model is a crucial element when studying the...... security properties of CPSs, as a system cannot be secured without defining the threats it is subject to. In this work an attacker scenario is presented which addresses the peculiarities of a cyber-physical adversary, and we discuss how this scenario relates to other attacker models popular in the security...

  18. Suicide Attacks on the Rise

    OpenAIRE

    CCS Research Staff

    2008-01-01

    This article was published in Culture and Conflict Review (March 2008), v.2 no.2 "The last six weeks has brought some of the worst violence in Afghanistan since 2001. In 2007, there were more than 230 Improvised Explosive Device (IED) attacks and 145 suicide attacks. Casualty rates were at least 25 percent higher in 2007 than the previous year. In the past 18 months, IED attacks have targeted numerous police and army busses, a group of legislators outside a factory at Baghlan, a five-star ...

  19. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  20. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P.I. Dharmayanti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1. Molecular basis of pathogenicity in HA cleavage site indicated that the isolates of avian influenza virus have multiple basic amino acid (B-X-B-R indicating that all of the isolates representing virulent avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

  1. Comparison of Cepheid Xpert Flu/RSV XC and BioFire FilmArray for Detection of Influenza A, Influenza B, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrenbrock, Mark G; Matushek, Scott; Boonlayangoor, Sue; Tesic, Vera; Beavis, Kathleen G; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella

    2016-07-01

    The Xpert Flu/RSV XC was compared to the FilmArray respiratory panel for detection of influenza (Flu) A, Flu B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), using 128 nasopharyngeal swabs. Positive agreements were 100% for Flu A and RSV and 92.3% for Flu B. The Xpert may be useful in clinical situations when extensive testing is not required and may serve an important role in laboratories already performing broader respiratory panel testing. PMID:27098956

  2. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can a Heart Attack Be Prevented? Lowering your risk factors for coronary ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  3. Investigation on the preventive strategies against two cases of human infection by avian influenza%两起人禽流感防控策略之思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧琴; 房桂兰

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the outbreak of avian flu,in order to develop scientific methods and strategies for prevention and control against human infection by avian influenza.Methods Epidemiological descriptive approach was adopted after two outbreaks of avian flu were reported in a town in Shapotou district.Analysis on prevention and control measures against human infection by bird flu was performed.Results During the first outbreak in 2006,because the health administrative department was inexperienced,resources were not uniformly integrated,and 218 staffs from ten units and excess resources were utilized.During the second outbreak in 2012,only 65 staffs from five units participated in dealing with the outbreak,which was much less than 2006.Conclusion Unified commanding,clear responsibilities,focused propaganda,and appropriate training are the most fundamental effective approach in prevention and control of highly pathogenic avian influenza infection.Unified commanding,integrated resources,and unified deployment by the health administrative department are the key to prevent human infection by avian influenza.%目的 探讨禽流感疫情发生后,科学防控人感染禽流感的方法和策略.方法 采取描述性的流行病学方法对沙坡头区某镇两次发生禽流感疫情后人感染禽流感防控措施进行分析.结果 2006年第一次禽流感疫情处置时,因卫生行政部门无经验,没有统一整合资源,参与处置疫情投入人员达218人、动用单位达10个,投入物资也较多,均明显多于2012年的65人、5个单位.结论 卫生行政部门统一指挥,整合资源,统一调配,加强人员防护及开展宣传教育是科学、高效防控人感染高致病性禽流感的关键.

  4. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Rachel E; Mediratta, Rishi P; Xie, James; Kambhampati, Swetha; Hills-Evans, Kelsey; Montacute, Tamara; Zhang, Michael; Zaw, Catherine; He, Jimmy; Sanchez, Magali; Pischel, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many national organizations call for medical students to receive more public health education in medical school. Nonetheless, limited evidence exists about successful servicelearning programs that administer preventive health services in nonclinical settings. The Flu Crew program, started in 2001 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provides preclinical medical students with opportunities to administer influenza immunizations in the local community. Medical students consider Flu Crew to be an important part of their medical education that cannot be learned in the classroom. Through delivering vaccines to where people live, eat, work, and pray, Flu Crew teaches medical students about patient care, preventive medicine, and population health needs. Additionally, Flu Crew allows students to work with several partners in the community in order to understand how various stakeholders improve the delivery of population health services. Flu Crew teaches students how to address common vaccination myths and provides insights into implementing public health interventions. This article describes the Stanford Flu Crew curriculum, outlines the planning needed to organize immunization events, shares findings from medical students' attitudes about population health, highlights the program's outcomes, and summarizes the lessons learned. This article suggests that Flu Crew is an example of one viable service-learning modality that supports influenza vaccinations in nonclinical settings while simultaneously benefiting future clinicians. PMID:26170731

  5. Healthy Bodies, Toxic Medicines: College Students and the Rhetorics of Flu Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Heidi Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines flu vaccination beliefs and practices produced during a survey of undergraduate students in Spring 2012 (IRB#10-732). This research uses the methods of rhetorical analysis — or the study of persuasive features and arguments used in language — to examine statements respondents made regarding flu and flu vaccine. In these responses, students generated unique categories of arguments about the perceived dangers of flu vaccination, including the assertion that vaccines cause disease (including illnesses and conditions other than flu), that vaccines are toxic medicines, and that vaccines carry unknown, population-wide risks that are inadequately acknowledged. This study provides insight into vaccination beliefs and rationales among a population at risk of flu (college students) and suggests that further study of this population may yield important keys to addressing flu vaccine concerns as expressed by college students. Rhetorical analysis also offers a useful set of methods to understanding vaccination beliefs and practices, adding to existing methods of study and analysis of vaccination practices and beliefs in medicine and public health. PMID:25506277

  6. Social Engineering:A Partial Technical attack

    OpenAIRE

    P.S.Maan; Manish Sharma

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests the crystal clear concept behind the social engineering attack. Basically social engineering is a non technical attack. But social engineering attack is an attack on human psychology to get the information, but using what? Basically it is an attack on human psychology by using some technical skills or technology. Social engineering attack has many types like fake mail, telephonic cheat etc. which are impossible without any technical skills, so in this paper we suggest that...

  7. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-01

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  8. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size

  9. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco-Garcia Samir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violent death in the world and the first of disability. Many risk factors favor the presentation of these events and some of them are susceptible of modification and therfore are objetives of primary prevention just as the control of diabetes, hypertension and the practice of healthy habits of life. The advances in the knowledge of the physiopatology, had taken to sustantial change in the nomenclature and management of ischemic ACS. Within these changes it was substituted the term cerebrovascular accident fo acute stroke, making emphasis in the key rol of a timely management with goals of time similiar to the acute coronary syndrome. It was redefined the time of acute ischemic attack to a one hour. Once stablished the cerebrovascular attack the semiology of symtoms with frecuency will led us make a topographic diagnosis of the in injury that joined to the cerebral TAC will allow us to exclude an hemorragic event and to start the treatment. In the management of these patients its essential the coordination of the differents teams of work, from the early recognition of symtoms on the part of patients andthe family, the rapid activation and response of emergency systems and the gearing of health care institutions. Are pillars of treatment: the abcde of reanimatiion, to avoid the hiperpirexis, the seizures, the hipoglicemy, the hiperglicemy, to achieve the thrombolysis in the first three hours of the begining of symtoms, to use antiplatelets, antithrombotic profilaxis

  10. Panic Attacks and Panic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, Rejean; Beaudry, Paul

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of panic attacks and panic disorders have progressed markedly during the last decade. Unlike phobic disorders, the key feature of panic disorders is the many panic attacks that are mostly spontaneous or not caused by a particular situation. Recent studies linking its pathogenesis with lactate infusion tests are reviewed. For treatment, psychotherapy combined with in vivo exposure and pharmacotherapy is more efficacious than either treatment alone. In most cases, ps...

  11. Impersonation Attack on EKE Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Shirisha Tallapally

    2010-01-01

    The key exchange protocol is one of the most elegant ways of establishing secure communication between pair of users by using a session key. The passwords are of low entropy, hence the protocol should resist all types of password guessing attacks. Recently ECC-3PEKE protocol has been proposed by Chang and Chang. They claimed the protocol is secure, efficient and practical. Unless their claims Yoon and Yoo presented an Undetectable online password guessing attack on the above protocol. A key r...

  12. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Bigal Marcelo; Brawn Jennifer; Pendse Gautam; Nutile Lauren; Becerra Lino; Maleki Nasim; Burstein Rami; Borsook David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unr...

  13. Social Engineering:A Partial Technical attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Maan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests the crystal clear concept behind the social engineering attack. Basically social engineering is a non technical attack. But social engineering attack is an attack on human psychology to get the information, but using what? Basically it is an attack on human psychology by using some technical skills or technology. Social engineering attack has many types like fake mail, telephonic cheat etc. which are impossible without any technical skills, so in this paper we suggest that , it is a partial technical attack and can be divided in human based and typical computer based social engineering attack.

  14. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  15. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M;

    2015-01-01

    . Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest...

  16. OFFLU Network on Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Steven

    2006-01-01

    OFFLU is the name of the network of avian influenza expertise inaugurated jointly in 2005 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health. Achievements and constraints to date and plans for the future are described.

  17. Avian Influenza: Our current understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) has become one of the most important diseases of the poultry industry around the world. The virus has a broad host range in birds and mammals, although the natural reservoir is considered to be in wild birds where it typically causes an asymptomatic to mild infection. T...

  18. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  19. The Evaluations of Swine Flu Magnitudes in TV News: A Comparative Analysis of Paired Influenza Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Po-Lin; Meng, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how major TV news networks covered two flu pandemics in 1976 and 2009 in terms of news frames, mortality exemplars, mortality subject attributes, vaccination, evaluation approaches, and news sources. Results showed that the first pandemic was frequently framed with the medical/scientific and political/legal issues, while the second pandemic was emphasized with the health risk issue in TV news. Both flu pandemics were regularly reported with mortality exemplars, but the focus in the first pandemic was on the flu virus threat and vaccination side effects, while the vaccination shortage was frequently revealed in the second outbreak. PMID:26075542

  20. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu")

    OpenAIRE

    Neto Felix; Haque Shamsul; Goodwin Robin; Myers Lynn B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert l...

  1. Influenza A H1N1 2009 (Swine Flu) and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Boon H.; Mahmood, Tahir A.

    2011-01-01

    The Influenza A H1N1 pandemic (A H1N1) occurred between June 2009 and August 2010. Although the pandemic is now over, the virus has emerged as the predominant strain in the current seasonal influenza phase in the northern hemisphere. The A H1N1 influenza is a novel strain of the influenza A virus and is widely known as swine flu. The virus contains a mixture of genetic material from human, pig and bird flu virus. It is a new variety of flu which people have not had much immunity to. Much has ...

  2. PHA urges parents to get 'at risk' children vaccinated against seasonal flu

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    The Public Health Agency is urging Northern Ireland parents to make sure children in 'at risk' groups get their flu vaccine early.The message has been issued to parents and carers of children as the PHA's seasonal flu vaccination programme gets underway for 2011/12.It is very important that children with any condition that puts them more at risk of the complications of flu get the vaccine.These 'at risk' conditions include:chronic lung conditions such as asthma;chest infections that have requ...

  3. 4价流感活疫苗FluMist(R)Quadrivalent%The quadrivalent live influenza vaccine FluMist(R) Quadrivalent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗玉发; 李波

    2012-01-01

    鼻用型4价流感活疫苗FluMist(R) Quadrivalent是在3价流感活疫苗FluMist基础上加入另一种乙型流感病毒株组合而成.2012年2月29日,美国FDA批准其用于预防2~49岁人群的季节性流行性感冒.文中对其非临床毒理学研究、药效学、临床研究、药物相互作用以及禁忌症等作一综述.%FluMist(R) Quadrivalent is a live intranasal influenza vaccine consisting of trivalent vaccine FluMist and another type B influenza virus. On 29th Febuary, 2012, the vaccine was approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration to prevent seasonal influenza in the population aged 2 ~49. The nonclinical toxicology, phar-macodynamics, clinical studies, drug interactions and contraindications of FluMist(R) Quadrivalent were reviewed in this paper.

  4. HEALTH CARE DATA WAREHOUSE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR INFLUENZA (FLU DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Dutta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Data Warehouse is the most reliable technology used by the company for planning, forecasting and management. Critical business management data was contained in several unrelated and disconnected databases, both internally managed and from external sources. Client was unable to view the data from an integrated viewpoint. The data warehousing is one of the best technique to integrate data. This paper presents the Influenza (Flu diseases specific data warehouse architecture for health care. This could be used by the database administrator or executive manager, doctors, nurses, other staff members of the health care. Health care data warehouse is mostly important to integrate different data format from different data source. All information about patient including their medical test reports are store in the database, the executive manager needs to access those data and make a report. By seeing the report, the doctor takes action.

  5. Flu pandemics: homeopathic prophylaxis and definition of the epidemic genius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Marino

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on viral genetics establish swine-H1N1 – responsible for the ongoing pandemics – as a remainder or continuation of the agent causing the flu epidemics of 1918. This study aimed at analyzing whether this common etiology also result in significant correlations of clinical manifestations. To do so, data were collected to compare the clinical evolution of cases in the 1918 and 2009 epidemics.  This historical revision was the ground for evaluating the response to treatment including homeopathy in the former epidemics. It is discussed the convenience of including homeopathic prophylaxis grounded on the diagnosis of the epidemic genius among public health actions.

  6. Got the Flu (or Mumps)? Check the Eigenvalue!

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, B Aditya; Faloutsos, Michalis; Valler, Nicholas; Faloutsos, Christos

    2010-01-01

    For a given, arbitrary graph, what is the epidemic threshold? That is, under what conditions will a virus result in an epidemic? We provide the super-model theorem, which generalizes older results in two important, orthogonal dimensions. The theorem shows that (a) for a wide range of virus propagation models (VPM) that include all virus propagation models in standard literature (say, [8][5]), and (b) for any contact graph, the answer always depends on the first eigenvalue of the connectivity matrix. We give the proof of the theorem, arithmetic examples for popular VPMs, like flu (SIS), mumps (SIR), SIRS and more. We also show the implications of our discovery: easy (although sometimes counter-intuitive) answers to `what-if' questions; easier design and evaluation of immunization policies, and significantly faster agent-based simulations.

  7. VoIP Malware: Attack Tool & Attack Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Nassar, Mohamed; State, Radu; Festor, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    With the appearance of new Internet services like Voice over IP and IP television, malwares are in the way to update and extend their targets. In this paper, we discuss the emergence of a new generation of malwares attacking VoIP infrastructures and services. Such malwares constitute a real threat to the currently deployed VoIP architectures without strong security measures in place. We present one implemented environment that can be used to evaluate such attacks. Our ``VoIP bots'' support a ...

  8. Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html CDC review information for Inactivated Influenza VIS: ...

  9. Google flu trends: correlation with emergency department influenza rates and crowding metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Trish Perl; Richard Rothman; Darren Mareiniss; Amir Mohareb; Yu-Hsiang Hsieh; Scott Levin; Jesse Pines; Andrea Dugas; Charlotte Gaydos

    2011-01-01

    City-level Google Flu Trends, a novel Internet-based influenza surveillance tool, shows strong correlation with influenza cases, emergency department influenzalike illness visits, and several emergency department crowding measures, validating its use as an emergency department surveillance tool.

  10. A Natural Product as Drug Lead against both SARS and Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with colleagues of Singapore Polytechnic, CAS scientists have discovered a natural product from fruits that could be a drug lead to battle both severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and flu viruses.

  11. JouFLU: upgrades to the fiber linked unit for optical recombination (FLUOR) interferometric beam combiner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, N. J.; Lhomé, E.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.

    2014-07-01

    The Fiber Linked Unit for Optical Recombination (FLUOR) is a precision interferometric beam combiner operating at the CHARA Array on Mt. Wilson, CA. It has recently been upgraded as part of a mission known as "Jouvence of FLUOR" or JouFLU. As part of this program JouFLU has new mechanic stages and optical payloads, new alignment systems, and new command/control software. Furthermore, new capabilities have been implemented such as a Fourier Transform Spectrograph (FTS) mode and spectral dispersion mode. These upgrades provide new capabilities to JouFLU as well as improving statistical precision and increasing observing efficiency. With these new systems, measurements of interferometric visibility to the level of 0.1% precision are expected on targets as faint as 6th magnitude in the K band. Here we detail the upgrades of JouFLU and report on its current status.

  12. Transfection by DNAs of avian erythroblastosis virus and avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29.

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, N G; Cooper, G M

    1980-01-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 mouse cells were transformable by DNAs of chicken cells infected with avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29 or with avian erythroblastosis virus. Transfection of chicken cells appeared to require replication of MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus in the presence of a nontransforming helper virus. In contrast, NIH 3T3 cells transformed by MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus DNA contained only replication-defective transforming virus genomes.

  13. RESIST SRP AGAINST WORMHOLE ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks refer to temporary or interim networks which form for special purposes. Actually they are wireless networks with mobile nodes. These networks use no network assisting element for path routing and in these networks available nodes are responsible for path routing. Therefore when malicious nodes want to find a way to interfere with the path routing then the existence of a secure route protocol (SRP can prevent the interference. SRP protocol is one of the secure algorithms of path routing protocol but it is notresistant against wormhole attack. Wormhole attack is considered as a subtle attack in which two malicious nodes make a short connection in network's topology through private or implicit connection and represent two non neighbor nodes as neighbors and prevent the correctoperation of path routing protocol by using this method. One of the methods of preventing wormhole attack is by using packet leashes. We try to decrease the wormhole attack occurrence in this routing protocol by a kind of packet leashes called temporal leashes. We alsowill minimize problems resulting from using temporal leashes by different methods and modifications in its structure.

  14. Medicinal plants indicated for flu and colds in the South of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marjoriê da Costa Mendieta; Rita Maria Heck; Silvana Ceolin; Andrieli Daiane Zdanski de Souza; Natália Rosiely Costa Vargas; Manuelle Arias Piriz; Anelise Miritz Borges

    2015-01-01

    We sought to know the medicinal plants used for flu and colds by farmers from the South of Rio Grande do Sul State and to compare it with scientific evidence. This descriptive study was conducted with 12 farmers living at Ilha dos Marinheiros, in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We used descriptive analysis, comparing the results with the scientific literature. Thirteen plants were cited as used for cold and flu: Achyrocline satureioides, Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicu...

  15. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review

    OpenAIRE

    Narayana Manjunatha; Suresh Bada Math; Girish Baburao Kulkarni; Santosh Kumar Chaturvedi

    2011-01-01

    The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ′PUBMED′ to search for published articles with differen...

  16. ClassyFlu: Classification of Influenza A Viruses with Discriminatively Trained Profile-HMMs

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Auwera, Sandra; Bulla, Ingo; Ziller, Mario; Pohlmann, Anne; Harder, Timm; Stanke, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and rapid characterization of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sequences with respect to subtype and clade is at the basis of extended diagnostic services and implicit to molecular epidemiologic studies. ClassyFlu is a new tool and web service for the classification of IAV sequences of the HA and NA gene into subtypes and phylogenetic clades using discriminatively trained profile hidden Markov models (HMMs), one for each subtype or clade. ClassyFlu me...

  17. The biotherapics Influenzinum and Oscilococcinum in the treatment of influenza virus flu

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Monteiro Siqueira; Carla Holandino; Ana Luiza Marques de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The influenza virus flu is a widespread illness which is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths annually. About 20% of children and 5% of adults are infected with this virus every year. The disease is highly contagious and its transmission occurs by saliva particles of the infected person, expelled by breathing, talking and coughing [1]. Flu pandemics are generally caused by the appearance of a new subtype of the virus in humans, which occurs as a result of the existing...

  18. Chymotrypsin and trypsin sensitivities of avian reoviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Drastini, Y; McKenna, P K; Kibenge, F S; Lopez, A

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to examine the chymotrypsin sensitivity and trypsin sensitivity of 13 avian reoviruses, and to determine if there was any correlation with pathogenicity of some chicken reoviruses. A wide variation in the degree of sensitivity of avian reoviruses to chymotrypsin and trypsin was observed. Overall, the infectivity of the 13 avian reoviruses for Vero cells was markedly reduced by treatment with 0.01% chymotrypsin (the lowest concentration tested) while 0.5% trypsin si...

  19. A Review on “Kapa Sura Kudineer”-A Siddha Formulary Prediction for Swine Flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillaivanan. S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Siddha medicine is one of the oldest medical systems in the world. This system is most commonly practicing in India especially in southern regions. Siddha medicines become popular nowadays because of various outbreaks of communicable and very infectious diseases like chikungunya, dengue, swine flu etc. These diseases of viral origin are very challenge to the modern world because of lack of ideal anti-viral therapy. Pandemic flu is different from ordinary flu because it’s a new flu virus that appears in humans and spreads very quickly from person to person worldwide. Because it’s a new virus, no one will have immunity to it and everyone could be at risk of catching it. This includes healthy adults as well as older people, young children and those with existing medical conditions. The polyherbal decoction Kapa Sura Kudineer (KSK is a well-known one in this series next to Nilavembu kudineer (NVK. This KSK is introduced for the prevention and the management of Swine flu. And the people of Tamil Nadu are very attentive about this Siddha drug KSK because to prevent and protect from the deadly life threatening disease, Swine flu. Here, an attempt has been made to review the explored ethno pharmacological activities of the ingredients of KSK to strengthen the scientific facts favoring this formulation.

  20. Isoniazid-induced flu-like syndrome: A rare side effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Pandit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced flu-like syndrome is very rare. It is mainly produced by rifampicin. We report a case of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB that developed isoniazid-induced flu-like syndrome, but could be cured with a modified regimen replacing isoniazid with levofloxacin. A 10-year-old girl with PTB was treated with isoniazid (H, rifampicin (R, ethambutol (E, and pyrazinamide (Z. She developed features of flu from the sixth day. Symptoms recurred everyday within 1 h of drug ingestion and subsided automatically by next 12 h. After admission, HREZ were continued. She developed symptoms of flu after 1 h of drug ingestion. Antitubercular therapy (ATT was stopped and symptoms subsided automatically. Individual drug was started one by one after three days. Severe symptoms of flu developed after taking isoniazid, while other drugs were tolerated well. Levofloxacin was used as an alternative to isoniazid. She was cured after 6 months of chemotherapy. Isoniazid can possibly cause flu-like syndrome and the treating physician should be aware of this possible side effect when using ATT.

  1. Waiting for the flu: cognitive inertia and the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This study looks at public awareness and understanding of the Spanish flu in the United States between June 1918, when the flu became "Spanish," and the end of September when the deadly second wave reached the majority of the country. Based on an extensive reading of local newspapers, it finds a near universal lack of preparation or panic or other signs of personal concern among those in the unaffected areas, despite extensive and potentially worrying coverage of the flu's progress. The normal reaction to news of the inexorable approach of a pandemic of uncertain virulence is anxiety and action. The Spanish flu produced neither in the uninfected areas for a month. The most likely reason appears to be cognitive inertia-the tendency of existing beliefs or habits of thought to blind people to changed realities. This inertia grew out of the widespread understanding of flu as a seasonal visitor that while frequently unpleasant almost never killed the strong and otherwise healthy. This view of the flu was powerful enough that it blinded many in the unaffected regions to the threat for weeks even in the face of daily or near daily coverage of the pandemic's spread. PMID:24957069

  2. Knowledge and Awareness of Eye Flu among the Dentists and Dental Auxiliaries of Udaipur City, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva and has 4 main causes-viruses, bacteria, allergens, and irritants. Among these, bacterial conjunctivitis is most common and is contagious, especially when the dentist is working with the infected person, and that person spreads the same to the other patient. Methods: A pretested questionnaire survey was conducted among 152 subjects (those who were present at the time of survey aged 18 to 60 years of Udaipur city, Rajasthan in March 2012. Ethical clearance was obtained from relevant authority. Written informed consent was obtained from study participants. Results: All (80 dentists and 72 dental auxiliaries the subjects returned the questionnaire. Regarding previous experience of eye flu, 67 (44.08% participants reported that they had been infected with eye flu previously. Majority 123 (80.92% of participants agreed that virus or bacteria caused eye flu. Majority of 145 (95.39% of the participants agreed that the eye turns red during eye flu. One hundred and twenty three (80.92% subjects replied that the dental treatment for a patient infected with eye flu should be delayed till the symptoms subside. Conclusions: Eye flu being an occupational hazard among dentists, personal ophthalmic prophylactic care is a must which helps in prevention of spread of infection to other patients and family members.

  3. Knowledge and Awareness of Eye Flu among the Dentists and Dental Auxiliaries of Udaipur City, Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Nagesh; Patel, Rahul; Reddy, Jaddu Jyothirmai; Singh, Sopan; Sharma, Ashish; Multani, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva and has 4 main causes-viruses, bacteria, allergens, and irritants. Among these, bacterial conjunctivitis is most common and is contagious, especially when the dentist is working with the infected person, and that person spreads the same to the other patient. Methods: A pretested questionnaire survey was conducted among 152 subjects (those who were present at the time of survey) aged 18 to 60 years of Udaipur city, Rajasthan in March 2012. Ethical clearance was obtained from relevant authority. Written informed consent was obtained from study participants. Results: All (80 dentists and 72 dental auxiliaries) the subjects returned the questionnaire. Regarding previous experience of eye flu, 67 (44.08%) participants reported that they had been infected with eye flu previously. Majority 123 (80.92%) of participants agreed that virus or bacteria caused eye flu. Majority of 145 (95.39%) of the participants agreed that the eye turns red during eye flu. One hundred and twenty three (80.92%) subjects replied that the dental treatment for a patient infected with eye flu should be delayed till the symptoms subside. Conclusions: Eye flu being an occupational hazard among dentists, personal ophthalmic prophylactic care is a must which helps in prevention of spread of infection to other patients and family members. PMID:25105007

  4. The United Kingdom 2009 Swine Flu Outbreak As Recorded in Real Time by General Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershel Jick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Initially the course of the 2009 swine flu pandemic was uncertain and impossible to predict with any confidence. An effective prospective data resource exists in the United Kingdom (UK that could have been utilized to describe the scope and extent of the swine flu outbreak as it unfolded. We describe the 2009 swine flu outbreak in the UK as recorded daily by general practitioners and the potential use of this database for real-time tracking of flu outbreaks. Methods. Using the General Practice Research Database, a real-time general practice, electronic database, we estimated influenza incidence from July 1998 to September 2009 according to age, region, and calendar time. Results. From 1998 to2008, influenza outbreaks regularly occurred yearly from October to March, but did not typically occur from April to September until the swine flu outbreak began in April 2009. The weekly incidence rose gradually, peaking at the end of July, and the outbreak had largely dissipated by early September. Conclusions. The UK swine flu outbreak, recorded in real time by a large group of general practitioners, was mild and limited in time. Simultaneous online access seemed feasible and could have provided additional clinical-based evidence at an early planning stage of the outbreak.

  5. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    N.L.P.I Dharmayanti; R Damayanti; R Indriani; A Wiyono; R.M.A Adjid

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1). Mo...

  6. Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine as a Rapid-Response Tool Against Avian Influenza Pandemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influenza viruses in nature undergo genetic mutation and reassortment. Three pandemics of avian influenza in man were recorded in the twentieth century. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses currently in circulation pose a threat for another world-wide pandemic, if they become transmissible from man to man. Manufacturing protective vaccines using current egg-based technology is often difficult due to the virulence of the virus and its adverse effects on the embryonating egg substrate. New technologies allow the creation of safe and protective pandemic influenza vaccines without the need for egg based substrates. These technologies allow new vaccines to be created in less than one month. Manufacturing is in tissue culture, not eggs. Vaccine can be administered to man non-invasively, without adjuvants, eliciting a rapid and protective immune response. Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 and H5N2 HPAI virus challenges. Mass-administration of this bird flu vaccine can be streamlined with available robotic in ovo injectors. Vaccination using this vaccine could protect the the largest host reservoir (chickens) and greatly reduce the exposure of man to avian influenza. In addition, Ad5-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly and the safety margin of a non-replicating vector is superior to that of a replicating counterpart. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural AI virus infections. In addition to mass immunization of poultry, both animals and humans have been effectively immunized by intranasal administration of Ad5-vectored influenza vaccines without any appreciable side effects, even in mice and human volunteers with

  7. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan. M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in humans. There is no evidence, to date that efficient human to human transmission of H5N1 strain has occurred and very often. Efficient transmission among humans is a key property of pandemic strains and a property that the avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses apparently lacked. The biological and molecular basis for effective aerosol transmission among humans is not known. The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig.Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread. The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action, if detected sufficiently early. As the number of human infections grows, the risk increases that a new virus subtype could emerge, triggering an influenza pandemic. Humans as well as swine must now be considered a potential mixing vessel for the generation of such a virus. This link between widespread infection in poultry and increased risk of human

  8. Climate change and avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Marius; Slingenbergh, Jan; Xiao, Xiangming

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses impacts of climate change on the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AI viruses), which presumably co-evolved with migratory water birds, with virus also persisting outside the host in subarctic water bodies. Climate change would almost certainly alter bird migration, influence the AI virus transmission cycle and directly affect virus survival outside the host. The joint, net effects of these changes are rather unpredictable, but it is likely that AI virus circulation in ...

  9. Simulating Avian Wingbeats and Wakes

    OpenAIRE

    Parslew, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Analytical models of avian flight have previously been used to predict mechanical and metabolic power consumption during cruise. These models are limited, in that they neglect details of wing kinematics, and model power by assuming a fixed or rotary wing (actuator disk) weight support mechanism. Theoretical methods that incorporate wing kinematics potentially offer more accurate predictions of power consumption by calculating instantaneous aerodynamic loads on the wing. However, the success o...

  10. Avian zoonoses – a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kozdruń Wojciech; Czekaj Hanna; Styś Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other h...

  11. Avian zoonoses – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdruń Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other hazardous bacterial factors, Salmonella and Campylobacter are responsible for gastrointestinal diseases. Avian influenza is the most dangerous of the viral diseases. It should be noted, however, that avian influenza is a disease of birds, not humans. The recent threat which has appeared is infection with West Nile virus. The results of serological examinations of birds and humans indicate that the virus exists in our ecosystem. Allergic alveolitis connected with the pigeon tick and the Dermanyssus gallinae mite also merits mention. In any case, where people have contact with birds or their droppings and secretions, special precautions should be taken. This way the negative effects of birds on human health can be minimised or eliminated

  12. Does Work Stress Predict the Occurrence of Cold, Flu and Minor Illness Symptoms in Clinical Psychology Trainees?

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Anna C; Sheffield, David

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the three/four-day lagged relationship between daily work stress and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and other minor illness symptoms. Methods: Twenty-four postgraduate clinical psychology trainees completed work stress, cold/flu symptoms and somatic symptoms checklists daily for four weeks. Results: Increases in work stress were observed two days prior to a cold/flu episode but not three or four days preceding a cold/flu episode. Work stress wa...

  13. 高度警惕禽流感的蔓延%Pay More Attention to the Spread of Avian Influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆如山

    2004-01-01

    禽流感(Avian influenza,Bird flu)是禽鸟流行性感冒的简称,它是A型禽流感病毒所引起的禽类的一种急性高度致死性传染病。鸡、鸭、鸽和火鸡等家禽及野鸟、水禽等均可感染。禽流感病毒可能已存世上存在多年。研究人员发现,1918年流感病毒的基因片段与1976年猪流感及1997年香港禽流感和人流感大流行的基因相似,这几次人规模传染病的发生都打破了物种的界限。

  14. Automated Generation of Attack Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    Attack trees are widely used to represent threat scenarios in a succinct and intuitive manner, suitable for conveying security information to non-experts. The manual construction of such objects relies on the creativity and experience of specialists, and therefore it is error-prone and impractica...

  15. Television Journalism During Terror Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    This article views television news coverage of ongoing terrorist attacks and their immediate aftermath as a special genre within journalism, and describes norms connected with the genre. The description is based on qualitative analyses of the coverage on the major American networks in the fi rst ...

  16. Television journalism during terror attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    This article views television news coverage of ongoing terrorist attacks and their immediate aftermath as a special genre within journalism, and describes norms connected with the genre. The description is based on qualitative analyses of the coverage on major American networks the first 24 hours...

  17. FLOODING ATTACK AWARE SECURE AODV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Madhavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing security in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a challenging task due to its inherent nature. Flooding is a type of Denial of Service (DoS attack in MANET. Intentional flooding may lead to disturbances in the networking operation. This kind of attack consumes battery power, storage space and bandwidth. Flooding the excessive number of packets may degrade the performance of the network. This study considers hello flooding attack. As the hello packets are continuously flooded by the malicious node, the neighbor node is not able to process other packets. The functioning of the legitimate node is diverted and destroys the networking operation. Absence of hello packet during the periodical hello interval may lead to wrong assumption that the neighbor node has moved away. So one of the intermediate neighbor nodes sends Route Error (RERR message and the source node reinitiates the route discovery process. In a random fashion the hello interval values are changed and convey this information to other nodes in the network in a secured manner. This study identifies and prevents the flooding attack. This methodology considers the performance parameters such as packet delivery ratio, delay and throughput. This algorithm is implemented in Secure AODV and tested in ad hoc environment. The result of the proposed algorithm decreases the control overhead by 2%.

  18. The Timing of Terrorist Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number of a...

  19. Clinical Evaluation of the ZstatFlu-II Test: a Chemiluminescent Rapid Diagnostic Test for Influenza Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Marilyn S.; Abel, David M.; Ballam, Yolanda J.; Otto, Mary K.; Nickell, Angela F.; Pence, Lisa M.; Appleman, James R.; Shimasaki, Craig D.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.

    2002-01-01

    Exploiting the high sensitivity of the chemiluminescence phenomenon, an accurate and sensitive point-of-care test, called the ZstatFlu-II test (ZymeTx, Inc., Oklahoma City, Okla.), was developed to detect influenza virus infections. The ZstatFlu-II test takes 20 min and requires approximately 2 min of “hands-on” time for operational steps. The ZstatFlu-II test does not distinguish between infections with influenza virus types A and B. ZstatFlu-II test results are printed on Polaroid High-Spee...

  20. Inoculation Policies in Response to Terrorist or WMD Attacks: Additional Factors to Consider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When viewed on its own merits, the debate over who should be inoculated during a period of biological emergency is a rather straightforward public policy decision. The classic public policy 'balancing act' decision-making model is defaulted to as issues of fairness, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, adequacy of supply, mission performance, and constituencies are arrayed and adjudicated. This mainstream approach is appropriate as far as it goes but it also exemplifies a series of structural and perceptual weaknesses when applied to wartime or localized terrorism scenarios. In fact, the establishment of a vaccination policy appropriate to a flu pandemic falls squarely within this mainstream debate. Although the notion of a pandemic carries an assumption of a great many fatalities it does not possess the fear quotient, uncertainty, horror, unnaturalness, or inevitability of a bio-terror or biological warfare incident. As a result, the reliability and responsiveness of key personnel responding to a flu pandemic should be less of an issue than it will be in the event of an intentional man-made biological incident. The principal policy weakness in instances an intentional bio-attack stems from a generalized failure, or refusal, to systematically study the behavior of key personnel, first-responders, soldiers, or critical senior leadership during severe crises occurring in their own backyards. In other words, when the 'balloon goes up' how many of your responders and critical personnel will show up for work? This presentation considers many of the 'unaddressed' factors that experience has shown may have a determinative effect upon the efficacy of a response to a biological incident. Lessons are drawn from experiences of US forces station in the former West Germany, US Defense Department Continuity of Operations Programs, Hurricane Katrina, and the 9/11 attacks on the United States. (author)

  1. Inoculation Policies in Response to BW Attacks: Additional Factors to Consider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When viewed on its own merits, the debate over who should be inoculated during a period of biological emergency is a rather straightforward public policy decision. The classic public policy 'balancing act' decision-making model is defaulted to as issues of fairness, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, adequacy of supply, mission performance, and constituencies are arrayed and adjudicated. This mainstream approach is appropriate as far as it goes but it also exemplifies a series of structural and perceptual weaknesses when applied to wartime or localized terrorism scenarios. In fact, the establishment of a vaccination policy appropriate to a flu pandemic falls squarely within this mainstream debate. Although the notion of a pandemic carries an assumption of a great many fatalities it does not possess the fear quotient, uncertainty, horror, unnaturalness, or inevitability of a bio-terror or biological warfare incident. As a result, the reliability and responsiveness of key personnel responding to a flu pandemic should be less of an issue than it will be in the event of an intentional man-made biological incident. The principal policy weakness in instances an intentional bio-attack stems from a generalized failure, or refusal, to systematically study the behavior of key personnel, first-responders, soldiers, or critical senior leadership during severe crises occurring in their own backyards. In other words, when the 'balloon goes up' how many of your responders and critical personnel will show up for work? This presentation considers many of the 'unaddressed' factors that experience has shown may have a determinative effect upon the efficacy of a response to a biological incident. Lessons are drawn from experiences of US forces station in the former West Germany, US Defense Department Continuity of Operations Programs, Hurricane Katrina, and the 9/11 attacks on the United States. (author)

  2. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Virus Avian Influenza Subtipe H5N1 pada Unggas di Pasar Tradisional Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farikhul Ulum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Meningkatnya kasus infeksi virus Avian Influenza (AI subtipe H5N1 atau lebih dikenal dengan flu burung yang menyebabkan kematian pada manusia sangat dikhawatirkan dapat menular dari manusia ke manusia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan isolat virus Avian Influenza subtipe H5N1 pada unggas yang diperjualbelikan di pasar tradisional di Semarang. Sebanyak 55 sampel usap kloaka diambil dari unggas sehat dan belum divaksin di 6 pasar tradisional Kota Semarang. Inokulum ditumbuhkan pada telur ayam berembrio specific pathogen free (TAB-SPF umur sembilan hari. Kemudian telur diinkubasikan selama 4 hari. Cairan alantois dipanen dan diuji kemampuannya mengaglutinasi sel darah merah. Cairan alantois yang menunjukkan aktivitas hemaglutinasi, selanjutnya diekstraksi RNA-nya dan diidentifikasi VAI subtipe H5N1 dengan metode Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR menggunakan primer spesifik H5 dan primer N1. Kemudian DNA hasil RT-PCR dianalisis dengan teknik elektroforesis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 4 isolat positif VAI subtipe H5N1 dengan sebaran 2 isolat dari sampel yang berasal dari pasar Mangkang, 1 isolat dari pasar Rejomulyo dan 1 isolat dari pasar Karimata. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dan pembahasan dapat disimpulkan bahwa unggas yang diperjualbelikan di pasar tradisional di Kota Semarang ada yang terinfeksi VAI subtipe H5N1.The increasing cases of viral infection of Avian Influenza (AI H5N1 subtype or more commonly known as bird flu that causes death in humans very feared to spread from human to human. The aim of this research was to obtain isolates of Avian Influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 that marketable in traditional markets in Semarang. A total of 55 cloacal swab samples taken from healthy and unvaccinated fowl in the 6 traditional market in Semarang. Inoculum was grown in embryonated chicken eggs specific pathogen free (SPF TAB nine days. Then the eggs were incubated for 4 days. Allantoic fluids were

  3. Performance of attack strategies on modular networks

    CERN Document Server

    da Cunha, Bruno Requião

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerabilities of complex networks have became a trend topic in complex systems recently due to its real world applications. Most real networks tend to be very fragile to high betweenness adaptive attacks. However, recent contributions have shown the importance of interconnected nodes in the integrity of networks and module-based attacks have appeared promising when compared to traditional malicious non-adaptive attacks. In the present work we deeply explore the trade-off associated with attack procedures, introducing a generalized robustness measure and presenting an attack performance index that takes into account both robustness of the network against the attack and the run-time needed to obtained the list of targeted nodes for the attack. Besides, we introduce the concept of deactivation point aimed to mark the point at which the network stops to function properly. We then show empirically that non-adaptive module-based attacks perform better than high degree and betweenness adaptive attacks in networks ...

  4. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings deflect bird attacks under low light intensities with UV wavelengths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predators preferentially attack vital body parts to avoid prey escape. Consequently, prey adaptations that make predators attack less crucial body parts are expected to evolve. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings have long been thought to have this deflective, but hitherto undemonstrated function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that a butterfly, Lopinga achine, with broad-spectrum reflective white scales in its marginal eyespot pupils deceives a generalist avian predator, the blue tit, to attack the marginal eyespots, but only under particular conditions-in our experiments, low light intensities with a prominent UV component. Under high light intensity conditions with a similar UV component, and at low light intensities without UV, blue tits directed attacks towards the butterfly head. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In nature, birds typically forage intensively at early dawn, when the light environment shifts to shorter wavelengths, and the contrast between the eyespot pupils and the background increases. Among butterflies, deflecting attacks is likely to be particularly important at dawn when low ambient temperatures make escape by flight impossible, and when insectivorous birds typically initiate another day's search for food. Our finding that the deflective function of eyespots is highly dependent on the ambient light environment helps explain why previous attempts have provided little support for the deflective role of marginal eyespots, and we hypothesize that the mechanism that we have discovered in our experiments in a laboratory setting may function also in nature when birds forage on resting butterflies under low light intensities.

  5. Outbreak patterns of the novel avian influenza (H7N9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ya-Nan; Lou, Jing-Jing; Han, Xiao-Pu

    2014-05-01

    The attack of novel avian influenza (H7N9) in East China caused a serious health crisis and public panic. In this paper, we empirically analyze the onset patterns of human cases of the novel avian influenza and observe several spatial and temporal properties that are similar to other infectious diseases. More specifically, using the empirical analysis and modeling studies, we find that the spatio-temporal network that connects the cities with human cases along the order of outbreak timing emerges two-regime-power-law edge-length distribution, indicating the picture that several islands with higher and heterogeneous risk straggle in East China. The proposed method is applicable to the analysis of the spreading situation in the early stage of disease outbreak using quite limited dataset.

  6. Network robustness under large-scale attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Qing; Liu, Ruifang

    2012-01-01

    Network Robustness under Large-Scale Attacks provides the analysis of network robustness under attacks, with a focus on large-scale correlated physical attacks. The book begins with a thorough overview of the latest research and techniques to analyze the network responses to different types of attacks over various network topologies and connection models. It then introduces a new large-scale physical attack model coined as area attack, under which a new network robustness measure is introduced and applied to study the network responses. With this book, readers will learn the necessary tools to

  7. Generic attack approaches for industrial control systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, David P.

    2006-01-01

    This report suggests a generic set of attack approaches that are expected to be used against Industrial Control Systems that have been built according to a specific reference model for control systems. The posed attack approaches are ordered by the most desirable, based upon the goal of an attacker. Each attack approach is then graded by the category of adversary that would be capable of utilizing that attack approach. The goal of this report is to identify necessary levels of security required to prevent certain types of attacks against Industrial Control Systems.

  8. Avian influenza and the poultry trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nicita, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Because of high mortality rates, high rates of contagion, and the possibility of cross-species infection to mammals including humans, high pathogenic avian influenza is a major concern both to consumers and producers of poultry. The implications of the avian influenza for international poultry markets are large and include the loss of consumer confidence, loss of competitiveness, loss of m...

  9. Atypical Avian Influenza (H5N1)

    OpenAIRE

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Kitphati, Rungrueng; Thongphubeth, Kanokporn; Patoomanunt, Prisana; Anthanont, Pimjai; Auwanit, Wattana; Thawatsupha, Pranee; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Saeng-Aroon, Siriphan; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Apisarnthanarak, Piyaporn; Storch, Gregory A.; Mundy, Linda M.; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of avian influenza in a patient with fever and diarrhea but no respiratory symptoms. Avian influenza should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly if they have a history of exposure to poultry.

  10. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... (76 FR 4046-4056, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074) an interim rule that amended the regulations governing... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist....

  11. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870’s and avian influenza been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of ...

  12. The global nature of avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their agricultural or anthropocentric production systems. Avian influenza viruses or evidence of their infection have been detected in poultry and wild birds...

  13. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Emily

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.

  14. The biotherapics Influenzinum and Oscilococcinum in the treatment of influenza virus flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Monteiro Siqueira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The influenza virus flu is a widespread illness which is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths annually. About 20% of children and 5% of adults are infected with this virus every year. The disease is highly contagious and its transmission occurs by saliva particles of the infected person, expelled by breathing, talking and coughing [1]. Flu pandemics are generally caused by the appearance of a new subtype of the virus in humans, which occurs as a result of the existing flu in animal species transmitted to humans [2]. Despite the fact there are antiviral drugs, the virus develops mutations, creating resistance to these drugs in few days. Thus, the development of new therapies, including homeopathy, that can prevent and/or treat this disease becomes increasingly necessary. In this scenario, biotherapics appear as drugs that are made from biological products, such as secretions, tissues, organs whose compounding follows the homeopathic pharmacopeia. Objective: This study is a literature review on the treatment of flu with biotherapics used in clinical medicine, namely Influenzinum and Oscilococcinum. Method: Studies on the prescription of biotherapics for the prevention and cure of the flu as well as literature about the history and evolution of Homeopathy were reviewed in the present work. Influenzinum is a biotherapic made from the influenza vaccine from Pasteur Laboratory, while Oscillococcinum is obtained from the lysate of the liver and heart of the goose Anas barbaries. Results: Preliminary results showed that both medicines are widely used in clinical medicine. Influenzinum 9CH is prescribed for flu prevention and treatment, while Oscilococcinum is more used to reduce the severe symptoms in patients who already have the flu. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is possible to say that Influenzinum has a very important role in the prevention and cure of the influenza and Oscilococcinnum is useful in the relief of the

  15. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal RE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rachel E Rizal,1,* Rishi P Mediratta,1,* James Xie,1 Swetha Kambhampati,1 Kelsey Hills-Evans,1 Tamara Montacute,1 Michael Zhang,1 Catherine Zaw,2 Jimmy He,2 Magali Sanchez,2 Lauren Pischel1 1Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 2Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Many national organizations call for medical students to receive more public health education in medical school. Nonetheless, limited evidence exists about successful service-learning programs that administer preventive health services in nonclinical settings. The Flu Crew program, started in 2001 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provides preclinical medical students with opportunities to administer influenza immunizations in the local community. Medical students consider Flu Crew to be an important part of their medical education that cannot be learned in the classroom. Through delivering vaccines to where people live, eat, work, and pray, Flu Crew teaches medical students about patient care, preventive medicine, and population health needs. Additionally, Flu Crew allows students to work with several partners in the community in order to understand how various stakeholders improve the delivery of population health services. Flu Crew teaches students how to address common vaccination myths and provides insights into implementing public health interventions. This article describes the Stanford Flu Crew curriculum, outlines the planning needed to organize immunization events, shares findings from medical students' attitudes about population health, highlights the program’s outcomes, and summarizes the lessons learned. This article suggests that Flu Crew is an example of one viable service-learning modality that supports influenza vaccinations in nonclinical settings while simultaneously benefiting future clinicians. Keywords: immunizations, vaccine delivery, vaccinations 

  16. Can Novel Flu Surveillance Be Conducted With Limited Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Alan; Schulte, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Objective This project was organized to facilitate discussions on whether successful novel flu surveillance can be conducted by jurisdictions with limited resources. The discussions will focus on gathering opinions regarding the best combination of surveillance systems to quickly and efficiently identify the presence of influenza A (H3N2)v and other novel influenza viruses in circulation. Introduction The past decade has witnessed rapid development and implementation of numerous syndromic and other advanced surveillance systems to supplement traditional laboratory testing to identify the presence of novel influenza strains and track the impact on local populations. While much of the development and widespread implementation of these systems had been supported by public health preparedness funding, the loss of these monies has greatly constrained the ability of public health agencies to staff and maintain these systems. The periodic appearance of novel flu viruses, such as H3N2v, requires agencies to carefully choose which systems will provide the most cost-effective data to support their public health practice. Methods This project will be facilitated by an experienced public health practitioner who has conducted surveillance for a variety of disease agents. Additional public health practitioners are being recruited among members of the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) Public Health Practice Committee (PHPC) to contribute information on comparative approaches to cost effective surveillance. Questions were selected for discussion and responses will be collected from influenza surveillance coordinators using a web-based survey tool managed by ISDS staff on behalf of the PHPC. Survey responses and subsequent recommendations will be presented at a PHPC meeting. Results Initial questions selected for the survey tool and subsequent discussions include: What surveillance systems does your agency use for conducting influenza surveillance? Which

  17. Hidden Attacks on Power Grid: Optimal Attack Strategies and Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Deka, Deepjyoti; Baldick, Ross; Vishwanath, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Real time operation of the power grid and synchronism of its different elements require accurate estimation of its state variables. Errors in state estimation will lead to sub-optimal Optimal Power Flow (OPF) solutions and subsequent increase in the price of electricity in the market or, potentially overload and create line outages. This paper studies hidden data attacks on power systems by an adversary trying to manipulate state estimators. The adversary gains control of a few meters, and is...

  18. Molecular patterns of avian influenza A viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; LEI FuMin; WANG ShengYue; ZHOU YanHong; LI TianXian

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses could get across the species barrier and be fatal to humans. Highly patho-genic avian influenza H5N1 virus was an example. The mechanism of interspecies transmission is not clear as yet. In this research, the protein sequences of 237 influenza A viruses with different subtypes were transformed into pseudo-signals. The energy features were extracted by the method of wavelet packet decomposition and used for virus classification by the method of hierarchical clustering. The clustering results showed that five patterns existed in avian influenza A viruses, which associated with the phenotype of interspecies transmission, and that avian viruses with patterns C and E could across species barrier and those with patterns A, B and D might not have the abilities. The results could be used to construct an early warning system to predict the transmissibility of avian influenza A viruses to humans.

  19. Cryoconservation of avian gonads in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversides, F G; Robertson, M C; Liu, J

    2013-10-01

    Avian genetic resources have declined dramatically over the past half century as the cost of maintaining populations has exceeded the perceived benefit of keeping them. Despite the early importance of poultry in the development of cryopreservation techniques, very little avian germplasm has been conserved. Cryopreservation and recovery of avian gonads preserve the W chromosome and overcome problems of freezing and recovering semen or conserving and manipulating embryonic cells, and the use of vitrification procedures for preserving gonads minimizes cellular damage. On the basis of research demonstrating the biological possibility of cryopreserving and transplanting avian gonads, 5,125 testicles and 2,667 ovaries from 10 populations of Japanese quail, 9 populations of chickens, and 1 population of Chilean tinamou were cryopreserved and sent to the Canadian Animal Genetic Resources program for long-term storage. These gonads represent 20 of the 33 distinct avian populations currently maintained at Canadian public institutions of agricultural research. PMID:24046407

  20. Perfection of Recent Attacks using IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RENGARAJAN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Internet threat monitoring (ITM systems have been deployed to detect widespread attacks on the Internet in recent years. However, the effectiveness of ITM systems critically depends on the confidentiality of the location of their monitors. If adversaries learn the monitor locations of an ITM system, they can bypass the monitors and focus on the uncovered IP address space without being detected. In this paper, we study a new class of attacks, the invisible LOCalization (iLOC attack. The iLOC attack can accurately and invisibly localize monitors of ITM systems. In the iLOC attack, the attacker launches low-rate port-scan traffic, encoded with a selected pseudo noise code (PN-code, to targeted networks. While the secret PN-code is invisible to others, the attacker can accurately determine the existence of monitors in the targeted networks based on whether the PN-code is embedded in the report data queried from the data center of the ITM system. We formally analyze the impact of various parameters on attack effectiveness. We implement the iLOC attack and conduct the performance evaluation on a real-world ITM system to demonstrate the possibility of such attacks. We also conduct extensive simulations on the iLOC attack using real-world traces. Our data show that the iLOC attack can accurately identify monitors while being invisible to ITM systems. Finally, we present a set of guidelines to counteract the iLOC attack.

  1. The Transmission, Precautionary and Control of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in China%高致病禽流感在中国的传播,预防和控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁虹; 张建军; 王安利

    2006-01-01

    本文综述了从1996年至今禽流感在中国的暴发流行和近年来禽流感的暴发特征.中国是世界最大的家禽生产国,并且大量候鸟迁徙途径中国,中国的禽流感防控形式非常严峻.当前不断出现的人类散发病例说明禽流感病毒仍在部分地区的禽鸟间传播.在与禽流感病毒的斗争中,中国积累了一些有效的防控经验,在禽流感防控的国际合作与相关研究方面也进行了许多积极的努力.国务院和农业部出台了一系列有针对性的法规和方案.在家禽和人类对禽流感病毒的感染途径方面,候鸟可能起了一定作用,人类感染H5N1病毒的主要方式和途径是接触感染病毒的禽类及其分泌物和排泄物,吸入禽类分泌物或排泄物中的病毒颗粒.但中国目前散养家禽的生物安全和废弃物处理状况令人堪忧,基础水平上的防控措施还有待加强.%This paper reported the history of avian flu outbreaks in China from 1996 to 2006, directed the characteristics of avian influenza outbreaks in recent years. China is one of the biggest poultry producers in the world and many migratory birds go through China, China faces high risk of pandemic bird flu. The continuing occurrence of sporadic human cases indicates that the virus is continuing to circulate in birds in some parts of the country. In the fighting again avian flu virus, China has developed some possible practice on precautionary and control measure. China enhances international cooperation and scientific involvement in the prevention and control of the avian flu. The State Council and Ministry of Agriculture issued the laws and regulations on avian flu. Wild birds may have played a role in getting domestic fowl and human beings infected with bird flu. Poultry manure is considered to be another key source of the spread routes of H5N1 virus, but the bio - security processing in free range poultry farming and waste products is very poor disposition in

  2. Intermittent hypoendorphinaemia in migraine attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, E; Salmon, S; Anselmi, B; Spillantini, M G; Cappelli, G; Brocchi, A; Sicuteri, F

    1982-06-01

    Beta-endorphin (RIA method, previous chromatographic extraction) was evaluated in plasma of migraine sufferers in free periods and during attacks. Decreased levels of the endogenous opioid peptide were found in plasma sampled during the attacks but not in free periods. Even chronic headache sufferers exhibited significantly lowered levels of beta-endorphin, when compared with control subjects with a negative personal and family history of head pains. The mechanism of the hypoendorphinaemia is unknown: lowered levels of the neuropeptide, which controls nociception, vegetative functions and hedonia, could be important in a syndrome such as migraine, characterized by pain, dysautonomia and anhedonia. The impairment of monoaminergic synapses ("empty neuron" condition) constantly present in sufferers from serious headaches, could be due to the fact that opioid neuropeptides, because of a receptoral or metabolic impairment, poorly modulate the respective monoaminergic neurons, resulting in imbalance of synaptic neurotransmission. PMID:6290072

  3. Nudges or mandates? The ethics of mandatory flu vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alex; Phung, Connie

    2015-05-21

    According to the CDC report for the 2012-2013 influenza season, there was a modest increase in the vaccination coverage rate among healthcare workers from 67% in 2011-2012, to 72% in 2012-2013 to the current 75% coverage. This is still far from reaching the US National Healthy People 2020 goal of 90% hospitals vaccination rates. The reported increase in coverage is attributed to the growing number of healthcare facilities with vaccination requirements with average rates of 96.5%. However, a few other public health interventions stir so much controversy and debate as vaccination mandates. The opposition stems from the belief that a mandatory flu shot policy violates an individual right to refuse unwanted treatment. This article outlines the historic push to achieve higher vaccination rates among healthcare professionals and a number of ethical issues arising from attempts to implement vaccination mandates. It then turns to a review of cognitive biases relevant in the context of decisions about influenza vaccination (omission bias, ambiguity aversion, present bias etc.) The article suggests that a successful strategy for policy-makers and others hoping to increase vaccination rates is to design a "choice architecture" that influences behavior of healthcare professionals without foreclosing other options. Nudges incentivize vaccinations and help better align vaccination intentions with near-term actions. PMID:25869886

  4. Diabetes Ups Risk of Heart Attack Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159557.html Diabetes Ups Risk of Heart Attack Death Study points to need for better coordinated care, ... people with diabetes have a higher risk of death after a heart attack. "We knew that following ...

  5. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000080.htm Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke To use the sharing features on ... with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure ...

  6. Heart attack - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000231.htm Heart attack - what to ask your doctor To use the ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a part of ...

  7. Being active after a heart attack (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ...

  8. Influenza vaccines for avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in Southeast Asia in 2003, a multinational epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers (including its recovery from human cases). To date, these H5N1 HPAI viruses have been isolated in European, Middle Eastern, and African countries, and are considered endemic in many areas where regulatory control and different production sectors face substantial hurdles in controlling the spread of this disease. While control of avian influenza (AI) virus infections in wild bird populations may not be feasible at this point, control and eradiation of AI from commercial, semicommercial, zoo, pet, and village/backyard birds will be critical to preventing events that could lead to the emergence of epizootic influenza virus. Efficacious vaccines can help reduce disease, viral shedding, and transmission to susceptible cohorts. However, only when vaccines are used in a comprehensive program including biosecurity, education, culling, diagnostics and surveillance can control and eradication be considered achievable goals. In humans, protection against influenza is provided by vaccines that are chosen based on molecular, epidemiologic, and antigenic data. In poultry and other birds, AI vaccines are produced against a specific hemagglutinin subtype of AI, and use is decided by government and state agricultural authorities based on risk and economic considerations, including the potential for trade restrictions. In the current H5N1 HPAI epizootic, vaccines have been used in a variety of avian species as a part of an overall control program to aid in disease management and control. PMID:19768403

  9. Evaluation of a Rapid Optical Immunoassay for Influenza Viruses (FLU OIA Test) in Comparison with Cell Culture and Reverse Transcription-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Guy; Hardy, Isabelle; Kress, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    The FLU OIA test was evaluated with 146 throat swab specimens from subjects with a flu-like illness in six Canadian clinics during the 1999–2000 flu season. The rate of positivity of the FLU OIA test (41.5%) was significantly lower than that of cell culture (55.2%) or reverse transcription-PCR (55.9%) during a season in which only influenza A virus was detected. PMID:11158137

  10. Surveillance of illness associated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among adults using a global clinical site network approach: the INSIGHT FLU 002 and FLU 003 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dwyer, Dominic E; Nielsen, Henrik Ib

    2011-01-01

    , with 1049 enrollments into the FLU 002 outpatient study and 316 into the FLU 003 hospitalization study. These 'in progress' INSIGHT influenza observational studies may act as a model for obtaining epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information in future international disease outbreaks....

  11. DULOXETINE-RELATED PANIC ATTACKS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabljić, Vladimir; Rakun, Radmir; Ružić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Side-effects arising on the grounds of antidepressant administration pose as a substantial obstacle hindering successful depressive disorder treatment. Side-effects, especially those severe or those manifested through dramatic clinical presentations such as panic attacks, make the treatment far more difficult and shake patients’ trust in both the treatment and the treating physician. This case report deals with a patient experiencing a moderately severe depressive episode, who respon...

  12. Knowledge and Awareness about H1N1 Flu in Urban Adult Population of Vadodara, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Francis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the knowledge and awareness about H1N1 flu in urban population of 18 years and aboveof Vadodara, India.Methods: A pre-designed self-rated instrument survey was conducted among 100 adults of 18 years and abovethrough a cross-sectional study design and a descriptive analysis was performed.Results: Present study showed that a substantial number of participants have adequate knowledge regardingcausative organism (87%, mode of spread (45% and prevention (83%. Majority of participants (96% wouldconsult doctor for management of H1N1 flu and also participants (82% believe that hand washing is most importantpreventable measure for H1N1 flu.Conclusion: Although there is an appropriate knowledge and awareness regarding various aspects of H1N1 fluamong urban adult population still, active interventions are required in all areas of H1N1 flu pandemic not only toimprove their knowledge and awareness regarding H1N1 flu of urban adults but also for rural adults.

  13. Coyote Attacks: An Increasing Suburban Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Timm, Robert M.; Baker, Rex O.; Bennett, Joe R.; Coolahan, Craig C.

    2004-01-01

    Coyote attacks on humans and pets have increased within the past 5 years in California. We discuss documented occurrences of coyote aggression and attacks on people, using data from USDA Wildlife Services, the California Department of Fish & Game, and other sources. Forty-eight such attacks on children and adults were verified from 1998 through 2003, compared to 41 attacks during the period 1988 through 1997; most incidents occurred in Southern California near the suburban-wildland interfac...

  14. Sybil attack in Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami.K; Santhi.B

    2013-01-01

    Wireless network is very susceptible to different types of attack. The main attack is Sybil attack, which allows forming other attacks on the network. Security is very important to the wireless network. In wireless sensor network, to verify node identities by cryptographic authentication but this is not easy because sensor node which contains limited resources. Therefore the current research is going on how to handling the situation of different traffic levels and transmission power for secur...

  15. Faked states attack and quantum cryptography protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Denny, Travis

    2011-01-01

    Leveraging quantum mechanics, cryptographers have devised provably secure key sharing protocols. Despite proving the security in theory, real-world application falls short of the ideal. Last year, cryptanalysts completed an experiment demonstrating a successful eavesdropping attack on commercial quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. This attack exploits a weakness in the typical real-world implementation of quantum cryptosystems. Cryptanalysts have successfully attacked several protocols. In this paper, we examine the Kak quantum cryptography protocol and how it may perform under such attacks.

  16. Panic attacks simulate presence of somatic illnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Latas Milan; Soldatović Ivan; Stamenović Marko; Starčević Vladan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Panic attacks are characterized with sudden attacks of anxiety with numerous somatic symptoms, such as palpitations, tachycardia, tachypnea, nausea, vertigo. The objective of this study was to analyze symptoms of panic attacks in patients with panic disorder, especially, to determine the specific relationship of somatic and neurological symptoms of panic attacks in boundaries of somatic systems. Material and methods. The study sample consisted of 97 patients with primary diagnos...

  17. Avian Influenza Virus: The Threat of A Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Cheng Chang; Yi-Ying Cheng; Shin-Ru Shih

    2006-01-01

    The 1918 influenza A virus pandemic caused a death toll of 40~50 million. Currently,because of the widespread dissemination of the avian influenza virus (H5N1), there is a highrisk of another pandemic. Avian species are the natural hosts for numerous subtypes ofinfluenza A viruses; however, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) is not onlyextremely lethal to domestic avian species but also can infect humans and cause death. Thisreview discusses why the avian influenza virus is co...

  18. Attacks and countermeasures on AES and ECC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Henrik; Andersen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is widely used in LTE and Wi-Fi communication systems. AES has recently been exposed to new attacks which have questioned the overall security of AES. The newest attack is a so called biclique attack, which is using the fact that the content of the state array...

  19. Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More Understand Your Risks to Prevent a Heart Attack Updated:Aug 2,2016 Knowledge is power, so ... medication. This content was last reviewed June 2016. Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) • ...

  20. Attacks and countermeasures on AES and ECC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Henrik; Andersen, Birger

    foreseeable while the rounds are performed. ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography) is used as a public key crypto system with the key purpose of creating a private shared between two participants in a communication network. Attacks on ECC include the Pohlig-Hellman attack and the Pollard's rho attack. Furthermore...

  1. A Novel Attack against Android Phones

    CERN Document Server

    Backes, Michael; von Styp-Rekowsky, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    In the first quarter of 2011, Android has become the top-selling operating system for smartphones. In this paper, we present a novel, highly critical attack that allows unprompted installation of arbitrary applications from the Android Market. Our attack is based on a single malicious application, which, in contrast to previously known attacks, does not require the user to grant it any permissions.

  2. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Douglas E.; Franson, J. Christian; Brannian, Roger E.; Long, Renee R.; Radi, Craig A.; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  3. Finding a new drug and vaccine for emerging swine flu: What is the concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitWiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160Abstract: Influenza is a well known infection of the respiratory system. The main clinical manifestations of influenza include fever, sore throat, headache, cough, coryza, and malaise. Apart from the well known classical influenza, there are also groups of influenza virus infections that are called “atypical infection”. These infections are usually due to a novel influenza virus infection. In early 2009, an emerging novel influenza originating from Mexico called swine flu was reported. The World Health Organization noted a level VI precaution, the highest level precaution possible, for this newest influenza virus infection. As of June 2009, it is not known if this disease will be successfully controlled. Finding new drugs and vaccine for the emerging swine flu is still required to cope with this emerging worldwide problem.Keywords: swine flu, drug, vaccine, concept

  4. Indoor Staying During Winter Season Makes People More Susceptible to Flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, B; Thapa, K

    2016-01-01

    An infectious diseases caused by RNA virus, the influenza is also commonly known as Flu. It mainly transmitted through air by coughs or sneezes of infected. The symptoms of flu like fever and headache are the result of the huge amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (such as interferon or tumor necrosis factor) produced from influenza-infected cells. The activated vitamin has extreme effects on human immunity. Vitamin D prevents too much release of cytokines and chemokines. Staying much time indoor, away from contact of sunlight during winter season lowers the vitamin D level in human body. Thus, the chance of getting flu increases in winter season. Formulation of policy regarding vitamin D supplementation in diet for people such as elderly and with low sunlight exposure is hereby recommended. It will be beneficial to reduce influenza related morbidity and mortality during winter season. PMID:27426715

  5. Presence of avian bornavirus RNA and anti-avian bornavirus antibodies in apparently healthy macaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kloet, Siwo R; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-12-01

    Recently a novel avian bornavirus has been described that has been suggested to be the possible etiological agent for proventricular dilatation disease or macaw wasting disease. This article describes two macaws that shed avian bornaviral RNA sequences and demonstrated anti-avian bornavirus antibodies as revealed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blot, yet are free of outward clinical signs of the disease. PMID:20095158

  6. Methods of Identifying and Preventing SQL Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojken Shehu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins by identifying the organizations which are vulnerable to the SQL attack referred to as an SQL injection attack. The term SQL injection attack is defined and a diagram is used to illustrate the way that attack occurs. In another section, the paper identifies the methods used to detect an attack to SQL, whereby the techniques are discussed extensively using relevant diagrams for illustration. The other sections cover the preventive methods, where the methods are also discussed with an illustration using diagrams.

  7. Whispering through DDoS attack

    OpenAIRE

    Miralem Mehic; Jiri Slachta; Miroslav Voznak

    2016-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attack is an attempt of the attacker to disable victim's machine by depleting network or computing resources. If this attack is performed with more than one machine, it is called distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack. Covert channels are those channels which are used for information transmission even though they are neither designed nor intended to transfer information at all. In this article, we investigated the possibility of using of DDoS attack for purposes o...

  8. Avian influenza: an osteopathic component to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hruby, Raymond J; Hoffman, Keasha N

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza is an infection caused by the H5N1 virus. The infection is highly contagious among birds, and only a few known cases of human avian influenza have been documented. However, healthcare experts around the world are concerned that mutation or genetic exchange with more commonly transmitted human influenza viruses could result in a pandemic of avian influenza. Their concern remains in spite of the fact that the first United States vaccine against the H5N1 virus was recently approv...

  9. Infection with influenza a virus leads to flu antigen-induced cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Susanne M; Hahn, Christian; Wohlleben, Gisela; Teufel, Martin; Major, Tamas; Moll, Heidrun; Bröcker, Eva-B; Erb, Klaus J

    2002-04-01

    It is well established, that viral infections may trigger urticaria or allergic asthma; however, as viral infections induce T helper 1 polarized responses, which lead to the inhibition of T helper 2 cell development, the opposite would be plausible. We wanted to investigate how viral infections may mediate allergic symptoms in a mouse model; therefore, we infected BALB/C mice with influenza A virus intranasally. Histologic analyses of lung sections and bronchoalveolar lavages were performed. In addition, cells from the mediastinal lymph nodes were restimulated in vitro to analyze which types of cytokines were induced by the flu infection. Furthermore, flu-specific antibody titers were determined and local anaphylaxis was measured after rechallenge with flu antigen. We found that airways inflammation consisted predominately of macrophages and lymphocytes, whereas only a few eosinophils were observed. interferon-gamma but no interleukin-4 and little interleukin-5 could be detected in the culture supernatants from in vitro restimulated T cells from the draining lymph nodes. The antibody response was characterized by high levels of virus-specific IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG1 and, surprisingly, low levels of virus-specific IgE antibodies. Interestingly, flu-infected mice developed active and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis after rechallenge with flu-antigen. As the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction persisted over 48 h and was significantly lower after passive transfer of the serum, which was IgE depleted, local anaphylaxis seemed to be mediated predominately by specific IgE antibodies. Taken together, our results demonstrate that mice infected with flu virus develop virus-specific mast cell degranulation in the skin. Our results may also have implications for the pathogenesis of urticaria or other atopic disorders in humans. PMID:11918711

  10. Attacking Embedded Systems through Power Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sastry JKR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Embedded Systems are being used for the development and implementation of Safety and Mission Critical Systems. Malfunctions of such type of embedded systems will lead to disasters at times. The embedded systems must be fully secured from outside intervention in order to have effective functioning as well as to provide protective environment to these mission critical systems. There are several attacking systems discussed in the literature each requiring a kind of counter attacking system. Power Analysis and variations of power analysis are the significant attacking mechanisms discussed in the literature. Crypto servers are the main areas of attacking as they deal with securing the data that flow in-between several components of the embedded systems. Most of the attacking systems suggested in the litterer suffer from lack of experimental models to emulate the attacking system. An attacking system could be amply proved when several samples of data are used for attacking and the samples of data provides for knowledge base. In this paper an experimental setup is proposed which is an embedded system itself for creation of a Knowledgebase which shall form the basis for attacking. The experimental setup required for undertaking the actual attacking with the usage of the knowledgebase is also presented. Further the proposed attacking system is applied for mission critical system and the experimental results obtained through the simulation are also presented.

  11. NETWORK SECURITY ATTACKS. ARP POISONING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method is known as man in the middle attack. With this type of attack the affected stations from a network will have invalid entries in the ARP table. Thus, it will contain only the correspondence between the IP addresses of the stations from the same network and a single MAC address (the station that initiated the attack. In this paper we present step by step the initiation of such an attack in a network with three computers. We will intercept the traffic between two stations using the third one (the attacker.

  12. Prisons' preparedness for pandemic flu and the ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Hoff, G; Fedosejeva, R; Mihailescu, L

    2009-06-01

    In Europe at any given time there are about 1,8 million people imprisoned in penal institutions. About 1 million personnel are working in prisons. With prisons, from the start there are fundamental problems in many parts of Europe. Poor housing conditions in prisons and a high proportion of prisoners who already suffer from severe health problems mean the chance of an outbreak in prison during a pandemic must be quite high. We expect it can be up to 90%. In this article we explain what the characteristics are of the prison population from a health point of view. A high rate of detainees suffers from mental health disorders and/or addiction. A high prevalence of communicable and infectious diseases is the rule, not an exception. According to the European Prison Rules and many other international rules, statements and documents prison health care should be an integral part of the public health system of any country. However, it has to be accepted that the prison population is the least popular in society and in politics. In reality in many countries in Europe the situation in prison cannot meet the level strived for by the European Prison Rules. We compare preparedness on pandemic flu in The Netherlands, Latvia and Romania. We explore the problems and ethical issues that may arise if a pandemic breaks out. There are three ethical dilemmas that require consideration: equivalence of care and prisoners' right to health care; prisoners' interests verses society's interests; countries in need and calls for bilateral help. PMID:19482323

  13. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product. CONCLUSIONS: International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of

  14. OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Liechti, Robin; Gleizes, Anne; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Bougueleret, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Bairoch, Amos Marc; Xenarios, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this col...

  15. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: a fatal complication of swine flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANEC) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of multifocal symmetrical brain lesions involving mainly thalami, brainstem, cerebellum and white matter. ANEC is a serious and life threatening complication of simple viral infections. We present a case of a young child who developed this condition with classical clinical and radiological findings consistent with ANEC, secondary to swine flu (H1N1). He needed ventilatory support and had profound motor and intellectual deficit on discharge. We report this case with aim of raising awareness about this fatal complication of swine flu which has become a global health care issue these days. (author)

  16. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  17. What Are the Symptoms of a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter. What Are the Symptoms of a Heart Attack? Not all heart attacks begin with the sudden, ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  18. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056... Register on May 3, 2011 (76 FR 24793, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074), we reopened the comment period for...

  19. Clipping the wings of avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, the threat of avian influenza has been lessened by effective animal husbandry methods. However, the public health community is trying to ensure enough measures are in place to prevent a possible pandemic. Jane Parry reports.

  20. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...