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Sample records for attachment theory research

  1. Attachment theory: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.

  2. Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude, Ed.; Shaver, Phillip R., Ed.

    The theoretical work on attachment behavior by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth spawned one of the broadest, most creative lines of research in twentieth century psychology. This volume compiles articles discussing attachment theory and research, measurement issues, and contributions of recent theoretical and empirical developments to the study of…

  3. Fathers in Attachment Theory and Research: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of attachment research on fathers as a backdrop against which the other contributions to this volume can be viewed. Empirical research on child-father attachment progressed in four phases and began before Bowlby in 1969 published the first volume of his attachment trilogy. During each phase a different set of…

  4. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

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    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  5. Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (3rd ed.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassidy, J.A.; Shaver, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    Widely regarded as the state-of-the-science reference on attachment, this handbook interweaves theory and cutting-edge research with clinical applications. Leading researchers examine the origins and development of attachment theory; present biological and evolutionary perspectives; and explore the

  6. Attachment Theory and Psychotherapy Research - Editor's Introduction to a Special Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, B M

    2000-12-01

    This article introduces the special section dealing with research on attachment and psychotherapy. Although John Bowlby conceptualized his theory as a tool for clinicians to acquire a better understanding of the development of psychopathology and emotional distress, it took a long time until clinical researchers started to make use of Bowlby's theory. During the last decade, a large number of studies have been published showing that attachment theory could be very useful within different fields of psychotherapy research, such as differentiating psychopathology, therapist characteristics, and aspects of the therapeutic alliance. These fields are briefly stressed and related to the articles in the special section emphasizing some future directions of attachment response within psychotherapy.

  7. Implications of attachment theory and research for the assessment and treatment of eating disorders.

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    Tasca, Giorgio A; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we review the research literature on attachment and eating disorders and suggest a framework for assessing and treating attachment functioning in patients with an eating disorder. Treatment outcomes for individuals with eating disorders tend to be moderate. Those with attachment-associated insecurities are likely to be the least to benefit from current symptom-focused therapies. We describe the common attachment categories (secure, avoidant, anxious), and then describe domains of attachment functioning within each category: affect regulation, interpersonal style, coherence of mind, and reflective functioning. We also note the impact of disorganized mental states related to loss or trauma. Assessing these domains of attachment functioning can guide focused interventions in the psychotherapy of eating disorders. Case examples are presented to illustrate assessment, case formulation, and group psychotherapy of eating disorders that are informed by attachment theory. Tailoring treatments to improve attachment functioning for patients with an eating disorder will likely result in better outcomes for those suffering from these particularly burdensome disorders.

  8. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Korstanje, Maximiliano

    2007-01-01

    The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to jou...

  9. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  10. Family systems theory, attachment theory, and culture.

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    Rothbaum, Fred; Rosen, Karen; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Uchida, Nobuko

    2002-01-01

    Family systems theory and attachment theory have important similarities and complementarities. Here we consider two areas in which the theories converge: (a) in family system theorists' description of an overly close, or "enmeshed," mother-child dyad, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of children's ambivalent attachment and mothers' preoccupied attachment; (b) in family system theorists' description of the "pursuer-distance cycle" of marital conflict, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of preoccupied and dismissive partners. We briefly review family systems theory evidence, and more extensively review attachment theory evidence, pertaining to these points of convergence. We also review cross-cultural research, which leads us to conclude that the dynamics described in both theories reflect, in part, Western ways of thinking and Western patterns of relatedness. Evidence from Japan suggests that extremely close ties between mother and child are perceived as adaptive, and are more common, and that children experience less adverse effects from such relationships than do children in the West. Moreover, in Japan there is less emphasis on the importance of the exclusive spousal relationship, and less need for the mother and father to find time alone to rekindle romantic, intimate feelings and to resolve conflicts by openly communicating their differences. Thus, the "maladaptive" pattern frequently cited by Western theorists of an extremely close mother-child relationship, an unromantic, conflictual marriage characterized by little verbal communication and a peripheral, distant father, may function very differently in other cultures. While we believe that both theories will be greatly enriched by their integration, we caution against the application of either theory outside the cultures in which they were developed.

  11. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

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    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event…

  12. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event representation can be…

  13. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented from the stand point of pioneers in this field (John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from the standpoint of their successors (Everett Waters and Malcolm West. Compacted ness of the theory, possibilities for operationalization of its key concepts and its application to empirical studies of complex psychological issues that have never been scientifically explored, makes it a very prospective theory in view of possible integration of existing research findings and initiating new research and new practices in psychotherapy, social work and work in schools. The goal of this integral presentation of attachment theory is to highlight its benefits and possibilities for understanding and research complex field of human's psychosocial functioning.

  14. Separation-individuation theory and attachment theory.

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    Blum, Harold P

    2004-01-01

    Separation-individuation and attachment theories are compared and assessed in the context of psychoanalytic developmental theory and their application to clinical work. As introduced by Margaret Mahler and John Bowlby, respectively, both theories were initially regarded as diverging from traditional views. Separation-individuation theory, though it has had to be corrected in important respects, and attachment theory, despite certain limitations, have nonetheless enriched psychoanalytic thought. Without attachment an infant would die, and with severely insecure attachment is at greater risk for serious disorders. Development depends on continued attachment to a responsive and responsible caregiver. Continued attachment to the primary object was regarded by Mahler as as intrinsic to the process of separation-individuation. Attachment theory does not account for the essential development of separateness, and separation-individuation is important for the promotion of autonomy, independence, and identity. Salient historical and theoretical issues are addressed, including the renewed interest in attachment theory and the related decline of interest in separation-individuation theory.

  15. Attachment Theory and the Social Work Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Page

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment theory, as developed by Bowlby and Ainsworth, represented a major departure from the current theories of human development of the time, particularly in its rejection of the major tenets of psychoanalytic theory and its integration of core ideas from evolution theory and cybernetics (Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1991. Attachment theory posits that a foundational human instinct, the desire to achieve safety and protection through proximity to a protective figure, is responsible for the formation of a special class of life-long affectional bonds, referred to as “attachments.” Emotional security is derived to a great extent, according to the theory, from experience with caregivers who are consistently responsive to the developing infant’s expression of attachment behavior toward them. Forty years of empirical research has shown that attachment is a universal characteristic that predicts children’s development of cognitive and social competence, emotional regulation, and positive self-image (Weinfield, Sroufe, Egeland, & Carlson, 1999. Social work educators are currently challenged to better integrate the findings of attachment research into their curricula to reflect more the current state of developmental science.

  16. Religion, evolution, and mental health: attachment theory and ETAS theory.

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    Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the historical origins of Attachment Theory and Evolutionary Threat Assessment Systems Theory (ETAS Theory), their evolutionary basis and their application in research on religion and mental health. Attachment Theory has been most commonly applied to religion and mental health in research on God as an attachment figure, which has shown that secure attachment to God is positively associated with psychological well-being. Its broader application to religion and mental health is comprehensively discussed by Kirkpatrick (2005). ETAS Theory explains why certain religious beliefs--including beliefs about God and life-after-death--should have an adverse association, an advantageous association, or no association at all with mental health. Moreover, it makes specific predictions to this effect, which have been confirmed, in part. The authors advocate the application of ETAS Theory in research on religion and mental health because it explains how religious and other beliefs related to the dangerousness of the world can directly affect psychiatric symptoms through their affects on specific brain structures.

  17. Attachment theory and John Bowlby: some reflections.

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    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan

    2007-12-01

    The 100th anniversary of Edward John Mostyn Bowlby's birth (February 26th, 1907) was celebrated at the Tavistock Clinic in London by his family and colleagues, with presentations of ongoing research as well as reflections on both the person and his theory. My own reflections include the influence of ethological thinking on the development of attachment theory, Bowlby's focus on observations followed by explanation, his appreciation of emotional communication as well as behavior, and his recognition of the role of the family as well as the child/caregiver dyad. While always remaining open to new avenues of research, John Bowlby was firmly insistent on the precise use of attachment terminology, and quite rightly too!

  18. Bowlby's attachment theory: implications for health visiting.

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    Partis, M

    2000-10-01

    This article reviews the current state of research in attachment theory. It also examines the relations between attachment, child care and development, and the significance of attachment to adult functioning and well-being. It seems likely that humans need close emotional relationships or bonds with others. This need applies particularly to infants, who look to parents or other care givers for love and security. The best-known psychological explanation of this need is attachment theory, which has been influential in increasing our understanding of the early mother-infant relationship, and in the formulation of guidelines for child care (Melhuish, 1998). Good-quality parental care may be difficult to define, and questions remain regarding the nature of child care and the consequences that it can have for later development. This article concludes with a discussion of the possible implications for health-visitor intervention within families, which are intended to improve the quality of the relationship between parents or care givers and the infant.

  19. An attachment research perspective on ADHD.

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    Kissgen, Ruediger; Franke, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    Since the beginning of clinical attachment research in the mid-1980s the number of research projects in this area has been continuously increasing. The research questions so far can be allocated to numerous medical disciplines such as psychosomatic medicine, adult psychiatry or child and adolescent psychiatry. Recently, children with ADHD and their families have also become subjects of this branch of research. Their specific behavioral characteristics from early childhood on constitute unique challenges on the parent-child interaction. If these interactions develop in a suboptimal way, children may develop an insecure or even a disorganized attachment quality. The latter represents a risk factor for a clinically significant psychopathological development.This article initially presents basic principles of attachment theory and discusses the relevance of the cardinal symptoms of ADHD for clinical attachment research. Subsequently, it outlines and discusses the main results of existing research regarding attachment and ADHD. It concludes with a perspective on research questions that need to be addressed in the future with regard to a transgenerational model that highlights the importance of parental attachment representations to the development of children's attachment quality.

  20. Observational attachment theory-based parenting measures predict children's attachment narratives independently from social learning theory-based measures.

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    Matias, Carla; O'Connor, Thomas G; Futh, Annabel; Scott, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms.

  1. Attachment Theory and Theory of Planned Behavior: An Integrative Model Predicting Underage Drinking

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    Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D.; Berger, Dale E.; Alvaro, Eusebio M.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that peer and maternal bonds play important but sometimes contrasting roles in the outcomes of children. Less is known about attachment bonds to these 2 reference groups in young adults. Using a sample of 351 participants (18 to 20 years of age), the research integrated two theoretical traditions: attachment theory and theory of…

  2. A HISTORY OF THE THEORY OF PRENATAL ATTACHMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby’s theory of human attachment has become widely applied across disciplines and across the stages of human development. This discussion explores the evolution of an application of Bowlby’s theory to the experience of pregnancy, from both maternal and paternal perspectives. Although the theoretical construct of maternal fetal attachment (MFA) requires continued theoretically-driven research, existing studies have associated this proposed construct with health behaviors, marital relat...

  3. The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth.

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    Bretherton, Inge

    1992-01-01

    Attachment theory is based on Bowlby's work on the connections between maternal loss or deprivation and personality development and on Ainsworth's interest in security theory. Their separate and joint work is reviewed, along with that of other theorists and researchers whose work influenced them or was influenced by them. (LB)

  4. Attachment to groups: theory and measurement.

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    Smith, E R; Murphy, J; Coats, S

    1999-07-01

    Aspects of people's identification with groups may be understood by borrowing theoretical ideas and measurement strategies from research on attachment in close relationships. People have mental models of the self as a group member and of groups as sources of identity and esteem. These models affect thoughts, emotions, and behaviors related to group membership. Three studies show that two dimensions of attachment to groups, attachment anxiety and avoidance, can be assessed with good reliability, validity, and over-time stability. These factors are distinct from relationship attachment and from other measures of group identification. Group attachment predicts several important outcomes, including emotions concerning the group, time and activities shared with a group, social support, collective self-esteem, and ways of resolving conflict. This conceptualization provides new insights into the nature of people's psychological ties to groups.

  5. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  6. From secure dependency to attachment: Mary Ainsworth's integration of Blatz's security theory into Bowlby's attachment theory.

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    van Rosmalen, Lenny; van der Horst, Frank C P; van der Veer, René

    2016-02-01

    John Bowlby is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, with the help of Mary Ainsworth. Through her Uganda and Baltimore studies Ainsworth provided empirical evidence for attachment theory, and she contributed the notion of the secure base and exploratory behavior, the Strange Situation Procedure and its classification system, and the notion of maternal sensitivity. On closer scrutiny, many of these contributions appear to be heavily influenced by William Blatz and his security theory. Even though Blatz's influence on Ainsworth has been generally acknowledged, this article, partly based on understudied correspondence from several personal archives, is the first to show which specific parts of attachment theory can be traced back directly to Blatz and his security theory. When Ainsworth started working with Bowlby in the 1950s, around the time he turned to evolutionary theory for an explanation of his findings, she integrated much of Blatzian security theory into Bowlby's theory in the making and used her theoretical and practical experience to enrich attachment theory. Even though Blatz is hardly mentioned nowadays, several of his ideas live on in attachment theory.

  7. Styles of attachment and acquisition of the Theory of Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompéia Villachan-Lyra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe goal of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship between the theory of mind and mother-child attachment. Two research questions were asked: (1 At what age does a child show the ability to understand and infer the mental states of others? (2 Is there a systematic relationship between "styles of attachment" and "acquisition of the theory of mind"? Forty children from two age groups (3- and 4-year-olds participated in the study. For each child, two tasks of false belief (FB and a task of uncompleted attachment stories were applied. The results indicated a positive correlation between the secure attachment style and good performance on the FB tasks.

  8. Sexuality examined through the lens of attachment theory: attachment, caregiving, and sexual satisfaction.

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    Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples.

  9. Charisma and attachment theory: a crossdisciplinary interpretation.

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    Aberbach, D

    1995-08-01

    The attachment theory of Bowlby and his followers has not previously been applied to the interpretation of charismatic phenomena in the bonding of large numbers of people with their leaders in crisis. This essay, which builds on the author's 'Surviving trauma: loss, literature and psychoanalysis', attempts to use attachment theory and sociological concepts such as homogamy, anomie, negative imprinting and de-individuation, as well as classical Freudian concepts such as transference and splitting of the ego, in interpreting the charismatic bond. It is argued that charismatic homogamy becomes viable at the point of intersection between the inner world of the charismatic leader and social and political reality. The bonding of the individual and the public may be based partly upon a symbolic link between public crisis and the charismatic's experience of trauma that has deeply scarred or even ended the affectional bonds in his family of orientation. This trauma, however, is a source of insight and power as well as of disability, for it has schooled him in crisis and given him the capacity to offer directional leadership. The charismatic and his society are bonded in crisis through a mutual attempt to break free of anomie and alienation, and a sense of powerlessness and despair.

  10. Developmental Personality Styles: An Attachment Theory Conceptualization of Personality Disorders.

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    Lyddon, William J.; Sherry, Alissa

    2001-01-01

    Using K. Bartholomew's (1990) 4-dimensional model of adult attachment as an organizational framework, 10 developmental personality styles are differentiated regarding their unique attachment experiences, working models of self and other, and feedforward beliefs. Implications of an attachment theory framework for counseling clients with problematic…

  11. Attachment theory and spirituality: two threads converging in palliative care?

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    Loetz, Cécile; Müller, Jakob; Frick, Eckhard; Petersen, Yvonne; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Mauer, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss and explore the interrelation between two concepts, attachment theory and the concept of spirituality, which are important to palliative care and to founding a multivariate understanding of the patient's needs and challenges. Both concepts have been treated by research in diverse and multiform ways, but little effort has yet been made to integrate them into one theoretical framework in reference to the palliative context. In this paper, we begin an attempt to close this scientific gap theoretically. Following the lines of thought in this paper, we assume that spirituality can be conceptualized as an adequate response of a person's attachment pattern to the peculiarity of the palliative situation. Spirituality can be seen both as a recourse to securely based relationships and as an attempt to explore the ultimate unknown, the mystery of one's own death. Thus, spirituality in the palliative context corresponds to the task of attachment behavior: to transcend symbiosis while continuing bonds and thus to explore the unknown environment independently and without fear. Spiritual activity is interpreted as a human attachment behavior option that receives special quality and importance in the terminal stage of life. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed in the final section of the paper.

  12. Attachment Theory and Spirituality: Two Threads Converging in Palliative Care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Loetz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss and explore the interrelation between two concepts, attachment theory and the concept of spirituality, which are important to palliative care and to founding a multivariate understanding of the patient’s needs and challenges. Both concepts have been treated by research in diverse and multiform ways, but little effort has yet been made to integrate them into one theoretical framework in reference to the palliative context. In this paper, we begin an attempt to close this scientific gap theoretically. Following the lines of thought in this paper, we assume that spirituality can be conceptualized as an adequate response of a person’s attachment pattern to the peculiarity of the palliative situation. Spirituality can be seen both as a recourse to securely based relationships and as an attempt to explore the ultimate unknown, the mystery of one’s own death. Thus, spirituality in the palliative context corresponds to the task of attachment behavior: to transcend symbiosis while continuing bonds and thus to explore the unknown environment independently and without fear. Spiritual activity is interpreted as a human attachment behavior option that receives special quality and importance in the terminal stage of life. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed in the final section of the paper.

  13. Rigorous experiments on monkey love: an account of Harry F. Harlow's role in the history of attachment theory.

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    Suomi, Stephen J; van der Horst, Frank C P; van der Veer, René

    2008-12-01

    On the basis of personal reminiscences an account is given of Harlow's role in the development of attachment theory and key notions of attachment theory are being discussed. Among other things, it is related how Harlow arrived at his famous research with rhesus monkeys and how this made Harlow a highly relevant figure for attachment theorist Bowlby.

  14. Psychoanalysis, a bridge between attachment research and neurobiology.

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    Rendon, Mario

    2008-06-01

    Attachment theory and neurobiology are at the forefront of scientific research, particularly in the area of child psychiatry. Several authors have encountered a surprising isomorphism between findings in these areas and concepts central in psychoanalysis. The author postulates that attachment theory is an outcome of the history of the transformation of the old concept of libido now applied interpersonally. The author also postulates that the neurobiology of attachment mediates but does not substitute psychoanalysis for the final understanding of the human bond. Findings in both fields, attachment theory and psychobiology, often compellingly lead to psychoanalytic concepts; on the other hand, the neurobiology of the psyche does not make full sense without the wealth of research conducted by psychoanalysts during the 20th century. The concept of seduction in particular, in its broad sense, is akin to mirroring and attachment and a useful tool in this regard. Although some cling to the idea of the purity of psychoanalysis and see these kin areas as a threat to its integrity, the author believes that psychoanalysis, serving as a bridge between them, can only be enriched by their empirical and experimental outcomes. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis (2008) 68, 148-155. doi:10.1057/ajp.2008.4.

  15. Algebraic cobordism theory attached to algebraic equivalence

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    Krishna, Amalendu

    2012-01-01

    After the algebraic cobordism theory of Levine-Morel, we develop a theory of algebraic cobordism modulo algebraic equivalence. We prove that this theory can reproduce Chow groups modulo algebraic equivalence and the zero-th semi-topological K-groups. We also show that with finite coefficients, this theory agrees with the algebraic cobordism theory. We compute our cobordism theory for some low dimensional or special types of varieties. The results on infinite generation of some Griffiths groups by Clemens and on smash-nilpotence by Voevodsky and Voisin are also lifted and reinterpreted in terms of this cobordism theory.

  16. 依恋理论在组织研究中的应用与启示%An Analysis of Researches on Attachment Theory in Organization and Future Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳; 乐国林; 王利敏

    2015-01-01

    依恋理论是发展心理学经典研究领域之一, 依恋源于亲子联结, 影响成人依恋与探索. 近年来, 许多学者借鉴依恋理论研究组织中的一些问题. 这些研究集中在: 组织层面的工作绩效和工作满意度; 个体层面的工作情绪、 职业生涯发展和工作家庭平衡; 人际之间的领导行为和信任. 再者, 组织依恋是体现员工与组织的情感联结关系的构念. 未来的研究可在以下几个方向拓展: 组织中依恋类型的变化、 调节效应、 跨文化研究、 实践应用等.%Attachment theory is an important research field of developmental psychology. People's social nature deter-mines the attachment must be studied from parent-child bonding to adult's social attachment and exploration. Recently, researchers used at tachment theory to explain some problems in the organization. This paper summa-rizes the studies about attachment theory in organization from three aspects: the job performance and job satis-faction of organizational level, the emotion, career development and work-family balance of individual level, the leader behavior and trust of interpersonal level. The organizational attachment is a construct that reflects the e-motional connection between employees and organization. Finally, the paper discusses possible directions in the future of attachment theory in the organization study. The possible directions in the future: the attachment style change in the organization, moderating effect, cross-cultural research and practical application.

  17. Emanuel Miller Lecture: Attachment Insecurity, Disinhibited Attachment, and Attachment Disorders--Where Do Research Findings Leave the Concepts?

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    Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite the evidence on anomalous attachment patterns, there has been a tendency to interpret most of these as reflecting differences in security/insecurity. Methods: Empirical research findings are reviewed in relation to attachment/insecurity as evident in both infancy and later childhood, disorganised attachment, inhibited…

  18. The establishment of an attachment research network in Latin America: goals, accomplishments, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causadias, José M; Sroufe, L Alan; Herreros, Francisca

    2011-03-01

    In the face of a pressing need for expanded attachment research programs and attachment informed interventions in Latin America, a research network was established: Red Iberoamericana de Apego: RIA (Iberian-American Attachment Network). The purpose of RIA is to promote human development and well being, informed by attachment theory, centering on research, and with implications for public policies, education, and intervention. We report the proceedings of the second meeting of RIA held in Panama City, Panama, in February 2010. As part of this meeting, RIA sponsored the first Latin-American attachment conference. Proceedings of the conference are described, as are future goals of this new organization.

  19. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.

  20. The use and abuse of attachment theory in clinical practice with maltreated children, part I: diagnosis and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Debate has ensued regarding the appropriate assessment and diagnosis for school-age children who display severe behavioral problems as a result of previous abuse and neglect within the primary attachment relationship. The current nomenclature recognizes reactive attachment disorder and some clinicians have suggested broader categories of attachment disorder. These attempts at classification are often criticized on empirical grounds; however, often lost in these criticisms is the fact that that these diagnostic approaches often misapply attachment theory and research. This article summarizes the original contributions of John Bowlby and other attachment researchers to our understanding of child development, examines misguided attempts to apply attachment theory to the diagnosis and assessment of maltreated children, and offers a diagnostic conceptualization and assessment recommendations consistent with the available attachment research.

  1. The Relationship of Adult Attachment Theory and Affect Regulation Strategies to Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolya Calisir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the attachment theory which is also known as an affect regulation theory, internal working models that are constituted by the interaction between primary care giver and infant in the early period of life. These working models plays an important role how the infant gives a meaning to the world and himself/ herself and it determines the individual’s personality development and by the way the probable psychopathologies that can be observed in the future like depression. In relation with this, many of the empirical studies in the adult literature states on how internal models and cognitive representations have an influence on emotional reactions. According to various studies, reporting different attachment styles and individuals who has probably different internal models, differs in each others’ emotional reactions and how they behave according to these reactions. In view of attachment literature, individual makes a decision in terms of making affect regulation for maintaining proximity seeking and this process evokes the activation of secondary attachment strategies which are named as hyper and deactivating strategies. From the framework of this review, the relationship between major depression and adult attachment styles, affect regulation strategies is examined. Firstly, Bowlby’s attachment theory is mentioned shortly and adult attachment styles are introduced. Secondly, affect regulation strategies, which are thought to be related with major depression as a mood disorder are identified and finally, the empirical research findings relevant to the topic are represented.

  2. Kinetic theory analysis of electron attachment cooling in oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skullerud, H.R. (Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway))

    1983-01-01

    The attachment cooling effect observed by Hegerberg and Crompton (1983) has been analysed theoretically and numerically in a Boltzmann equation eigenvalue approach. The effect is highly sensitive to the shape and magnitude of the rotational excitation cross sections. When due account is taken of the rotational excitations associated with the (O/sub 2//sup -/) negative ion resonances, good agreement between theory and experiment can be obtained with reasonable input cross-section data.

  3. Attachment and the Processing of Social Information across the Life Span: Theory and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have used J. Bowlby's (1969/1982, 1973, 1980, 1988) attachment theory frequently as a basis for examining whether experiences in close personal relationships relate to the processing of social information across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We present an integrative life-span-encompassing theoretical model to explain the…

  4. Attachment among older adults: current issues and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J M; Cafferty, T P

    2001-09-01

    Although John Bowlby conceptualized attachment theory as applicable across the life span, researchers have been relatively slow to examine attachment phenomena specifically among older adults. The present article reviews the extant research applying attachment theory to older populations; preliminary findings suggest that attachment issues hold particular relevance for older adults, given the increased potential for separation, loss and vulnerability associated with aging. Although many of the studies reviewed are somewhat limited methodologically, the overall pattern of results suggests that attachment patterns are associated with a variety of outcomes in later life (such as adaptation to chronic illness and caregiver burden among family members, reactions to the death of a loved one, and general well-being) in a theoretically consistent manner. The implications of and questions raised by current findings are reviewed, and directions for future research are discussed.

  5. Parents and children: facts and fallacies about attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barett, Helen

    2006-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory has had a profound effect on the way we think about parent-child relationships and the way young babies are cared for. Bowlby observed that children appear to do better if they grow up with a sense that someone cares about them and that someone will be there to help them when they are anxious or distressed. He explained why attachment relationships are so important for social and emotional wellbeing, and argued that good maternal care was essential for psychological health. Bowlby's ideas have been gaining strong support again recently, although it is important to distinguish between what he actually wrote and the many myths and misunderstandings about his work.

  6. 微博成员参与行为与不稳定性实证研究*--基于依恋理论%An Empirical Research of Microblog Member Participation Behavior and Variability:Based on Attachment Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊玲; 杜荣

    2013-01-01

    According to attachment theory, we analyzed the antecedents of personal attachment in Sina Micyoblog, and proposed a model of member participation behavior and variability based on attachment theory. By structural equation model( SEM) mothod, the model and hypotheses were tested based on a survey among Sina microblog members with 365 answered questionnaires. The results show that effort to encourage interaction, willingness to share personal information and perceived similarity are important factors influencing personal attach-ment, and personal attachment affects attachment to microblog significantly. Attachment to microblog has a significant impact on member participation behavior, but has no predictive impact on variability.%根据依恋理论,分析了新浪微博中基于成员纽带的个人依恋的影响因素,构建了基于依恋感的成员参与行为和不稳定性的概念模型。对新浪微博成员进行了问卷调查,收集了365份问卷,采用结构方程模型方法利用收集的问卷数据对概念模型进行了检验。结果表明,鼓励社会互动、分享个人信息的意愿和感知的相似性是影响个人依恋的重要因素;个人依恋对微博依恋感有着显著影响;微博依恋感对成员的参与行为有正向显著促进作用,对不稳定性不具有预测作用。

  7. Native American Students in U.S. Higher Education: A Look from Attachment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, Demi; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the behavioral patterns of Native American college students in U.S. higher education. Attachment theory is the theoretical framework used in this analysis. Developed by Bowlby ("Attachment and loss: Separation, anxiety and anger," 1973), attachment theory postulates that behaviors can be predicted based on one's…

  8. Impact of Child Maltreatment on Attachment and Social Rank Systems: Introducing an Integrated Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Leon; Taylor, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a prevalent societal problem that has been linked to a wide range of social, psychological, and emotional difficulties. Maltreatment impacts on two putative evolved psychobiological systems in particular, the attachment system and the social rank system. The maltreatment may disrupt the child's ability to form trusting and reassuring relationships and also creates a power imbalance where the child may feel powerless and ashamed. The aim of the current article is to outline an evolutionary theory for understanding the impact of child maltreatment, focusing on the interaction between the attachment and the social rank system. We provide a narrative review of the relevant literature relating to child maltreatment and these two theories. This research highlights how, in instances of maltreatment, these ordinarily adaptive systems may become maladaptive and contribute to psychopathology. We identify a number of novel hypotheses that can be drawn from this theory, providing a guide for future research. We finally explore how this theory provides a guide for the treatment of victims of child maltreatment. In conclusion, the integrated theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting the consequences of maltreatment, but further research is required to test several hypotheses made by this theory.

  9. Attachment research and eating disorders: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Ruth; Dallos, Rudi

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this article is to review the clinical literature which examines the association between attachment patterns and eating disorders with a focus on anorexia nervosa, and to examine the varieties of methods and measures employed in attachment research. A literature review was carried out and the relevant articles are examined in terms of their contribution to this area. The literature indicates a number of important considerations when working with this group, including extreme separation anxiety and unresolved loss and trauma, and discusses the implications of these findings for treatment. The results also indicate conflicting evidence regarding associations between attachment style and eating disorder subgroup suggesting that severity of disorder matters more than eating disorder subtype. The different ways of investigating attachment patterns and experiences are explored in this paper. It is suggested that the attachment classification system runs the risk of reducing complex human experience to typologies and that qualitative research might help to address this problem.

  10. [Current aspects of attachment theory and development psychology as well as neurobiological aspects in psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Rupprecht, R

    2003-11-01

    This review covers basic principles of attachment research and its relationship to and implications for psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. A great number of studies deal with the importance of attachment theory in the development of these disorders associated with distinct attachment styles. The most well-known concept is the attachment theory created by John Bowlby (1907-1990), which has strengthened our knowledge on early mother-infant relationships and influenced guidelines for child care. Within this concept, family structure is of great importance for the psychological development of the child and later the adult. Attachment research indicates that disturbances of patients with psychosomatic, e.g., somatoform disorders, in establishing relations must be seen in a developmental genetic context. A model of vulnerability is introduced which describes the development of psychopathology concerning the formation of representations taking advantage of attachment theory. Additionally, recent progress in cognitive neurosciences addresses attachment theory. During the last decade, neurobiological studies in rodents, primates, and humans indicate that early influences of psychosocial factors could have permanent consequences for brain structure and function. Besides the psychoanalytical and behavioral view concerning psychiatric and especially psychosomatic disorders, the integration of neurobiological findings will be a major challenge for the generation of further concepts.

  11. Formal Mentoring Relationships and Attachment Theory: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Marie-Line

    2011-01-01

    An attachment theory perspective of mentoring is presented to explain the degree of functionality of a mentor-protege formal match in an organizational setting. By focusing on Bowlby's (1969/1982) behavioral system of attachment and its triarchic taxonomy of secure, avoidant, and anxious-ambivalent attachment, previous conceptualizations are…

  12. Current Perspectives in Attachment Theory: Illustration from the Study of Maltreated Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Rosen, Karen; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compares maltreated and nonmaltreated infants and their caregivers with regard to security and quality of the attachment relationship over time. The finding that a greater proportion of maltreated infants in each of three age groups was insecurely attached is in accordance with the predictions based on Ainsworth's and Bowlby's attachment theory.…

  13. Attachment theory and group processes: the association between attachment style and group-related representations, goals, memories, and functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Eldad; Mikulincer, Mario

    2003-06-01

    Four studies examined attachment-style differences in group-related cognitions and behaviors. In Studies 1-2, participants completed scales on group-related cognitions and emotions. In Studies 3-4, participants were divided into small groups, and their performance in group tasks as well as the cohesion of their group were assessed. Both attachment anxiety and avoidance in close relationships were associated with negative group-related cognitions and emotions. Anxiety was also related to the pursuit of closeness goals and impaired instrumental performance in group tasks. Avoidance was related to the pursuit of distance goals and deficits in socioemotional and instrumental performance. Group cohesion significantly moderated the effects of attachment anxiety. The discussion emphasizes the relevance of attachment theory within group contexts.

  14. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  15. An Attachment Theory Approach to Narrating the Faith Journey of Children of Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesling, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of parental divorce on a child's faith. Drawing from attachment theory, Granqvist and Kirkpatrick proposed two probable developmental pathways to religion. For those with secure attachment, whose cumulative experiences of sensitive, religious caregivers enhance the development of a God image as loving; belief…

  16. Theory of Mind and attachment styles in people with psychotic disorders, their siblings, and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pos, Karin; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Simons, Claudia J. P.; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Meijer, Carin J.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) and insecure (adult) attachment styles have been found in persons with schizophrenia as well as in their healthy siblings. ToM refers to the ability to infer mental states of self and others including beliefs and emotions. Insecure attachment is proposed to u

  17. A Secure Base for Adult Learning: Attachment Theory and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The attachment theory of John Bowlby has had an enduring impact on our understanding of child development. But these ideas are a neglected and forgotten discourse in adult education. In this paper concepts such as secure and insecure attachments, internal working models, and the strange situation along with the more contemporary concept of…

  18. Attachment Without Fear

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, o...

  19. Attachment Without Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2009-12-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, openness, and dependence interact with the caregiving elements of caring, empathy, and responsibility.

  20. Sex differences in jealousy: a contribution from attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N; Kelly, Kristen M

    2010-02-01

    Studies have found that more men than women endorse sexual infidelity as more distressing than emotional infidelity, whereas more women than men endorse emotional infidelity as more distressing than sexual infidelity. Some evolutionary psychologists have proposed that this sex difference can be best conceptualized as reflecting evolution-based differences in parental investment that produce a need for paternity certainty among men and a need for male investment in offspring among women. Nonetheless, a conspicuous subset of men report emotional infidelity as more distressing than sexual infidelity. Current theorizing explains between-sex differences but not within-sex differences. We hypothesized that attachment-style differences may help to explain both between- and within-sex differences in jealousy. As hypothesized, dismissing avoidant participants reported more jealousy regarding sexual than emotional infidelity (64.8%), and secure participants, including secure men, reported more jealousy regarding emotional than sexual infidelity (77.3%), chi(2)(3, N = 411) = 45.03, p attachment style. Implications of an attachment perspective are discussed.

  1. Graph theory for alternating hydrocarbons with attached ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    2013-01-01

    Properties of molecules of certain hydrocarbons give rise to difficult questions in graph theory. This paper is primarily devoted to the graph theory, but the physico-chemical motivation, which is somewhat speculative, is also presented. Molecules of unsaturated hydrocarbons exhibit alternating path

  2. Britain Between the Wars: The Historical Context of Bowlby's Theory of Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Nora; Lerner, Jeffrey C.

    John Bowlby's theory of attachment is examined in the cultural and historical context in which it was developed. Bowlby trained as a psychiatrist in England during the 1920's and published the WHO report in 1951. Thus the origins of his theory can be related to events set in motion by the First World War and occurring during the interwar period…

  3. Attachment-based family therapy for depressed and suicidal adolescents: theory, clinical model and empirical support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, E Stephanie Krauthamer; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) is a manualized family-based intervention designed for working with depressed adolescents, including those at risk for suicide, and their families. It is an empirically informed and supported treatment. ABFT has its theoretical underpinnings in attachment theory and clinical roots in structural family therapy and emotion focused therapies. ABFT relies on a transactional model that aims to transform the quality of adolescent-parent attachment, as a means of providing the adolescent with a more secure relationship that can support them during challenging times generally, and the crises related to suicidal thinking and behavior, specifically. This article reviews: (1) the theoretical foundations of ABFT (attachment theory, models of emotional development); (2) the ABFT clinical model, including training and supervision factors; and (3) empirical support.

  4. The Contribution of Attachment Theory to Parenting Interventions with Substance-abusing Mothers and Their Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol Parolin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Children’s emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Empirical evidence indicates that parenting is negatively influenced by maternal drug use and its associated adverse psychosocial conditions. As a consequence, many interventions have focused on enhancing parental skills, but they have often overlooked the emotional and relational features of the mother-infant bond. Instead, Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyse how drug addiction can affect the quality of an adult’s attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviours towards the child and can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies have also identified a prevalence of insecure patterns among drug-addicted mothers and their children, but a specific model of insecurity is still needed to be attested, requiring further investigations. In recent years, a number of protocols have been developed in order to strengthen the relationship between drug-abusing mothers and their children, drawing lessons from Attachment Theory. The present study reviews the literature on the adult and infant attachment style in the context of drug addiction, describing currently available treatment programs which address parenting and specifically focus on the mother-infant bond, relying on Attachment Theory.

  5. Attachment Theory and Maternal Drug Addiction: The Contribution to Parenting Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Children's emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyze how drug addiction can affect the quality of adult attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviors toward the child, and how it can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies, as a matter of fact, have identified a prevalence of insecure patterns among drug-abusing mothers and their children. Many interventions for mothers with Substance Use Disorders have focused on enhancing parental skills, but they have often overlooked the emotional and relational features of the mother-infant bond. Instead, in recent years, a number of protocols have been developed in order to strengthen the relationship between drug-abusing mothers and their children, drawing lessons from Attachment Theory. The present study reviews the literature on the adult and infant attachment style in the context of drug addiction, describing currently available treatment programs that address parenting and specifically focus on the mother-infant bond, relying on Attachment Theory.

  6. Attachment Theory and Maternal Drug Addiction: The Contribution to Parenting Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Children’s emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyze how drug addiction can affect the quality of adult attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviors toward the child, and how it can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies, as a matter of fact, have identified a prevalence of insecure patterns among drug-abusing mothers and their children. Many interventions for mothers with Substance Use Disorders have focused on enhancing parental skills, but they have often overlooked the emotional and relational features of the mother–infant bond. Instead, in recent years, a number of protocols have been developed in order to strengthen the relationship between drug-abusing mothers and their children, drawing lessons from Attachment Theory. The present study reviews the literature on the adult and infant attachment style in the context of drug addiction, describing currently available treatment programs that address parenting and specifically focus on the mother–infant bond, relying on Attachment Theory. PMID:27625612

  7. Psychoanalytic self psychology and its conceptual development in light of developmental psychology, attachment theory, and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Hans-Peter

    2009-04-01

    The chapter starts with a historical overview of the subject of narcissism in psychoanalysis. Some sociophilosophical definitions of narcissism are explained and the connection to self psychology is described. It is especially referred to Honneth's Struggle for Recognition, which is related to the need for selfobject experiences. An outline of different concepts concerning narcissism, especially in the European psychoanalytic tradition, follows and leads to a clearer understanding of Kohut's conception of the self and its selfobjects. Because self psychology can often be understood as applied developmental psychology, useful links to attachment research are described and the move to the level of representation by mentalization is clarified. Further development of self psychology in the direction of intersubjectivity helps to supply connections to systems theory. Recently developed theories of empathy with reference to neurobiological findings provide a dynamic perspective of the activation of empathy. Thus, empathy seems to be better understood as a sort of contagion on which cognitive cortical processes are superimposed. Finally, the therapeutic process in psychoanalytic self psychology is portrayed. This process implies a disruption and repair process by which transmuting internalization can take place. More current theories of self psychology view this process in its essence intersubjectively as a co-construction between patient and analyst. The paper concludes with some hints for a paradigm shift in the direction of a more holistic understanding of the self.

  8. An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R C; Waller, N G; Brennan, K A

    2000-02-01

    Self-report measures of adult attachment are typically scored in ways (e.g., averaging or summing items) that can lead to erroneous inferences about important theoretical issues, such as the degree of continuity in attachment security and the differential stability of insecure attachment patterns. To determine whether existing attachment scales suffer from scaling problems, the authors conducted an item response theory (IRT) analysis of 4 commonly used self-report inventories: Experiences in Close Relationships scales (K. A. Brennan, C. L. Clark, & P. R. Shaver, 1998), Adult Attachment Scales (N. L. Collins & S. J. Read, 1990), Relationship Styles Questionnaire (D. W. Griffin & K. Bartholomew, 1994) and J. Simpson's (1990) attachment scales. Data from 1,085 individuals were analyzed using F. Samejima's (1969) graded response model. The authors' findings indicate that commonly used attachment scales can be improved in a number of important ways. Accordingly, the authors show how IRT techniques can be used to develop new attachment scales with desirable psychometric properties.

  9. Attachment, Parent-Child Discourse and Theory-of-Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontai, Lenna L.; Thompson, Ross A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among attachment, mother-child discourse, and theory of mind in a sample of 76 four-year-old children (mean age = 4.48 years; 36 boys). Mother-child conversations about a past event were coded for maternal use of elaborative discourse and mothers' references to mental states. Mothers completed the attachment…

  10. The Relationship between "Theory of Mind" and Attachment-Related Anxiety and Avoidance in Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between "theory of mind" and attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adolescence. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test and the "Experiences in Close Relationships--Relationship Structures" questionnaires were administered to 402 14-19 year-old adolescents. Contrary to expectations, anxiety but not…

  11. Origins of Modern Ideas on Love and Loss : Contrasting Forerunners of Attachment Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Margaret S.; Archer, John

    2013-01-01

    In this article we examine some origins of John Bowlby's attachment theory, a highly influential scientific approach to love and loss in contemporary society. Although some potential influences have been well-documented, others have either received no recognition or have failed to have an impact. We

  12. Integrating Attachment Theory to Support a Client Coming to Terms with Infidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire, Carolyn A.

    2010-01-01

    Finding it difficult to overcome the emotional distress experienced when considering her husband's infidelity, a client seeks counselling support. The client's goal was to learn about herself and to use the experience as an opportunity for self transformation. The case study utilizes Attachment Theory and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy to help the…

  13. Circle of Security in Child Care: Putting Attachment Theory into Practice in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Glen; Hoffman, Kent; Powell, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the Circle of Security-Classroom (COS-C) approach to applying attachment theory in preschool settings. Early childhood is an incubator for a wide range of development including the underpinnings of school readiness. Secure teacher-child relationships support this process. However, most preschool staff members lack guidance…

  14. Vibration of nonuniform carbon nanotube with attached mass via nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hai Li; Shen, Zhi Bin; Li, Dao Kui [National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China)

    2014-09-15

    This paper studies the vibrational behavior of nonuniform single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) carrying a nanoparticle. A nonuniform cantilever beam with a concentrated mass at the free end is analyzed according to the nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory. A governing equation of a nonuniform SWCNT with attached mass is established. The transfer function method incorporating with the perturbation method is utilized to obtain the resonant frequencies of a vibrating nonlocal cantilever-mass system. The effects of the nonlocal parameter, taper ratio and attached mass on the natural frequencies and frequency shifts are discussed. Obtained results indicate that the sensitivity of the frequency shifts on the attached mass increases when the length-to-diameter ratio decreases. Tapered SWCNT possesses higher fundamental frequencies if the taper ratio becomes larger.

  15. [The physician-patient relationship in the context of the attachment theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszkiewicz-Bandur, Monika; Kozińska, Beata

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the application in medical practice of relationship rules derived from the theory of attachment which was first formulated in the fifties by John Bowlby, a British psychiatrist, and further developed by the American developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth. This theory is considered to be one of the more outstanding achievements of psychology in the 20th century. Attachment types may reveal themselves in the form of specific behavior which characterizes the relationship of the patient with medical staff. The reaction to stress is shaped by the experience of childhood during which the child develops and perpetuates its own style of emotional expression and coping with stress. The child's model of coping with stress matures along with the experience of care from adult caregivers and determines the future pattern of coping with strange situations and solving problems through open communication and "accommodation" of negative or distressing emotions during therapy.

  16. Strange quark matter attached to string cloud in general scalar tensor theory of gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V U M Rao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bianchi type-VI0 space time with strange quark matter attached to string cloud in Nordtvedt [1] general scalar tensor theory of gravitation with the help of a special case proposed by Schwinger [2] is obtained. The field equations have been solved by using the anisotropy feature of the universe in the Bianchi type-VI0 space time. Some important features of the model, thus obtained, have been discussed

  17. Transformative Theory in Social Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    , institutions or organisations. This idea is illustrated by a research-and-development effort to help conference organisers develop meeting formats that create more learning among delegates than is accomplished by the conventional, lecture-based format. This effort was based on a (transformative) theory......Social-scientific theory usually represents an attempt to describe or explain social phenomena and, sometimes, to criticize them. However, a theory can be transformative in the sense that in using and testing it, researchers may help practitioners transform and improve their social conditions...

  18. Media Effects: Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Walther, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    This review analyzes trends and commonalities among prominent theories of media effects. On the basis of exemplary meta-analyses of media effects and bibliometric studies of well-cited theories, we identify and discuss five features of media effects theories as well as their empirical support. Each of these features specifies the conditions under which media may produce effects on certain types of individuals. Our review ends with a discussion of media effects in newer media environments. This includes theories of computer-mediated communication, the development of which appears to share a similar pattern of reformulation from unidirectional, receiver-oriented views, to theories that recognize the transactional nature of communication. We conclude by outlining challenges and promising avenues for future research.

  19. Application of Social Control Theory to Examine Parent, Teacher, and Close Friend Attachment and Substance Use Initiation among Korean Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yoonsun; Kim, Heejoo; Lee, DongHun

    2016-01-01

    Based on Hirschi's social control theory (1969), this study examined the relationship between attachment (an element of social bonds) and the onset of substance use among South Korean adolescents. Using discrete-time logistic regression, the study investigated how attachment to parents, teachers, and close friends was associated with the timing of…

  20. Maternal responsiveness and attachment theory: a critical discussion of the role of cross-cultural studies / Responsividade materna e teoria do apego: uma discussão crítica do papel de estudos transculturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. Paes Ribas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal responsiveness has been considered as an important concept for the understanding of different aspects of infant development, and this concept has been articulated with attachment theory. The objective of this article is to discuss critically the role of transcultural studies about maternal responsiveness, based on attachment theory, and to review of the recent literature about this subject. Considering attachment a valuable theoretical basis for investigations on mother-infant interactions and maternal responsiveness, the conclusions basically point to three issues: 1 the attachment theory needs to be investigated in different socio-cultural contexts, to be tested in its limits and to receive a transcultural validation; 2 research on maternal responsiveness should take into account the discussion on attachment theory and cultural differences; 3 the inclusion of the study of maternal responsiveness in a theoretical framework that takes into account socio-cultural variables is necessary.

  1. Review of forms of intersubjectivity in infant research and adult attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Elizabeth; Monk, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Reviews the book, Forms of Intersubjectivity in Infant Research and Adult Attachment by Beatrice Beebe, Steven Knoblauch, Judith Rustin, and Dorienne Sorter (2005). In this book, the authors use their 10 years of collaborative work to produce an in-depth and well-constructed discussion of verbal and nonverbal forms of intersubjectivity as observed in the treatment setting and as evidenced by data generated from more mainstream child development studies. They move beyond the lack of integration between these related though often dramatically disconnected disciplines and build on infant researchers' understanding of "prereflective" caregiver-child interactions to offer a new theory of intersubjectivity that enhances our understanding of the clinical interaction with adult patients. This book is not for those therapists who are interested in learning well-specified, new interventions to use in their psychotherapy practice. It is also not suggested for those clinicians who do not have some background in psychoanalytic theory and practice. It is, however, recommended for those clinicians who work psychodynamically and are interested in developing their awareness of the nonverbal aspects of treatment and the co-construction of the therapeutic encounter. This book would also be useful to those in the field of psychotherapy research as it poses new questions about the nature of the therapeutic process and suggests the importance of examining the role that implicit, nonverbal interactions play in psychotherapy. Beebe, Knoblauch, Rustin, and Sorter's book is well constructed, persuasively argued, and highly recommended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Attachment-related psychodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Phillip R; Mikulincer, Mario

    2002-09-01

    Because there has been relatively little communication and cross-fertilization between the two major lines of research on adult attachment, one based on coded narrative assessments of defensive processes, the other on simple self-reports of 'attachment style' in close relationships, we here explain and review recent work based on a combination of self-report and other kinds of method, including behavioral observations and unconscious priming techniques. The review indicates that considerable progress has been made in testing central hypotheses derived from attachment theory and in exploring unconscious, psychodynamic processes related to affect-regulation and attachment-system activation. The combination of self-report assessment of attachment style and experimental manipulation of other theoretically pertinent variables allows researchers to test causal hypotheses. We present a model of normative and individual-difference processes related to attachment and identify areas in which further research is needed and likely to be successful. One long-range goal is to create a more complete theory of personality built on attachment theory and other object relations theories.

  3. An Attachment Perspective on the Child--Dog Bond: Interdisciplinary and International Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the process of attachment formation in young children has been a focal point in child development research for decades. However, young children's attachments are not only with human beings; they also form bonds with companion animals, particularly dogs ("Canis familiaris"). Given the number of dogs that are kept by families…

  4. The relationship between 'theory of mind' and attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between 'theory of mind' and attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adolescence. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test and the "Experiences in Close Relationships - Relationship Structures" questionnaires were administered to 402 14-19 year-old adolescents. Contrary to expectations, anxiety but not avoidance with mother was associated with less accurate mindreading, and this effect was stronger in younger than in older adolescents. Results might be explained in terms of the inconsistency of caregiver behavior that is supposed to cause anxious strategies, and thus illustrate the need to consider not only the effects, but also the causes of different types of insecure strategies.

  5. Cross-cultural perspectives: implications for attachment theory and family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuchin, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Cross-cultural perspectives have always been useful for understanding behavior. They clarify the distinction between aspects that are essentially part of the human condition and those that are the most responsive to variation. The interesting article by Rothbaum and his colleagues is in that tradition, contrasting the cultural values and family patterns in Japanese society with those of Western cultures, including our own, and suggesting that these differences shape the nature and course of attachment. It stimulates questions about what we have taken for granted in our theories and in our evaluations of dysfunctional behavior.

  6. Emotional Availability: Theory, Research, and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah eSaunders

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Attachment Theory (Bowlby, 1969 and its limitations are first described. Next, emotional availability (EA; Biringen, Robinson, & Emde, 1998; Biringen, 2008 is introduced as an expansion upon the original conceptualization of the parent-child attachment relationship. As a construct and as a measure, EA considers the dyadic and emotional qualities of adult-child relationships. EA is predictive of a variety of child outcomes, such as attachment security, emotion regulation, and school readiness. Recently developed programs to enhance adult-child emotional availability are described.

  7. Attachment theory and the interfaces between mother’s love, cinematics and ciber-machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alejandra Calquin Donoso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the emergence of the theory of attachment and its relation to the biological transformations introduced by Second World War, along with the incorporation of cinematics in developmental psychology. I state that the work of John Bowlby puts forth a new discursive formation in which the relationship mother-creature is explained by a sophisticated empiric/theoretical device derived from a renewed biology, namely military cybernetics. In addition, I contend that this new biology sets up a certain spectacle, through which scientific truth was shown to the public through the cinema. Both the introduction of cyber-organisms as well as the cinema, allows me to analyze Bowlby’s theory, not only as constituting a significant transformation on the discursive construction of gender and the maternal body, but also pushing forward a process of “cyborgization” within the field of developmental psychology which gradually starts to blur the line between humans and machines.

  8. Using relationship styles based on attachment theory to improve understanding of specialty choice in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Joan E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-provider relationships in primary care are characterized by greater continuity and depth than in non-primary care specialties. We hypothesized that relationship styles of medical students based on attachment theory are associated with specialty choice factors and that such factors will mediate the association between relationship style and ultimately matching in a primary care specialty. Methods We determined the relationship styles, demographic characteristics and resident specialty match of 106 fourth-year medical students. We assessed the associations between 1 relationship style and specialty choice factors; 2 specialty choice factors and specialty match, and 3 relationship style and specialty match. We also conducted mediation analyses to determine if factors examined in a specialty choice questionnaire mediate the association between relationship style and ultimately matching in a primary care specialty. Results Prevalence of attachment styles was similar to that found in the general population and other medical school settings with 59% of students rating themselves as having a secure relationship style. Patient centeredness was directly associated, and career rewards inversely associated with matching in a primary care specialty. Students with a self-reliant relationship style were significantly more likely to match in a non-primary care specialty as compared to students with secure relationship style (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 1.8, 15.6. There was full mediation of the association between relationship style and specialty match by the specialty choice factor characterized by patient centeredness. Conclusion Assessing relationship styles based on attachment theory may be a potentially useful way to improve understanding and counsel medical students about specialty choice.

  9. [Close relationships in childhood and adulthood from the viewpoint of structural analysis of social behavior (SASB) and attachment theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Eva; Tress, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Two theoretical approaches to interpersonal experiences and behavior are empirically related to each other: Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) and attachment theory. The focus is on the most important relationships during life-span: relationships with mother and father in childhood, which were measured retrospectively, and romantic relationships in adulthood. 93 outpatients of a psychosomatic clinic took part in the study. Self-report measures were used to assess SASB-dimensions affiliation and autonomy and attachment variables (Intrex short form, Short measure of attachment to parents, Bochum Adult Attachment Questionnaire). Affiliation was strongly related to attachment to mother, father and romantic partner. Subjects classified as secure with respect to attachment to parents reported higher levels of affiliation than subjects classified as anxious or avoidant. Correspondingly, affiliation was negatively correlated with avoidance and anxiety in adult attachment to the romantic partner. On the other hand, autonomy was shown to be unrelated to attachment variables. Results indicate that the SASB-dimension affiliation and attachment security are closely associated.

  10. The role of loneliness and social support in adjustment to loss : a test of attachment versus stress theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, W; Stroebe, M; Abakoumkin, G; Schut, H

    1996-01-01

    A longitudinal study of a matched sample of 60 recently widowed and 60 married men and women tested predictions from stress and attachment theory regarding the role of social support in adjustment to bereavement. Stress theory predicts a buffering effect, attributing the impact of bereavement on wel

  11. Early elementary school-aged child attachment to parents: a test of theory and implications for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, M L; Harachi, T W; Catalano, R F; Haggerty, K P; Abbott, R D

    2000-06-01

    Child attachment to parents has been shown in the literature to reduce the likelihood of problem behaviors through enhancing resiliency. Research examining attachment and its relationship to antisocial behavioral outcomes in adolescents has been shaped largely by social control theorists who have theorized that attachment to prosocial others inhibits the expression of antisocial behavioral outcomes (Hirschi, 1969). This paper seeks to expand the literature by investigating the development of child attachment to parent(s) during the early elementary school years as specified theoretically by the social development model (Catalano & Hawkins, 1996). Using structural equation modeling, the results support the theoretical model as proposed by the social development model. School-aged children's attachment to parents can be successfully predicted by constructs outlined in the social development model. Finally, implications for interventions that enhance child attachment to parent(s) are discussed.

  12. The personal origins of attachment theory. An interview with Mary Salter Ainsworth. Interview by Peter L. Rudnytsky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, M S

    1997-01-01

    This interview took place in Charlottesville, Virginia, on August 20, 1991, at the home of Mary Salter Ainsworth. One of the foremost exponents of attachment theory and a colleague of the late John Bowlby, Dr. Ainsworth is best known for her innovative Strange Situation procedure, an experimental method to test the strength and styles of infants' attachments to their primary caregiver. She is the author of numerous papers and books, including Infancy in Uganda: Infant Care and the Growth of Love (1967), Patterns of Attachment (1978), and, with John Bowlby, Child Care and the Growth of Love (2nd ed., 1965).

  13. Density functional theory studies of MTSL nitroxide side chain conformations attached to an activation loop

    CERN Document Server

    Concilio, Maria Grazia; Bayliss, Richard; Burgess, Selena G

    2016-01-01

    A quantum-mechanical (QM) method rooted on density functional theory (DFT) has been employed to determine conformations of the methane-thiosulfonate spin label (MTSL) attached to a fragment extracted from the activation loop of Aurora-A kinase. The features of the calculated energy surface revealed low energy barriers between isoenergetic minima and the system could be described in a population of 76 rotamers that can be also considered for other systems since it was found that the X3, X4 and X5 do not depend on the previous two dihedral angles. Conformational states obtained were seen to comparable to those obtained in the {\\alpha}-helix systems studied previously, indicating that the protein backbone does not affect the torsional profiles significantly and suggesting the possibility to use determined conformations for other protein systems for further modelling studies.

  14. Modeling Interpersonal Correlates of Condomless Anal Sex among Gay and Bisexual Men: An Application of Attachment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Tyrel J; Castro, Michael A; Castiblanco, Juan P; Millar, Brett M

    2016-10-17

    The existing literature has identified that beliefs about the interpersonal meaning of condom use are a significant predictor of condomless anal sex (CAS). Some have suggested that condom use in this context may function as a form of nonverbal communication. This study utilized attachment theory as a framework and tested a hypothesized model linking adult attachment to CAS through communication skills and condom expectancies. An online survey was completed by 122 single, HIV-negative gay and bisexual (GB) men living in the U.S. They completed measures of adult attachment (anxious and avoidant), condom expectancies regarding intimacy and pleasure interference, communication skills, self-assessed mate value, and recent CAS with casual partners. There was a significant, positive bivariate association between anxious attachment and receptive CAS. In path model analyses, two over-arching pathways emerged. In the other-oriented pathway, anxious attachment, self-perceived mate value, and emotional communication predicted the belief that condoms interfere with intimacy. In turn, intimacy interference expectancies were positively associated with the odds of receptive CAS. In the self-oriented pathway, assertive communication skills mediated a link between avoidant attachment and the belief that condoms interfere with sexual pleasure. Pleasure interference expectancies were positively associated with the odds of insertive CAS. The findings highlight the importance of relational or interpersonal concerns in sexual risk-taking among single GB men. Attachment theory may serve as a framework for organizing these interpersonal correlates of CAS. Results are consistent with the conceptualization of condom use as a form of nonverbal attachment-related behavior. Implications for sexual health and risk-reduction interventions are explored in this context.

  15. Attachment Theory as a Framework for Understanding Sequelae of Severe Adolescent Psychopathology: An 11-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined long-term sequelae of severe adolescent psychopathology from the perspective of adult attachment theory. Compared 66 upper-middle-class adolescents who were psychiatrically hospitalized at age 14 for problems other than thought or organic disorders, to 76 socio-demographically similar high school students. When reviewed at age 25,…

  16. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  17. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and th

  18. Betweenness centrality as a driver of preferential attachment in the evolution of research collaboration networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, A.; Hossain, L.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze whether preferential attachment in scientific coauthorship networks is different for authors with different forms of centrality. Using a complete database for the scientific specialty of research about "steel structures," we show that betweenness centrality of an existing node is a signif

  19. Reactive Attachment Disorder in the Context of the Family: A Review and Call for Further Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Priscilla K.

    2003-01-01

    Review of the research pertaining to reactive attachment disorder (RAD) in the family context considers diagnosis of RAD and family experiences associated with children who have RAD. Focus is on interrelationships among RAD behavioral characteristics and associated challenges to parents and siblings. Relevant literature from different fields is…

  20. Adjustment to divorce and co-parental relations: contributions from the theory of attachment / Adaptação ao divórcio e relações coparentais: contributos da teoria da vinculação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lamela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is proposed the contribution of the attachment theory for understanding adults' adjustment processes to their divorce and how detachment to ex-spouse can infer in co-parenting relationships after marital dissolution. This article makes two theoretical assumptions that focus on two dimensions. The first hypothesis states that the divorce, while a relational process, should be read as a moment of loss that germinates similar psychological reactions to those experienced by widows. Bowlby describes it in his model of loss of the attachment figure as dependent on attachment styles of divorced adults. The second hypothesis argues that the post-divorce co-parenting relationships are predicted by the attachment styles and by the quality of parents' attachment reorganization. At the end, a theoretical integration is built, based on a proposal for future research in this area.

  1. An experimental evaluation of the State Adult Attachment Measure: the influence of attachment primes on the content of state attachment representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David P.; Dewitte, Marieke; Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...

  2. An experimental evaluation of the State Adult Attachment Measure: The Influence of Attachment Primes on the Content of State Attachment Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David; Dewitte, Marieke; Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...

  3. Assessing Adolescent and Adult Attachment: A Review of Current Self-Report Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, William J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Notes that interest in attachment theory among counselors and researchers has led to development of measures of attachment-related constructs. Presents overview of theoretical foundations of attachment theory as conceptualized by Ainsworth (1989) and Bowlby (1988). Reviews four self-report measures of adolescent and adult attachment. Discusses…

  4. Transformative Theory in Social and Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2016-01-01

    techniques were derived from the theory and were tested as hypotheses: When implemented in thirty live conference experiments, did they contribute to learning, as specified by the theory? Used in this manner, transformative theory may supplement the aspirations motivating change agents by some of the well......In social and organizational research, theory is conventionally used to explain social phenomena. However, theory may be transformative in the sense that in using and testing the theory in a practical domain, researchers may attempt to help practitioners transform and improve their social practices...... and institutions. This idea is illustrated by a research-and-development project in Denmark, headed by the author, which used transformative theory to design professional conferences that are more conducive to participant learning and involvement than is the conventional, lecture-based format. A number of learning...

  5. The functional discrimination of attachment and affiliation. Theory and empirical demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, A E; West, M

    1989-07-01

    Volunteer college students completed a categorisation task designed to test the hypothesis that adults organise their expectations of relationships in a manner that reflects a functional distinction between attachment and affiliation. Terms associated with the provision of security and with characteristics theoretically identified as definitive of attachment relationships were significantly more likely to be associated with the relationship identified as 'lover'. There was substantial overlap between attachment and affiliation relationships in functions relating to intimacy and disclosure. These results highlight the need to differentiate close relationships by functional rather than structural characteristics.

  6. Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bergh, van den Huub; Couzijn, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research describes the current state of the art in research on written text production. The chapters in the first part offer contributions to the creation of new theories and models for writing processes. The second part examines specific elements of the w

  7. Narcissism: Theory, research and scales

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoš, František

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on psychological and sociological theories of narcissism. We draw on traditional authors like Freud, Kohut, Kernberg, Fromm and Horney, but we also focus on contemporary psychologists like J. Beck and Rhodewalt. Our main intention is to show narcissism not only as a psychological disorder, but primarily as a social phenomenon. Therefore, we mention authors of sociological theories of narcissism, such as Lash, Sennett, Lipovetsky and Giddens. Our text is also oriented to me...

  8. Early Manifestations of Children's Theory of Mind: The Roles of Maternal Mind-Mindedness and Infant Security of Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Jessica; Bernier, Annie; Meins, Elizabeth; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated two aspects of mother-child relationships--mothers' mind-mindedness and infant attachment security--in relation to two early aspects of children's theory of mind development (ToM). Sixty-one mother-child dyads (36 girls) participated in testing phases at 12 (T1), 15 (T2), and 26 months of age (T3), allowing for assessment…

  9. Grounded Theory Approach in Social Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Venkat Pulla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Grounded Theory, which is one of the newer methodologies becoming popular with social researchers since its evolution in the late 1960s. The paper discusses the principles and processes of the Grounded Theory and then explores the nature of codes, coding process and the concept of saturation. It then goes on to discuss the pros and cons, arguments for and against the use of Grounded Theory methodology in social research and explores the applicability of this methodology in producing sound theoretical basis for practice. Selected narratives from the author’s recent studies are used to explain the processes of Grounded Theory methodology.

  10. [Thoughts regarding researchers utilizing Grounded Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Joséte Luzia; da Silva, Laura Johanson; de Oliveira, Rosane Mara Pontes; Stipp, Marluci Andrade Conceição

    2012-06-01

    This descriptive-reflexive study was performed with the objective to present the characteristics of researchers who use the Grounded Theory method, and outline the development of aptitudes for the researcher to become a Grounded Theoretician. The theoretical discussion was based on the frameworks of this methodology and supported by the literature. The article presents the main demands of qualitative studies using Grounded Theory, and important behaviors, attitudes and characteristics developed by the researchers. It is concluded that learning about Grounded Theory involves more than operationalizing a group of procedures and techniques. It also involves facing challenges to change one's attitude as a researcher and develop new ways of thinking and researching, gathering knowledge based on data to form a theory.

  11. Using institutional theory in enterprise systems research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets out to examine the use of institutional theory as a conceptually rich lens to study social issues of enterprise systems (ES) research. More precisely, the purpose is to categorize current ES research using institutional theory to develop a conceptual model that advances ES research....... Key institutional features are presented such as isomorphism, rationalized myths, and bridging macro and micro structures, and institutional logics and their implications for ES research are discussed. Through a literature review of 181 articles, of which 18 papers are selected, we build a conceptual...... model that advocates multi-level and multi-theory approaches and applies newer institutional aspects such as institutional logics. The findings show that institutional theory in ES research is in its infancy and adopts mainly traditional institutional aspects like isomorphism, with the organization...

  12. [Research in theory and practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Sastre, R; Narvaiza Solís, M J

    2000-03-01

    By means of a survey of international articles, the authors propose to demonstrate some factors which bear an influence on the development of research and investigation in nursing, some problems which affect it, and some strategies for its development inside a clinical-teaching environment. DEVELOPMENT OR RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION IN NURSING: In the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, other European countries, especially Spain, the authors observed the strong relationship which exists between the development of research and investigation in Nursing and its incorporation in universities. RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION IN CLINICS: In the opinion of many authors, the main field for research and investigation lies in clinical practice. The authors analyze seven basic requirements: academic curiosity; education in research and investigation; investigative activity; climate conducive to research and investigation; funds for research and investigation; dissemination of the results of research and investigation activities; and making use of the discoveries. TEACH AND INVESTIGATE: The authors point out strategies which enable a teacher to teach from an investigative approach and to stimulate students towards investigation at various levels according to the circumstances involved.

  13. Progress in string theory research

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    At the first look, the String Theory seems just an interesting and non-trivial application of the quantum mechanics and the special relativity to vibrating strings. By itself, the quantization of relativistic strings does not call the attention of the particle physicist as a significant paradigm shift. However, when the string quantization is performed by applying the standard rules of the perturbative Quantum Field Theory, one discovers that the strings in certain states have the same physical properties as the gravity in the flat space-time. Chapter one of this book reviews the construction of the thermal bosonic string and D-brane in the framework of the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD). It briefly recalls the wellknown light-cone quantization of the bosonic string in the conformal gauge in flat space-time, and gives a bird’s eye view of the fundamental concepts of the TFD. Chapter two examines a visual model inspired by string theory, on the system of interacting anyons. Chapter three investigate the late-ti...

  14. INNOVATION, CUSTOMER ATTACHMENT SOURCE IN RETAIL SERVICES EMPIRICAL RESEARCH IN DIY RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Săniuţă Adina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the present study is innovation of services in the retail trade of bricolage (Do-It-Yourself, DIY products and the influence that innovation has on the increase of customer attachment to companies in this field. The Romanian bricolage market brings together representatives of large specialised retail chains in Europe along with large domestic operators, which led us to the choice of this trade as a research field. Innovation is considered an important factor that brings a significant contribution to the success of a business (O\\'Cass, Song and Yuan, 2012, and services are a priority for economic development. Despite all these, innovation in services is still insufficiently exploited both theoretically and empirically. The object of this study is to apply a qualitative research through semi-conducted interviews with managers from the bricolage retail field in order to validate the conceptual model whose inputs, innovation along with the availability and professionalism of the sales staff, act as generators of customer attachment to the company, leading to increased turnover, a permanent fund of customers and loyalty to the store. As a second stage, the proposed model will be tested through a quantitative research, by making use of the customer’s points of view. The three hypotheses of this research (H1: Innovation in services is determined by: the customer’s involvement in the implementation of the service, the use of gadgets in the store to facilitate access to information to the customer, the extension of the in-store services to the virtual environment and customer experience; H2: Innovation together with the availability and knowledge of the sales staff are sources of the customer’s attachment; H3: attachment acts as a catalyst for the turnover, the permanent fund of customers and the loyalty to the store have been accepted, the study revealing that in the retail trade of bricolage products, the staff’s availability and

  15. Human Research and Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, James

    2008-01-01

    The disavowal of positivist science by many educational researchers has resulted in a deepening polarization of research agendas and an epistemological divide that appears increasingly difficult to span. Despite a turning away from science altogether by some, and thus toward various forms of poststructuralist inquiry, this has not held back the…

  16. Building Grounded Theory in Entrepreneurship Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Markus; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2007-01-01

    our approach to grounded theory, we acknowledge the existence of other approaches and try to locate our approach in relation to them. As an important part of this discussion, we take a stand on how to usefully define ‘grounded theory’ and ‘case study research’. Second, we seek to firmly link our......In this chapter we describe the process of building of theory from data (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). We discuss current grounded theory in relation to research in entrepreneurship and point out directions and potential improvements for further research in this field...... discussion to the potential value of grounded theory research to the field of entrepreneurship and thus the need in this field of further grounded theory....

  17. Attachment behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigling, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes studies into the rat as an animal model for attachment, along the lines of Bowlby's attachment theory. First, the relation between attachment and human psychopathology is reviewed. The conclusion is that psychopathology is more frequent in insecure attached persons and that the

  18. Cultivation Theory and Research: A Conceptual Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Presents a critical analysis of how cultivation (long-term formation of perceptions and beliefs about the world as a result of exposure to media) has been conceptualized in theory and research. Analyses the construct of television exposure. Suggests revisions for conceptualizing the existing theory and extending it. (RS)

  19. An Application of Attachment Theory: Mentoring Relationship Dynamics and Ethical Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    In this theoretical paper, mentoring relationships are conceptualized as close relationships that occur along a spectrum from highly functional to highly dysfunctional, with most occurring in between. A complex set of factors describe the functioning level of mentoring relationships: (a) the attachment styles of the mentors and mentees; (b)…

  20. Theories of Attachment: An Introduction to Bowlby, Ainsworth, Gerber, Brazelton, Kennell, and Klaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Carol Garhart

    2010-01-01

    Learn what prominent theorists say about bonding, attachment, separation and stranger anxiety, and the best practices for infant care. This introductory guide makes it easy to learn about John Bowlby, Mary Ainsworth, Magda Gerber, John Kennell, Marshall Klaus, and T. Berry Brazelton.

  1. New Research in Communication Theory: A Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Martha J.

    Recent studies in communication theory are outlined and briefly discussed. Categories of research included are information systems, interpersonal communication, mass communication, organizational communication, intercultural communication, political communication, instructional communication, and health communication. Except for the area of health…

  2. Basic theory research of coal spontaneous combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-ren; SUN Yan-qiu; ZHAO Qing-fu; DENG Cun-bao; DENG Han-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Discussed latest research results of basic theory research of coal spontaneous combustion in detail, with quantum chemical theory and method and experiment systematically studied chemical structure of coal molecule, adsorption mechanism of coal surface to oxygen molecule and chemical reaction mechanism and process of spontaneous combustion of organic macromolecule and low molecular weight compound in coal from microcosmic view, and established complete theoretical system of the mechanism of coal spontaneous combustion.

  3. Hypnosis, attachment, and oxytocin:an integrative perspective (1.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Vladimir; Cojan, Yann; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers links between clinical hypnosis, attachment theory, and oxytocin. First, it proposes that commonalities between clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may improve our understanding of the hypnotherapeutic process. Then, it suggests that an integrative model unifying clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may constitute a link between clinical hypnosis and a neurobiological factor such as oxytocin. Finally, it discusses the implications of these hypotheses for clinical practice and future researches.

  4. Theory Emergence in IS Research: The Grounded Theory Method Applied : 10. JAIS Theory Development Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbrich, Sebastian; Mueller, Benjamin; Niederman, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Where IS research aims at theory building and testing, the vast bulk of theory is borrowed from reference disciplines. While this provides some momentum for research output, it also tends to shift the focus of research away from direct observation of central, core IS issues. The purpose of this pape

  5. Attention theory and training research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, James G., Jr.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Lintern, Gavan; Harwood, Kelly

    1987-01-01

    This study used elements of attention theory as a methodological basis to decompose a complex training task in order to improve training efficiency. The complex task was a microcomputer flight simulation where subjects were required to control the stability of their own helicopter while acquiring and engaging enemy helicopers in a threat enviroment. Subjects were divided into whole-task, part-task, and part/open loop adaptive task groups in a transfer of training paradigm. The effect of reducing mental workload at the early stages of learning was examined with respect to the degree that subordinate elements of the complex task could be automated through practice of consistent, learnable stimulus-response relationships. Results revealed trends suggesting the benefit of isolating consistently mapped sub-tasks for part-task training and the presence of a time-sharing skill over and above the skill required for the separate subtasks.

  6. The Use of Theory in Family Therapy Research: Content Analysis and Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruoxi; Hughes, Alexandria C; Austin, Jason P

    2017-02-22

    In this study, we evaluated 275 empirical studies from Journal of Marital and Family Therapy and Family Process from 2010 to 2015 on their use of theory, and compared our findings to those of a similar previous analysis (Hawley & Geske, 2000). Overall, theory seems to have become much better incorporated in empirical family therapy research, with only 16.4% of the articles not using theory in either their introductory or discussion sections. Theory appeared better incorporated in the introductory sections than in the discussion sections. Systems theory remained the most commonly used conceptual framework, followed by attachment theory. We discuss areas for improving theory incorporation in family therapy research, and offer suggestions for both family therapy researchers and educators.

  7. Grounded theory as feminist research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddy, B; Sims, S L; Stern, P N

    1996-03-01

    Feminist research is evolving, and with it new methods of doing science. In this feminist post-positivist era, grounded theory, while less inclusive and descriptive than ethnography, allows for complex analysis of complex questions. While Glaser & Strauss (the originators of this methodology) have written about grounded theory in an esoteric way, others have written extensively about this method in a much clearer and less rigid fashion. In this paper we discuss how grounded theory could be used in a creative and constantly evolving manner for feminist research.

  8. Annual Research Review: Attachment Disorders in Early Childhood--Clinical Presentation, Causes, Correlates, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Gleason, Mary Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background: Though noted in the clinical literature for more than 50 years, attachment disorders have been studied systematically only recently. In part because of the ubiquity of attachments in humans, determining when aberrant behavior is best explained as an attachment disorder as opposed to insecure attachment has led to some confusion. In…

  9. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  10. Theory of dynamic force spectroscopy for kinetochore-microtubule attachments: rupture force distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Ghanti, Dipanwita

    2016-01-01

    Application of pulling force, under force-clamp conditions, to kinetochore-microtubule attachments {\\it in-vitro} revealed a catch-bond-like behavior. In an earlier paper ({\\it Sharma et al. Phys. Biol. (2014)} the physical origin of this apparently counter-intuitive phenomenon was traced to the nature of the force-dependence of the (de-)polymerization kinetics of the microtubules. In this brief communication that work is extended to situations where the external forced is ramped up till the attachment gets ruptured. In spite of the fundamental differences in the underlying mechanisms, the trend of variation of the rupture force distribution observed in our model kinetochore-microtubule attachment with the increasing loading rate is qualitatively similar to that displayed by the catch bonds formed in some other ligand-receptor systems. Our theoretical predictions can be tested experimentally by a straightforward modification of the protocol for controlling the force in the optical trap set up that was used in...

  11. Politicising Action Research through Queer Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filax, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    Queer theory and action research together offer possibilities for exposing the deep injustice of both homophobia and heterosexism. Underpinning identity categories of sexuality and gender, these forms of social injustice lurk in schools, families, religions, communities, and nation-states. For educators and educational researchers, addressing…

  12. Demystifying Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.

  13. Using structuration theory in action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Lewis, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Structuration theory, Giddens' meta theory of social practice, has been used for theorizing the IS field and for analyzing empirical case studies, but has been little used in any practical or action research context. In the action research project reported here, which concerns the development...... of an intranet in a university department, structurational analysis was woven into the action research framework. This enabled social insight and reflections, which would not have been the primary focus of an analyst using a conventional systems development methodology, and facilitated the shaping of future...

  14. Feminisms and Educational Research. Philosophy, Theory, and Educational Research Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Wendy R.; Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    Feminist theory has come a long way from its nascent beginnings--no longer can it be classified as "liberal," "socialist," or "radical." It has shaped and evolved to take on multiple meanings and forms, each distinct in its own perspective and theory. In "Feminisms and Educational Research," the authors explore the various forms of feminisms,…

  15. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim B. Parsons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society.

  16. Social Learning Theory Parenting Intervention Promotes Attachment-Based Caregiving in Young Children: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Matias, Carla; Futh, Annabel; Tantam, Grace; Scott, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social…

  17. 基于依恋视角的团体咨询与治疗研究综述%Review of Group Counseling and Group Therapy from the Pointview of Attachment Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁小华; 樊富珉

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, papers about the application of attachment theory in group counseling and therapy were reviewed and divided into three parts: the mechanism of group counseling based on the attachment, the research on the relationship of attachment and group process, and the research on the relationship of attachment and group effectiveness. The domestic research about attachment was also reviewed at the end of the paper, and the constrictions and future research were pointed out.%团体辅导是大学生心理健康教育的重要途径之一,依恋理论是能够解读团体过程与结果的理论框架,并能够指导团体辅导的进行.本文梳理了依恋理论在团体咨询与治疗中的应用文献,从基于依恋的团体治疗的机制,依恋与团体过程的相关研究,依恋与团体辅导效果的研究等几个方面进行综述,并提出了基于依恋视角的团体辅导的操作意见.

  18. Attachment Representations in 6-Year-Old Children from One and Two Parent Families in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Konig, Lilith

    2007-01-01

    Viewed from the perspective of attachment theory, coping with the separation and divorce of parents requires that children reorganize their mental model of attachment. Secure attachment models may be disrupted, while insecure attachment models may be strengthened. According to findings from research on divorce, this process of family…

  19. Does infant cognition research undermine sociological theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how the results of infant research challenge the assumptions of the classical sciences of social behaviour. According to A.J. Bergesen, the findings of infant research invalidate Durkheim's theory of mental categories, thus requiring a re-theorizing of sociology. This article...... argues that Bergesen's reading of Emile Durkheim is incorrect, and his review of the infant research in fact invalidates his argument. Reviewing the assumptions of sociology in the light of the findings of infant research, it is argued that the real challenge is to formulate a research strategy...

  20. Adult attachment and incidental memory for emotional words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanxin Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A dual task of attachment priming and memory recognition was proposed to explore the effect of adult attachment styles on the incidental memory for emotional words. Subjects completed an attachment priming task which intends to activate internal working model of attachment by describing attachment-related scenes, and then an incidental memory recognition test of words which differ in emotional meaning and relevance of attachment styles. Signal detection theory was used to compare the discriminability index and decision criterion of emotional words in subjects of different attachment style. Results showed that subjects with secure attachment styles performed better than insecure-attached subjects in the memory recognition test, in terms of higher hit rate, lower false alarm rate, and higher discriminability index. We extended the influence of attachment styles on cognition to lower level of incidental memory, not just on higher cognitive level with emotional arousal as suggested by previous research.

  1. Nutrition education: linking research, theory, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contento, Isobel R

    2008-01-01

    The increase in obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease worldwide reflects the complex interactions of biology, personal behaviour and environment. Consequently there has been a greater recognition of the importance of nutrition education. An analysis of the evidence from 300+ studies shows that nutrition education is more likely to be effective when it focuses on behaviour/ action (rather than knowledge only) and systematically links theory, research and practice. There are three essential components to nutrition education: 1. A motivational component, where the goal is to increase awareness and enhance motivation by addressing beliefs, attitudes through effective communication strategies. 2. An action component, where the goal is to facilitate people's ability to take action through goal setting and cognitive self-regulation skills. 3. An environmental component, where nutrition educators work with policymakers and others to promote environmental supports for action. Each component needs to be based on appropriate theory and research. The procedure for program design can use the logic model: Inputs are the resources needed as well as the needs analysis process. The outputs are the activities within the three components of nutrition education described above. Here the behavioural focus is selected and theory and research are used to design appropriate educational strategies to achieve the targeted behaviours. The outcomes are the short, medium or long-term impacts of the nutrition program. These are evaluated through the use of appropriate designs and instruments. Nutrition education programs that link research, theory, and practice are more likely to be effective.

  2. Process research on Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples: linking theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Paul S; Johnson, Susan M

    2013-03-01

    The focus of this article is on the link among theory, process, and outcome in the practice of Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples. We describe the EFT model of change and the EFT perspective on adult love as the reflection of underlying attachment processes. We outline the manner in which theory and research inform EFT interventions. This leads into a detailed review of the literature on the processes of change in EFT. We highlight the client responses and therapist operations that have emerged from process research and their relation to treatment outcomes. We discuss the implications of this body of research for clinical practice and training.

  3. Joint custody: research, theory, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, D R

    1988-12-01

    A majority of states have now enacted legislation addressing the issue of joint custody of children after divorce. This article examines current research on the subject, explores its implications for family theory, and attempts to draw some empirically based conclusions regarding policy. The literature would seem to support a structuralist view of the family and to undermine normative theories of the family life cycle. The author concludes that policy should not be aimed at developing a presumption of joint legal custody alone, but, rather, of joint physical custody with specified limitations.

  4. Are anxiously attached women better mindreaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca

    2013-08-01

    This research was aimed at providing first evidence concerning the relationship between adults' self-reported attachment style and their performance on a standard 'theory of mind' task. Based on adult attachment theory, we hypothesized that the two dimensions of self-reported adult attachment, anxiety and avoidance, are differently related to 'theory of mind,' and that this relationship is moderated by variables concerning the 'theory of mind' stimuli. The 'Experiences in Close Relationships' questionnaire and the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test were administered to 132 young women. In line with our expectations, women's attachment-related anxiety was associated with better mind reading concerning stimuli that were emotionally neutral or difficult to recognize.

  5. An Investigation into the Roles of Theory of Mind, Emotion Regulation, and Attachment Styles in Predicting the Traits of Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ghiasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Borderline personality disorder is one of the most complex and prevalent personality disorders. Many variables have so far been studied in relation to this disorder. This study aimed to investigate the role of emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder.Method: In this study, 85 patients with borderline personality disorder were selected using convenience sampling method. To measure the desired variables, the questionnaires of Gross emotion regulation, Collins and Read attachment styles, and Baron Cohen's Reading Mind from Eyes Test were applied. The data were analyzed using multivariate stepwise regression technique.Results: Emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind predicted 41.2% of the variance criterion altogether; among which, the shares of emotion regulation, attachment styles and theory of mind to the distribution of the traits of borderline personality disorder were 27.5%, 9.8%, and 3.9%, respectively.‎‎Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind are important variables in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder and that these variables can be well applied for both the treatment and identification of this disorder.

  6. An Investigation into the Roles of Theory of Mind, Emotion Regulation, and Attachment Styles in Predicting the Traits of Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Hamed; Mohammadi, Abolalfazl; Zarrinfar, Pouria

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Borderline personality disorder is one of the most complex and prevalent personality disorders. Many variables have so far been studied in relation to this disorder. This study aimed to investigate the role of emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder. Method: In this study, 85 patients with borderline personality disorder were selected using convenience sampling method. To measure the desired variables, the questionnaires of Gross emotion regulation, Collins and Read attachment styles, and Baron Cohen's Reading Mind from Eyes Test were applied. The data were analyzed using multivariate stepwise regression technique. Results: Emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind predicted 41.2% of the variance criterion altogether; among which, the shares of emotion regulation, attachment styles and theory of mind to the distribution of the traits of borderline personality disorder were 27.5%, 9.8%, and 3.9%, respectively.‎‎ Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind are important variables in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder and that these variables can be well applied for both the treatment and identification of this disorder.

  7. Responsividade materna e teoria do apego: uma discussão crítica do papel de estudos transculturais Maternal responsiveness and attachment theory: a critical discussion of the role of cross-cultural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. Paes Ribas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A responsividade materna tem sido considerada como um elemento central para a compreensão do desenvolvimento infantil e este conceito tem sido articulado com a teoria do apego. Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir criticamente o papel de estudos transculturais sobre responsividade materna, à luz da teoria do apego, a partir da revisão da literatura recente sobre o tema. Considerando a teoria do apego um referencial valioso para investigações sobre interações mãe-bebê e responsividade materna, as conclusões apontam, basicamente, para três questões: 1 a teoria do apego precisa ser investigada em diferentes contextos socioculturais e receber validação transcultural; 2 pesquisas sobre responsividade materna devem considerar a discussão sobre a teoria do apego e diferenças culturais; 3 a inclusão do estudo da responsividade materna em referenciais teóricos que levem em conta variáveis socioculturais é necessária.Maternal responsiveness has been considered as an important concept for the understanding of different aspects of infant development, and this concept has been articulated with attachment theory. The objective of this article is to discuss critically the role of transcultural studies about maternal responsiveness, based on attachment theory, and to review of the recent literature about this subject. Considering attachment a valuable theoretical basis for investigations on mother-infant interactions and maternal responsiveness, the conclusions basically point to three issues: 1 the attachment theory needs to be investigated in different socio-cultural contexts, to be tested in its limits and to receive a transcultural validation; 2 research on maternal responsiveness should take into account the discussion on attachment theory and cultural differences; 3 the inclusion of the study of maternal responsiveness in a theoretical framework that takes into account socio-cultural variables is necessary.

  8. Associations between Attachment and Emotion-Specific Emotion Regulation with and without Relationship Insecurity Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear, Sarah J.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory and previous research on emotion regulation (ER) suggest that ER will be associated with adult attachment orientation, with the expectation of different associations of attachment avoidance, anxiety, and security with specific ER patterns. In addition, research has shown that the emotion under consideration and the context may…

  9. Is Consumer Culture Theory research or realpolitik?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Per; Bode, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    When Consumer Culture Theory (CCT) was introduced by Arnould and Thompson (2005) it was part of a strategy to create legitimacy for interpretive research. It was argued that interpretive researchers needed to be more pragmatic in their attitude. This was a fundamental change in the scientific...... culture in this stream of research. This paper analyses these changes and studies how CCT represents a new and pragmatic attitude. It is shown how the changes intended by CCT can imply a shift from a focus on new groundbreaking research to an awareness of the consequences of realpolitik. This strategic...... move can be seen as an example of how scientific cultures try to move from a marginal position to the mainstream. The consequences of this attempt to manage science are analysed, and solutions to problems created by these changes are developed....

  10. Unifying theory for terrestrial research infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtl, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The presentation will elaborate on basic steps needed for building a common theoretical base between Research Infrastructures focusing on terrestrial ecosystems. This theoretical base is needed for developing a better cooperation and integrating in the near future. An overview of different theories will be given and ways to a unifying approach explored. In the second step more practical implications of a theory-guided integration will be developed alongside the following guiding questions: • How do the existing and planned European environmental RIs map on a possible unifying theory on terrestrial ecosystems (covered structures and functions, scale; overlaps and gaps) • Can a unifying theory improve the consistent definition of RÍs scientific scope and focal science questions? • How could a division of tasks between RIs be organized in order to minimize parallel efforts? • Where concretely do existing and planned European environmental RIs need to interact to respond to overarching questions (top down component)? • What practical fora and mechanisms (across RIs) would be needed to bridge the gap between PI driven (bottom up) efforts and the centralistic RI design and operations?

  11. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article.

  12. What you use decides what you get: comparing classificatory procedures for the Adult Attachment Interview in eating disorder research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, H D; Sommerfeldt, B; Skårderud, F

    2011-12-01

    Studies of attachment and eating disorders use different types of measures, including different coding procedures for the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Generalizability of findings across studies is therefore uncertain. We compare the Main & Goldwyn procedure with the Dynamic Maturational Method, the two most common procedures for classifying AAI in eating disorder research. The sample consists of 20 female patients with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (mean age 22.9 (3.5) years). Attachment insecurity is by far most common, regardless of procedure. Within the insecure categories, there is little overlap between procedures in comparable categories. Both procedures discriminate between Anorexia subgroups (restricting vs bingeing), but do so differently. Findings suggest that comparing findings across methods, beyond the secure/insecure dichotomy, should be avoided.

  13. Monoamine theories of depression: historical impact on biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinari, Shai

    2012-01-01

    Monoamine theories associate depression with reduced brain monoamine levels. These theories achieved broad popularity in the mid-1960s. The present article reviews the historical development of monoamine theories and their subsequent impact on biomedical research. Alleged divisions between West European and US researchers over competing versions of the theories are investigated using bibliometrics. Subsequently, the application of monoamine theories in the NIMH Collaborative Program on the Psychobiology of Depression is covered. The article argues that the impact of monoamine theories is best explained by the ability of researchers, governmental agencies, and pharmaceutical companies to invoke theories that advance various projects and agendas.

  14. Applicability of linearized-theory attached-flow methods to design and analysis of flap systems at low speeds for thin swept wings with sharp leading edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.

    1987-01-01

    Low-speed experimental force and data on a series of thin swept wings with sharp leading edges and leading and trailing-edge flaps are compared with predictions made using a linearized-theory method which includes estimates of vortex forces. These comparisons were made to assess the effectiveness of linearized-theory methods for use in the design and analysis of flap systems in subsonic flow. Results demonstrate that linearized-theory, attached-flow methods (with approximate representation of vortex forces) can form the basis of a rational system for flap design and analysis. Even attached-flow methods that do not take vortex forces into account can be used for the selection of optimized flap-system geometry, but design-point performance levels tend to be underestimated unless vortex forces are included. Illustrative examples of the use of these methods in the design of efficient low-speed flap systems are included.

  15. Attachment: Theoretical Development and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Zeanah argues that ethological attachment theory, as outlined by John Bowlby, has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development. However, although attachment theory and the notion of attachment disorders have influenced such initiatives, many psychologists,…

  16. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  17. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  18. The secure base script and the task of caring for elderly parents: implications for attachment theory and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cory K; Waters, Harriet Salatas; Hartman, Marilyn; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Miklowitz, David J; Waters, Everett

    2013-01-01

    This study explores links between adults' attachment representations and the task of caring for elderly parents with dementia. Participants were 87 adults serving as primary caregivers of a parent or parent-in-law with dementia. Waters and Waters' ( 2006 ) Attachment Script Assessment was adapted to assess script-like attachment representation in the context of caring for their elderly parent. The quality of adult-elderly parent interactions was assessed using the Level of Expressed Emotions Scale (Cole & Kazarian, 1988 ) and self-report measures of caregivers' perception of caregiving as difficult. Caregivers' secure base script knowledge predicted lower levels of negative expressed emotion. This effect was moderated by the extent to which participants experienced caring for elderly parents as difficult. Attachment representations played a greater role in caregiving when caregiving tasks were perceived as more difficult. These results support the hypothesis that attachment representations influence the quality of care that adults provide their elderly parents. Clinical implications are discussed.

  19. A Brief Research on Polysystem Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2012-01-01

    Polysystem theory, a new branch of translation studies, was developed in 1970s by Israeli scholar Itamar Even-Zohar. It came into being in 1970s on the basis of the modern translation theories. The thesis will analyze in detail of polysystem theory including the background, origins, main contents and the development of the theory.

  20. Clinical Assessment of Attachment Patterns and Personality Disorder in Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westen, Drew; Nakash, Ora; Thomas, Cannon; Bradley, Rebekah

    2006-01-01

    The relevance of attachment theory and research for practice has become increasingly clear. The authors describe a series of studies with 3 aims: (a) to validate measures of attachment for use by clinicians with adolescents and adults (b) to examine the relation between attachment and personality pathology, and (c) to ascertain whether factor…

  1. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  2. Attachment in Adolescence: Overlap with Parenting and Unique Prediction of Behavioural Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen; Briskman, Jacqueline; Woolgar, Matthew; Humayun, Sajid; O'Connor, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attachment theory was conceptualized by Bowlby as relevant across the life span, from "cradle to grave". The research literature on attachment in infants and preschool-aged children is extensive, but it is limited in adolescence. In particular, it is unclear whether or not attachment security is distinguishable from other qualities of…

  3. Parent Attachment and Early Adolescents' Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Effect of Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2013-01-01

    Research using an attachment theory framework has provided evidence that parent attachment is one of the crucial determinants of psychological adjustment in adolescents, including global life satisfaction (LS). This study investigated the interrelationships among parent attachment, hope, and LS during early adolescence, including the mediation…

  4. Teacher-child relationships from an attachment perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschueren, K.; Koomen, H.M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    This special issue aims to prompt reflection on the mutual contribution of attachment theory, on the one hand, and teacher-child relationship research, on the other, by bringing together conceptual and empirical contributions taking an attachment perspective on teacher-child relationships. In this i

  5. Associations between Adult Attachment Dimensions And Attitudes Toward Pain Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Paul DJ Murphy; S Jeffrey Bailey

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dim...

  6. A Research Study on Secure Attachment Using the Primary Caregiving Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Phoon, Dora Mei Yong; Tan-Chong, Elizabeth Chai Kim; Tan, Marilyn Ai Bee; Goh, Mandy Lian Mui

    2015-01-01

    A child's positive sense of well-being is central to their overall growth and development. With an increasing number of mothers in the workforce, many infants and toddlers spend much time in child care services. Hence it is crucial that caregivers provide a secure base for the child to develop secure attachment with educarers. Given multiple…

  7. Research Pilot Milt Thompson in M2-F2 Aircraft Attached to B-52 Mothership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    NASA research pilot Milt Thompson sits in the M2-F2 'heavyweight' lifting body research vehicle before a 1966 test flight. The M2-F2 and the other lifting-body designs were all attached to a wing pylon on NASA's B-52 mothership and carried aloft. The vehicles were then drop-launched and, at the end of their flights, glided back to wheeled landings on the dry lake or runway at Edwards AFB. The lifting body designs influenced the design of the Space Shuttle and were also reincarnated in the design of the X-38 in the 1990s. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft

  8. Objectification Theory: Of Relevance for Eating Disorder Researchers and Clinicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a large and expanding body of research on Objectification Theory. Central to the theory is the proposition that self-objectification results in shame and anxiety surrounding the body, and as a consequence, the development of eating disorders. However, the theory and research have been developed and reported in the gender and…

  9. Attachment and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to further our understanding of current psychosocial models by introducing attachment as a relevant developmental framework. Firstly, attachment theory provides a psychosocial model for a developmental pathway to psychosis. Secondly, after expression of psychotic sym

  10. Getting grounded: using Glaserian grounded theory to conduct nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann

    2010-03-01

    Glaserian grounded theory is a powerful research methodology for understanding client behaviour in a particular area. It is therefore especially relevant for nurse researchers. Nurse researchers use grounded theory more frequently than other qualitative analysis research methods because of its ability to provide insight into clients' experiences and to make a positive impact. However, there is much confusion about the use of grounded theory.The author delineates key components of grounded theory methodology, areas of concern, and the resulting implications for nursing knowledge development. Knowledge gained from Glaserian grounded theory research can be used to institute measures for enhancing client-nurse relationships, improving quality of care, and ultimately improving client quality of life. In addition, it can serve to expand disciplinary knowledge in nursing because the resulting substantive theory is a middle-range theory that can be subjected to later quantitative testing.

  11. Theory and Research in Gay and Lesbian Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, Joseph A.

    This paper addresses the need for gay and lesbian relationship research and theory and some of the directions such research and theory might take. It suggests academic research into gay and lesbian relationships is needed because these relationships are a fact of modern life and are different from heterosexual relationships, and because such…

  12. Relationship duration moderates associations between attachment and relationship quality: meta-analytic support for the temporal adult romantic attachment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Benjamin W; Smith, C Veronica; Webster, Gregory D

    2014-02-01

    Although research has examined associations between attachment dimensions and relationship outcomes, theory has ignored how these associations change over time in adult romantic relationships. We proposed the Temporal Adult Romantic Attachment (TARA) model, which predicts that the negative associations between anxious and avoidant attachment on one hand and relationship satisfaction and commitment on the other will be more negative as relationship durations increase. Meta-analyses largely confirmed that negative associations between both insecure attachment dimensions and both relationship outcomes were more negative among longer relationship durations in cross-sectional samples. We also explored gender differences in these associations. The present review not only integrates the literature on adult attachment and romantic relationship satisfaction/commitment but also highlights the importance of relationship duration as a key moderator of the associations among these variables. We discuss the broad implications of these effects and our meta-analytic findings for the TARA model, attachment theory, and romantic relationships.

  13. Making Theory Come Alive through Practice-based Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Knutz, Eva; Rind Christensen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how practice-based design research is able not only to challenge, but also to push toward further development of some of the basic assumpstions in emotion theories as used within design research. In so doing, we wish to increase knolwedge on a central...... epistemological question for design research, namely how practice-based design research can be a vehicle for the construction of new theory for design research....

  14. Theory for strength and stability of an unusual "ligand-receptor" bond: a microtubule attached to a wall by molecular motor tethers

    CERN Document Server

    Ghanti, Dipanwita

    2016-01-01

    A microtubule (MT) is a tubular stiff filament formed by a hierarchical organization of tubulin proteins. We develop a stochastic kinetic model for studying the strength and stability of a pre-formed attachment of a MT with a rigid wall where the MT is tethered to the wall by a group of motor proteins. Such an attachment, formed by the specific interactions between the MT and the motors, is an analog of ligand-receptor bonds, the MT and the motors anchored on the wall being the counterparts of the ligand and receptors, respectively. However, unlike other ligands, the length of a MT can change with time because of its polymerization-depolymerization kinetics. The simple model developed here is motivated by the MTs linked to the cell cortex by dynein motors. We present the theory for both force-ramp and force-clamp conditions. In the force-ramp protocol we investigate the strength of the attachment by assuming imposition of a time-dependent external load tension that increases linearly with time till the attach...

  15. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gallerová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment strongly influences exploring of close relationships in childhood and in adulthood as well. According Bowlby attachment is "lasting relationship bond characterized by need of seeking and maintaining proximity with a person in stressful situations especially (Bowbly, 2010. Hazan a Shaver (1987 applied theory of early attachment in romantic relationships of adults. Behavior of adult human in relationships is more or less predictable by style of attachment in childhood (Feeney, 1999. Brennan, Clark a Shaver (1998 created four-dimensional model of attachment which was based on Ainsworth´s theory as well. The model was formed of two dimensions - anxiety and avoidance. The authors identified four types of attachment: secure, fearful, dismissive and preoccupied style of attachment (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998. Satisfaction in romantic relationship can be explained as a degree in which is relationship for a human enojyable. Attachment influences satisfaction in relationship in terms of meeting need of proximity and safety (Mikulincer, Florian, Cowan, & Cowan, 2002. Several researches show that safe attachment is associated with higher satisfaction in marriage and on the other hand people with insecure style of attachment show lower degree of satisfaction in relationship (Alexandrov, Cowan, & Cowan, 2005; Treboux, Crowell, & Waters, 2004. At the same time style of attachment of the partner also influences individual a lot, satisfaction does not depend only on his own style of attachment but also on attachment of his partner (Farinelli, & McEwan, 2009. The study examined relations between the relationship attachment and marital satisfaction. The goal was to explain the relationship between the adult attachment and marital satisfaction of the individual and her/his husband/wife. The research examined relationship between adult attachment and marital satisfaction as well. Quantitative questionnaire survey: The battery consisted of

  16. Invitational Education: Theory, Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Invitational Theory argues that learning is enhanced when learners are positively encouraged or "invited" into the educational experience. Arising from perceptual and self-concept theory, Invitational Pedagogy is constructed on four principles: respect for people, trust, optimism and intentionality, and upon five pillars: people, places, policies,…

  17. "Chaos" Theory: Implications for Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jean S.

    "Chaos" theory is a revolutionary new paradigm developed by scientists to study the behavior of natural systems. "Chaos" refers to the tendency of dynamic non-linear systems toward irregular, sometimes unpredictable, yet deterministic behavior. Major tenets of the theory are presented. The precedent for use of models developed in the natural…

  18. Everything You Want To Know about Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses infant attachment, which it defines as a long-lasting emotional bond revealed when a child under stress seeks out and tries to stay close to a specific figure. The paper addresses: (1) What is attachment? Who are the pioneers in attachment theory?; (2) How do we notice attachment in action?; (3) Is attachment the only…

  19. Theory Development: A Bridge between Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Stephen; Devlin, James

    2010-01-01

    Theory development is an intentional process by which marriage and family counselors may bridge the gap between research and practice. The theory building process includes inductive and deductive forms of reasoning, qualitative and quantitative approaches to knowledge development, and diffusion of innovations. Grounded theory provides an…

  20. Split a Gut and Learn: Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David L.

    A review of the educational research on humor use will answer many questions about how it works in the classroom. Humor can be classified in three ways, each with its own primary function: superiority theory--sociological function; relief theory--psychological function; and incongruity theory--intellectual function. Classes filled with relevant…

  1. Human Intelligence: An Introduction to Advances in Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in three research traditions are summarized: trait theories of intelligence, information-processing theories of intelligence, and general theories of thinking. Work on fluid and crystallized abilities by J. Horn and R. Snow, mental speed, spatial visualization, cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and the construct of…

  2. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  3. Grounded theory and leadership research: A critical realist perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The methodology of grounded theory has great potential to contribute to our understanding of leadership within particular substantive contexts. However, our notions of good science might constrain these contributions. We argue that for grounded theorists a tension might exist between a desire to create a contextualised theory of leadership and a desire for scientifically justified issues of validity and generalizable theory. We also explore how the outcome of grounded theory research can crea...

  4. Associations between Adult Attachment Dimensions And Attitudes Toward Pain Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan A McWilliams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour.

  5. The fluorescent detection of Paradiplozoon sp. (Monogenea: Diplozoidae attachment clamps' sclerites and integumental proteins : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Milne

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the genus Paradiplozoon, few hard structures are present therefore most of the taxonomic studies have focused on the unique ultrastructure of the sclerites. Alcohol-fixed specimens were transferred to BSA-saline for 5 min. before staining indefinitely with 5 µl WGA-TRX, 5 µl SYTO 9 and 5 µl of Cal co fluor White M2R. Rhodamine, Fluorescein and DAPI bandpass filters on the microscope enabled selective light wavelength illumination of the three flourochromes by a mercury light source. This method provided an easy and rapid methodology to show the internal sclerites of attachment clamps. It is suitable for alcohol preserved specimens and may have additional applications in other helminth organisms.

  6. Research on Transverse Acetabular Fracture Fixation Using Different Plate Attachment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Gaidulis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of transverse acetabular fracture fixation using different plate attachment methods. A 3D model of pelvis and hip joint structure was created and the design of three different fixation plates using SolidWorks was made. The plates were fixed at distances of 10, 20 and 30 mm from the acetabulum. The model was meshed into finite elements, a static external load of 2500 N was added and the analysis of stress distribution in plates and fracture displacement was performed. The obtained results showed that fracture displacement was quite similar in all fixation methods. However, the maximal stress in the nearest from the acetabulum plate was higher than yield strength. Thus, this placement is not eligible. The plate fixed at a distance of 30 mm from the acetabulum appeared the most suitable because of the smallest and symmetrical stress distribution in the plate.

  7. How Might Better Network Theories Support School Leadership Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Mark; Jopling, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how recent research in education has applied different aspects of "network" theory to the study of school leadership. Constructs from different network theories are often used because of their perceived potential to clarify two perennial issues in leadership research. The first is the relative importance of formal and…

  8. A Grounded Theory of Master's-Level Counselor Research Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Maribeth F.; Duncan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master's-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.

  9. Environmental and genetic influences on early attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervai Judit

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attachment theory predicts and subsequent empirical research has amply demonstrated that individual variations in patterns of early attachment behaviour are primarily influenced by differences in sensitive responsiveness of caregivers. However, meta-analyses have shown that parenting behaviour accounts for about one third of the variance in attachment security or disorganisation. The exclusively environmental explanation has been challenged by results demonstrating some, albeit inconclusive, evidence of the effect of infant temperament. In this paper, after reviewing briefly the well-demonstrated familial and wider environmental influences, the evidence is reviewed for genetic and gene-environment interaction effects on developing early attachment relationships. Studies investigating the interaction of genes of monoamine neurotransmission with parenting environment in the course of early relationship development suggest that children's differential susceptibility to the rearing environment depends partly on genetic differences. In addition to the overview of environmental and genetic contributions to infant attachment, and especially to disorganised attachment relevant to mental health issues, the few existing studies of gene-attachment interaction effects on development of childhood behavioural problems are also reviewed. A short account of the most important methodological problems to be overcome in molecular genetic studies of psychological and psychiatric phenotypes is also given. Finally, animal research focusing on brain-structural aspects related to early care and the new, conceptually important direction of studying environmental programming of early development through epigenetic modification of gene functioning is examined in brief.

  10. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data.

  11. Modifying parents peer attachment scale with item response theory%用项目反应理论修订父母同伴依恋量表

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧运洪; 赵守盈; 陈维; 潘运; 张禹

    2012-01-01

    The item discrimination, difficulty and information peak function of the item response theory are used to revise parents peer attachment scale produced by Armsden and Greenberg ( 1991 ), the purpose is that this scale revised is more accurate to survey the status of parents peer attachment of Chinese youth. SPSS15.0 software is used to manage data , using MULTILOG 7.03 software to analysis parameters, using AMOS4.0 to test the verification revised. Results are as follows : 1. Parents peer attachment scale is one-dimensional which can be revised by item response theory. 2. The item discrimination a, difficulty b of new scale are with reasonable scope. 3. The test information peak function of new scale is smaller and has a higher reliability. New father and peer attachment scale contain two factors: trust and communication. New mather attachment scale include factors: trust, communication and alienation,which have the same factors with the original scale . Surveyed officially, the scale revised can effectively survey the status of parents peer attachment of Chinese miao youth.%应用项目反应理论的区分度、难度和信息函数峰值3个参数对Armsden和Greenberg(1991)的父母同伴依恋量表进行修订,目的:使修订后的量表更能精确地调查中国初中生的依恋现状。结果:父母同伴依恋量表符合单维性检验,可以根据项目反应理论进行修订。新量表的区分度a值和难度b值具有合理的取值范围。新量表的测验信息峰值函数变小,具有更高的信度。新父亲和同伴依恋量表均包含两个因子:信任和沟通。新母亲依恋量表包含的因子个数和原量表相同:信任、沟通和疏离。经正式施测,修订后的量表可以有效地调查中国苗族初中生的依恋现状。

  12. Gender, Educational Theory and Educational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgnakke, Karen

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of research in gender and adult education and discusses the different approaches and strategies in critical research......The article gives an overview of research in gender and adult education and discusses the different approaches and strategies in critical research...

  13. Temperament and Attachment Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2004-01-01

    Reviewed in this article is research on children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) who exhibit specific patterns of socially aberrant behavior resulting from being maltreated or having limited opportunities to form selective attachments. There are no data explaining why 2 different patterns of the disorder, an emotionally withdrawn-inhibited…

  14. Biofilm removal technique using sands as a research tool for accessing microbial attachment on surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanon Trachoo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms have profound impacts on improved survival of the constituent microorganisms in nature. Biofilms were believed to protect constituent microorganisms from sanitizer treatment, provide a more suitable habitat for microorganisms, and become a site for genetic material exchanges between microorganisms. As we realize more about the significance of biofilm, methods used for biofilm study should be consistently developed and evaluated. To determine microbial attachment on surfaces, usually biofilms are grown on substratum surfaces and removed by vortexing with glass beads or scraping. However, scraping is not as effective as vortexing with glass beads. Another approach is direct-agar overlaying which cannot be used with high density biofilm. In this experiment, we compared effectiveness of glass beads (298±28 μm in diameter and sands (width: 221±55 μm and length: 329±118 μm in removing biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by vortexing method. The results suggested that acid-washed sands, which are significantly less inexpensive than glass beads, were as effective as (P>0.05 analytical grade glass beads in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm removal without inhibiting growth of the organism.

  15. Positioning Theory and Higher Education Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Musaeus, Peter; Petersen, Eva Bendix

    will be structured so that both newcomers and more experienced users will be able to engage. It will commence with a brief overview of the theoretical assumptions of positioning theory and of how it has been taken up in higher education studies, and a handout with a list of key references and sources will be made...

  16. Music Participation: Theory, Research, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, J. Terry

    1991-01-01

    Bases a music participation theory on findings in music education, ethnomusicology, and sociology of leisure. Posits six types of music participants: professionals, apprentices, amateurs, hobbyists, recreationists, and dabblers. Distinguishes each type by theoretical variations in cost-benefit relationships as perceived by participants. Discusses…

  17. Carbon transformations by attached bacterial populations in granitic groundwater from deep crystalline bed-rock of the Stripa research mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekendahl, S; Pedersen, K

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents and compares the assimilation rates of CO2 and lactate, and the lactate respiration rates, of attached bacterial populations growing in slowly flowing groundwater (1-3 mm s-1) from deep crystalline bed-rock of the Stripa research mine, Sweden. The bacteria studied grew in anoxic, high-pH (9-10) and low-redox artesian groundwater flowing up through tubing from two levels of a borehole designated V2, 812-820 m and 970-1240 m below ground. Bacteria were allowed to attach to and grow on sterile glass microscope slides in laminar-flow reactors connected to the flowing groundwater. Total numbers of bacteria were counted by acridine orange direct counts. The bacteria grew slowly, with doubling times of 34 d at 10 degrees C for the 812-820 m population, 23 d for the 970-1240 m population at 10 degrees C and 16 d for this population at 20 degrees C. Numbers of attached bacteria reached between 10(6) and 10(7) bacteria cm-2. The populations at the two levels of the borehole were different in physiology as well as in phylogeny and reflected the heterogeneity between the sampling levels. The earlier proposed presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria could not be confirmed. This is discussed in relation to results from 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. The CO2 assimilation rates (as mol CO2 cm-2 h-1, using liquid scintillation techniques) increased with depth and temperature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Facing danger: How do people behave in times of need? The case of adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsachi eEin-Dor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bowlby’s (1982 attachment theory has generated an enormous body of research and conceptual elaborations. Although attachment theory and research propose that attachment security provides a person with many adaptive advantages, during all phases of the life cycle, numerous studies indicate that almost half of the human species can be classified as insecurely attached or insecure with respect to attachment. It seems odd that evolution left humans in this vulnerable position, unless there are some advantages to individuals or groups, under at least some conditions, of anxious and avoidant attachment styles. I argue that a social group containing members with different attachment patterns may be more conducive to survival than a homogeneous group of securely attached individuals because each attachment disposition has specific adaptive advantages that promote the survival of the individual and people around him or her when facing threats and perils. In making this argument, I extend the scope of attachment theory and research by considering a broader range of adaptive functions of insecure attachment strategies, and present data to support my argument.

  19. Knowledge spaces theories, empirical research, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Dietrich

    1999-01-01

    Based on the formal concept of ""knowledge structures"" originally proposed by Jean-Claude Falmagne and Jean-Paul Doignon, this book contains descriptions of methodological developments and experimental investigations as well as applications for various knowledge domains. The authors address three main topics: * theoretical issues and extensions of Doignon & Falmagne's theory of knowledge structures; * empirical validations of specific problem types and knowledge domains, such as sentence comprehension, problem solving in chess, inductive reasoning, elementary mathematical reasoning, and oth

  20. An Attachment Theoretical Framework for Understanding Personality Disorders: Developmental, Neuroscience, and Psychotherapeutic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Levy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose that John Bowlby's attachment theory provides a theoretically coherent, empirically based, and clinically useful model for understanding personality pathology. This theoretical framework brings parsimony and breadth to the conceptualization of the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of personality disorders (PDs. Attachment theory can explain both the intrapersonal and interpersonal difficulties common in those with PDs and is consistent with findings from studies across multiple domains of knowledge, including evolutionary biology, ethology/comparative psychology, developmental psychology, experimental social-personality psychology, and neuroscience.PDs are characterized by significant interpersonal challenges. Recently, these challenges have been hypothesized to stem from underlying maladaptive attachment schemas. Our goal is to outline and elaborate on attachment theory as a foundation for the etiology and pathology of PDs and to highlight the implications of this theory for treatment. We begin with a brief review of attachment, describing its conceptualization and assessment in both children and adults in order to examine PD development. This theoretical foundation is supported by a body of empirical research, from which we present findings from neurobiological and developmental literatures linking attachment and PDs. We then examine the role of attachment in the psychotherapy process and in treatment outcome. Further, we outline research reporting changes in attachment patterns as a result of treatment. Finally, we summarize the implications of attachment theory for understanding PDs and present possible directions for future research.

  1. The Role of Theory in Learning Technology Evaluation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rob; Kennedy, Gregor; McNaught, Carmel

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts a fundamental analysis of the nature of research into e-learning and the role that theory plays in this. We examine "research" in broad terms, and the nature of phenomena in general. We identify that e-learning is an artificial phenomenon, and that research approaches need to be cognisant of the design elements in e-learning,…

  2. Researching Stonehenge: Theories Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Parker Pearson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the years archaeologists connected with the Institute of Archaeology and UCL have made substantial contributions to the study of Stonehenge, the most enigmatic of all the prehistoric stone circles in Britain. Two of the early researchers were Petrie and Childe. More recently, colleagues in UCL’s Anthropology department – Barbara Bender and Chris Tilley – have also studied and written about the monument in its landscape. Mike Parker Pearson, who joined the Institute in 2012, has been leading a 10-year-long research programme on Stonehenge and, in this paper, he outlines the history and current state of research.

  3. Theory in Educational Research and Practice in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Leonie G.

    2013-01-01

    A problem in education, that has long concerned philosophers of education, is the problem of the relationship between theory and practice in educational research and practice. Despite the fact that much has been written on the relationship between theory and practice in education, it would seem that teachers continue to cling to an image of theory…

  4. Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research. Volume XIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, John C., Ed.; Tierney, William G., Ed.

    The 11 papers in this collection address research and theory in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Teaching, Learning, and Thinking about Teaching and Learning" (W.J. McKeachie); (2) "Costs and Productivity in Higher Education: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications" (Darrell R. Lewis and Halil Dunbar); (3) "Institutional Adaptation:…

  5. The Particularities and the Research Missions of the Educational Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Wu

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the analysis of the theoretical drawbacks of classical pedagogy stretching from Johann Friedrich Herbart to John Dewey, this paper advocates that educational research in China in the new century should take on a theory mission that calls for the classification of the knowledge of educational theory and the definition of its…

  6. Theory and Meaning in Counseling Research: Comment on Strong (1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael J.; Jackson, Aaron P.

    1991-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Strong on theory-driven science and naive empiricism in counseling psychology. Questions distinction Strong makes between theory-driven science and naive empiricism. Argues that more relevant debate is between qualitative and quantitative approaches to counseling research. Presents some differences between the two…

  7. Research program in elementary particle theory, 1980. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarshan, E. C.G.; Ne' eman, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Research is reported for these subject areas: particle physics in relativistic astrophysics and cosmology; phenomenology of weak and electromagnetic interactions; strong interaction physics, QCD, and quark-parton physics; quantum field theory, quantum mechanics and fundamental problems; groups, gauges, and grand unified theories; and supergeometry, superalgebra, and unification. (GHT)

  8. Linking Theory to Practice in Learning Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Cathy; Steel, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only…

  9. Leadership: Perspectives in Theory and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur G. Jago

    1982-01-01

    Prominent trends in leadership research are reviewed. Theoretical perspectives are organized in a four-fold typology based on the dominating assumptions of the research effort: (1) the focus on a universally appropriate set of leadership traits, (2) the focus on a universally appropriate behavioral style, (3) the focus on situationally contingent leadership traits, and (4) the focus on situationally contingent behavioral styles. Potential organizational prescriptions following from each persp...

  10. Review of Research Applications: Kohlberg's Theories in Correctional Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Dianne

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the research applications of Dr. Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development and moral education. Included are studies conducted in both juvenile and adult correctional settings. (Author/CT)

  11. K-theory for ring C*-algebras attached to function fields with only one infinite place

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We study the K-theory of ring C*-algebras associated to rings of integers in global function fields with only one single infinite place. First, we compute the torsion-free part of the K-groups of these ring C*-algebras. Secondly, we show that, under a certain primeness condition, the torsion part of K-theory determines the inertia degrees at infinity of our function fields.

  12. Late-life attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  13. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches.

  14. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, Cathy; Steel, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and repor...

  15. Theory of Adult Attachment and Its Assessment%成人依恋理论及其测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁晓静; 郭瞻予

    2007-01-01

    依恋(attachment)是人类适应生存的一个重要方面,它形成于婴幼儿时期,贯穿人的一生,是一种稳定而持久的情感联结.本文以传统的依恋理论为基础,对成人依恋的概念进行界定,对其类型和维度进行划分,对其测量工具进行归纳,着重介绍了访谈类和问卷类测量工具.在成人依恋研究现状的基础上,对其未来发展方向进行了展望.

  16. Contextualizing Theories and Practices of Bricolage Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Within the last decade, bricolage, as an approach to qualitative inquiry, has gained popularity in academic circles. However, while conceptual and concrete precedents exist, the approach has remained relatively misunderstood, and unpopular, in broader research communities. This may be because the complexity of the approach has stymied widespread…

  17. Staying theoretically sensitive when conducting grounded theory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Gudrun; Bouchal, Shelley Raffin; A Rankin, James

    2016-09-01

    Background Grounded theory (GT) is founded on the premise that underlying social patterns can be discovered and conceptualised into theories. The method and need for theoretical sensitivity are best understood in the historical context in which GT was developed. Theoretical sensitivity entails entering the field with no preconceptions, so as to remain open to the data and the emerging theory. Investigators also read literature from other fields to understand various ways to construct theories. Aim To explore the concept of theoretical sensitivity from a classical GT perspective, and discuss the ontological and epistemological foundations of GT. Discussion Difficulties in remaining theoretically sensitive throughout research are discussed and illustrated with examples. Emergence - the idea that theory and substance will emerge from the process of comparing data - and staying open to the data are emphasised. Conclusion Understanding theoretical sensitivity as an underlying guiding principle of GT helps the researcher make sense of important concepts, such as delaying the literature review, emergence and the constant comparative method (simultaneous collection, coding and analysis of data). Implications for practice Theoretical sensitivity and adherence to the GT research method allow researchers to discover theories that can bridge the gap between theory and practice.

  18. Book review: The handbook of feminist research: theory and praxis

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The second edition of the Handbook of Feminist Research: Theory and Praxis presents both a theoretical and practical approach to conducting social science research on, for, and about women. Emma Smith believes the Handbook effectively highlights the connection between feminist research and social change by drawing upon the range of existent feminist epistemologies, methods, and practices. While accessible for both research and teaching purposes, it draws our attention to the ne...

  19. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Tahirovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood

  20. Design-based research – issues in connecting theory, research and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette

    2015-01-01

    indicate several key issues at both the scientific and personal level. Scientifically, the main issues are contribution to theory and the role of the researcher. At the personal level, it is an investment beyond normal research procedures to involve yourself as a researcher in curriculum change.......During the last 20 years, design-based research (DBR) has become a popular methodology for connecting educational theory, research and practice. The missing link between educational theory, research and educational practice is an ongoing issue and DBR is seen as an integrated methodology to bridge...

  1. Introducing Evidence Through Research "Push": Using Theory and Qualitative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morden, Andrew; Ong, Bie Nio; Brooks, Lauren; Jinks, Clare; Porcheret, Mark; Edwards, John J; Dziedzic, Krysia S

    2015-11-01

    A multitude of factors can influence the uptake and implementation of complex interventions in health care. A plethora of theories and frameworks recognize the need to establish relationships, understand organizational dynamics, address context and contingency, and engage key decision makers. Less attention is paid to how theories that emphasize relational contexts can actually be deployed to guide the implementation of an intervention. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the potential role of qualitative research aligned with theory to inform complex interventions. We detail a study underpinned by theory and qualitative research that (a) ensured key actors made sense of the complex intervention at the earliest stage of adoption and (b) aided initial engagement with the intervention. We conclude that using theoretical approaches aligned with qualitative research can provide insights into the context and dynamics of health care settings that in turn can be used to aid intervention implementation.

  2. Theory and methodology in premenstrual syndrome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A

    1995-09-01

    Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a controversial and ill-defined phenomenon, the aetiology of which remains an enigma, despite considerable research effort. In this paper, four meta-theoretical approaches to PMS are described and evaluated. Approaches to PMS can be criticised on three inter-related grounds. They have failed to describe women's experiences in detail before explaining them; they have not placed experience within its socio-cultural context; and they have assumed a linear relationship between biology or culture and behaviour. Future research can address these issues in two ways. Biopsychosocial models of PMS may integrate a variety of approaches and improve our understanding of individual experiences but are unlikely to offer new insights into the phenomenon of PMS. These are more likely to emerge from anthropological and sociological studies which question the cultural and individual meaning of PMS.

  3. Adaptação ao divórcio e relações coparentais: contributos da teoria da vinculação Adjustment to divorce and co-parental relations: contributions from the theory of attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lamela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo propõe-se uma contribuição da teoria da vinculação na compreensão dos processos de adaptação dos adultos ao seu divórcio e como a desvinculação ao ex-cônjuge interfere na coparentalidade pós-divórcio. Este artigo formula duas hipóteses teóricas. A primeira hipótese afirma que o divórcio, enquanto processo relacional, deve ser lido como um momento de perda que germina reacções psicológicas similares às experienciadas pelos viúvos, tal como descreve Bowlby no modelo de perda da figura de vinculação, estando dependente dos estilos de vinculação dos adultos. A segunda hipótese sustenta que a coparentalidade pós-divórcio é predita pelos estilos de vinculação e pela qualidade da reorganização da vinculação dos pais. Finalmente, uma integração teórica é apresentada, operacionalizada numa proposta de investigação futura neste domínio.In this article, it is proposed the contribution of the attachment theory for understanding adults' adjustment processes to their divorce and how detachment to ex-spouse can infer in co-parenting relationships after marital dissolution. This article makes two theoretical assumptions that focus on two dimensions. The first hypothesis states that the divorce, while a relational process, should be read as a moment of loss that germinates similar psychological reactions to those experienced by widows. Bowlby describes it in his model of loss of the attachment figure as dependent on attachment styles of divorced adults. The second hypothesis argues that the post-divorce co-parenting relationships are predicted by the attachment styles and by the quality of parents' attachment reorganization. At the end, a theoretical integration is built, based on a proposal for future research in this area.

  4. Give Them Roots, Then Let Them Fly: Understanding Attachment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Carole A., Ed.

    This book describes attachment theory, presents the attachment therapy program in place at the Evergreen Attachment Center at Evergreen, Colorado, and examines the implications of attachment therapy. The chapters are: (1) "An Overview" (Carole A. McKelvey, John Alston); (2) "Attachment Theory and Assessment" (Michael Orlans, Terry Levy); (3)…

  5. Recasting Communication Theory and Research: A Cybernetic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary A.

    The author's main concern is to provide a research format which will supply a unitary conception of communication. The wide range of complex topics and variety of concepts embraced by communication theory and the rather disparate set of phenomena encompassed by communication research create this need for a unitary study approach capable of linking…

  6. Narratives and Activity Theory as Reflective Tools in Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Kaz

    2012-01-01

    Narratives and activity theory are useful as socially constructed data collection tools that allow a researcher access to the social, cultural and historical meanings that research participants place on events in their lives. This case study shows how these tools were used to promote reflection within a cultural-historical activity theoretically…

  7. Effects of Actor-Network Theory in Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise Nederland; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to discuss how Bruno Latour's version of actor-network theory has influenced accounting research. It also seeks to show that Latour's writings contain unexplored potential that may inspire future accounting research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes the form...

  8. Theory, Research, and Application: Some Critical Issues for Thanatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Illustrates current status of thanatological research by examining the most popular line of empirical investigation (death anxiety as assessed by self-report scales) and the most sweeping theoretical approach yet proposed (Freud's death instinct). Notes that the most popular vein of research and most spectacular theory have almost no relationship…

  9. Research Workshop Report. Sociological Theory and Research in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckland, Bruce K.

    The purpose of this workshop was to critically examine projects of nine young sociologists and social psychologists who were finalists in the small-grant program for new PhDs sponsored by the Committee on Basic Research in Education (COBRE). Since the awardees who attended the workshop had no prior training or research experience directly related…

  10. Infant intersubjectivity: research, theory, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevarthen, C; Aitken, K J

    2001-01-01

    We review research evidence on the emergence and development of active "self-and-other" awareness in infancy, and examine the importance of its motives and emotions to mental health practice with children. This relates to how communication begins and develops in infancy, how it influences the individual subject's movement, perception, and learning, and how the infant's biologically grounded self-regulation of internal state and self-conscious purposefulness is sustained through active engagement with sympathetic others. Mutual self-other-consciousness is found to play the lead role in developing a child's cooperative intelligence for cultural learning and language. A variety of preconceptions have animated rival research traditions investigating infant communication and cognition. We distinguish the concept of "intersubjectivity", and outline the history of its use in developmental research. The transforming body and brain of a human individual grows in active engagement with an environment of human factors--organic at first, then psychological or inter-mental. Adaptive, human-responsive processes are generated first by interneuronal activity within the developing brain as formation of the human embryo is regulated in a support-system of maternal tissues. Neural structures are further elaborated with the benefit of intra-uterine stimuli in the foetus, then supported in the rapidly growing forebrain and cerebellum of the young child by experience of the intuitive responses of parents and other human companions. We focus particularly on intrinsic patterns and processes in pre-natal and post-natal brain maturation that anticipate psychosocial support in infancy. The operation of an intrinsic motive formation (IMF) that developed in the core of the brain before birth is evident in the tightly integrated intermodal sensory-motor coordination of a newborn infant's orienting to stimuli and preferential learning of human signals, by the temporal coherence and intrinsic

  11. The particularities and the research missions of the educational theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Gang

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the analysis of the theoretical drawbacks of classical pedagogy stretching from Johann Friedrich Herbart to John Dewey,this paper advocates that educational research in China in the new century should take on a theory mission that calls for the classification of the knowledge of educational theory and the definition of its theoretical formation.Instead of a single theory,the formation of the new theories should be a theoretical continuum,which consists of three parts that are not isolated but interconnected and interactive.The first one is a general theory that is conformed by abstract propositions and has a reflective function.The second is a mid-level theory that presents the requirements of the methodology,and the third one is a micro-theory that displays detailed experiences.The paper finally presents the structure of the problems of educational theory and its unique value.It then concludes that progress in educational theory implicates progress in the understanding of the conditions for education.

  12. Employing Interpretive Research to Build Theory of Information Systems Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Rowlands

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidance and an example for carrying out research using an interpretive framework. Until quite recently, there has been little available in the IS literature to guide the interpretive researcher to build theory of IS practice. While structured as a typical research paper, this paper is different in that the focus is on conceptual issues and the research methods rather than the findings. Unlike positivist research, there is no accepted general model for communicating interpretive research. Similarly, few guidelines exist for conducting the inductive process central to interpretive research. Throughout the paper, issues relating to the choice and application of the methods in terms of conducting inductive research are discussed. Overall, the focus provides an in-depth discussion of the particular interpretive research that I undertook so that other researchers can read of an example that may be similar to their own and therefore guide their work.

  13. Nursing intellectual capital theory: implications for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-05-31

    Due to rising costs of healthcare, determining how registered nurses and knowledge resources influence the quality of patient care is critical. Studies that have investigated the relationship between nursing knowledge and outcomes have been plagued with conceptual and methodological issues. This has resulted in limited empirical evidence of the impact of nursing knowledge on patient or organizational outcomes. The nursing intellectual capital theory was developed to assist with this area of inquiry. Nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes the sources of nursing knowledge available within an organization and delineates its relationship to patient and organizational outcomes. In this article, we review the nursing intellectual capital theory and discuss its implications for research and practice. We explain why the theory shows promise for guiding research on quality work environments and how it may assist with administrative decision-making related to nursing human resource management and continuing professional development.

  14. A Research of Schema Theory in English Listening Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霞

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, English listening is playing a more and more important role in English teaching. And the research of listening is becoming the key point. The Schema Theory, based on the cognitive psychology, is becoming a new way in English teaching. It is a reform to the traditional listening teaching, which can give full play to students’ initiative. This paper wil make a study on the Schema Theory used in English Listening Teaching.

  15. Attachment style predicts affect, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants' momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  16. Translation Theory 'Translated': Three Perspectives on Translation in Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the mo......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings.......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented...

  17. Attachment and Aggressive Manifestations in Younger Adulthood - "Preliminary Findings"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lorincová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver (2011 explain how these primary attachment experiences would affect future emotional, cognitive and behavioral processes. Secure adolescents, in comparison to insecure ones are perceived as being less aggressive. Research has pointed out that secure parental attachment promotes adaptive psychological functioning. The direct relationship between attachment security and aggressive/delinquent behaviour is in line with prior evidence that secure adolescents rate higher in terms of emotional and social adjustment, enjoy more positive relationships with their family and peers, and are less likely to engage in externalizing problems, such as antisocial and aggressive behaviours. On the other hand, insecure attachment is connected with aggressive and externalizing behaviour. Hypotheses were formulated on the base of theoretical background and our assumption was, that younger adults with emocional warmth attachment will have lower level of aggressive manifestations (physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility than younger adults with rejectional attachment. We used two standardized questionnaires for data collection, s.E.M.B.U. Questionnaire, which measured retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and Questionnaire of Aggressivness, which measured aggressive manifestations. We used statistical analysis and we found statistically significant differencies, which are preliminary findings from broader research, between emocional warmth

  18. Conflict Management with Friends and Romantic Partners: The Role of Attachment and Negative Mood Regulation Expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, Gary; Kershaw, Kathy; Boston, Ada

    1999-01-01

    Studied the degree to which attachment orientations were related to negative mood regulation expectancies and conflict management strategies with best friends and romantic partners in a sample of 140 female college students. Discusses results in relation to previous research on attachment theory and implications for interventions. (SLD)

  19. Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

  20. Adult attachment in the clinical management of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea

    2012-05-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a common psychiatric disorder associated with severe functional impairment, high rates of suicide and comorbid psychiatric illness, intensive use of treatment, and high costs to society. The etiology and pathogenesis of BPD are still uncertain, although an interaction between biological and psychosocial factors has been proposed to explain how the condition develops. Attachment disturbances represent one of the developmental risk factors that have been most consistently found to be associated with BPD, with a number of studies reporting a significant strong association between insecure attachment and BPD, notwithstanding the variety of measures and attachment types employed in these studies. In this article, the author first reviews clinical descriptions and research findings concerning the association between attachment disturbances and BPD and then discusses how attachment theory may help clinicians who work with patients with BPD better understand the psychopathology of the illness and plan treatment.

  1. Attachment insecurity and infidelity in marriage: do studies of dating relationships really inform us about marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, V Michelle; Baker, Levi R; McNulty, James K

    2013-04-01

    Attachment theory provides a useful framework for predicting marital infidelity. However, most research has examined the association between attachment and infidelity in unmarried individuals, and we are aware of no research that has examined the role of partner attachment in predicting infidelity. In contrast to research showing that attachment anxiety is unrelated to infidelity among dating couples, 2 longitudinal studies of 207 newlywed marriages demonstrated that own and partner attachment anxiety interacted to predict marital infidelity, such that spouses were more likely to perpetrate infidelity when either they or their partner was high (vs. low) in attachment anxiety. Further, and also in contrast to research on dating couples, own attachment avoidance was unrelated to infidelity, whereas partner attachment avoidance was negatively associated with infidelity, indicating that spouses were less likely to perpetrate infidelity when their partner was high (vs. low) in attachment avoidance. These effects emerged controlling for marital satisfaction, sexual frequency, and personality; did not differ across husbands and wives; and did not differ across the two studies, with the exception that the negative association between partner attachment avoidance and own infidelity only emerged in 1 of the 2 studies. These findings offer a more complete understanding of the implications of attachment insecurity for marital infidelity and suggest that studies of unmarried individuals may not provide complete insights into the implications of various psychological traits and processes for marriage.

  2. The Child Attachment Interview: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privizzini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory promoted an impressive body of research on the psychic developmental processes, resulting in studies on both typical and atypical development. Much of the diffusion of the attachment theory in the clinical field was related to the design of reliable instruments to evaluate the organization of attachment in infancy as well as in adulthood. Until recently, the lack of a suitable instrument to assess attachment in middle childhood as well as in adolescence hindered the expansion of research in these developmental phases during which the parent-child relationship takes on a different, albeit still crucial, role. The Child Attachment Interview (CAI), a measure that was recently designed to assess attachment at a representational level in middle childhood and adolescence, filled the measurement gap. The aim of the current review was to summarize previous empirical investigations concerning CAI in order to (a) provide an overview of the state of current research, (b) identify unanswered questions, and (c) propose future research directions. A narrative review was conducted to map the current research findings by searching for the term “Child Attachment Interview” in the Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases, followed by a search in Mendeley. Limits were set to exclude dissertations, chapters in books, and qualitative or theoretical papers, while empirical studies were included if they used the CAI and were published in English language, peer-reviewed journals by July, 2016. The review, which ultimately included 39 studies meeting the criteria, showed that the CAI is a reliable instrument to assess attachment organization in clinical and non-clinical samples, thus providing a worthwhile contribution to the investigation of the influence of the parent-child relationship beyond infancy and early childhood. Nevertheless, the review pointed out a number of relevant open issues, the most critical of which concerned the CAI coding and

  3. The Child Attachment Interview: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privizzini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory promoted an impressive body of research on the psychic developmental processes, resulting in studies on both typical and atypical development. Much of the diffusion of the attachment theory in the clinical field was related to the design of reliable instruments to evaluate the organization of attachment in infancy as well as in adulthood. Until recently, the lack of a suitable instrument to assess attachment in middle childhood as well as in adolescence hindered the expansion of research in these developmental phases during which the parent-child relationship takes on a different, albeit still crucial, role. The Child Attachment Interview (CAI), a measure that was recently designed to assess attachment at a representational level in middle childhood and adolescence, filled the measurement gap. The aim of the current review was to summarize previous empirical investigations concerning CAI in order to (a) provide an overview of the state of current research, (b) identify unanswered questions, and (c) propose future research directions. A narrative review was conducted to map the current research findings by searching for the term "Child Attachment Interview" in the Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases, followed by a search in Mendeley. Limits were set to exclude dissertations, chapters in books, and qualitative or theoretical papers, while empirical studies were included if they used the CAI and were published in English language, peer-reviewed journals by July, 2016. The review, which ultimately included 39 studies meeting the criteria, showed that the CAI is a reliable instrument to assess attachment organization in clinical and non-clinical samples, thus providing a worthwhile contribution to the investigation of the influence of the parent-child relationship beyond infancy and early childhood. Nevertheless, the review pointed out a number of relevant open issues, the most critical of which concerned the CAI coding and

  4. Attachment and the regulation of the right brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, A N

    2000-04-01

    It has been three decades since John Bowlby first presented an over-arching model of early human development in his groundbreaking volume, Attachment. In the present paper I refer back to Bowlby's original charting of the attachment landscape in order to suggest that current research and clinical models need to return to the integration of the psychological and biological underpinnings of the theory. Towards that end, recent contributions from neuroscience are offered to support Bowlby's assertions that attachment is instinctive behavior with a biological function, that emotional processes lie at the foundation of a model of instinctive behavior, and that a biological control system in the brain regulates affectively driven instinctive behavior. This control system can now be identified as the orbitofrontal system and its cortical and subcortical connections. This 'senior executive of the emotional brain' acts as a regulatory system, and is expanded in the right hemisphere, which is dominant in human infancy and centrally involved in inhibitory control. Attachment theory is essentially a regulatory theory, and attachment can be defined as the interactive regulation of biological synchronicity between organisms. This model suggests that future directions of attachment research should focus upon the early-forming psychoneurobiological mechanisms that mediate both adaptive and maladaptive regulatory processes. Such studies will have direct applications to the creation of more effective preventive and treatment methodologies.

  5. On The Research of Foreign and Domestic Human Capital Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fuzhu

    2005-01-01

    Human Capital Theory came into being in the middle and later periods of the 20th century.A lot of achievements have been made on the research in its connotation, measures of the value, investment and income, function mechanism and so on, by foreign scholars. In recent 10 years of the new Millennium ahernation, the "steal business effect" and the structure of human capital on the mechanism of economic rise has become the two emphasis in current foreign Human Capital Theory's research. On the basis of foreign researches and Chinese situations, domestic scholars have enriched and developed it, but there are many disparities in its methods, aspects and levels between foreign and domestic researches.

  6. Attachment and coping of dementia care staff: The role of staff attachment style, geriatric nursing self-efficacy, and approaches to dementia in burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Taru-Maija; Cheston, Richard I L; Dallos, Rudi; Smart, Cordet A

    2014-07-01

    Past research suggests that dementia care staff are vulnerable to the development of burnout, which has implications for staff well-being and hence the quality of care for people with dementia. Studying personal vulnerability factors in burnout is important as it can guide staff training and support. Attachment theory suggests that adult attachment styles affect caregiving relationships and individuals' responses to stress, providing a framework for understanding caregivers' styles of coping. This cross-sectional survey study examined relationships between staff attachment styles, geriatric nursing self-efficacy, and approaches to dementia in burnout. Seventy-seven members of dementia care staff working on inpatient wards for older people completed self-report questionnaires. Insecure attachment, lower levels of self-efficacy, and more optimistic attitudes in staff were related to higher levels of burnout. Staff training on the role of attachment in dementia care is recommended. Further research is required to explore mediating factors between adult attachment styles and burnout.

  7. The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Huesmann, L. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1960s research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer’s part just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research evidence is critically assessed, and the psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental eff...

  8. Grounded theory in nursing research: Part 1--Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Clark, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    The epistemological underpinnings of grounded theory make it valuable in the study of nursing, which is premised on an interpersonal process between nurses and clients. Further, it is a useful style of research when there is little prior information about a topic. In this article (Part 1), Terence McCann and Eileen Clark outline the key features of this methodology. In the follow-up article (Part 2, McCann and Clark 2003a), a critique is provided of grounded theory and the two main approaches to this methodology. In the final article in the series (Part 3, McCann and Clark 2003b), the authors illustrate how grounded theory can be applied to nursing research with examples from McCann's Australian study (McCann and Baker 2001) of how community mental health nurses promote wellness with clients who are experiencing an early episode of psychotic illness.

  9. How Chairpersons Enhance Faculty Research: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Brown, Martha L.

    1992-01-01

    A study examined how department chairpersons enhanced research performance of college and university faculty. By applying grounded theory methods to a corpus of 33 interviews with chairpersons, the study resulted in a typology of chair roles (administrative, advocacy, interpersonal), then assessed the process of assistance for faculty at four…

  10. Women in Management: Leadership Theories, Research Results, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Linda L.

    This review of the literature about women in management advocates the pursuit of research on women executives as unique components in the organizational setting, with the warning that careful and unremitting attention be paid to the selection of theoretical perspectives. It examines trait and role theory, and discusses such factors as…

  11. Women's erotic rape fantasies: an evaluation of theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, Joseph W; Bivona, Jenny M

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first systematic review of the research literature on women's rape fantasies. Current research indicates that between 31% and 57% of women have fantasies in which they are forced into sex against their will, and for 9% to 17% of women these are a frequent or favorite fantasy experience. Erotic rape fantasies are paradoxical: they do not appear to make sense. Why would a person have an erotic and pleasurable fantasy about an event that, in real life, would be abhorrent and traumatic? In this article, the major theories of women's rape fantasies are evaluated both rationally and empirically. These theories explain rape fantasies in terms of masochism, sexual blame avoidance, openness to sexuality, sexual desirability, male rape culture, biological predisposition to surrender, sympathetic physiological activation, and adversary transformation. This article evaluates theory and research, makes provisional judgments as to which theories appear to be most viable, and begins the task of theoretical integration to arrive at a more complete and internally consistent explanation for why many women engage in erotic rape fantasies. Methodological critiques and programs for future research are presented throughout.

  12. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior litera

  13. Reflecting on E-Recruiting Research Using Grounded Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, Joost; Furtmüller, Elfi; Wilderom, Celeste

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of the e-Recruiting literature through a grounded theory lens. The large number of publications and the increasing diversity of publications on e-Recruiting research, as the most studied area within e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management), calls for a syn

  14. Wicked Issues in Situating Theory in Close-Up Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowler, Paul

    2012-01-01

    "Wicked" issues are one-off problems that have no algorithms to follow to solutions. They are ill-understood or understood in multiple, perhaps conflicting, ways and are fundamentally complex in character. This paper argues that the term is an apt one to describe many aspects of the relationship between theory and data in educational research, and…

  15. Relational Processes in Career Transition: Extending Theory, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Sue L.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of work in relational theory and career decision making explores how relational processes, not just people's relationships but more broadly their connections to self, others, and society, inform career development and counseling. This article presents the results of a qualitative research study of midlife women in career transition…

  16. Computer-Based Integrated Learning Systems: Research and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hativa, Nira, Ed.; Becker, Henry Jay, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The eight chapters of this theme issue discuss recent research and theory concerning computer-based integrated learning systems. Following an introduction about their theoretical background and current use in schools, the effects of using computer-based integrated learning systems in the elementary school classroom are considered. (SLD)

  17. Using Action Research Methodology to Unite Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The author describes an action research project given to masters-level preservice teachers in her educational psychology classes to help them connect the theories they are learning with educational problems they have observed or experienced. Students' responses on a six-item survey indicated that they valued the better understanding of how…

  18. Infusing Participants' Voices into Grounded Theory Research: A Poetic Anthology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Brianna L.

    2009-01-01

    This article augments the author's grounded theory study of student and teacher interactions in alternative education classrooms by presenting poetic transcription as a way to portray the essences and experiences of the participants. The author builds on the experimental writing traditions of other researchers to embrace her own experiences as a…

  19. Management Research and Grounded Theory: A review of grounded theorybuilding approach in organisational and management research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967 which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.

  20. [Attachment Patterns and their Relation to the Development of Anxiety Symptoms in Childhood and Adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtergarde, Sandra; Müller, Jörg Michael; Postert, Christian; Wessing, Ida; Mayer, Andreas; Romer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of attachment theory, insecure attachment can be seen as a key risk factor for the development of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders. This systematic review addresses the current state of empirical research on the relationship between attachment status and anxiety symptoms respective anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence. 21 current international studies published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this systematic review. These studies were heterogeneous in target populations, methods and study design. The majority of studies supported the assumed correlation between insecure attachment and anxiety symptoms or anxiety disorders. These findings are more evident in studies with school-age children than with preschool children or adolescents. Furthermore, the disorganized-disoriented type of attachment seems to be a particular risk factor for the development of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders. Results were discussed in relation to attachment theory and with reference to the results of previous relevant reviews.

  1. From theory to application and back again: implications of research on medical expertise for psychological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoffrey

    2005-03-01

    Research directed at an understanding of medical expertise is about 30 years old, and many developments in this literature parallel progress in cognitive psychology. Over the past 15 years or so, this research became much more closely identified with particular psychological theories. Initial forays into medicine were essentially direct applications of methods developed in the psychology lab to the more natural domain of medicine, with varying degrees of success. These attempts were followed by a second wave that took the psychological theories themselves more seriously in a more thoughtful application of psychological methods to the medical domain. I will argue in the present paper that the methods and theories used in the study of medical expertise have advanced to the point that there is some reverse flow and they are providing a unique and valuable perspective on the nature of thinking.

  2. Teaching through Research--Research through Teaching: Comparing Scientific and Subjective Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Teaching through research has a great potential for Master's studies. The paper presents how this has been done in a particular case, comparing scientific and subjective theories, and how this course was simultaneously used to do research about this topic. The course proved to be a win-win-situation for the students and for the teacher/researcher.…

  3. Borderline disorder and attachment pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Keller, A; Links, P; Patrick, J

    1993-02-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the theoretical and empirical association between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline personality disorder. Attachment theory focuses on the maintenance of a sense of safety and security through a close personal relationship with a particular person. Based on a biological behavioural system, functional attachment relationships in adulthood rely on experiences and expectations of security within the relationship. These issues are also important to the definition and dynamics of borderline personality disorder. The dimensions and patterns of reciprocal attachment were compared with other scales measuring components of psychopathology and interpersonal relationships. In a sample of 85 female outpatients, only four of the attachment scales--feared loss, secure base, compulsive care-seeking and angry withdrawal--identified patients with high scores on a measure of borderline disorder. Of these four scales, feared loss had the predominant effect. These empirical results support the hypothesized relationship between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline disorder.

  4. Research on Theoretical Foundation of Course Design on the Working Process-oriented Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yanjun

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to research on the theoretical foundation of course design on the working process-oriented theory (WPOT). There are seven theories relevant to course design on the WPOT. They are: Multiple Intelligences Theory, Competence-based Education Theory, Experience Learning Theory, Factor Interest Theory, Action-oriented Teaching Theory, Learning Situation-Based Construction Theory, and Overall Thinking-Based Evaluation Theory.

  5. Research on Theoretical Foundation of Course Design on the Working Process-oriented Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Yanjun

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to research on the theoretical foundation of course design on the working process-oriented theory(WPOT). There are seven theories relevant to course design on the WPOT. They are: Multiple Intelligences Theory, Competence-based Education Theory, Experience Learning Theory, Factor Interest Theory, Action-oriented Teaching Theory, Learning Situation-Based Construction Theory, and Overall Thinking-Based Evaluation Theory.

  6. Primary attachment in female adolescents: association with depression, self-esteem, and maternal identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, J P

    1996-01-01

    DURING the past two decades, infant and child research has accumulated considerable support for John Bowlby's views on the importance of early attachment experience (1958, 1969, 1973, 1980, 1988). Briefly stated, Bowlby's theory conceptualized infant-mother attachment as a primary instinct, separate from other physiological needs (such as hunger or sex), and serving the purpose of continuing proximity to a caregiver. Children generate "internal working models of attachment" that influence the organization of their attachment-seeking behaviors (Bowlby 1980). During childhood these models are being actively and continuously constructed by the child. Toward the end of adolescence, however, they tend to become stable and serve as a template for later attachments throughout the life cycle. Narrative reconstruction of these attachment models by young adults recalling their childhood can be considered as a dynamic "summary statement" regarding the child's attempts and caregiver's responses in the maintenance of attachment bonds, rather than as verifiable facts (Main and Kaplan 1985).

  7. The social nature of the mother's tie to her child: John Bowlby's theory of attachment in post-war America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo, Marga

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the development of British psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby's views and their scientific and social reception in the United States during the 1950s. In a 1951 report for the World Health Organization Bowlby contended that the mother is the child's psychic organizer, as observational studies of children worldwide showed that absence of mother love had disastrous consequences for children's emotional health. By the end of the decade Bowlby had moved from observational studies of children in hospitals to animal research in order to support his thesis that mother love is a biological need. I examine the development of Bowlby's views and their scientific and social reception in the United States during the 1950s, a central period in the evolution of his views and in debates about the social implications of his work. I argue that Bowlby's view that mother love was a biological need for children influenced discussions about the desirability of mothers working outside the home during the early Cold War. By claiming that the future of a child's mind is determined by her mother's heart, Bowlby's argument exerted an unusually strong emotional demand on mothers and had powerful implications for the moral valuation of maternal care and love.

  8. Parental incarceration, attachment and child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Murray, Lynne

    2010-07-01

    Theory and evidence relating parental incarceration, attachment, and psychopathology are reviewed. Parental incarceration is a strong risk factor for long-lasting psychopathology, including antisocial and internalizing outcomes. Parental incarceration might threaten children's attachment security because of parent-child separation, confusing communication about parental absence, restricted contact with incarcerated parents, and unstable caregiving arrangements. Parental incarceration can also cause economic strain, reduced supervision, stigma, home and school moves, and other negative life events for children. Thus, there are multiple possible mechanisms whereby parental incarceration might increase risk for child psychopathology. Maternal incarceration tends to cause more disruption for children than paternal incarceration and may lead to greater risk for insecure attachment and psychopathology. Children's prior attachment relations and other life experiences are likely to be of great importance for understanding children's reactions to parental incarceration. Several hypotheses are presented about how prior insecure attachment and social adversity might interact with parental incarceration and contribute to psychopathology. Carefully designed longitudinal studies, randomized controlled trials, and cross-national comparative research are required to test these hypotheses.

  9. Research on Inner Mechanism and KDTLM Theory of Knowledge Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangBingru; LiXin; SongWei

    2004-01-01

    The inner mechanisms were put forward solely by the author Yang Bingru.Among the inner mechanisms the double-base coope-rating mechanism,doubie-mechanism,double-basis fusion mechanism and information increasing mechanism are introdueed in this paper.The expansibility structural models of KD(Knowledge discovery)are Described including KDD".KDK",KD(D&K)and DFssm,ete..Some innovative methods,such as a mining algorithm and auto-evaluation method are introduced.On the basis of all above parts,KDTIM(Knowledge dis-covery theory based on inner mechanism)theory is the advanced theory.and explination of the mainstream driving to KDbrought by re-search on inner mechanism and KDTIM is presented.

  10. Anxious attachment as a determinant of adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Rose, M S; Sheldon, A

    1993-07-01

    Traditionally, an excess of interpersonal dependency has been used to characterize disturbed interpersonal relationships in adults. This approach stands in sharp contrast to that of attachment theorists who conceptualize attachment as functionally distinct from dependency. Attachment theory focuses on anxious attachment in the definition and dynamics of disturbed adult interpersonal relationships. The purpose of this study was to examine the relevance of anxious attachment to the differentiation of psychiatric outpatients from nonpatients. Empirically, three scales (feared loss of the attachment figure, proximity seeking, and separation protest) measure the components of anxious attachment as defined by Bowlby. The scales were administered to two research samples. Sample 1 was composed of 136 respondents to a survey within the Calgary community. Sample 2 consisted of 110 psychiatric outpatients drawn from the psychotherapy clinic of the Calgary General Hospital. The results indicate that the three components of anxious attachment offer a clinically relevant system for differentiating between psychiatric outpatients and nonpatients. Of these three components, feared loss has the predominant effect. The implications of this finding for the delineation of disturbed interpersonal relationships in adults is discussed.

  11. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  12. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups sho

  13. Hydrodynamics Research on Amphibious Vehicle Systems:Modeling Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Nai-jun

    2006-01-01

    For completing the hydrodynamics software development and the engineering application research on the amphibious vehicle systems, hydrodynamic modeling theory of the amphibious vehicle systems is elaborated, which includes to build up the dynamic system model of amphibious vehicle motion on water, gun tracking-aiming-firing, bullet hit and armored check-target, gunner operating control, and the simulation computed model of time domain for random sea wave.

  14. Phenomenography and Grounded Theory as Research Methods in Computing Education Research Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…

  15. The Theory Question in Research Capacity Building in Education: Towards an Agenda for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert; Allan, Julie; Edwards, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The question of capacity building in education has predominantly been approached with regard to the methods and methodologies of educational research. Far less attention has been given to capacity building in relation to theory. In many ways the latter is as pressing an issue as the former, given that good research depends on a combination of high…

  16. Mapping Usability: A Critical Research Analysis of Trends in Software Usability Research, Theory, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Morgan Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The impetus for this project stemmed from a curiosity about two particular areas in the history of usability research. For one, I began research for this project with a desire to learn about patterns in the theory, practice, attitude, and perception about usability work, both in academic contexts and in corporate contexts, with a focus on the…

  17. Phenomenography and grounded theory as research methods in computing education research field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Päivi; Simon, Beth

    2012-06-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and analysis phases and the type of resulting outcomes of these methods. We also discuss the challenges and threats the both methods may pose to the researcher. We conclude that while aimed at tackling different types of research questions, both of these methods provide computing education researchers a useful tool in their research method toolbox.

  18. Latency-aged children with attachment disturbances: a conjoint treatment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Virginia M

    2011-01-01

    Psychoanalytic theory and practice has increasingly accepted the importance of attachment relationships in psychic development. However, there have been only very limited efforts to develop psychoanalytically informed interventions for older adopted and foster children who show significant disturbances in attachment. This paper reviews theory and research that lays groundwork for a framework for conceptualizing treatment needs for attachment disordered children. Two cases of conjoint work with parents and their latency age sons are presented. The treatment cases highlight the importance of work to increase parents' reflective functioning capacities and the need to challenge children's defensively excluded early internal working models of self and caregivers.

  19. Health as expanding consciousness: a nursing perspective for grounded theory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Janet Witucki

    2011-07-01

    Margaret Newman's theory of health as expanding consciousness provides an excellent nursing perspective for nursing grounded theory research studies. Application of this nursing theory to grounded theory research provides a unitary-transformative paradigm perspective to the sociological underpinnings of grounded theory methodology. The fit between this particular nursing theory and grounded theory methodology is apparent when purpose, timing, process, and health outcomes of the two are compared. In this column, the theory of health as expanding consciousness is described and the theory's research as praxis methodology is compared to grounded theory methodology. This is followed by a description of how the theory of health as expanding consciousness can be utilized as a perspective for nursing grounded theory research.

  20. Between Bandura and Giddens: Structuration Theory in Social Psychological Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Oppong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In any social analysis, one can attribute observed behavioural outcomes to actions and inactions of people (agents or to the presence or absence of certain structures or systems. The dualism of agent and structure is resolved through the concept of duality as proposed by Anthony Giddens in his structuration theory (ST. Though ST has been applied in other disciplines, it is either less known or applied in psychology. This paper sought to examine ST as a framework for understanding the interdependent relationship between structure and agents in the light of offering explanatory framework in social science research or policy formulation. It concluded with an integrated model comprising elements of both Bandura’s social-cognitive theory and Giddens’ ST.

  1. NATO Advanced Research Institute on Search Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Lawrence

    1980-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Institute on Search Theory and Appli­ cations was held at the Hotel Algarve in Praia Da Rocha, Portugal, from March 26 through March 30, 1979, and was sponsored by the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science. There were forty-one participants representing a wide range of backgrounds and interests. The purpose of the institute was to bring together people working in search theory and applications with potential users of search techniques to stimulate the increased application of recent­ ly developed search technology to civilian problems such as search and rescue, mineral exploration, surveillance, and fishing. Con­ versely, it was felt that by exposing search analysts to potential applications and new problems, they would be stimulated to develop new techniques for these applications and problems. The exchange of ideas and problems necessary to accomplish these goals was provided in the meeting workshops. There were three workshops, Search and Rescue, Exploration, and Sur...

  2. The Politics of Attachment: Lines of Flight with Bowlby, Deleuze and Guattari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschinsky, Robbie; Greco, Monica; Solomon, Judith

    2015-12-01

    Research on attachment is widely regarded in sociology and feminist scholarship as politically conservative - oriented by a concern to police families, pathologize mothers and emphasize psychological at the expense of socio-economic factors. These critiques have presented attachment theory as constructing biological imperatives to naturalize contingent, social demands. We propose that a more effective critique of the politically conservative uses of attachment theory is offered by engaging with the 'attachment system' at the level of ontology. In developing this argument we draw on Deleuze and Guattari, making use of the common language of ethology which links their ideas to that of attachment theory. The attachment system can and has been reified into an image of the infant returning to their caregiver as an image of familial sufficiency. This has offered ammunition for discourses and institutions which isolate women from health, social and political resources. Yet Deleuze and Guattari can help attachment theory and research to be recognized as a powerful ally for progressive politics, for reflection on the movement of human individuation, and for arguing for the meaningful resourcing of those who care for someone else.

  3. Theory Building in Qualitative Research: Reconsidering the Problem of Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. Bendassolli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of induction refers to the difficulties involved in the process of justifying experience-based scientific conclusions. More specifically, inductive reasoning assumes a leap from singular observational statements to general theoretical statements. It calls into question the role of empirical evidence in the theory-building process. In the philosophy of science, the validity of inductive reasoning has been severely questioned since at least the writings of David HUME. At the same time, induction has been lauded as one of the main pillars of qualitative research methods, and its identity as such has consolidated to the detriment of hypothetical-deductive methods. This article proposes reviving discussion on the problem of induction in qualitative research. It is argued that qualitative methods inherit many of the tensions intrinsic to inductive reasoning, such as those between the demands of empiricism and of formal scientific explanation, suggesting the need to reconsider the role of theory in qualitative research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1301258

  4. Toward a General Research Process for Using Dubin's Theory Building Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Elwood F.; Lowe, Janis S.

    2007-01-01

    Dubin developed a widely used methodology for theory building, which describes the components of the theory building process. Unfortunately, he does not define a research process for implementing his theory building model. This article proposes a seven-step general research process for implementing Dubin's theory building model. An example of a…

  5. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  6. Adolescent attachment security, family functioning, and suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Mathias, Charles W; Furr, R Michael; Dougherty, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual's social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all three types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention.

  7. Early Interpersonal Neurobiological Assessment of Attachment and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Nelson Schore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally-laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the emotional brain. Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural nonverbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant’s developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily-based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant’s emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implication of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early

  8. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the "emotional brain." Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural non-verbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant's developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant's emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implications of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early intervention.

  9. Attachment and parental divorce: a test of the diffusion and sensitive period hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Heffernan, Marie E

    2013-09-01

    One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that disruptions in parental relationships are prospectively related to insecure attachment patterns in adulthood. The majority of research that has evaluated this hypothesis, however, has been based on retrospective reports of the quality of relationships with parents-research that is subject to retrospective biases. In the present research, the authors examined the impact of parental divorce-an event that can be assessed relatively objectively-on attachment patterns in adulthood across two samples. The data indicate that parental divorce has selective rather than diffuse implications for insecure attachment. Namely, parental divorce was more strongly related to insecure relationships with parents in adulthood than insecure relationships with romantic partners or friends. In addition, parental insecurity was most pronounced when parental divorce took place in early childhood. This finding is consistent with hypotheses about sensitive periods in attachment development.

  10. Regulating emotion expression and regulating emotion experience: divergent associations with dimensions of attachment among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Fiori, Katherine L; Magai, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Adult attachment research does not systematically distinguish between experiential and expressive forms of regulation. Drawing insights from developmental-functionalism - a lifespan theory of emotion and emotion regulation - the current report examined the relations among attachment, trait emotion, and expressive emotion regulation in a large (N = 1204) sample of older women. Although both preoccupation and fearful-avoidance predicted more anxiety and anger, preoccupation predicted greater fear withdrawal and less fear expression, while fearful-avoidance predicted greater fear expression and greater anger withdrawal; attachment security predicted less fear withdrawal and less anger expression. Importantly, results regarding expressive regulation held even when controlling for trait levels of the underlying emotion. Results are interpreted within the context of models of attachment and lifespan socioemotional functioning. It is suggested that attachment research may benefit from considering the distinct functions of experienced versus expressed emotion in developmentally diverse contexts. Limitations are discussed and directions for future research are given.

  11. Online Financial Education Programs: Theory, Research, and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhee Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have created unprecedented opportunities for online financial education that can be used to improve financial literacy and money management practices. While online financial education programs have become popular, relevant research and theoretical frameworks have rarely been considered in the development of such programs. This article synthesizes lessons from literature and theories for the development of an effective online financial education program. Drawing from literature on financial literacy education and online education, implications and recommendations for integrating technology into online financial education programs for adults are discussed.

  12. Secure Attachment Conceptualizations: The Influence of General and Specific Relational Models on Conflict Beliefs and Conflict Resolution Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl C. Woolley

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Attachment theory focuses on the cognitive models that underlie our interactions with attachment figures. Global or generalized mental models are thought to develop on the basis of attachment models with parents and might form the initial basis of internal working models in novel relationships. However, as discrepant information presents itself in a new relationship, it is thought that specific relational models develop. When conflict arises it can threaten the attachment bonds of the relationship. An Internet survey of 134 individuals in couple relationships was conducted to test the influence of secure parental and partner attachment conceptualizations on romantic relationship variables (conflict beliefs and conflict resolution styles. Results indicated that for the most part relationship variables were influenced by current secure romantic attachment conceptualizations. Analyses also indicated differential gender results for positive problem solving in terms of secure parental and partner attachment. Secure parental attachment was also found to impact on the report of compliant behavior during conflict resolution. Lastly, the belief that arguing is threatening was found to be impacted by an interaction effect between parental and partner attachment. In general secure partner attachment was more predictive of conflict resolution behavior and conflict beliefs, than a global attachment model. However, it would appear that the global attachment model can be activated in the context of the current relationship under certain conditions. This research lends support to the notion that generalized and specific attachment representations impacts differently on close relationship functioning, and encourages a further mapping of relationship functions in this regard.

  13. Childhood attachment and schizophrenia: the "attachment-developmental-cognitive" (ADC) hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric syndrome whose exact causes remain unclear. However, current scientific consensus has highlighted the importance of neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive processes in the development of schizophrenic symptoms. Research over the past three decades, motivated by the findings of the World Health Organization's large-scale studies, has highlighted the importance of psychosocial adversities - including childhood abuse and neglect - in this disorder. In this paper, I propose a hypothesis based on John Bowlby's framework of attachment theory, which I have termed the attachment-developmental-cognitive (ADC) hypothesis. The ADC hypothesis integrates recent developments related to (1) existing models of schizophrenia, (2) studies examining the effect of attachment on brain biology and cognitive development, and (3) various known facts about the course and outcome of this disorder. In doing so, it explains how disturbed childhood attachment leads to core psychological and neurochemical abnormalities which are implicated in the genesis of schizophrenia and also affect its outcome. The ADC hypothesis compasses and expands on earlier formulations, such as the "social defeat" and "traumagenic" models, and has important implications regarding the prevention and treatment of schizophrenia. Ways of testing and refining this hypothesis are outlined as avenues for future research. Though provisional, the ADC hypothesis is entirely consistent with both biological and psychosocial research into the origins of schizophrenia.

  14. Script-like attachment representations in dreams containing current romantic partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selterman, Dylan; Apetroaia, Adela; Waters, Everett

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated parallels between romantic attachment styles and general dream content. The current study examined partner-specific attachment representations alongside dreams that contained significant others. The general prediction was that dreams would follow the "secure base script," and a general correspondence would emerge between secure attachment cognitions in waking life and in dreams. Sixty-one undergraduate student participants in committed dating relationships of six months duration or longer completed the Secure Base Script Narrative Assessment at Time 1, and then completed a dream diary for 14 consecutive days. Blind coders scored dreams that contained significant others using the same criteria for secure base content in laboratory narratives. Results revealed a significant association between relationship-specific attachment security and the degree to which dreams about romantic partners followed the secure base script. The findings illuminate our understanding of mental representations with regards to specific attachment figures. Implications for attachment theory and clinical applications are discussed.

  15. Judith Butler's theories: reflections for nursing research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagington, Maurice G

    2016-10-01

    Judith Butler is one of the most influential late 20th and early 21st century philosophers in regard to left wing politics, as well as an active campaigner for social justice within the United States and worldwide. Her academic work has been foundational to the academic discipline of queer theory and has been extensively critiqued and applied across a hugely wide range of disciplines. In addition, Butler's work itself is extensive covering topics such as gender, sexuality, race, literary theory, and warfare. This article can only serve as a taster for the potential application of her work in relation to nursing, which is in its infancy. This introduction covers three of the potentially most productive themes in Butler's work, namely power, performativity, and ethics. Each of these themes are critically explored in turn, sometimes in relation to their actual application in nursing literature, but also in relation to their potential for producing novel critiques of nursing practice. Suggestions are made about how Butler's work can develop nursing research and practice. The article concludes with a short summary of Butler's key works as well as suggested reading for people interested in examining how her theories have been applied across different academic settings.

  16. Theory, Modeling and Simulation: Research progress report 1994--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, B.C.; Dixon, D.A.; Dunning, T.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has established the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). In April 1994, construction began on the new EMSL, a collaborative research facility devoted to advancing the understanding of environmental molecular science. Research in the Theory, Modeling, and Simulation (TM and S) program will play a critical role in understanding molecular processes important in restoring DOE`s research, development, and production sites, including understanding the migration and reactions of contaminants in soils and ground water, developing processes for isolation and processing of pollutants, developing improved materials for waste storage, understanding the enzymatic reactions involved in the biodegradation of contaminants, and understanding the interaction of hazardous chemicals with living organisms. The research objectives of the TM and S program are fivefold: to apply available electronic structure and dynamics techniques to study fundamental molecular processes involved in the chemistry of natural and contaminated systems; to extend current electronic structure and dynamics techniques to treat molecular systems of future importance and to develop new techniques for addressing problems that are computationally intractable at present; to apply available molecular modeling techniques to simulate molecular processes occurring in the multi-species, multi-phase systems characteristic of natural and polluted environments; to extend current molecular modeling techniques to treat ever more complex molecular systems and to improve the reliability and accuracy of such simulations; and to develop technologies for advanced parallel architectural computer systems. Research highlights of 82 projects are given.

  17. The impact of electronic media violence: scientific theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L Rowell

    2007-12-01

    Since the early 1960s, research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the Internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer's part, just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research evidence is critically assessed and the psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental effects for both the short and long-term is elaborated. Finally the size of the "media violence effect" is compared with some other well-known threats to society to estimate how important a threat it should be considered.

  18. Adjustment to divorce and co-parental relations: contributions from the theory of attachment / Adaptação ao divórcio e relações coparentais: contributos da teoria da vinculação

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Lamela; Bárbara Figueiredo; Alice Bastos

    2010-01-01

    In this article, it is proposed the contribution of the attachment theory for understanding adults' adjustment processes to their divorce and how detachment to ex-spouse can infer in co-parenting relationships after marital dissolution. This article makes two theoretical assumptions that focus on two dimensions. The first hypothesis states that the divorce, while a relational process, should be read as a moment of loss that germinates similar psychological reactions to those experienced by wi...

  19. Attachment Style Predicts Affect, Cognitive Appraisals, and Social Functioning in Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eSheinbaum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for one week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the Attachment Style Interview and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  20. The role of attachment style in Facebook use and social capital: evidence from university students and a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jih-Hsuan

    2015-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) can be beneficial tools for users to gain social capital. Although social capital consists of emotional and informational resources accumulated through interactions with strong or weak social network ties, the existing literature largely ignores attachment style in this context. This study employed attachment theory to explore individuals' attachment orientations toward Facebook usage and toward online and offline social capital. A university student sample (study 1) and a representative national sample (study 2) showed consistent results. Secure attachment was positively associated with online bonding and bridging capital and offline bridging capital. Additionally, secure attachment had an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook time. Avoidant attachment was negatively associated with online bonding capital. Anxious-ambivalent attachment had a direct association with online bonding capital and an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook. Interaction frequency with good friends on Facebook positively predicted all online and offline capital, whereas interaction frequency with average friends on Facebook positively predicted online bridging capital. Interaction frequency with acquaintances on Facebook was negatively associated with offline bonding capital. The study concludes that attachment style is a significant factor in guiding social orientation toward Facebook connections with different ties and influences online social capital. The study extends attachment theory among university students to a national sample to provide more generalizable evidence for the current literature. Additionally, this study extends attachment theory to the SNS setting with a nuanced examination of types of Facebook friends after controlling extraversion. Implications for future research are discussed.

  1. Researching the Impact of Teacher Professional Development Programmes Based on Action Research, Constructivism, and Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetmeier, Stefan; Andreitz, Irina; Erlacher, Willibald; Rauch, Franz

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the topic of professional development programmes' impact. Concepts and ideas of action research, constructivism, and systems theory are used as a theoretical framework and are combined to describe and analyse an exemplary professional development programme in Austria. Empirical findings from both quantitative and qualitative…

  2. Researching Contradictions: Cultural Historical Activity Theory Research (CHAT) in the English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is an appropriate theoretical and methodological framework for researchers in English interested in the social contexts of culture and its relationship with the formation of mind and activity in the English classroom. Two key concepts in Vygotsky's thought central to understanding…

  3. Faculty Rank System, Research Motivation, and Faculty Research Productivity: Measure Refinement and Theory Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Flora F.; Blackburn, Robert T.

    1996-01-01

    A study explored the relationship between the traditional system of college faculty rank and faculty research productivity from the perspectives of behavioral reinforcement theory and selection function. Six hypotheses were generated and tested, using data from a 1989 national faculty survey. Results failed to support completely either the…

  4. The making and breaking of affectional bonds. I. Aetiology and psychopathology in the light of attachment theory. An expanded version of the Fiftieth Maudsley Lecture, delivered before the Royal College of Psychiatrists, 19 November 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlby, J

    1977-03-01

    An account is given of attachment theory as a way of conceptualizing the propensity of human beings to make strong affectional bonds to particular others and of explaining the many forms of emotional distress and personality disturbance, including anxiety, anger, depression and emotional detachment, to which unwilling separation and loss give rise. Though it incorporates much psychoanalytic thinking, many of its principles derive from ethology, cognitive psychology and control theory. It conforms to the ordinary criteria of a scientific discipline. Certain common patterns of personality development, both healthy and pathological, are described in these terms, and also some of the common patterns of parenting that contribute to them.

  5. Attachment and social cognition in borderline personality disorder: Specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeney, Joseph E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hallquist, Michael N; Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Ellison, William D; Nolf, Kimberly A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, attributable, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social-cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms are specific to the disorder. For the present study, empirically derived indices of mentalization, self-other boundaries, and identity diffusion were tested as mediators between attachment style and personality disorder symptoms. In a cross-sectional structural equation model, mentalization and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD. Mentalization partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and antisocial personality disorder (PD) symptoms, and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety.

  6. Advancing Nursing Research in the Visual Era: Reenvisioning the Photovoice Process Across Phenomenological, Grounded Theory, and Critical Theory Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Boutain, Doris M; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S

    Photovoice is a powerful research method that employs participant photography for advancing voice, knowledge, and transformative change among groups historically or currently marginalized. Paradoxically, this research method risks exploitation of participant voice because of weak methodology to method congruence. The purposes of this retrospective article are to revisit current interdisciplinary research using photovoice and to suggest how to advance photovoice by improving methodology-method congruence. Novel templates are provided for improving the photovoice process across phenomenological, grounded theory, and critical theory methodologies.

  7. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Florian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Besides the predominance of disorganized attachment, clinical participants demonstrated more “segregated system material” especially in stories representing aloneness and more “Personal Experience material” compared to healthy individuals. Within the disorganized/ unresolved clinical individuals, BPD and PTSD patients showed the highest proportion of attachment disorganization and were less able to use other attachment-related defenses to maintain organized. Furthermore, PTSD patients were emotionally overwhelmed by the projective attachment scenes compared to the other clinical groups as indexed by an incapacity to complete sections of the AAP. BPD and addicted patients were characterized by a high degree of self-other boundary confusion. Depressive and schizophrenic patients showed a high overall defensive intensity to remain organized.

  8. Self-efficacy in service-learning community action research: theory, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Roger N; Folger, Susan F; Langsner, Stacey; Ryan, Courtney; Crouse, Jake

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this article is threefold: In the first section, an overview of research and theory on the self-efficacy construct is provided, and the central role of self-efficacy in service-learning community action research is demonstrated. The second section reviews over 10 years of research validating the Community Service Self-Efficacy Scale (CSSES), which measures the individual's confidence in his or her own ability to make clinically (meaningfully) significant contributions to the community through service. Within the context of this review, recent (previously unpublished) validation research is also reviewed. Alternate versions of the CSSES, each of which was developed for a specific purpose, are presented. The third section provides recommendations for further research focused on (a) validating the CSSES and (b) examining self-efficacy as an outcome, moderator, and mediating variable in service-learning community action research.

  9. The Generalization of Attachment Representations to New Social Situations: Predicting Behavior during Initial Interactions with Strangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Brooke C.; Cassidy, Jude; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    The idea that attachment representations are generalized to new social situations and guide behavior with unfamiliar others is central to attachment theory. However, research regarding this important theoretical postulate has been lacking in adolescence and adulthood, as most research has focused on establishing the influence of attachment representations on close relationship dynamics. Thus, the goal of this investigation was to examine the extent to which attachment representations are predictive of adolescents’ initial behavior when meeting and interacting with new peers. High school adolescents (N = 135) participated with unfamiliar peers from another school in two social support interactions that were videotaped and coded by independent observers. Results indicated that attachment representations (assessed through interview and self-report measures) were predictive of behaviors exhibited during the discussions. Theoretical implications of results and contributions to existing literature are discussed. PMID:19025297

  10. Adult attachment processes: individual and couple perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, K

    1997-09-01

    This paper overviews a new approach to understanding the range of difficulties experienced in close attachment relationships in adulthood. Drawing on the work of Bowlby, four prototypic adult attachment patterns are defined in terms of the intersection of two underlying dimensions, the positivity of the person's self-image and the positivity of the person's image of others (Bartholomew, 1990; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). The distinct interpersonal difficulties associated with each attachment pattern are described. Findings are presented indicating that individual differences in attachment have implications for the quality of adults' romantic relationships, and that attachment theory may be helpful in understanding violent spousal relationships. Five current issues in the study of adult attachment are addressed: the stability of attachment patterns, the associations between attachment and general personality factors, the relative merits of categorical and prototype assessments of attachment, the identification of multiple attachments in adulthood, and the specificity of adult attachment patterns. It is suggested that the four-category model of adult attachment is especially sensitive to the range and complexity of attachment-related difficulties experienced in adulthood.

  11. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    in a regional study in South Australia. Our research objectives were to (1) analyze and present the spatial results of the mapping method as a benchmark for future research, (2) compare mapped place attachment to the more common practice of mapping landscape values in PPGIS that comprise a values home range, (3......-based measures. The area of place attachment is influenced by occupational roles such as farming or conservation, as well as home location, especially in coastal versus non-coastal contexts. The spatial distribution of mapped landscape values or values home range is related to, but not identical to mapped place......The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachment...

  12. Facets of Spirituality Diminish the Positive Relationship between Insecure Attachment and Mood Pathology in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Hiebler-Ragger

    Full Text Available Traditionally, in attachment theory, secure attachment has been linked to parameters of mental health, while insecure attachment has been associated with parameters of psychopathology. Furthermore, spirituality and attachment to God have been discussed as corresponding to, or compensating for, primary attachment experiences. Accordingly, they may contribute to mental health or to mental illness. In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigate attachment styles (Avoidant and Anxious Attachment; ECR-RD, spirituality (Religious and Existential Well-Being; MI-RSWB, and mood pathology (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization; BSI-18 in 481 (76% female young adults (age range: 18-30 years who had a Roman Catholic upbringing. In accordance with previous research, we found insecure attachment to be associated with low levels of spirituality. Furthermore, insecure attachment and low levels of spirituality were associated with higher levels of mood pathology. In hierarchical regression analyses, only Anxious Attachment positively predicted all three dimensions of mood pathology while Existential Well-Being-but not Religious Well-Being-was an additional negative predictor for Depression. Our results underline that spirituality can correspond to the attachment style, or may also compensate for insecure attachment. Higher Existential Well-Being-comprised of facets such as hope for a better future, forgiveness and the experience of sense and meaning-seems to have an especially corrective effect on mood pathology, independent of attachment styles. Our findings emphasize the vital role of existential well-being in young adults' affective functioning, which might be considered in prevention and treatment. Further research in clinical surroundings is recommended.

  13. Attachment and the Processing of Social Information in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2007-01-01

    A key proposition of attachment theory is that experience-based cognitive representations of attachment, often referred to as internal working models of attachment, influence the manner in which individuals process attachment-relevant social information (Bowlby, 1969/1982, 1973, 1980; Bretherton & Munholland, 1999; Main, Kaplan, & Cassidy, 1985).…

  14. Attachment Disorder: An Emerging Concern for School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kandis Cooke; Forrest, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Explains attachment theory and posits that, if proper bonding and subsequent attachment, usually between mother and child, does not occur, the child develops mistrust and deep-seated rage. Presents evidence of the problem of attachment disorders, lists symptoms of unattached children, examines treatment of attachment disorders, and discusses…

  15. Educational measurement for applied researchers theory into practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Margaret; Jen, Tsung-Hau

    2016-01-01

    This book is a valuable read for a diverse group of researchers and practitioners who analyze assessment data and construct test instruments. It focuses on the use of classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT), which are often required in the fields of psychology (e.g. for measuring psychological traits), health (e.g. for measuring the severity of disorders), and education (e.g. for measuring student performance), and makes these analytical tools accessible to a broader audience. Having taught assessment subjects to students from diverse backgrounds for a number of years, the three authors have a wealth of experience in presenting educational measurement topics, in-depth concepts and applications in an accessible format. As such, the book addresses the needs of readers who use CTT and IRT in their work but do not necessarily have an extensive mathematical background. The book also sheds light on common misconceptions in applying measurement models, and presents an integrated approach to differ...

  16. Instance Theory and Universal Grammar in Second Language Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, John

    1998-01-01

    Considers the possibility of applying instance theory to the study of second language. Instance theory emphasizes the storage and subsequent use of individual experiences over the creation of abstract principles. Suggests that the theory can be applied to the study of second languages, only if it is used in conjunction with a theory of universal…

  17. [Basic theory and research method of urban forest ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Jin, Yingshan; Zhu, Wenquan; Xu, Wenduo; Chen, Wei

    2002-12-01

    With the development of world economy and the increment of urban population, the urban environment problem hinders the urban sustainable development. Now, more and more people realized the importance of urban forests in improving the quality of urban ecology. Therefore, a new subject, urban forest ecology, and correlative new concept frame in the field formed. The theoretic foundation of urban forest ecology derived from the mutual combination of theory relating to forest ecology, landscape ecology, landscape architecture ecology and anthrop-ecology. People survey the development of city from the view of ecosystem, and regard the environment, a colony of human, animals and plants, as main factors of the system. The paper introduces systematically the urban forest ecology as follows: 1) the basic concept of urban forest ecology; 2) the meaning of urban forest ecology; 3) the basic principle and theoretic base of urban forest ecology; 4) the research method of urban forest ecology; 5) the developmental expectation of urban forest ecology.

  18. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  19. Surviving Grounded Theory Research Method in an Academic World: Proposal Writing and Theoretical Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Elliott

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory research students are frequently faced with the challenge of writing a research proposal and using a theoretical framework as part of the academic requirements for a degree programme. Drawing from personal experiences of two PhD graduates who used classic grounded theory in two different universities, this paper highlights key lessons learnt which may help future students who are setting out to use grounded theory method. It identifies key discussion points that students may find useful when engaging with critical audiences, and defending their grounded theory thesis at final examination. Key discussion points included are: the difference between inductive and deductive inquiry; how grounded theory method of data gathering and analysis provide researchers with a viable means of generating new theory; the primacy of the questions used in data gathering and data analysis; and, the research-theory link as opposed to the theory-research link.

  20. The role of both parents’ attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children’s obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent-child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents’ attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers’ and fathers’. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father’s attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity.

  1. The role of both parents' attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Laghezza, Loredana; Radi, Giulia; Battistini, Dalila; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children's obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent-child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates, and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents' attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers and fathers. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father's attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity.

  2. A Brush with Research: Teaching Grounded Theory in the Art and Design Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Mike; Barrett, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Grounded Theory is a systematic approach to social research that allows for new concepts and theories to emerge from gathered data, as opposed to relying on either established theory or personal conjecture to interpret social processes. Although Grounded Theory is a well-known method within social science literature, it is relatively unknown in…

  3. Rethinking Attachment: Fostering Positive Relationships between Infants, Toddlers and Their Primary Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of current theory and research in relation to attachment between infants/toddlers and their caregivers. Worldwide statistics show that there are a significant number of women working in the global labour market. In Australia, recent research also found that over 300,000 children aged 0-5 years are currently…

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP OF NURSING THEORY AND RESEARCH - THE STATE-OF-THE-ART

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JAARSMA, T; DASSEN, T

    1993-01-01

    Recently, the relationship between theory and research has received more attention. It seems that in the past 10 to 15 years more research studies have been published that are more or less conceptualized within (nursing) theories. However, it is not always clear how the theory has been used. The pur

  5. Predictive Implications of Secure Mother-Infant Attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Judith Lynn

    The general proposition of attachment theory is that attachment is grounded in an independent, biologically based system. The quality of primary attachment relationships strongly influences a child's early personality organization, particularly the concept of self and others. The theory emphasizes the primary status and biological function of…

  6. Attachment and Chronic Pain in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa J. Donnelly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although attachment theory is not new, its theoretical implications for the pediatric chronic pain context have not been thoroughly considered, and the empirical implications and potential clinical applications are worth exploring. The attachment framework broadly focuses on interactions between a child’s developing self-regulatory systems and their caregiver’s responses. These interactions are believed to create a template for how individuals will relate to others in the future, and may help account for normative and pathological patterns of emotions and behavior throughout life. This review outlines relevant aspects of the attachment framework to the pediatric chronic pain context. The theoretical and empirical literature is reviewed regarding the potential role of attachment-based constructs such as vulnerability and maintaining factors of pediatric chronic pain. The nature and targets of attachment-based pediatric interventions are considered, with particular focus on relevance for the pediatric chronic pain context. The potential role of attachment style in the transition from acute to chronic pain is considered, with further research directions outlined.

  7. Assessing parental empathy: a role for empathy in child attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jessica A; Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Although empathy has been associated with helping behavior and relationship quality, little research has evaluated the role of parental empathy in the development of parent-child relationships. The current study (1) establishes preliminary validity of the Parental Affective and Cognitive Empathy Scale (PACES), a method for coding empathy from parents' narrative responses to the Parent Development Interview - Revised for School-Aged Children (PDI-R-SC), and (2) tests a theoretical model of empathy and attachment. Sixty caregivers and their children completed a battery of questionnaire and interview measures, including the PDI-R-SC and the Child Attachment Interview (CAI). Caregivers' interview narratives were scored for empathy using PACES. PACES showed good interrater reliability and good convergent validity with a self-report empathy measure. Parent empathy was positively related to child attachment security (using a continuous score for narrative coherence) and emotional openness on the CAI, as well as to child perceptions of parental warmth. Moreover, parent empathy mediated the relation between parents' self-reported attachment style and their children's attachment security. Implications for attachment theory and future directions for establishing scale validity are discussed.

  8. Theories and Simulations in Substorm Research: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. A. WOLF

    2011-01-01

    Both theory and simulation have played important roles in defining and illuminating the key mechanisms involved in substorms. Basic theories of magnetic reconnection and of interchange and ballooning instabilities were developed more than 50 years ago, and these plasma physical concepts have been central in discussions of substorm physics. A vast amount of research on reconnection, including both theoretical and computational studies, has helped provide a picture of how reconnection operates in the collisionless environment of the magnetosphere. Still, however, we do not fully understand how key microscale processes and large-scale dynamics work together to determine the location and rate of reconnection. While in the last twenty years, it has become clear that interchange processes are important for transporting plasma through the plasma sheet in the form of bursty bulk flows and substorm expansions, we still have not reached the point where simulations are able to realistically and defensibly represent all of the important aspects of the phenomenon. More than two decades ago it was suggested that the ballooning instability, the basic theory for which dates from the 1950s, may play an important role in substorms. Now the majority of experts agree that regions of the plasma sheet are often linearly unstable to ideal-MHD ballooning. However, it is also clear that kinetic effects introduce important modifications to the MHD stability criterion. It is still uncertain whether ballooning plays a leading role in substorms or has just a minor part. Among the different types of simulations that have been applied to the substorm problem, global MHD codes are unique in that, in a sense, they represent the entire global substorm phenomenon, including coupling to the solar wind and ionosphere, and the important mechanisms of reconnection, interchange, and ballooning. However, they have not yet progressed to the point where they can accurately represent the whole phenomenon

  9. Motivation and Gifted Students: Implications of Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of contemporary motivation theories reveals implications for gifted and talented students. The expectancy-value framework, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theories, goal orientations, self-efficacy and other self-perceptions, and attribution theory are described and discussed with respect to implications for the psychology and education…

  10. Numerical simulation of initial lightning attachment points on helicopter based on stream-leader discharge theory%基于先导放电理论的直升机初始雷击附着位置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄立洋; 陈晓宁; 郭飞; 赵金龙

    2016-01-01

    The first step to the design of aircrafts is to determinate the initial lightning attachment points.In this paper,a fast numerical simulation method based on the stream-leader discharge theory is presented to simulate the initial lighting attach-ment point on the helicopter.Firstly,the size of the electrode,the distance between the helicopter and the boundary and other pa-rameters are determined according to the test methods of the lightning attachment points in the SAE-ARP 5416A standard.Then, upward leader inception based on Beccera-Cooray criterion is used to analyze the tip of the main rotor and tail rotor ,the head,and the horizontal tail of the UH-60 helicopter.Finally,finding the minimum electric field sustains the positive leader inception by continuously changing the potential of the electrode,which can provide basis to the analysis of the initial lightning attachment points.The simulation results show that the main rotor is most likely to be the lightning initial attachment point and the head is hard to be the lightning initial attachment point.%提出了一种基于流注-先导放电理论的数值模拟方法来快速判断直升机初始雷击附着点。首先,根据标准 SAE-ARP 5416A 中规定的相关试验方法,确定平板电极大小、直升机离边界距离等参数。然后,利用 Becerra-Cooray 正极性先导起始和发展判据对 UH-60“黑鹰”直升机的主旋翼翼尖、尾旋翼翼尖、水平尾翼以及机头部位进行分析比较。最后,通过不断改变平板电极电势的方法,找到各个关键位置产生稳定正极性先导所需的最小背景电场值,以此为依据来对其初始雷击附着位置进行分析。结果表明,主旋翼翼尖最易成为初始雷击附着位置,而机头则较难成为初始雷击附着位置。

  11. Linking Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory Methods in a Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chamberlain-Salaun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Corbin and Strauss’ evolved version of grounded theory. In the third edition of their seminal text, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, the authors present 16 assumptions that underpin their conception of grounded theory methodology. The assumptions stem from a symbolic interactionism perspective of social life, including the themes of meaning, action and interaction, self and perspectives. As research design incorporates both methodology and methods, the authors aim to expose the linkages between the 16 assumptions and essential grounded theory methods, highlighting the application of the latter in light of the former. Analyzing the links between symbolic interactionism and essential grounded theory methods provides novice researchers and researchers new to grounded theory with a foundation from which to design an evolved grounded theory research study.

  12. Economics of Distance and Online Learning Theory, Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reviewed by TOJDE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Economics of Distance and Online LearningTheory, Practice and ResearchBy William Bramble & Santosh PandaPrice: $125.00ISBN: 978-0-415-96388-6, Binding: Hardback, Publishedby: Routledge, New York, Publication Date: March 2008, Pages: 312TOJDEABOUT THE BOOKThis book provides a comprehensive overview of theorganizational models of distance and online learning froman international perspective and from the point of view ofeconomic planning, costing and management decisionmaking.The book points to directions for the further research anddevelopment in this area, and will promote furtherunderstanding and critical reflection on the part ofadministrators, practitioners and researchers of distanceeducation.The experiences and perspectives in distance education inthe US are balanced with those in other areas of the world.Table of ContentsPrefaceSECTION ONE: INTRODUCTIONChapter 1: Organizational and Cost Structures for Distanceand Online Learning, William J. Bramble and Santosh PandaSECTION TWO: PLANNING AND MANAGEMENTChapter 2: Changing Distance Education andChanging Organizational Issues, D. Randy Garrison and Heather KanukaChapter 3: Online Learning and the University, Chris Curran217Chapter 4: Virtual Schooling and Basic Education, Thomas ClarkChapter 5: Historical Perspectives on Distance Education in the United States, Paul J.Edelson and Von PittmanSECTION THREE: FUNDINGChapter 6: Funding of Distance and Online Learning in the United States, Mark J. Smithand William J. BrambleChapter 7: Funding Distance Education: A Regional Perspective, Santosh Panda andAshok GabaSECTION FOUR: COST STRUCTURES AND MODELSChapter 8: Costs and Quality of Online Learning, Alistair InglisChapter 9: Costing Virtual University Education, Insung JungChapter 10: Cost-Benefit of Student Retention Policies and Practices, Ormond SimpsonSECTION FIVE: DISTANCE TRAININGChapter 11: Cost Benefit of Online Learning, Zane Berge and Charlotte DonaldsonChapter 12: Transforming Workplace

  13. Creating a Research Agenda in Career Counselling: The Place of Action Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A.; Domene, Jose F.

    2012-01-01

    After identifying historical and current problems in career counselling research, we propose a research agenda based on contextual action theory. This theory has been used as a framework for research in the career field and for general counselling practice. It is advantageous for several reasons including its conceptual basis, its detailed…

  14. 依恋理论对建立大学生良好人际关系的启示%Attachment Theory for College Students to Establish Good Interpersonal Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙丽琼

    2011-01-01

    Attachment is an important research topic on children's social and emotional development.Meanwhile,in the attachment of biological,social significance,the research suggests that this early experience of parent-child relationship will be the basis for our%依恋是儿童社会性和情绪性发展中的一个重要研究课题,同时,在依恋的生物、社会意义研究表明,这种亲子关系的早期经验会成为我们日后处理人际关系的基础。本文则从依恋理论角度出发,了解其对大学生人际交往的影响,并探索对建立良好人际关系的启示。

  15. An attachment perspective on therapeutic processes and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Berant, Ety

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an explosion of interest in clinical applications of attachment theory. In the present article, we briefly describe John Bowlby's model of therapeutic change, the therapeutic relationship, and the therapist's role in emotional healing. We then review empirical evidence for three key propositions in Bowlby's model. First, a client's sense of security during therapy is crucial for facilitating therapeutic work. Second, a therapist's own sense of security contributes to positive therapeutic outcomes. Third, attachment insecurities can be effectively reduced in therapy, and movement toward greater attachment security is central to achieving favorable therapeutic outcomes. In sum, research evidence confirms the importance of establishing what Bowlby called a safe haven and a secure base within a therapeutic relationship.

  16. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Theory of attachment strongly influences exploring of close relationships in childhood and in adulthood as well. According Bowlby attachment is "lasting relationship bond characterized by need of seeking and maintaining proximity with a person in stressful situations especially (Bowbly, 2010). Hazan a Shaver (1987) applied theory of early attachment in romantic relationships of adults. Behavior of adult human in relationships is more or less predictable by style of attachment in childhood (Fe...

  17. How theory is used and articulated in qualitative research: development of a new typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie; Herber, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    There is a long tradition within qualitative research of theory being central and of critical importance. Qualitative research theory often equates with the methodologies used but this is a complex relationship, plagued by lack of consensus among scholars regarding how theory and methodology are related. This article furthers the debates on how theories are used in qualitative research, how they might influence a study and how they are articulated in publications. The aim is to provide a framework through which the relationship between theory and qualitative research can be understood. We propose a five-point typology on the levels of theoretical visibility, testing this against a range of published research from five key international health, medicine and social science journals. The typology captures a range of visibility--from seemingly absent through to highly visible and applied throughout. There was a clear gradient in this assessment--only a minority appeared to use theory consistently throughout a study. We outline several challenges to consistently applying theory in qualitative research and suggest potential solutions. This article is based on the argument that lack of theory in qualitative research undermines its quality. The typology is offered to assist researchers in applying theory in their own research and critiquing its use in the work of others.

  18. Octodon degus. A useful animal model for social-affective neuroscience research: basic description of separation distress, social attachments and play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnello, Valentina; Iacobucci, Paolo; Fuchs, Thomas; Newberry, Ruth C; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    A challenge for social-affective neuroscience programs is to identify simple and yet valid animal models for studying the expression of basic social emotions and their role during different developmental windows, from infancy to adulthood. For example, although laboratory rats are useful for studying juvenile social interactions, they are not ideal for studying infant attachment bonds. Here, we evaluate current understanding of the social behavior of Octodon degus, a diurnal precocial rodent, to elucidate the value of this species as a model for social-affective neuroscience research. After a synopsis of species-specific characteristics and brain susceptibility to changes of social environment, our behavioral findings on degu social proclivities are summarized. We then discuss why this pre-clinical model provides a valuable addition to the commonly available animal models for the study of human psychopathology.

  19. The Relationship between Styles of Attachment to God and Forgiveness and Empathy among Female Students in the City of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Rashidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness and empathy are factors which are influential in improving the relationships between people, themselves can be affected by various factors in turn. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the styles of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy among female students in the city of Qom. 250 students were selected from the city of Qom by cluster sampling. Three questionnaires were used: styles of attachment to God by Kirkpatrick and Rowatt, emotional empathy by Mehrabian and Epstein and forgiveness inventory by Enzeit. Pearson correlation and Regression analysis were used for data analysis. The style of secure attachment to God had a significantly positive relationship with forgiveness and empathy. Furthermore, the style of avoidant attachment to God and the style of bilateral attachment to God had a significantly negative relationship with forgiveness. In addition, the standard coefficients of all three predictive variables (Secure attachment, bilateral and avoidant to God were all significant at p=0.05. Assessment and recognition of the style of attachment to God, the students and its relation with forgiveness and empathy can have valuable implications in providing the mental health of the students. Conclusion: The findings of this research show a connection between the style of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy, indicate the clarification of attachment to God in students' forgiveness and empathy. Based on the findings, it can be suggested that the theory of attachment to God can be used in psychotherapy.

  20. Depression and attachment problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettem, O; M. West; Mahoney, A; Keller, A.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics related to attachment of 42 depressed psychiatric patients and 42 non-depressed psychiatric controls. The depressed subjects demonstrated an anxious pattern of attachment, characterized by either intense care-seeking in relation to their attachment figure or angry withdrawal from their attachment figure when their desire for security was frustrated. The results are discussed in terms of Bowlby's attachment construct.

  1. PRIMARY RESEARCH ON FRACTAL GEOMETRY OF MERIDIAN THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶若水

    2000-01-01

    In meridian theory of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM),the geometrical descrip-tions can be traced back to the remote ancient times in China,mainly in The Yellow Emperor's In-ternal Classic(The Internal Classic in short).Euclid's geometry,topology and other classic mathe-matics are all at their wit's end to explain the high complexity and non-clinear phenomenon of the meridian .In recent over2000years.the meridian phenomenon has been being the challenge to funda-mental mathematics.Fractral geometry,founded by Mandelbrot(1975),is a branch of learning for investigating irreg-ular geometrical curves.It has successfully solved some qualitative and quantitative problems about the topographical structure of molecular Brown's movement curve and other irregular complicated curves and geomtrical characters.The characteristics of geometrical topographical structure of meridian and its phenomenon belong to the research category of Fractal Geometry.The author of this paper believes that Fractal Geometry may provide a useful mathematical tool and a possible way for revealing the enigma of acup-moxibus-tion meridian theory.The human body is of basic characters of Fractal Geonetry in structure,while meridian is the ex-pression form of Fractal structure of the human body.The basic Fractal geometrical characters of meridian are:self-similarity,self-affinity,symmetry,minute structure and self-avoidance,which has bee applied for thousands of years in clinic,suchas“taking the acupoints on the right side of the body in cases of disorders appearing on the left side and vice versa”.The basic characters of meridians are1)symmetry of the 12regular meridians on the bilateral sides of the body(symmetry);2)similarity in characters and actions of acupoints of the same one meridian(self-similarity);3)taking acupoints on the lower part of the body when disorders occuring on the upper part of the body;and taking acupoints on the upper part of the body if disordera appear-ing on the lower

  2. The attachment system and physiology in adulthood: normative processes, individual differences, and implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Theodore F; Kane, Heidi S

    2014-12-01

    Attachment theory provides a conceptual framework for understanding intersections between personality and close relationships in adulthood. Moreover, attachment has implications for stress-related physiology and physical health. We review work on normative processes and individual differences in the attachment behavioral system, as well as their associations with biological mechanisms related to health outcomes. We highlight the need for more basic research on normative processes and physiology and discuss our own research on individual differences in attachment and links with physiology. We then describe a novel perspective on attachment and physiology, wherein stress-related physiological changes may also be viewed as supporting the social-cognitive and emotion regulatory functions of the attachment system through providing additional energy to the brain, which has implications for eating behavior and health. We close by discussing our work on individual differences in attachment and restorative processes, including sleep and skin repair, and by stressing the importance of developing biologically plausible models for describing how attachment may impact chronic illness.

  3. The Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire: a new methodology for science and practice in criminology and forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marc A; Fugett, April; Lounder, Lindsay

    2014-10-01

    Most modern theories suggest that interpersonal relationships are of central importance in the development of criminal behavior. We tested the parent attachment scales of a new research and clinical measure, the Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire (ACIQ). It is a 29-scale battery assessing attachments to mother, father, partner, and peers, which also includes several related clinical scales. Sixty-one (18-20 years of age) male offenders from a maximum security detention center and 131 contrasts completed the ACIQ. ANOVA demonstrated that mother and father attachments displayed different patterns. The attachment scales also predicted the numbers of crimes within the population of juvenile offenders. Thus, the parent attachment scales of the ACIQ showed promise as an instrument to test dynamic systems approaches to developmental models of criminal behavior.

  4. Phobias of attachment-related inner states in the psychotherapy of adult survivors of childhood complex trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotti, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    The clinical case described in this article illustrates the value of taking into account the dynamics of disorganized attachment in the assessment of attachment-related phobias (phobia of attachment and phobia of attachment loss) during the psychotherapy of chronically traumatized patients. These seemingly opposite phobias typically coexist in the same patient, appear as phobias of both inner states (affect phobias) and relational experiences, and are linked to dissociated representations of self-with-other. Theory and research on attachment disorganization provide a clinician-friendly conceptual framework for capturing both the intrapsychic (e.g., intrusive and nonintegrated mental states) and the relational (e.g., dramatic unsolvable dilemmas in interpersonal exchanges) aspects of the attachment-related phobias. The therapeutic strategy and the key interventions that logically follow from a case formulation based on this conceptual framework are examined.

  5. The association between adult attachment style, mental disorders, and suicidality: findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palitsky, Daniel; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Downs, A Craig; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-07-01

    Attachment theory categorically assesses how a person perceives and experiences interpersonal relationships. Attachment style is linked to numerous physical and psychological phenomena; however, there is a paucity of research examining its relationship to suicide ideation and attempt in adults. Our study addresses this and investigates the relationship of adult attachment style and mental disorders in a nationally representative sample. Using data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N = 5692, aged >18 years), multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine these relationships. After adjusting for confounding variables, insecure attachment styles were associated with greater reporting of suicidal ideation, attempt, and all mental disorder categories analyzed (adjusted odds ratio range, 1.13-1.81). Secure attachment styles were associated with a decreased likelihood of reporting suicidal ideation, attempt, and any anxiety disorder (adjusted odds ratio range, 0.67-0.91). Clinicians should be aware of attachment issues in their patients to ensure better health outcomes and more effective physician-patient relationships.

  6. Accounting Research and Theory: The Age of Neo-empiricism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gaffikin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The theorising in accounting prior to 1970 was rejected as not providing sufficiently generaltheories. Informed by theories in economics and finance (and other disciplines such aspsychology and with the aid of computers, attempts to theorise accounting took a new direction.Large data collection and analysis emphasized a purportedly more systematic empiricalapproach to developing theory.

  7. Structure, Agency, Complexity Theory and Interdisciplinary Research in Education Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Education Studies needs to develop its existing interdisciplinarity understanding of structures and agencies by giving greater attention to the modern process theories of self-organisation in the physical, biological, psychological and social sciences, sometimes given the umbrella term "complexity theory". The…

  8. Theory and Research: The Nexus of Clinical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The practice of individual assessment has been moving toward the empirically derived Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intellectual ability, which offers a hierarchical taxonomy of cognitive abilities. Current assessment tools provide varying adherence to operationalizing CHC theory, making clinical inference difficult. Expert consensus…

  9. Grounded Theory as a "Family of Methods": A Genealogical Analysis to Guide Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchuk, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…

  10. An Overview of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) Use in Classroom Research 2000 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Western educational researchers have eagerly accepted activity theory (AT) also known as cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to collect and analyze data in rich description of complex situations. As this theory is applicable to a wide variety of disciplines, this review is limited to education and specifically to qualitative studies of…

  11. Insecure attachment as a risk factor for psychopathology : The role of stressful events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, S; Gerlsma, C; Schaap, C

    2000-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts that attachment styles 'learned' in previous relational experiences affect the way people cope with stressful events and, consequently, their mental health. The present study tested two mediational models of the relationships between stressful events, attachment style and

  12. 竺可桢人口思想研究%Research for Coching Chu's Population Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇忠

    2012-01-01

    竺可桢十分重视人口问题,对人口密度、人口调查、计划生育、人口素质、人口老龄化等问题进行了可贵的思考,尤其重视人口与水土保持之间的关系,形成了比较完整的人口思想。%Coching Chu attaches great importance to population issues, valuable thinking on population density, census, the family planning, population quality, aging of the population. He attached particular importance to the relationship between population and soil and water conservation, the formation of a relatively completely theory of population.

  13. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  14. Theory of Science Perspectives on Strategic Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Arguments derived from the theory of science have been present in strategic management discourse since at least the beginning of the 1970s. The field's topjournal,the Strategic Management Journal, has printed several theory of sciencebased papers. Most positions in the theory of science...... (falsificationism, instrumentalism, realism, constructivism, etc.) have been present in the methodological discourse in the field. This chapter briefly reviews theory science applications to strategic management, before a distinctive perspective on the evolution of the strategic management field is developed....... According to this perspective, science progresses when deeper level mechanisms are identified and theorized. Theoretical reduction may therefore be an independent criterion of scientific progress. Application to the strategic management field of this perspective, which in the social sciences is closely...

  15. Translating Globalization Theories into Educational Research: Thoughts on Recent Shifts in Holocaust Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgilchrist, Felicitas; Christophe, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Much educational research on globalization aims to prepare students to be successful citizens in a global society. We propose a set of three concepts, drawing on systems theory (Nassehi, Stichweh) and theories of the subject (Butler, Foucault), to think the global which enables educational research to step back from hegemonic discourses and…

  16. Surveying the Use of Theory in Library and Information Science Research: A Disciplinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Lynne (E. F.); Pettigrew, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes results of a content analysis of 1160 library and information science (LIS) articles published between 1993 and 1998 to examine the use of theory in LIS research. Findings imply that differences exist in the use of theory in LIS that are associated with the broad disciplinary content of the research. (Author/LRW)

  17. Divisions of Labour: Activity Theory, Multi-Professional Working and Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmington, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon, but also critiques, activity theory by combining analysis of how an activity theory derived research intervention attempted to address both everyday work practices and organisational power relationships among children's services professionals. It offers two case studies of developmental work research (DWR) interventions in…

  18. Barker's Behavior Setting Theory: A Useful Conceptual Framework for Research on Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, S. J.; Scott, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Research in educational administration needs a coherent empirical base for a comprehensive, ecologically valid theory of administration. This paper describes Roger Barker's Behavior Setting Theory and promotes it as a broad-based conceptual framework for research on educational administration. (Author/TE)

  19. Research on L1 Transfer in Second Language Acquisition from the Perspective of Markedness Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲霞

    2016-01-01

    Language transfer has always been an essential part in SLA research. As one of the most important constraints, markedness theory has gained much more attention these days. Researchers have made various studies on markdness from different perspectives, among which Chomsky's theory of Universal Grammar (UG) and Eckman's Markedness Differential Hypothesis (MDH) are the most influential ones. This thesis aims to make a review of previous studies in order to improve readers' understanding of L1 transfer from the perspective of markdness theory.

  20. Adopting a Grounded Theory Approach to Cultural-Historical Research: Conflicting Methodologies or Complementary Methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Seaman PhD

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory has long been regarded as a valuable way to conduct social and educational research. However, recent constructivist and postmodern insights are challenging long-standing assumptions, most notably by suggesting that grounded theory can be flexibly integrated with existing theories. This move hinges on repositioning grounded theory from a methodology with positivist underpinnings to an approach that can be used within different theoretical frameworks. In this article the author reviews this recent transformation of grounded theory, engages in the project of repositioning it as an approach by using cultural historical activity theory as a test case, and outlines several practical methods implied by the joint use of grounded theory as an approach and activity theory as a methodology. One implication is the adoption of a dialectic, as opposed to a constructivist or objectivist, stance toward grounded theory inquiry, a stance that helps move past the problem of emergence versus forcing.

  1. Attachment to God, Images of God, and Psychological Distress in a Nationwide Sample of Presbyterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Matt; Ellison, Christopher G; Marcum, Jack P

    2010-01-01

    Drawing broadly on insights from attachment theory, the present study outlines a series of theoretical arguments linking styles of attachment to God, perceptions of the nature of God (i.e., God imagery), and stressful life events with psychological distress. Main effects and potential stress-moderator effects are then evaluated using data from a nationwide sample of elders and rank-and-file members of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). Key findings indicate that secure attachment to God is inversely associated with distress, whereas both anxious attachment to God and stressful life events are positively related to distress. Once variations in patterns of attachment to God are controlled, there are no net effects of God imagery on levels of distress. There is only modest support for the hypothesis that God images moderate the effects of stressful life events on psychological distress, but no stress-moderator effects were found for attachment to God. Study limitations are identified, and findings are discussed in terms of their implications for religion-health research, as well as recent extensions of attachment theory.

  2. How developmental psychopathology theory and research can inform the research domain criteria (RDoC) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Joseph C; Jamieson, Jeremy P; Glenn, Catherine R; Nock, Matthew K

    2015-01-01

    The recently proposed Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project has the potential to stimulate new research and overcome many of the limitations of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders taxonomy. In the present article we focus, in three main sections, on how theory and research from developmental psychopathology can inform RDoC. First, we discuss the ontology of mental illness and the potential advantages of the RDoC approach to understanding the nature of mental illness. Second, we note potential issues to consider when implementing the RDoC framework, including (a) integrating developmental processes, (b) classifying mental illness within a dimensional approach, and (c) avoiding problems associated with biological reductionism. Third, we describe how a developmental psychopathology perspective may inform each of these potential issues within RDoC. Finally, we highlight the study of emotion and the centrality of affective processes within the RDoC framework. Specifically, we describe how constructionist models of emotion are consistent with developmental psychopathology and how this perspective on emotion can help to guide RDoC research.

  3. Masculinity theory in applied research with men and boys with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan John; Shuttleworth, Russell; Stancliffe, Roger; Parmenter, Trevor

    2012-06-01

    Researchers in intellectual disability have had limited theoretical engagement with mainstream theories of masculinity. In this article, the authors consider what mainstream theories of masculinity may offer to applied research on, and hence to therapeutic interventions with, men and boys with intellectual disability. An example from one research project that explored male sexual health illustrates how using masculinity theory provided greater insight into gendered data. Finally, we discuss the following five topics to illustrate how researchers might use theories of masculinity: (a) fathering, (b) male physical expression, (c) sexual expression, (d) men's health, and (e) underweight and obesity. Theories of masculinity offer an additional framework to analyze and conceptualize gendered data; we challenge researchers to engage with this body of work.

  4. Methods in Educational Research: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodico, Marguerite G.; Spaulding Dean T.; Voegtle, Katherine H.

    2006-01-01

    Written for students, educators, and researchers, "Methods in Educational Research" offers a refreshing introduction to the principles of educational research. Designed for the real world of educational research, the book's approach focuses on the types of problems likely to be encountered in professional experiences. Reflecting the importance of…

  5. Fathers' Role as Attachment Figures: An Interview with Sir Richard Bowlby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.

    2010-01-01

    Sir Richard Bowlby, son of John Bowlby, has carried on his father's work by lecturing and writing on the topic of attachment theory. He has initiated and maintained international connections with researchers, practitioners and agencies in the field of child development, and has produced training videos to more widely disseminate information about…

  6. Enhancing Validity When Researching the "Other": Insights from Pierre Bourdieu's Theory of Social Science Research Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Devika

    2014-01-01

    This article explores aspects of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social science research practice and discusses their relevance for enhancing validity when researching the "other." Aspects such as: a relational way of thinking about concepts, epistemology and methodology; the rigorous construction of the object of research; and…

  7. Reactive Attachment Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) Children with RAD are less likely to interact with other people because of negative experiences with adults in their early years. They have difficulty calming ...

  8. Belt attachment and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  9. Community-Based Research: From Practice to Theory and Back Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, Randy

    2003-01-01

    Explores the theoretical strands being combined in community-based research--charity service learning, social justice service learning, action research, and participatory research. Shows how different models of community-based research, based in different theories of society and different approaches to community work, may combine or conflict. (EV)

  10. Attachment over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Feiring, Candice; Rosenthal, Saul

    2000-01-01

    Examined continuity in attachment classification from infancy through adolescence and related it to autobiographical memories of childhood, divorce, and maladjustment in white middle-class children. Found no continuity in attachment classification from 1 to 18 years and no relation between infant attachment status and adolescent adjustment.…

  11. Feminist theory and nursing: an empowerment model for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, B; McFarlane, J

    1991-03-01

    This article describes the use of the feminist process to empower nurses in conducting research. The criteria for feminist research, defined by Duffy, are applied to a research study that identifies the effects of physical abuse during pregnancy on maternal-infant outcomes. The authors describe the process of empowerment of the investigators through the use of a consortium model of research, the staff nurses who are conducting the interviews, and the research participants (pregnant women). The integration of feminist principles and nursing research is a process that merges similar beliefs and ideologies.

  12. Putting Theory into Theory: Thematic Value of Research in Public Administration Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Stephen; Luke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Research can be a powerful tool informing public administration teaching. This article takes the distinctive approach of exploring its use through the prism of the research itself by considering 10 publications by the article's authors. The existing literature revolves around students learning about the craft of research or research findings. By…

  13. Utilizing Critical Race Theory to Examine Race/Ethnicity, Racism, and Power in Student Development Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ebelia

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of social forces (racism, privilege, power) to the extent that is required by critical race theory (CRT) results in a paradigm shift in the way that we theorize and research student development, specifically self-authorship. This paradigm shift moves the center of analysis from individual, to the individual in relation to her…

  14. Attachment Representations and Characteristics of Friendship Relations during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that experiences with the primary caregivers are an important basis for the development of close social relationships outside the parent-child relationship. This study examined the association between representations of attachment, as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), representations of friendship and…

  15. Predictors of Child Molestation: Adult Attachment, Cognitive Distortions, and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low…

  16. Agoraphobia and anxious-ambivalent attachment: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that internal working models of attachment, that is, mental representations of attachment relationships, are shaped in childhood experiences with primary caregivers. It is hypothesized that an anxious-ambivalent internal working model of attechment is a risk factor for the

  17. Attachment Styles among Bullies, Victims and Uninvolved Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiv, Kristi

    2012-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a frame for understanding the role of attachment styles in the development of bullying behaviour in adolescence. The present study examined attachment styles (secure, avoidant and anxious/ambivalent) that differentiated bullies, victims, bully/victims and uninvolved adolescents. A total of 1,921 students (1,006 girls and…

  18. The Development and Implementation of an Affect Regulation and Attachment Intervention for Incarcerated Adolescents and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiley, Margaret K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of the research and theory about affect regulation and attachment strategies of families to develop a low-cost multiple-family group intervention for incarcerated adolescents and their parents. Reviews the research that underlies the intervention, describes the development of the videotapes used, discusses the intervention…

  19. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  20. The Theory-Practice Issue in Policy Implementation Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole Jr, Laurence J.

    2004-01-01

    Applying implementation theory to practice has been rare. Reasons include the difficulty of the theoretical challenge, the varied needs of practitioners and the complicating normative issues at stake. Nonetheless, several approaches can contribute to the efficacy of implementation action. Building o

  1. Teaching Qualitative Research: Using Theory to Inform Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers how theories of instructional scaffolding--which call for a skilled expert to teach a novice a new task by breaking it into smaller pieces--might be employed in graduate-level qualitative methods courses. The author discusses how she used instructional scaffolding in the design and delivery of a qualitative methods course…

  2. "Cruel Optimism" and Contemporary Australian Critical Theory in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2015-01-01

    "Cruel optimism" is a term coined by Lauren Berlant. In conceptualizing this term, Berlant draws on the resources of critical theory to interrogate people's desires for things they think may improve their lot, but actually act as obstacles to flourishing. This notion may be useful for analysing the current state of education in…

  3. Replicating Small Group Research Using the Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragan, John F.; Wright, David W.

    A replication study tested functional theory utilizing untrained full-fledged groups. One hundred forty undergraduate students who were enrolled in a small group communication course at a large midwestern university participated in small group discussions analyzing a plagiarism case used in an original study by R. Y. Hirokawa. Results indicated…

  4. RESEARCH ON A SYSTEMATIC METHODOLOGY FOR THEORY OF ELASTICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建辉; 刘光栋; 尚守平

    2003-01-01

    The equivalence between differential form and integral form of a systematicmethodology for theory of elasticity is proved. A uniform framework of the systematicmethodology is established. New system includes differential form, integral form and mixedform. All kinds of variational principle are proved by the equivalence between differentialform and integral form. The idea for generalized virtual work and virtual function ispresented.

  5. "Cruel Optimism" and Contemporary Australian Critical Theory in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2015-01-01

    "Cruel optimism" is a term coined by Lauren Berlant. In conceptualizing this term, Berlant draws on the resources of critical theory to interrogate people's desires for things they think may improve their lot, but actually act as obstacles to flourishing. This notion may be useful for analysing the current state of education in…

  6. Social Theory and Narrative Research: A Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Jim

    2016-01-01

    In this short essay, I explore in a narrative style the following question: do narrative analyses of sport and exercise need to engage more fully with social theory in order to become more forceful in their arguments? More specifically, to have real impact, and to achieve what we are especially trained to do as qualitative social scientists,…

  7. Aspects of Theories, Frameworks and Paradigms in Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses major theoretical debates and paradigms from the last decades in general education and their specific influences in mathematics education contexts. Behaviourism, cognitive science, constructivism, situated cognition, critical theory, place-based learning, postmodernism and poststructuralism and their significant aspects in…

  8. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  9. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth;

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...... be disrupted by PTSS. The study sample included 104 subjects who were combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War comprising of 60 male ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and 44 comparable male combat veterans. Both attachment and pain were investigated experimentally in the laboratory and via questionnaires. We...... found that ex-POWs showed higher levels of clinical pain and attachment insecurities compared to controls. Moreover, attachment avoidance and soothing effect of attachment (SEA) were both associated with lower levels of clinical pain. Most importantly, PTSS moderated the associations between attachment...

  10. Longitudinal association between adolescent attachment, adult romantic attachment, and emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzo, Katherine; Cyr, Chantal; Moss, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Attachment security towards parents and peers in adolescence, and romantic attachment styles and emotion regulation strategies in young adulthood, were evaluated using an eight-year longitudinal design. Fifty-six young adults completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) at age 14, and then, at age 22, the Experience in Close Relationships (ECR) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), an emotion regulation questionnaire concerning coping strategies, including task-oriented versus emotion-oriented foci. Results indicated that greater insecurity to parents and peers in adolescence predicted a more anxious romantic attachment style and greater use of emotion-oriented strategies in adulthood. Concurrently, anxious adult attachment style was related to more emotion-oriented strategies, whereas an avoidant attachment style was related to less support-seeking. Analyses also identified emotion-oriented coping strategies as a partial mediator of the link between adolescent attachment insecurity to parents and adult anxious attachment, and a complete mediator of the association between adolescent attachment insecurity to peers and adult anxious attachment. These findings support the core assumption of continuity in attachment theory, where relationships to parents influence close romantic relationships in adulthood.

  11. Literature Review of Enterprise Systems Research Using Institutional Theory: Towards a Conceptual Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per

    This paper sets out to examine the use of institutional theory as a conceptually rich lens to study social issues of enterprise systems (ES) research. More precisely, the purpose is to categorize current ES research using institutional theory to develop a conceptual model that advances ES research....... Key institutional features are presented such as isomorphism, rationalized myths, bridging macro and micro structures, and institutional logics and their implications for ES research are discussed. Through a literature review of 180 articles, of which 18 papers are selected, we build a conceptual...... model which advocates for multi-level and multi-theory approaches, and applies newer institutional aspects such as institutional logics. The findings show that institutional theory in ES research is in its infancy and adopts mainly traditional institutional aspects like isomorphism...

  12. Research report: a grounded theory description of pastoral counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Loren L

    2011-01-01

    Historically, clerical paradigms of ordained ministry have defined pastoral counseling. However, these fail to describe pastoral counselors in the complex social, theological and medical contexts in which they now work. This study asks the question: How do pastoral counselors in clinical practice describe what is uniquely "pastoral" about the counseling they offer clients? Grounded theory was used to propose a preliminary description and an intermediate theory of how pastoral counselors interpret "pastoral." Eighty-five pastoral counselors were selected for the study over a four year period using criteria to assure maximum variation. Interviews and pastoral identity statements were collected and coded, and theoretical models were organized using NVIVO, a computer assisted qualitative design and analysis software (CAQDAS) package. Results suggest that pastoral counselors share some common ideas regarding "pastoral identity" and clinical practice. How pastoral counselors interpret "pastoral" is highly context sensitive and varies widely.

  13. Research on meshing theory of noninvolute beveloid gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑰贤; 温建民; 李笑; 刘福利; 刘宇

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed using the space engagement theory and the differential ge-ometry for the line contact of noninvolute beveloid gears with intersecting axes with their tooth profile equationsand engagement equations established for the first time and their meshing theory analysed. It can be seen fromthe fact that the tooth profile equation finally derived is no longer a standard involute helicoid and standard invo-lute beveloid gears with intersecting axes have no way to satisfy the line contact requirement. However, the non-invdute beveloid gears derived in this paper satisfy the line contact requirement very well. All these work willinevitably facilitate further investigations into gear tooth generation, stiffness, backlash and efficiency of trans-mission.

  14. Value distribution theory and the research of Yang Lo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAYMAN; W.; K.

    2010-01-01

    Value distribution theory is concerned with the position and frequency of solutions of the equation f(z) = a. Here f may be entire, i.e. an everywhere convergent power series or meromorphic, i.e. the ratio of two such series, or a function in some other domains, such as an angle or a disk. Yang Lo’s significant contributions to this area will be highlighted. Some of his important contributions to normal families will also be described.

  15. Between Bandura and Giddens: Structuration Theory in Social Psychological Research?

    OpenAIRE

    Seth Oppong

    2014-01-01

    In any social analysis, one can attribute observed behavioural outcomes to actions and inactions of people (agents) or to the presence or absence of certain structures or systems. The dualism of agent and structure is resolved through the concept of duality as proposed by Anthony Giddens in his structuration theory (ST). Though ST has been applied in other disciplines, it is either less known or applied in psychology. This paper sought to examine ST as a framework for understanding the interd...

  16. Research on DFRP Theory and Application Based on PDM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Product data management is the foundation and platform toimplement Concurrent Engineering. To take manufacturing resource planning of enterprises into account while performing concurrent product design, the paper puts forth a new theory, namely DFRP (Design for Resource Planning), by which fulfills the data intercommunication between PDM (Product Data Management) and MRPII (Manufacturing Resource Planning), thus brings the DFRP into DFX (Design for Something) tools. Finally, the paper analyzes the present problems in the field and points out the development.

  17. Variation Theory: A Theory of Learning and a Useful Theoretical Framework for Chemical Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Thomas J.; Orgill, MaryKay; Crippen, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors are constantly baffled by the fact that two students who are sitting in the same class, who have access to the same materials, can come to understand a particular chemistry concept differently. Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore possible variations in experience and the resulting differences in…

  18. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    OpenAIRE

    Shevlin, Mark; Boyda, David; Elklit, Ask; Murphy, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Based on Bowlby’s attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity.Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew’s attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the re...

  19. Higher Degree Research Supervision: From Practice toward Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T. W.; Smyth, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our theorizing about the complex nature of higher degree research supervision. The intent is to make a contribution to the current debates about higher education generally, and supervision of higher degree research students in particular. We add to the pedagogy of supervision by extending its scope to and beyond the supervisory…

  20. Applying Equity Theory to Students' Perceptions of Research Participation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Shannon R.; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    Human subject pools have been a valuable resource to universities conducting research with student participants. However, the costs and benefits to student participants must be carefully weighed by students, researchers, and institutional review board administrators in order to avoid coercion. Participant perceptions are pivotal in deciding…

  1. Disciplinarity and Methodology in Intersectionality Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Intersectionality and research in psychology," by E. R. Cole. Cole's article, says the current author, makes a welcome and valuable contribution to the field of psychology. Particularly useful are the three questions that she posed, highlighting how these questions are relevant and pressing for all researchers,…

  2. The Economic Behavior of Academic Research Libraries: Toward a Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the economic behavior of academic research libraries, arguing that academic research libraries seek to maximize universities' utility by expanding library collections. Findings are consistent with those from a previous study using a different ranking system and sample data and reconfirm that library collections contribute significantly to…

  3. Research on Evolutionary Mechanism of Agile Supply Chain Network via Complex Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Ru Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper establishes the evolutionary mechanism model of agile supply chain network by means of complex network theory which can be used to describe the growth process of the agile supply chain network and analyze the complexity of the agile supply chain network. After introducing the process and the suitability of taking complex network theory into supply chain network research, the paper applies complex network theory into the agile supply chain network research, analyzes the complexity of agile supply chain network, presents the evolutionary mechanism of agile supply chain network based on complex network theory, and uses Matlab to simulate degree distribution, average path length, clustering coefficient, and node betweenness. Simulation results show that the evolution result displays the scale-free property. It lays the foundations of further research on agile supply chain network based on complex network theory.

  4. Research on adsorption mechanism of wall climbing robots based on internally balanced theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ji-zhuang; ZHU Yan-he; ZHAO Jie; CAI He-gao

    2007-01-01

    The internally balanced theory proposed by the Japanese researchers, solved the contradiction between adsorption ability and moving capability of the permanent magnetic adsorption mechanism. However, it still has some problems when applied to wall climbing robots. This paper analyzes and improves this theory, and the improved internally balanced theory satisfies the requirements of the adsorption mechanism significantly. Finally, a practical prototype is proposed based on this method, and both the analysis using ANSYS and the experiment results justify the design validity.

  5. Mentalization and attachment representations: a theoretical contribution to the understanding of reactive attachment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, Natalie; Terradas, Miguel M

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an understanding of children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) through psychoanalytic thought and mentalization theory. RAD is presented followed by a discussion on attachment and the need for a better understanding of this disorder. Theories from British psychoanalytic thinkers are used to describe what might be transpiring in the early relationship between mother and child. Particular attention is given to how children's internal objects are influenced by a compromised early mother-child relationship.

  6. Audience studies 2.0: on the theory, politics and method of qualitative audience research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, J.

    2009-01-01

    Audience research, this paper suggests, is an excellent field to test the claims of Media Studies 2.0. Moreover, 2.0 claims are a good means to review qualitative audience research itself too. Working from a broad strokes analysis of the theory, politics and method of interpretative research with au

  7. Examining the Use of Theory within Educational Technology and Media Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfin, Scott; Henderson, Michael; Johnson, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Academic research in the areas of educational technology and media is often portrayed to be limited in terms of its use of theory. This short paper reports on data collected from a survey of 462 "research active" academic researchers working in the broad area of educational technology and educational media. The paper explores their use…

  8. Investigator Bias and Theory-Ladenness in Cross-Cultural Research: Insights from Wittgenstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    A relatively under-explored topic in the current literature on and methods for research in the field of comparative and international education is the problem of investigator bias in cross-cultural research. This article discusses the nature of and an approach to address investigator bias in research that originates from the theory-ladenness of…

  9. Security of attachment and preschool friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K A; Waters, E

    1989-10-01

    Attachment theory proposes that the quality of the mother-child tie predicts the quality of a child's other close relationships. The purpose of this study was to test whether security of attachment to mother is related to the quality of a preschooler's best friendships. 33 4-year-old and their best friends participated (mean age = 46 months). Attachment Q-set data were collected to score security of mother-child attachment. Security data were used to classify the friend pairs as secure-secure or secure-insecure. Best friend dyads were observed for a 1-hour free-play session. Each pair's behavior was described with the Dyadic Relationships Q-set, a measure designed to describe the behavior of a pair of children. Secure-secure pairs were more harmonious, less controlling, more responsive, and happier than secure-insecure pairs. The results are related to previous work on attachment and social competence.

  10. 组织依恋初探%The First Exploration of Organizational Attachment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀君

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the attachment theory, and combined with the tissue of the employee relations, this essay defines the defi-nition of organizational attachment. Then the article analyses the internal working models of organizational attachment, and introduces the characteristics of different types of organizational attachment. Finally, the author looks into the future research trend of organizational at-tachment.%基于依恋理论,结合组织中的员工关系,可以对组织依恋的概念进行界定,分析组织依恋的内部工作模式,剖析不同类型的组织依恋特征,展望组织依恋未来的研究趋势。

  11. Linking the Intercultural and Grounded Theory: Methodological Issues in Migration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Sheridan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Connecting intercultural research with Grounded Theory was advocated in the early history of intercultural theorising and includes the development of researchers' intercultural competencies. Such competency comes to the fore where intercultural theory places an equal emphasis on home and host cultures in migration research. In this context we have found a Grounded Theory approach particularly suitable for disentangling complex interlinkings within migration experiences and their individual outcomes. Grounded Theory allows for the exploration of various theories in different fields and the emergence of new or deeper interpretations of intercultural experiences, including where research has not engaged deeply with or avoided intercultural contexts. The use of software, based on Grounded Theory, provides the resource for systematically exploring the inter-related nature of data. In addition, engaging in intercultural research, in particular, raises questions around our practice as social science researchers: adherence to ethics guidelines, for instance, can be in some conflict with the relations we build with members of communities whose cultural values, for instance around friendship or trust, impact on the norms of both our own and institutional expectations. This leads to reflection on the relationship with research participants in terms of our own intercultural experiences and position. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901363

  12. The Role of Client Expectancies in Counseling: The Research and Theory of Bandura and Tinsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Sarah H.

    Increasing evidence supports the idea that client expectancies have a large impact on counseling relationships, processes, and outcomes. Research and theories regarding expectancies are examined in this paper. Albert Bandura's theory of self-efficacy is discussed first to provide a background for understanding the significance of efficacy…

  13. Vergnaud’s conceptual field theory, science education, and research in this area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vergnaud’s conceptual fields theory is described as a possible framework for science education and for research in this area. In addition to the description of the theory, some links are established with other frameworks such as meaningful learning, problem solving, and mental representations.

  14. The Contribution of Secular Social Theory to Research in Christian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that educators should be aware of the way that Christian beliefs interact with the structure and practices of secular education policies and that established secular social theory can help them to do this. Drawing on an example from empirical research, the author models how concepts associated with Bourdieu's social theory can…

  15. Multiple Intelligences Theory, Action Research, and Teacher Professional Development: The Irish MI Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafin, Joan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an action research project that investigated the application of Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory in classrooms and schools. It shows how MI theory was used in the project as a basis for suggestions to generate classroom practices; how participating teachers evaluated the project; and how teachers responded to…

  16. Theories and Research in Educational Technology and Distance Learning Instruction through Blackboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, John Ronghua; Stanley, Nile

    2014-01-01

    Educational technology is a fast-growing and increasingly developed subject in education during the past 50 years. The focus of the development of its theories and research is oriented into the methods and effectiveness of its implementation. This presentation is reviewing various educational technology related theories, exploring and discussing…

  17. Generalizability Theory as a Unifying Framework of Measurement Reliability in Adolescent Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xitao; Sun, Shaojing

    2014-01-01

    In adolescence research, the treatment of measurement reliability is often fragmented, and it is not always clear how different reliability coefficients are related. We show that generalizability theory (G-theory) is a comprehensive framework of measurement reliability, encompassing all other reliability methods (e.g., Pearson "r,"…

  18. Research on implicit and explicit attachment of college students%大学生依恋的内隐和外显研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧运洪; 刘志方; 赵守盈; 潘运; 尚随峰; 谢其利

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the reaction time experiments and parents peer attachment scale are used to to measure implicit and explicit attachment of college students separately. The purpose is to reveal if the implicit and explicit structure is separated. Results: in the trust and communication factors of im- plicit attachment , the reaction time of friends is less than that of mother and father; in the alienation factor of implicit attachment, the reaction time of the mother is less than that of father and friends. In the implicit attachment experiment, father trust and communication factors show significant gender differences. In the explicit attachment scale , the father alienation, trust and communicate with friends show significant gender differences. These results demonstrate the implicit and explicit attachment structure is separated . In the implicit attachment , father trusted, the mother alienation, peer trust, peer communication and peer alienation are not in the explicit attachment scale. In the implicit significantly associated with those corresponding factors attachment , father communication, father alienation,mother trust and mother communication are significant negative correlation with those corresponding factors in the explicit attachment scale.%以反应时实验和父母同伴依恋量表的方式,分别测量大学生的内隐和外显依恋现状。目的:揭示大学生的内隐和外显依恋结构是否分离。结果:在内隐依恋的信任和沟通因子上,对同伴的反应时小于对母亲和父亲的反应时;在内隐依恋的疏离因子上,对母亲的反应时小于对同伴和父亲的反应时。依恋内隐实验中的父亲信任和沟通因子呈现了显著的性别差异。在外显依恋量表中,父亲疏离、同伴信任和同伴沟通呈现了显著的性别差异。这些结果体现了依恋内隐和外显结构的分离。依恋内隐中的父亲信任、母亲疏离、同伴信任、同伴沟通和同伴

  19. [The social representations theory in Brazilian nursing research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sílvio Éder Dias da; Camargo, Brigido Vizeu; Padilha, Maria Itayra

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine methodological issues in the theses and dissertations that used social representations theory (SRT) in Brazilian nursing. Twenty-two dissertations and 44 theses were considered. Categorical content analysis was applied, based on five aspects: objects studied, place of SRT, the number of study participants, data collection techniques and data analysis. The predominance of case studies and use, especially of semi-structured interviews, although relevant to the study of SR, do not sufficiently consider the extent of suck knowledge sharing in society. One must take into account lay knowledge to understand health care contextualized studies on health care.

  20. Research on theory of gearing for epicycloidal bevel gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Min; ZHU Hai-lin; ZHANG You-liang

    2005-01-01

    The engaged feature of a pair of gears was determined by the geometrical characteristics of their tooth surfaces. Through an analysis of gearing theory on epicycloidal bevel gears, the method to examine if there exists undercut during manufacturing of epicycloidal bevel gears, the approximate formulae to calculate the gap between the convex and concave tooth surfaces in meshing so as to guarantee against the occurrence of point-contact for tooth surfaces even in maximum angle of inclination are derived in this paper. Those formula derived are simple, compact and have practical value to the design and production of epicycloidal bevel gears.

  1. 贵州大学生依恋的眼动研究%Attachment Eye Movement Research of Guizhou College Student

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧运洪; 赵守盈; 赵斌; 韦磐石

    2011-01-01

    [Aim]In this paper, the various indicators of eye movement experiment are used to explore the status quo about college students' attachment .[Method] The sentences of confidence,communication and alienation in parent Peer attachment Chinese scale are showed in Eyelink- Ⅱ one by one. [Results]l.There are father, mother and peer attachment in everyday life, all three attachment play an important role and there is no partiality phenomenon.2.In attachment degree, college students have deeper parents attachment than peer attachment. In the extent of communication with father, college boys are lower than girls.3.Overall, in the degree of attachment, college boys are lower than girls.%[目的]以眼动实验的多个指标来探索大学生依恋的现状。[方法】将父母同伴依恋中文量表中表示信任、沟通和疏离的句子在Eyelink-Ⅱ型眼动仪中逐句呈现。[结果】1大学生对父亲、母亲和同伴的依恋在日常生活中均存在,三种依恋都起着重要的作用。2大学生对父母依恋程度深于对同伴依恋的程度。在与父亲沟通的程度上,大学男生低于大学女生。3总体上,在依恋的程度方面,大学男生低于大学女生。

  2. Basic Research in the Mathematical Foundations of Stability Theory, Control Theory and Numerical Linear Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    without determinantal divisors, Linear and Multilinear Algebra 7(1979), 107-109. 4. The use of integral operators in number theory (with C. Ryavec and...Gersgorin revisited, to appear in Letters in Linear Algebra. 15. A surprising determinantal inequality for real matrices (with C.R. Johnson), to appear in...Analysis: An Essay Concerning the Limitations of Some Mathematical Methods in the Social , Political and Biological Sciences, David Berlinski, MIT Press

  3. Toward Theory-Based Research in Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Adam F.; Iyengar, Shanto

    1996-01-01

    Praises the theoretical and methodological potential of the field of political communication. Calls for greater interaction and cross fertilization among the fields of political science, sociology, economics, and psychology. Briefly discusses relevant research methodologies. (MJP)

  4. The contribution of organization theory to nursing health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Stephen S; Mark, Barbara A

    2005-01-01

    We review nursing and health services research on health care organizations over the period 1950 through 2004 to reveal the contribution of nursing to this field. Notwithstanding this rich tradition and the unique perspective of nursing researchers grounded in patient care production processes, the following gaps in nursing research remain: (1) the lack of theoretical frameworks about organizational factors relating to internal work processes; (2) the need for sophisticated methodologies to guide empirical investigations; (3) the difficulty in understanding how organizations adapt models for patient care delivery in response to market forces; (4) the paucity of attention to the impact of new technologies on the organization of patient care work processes. Given nurses' deep understanding of the inner workings of health care facilities, we hope to see an increasing number of research programs that tackle these deficiencies.

  5. Broadening the role of theory in mathematics education research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Stentoft, Diana; Valero, Paola

    2010-01-01

    In C. Bergsten, E. Jablonka and T. Wedege (Eds), Mathematics and mathematics education: Cultural and social dimensions. Proceedings of MADIF7, The Seventh Mathematics Education Research Seminar, Stockholm, January 26-27, 2010. Linköping: SMDF.......In C. Bergsten, E. Jablonka and T. Wedege (Eds), Mathematics and mathematics education: Cultural and social dimensions. Proceedings of MADIF7, The Seventh Mathematics Education Research Seminar, Stockholm, January 26-27, 2010. Linköping: SMDF....

  6. Using a theory-driven conceptual framework in qualitative health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Anne; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary

    2012-05-01

    The role and merits of highly inductive research designs in qualitative health research are well established, and there has been a powerful proliferation of grounded theory method in the field. However, tight qualitative research designs informed by social theory can be useful to sensitize researchers to concepts and processes that they might not necessarily identify through inductive processes. In this article, we provide a reflexive account of our experience of using a theory-driven conceptual framework, the Normalization Process Model, in a qualitative evaluation of general practitioners' uptake of a free, pilot, language interpreting service in the Republic of Ireland. We reflect on our decisions about whether or not to use the Model, and describe our actual use of it to inform research questions, sampling, coding, and data analysis. We conclude with reflections on the added value that the Model and tight design brought to our research.

  7. Qualitative research in healthcare: an introduction to grounded theory using thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A L; Hadfield, M; Chapman, C J

    2015-01-01

    In today's NHS, qualitative research is increasingly important as a method of assessing and improving quality of care. Grounded theory has developed as an analytical approach to qualitative data over the last 40 years. It is primarily an inductive process whereby theoretical insights are generated from data, in contrast to deductive research where theoretical hypotheses are tested via data collection. Grounded theory has been one of the main contributors to the acceptance of qualitative methods in a wide range of applied social sciences. The influence of grounded theory as an approach is, in part, based on its provision of an explicit framework for analysis and theory generation. Furthermore the stress upon grounding research in the reality of participants has also given it credence in healthcare research. As with all analytical approaches, grounded theory has drawbacks and limitations. It is important to have an understanding of these in order to assess the applicability of this approach to healthcare research. In this review we outline the principles of grounded theory, and focus on thematic analysis as the analytical approach used most frequently in grounded theory studies, with the aim of providing clinicians with the skills to critically review studies using this methodology.

  8. Blade attachment assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  9. College men's intimate partner violence attitudes: contributions of adult attachment and gender role stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Ryon C; Lopez, Frederick G

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence in relationships are key risk factors for IPV perpetration; however, comparatively few studies have examined the social and relational variables related to IPV acceptance attitudes. In the present study, we proposed and tested a structural model examining the combined contributions of adult attachment dimensions (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and masculine gender role stress in the prediction of IPV acceptance attitudes in a large sample of college men (N = 419). We hypothesized that the relationship between attachment insecurity and IPV acceptance attitudes would be partially mediated by men's gender role stress. A partially mediated model produced the best indices of model fit, accounting for 31% of the variance in an IPV acceptance attitudes latent variable. A bootstrapping procedure confirmed the significance of mediation effects. These results suggest that aspects of adult attachment insecurity are associated with tendencies to experience stress from violations of rigidly internalized traditional male role norms, which, in turn, are associated with acceptance of IPV. Findings are further discussed in relation to adult attachment theory (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007), gender role strain theory (Pleck, 1995), and their implications for IPV prevention in college student populations.

  10. Where next with theory and research on how the school environment influences young people's substance use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; Jamal, Farah; Aveyard, Paul; Markham, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Substance use (smoking, drinking and illicit drug use) remains, a serious problem for young people living in industrialised countries. There is increasing interest in interventions to modify the school, environment, addressing the multiple upstream determinants of young, people's health. This article provides an overview of current theory, about how secondary school environments influence young people's, substance use before focusing on the Theory of Human Functioning and, School Organisation. It critically examines the extent to which this, theory is substantiated by quantitative and qualitative evidence and, considers how the theory might be elaborated to better inform future, empirical research.

  11. Electron Theory Research in Mg-Y Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭旭涛; 何良菊; 李培杰; 曾大本

    2004-01-01

    Adding yttrium to magnesium can improve the mechanical properties,especially the mechanical behavior at high temperature.The valence electron structures of Mg-Y alloy were analyzed with the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules(EET).Calculation shows that yttrium is on the fifth hybrid level and magnesium is on the third one in pure metal crystals.By comparing with aluminum in Mg-Al alloy,it is shown that the reason why the solution strengthening effect of yttrium is better than that of aluminum in Mg-Al alloy is the enhanced bond energy according to EET.And it is concluded from EET analysis that intermetallics Mg24Y5 can significantly improve the properties of magnesium alloys because yttrium atoms occupy the centers of the octahedron and Mg-Y bonds efficiently strengthen the alloy matrix.

  12. The new basic theory on Quaternary environmental research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of extensive survey to the Quatemary paleosols, soils and weathering layers in the vast northern China and the Loess Plateau, we found some unusually special phenomena of chemical components such as unsuccessive illuvium, twin illuviums, unusually thick illuvium and multi-illuviums etc. According to the analysis on the content of CaCO3 and the data of penetrating experiment, a new theory of illuvial depth or removal depth of CaCO3 in weathering and leaching belt was constructed, which indicates that the time of CaCO3 removing to the illuvial depth is very short,and the effect of time factor on illuvial depth can be ignored. The theory can be taken as a credible foundation for studying many geological and geographical problems in weathering and leaching belt.When the illuvial depth of CaCO3 iS bigger than the thickness of developing belt of soil or paleosol, it can be determined that the paleosol has turned into weathering crust. When the illuvial depth of CaCO3 is bigger than the thickness of paleosol, paleosol is leaching moderately acid soil. When two, three layers or unusually thick CaCO3 illuviums exist in the same weathering section or at the bottom of the same paleosol, there were two or more periods forming paleosol and corresponding climatic stages at that time. On the basis of the equation of relationship between mean annual rainfall (y) and illuvial depth of CaCO3 (x) (y = 305.5x + 168.5) determined in the paper, mean annual precipitation during the development of paleosol can be calculated.

  13. Self-determination theory: a framework for clubhouse psychosocial rehabilitation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeburn, Toby; Schmied, Virginia; Hungerford, Catherine; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    The Clubhouse model is a widely used approach to psychosocial rehabilitation that has been a pioneer in supporting recovery-oriented programmes. Little consideration has been given however, to the theories that guide research of the recovery practices used by Clubhouses. In this paper, we provide a description of self-determination theory, including its philosophical background followed by explanation of its relevance to health care and Clubhouse contexts. We argue that self-determination theory provides a robust social constructionist theoretical framework that is well-suited to informing research related to psychosocial rehabilitation, recovery-oriented practices and the Clubhouse model.

  14. Conceptualizing Essay Tests' Reliability and Validity: From Research to Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjadi, Nour El Imane

    2013-01-01

    The current paper on writing assessment surveys the literature on the reliability and validity of essay tests. The paper aims to examine the two concepts in relationship with essay testing as well as to provide a snapshot of the current understandings of the reliability and validity of essay tests as drawn in recent research studies. Bearing in…

  15. Women and Communicative Power: Theory, Research, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Carol Ann; Hoar, Nancy, Ed.

    A collection of essays that explores the links among women and communicative power from a variety of perspectives, this monograph focuses on issue analysis and suggestions for future research. The articles and their authors are as follows (1) "Women and Communicative Power: Introduction" (Carol Ann Valentine); (2) "Genderlect, Powerlect, and…

  16. 100 Years of Curriculum History, Theory, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews a collection of papers written by the American Educational Research Association's first 50 presidents that deal specifically with curricular issues. It characterizes the ways in which curricula were conceptualized, implemented, and assessed, with an eye toward the epistemological and methodological framings that the authors…

  17. Activity Theory and Qualitative Research in Digital Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between people, computer-mediated communication, and online life requires that researchers appropriate a set of methodological tools that would be best suited for capturing and analyzing the phenomenon. However, these tools are not limited to relevant technological forms of data collections and analysis programs; it…

  18. Adolescent Spirituality and Resilience: Theory, Research, and Educational Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangwon; Esquivel, Giselle B.

    2011-01-01

    Spirituality is a universal phenomenon and an inherent aspect of human nature that unfolds during adolescence as the individual searches for transcendence, meaning, and purpose in life. Recently, spirituality has received attention as a source of resilience for adolescents. Theoretical perspectives and empirical research suggest that spirituality…

  19. The Integration of Research in Judgment and Decision Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Bohr, Born, and Schrodinger believed otherwise; their need for the customary intuition linked with visualization was strong. Heisenberg’s reply was...and task characteristics). Analytical models not available for employment by researchers or sublect. In many circumstances analytical modelo cannot

  20. Indigenous Youth and Bilingualism--Theory, Research, Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Wyman, Leisy T.

    2009-01-01

    In this introduction, we situate the theme issue within a growing body of research on Indigenous youth language practices, communicative repertoires, and ideologies, articulating points of intersection in scholarship on Indigenous and immigrant youth bilingualism. Our geographic focus is North America. Ethnographic studies from the Far North to…

  1. Applying Organizational Commitment and Human Capital Theories to Emigration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…

  2. Researching Flood Risk Governance in Europe: background theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larrue, C.; Hegger, D.L.T.; Tremorin, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    This report, together with the report "Researching Flood Risk Governance in Europe: a framework and methodology for assessing Flood Risk Governance" forms the main deliverable for the Second Work Package of the EU 7th Framework Project STAR-FLOOD. Whereas the framework and methodology report mainly

  3. Perception of attachment security in families with children affected by neurological illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langher Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes inter-family relationships of families with children with neurological problems using Bowlby’s attachment theory as model of reference. The research was conducted in two hospitals in Serbia specialized in neurological diseases: cerebral palsy and epilepsy. It is hypothesized that neurological problems could be associated to a discrepancy of inter-family attachment perceptions. Two groups were selected, a clinical one composed of 25 nuclear families: mother, father and child with a certified diagnosis of either cerebral palsy or epilepsy; and a control group of 25 nuclear families: mother, father and child with no pathology. Kerns, Klepac and Cole’s Security Scale (1996 was used for the investigation, with the addition of two modified version for administration to the parents. Data analysis demonstrated that the clinical group is substantively higher (p=.076 with respect to the discrepancy of attachment perceived by the children and the attribution of meaning that parents give to their child’s attachment perception towards them. Further analyses carried out on parent-child relationships demonstrated a significant difference (p =.017 between the clinical and control groups, with respect to the perception of father-child attachment. We conclude that in the clinical group, there is a discrepancy of attachment perceptions that particularly affects the father-child relationship. It appears that hospitalization and the consequent separation of the nuclear families may influence the formation of secure attachment relationships, in particular between father and child.

  4. Ostracism in pediatric populations: review of theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Conway F; Williams, Kipling D; Nida, Steve A; McKenna, Margaret E; Twomey, Kaitlin E; Macias, Michelle M

    2013-05-01

    Ostracism, ignoring and excluding a target individual, has recently emerged as one of the more common and damaging forms of social exchange. This article reviews the theoretical and empirical foundations of ostracism and its impact on the targeted individual, especially threats to the fundamental psychological needs of belonging, self-esteem, meaningful existence, and sense of control. Ostracism in children and adolescents is under-researched compared to bullying in general, in both the general youth population and in populations of children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN). Basic and applied studies on ostracism and its impact are reviewed with special emphasis on recent findings about ostracism in CYSHCN. Evidence is presented that ostracism may pose an even greater threat to children's adjustment and need-threat levels than bullying. Resources for clinician and researcher engagement in this emerging area are provided.

  5. Information Processing Theory of Human Performance and Related Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    stimulus sampling models such as that of Estes (1972) or Bjork and Murray (1977)). Perceptual concepts. Perceptual concepts such as the Gestalt concept of...the stimulus. It may that this is appropriate although at least some Gestalt concepts have been assumed to result from inferential processes by their...learning and motivation research and therapy (Vol 2). New York: Academic Press, 1968. Atkinson, R. C. & Shiffrin, R. M. The control of short-term memory

  6. Examining Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy as a Treatment for Adopted and Foster Children: A Review of Research and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Dyadic developmental psychotherapy (DDP) is a mental health intervention intended primarily for children with problematic attachment histories. It has received increased attention in the United Kingdom and the United States in the last few years. DDP has been publicized as a research-supported treatment, but a review of research shows that it does…

  7. Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Written by a British parent, this case study tells the story of an adopted child who experienced many difficulties adjusting to life at home and school. It describes attachment disorder, possible causes of attachment difficulties, the bonding cycle, therapeutic parenting, and how schools can support the re-nurturing process. (Contains references.)…

  8. Adolescent attachment and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, D S; Horowitz, H A

    1996-04-01

    The relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. The concordance of attachment classification was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Adolescents showing a dismissing attachment organization were more likely to have a conduct or substance abuse disorder, narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported narcissistic, antisocial, and paranoid personality traits. Adolescents showing a preoccupied attachment organization were more likely to have an affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive, histrionic, borderline or schizotypal personality disorder, and self-reported avoidant, anxious, and dysthymic personality traits. The results support a model of development of psychopathology based partially on relational experiences with parents.

  9. Twenty-Five Years of Groupthink Theory and Research: Lessons from the Evaluation of a Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner; Pratkanis

    1998-02-01

    In this paper, we examine the historical development of the groupthink model and discuss recent responses to the body of empirical evidence amassed on the model. We conclude by articulating general lessons implied by the evolution of research on the groupthink model. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  10. From Game to Gamification: Preliminary Research of Gamification Marketing Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-Yun Wu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a new understanding of the theoretical foundations of gamification and the related phenomena in the field of marketing communication. We started from redefining the concept of marketing gamification, and tried to point out the mechanisms of the phenomena by proposing theoretical basis from brand and consumer perspective separately. Finally, we tried to clarify some similar concepts, and put forward a marketing gamification model and a gamification concept map as the preliminary theoretical framework for further research in the future.

  11. Clinical teaching and learning: from theory and research to application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Jennifer J; Lake, Fiona R; McColl, Geoffrey J; Bilszta, Justin L C; Woodward-Kron, Robyn

    2012-05-07

    Learning in the clinical setting is the cornerstone of medical school education, but there are strong imperatives to optimise the ways in which students acquire clinical expertise. Deliberate practice is characterised by attention, concentration, effort and repetition of skills; it is an important tool for developing and maintaining professional expertise. Research has led to a greater understanding of how medical students develop core clinical skills, especially in the areas of diagnostic reasoning, communication and physical examination. Advances in information technology and instructional design are helping to strengthen the links between formal educational activities and opportunistic learning in the clinical setting.

  12. Research in mathematical theory of computation. [computer programming applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, J.

    1973-01-01

    Research progress in the following areas is reviewed: (1) new version of computer program LCF (logic for computable functions) including a facility to search for proofs automatically; (2) the description of the language PASCAL in terms of both LCF and in first order logic; (3) discussion of LISP semantics in LCF and attempt to prove the correctness of the London compilers in a formal way; (4) design of both special purpose and domain independent proving procedures specifically program correctness in mind; (5) design of languages for describing such proof procedures; and (6) the embedding of ideas in the first order checker.

  13. The Conflicts between Grounded Theory Requirements and Institutional Requirements for Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckerhoff, Jason; Guillemette, Francois

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the conflicts between grounded theory (GT) requirements and institutional requirements for scientific research such as they were experienced by researchers and students. The overview of how GT was originally conceived served as background to the analysis of the problems GT users often faced when they submitted research…

  14. Research in the Work of New Zealand Teacher Educators: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, David A. G.; Gunn, Alexandra C.; Hill, Mary F.; Haigh, Mavis

    2016-01-01

    In this article we use cultural-historical activity theory to explore the place of research in the work of New Zealand university-based teacher educators (TEs). We consider how aspirations for a research-informed initial teacher education are served by New Zealand universities' recruitment practices and TEs' actual work. We suggest that TEs value…

  15. Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research. Volumes III [and] IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, John C., Ed.

    Two volumes of a handbook on theory and research in higher education are presented. The 11 papers included in Volume III are as follows: "Qualitative Research Methods in Higher Education" (R. Crowson); "Bricks and Mortar: Architecture and the Study of Higher Education" (J. Thelin and J. Yankovich); "Enrollment Demand Models and Their Policy Uses…

  16. Towards a Research Framework for Race in Education: Critical Race Theory and Judith Butler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    There has been much debate around the extent to which post-structuralist theory can be applied to critical research. In this article, it is argued that aspects of the two approaches can be combined, resulting in productive tensions that point towards a possible new framework for researching race and racism in education in the UK. The article…

  17. Current Cognitive Distortion Theory and Research: An Internalist Approach to Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    This review examines contemporary cognitive distortion theory and research relating to sexual offenders. In particular, this review highlights that researchers--to date--have tended to adopt an internalist approach to sexual offenders' cognition which views offence-supportive cognitive activity as occurring solely within the mind. This review…

  18. Critical Race Theories, Colorism, and the Decade's Research on Families of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Linda M.; Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo; Ray, Victor; Buckelew, Rose; Freeman, Elizabeth Hordge

    2010-01-01

    In the millennium's inaugural decade, 2 interrelated trends influenced research on America's families of color: the need for new knowledge about America's growing ethnic/racial minority and immigrant populations and conceptual advances in critical race theories and perspectives on colorism. Three substantive areas reflecting researchers' interests…

  19. Resisting Dominant Discourses: Implications of Indigenous, African Feminist Theory and Methods for Gender and Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilisa, Bagele; Ntseane, Gabo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore tensions between Western gender theory and research, and post-colonial and indigenous feminist standpoints, which challenge us to re-define our roles as feminist-activist educators and researchers working with formerly colonised and historically marginalised communities. We discuss how African and Black feminist approaches…

  20. It's Theories All the Way Down: A Response to Scientific Research in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the six principles that the National Research Council's report Scientific Research in Education claims define an enterprise as scientific. I argue that these principles are relatively vacuous generalities because one cannot determine anything about any of them from outside specific theories of specific domains (and domains…

  1. Analytical Implications of Using Practice Theory in Workplace Information Literacy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, Camilla; Lloyd, Annemaree

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper considers practice theory and the analytical implications of using this theoretical approach in information literacy research. More precisely the aim of the paper is to discuss the translation of practice theoretical assumptions into strategies that frame the analytical focus and interest when researching workplace…

  2. Connecting Neuroscience, Cognitive, and Educational Theories and Research to Practice: A Review of Mathematics Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Lori A.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas; O'Brien, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This article describes major theories and research on math cognition across the fields of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and education and connects these literatures to intervention practices. Commercially available math intervention programs were identified and evaluated using the following questions: (a) Did neuroscience…

  3. Women's Employment and Children: Researcher Bias and Use of Theory during the Past Two Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVinney, Sharon; Merritt, Rebecca Davis

    A review of literature examining how children are affected by women's employment was conducted. The review focused on the changes during the past two decades in the general approach of the researchers, with a specific focus on researcher bias and use of theory. First, literature reviews from the past three decades were conducted. Second, the work…

  4. Theory Application in Higher Education Research: The Case of Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    This article examines communities of practice as an example of a theory applied within higher education research. It traces its origins and meaning, reviews its application by higher education researchers and discusses the issues it raises and the critiques it has attracted. This article concludes that while, like all theoretical frameworks,…

  5. e-Research and Learning Theory: What Do Sequence and Process Mining Methods Contribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Peter; Markauskaite, Lina; Bannert, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental question of how data-intensive e-research methods could contribute to the development of learning theories. Using methodological developments in research on self-regulated learning as an example, it argues that current applications of data-driven analytical techniques, such as educational data mining and its…

  6. Argumentation, Dialogue Theory, and Probability Modeling: Alternative Frameworks for Argumentation Research in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Toulmin's model of argumentation, developed in 1958, has guided much argumentation research in education. However, argumentation theory in philosophy and cognitive science has advanced considerably since 1958. There are currently several alternative frameworks of argumentation that can be useful for both research and practice in education. These…

  7. Japanese Communication Research: The Emphasis on Macro Theories of Media in an "Information-Based" Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Most mass media research in Japan focuses on the influence of mass communication on society as a whole; these "macro" theories typically employ traditional social science techniques. Reasons for this situation are examined, as well as how media researchers outside of Japan might learn from the Japanese perspectives about the role and function of…

  8. Becoming Critical Again: Reconnecting Critical Social Theory with the Practice of Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a reflexive account of the use of critical social theory within my practice as an action researcher. It is set within the ongoing debates between pragmatist and critical tendencies within action research. The paper discusses how a selective deployment of key constructs from the work of Jurgen Habermas has supported my work as a…

  9. Students' Development in Theory and Practice: The Doubtful Role of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kieran

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Kieran Egan contests the scientific foundations of Piaget's developmental theories and the scientific basis of much educational research. In so doing, he pushes researchers and practitioners alike to rethink the centrality of Piaget's tenets to teaching and learning. Egan traces the history of the developmental literature that…

  10. Factors that Motivate Business Faculty to Conduct Research: An Expectancy Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yining; Gupta, Ashok; Hoshower, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors used expectancy theory to examine key factors that motivate business faculty to conduct research. The survey results, from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, showed that faculty members who assign higher importance ratings to both the extrinsic and the intrinsic rewards of research exhibit higher research…

  11. Reactions to Reading 'Remaining Consistent with Method? An Analysis of Grounded Theory Research in Accounting': A Comment on Gurd

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is a comment on Gurd's paper published in QRAM 5(2) on the use of grounded theory in interpretive accounting research. Methodology: Like Gurd, we conducted a bibliographic study on prior pieces of research claiming the use of grounded theory. Findings: We found a large diversity of ways of doing grounded theory. There are as many ways as articles. Consistent with the spirit of grounded theory, the field suggested the research questions, methods and verifiability criteria. ...

  12. Correspondence Analysis-Theory and Application in Management Accounting Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duller, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Correspondence analysis is an explanatory data analytic technique and is used to identify systematic relations between categorical variables. It is related to principal component analysis and the results provide information on the structure of categorical variables similar to the results given by a principal component analysis in case of metric variables. Classical correspondence analysis is designed two-dimensional, whereas multiple correspondence analysis is an extension to more than two variables. After an introductory overview of the idea and the implementation in standard software packages (PASW, SAS, R) an example in recent research is presented, which deals with strategic management accounting in family and non-family enterprises in Austria, where 70% to 80% of all enterprises can be classified as family firms. Although there is a growing body of literature focusing on various management issues in family firms, so far the state of the art of strategic management accounting in family firms is an empirically under-researched subject. In relevant literature only the (empirically untested) hypothesis can be found, that family firms tend to have less formalized management accounting systems than non-family enterprises. Creating a correspondence analysis will help to identify the underlying structure, which is responsible for differences in strategic management accounting.

  13. Research on the Formation Modes of Emerging Technologies Based on the Species Origin Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yan; YIN Lu

    2006-01-01

    Based on the research on emerging technologies and "the technology species", this thesis tries to find out the homologous relations between emerging technology and new species. The theory of the new biology species in synthetic evolution and the modern genetics is referred in the research. The modes of forming emerging technologies are discussed through some examples of IT evolvement according to modes of the biology speciation. Finally, it is pointed out that the biology species origin theory can analogize continuously the research about the evolvement mode of every emerging technology, and the implications have been bought to enterprises based on the formation conditions of each mode.

  14. Original article Attachment styles and anxiety of rejecters in intimate relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Mandal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background In this paper, the problem of the lack of stability of intimate female-male relationships, the intensity of which is currently increasing, is presented. Attention is focused on early-childhood attachment styles and anxiety in rejecters in intimate relationships. Participants and procedure The research included 120 individuals: 60 individuals who had dropped 3-15 partners (on average, M = 3.77 partners and 60 individuals from the control group. The following research tools were applied: the Attachment Styles Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results The results showed that rejecters in intimate relationships obtained higher results than individuals from the control group in an avoidant and an anxious-ambivalent attachment style, and lower ones in a secure attachment style, as well as higher ones in anxiety as a trait. Sex itself was not a differentiating factor in any of the studied variables. An avoidant attachment style, and anxiety as a trait, were predictors of being a rejecter. Conclusions The obtained results confirm the fundamental findings of the theory of attachment indicating that the lower the level of a secure style is, the lower is the level of interpersonal skills.

  15. Penal managerialism from within: implications for theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheliotis, Leonidas K

    2006-01-01

    Unlike the bulk of penological scholarship dealing with managerialist reforms, this article calls for greater theoretical and research attention to the often pernicious impact of managerialism on criminal justice professionals. Much in an ideal-typical fashion, light is shed on: the reasons why contemporary penal bureaucracies endeavor systematically to strip criminal justice work of its inherently affective nature; the structural forces that ensure control over officials; the processes by which those forces come into effect; and the human consequences of submission to totalitarian bureaucratic milieus. It is suggested that the heavy preoccupation of present-day penality with the predictability and calculability of outcomes entails the atomization of professionals and the dehumanization of their work. This is achieved through a kaleidoscope of direct and indirect mechanisms that naturalize and/or legitimate acquiescence.

  16. Epilepsy research 150 years after Darwin's theory of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Fulvio A; Terra, Vera C; Scorza, Carla A; Arida, Ricardo M; Cavalheiro, Esper A

    2009-12-01

    On February 12, 2009, we commemorated the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth and the 150th anniversary of the publication of the first edition of the 'On the origin of species'. Only in the sixth edition of the Origin Darwin explicitly stated that natural selection applied to the brain as to all other organs and contemporary epilepsy research plays an interesting role in this scenario. Epilepsy affects approximately 3 percent of the general population and is a complex disease. At least 11 genes have now been described for human epilepsy and over 50 more genes have been identified in animal models of epilepsy. The complex gene to gene interactions and gene-environment interactions may account for epilepsy susceptibility and antiepileptic drug response. Darwin's thoughts on evolution are relevant to understand these gene interactions, contributing to current development of new treatments and prevention of chronic diseases, such as epilepsy.

  17. Exploring multiple intelligences theory in the context of science education: An action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnough, Karen Catherine

    2000-10-01

    Since the publication of Frames of Mind: The Theory in Practice, multiple intelligences, theory (Gardner, 1983) has been used by practitioners in a variety of ways to make teaching and learning more meaningful. However, little attention has been focused on exploring the potential of the theory for science teaching and learning. Consequently, this research study was designed to: (1) explore Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1983) and its merit for making science teaching and learning more meaningful; (2) provide a forum for teachers to engage in critical self-reflection about their theory and practice in science education; (3) study the process of action research in the context of science education; and (4) describe the effectiveness of collaborative action research as a framework for teacher development and curriculum development. The study reports on the experiences of four teachers (two elementary teachers, one junior high teacher, and one high school teacher) and myself, a university researcher-facilitator, as we participated in a collaborative action research project. The action research group held weekly meetings over a five-month period (January--May, 1999). The inquiry was a qualitative case study (Stake, 1994) that aimed to understand the perspectives of those directly involved. This was achieved by using multiple methods to collect data: audiotaped action research meetings, fieldnotes, semi-structured interviews, journal writing, and concept mapping. All data were analysed on an ongoing basis. Many positive outcomes resulted from the study in areas such as curriculum development, teacher development, and student learning in science. Through the process of action research, research participants became more reflective about their practice and thus, enhanced their pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1987) in science. Students became more engaged in learning science, gained a greater understanding of how they learn, and experienced a

  18. Processes involved in client-nominated relationship building incidents: Client attachment, attachment to therapist, and session impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Jennifer; Fitzpatrick, Marilyn; Drapeau, Martin

    2008-09-01

    Thirty volunteer clients of trainee therapists nominated an incident that was critical in the development of their therapeutic relationship. Clients completed the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale (CATS), the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECRS), and the Session Impacts Scale (SIS). Clients reported an increase in attachment security with their therapists, along with perceptions of support and relief and increasing exploration following the relationship building incident. While clients' avoidant attachment was unrelated to attachment to the therapist prior to the incidents, in subsequent sessions avoidance was related to a change in secure attachment to therapist. Finally, client attachment to therapist but not general attachment was significantly related to in-session exploration. Findings are discussed in light of attachment theory and convergence with findings from the field of social psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Research Notes ~ Second Language Acquisition Theories as a Framework for Creating Distance Learning Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen N. Ariza

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Moore and Kearsley (1996 maintain distance educators should provide for three types of interaction: a learner-content; b learner-instructor; and c learner-learner. According to interactionist second language acquisition (SLA theories that reflect Krashen’s theory (1994 that comprehensible input is critical for second language acquisition, interaction can enhance second language acquisition and fluency. Effective output is necessary as well. We reviewed the research on distance learning for second language learners and concluded that SLA theories can, and should, be the framework that drives the development of courses for students seeking to learn languages by distance technology. This article delineates issues to consider in support of combining SLA theories and research literature as a guide in creating distance language learning courses.

  20. Female domestic violence offenders: their attachment security, trauma symptoms, and personality organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenson, Julie; Geffner, Robert; Foster, Sharon L; Clipson, Clark R

    2007-01-01

    Unlike male domestic violence offenders, female domestic violence offenders have traditionally been overlooked in research and theory, despite the fact that females also have high rates of domestic violence perpetration. Towards the aim of extending extant research on male and female pepetrators of domestic violence, we examined attachment style, trauma symptoms, and personality organization in 33 female offenders receiving mandated treatment for domestic violence. These offenders were compared to 32 nonoffending women receiving psychological treatment. The Experiences in Close Relationships Revised (ECR-Revised) was used to examine adult attachment, the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) was used to examine trauma symptomology, and finally, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III (MCMI-III) was used to examine cluster B personality traits. Analyses indicated that female domestic violence offenders reported less attachment security, more trauma-related symptoms, and more personality psychopathology (Antisocial, Borderline, and Dependent Subscales) than did nonoffender clinical comparison women.

  1. Change Matters: Critical Essays on Moving Social Justice Research from Theory to Policy. Critical Qualitative Research. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. J., Ed.; Kirkland, David E., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Change Matters," written by leading scholars committed to social justice in English education, provides researchers, university instructors, and preservice and inservice teachers with a framework that pivots social justice toward policy. The chapters in this volume detail rationales about generating social justice theory in what Freire calls "the…

  2. The neurobiology of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, T R; Young, L J

    2001-02-01

    It is difficult to think of any behavioural process that is more intrinsically important to us than attachment. Feeding, sleeping and locomotion are all necessary for survival, but humans are, as Baruch Spinoza famously noted, "a social animal" and it is our social attachments that we live for. Over the past decade, studies in a range of vertebrates, including humans, have begun to address the neural basis of attachment at a molecular, cellular and systems level. This review describes some of the important insights from this work.

  3. Job Cognition and Justice Influencing Organizational Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sahu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizational attachment echoes the psychological bond between employee and employer relations, differing from affective component of commitment in terms of employees’ psychological and behavioral involvement. This study examines the extent to which employee perception about procedural, distributive justice and job cognition contributes toward organizational attachment in India. The effect of justice and job cognition variables relates differently to previous studies from western part of the globe. First, in past studies, procedural justice predicted commitment, whereas, for Indian employees, distributive justice contributed to organizational attachment. Second, the contribution of extrinsic job cognition in organizational attachment was evident in the model developed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; AMOS. Organizations must take cognizance of the outcomes exhibited by the behavior of managers while following the laid down policies and processes. Cognition of fairness at workplace and attachment can play key role in limiting retention. Practical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  4. Research Notes ~ Second Language Acquisition Theories as a Framework for Creating Distance Learning Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Eileen N. Ariza; Sandra Hancock

    2003-01-01

    Moore and Kearsley (1996) maintain distance educators should provide for three types of interaction: a) learner-content; b) learner-instructor; and c) learner-learner. According to interactionist second language acquisition (SLA) theories that reflect Krashen’s theory (1994) that comprehensible input is critical for second language acquisition, interaction can enhance second language acquisition and fluency. Effective output is necessary as well. We reviewed the research on distance learning ...

  5. The development of scientific identification theory to conduct operation research in education management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardhienata, S.

    2017-01-01

    Operations research is a general method used in the study and optimization of a system through modeling of the system. In the field of education, especially in education management, operations research has not been widely used. This paper gives an exposition of ideas about how operations research can be used to conduct research and optimization in the field of education management by developing SITOREM (Scientific Identification Theory for Operation Research in Education Management). To clarify the intent of the idea, an example of applying SITOREM to enhance the professional commitment of lecturers associated with achieving the vision of university will be described.

  6. The psychological behaviorism theory of pain and the placebo: its principles and results of research application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Peter S; Hekmat, Hamid; Staats, Arthur W

    2004-01-01

    The psychological behaviorism theory of pain unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral theories of pain and facilitates development of a common vocabulary for pain research across disciplines. Pain investigation proceeds in seven interacting realms: basic biology, conditioned learning, language cognition, personality differences, pain behavior, the social environment, and emotions. Because pain is an emotional response, examining the bidirectional impact of emotion is pivotal to understanding pain. Emotion influences each of the other areas of interest and causes the impact of each factor to amplify or diminish in an additive fashion. Research based on this theory of pain has revealed the ameliorating impact on pain of (1) improving mood by engaging in pleasant sexual fantasies, (2) reducing anxiety, and (3) reducing anger through various techniques. Application of the theory to therapy improved the results of treatment of osteoarthritic pain. The psychological behaviorism theory of the placebo considers the placebo a stimulus conditioned to elicit a positive emotional response. This response is most powerful if it is elicited by conditioned language. Research based on this theory of the placebo that pain is ameliorated by a placebo suggestion and augmented by a nocebo suggestion and that pain sensitivity and pain anxiety increase susceptibility to a placebo.

  7. Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Tobias; Guiney, Jo; Fonagy, Peter; Mayes, Linda C; Luyten, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the etiology and maintenance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework. The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety, and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social-cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualized as the key organizer of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and epigenetic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders - a multifactorial etiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterized by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety. The cumulative allostatic load and subsequent "wear and tear" effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments are outlined.

  8. Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eNolte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the aetiology and maintainance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework.The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualised as the key organiser of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental and epigentic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial aetiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterised by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety.In the model, the cumulative allostatic load and subsequent wear and tear effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments

  9. The interaction between multimedia data analysis and theory development in design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nes, Fenna; Doorman, Michiel

    2010-04-01

    Mathematics education researchers conducting instruction experiments using a design research methodology are challenged with the analysis of often complex and large amounts of qualitative data. In this paper, we present two case studies that show how multimedia analysis software can greatly support video data analysis and theory development in design research. The software can (a) act as a type of mould for organising large amounts of data; (b) contribute to improving the trackability and reliability of the research; and (c) support theory generation and validation. We propose an integrated model that elucidates the complex process of data analysis by showing how each of the components that are involved in the data analysis procedures feeds into the emerging local instruction theory. The model combines the intricate cycles of coding and analysing raw video data with the cumulative cyclic process that characterises design research in mathematics education. Our experiences with this model may support other mathematics education researchers in the development of thorough and empirically supported local instruction theories from complex qualitative analyses.

  10. Analytical implications of using practice theory in workplace information literacy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, Camilla Elisabeth; Lloyd, Annemaree

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper considers practice theory and the analytical implications of using this theoretical approach in information literacy research. More precisely the aim of the paper is to discuss the translation of practice theoretical assumptions into strategies that frame the analytical...... focus and interest when researching workplace information literacy. Two practice theoretical perspectives are selected, one by Theodore Schatzki and one by Etienne Wenger, and their general commonalities and differences are analysed and discussed. Analysis: The two practice theories and their main ideas...... of what constitute practices, how practices frame social life and the central concepts used to explain this, are presented. Then the application of the theories within workplace information literacy research is briefly explored. Results and Conclusion: The two theoretical perspectives share some...

  11. Talking back to theory: the missed opportunities in learning technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oliver

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research into learning technology has developed a reputation for being drivenby rhetoric about the revolutionary nature of new developments, for payingscant attention to theories that might be used to frame and inform research, andfor producing shallow analyses that do little to inform the practice of education.Although there is theoretically-informed research in learning technology, this isin the minority, and has been actively marginalised by calls for applied designwork. This limits opportunities to advance knowledge in the field. Using threeexamples, alternative ways to engage with theory are identified. The paper concludesby calling for greater engagement with theory, and the development of ascholarship of learning technology, in order to enrich practice within the fieldand demonstrate its relevance to other fields of work.

  12. Aggression And Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Verma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.

  13. A systems theory perspective on the relationship between practice and research in the making disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstine Riis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between practice and research in the making disciplines. The discussion is based on a systems theory with reference to the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann (2007 and the way Rasmussen, Kruse and Holm (2007 use Luhmann´s theory. This article constructs and emphasizes the fundamental difference between the practice system and the scientific system. Furthermore, it highlights the distinctions between practice as the development of knowledge and research as the generation of knowledge. In addition to these boundaries, the following four different forms of knowledge are classified and described:1 practical knowledge and 2 professional knowledge, which are both associated with the practice system, and 3 research knowledge and 4 philosophy of science knowledge, which are associated with the scientific system. While emphasizing a fundamental difference between the practice system and the scientific system, this article assumes that art and design research should deal with aspects from both systems. The systems theory term ‘structural coupling’ offers a way to enable the two systems to influence each other while maintaining their own boundaries. Insider research is a structural coupling between the practice system and the scientific system. By exploring art and design processes from within as both the practitioner and the researcher, it is possible to generate knowledge both about and for practice. This article considers art and design research as a subsystem of the scientific system and argues that this approach may strengthen the further development of art and design research.

  14. 高校大学生依恋类型的现状分析研究%Research on Adult Attachment in Chinese College Stu-dents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙飞飞

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究当代大学生成人依恋的状况。方法:采用成人亲密关系经历量表(即ECR)对104名大学生进行调查。结果:(1)大学生成人依恋类型分布不均衡。此次调查结果显示大学生依恋类型恐惧型占31.7%、安全型占26.9%、专注型占22.1%、冷漠型占19.2%。(2)上海学生和外地学生在依恋类型的分布上呈显著差异(X2=10.966,p<0.05)。(3)上海学生和外地学生在依恋回避维度上存在显著差异(t=-2.238,p<0.05)。结论:上海大学生主要呈现安全型依恋类型,而外地大学生主要呈现恐惧型依恋类型,依恋回避分数较高,需要引起教育工作者的关注和干预。%Objective:To explore the status of adult attachment of college students. Method:A total of 104 college students were in-vestigated with Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory (E-CR). Results: (1) The distribution of college students' adult at-tachment type was not balanced. The fearful type was 31.7%, se-cure type was 26.9%, preoccupied type was 22.1%, dismissing type was 19.2%. (2) Attachment type was significantly different between Shanghai students and other cities' students ( 2=10.966,<0.05). (3)Attachment avoidance was significantly different be-tween Shanghai students and other cities' students (=-2.238,<0.05). Conclusion: In attachment types of Shanghai students, there were more secure type students while there were lots of fearful type students from other cities. Furthermore, other cities' students show much attachment avoidance, which need much help.

  15. Attachment to land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a first study on attachment to national and sacred land and land as a protected value. A measure of attachment to the land of Israel is developed and administered to two groups, Jewish college students in Israel and the United States. Levels of land attachment are high and not significantly different in the two groups, with a great deal of variation. Land may become more important through being inhabited by a group over centuries. This is a positive contagion effect, and is opposed in some cases by negative contagion produced when the ``enemies'' live on the land for some period of time. We demonstrate a significant correlation of positive contagion sensitivity with attachment to the land of Israel. Unlike many other cases of the interaction of positive and negative contagion, negative contagion does not overwhelm positive contagion in the domain of land attachment. We also present evidence for linkages between political positions, religiosity, importance of Israel, Arab aversion, and vulnerability of Israel with attachment to land, but these do not fully account for the contagion effects. A number of significant differences between Israelis and Americans are described.

  16. Qualitative research: Data analysis framework generating grounded theory applicable to the crisis in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Barbara S.

    The shortage of qualified teachers, and the quality and quantity of the science taught in precollege institutions are two focal issues in today's national crisis in science education. This article delineates aspects of qualitative research having the potential of providing guidance to change agents in designing effective strategies to mitigate the crisis. A discursive approach to qualitative research involving the method of collecting and simultaneously analyzing data known as grounded theory is described. Role theory and schools as organizations composed of interactive subsystems are defined as suitable frameworks within which to analyze data.

  17. Fundamentals in Microalgae Harvesting: From Flocculation to Self-attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan

    Microalgae are a very promising source of biodiesel and other renewable energy due to their fast grow rates, high lipid contents and tremendous potential for water conservation and CO2 biofixation. However, a bottleneck issue with algae biofuel manufacturing is the lack of cost-effective harvesting methods. This research focuses on the technologies for improved microalgae harvesting to enable commercially viable and environmentally friendly biodiesel production. The first objective of this study was to optimize flocculation of marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata with metal salts, aluminum sulfate (A.S.) and ferric chloride (F.C.) via response surface methodology. It was found that there existed a positive stoichiometric relationship between the flocculant dose (FD) and the initial biomass concentration (IABC). Optimum flocculation conditions were predicted at IABC of 1.7 g/l, pH 8.3, and FD of 383.5 microM for A.S., and IABC of 2.2 g/l, pH 7.9, and FD of 438.1 microM for F.C., under which the predicted maximum harvested solid concentration of algae were 32.98 and 30.10 g/l by using A.S. and F.C., respectively. The second objective was to investigate the mechanism of microalgae flocculation with metal salts. The theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek (DLVO) was applied to understand the flocculation mechanism of a freshwater alga Scenedesmus dimorphus and a marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata under various pH and aluminum sulphate ionic strengths. Effective flocculation was achieved as a result of charge neutralization and sweep flocculation. When low flocculant dosage (microalgae offered possibilities in design of a novel semi-immobilized algal production and harvesting method, which exploited cell to substrata interactions instead of cell-to-cell interactions. In such method, a solid carrier was used to grow and accumulate algal cells and the cost of harvesting and drying can be simply reduced by easy algae-water separation. In order to enable the

  18. Attachment Styles and Acculturation of Christian Asian Indians: Impact on Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Sherin K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduced by Jonathan Bowlby in the early 1960s, attachment theory seeks to explain an individual's depth of bonding with others throughout one's life. Attachment styles can affect family life, life interactions, career choices, friendships, relationships, marriage, and parenting (Turner, 2005). Attachment theory is composed of four different…

  19. 牙种植体颈部软组织附着的研究进展%Research progress on attachment of soft tissue around the implant neck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伯嘉; 李娟娟; 欧国敏

    2013-01-01

      随着对种植理念认识的不断加深,牙种植体临床应用的成功率大大提高。牙种植体要在口腔的复杂生理环境下长期行使功能,依靠种植体与牙槽骨之间形成牢固的骨性结合,才能长期承受力负荷。同时,颈部的软组织封闭屏障也是至关重要的。临床上一些种植牙逐渐松动、脱落,部分是由于颈部软组织封闭屏障的破坏,而种植体颈部周围软组织附着的研究已引起人们的广泛重视。本文就种植体周围软组织附着组成及其影响因素作一综述。%  With the growing awareness of the implant concept, the clinical application of dental implants has made a great success. Dental implants take long-term physiological function in the oral complex environment, not only relying on stable osseointegration which can withstand long-term occlusal load between the implant and bone but also the close attachment in soft tissue around the implant neck which plays a role of crucial barrier. Be-cause of the destruction of soft tissue attachment, some of the clinical dental implants gradually loosened and fall off. The attachment of soft tissue around the implant neck has attracted widespread attention. The attachment of soft tissue around the implant neck and the influencing factors were reviewed.

  20. The Other in Educational Research: Some Postmodern Implications for Educational Practice, Theory, Research and Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, Del

    2003-01-01

    This article explores various questions through examining such postmodern thinkers as Derrida, Lacan and, in particular, Levinas. Can educational research be an ethical practice? Should educational research be about putting the other first? What is the responsibility of the educational researcher for the educators' responsibility? What is the…