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Sample records for attachment alloparental behavior

  1. The impact of early life family structure on adult social attachment, alloparental behavior, and the neuropeptide systems regulating affiliative behaviors in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster

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    Todd H Ahern

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Early social attachments lie at the heart of emotional and social development in many mammals, including humans. In nature, monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster experience considerable natural variation in early social attachment opportunities due to differences in family structure (e.g., single-mothers, solitary breeding pairs, and communal groups. We exploited some of this natural variation in family structure to examine the influence of early social environment on the development of adult social behavior. First, we characterized the parental care received by pups reared biparentally (BP or by a single-mother (SM in the laboratory. Second, we examined whether BP- and SM-reared offspring differed in adult nurturing, bonding, and emotional behaviors. Finally, we investigated the effects of rearing condition on neuropeptide systems that regulate adult social behavior (oxytocin, vasopressin, and corticotropin-releasing factor [CRF]. Observations revealed that SM-reared pups were exposed more frequently (P<0.01, licked and groomed less (P<0.01, and matured more slowly (P<0.01 than BP-reared pups. In adulthood, there were striking socio-behavioral differences: SM-reared females showed low spontaneous, pup-directed alloparental behavior (P<0.01 and both males and females from the SM-reared condition showed delayed partner preference formation. While rearing did not impact neuropeptide receptor densities in the ventral forebrain as we predicted, SM-reared animals, particularly females, had increased OT content (P<0.01 and greater dorsal raphe CRF2 densities (P<0.05 and both measures correlated with licking and grooming experienced during the first 10 days of life. These results suggest that naturalistic variation in social rearing conditions can introduce diversity into adult nurturing and attachment behaviors.

  2. Attachment behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sigling, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes studies into the rat as an animal model for attachment, along the lines of Bowlby's attachment theory. First, the relation between attachment and human psychopathology is reviewed. The conclusion is that psychopathology is more frequent in insecure attached persons and that there is a relationship between specific types of insecure attachment and specific types of psychiatric disorders. Next, a reinterpretation of the literature on social preference experiments in rodent...

  3. Attachment Behaviors in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Marian; Ungerer, Judy A.

    1984-01-01

    Observation of 14 autistic and 14 nonautistic children of equivalent mental age revealed that autistic Ss showed evidence of attachment to their mothers. Among autistic Ss, those showing increased attachment behaviors in response to separation and reunion demonstrated more advanced symbolic play skills than those showing no attachment change.…

  4. Attachment Organization and History of Suicidal Behavior in Clinical Adolescents.

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    Adam, Kenneth S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents in psychiatric treatment (N=133) participated in a case-comparison study investigating the association of attachment patterns with a history of suicidal behaviors. Attachment patterns were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. In accordance with definitions provided in the scoring system, 86% of case and 78% of comparison…

  5. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

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    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  6. Genetic evidence for prevalence of alloparental care in a socially monogamous biparental cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis, from Lake Tanganyika supports the "selfish shepherd effect" hypothesis.

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    Lee, Hyuk Je; Heim, Valentin; Meyer, Axel

    2016-05-01

    Alloparental care - care for unrelated young - is rare in animals, and its ecological or evolutionary advantages or, alternative maladaptive nature, remain unclear. We investigate alloparental care in the socially monogamous cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis from Lake Tanganyika that exhibits bi-parental care. In a genetic parentage analysis, we discovered a surprisingly high percentage of alloparental care represented by brood mixing, extra-pair paternity and extra-pair maternity in all broods that we investigated. The percentage of nondescendant juveniles of other parents, i.e., brood mixing, ranged from 5% to 57% (mean = 28%). The distribution of genetic parentage also suggests that this socially monogamous species has, in fact, polygamous mating system. The prevalence of genetically mixed broods can be best explained by two, not mutually exclusive hypotheses on farming-out and fostering behaviors. In the majority of broods, the sizes of the parents' own (descendant) offspring were significantly larger than those of the adopted (nondescendant) juveniles, supporting the 'selfish shepherd effect' hypothesis, i.e., that foster parents preferentially accept unrelated "smaller or not larger" young since this would tend to lower the predation risks for their own larger offspring. There was also a tendency for larger parents particularly mothers, more so than smaller parents, to care predominantly for their own offspring. Larger parents might be better at defending against cuckoldry and having foreign young dumped into their broods through farming-out behavior. This result might argue for maladaptive effects of allopatric care for the foster parents that only larger and possibly more experienced pairs can guard against. It needs to be determined why, apparently, the ability to recognize one's own young has not evolved in this species. PMID:27217943

  7. Disorganized Attachment and Inhibitory Capacity: Predicting Externalizing Problem Behaviors

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    Bohlin, Gunilla; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin Cecilia; Thorell, Lisa B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether attachment insecurity, focusing on disorganized attachment, and the executive function (EF) component of inhibition, assessed at age 5, were longitudinally related to general externalizing problem behaviors as well as to specific symptoms of ADHD and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and…

  8. Play Behavior and Attachment in Toddlers with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Naber, Fabiënne B. A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; Van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Play helps to develop social skills. Children with autism show deviances in their play behavior that may be associated with delays in their social development. In this study, we investigated manipulative, functional and symbolic play behavior of toddlers with and without autism (mean age: 26.45, SD 5.63). The results showed that the quality of interaction between the child and the caregiver was related to the development of play behavior. In particular, security of attachment was related to b...

  9. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence

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    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  10. Attachment Behavior of Children Adopted Internationally at Six Months Post Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Niemann, Sandra; Weiss, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to describe attachment behavior in children adopted internationally at 6 months post adoption. Twenty-two children and their adoptive mothers were observed at home for completion of an attachment measure. Mothers also completed a questionnaire on their child’s preadoption care. Comparisons of children low and high in attachment security suggested that low secure children showed predominantly ambivalent attachment behavior or that they were still in the proc...

  11. Adolescent insecure attachment as a predictor of maladaptive coping and externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood.

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    Dawson, Anne E; Allen, Joseph P; Marston, Emily G; Hafen, Christopher A; Schad, Megan M

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether insecure adolescent attachment organization (i.e., preoccupied and dismissing) longitudinally predicted self- and peer-reported externalizing behavior in emerging adulthood. Secondarily, maladaptive coping strategies were examined for their potential role in mediating the relationship between insecure attachment and future externalizing behaviors. Target participants (N = 184) were given the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) at age 14 and re-interviewed seven and eight years later with their closest peer. Qualities of both preoccupied and dismissing attachment organization predicted self-reported externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood eight years later, but only preoccupation was predictive of close-peer reports of emerging adult externalizing behavior. Maladaptive coping strategies only mediated the relationship between a dismissing stance toward attachment and future self-reported externalizing behaviors. Understanding the role of coping and emotional regulation in attachment may help us to understand the unique aspects of both dismissing and preoccupied stances toward attachment. PMID:24995478

  12. Adolescent-Parent Attachment and Externalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Individual and Social Factors.

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    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior. PMID:25772427

  13. Adolescent insecure attachment as a predictor of maladaptive coping and externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Anne E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Marston, Emily G.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether insecure adolescent attachment organization (i.e., preoccupied and dismissing) longitudinally predicted self- and peer-reported externalizing behavior in emerging adulthood. Secondarily, maladaptive coping strategies were examined for their potential role in mediating the relationship between insecure attachment and future externalizing behaviors. Target participants (N = 184) were given the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) at age 14 and re-interviewed seven an...

  14. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this attachment to the Annual report 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) the economic and personnel data of the UJD, used abbreviations, as well as the International nuclear event scales - INES are presented. Professional level of staff of the UJD is influenced by the education structure of its staff, when nearly 75% of the total number of staff has a university degree. A of 31.12.1999 there were 79 employees as average calculated number. Financing of the regulator in 1999 was mainly provided from the state budget, which represented 96% of all expenditures. The total volume of expenditures for UJD activity funded from the state budget achieved as of 31.12.1999 Slovak crowns (SK) 67 067 thousands. In the main category of expenditures an amount of SK 63 499 thous. was used for current activities, and the difference of SK 3 587 thous. was used for raising capital assets. Significant increase expenditures in the evaluated year compared to the 1998 was caused by a special purpose payment made by the Slovakia into the Fund for reconstruction of the Chernobyl cover (SK 19 996 thous.) funded through the budget chapter of the regulator. In the structure of current expenditures the highest share is taken by current transfers to abroad in total of SK 22 543 thous., i.e. contribution to reconstruction of Chernobyl cover made to the EBRD and contributions to the Fund of Technical Co-operation of the IAEA. For procurement of goods and services an amount of SK 19 814 thous. was spent, of which SK 7 054 thous. was used for funding science and technology tasks which were contracted out. The decision-making process in performing state supervision forced UJD to contact out various expert opinions and studies, for which UJD paid SK 2 058 thous. in total. Other expenditures in a volume of SK 10 702 thous. represent travel expenses, goods and services for UJD, rent for offices and other inevitable expenses. Salaries of staff represented SK 15 953

  15. Linking Employment to Attachment: The Mediating Effects of Maternal Separation Anxiety and Interactive Behavior.

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    Stifter, Cynthia A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined the effects of maternal employment and separation anxiety on maternal interactive behavior and infant attachment in 73 mother-infant pairs. Employed mothers who reported high levels of separation anxiety were more likely than low-anxiety mothers to exhibit intrusive behaviors. Although employment was not directly related to attachment,…

  16. Effects of attachment and rearing behavior on anxiety in normal developing youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have examined the relative contribution of insecure attachment and negative parental rearing behaviors on childhood anxiety, but none have examined if insecure attachment mediates the association between negative parental rearing behavior and anxiety. The present study investigated...... the direct, as well as the indirect, relation between attachment to parents, parental rearing behaviors and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 1134 normal developing children and adolescent. Attachment relation was measured by the Security Scale (SEC), negative parental rearing behavior was measured by...... the Rearing Behavior Questionnaire (RBQ), and anxiety was assessed using the Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R). We found, in accordance with previous research, that insecure attachment, maternal rejection and overprotection, each accounted for a significant proportion...

  17. Implications of attachment theory and research for developmental-behavioral pediatrics.

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    Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sampson, Megan C; Sroufe, L Alan

    2003-10-01

    This article presents a basic overview of attachment theory, concepts, and research. The review includes a discussion of the nature of the attachment relationship, its origins in human evolutionary history, and common misconceptions about attachment. We describe phases in the development of attachment relationships and review research on factors that influence attachment variations. We discuss the implications of variations in early attachment relationships for later development (adaptation and maladaptation). And finally, we review briefly the implications of attachment theory and research for pediatric practice. Some key points are that (1) virtually all infants become attached to caregivers regardless of quality of care; (2) attachment relationships evolve in phases over time; (3) children with disabilities form attachment relationships in ways comparable to nondisabled children but manifest attachment somewhat differently; (4) the consequences for attachment of out-of-home care, separations, and significant disruptions (e.g., adoption) depend on timing and circumstances; (5) many infant regulatory difficulties, as well as child behavior problems, originate in the caregiving relationship; and finally, (6) change in parent-child relationship disturbances is complex and requires time and effort. PMID:14578698

  18. Attachment style impacts behavior and early oculomotor response to positive, but not negative, pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all...

  19. Attachment and Parental Practices as Predictors of Behavioral Disorders in Boys and Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Adriana Neves Nunes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to investigate how two parental systems (attachment and parental practices interact to predict internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems in girls and boys. The Security Scale was administered to 289 children (mean age = 10.5 years, and 205 parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and an instrument addressing parental practices. The results indicate that poor maternal attachment predicts aggression and delinquency in boys, while problems of this nature among girls are predicted by parental rejection and low behavioral control. Poor paternal attachment was the only predictor for social withdrawal and anxiety/depression in boys. A tendency of association between poor maternal attachment and social withdrawal was observed among girls, while low behavioral control and high psychological control predicted anxiety/depression. The results are discussed in terms of their contribution to understanding the complex relationship among gender, parental systems, and behavioral disorders.

  20. Examining Attachment to God and Health Risk-Taking Behaviors in College Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, J.; Horton, K.D.; Ellison, Ch.G.; Loukas, A.; Downey, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God—secure, avoidant, and anxious—were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328 undergra

  1. Associations between Working Models of Attachment and Conflict Management Behavior in Romantic Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, Gary

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study was to specify relations between internal working models of attachment (IWM) and conflict management behaviors in a sample of young adults involved in romantic relationships. One hundred forty-five romantic couples were recruited to address this goal. All participants were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (C.…

  2. Preschoolers' distress and regulatory behaviors vary as a function of infant-mother attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jin; Leerkes, Esther M; King, Elizabeth K

    2016-08-01

    Children (N=98) with higher attachment security scores, and lower resistance and avoidance scores during the Strange Situation at 16 months demonstrated somewhat more adaptive observed and mother-reported emotion regulation as preschoolers independent of maternal behavior. PMID:27394661

  3. Attachment and associated sexual health behaviors of heterosexual Mexican housewives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz Soto, Norma Elva; Benavides-Torres, Raquel A; Dimmitt Champion, Jane

    2015-04-01

    Sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus are international public health concerns. Heterosexual women who are in steady relationships have been described as a particularly vulnerable population at risk for sexually transmitted infections acquired from their male partners. In this pilot study, we describe associations identified via cross-sectional survey among demographic variables, attachment style, and condom use in Mexican heterosexual women (ages 20-44 years, n  =  50) who self-reported current steady partner relationships. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlation analyses were conducted. Secure attachment and condom use were positively correlated with education level. Limited sexual risk prevention knowledge and contraception use, low risk perception within male partner relationships and misconception about proper condom use were identified as sources of elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections via male partners. Implications of findings include sexual health intervention modification to include dialogue concerning the context of steady relationship and sexual risk among Mexican heterosexual women. PMID:25988376

  4. Maternal Frightened, Frightening, or Atypical Behavior and Disorganized Infant Attachment Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Bronfman, Elisa; Parsons, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Studied mothers' behavior toward their infants with disorganized (type D) attachment strategies. Found that mothers whose infants are classified disorganized exhibit an elevated level of atypical maternal behaviors in the Strange Situation test. Mothers of type D Forced Insecure infants showed more negative-intrusive behaviors and role confusion…

  5. The Role of Relationship Attachment Styles in Disordered Eating Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Landrau; Jerome Short

    2010-01-01

    This study examined women's eating disorder symptoms and the quality of the attachment relationship with their mothers and romantic partners for a sample of 117 participants, ages 18 to 22. Seventeen of the participants were in treatment for an eating disorder and 100 were untreated college students, but engaging in binge eating. There were no significant differences between the groups in dieting and bingeing. The treated group reported higher levels of depression, anxiety, esteem threat from...

  6. The Brief Accessibility, Responsiveness, and Engagement Scale: A Tool for Measuring Attachment Behaviors in Clinical Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonathan G; Novak, Joshua R; Davis, Stephanie Y; Busby, Dean M

    2016-01-01

    Measuring attachment behaviors is relevant to creating secure couple relationships. This article seeks to test and examine the reliability and validity of the Brief Accessibility, Responsiveness, and Engagement (BARE) Scale-a practical measure of couple attachment-in a clinical sample. Couples took the BARE and other assessments measuring relationship functioning (self and partner reports of relationship satisfaction, relationship stability, positive and negative communication, and attachment styles). Results suggest that the BARE appears to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing couple attachment and can accurately predict and classify whether the couples belong in the clinical or nonclinical group, as well as their level of relationship satisfaction. Results also indicate attachment behaviors are related to relationship outcomes. PMID:26748730

  7. The Relationship between Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Mother-Infant Attachment Behaviors in Primiparous Women Referring to Mashhad Health Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Taffazoli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Mother-infant bonding and interactions after childbirth are shaped by maternal-fetal attachment during pregnancy. Although many studies have shown the positive correlation between maternal-fetal attachment and mother-infant attachment behaviors, some controversial studies have shown otherwise. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the correlation between maternal-fetal attachment and mother-infant attachment behaviors in primiparous women. Methods:This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 100 primiparous women, referring to the selected heath care centers of Mashhad. Data were collected using Cranley's maternal–fetal attachment scale, Avant’s mother-infant attachment tool, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, and a demographic/obstetric questionnaire including demographic data, obstetric information, delivery outcomes, and postpartum data. Pregnant women with a gestational age of 35-41 weeks, who met the inclusion criteria, completed Cranley's questionnaire, as well as the demographic/obstetric questionnaire. Four and eight weeks after delivery, the subjects were asked to complete the Edinburgh questionnaire and postpartum information; then, they were asked to breastfeed their infants on a chair in a quiet place for 15 minutes. The researcher observed the mothers’ behaviors toward their neonates. For data analysis, descriptive and analytical tests were performed, using SPSS version 16. Results: There was a direct positive relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and mothers’ emotional behaviors toward infants four and eight weeks after delivery. However, four and eight weeks after childbirth, no significant correlation was found between maternal-fetal attachment and mothers’ caring behaviors. Conclusion: According to the findings, maternal-fetal attachment is one of the most important factors for mother-infant attachment. These findings could be applied for enriching mother-infant attachment

  8. Foster children's attachment behavior and representation: Influence of children's pre-placement experiences and foster caregiver's sensitivity.

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    Bovenschen, Ina; Lang, Katrin; Zimmermann, Janin; Förthner, Judith; Nowacki, Katja; Roland, Inga; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of foster children have been exposed to early adversity in their biological families and have experienced one or more disruptions of attachment relationships, most studies surprisingly found foster children to be as securely attached as children in low-risk samples. However, attention has been paid almost exclusively to attachment formation in young children up to two years of age, and the majority of studies solely investigated attachment behavior whereas few is known about foster children's representations about attachment relationships. To extend findings on attachment in foster children and its predictors, our study examined both attachment behavior and representations in foster children aged between 3 and 8 years. Diverse potential predictors including child variables, birth parents' variables, pre-placement experiences, and foster caregiver's behavior were included in the analyses. Results revealed that foster children showed both lower attachment security and higher disorganization scores than children in low-risk samples. Attachment behavior and representation were found to be widely independent from each other. Different factors contributed to attachment behavior and representation: whereas foster children's attachment behavior was mainly influenced by foster parents' behavior, pre-placement experiences did predict hyperactivation and disorganization on the representational level. The results indicate that, when intervening with foster families, it seems crucial to focus not exclusively on the promotion of secure attachment behavior but also to develop interventions enhancing secure and organized attachment representations. PMID:26412616

  9. The role of attachment in the relationship between child maltreatment and later emotional and behavioral functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Amanda; Renk, Kimberly; Adgate, Amanda Havill

    2014-09-01

    The experience of childhood maltreatment is an important predictor of unfavorable emotional and behavioral outcomes. Because little research examined explanatory variables in the relationship between childhood maltreatment experiences and later outcomes, this study examined the role that attachment serves in this relationship. Four hundred twenty-four participants completed questionnaires assessing the variables of interest for this study. Results indicated that both childhood maltreatment experiences (particularly emotional abuse) and attachment (particularly to mothers and peers) are significant predictors of later emotional and behavioral outcomes. Further, attachment contributed unique and significant variance to the relationship between childhood maltreatment experiences and later outcomes. Such findings suggested that secure attachment may serve as a protective factor against maladaptive emotional and behavioral outcomes as children reach emerging adulthood, even in the context of childhood maltreatment experiences. The importance of studying the relationships among these variables is discussed. PMID:24631414

  10. Effects of Mother-Infant Separation on Maternal Attachment Behavior

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    Leifer, A. D.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    This project hoped to specify the role of early, mother-infant separation in determining later maternal behavior. Clinically, the results suggest that such a separation should be avoided whenever possible and should be minimized when separation is unavoidable. (Authors)

  11. Generalized and specific attachment representations: unique and interactive roles in predicting conflict behaviors in close relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, Gary; Ladd, Aimee

    2005-08-01

    The authors expected that associations between the representations individuals possess regarding romantic partners and their conflict behavior would be moderated by generalized attachment representations (GAR). To test this premise, college students (N =130) were administered two attachment measures and were observed during conflict negotiation with their partners. The Relationship Styles Questionnaire assessed specific representations regarding partners and GAR were measured by the Adult Attachment Interview. The relationship between romantic partner representations and conflict tactics were dependent on GAR. Individuals who possessed secure GAR generally displayed good conflict management skills, regardless of their attachment representations regarding their romantic partners. Individuals who held more anxious or avoidant perceptions of romantic partners displayed more problematic conflict tactics if they possessed insecure GAR; however, these associations were dependent on the type of conflict behavior and the type of insecure GAR. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:16000265

  12. An Investigation into Associations with Attachment, Companion Pet Attachment, Empathy, and Prosocial Behaviors in 18-20 Year Old College Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study examines empathy, parental attachment, companion pet attachment and social behaviors in a sample of 120 students between the ages of 18-20 enrolled at Front Range Community College in Westminster CO during the fall semester 2008. The study is based on the research questions posed by Thompson and Gullone (2008) but pays particular…

  13. Attachment style impacts behavior and early oculomotor response to positive, but not negative, pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all depicting social interactions. The task consisted in identifying whether the two pictures depicted the same emotion. Results showed that the processing of negative pictures was impermeable to attachment style, while the processing of positive pictures was significantly influenced by individual differences in insecure attachment. The groups highly avoidant regarding to attachment (dismissing and fearful) showed reduced accuracy, suggesting a higher threshold for recognizing positive emotions compared to the secure group. The groups with higher attachment anxiety (preoccupied and fearful) showed differences in automatic capture of attention, in particular an increased delay preceding the first fixation to a picture of positive emotional valence. Despite lenient statistical thresholds induced by the limited sample size of some groups (p emotions is affected by attachment styles. These results are discussed within a broader evolutionary framework. PMID:25693911

  14. Attachment as an organizer of behavior: implications for substance abuse problems and willingness to seek treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troutman Beth

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. Methods Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208. The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Results Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Conclusion The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.

  15. The relations among maternal depressive disorder, maternal Expressed Emotion, and toddler behavior problems and attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (maternal depression); the Five Minute Speech Sample (EE); the Child Behavior Checklist (toddler behavior prob...

  16. The Role of Attachment Styles in Regulating the Effects of Dopamine on the Behavior of Salespersons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J.M.I. Verbeke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two classic strategic orientations have been found to pervade the behavior of modern salespersons: a sales orientation where salespersons use deception or guile to get customers to buy even if they do not need a product, and a customer orientation where salespersons first attempt to discover the customer’s needs and adjust their product and selling approach to meet those needs. Study 1 replicates recent research and finds that the Taq A1 variant of the DRD2 gene is not related to either sales or customer orientation, whereas the 7-repeat variant of the DRD4 gene is related to customer orientation but not sales orientation. Study 2 investigates gene × phenotype explanations of orientation of salespersons, drawing upon recent research in molecular genetics and biological/psychological attachment theory. The findings show that attachment style regulates the effects of DRD2 on customer orientation, such that greater avoidant attachment styles lead to higher customer orientation for persons with the A2/A2 variant but neither the A1/A2 nor A1/A1 variants. Likewise, attachment style regulates the effects of DRD4 on customer orientation, such that greater avoidant attachment styles lead to higher customer orientation for persons with the 7-repeat variant but not other variants. No effects were found on a sales orientation, and secure and anxious attachment styles did not function as moderators.

  17. Investigating Attachment Behaviors of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocysts Using Collision Efficiency in Laboratory Column Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.; Hou, L.; Atwill, R.; Packman, A. I.; Harter, T.

    2009-12-01

    Cryptosporidium is one of the most common enteric parasites of humans and domestic animals, and a number of outbreaks of Cryprosporidiosis, a diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium have been reported worldwide. Natural porous media has been demonstrated to be an effective filter for removing Cryptosporidium parvum from contaminated water and the amount of Cryptosporidium filtered is known to be highly dependent on physical and chemical conditions of the porous media and the water. Cryptosporidium deposition in saturated porous media involves two main steps: approach and attachment. In contrast to the approach mechanisms, attachment processes have not been systematically described to predict a priori because theories that represent attachment behavior (colloid stability) such as DLVO are insufficient to explain experimental data. For this reason, attachment efficiency is calculated based on empirical data, typically experimental breakthrough curves in laboratory columns or field experiments. In this study, collision (attachment) efficiencies (α) of C. parvum oocyst were calculated to test the effect of chemical property changes on the association of oocysts with sand grains. The breakthrough curve data obtained from twelve column experiments and three models were employed to calculate single collector efficiency (η) and α. The first ten experiments were conducted by changing ionic strength and pH, and mixing with natural sediments under the same physical properties (same η). Our experiment results show that iron coating or clay/suspended solids mixture drastically enhanced oocyst deposition. The experiments also showed that increase in ionic strength and decrease in pH enhanced the attachment efficiency. However, the experiment with 100mM NaCl resulted in low attachment efficiency and the experiment with pH 8.5 showed similar attachment efficiency to the one at pH 7. Based on the results from two additional experiments with different flow velocities, it

  18. The impact of parental self-esteem and parental rearing behavior on adolescent attachment to parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbo Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU(Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998, and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965. The results suggested that parental global self-esteem has no effect on the adolescent attachment to parents. Parental positive rearing behaviors have been significantly associated with avoidance to parents. Furthermore, the negative rearing behaviors, such as paternal denying and rejecting, maternal punitiveness, maternal overinvolved and overprotective behavior, can predict the adolescent avoidance and anxiety to parents.

  19. Motivations for providing a secure base: links with attachment orientation and secure base support behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Brooke C; Collins, Nancy L; Van Vleet, Meredith; Tomlinson, Jennifer M

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the importance of underlying motivations in predicting secure base support behavior, as well as the extent to which support motivations are predicted by individual differences in attachment orientation. Participants were 189 married couples who participated in two laboratory sessions. During a questionnaire session, couples completed assessments of their underlying motivations for providing, and for not providing, support for their partner's exploration (i.e., goal-strivings), as well as assessments of their typical secure base support behavior. In an observational session, couples engaged in a discussion of one member's personal goals, during which the partner's secure base support was assessed. Results revealed a variety of distinct motivations for providing, and for not providing, secure base support to one's partner, as well as theoretically expected links between these motivations and both secure base behavior and attachment orientation. This work establishes motivations as important mechanisms that underlie the effective or ineffective provision of relational support. PMID:23581972

  20. Getting Acquainted: Actor and Partner Effects of Attachment and Temperament on Young Children's Peer Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Nancy L.; Holland, Ashley S.; Engle, Jennifer M.; Ogolsky, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child…

  1. THE INVESTIGATION OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATTACHMENT AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR OF ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Kaplan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Various studies available in the literature on pubertşy. The individual's physical and psychological changes during puberty, as well as changes in the social field are remarkable. During this period, the importance of family relationships with losing a bit more with the relationships with their peers is their strength. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between parental attachment and aggression in adolescents. In the study, risk factors and protective factors between parent attachment and aggressive behavior were examined. Parents marital accord to have friend; close friend and peer group were considered as protective factors. Watching violent movies on Tv and having a disciplinary penalt were identified as risk factors. Also, that empathy was between parent attachment aggression examined as a mediator. That research is carried with randomly selected 1424 (709 females and 715 males adolescents, who are living in Burdur in 2010, going to high school and ranging from 13 and 19. The schools were visited after obtaining necessary permits from the Burdur Directorate Education by the researcher and participation in the study was based on volunteerism. Personal information form, and Aggression Scale (Buss ve Perry, 1992, Parent and Peer Attachment inventory (Armsden ve Greenberg, 1987 and Empathic Tendency Scale (Dökmen, 1988 were applied in the study. For the data analysis, the statistical analysis like Two-way analysis of variance, T-test and Sobel Test were used. When taking a look at analysis findings, it was noticed that adolescents insecurely attached got higher aggression score. It was seen that only the level of emphaty get on with each other between insecure parent attachment and aggression. In the light of literature, the findings of that research were discussed with the other studies’ findings regarding that subject and were interprented. In addition, suggestions relevant to those findings were presented for

  2. A Behavioral Perspective of Childhood Trauma and Attachment Issues: Toward Alternative Treatment Approaches for Children with a History of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Walter; Golden, Jeannie A.

    2009-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of children who have been abused. This article examines childhood trauma and attachment issues from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a theoretical basis for two alternative treatment models for previously abused children and their…

  3. Attachment behaviors in children with autism / Comportamentos indicativos de apego em crianças com autismo

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Sanini; Gabriela Damasceno Ferreira; Thiago Spillari Souza; Cleonice Alves Bosa

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the attachment behaviors in children with autism. Ten boys with autism, 10 boys with Down syndrome and 10 boys with typical development who were around 4 years old, participated in the study. A free-play session, which consisted of five episodes, was used to observe the interactive behaviors between the child and the mother, and also an unfamiliar person (the stranger). No significant differences were found among the three groups concerning most of the attachment behav...

  4. Influence of spatial exclusion on the statistical behavior of attached eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Charitha M.; Woodcock, James D.; Hutchins, Nicholas; Marusic, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have shown Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis to be a promising basis for modeling the velocity statistics in the logarithmic region of turbulent wall flows. Accordingly, the attached eddy model is able to reliably estimate the functional forms of the mean velocity, second-order moments of the velocity fluctuations, and recently structure functions and higher-order moments of the velocity fluctuations. However, detailed quantitative comparisons with experimental results reveal differences, particularly for the higher-order moments. Specifically, the predicted flatness (kurtosis) is found to be invariably greater than 3 (i.e., super-Gaussian behavior) for all velocity components, while experimental results show sub-Gaussian behavior for the streamwise component of velocity. In this study, we show that this and other discrepancies can be resolved by considering the finite space occupied by each eddy. Earlier models had allowed each eddy to be perfectly randomly located, with no consideration for the locations of neighboring eddies (in other words, their locations can be described as a Poisson point process). Here we investigate the effect of mandating a minimum distance between any two eddies of the same height. We demonstrate that this spatial exclusion, when combined with an experimentally observed shape for the representative eddy, produces predictions that are now in better agreement with experimental observations. In particular, sub-Gaussian behavior is now attained for the streamwise component, while super-Gaussian behavior is maintained for the other velocity components, qualitatively matching experimental findings. Therefore, our findings infer that spatial exclusion between eddies is likely to play an important role in the laws that govern their spatial arrangement, which is likely to be more disperse than a Poisson point process.

  5. Comparison of the Effects of Attachment Training for Mothers on the Behavioral Responses of Premature Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Edraki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature infants are among high-risk groups in community who need to be hospitalized at intensive care units for survival and receiving basic or special care. Hospitalization at neonatal intensive care units (NICUs unsettles the family and leads to the separation of parents from their infants. This study aimed to determine the effects of maternal attachment behaviors on the behavioral responses of premature infants, hospitalized at NICUs. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 64 premature infants, who were hospitalized at NICUs and were eligible for the study, were randomly allocated to study and control groups. Attachment behaviors including touching, massage and kangaroo care were applied for the study group, while the conventional attachment method was adopted for the control group. Behavioral responses were evaluated two hours before and two hours after training attachment behaviors. Data were analyzed, using Chi-square and student’s t-test. Results: The mean difference in the duration of deep sleep and consciousness was more significant in the study group, compared to the control group. Furthermore, the duration of drowsiness was significantly less in the study group, compared to the control group. Conclusion: The implementation of attachment training at NICUs decreased the time of drowsiness and improved behavioral responses, deep sleep time and consciousness.

  6. Middle Childhood Support-Seeking Behavior during Stress: Links with Self-Reported Attachment and Future Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Adinda; Santens, Tara; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Bosmans, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether children's more anxious and avoidant attachment is linked to decreased support-seeking behavior toward their mother during stress in middle childhood, and whether children's decreased support-seeking behavior enhances the impact of experiencing life events on the increase of depressive symptoms 18 months later.…

  7. The Effect of Group Attachment and Social Position on Prosocial Behavior. Evidence from Lab-in-the-Field Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Delia Baldassarri; Guy Grossman

    2013-01-01

    Social life is regulated by norms of fairness that constrain selfish behavior. While a substantial body of scholarship on prosocial behavior has provided evidence of such norms, large inter- and intra-personal variation in prosocial behavior still needs to be explained. The article identifies two social-structural dimensions along which people's generosity varies systematically: group attachment and social position. We conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 2,597 members of producer...

  8. The Relation of Attachment Security to Adolescents' Paternal and Peer Relationships, Depression, and Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances; McFarland, Christy; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Marsh, Penny

    2007-01-01

    The relation of attachment security to multiple domains of psychosocial functioning was examined in a community sample of 167 early adolescents. Security of attachment organization, assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview, was linked to success in establishing autonomy while maintaining a sense of relatedness both with fathers and with…

  9. Is the Maternal Q-Set a Valid Measure of Preschool Child Attachment Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cyr, Chantal; Dubois-Comtois, Karine

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine preschool-age correlates of the maternal version of the Attachment Q-Set (AQS) (Waters & Deane, 1985) in order to provide validity data. Concurrent associations between the Attachment Q-Set and measures of separation-reunion attachment classifications (Cassidy & Marvin, 1992), quality of mother-child…

  10. Infant Distress and Regulatory Behaviors Vary as a Function of Attachment Security Regardless of Emotion Context and Maternal Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Wong, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in infant distress and regulatory behaviors based on the quality of attachment to mother, emotion context (frustration versus fear), and whether or not mothers were actively involved in the emotion-eliciting tasks were examined in a sample of ninety-eight 16-month-old infants and their mothers. Dyads participated in the Strange…

  11. Disorganized Behavior in Adolescent-Parent Interaction: Relations to Attachment State of Mind, Partner Abuse, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obsuth, Ingrid; Hennighausen, Katherine; Brumariu, Laura E.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2014-01-01

    Disoriented, punitive, and caregiving/role-confused attachment behaviors are associated with psychopathology in childhood, but have not been assessed in adolescence. A total of 120 low-income late adolescents (aged 18-23 years) and parents were assessed in a conflict-resolution paradigm. Their interactions were coded with the Goal-Corrected…

  12. Attachment as Moderator of Treatment Outcome in Major Depression: A Randomized Control Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Carolina; Atkinson, Leslie; Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Anxiety and avoidance dimensions of adult attachment insecurity were tested as moderators of treatment outcome for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Fifty-six participants with major depression were randomly assigned to these treatment conditions. Beck Depression Inventory-II, Six-Item Hamilton Rating Scale…

  13. Maternal Discourse, Attachment-Related Risk, and Current Risk Factors: Associations with Maternal Parenting Behavior during Foster Care Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Haight, Wendy L.; Black, James E.; Sokolowski, Margaret Szewczyk; Giorgio, Grace; Tata, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relations among mothers' discourse about experiences in their families of origin and with child protective services (CPS), attachment-related and current risk factors, and the quality of mothers' parenting behavior with their young children during supervised visits. Twenty-nine 2- to 6-year-old children in foster care and their…

  14. The Relation of Attachment Security to Adolescents’ Paternal and Peer Relationships, Depression, and Externalizing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances; McFarland, Christy; McELHANEY, KATHLEEN BOYKIN; Marsh, Penny

    2007-01-01

    The relation of attachment security to multiple domains of psychosocial functioning was examined in a community sample of 167 early adolescents. Security of attachment organization, assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview, was linked to success in establishing autonomy while maintaining a sense of relatedness both with fathers and with peers, even after accounting for predictions from qualities of the mother-teen relationship. Growth curve analyses revealed links of insecurity to increa...

  15. Adolescent beliefs about antisocial behavior : mediators and moderators of links with parental monitoring and attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Dane; Richard Kennedy; Mary Spring; Anthony Volk; Zopito Marini

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined whether parental monitoring and attachment were related to adolescent beliefs about antisocial acts, with temperament, gender, and age considered as potential moderators. A total of 7135 adolescents, ages 14-18 years, completed self-report measures of antisocial beliefs, parental monitoring, attachment security, and temperament. Results indicate that both attachment security and parental monitoring are associated with adolescent beliefs about antisocial behaviour. I...

  16. Bottlenose dolphins modify behavior to reduce metabolic effect of tag attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoop, Julie M; Fahlman, Andreas; Hurst, Thomas; Rocho-Levine, Julie; Shorter, K Alex; Petrov, Victor; Moore, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Attaching bio-telemetry or -logging devices ('tags') to marine animals for research and monitoring adds drag to streamlined bodies, thus affecting posture, swimming gaits and energy balance. These costs have never been measured in free-swimming cetaceans. To examine the effect of drag from a tag on metabolic rate, cost of transport and swimming behavior, four captive male dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were trained to swim a set course, either non-tagged (n=7) or fitted with a tag (DTAG2; n=12), and surface exclusively in a flow-through respirometer in which oxygen consumption VO₂ and carbon dioxide production (VO₂; ml kg(-1) min(-1)) rates were measured and respiratory exchange ratio (VO₂/resting VO₂) was calculated. Tags did not significantly affect individual mass-specific oxygen consumption, physical activity ratios (exercise /resting ), total or net cost of transport (COT; J m(-1) kg(-1)) or locomotor costs during swimming or two-minute recovery phases. However, individuals swam significantly slower when tagged (by ~11%; mean ± s.d., 3.31±0.35 m s(-1)) than when non-tagged (3.73±0.41 m s(-1)). A combined theoretical and computational fluid dynamics model estimating drag forces and power exertion during swimming suggests that drag loading and energy consumption are reduced at lower swimming speeds. Bottlenose dolphins in the specific swimming task in this experiment slowed to the point where the tag yielded no increases in drag or power, while showing no difference in metabolic parameters when instrumented with a DTAG2. These results, and our observations, suggest that animals modify their behavior to maintain metabolic output and energy expenditure when faced with tag-induced drag. PMID:25324344

  17. Behavioral and hormonal effects of attachment object separation in surrogate-peer-reared and mother-reared infant rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J S; Novak, M A; Bowman, R E; Harlow, H F

    1975-09-01

    Mother-reared and surrogate-peer-reared rhesus monkeys were separated from their respective attachment objects at 6 months of age and tested for the following 9 weeks to determine their home-cage behavior and their pituitary-adrenocortical responses to stress. Both groups displayed a strong immediate behavioral response to separation which was characterized by increased vocalization, increased locomotion, and decreased self-play. However, the surrogate-peer-reared infants showed a subsequent recovery in their levels of self-play whereas the mother-reared infants instead developed stereotypic behavior patterns such as repetitive pacing. The 2 groups displayed similar plasma cortisol responses to weekly sessions in an apparatus equipped with animated toy "monsters". Mother-reared but not surrogate-peer-reared subjects, however, also manifested elevated cortisol levels when an animal in an adjacent cage was captured and removed for stress testing. Mother-reared infant monkeys thus responded in a stronger and more prolonged manner to the loss of their attachment object than surrogate-peer-reared infants. These results suggest that infant rhesus monkeys form stronger attachments to monkey mothers than to inanimate surrogate mothers, a phenomenon which has not been as clearly demonstrated using other indices of attachment strength. PMID:817950

  18. Attachment Theory and Theory of Planned Behavior: An Integrative Model Predicting Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D.; Berger, Dale E.; Alvaro, Eusebio M.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that peer and maternal bonds play important but sometimes contrasting roles in the outcomes of children. Less is known about attachment bonds to these 2 reference groups in young adults. Using a sample of 351 participants (18 to 20 years of age), the research integrated two theoretical traditions: attachment theory and theory of…

  19. Client attachment in a randomized clinical trial of psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa: Outcome moderation and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Poulsen, Stig; Lunn, Susanne

    2016-06-01

    In the context of a randomized clinical trial of psychoanalytic psychotherapy (PPT) versus cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa (BN), this study performed secondary analyses of (a) the relation between attachment and pretreatment symptom levels, (b) whether client pretreatment attachment moderated treatment outcome, (c) whether change in client attachment was associated with symptomatic change, and (d) whether client attachment changed differently in the 2 treatments. Sixty-nine women and 1 man of a mean age of 25.8 years diagnosed with BN were randomly assigned to either 2 years of weekly PPT or 5 months of CBT. Assessments at intake, after 5 months, and after 2 years included the Eating Disorder Examination to assess eating disorder symptoms, the Adult Attachment Interview to assess client attachment, and the Symptom Checklist 90-R to assess general psychiatric distress. Repeated measures were analyzed using multilevel analysis. Higher scores on attachment insecurity and attachment preoccupation were associated with more frequent binging pretreatment. Pretreatment attachment did not predict treatment outcome. In PPT, but not in CBT, reduction of binging was associated with an increase in attachment security. The 2 treatment types were not associated with significantly different patterns of attachment-related change. Degree and type of attachment insecurity is related to the frequency of binging in BN. Increase in attachment security may be a treatment-specific mechanism of change in PPT for BN. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950692

  20. Attachment and emotion regulation strategies in juveniles with and without emotional and behavioral disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Beetz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Attachment is the basis for the development of socio-emotional competence, including the adequate regulation of negative emotions. The use of maladaptive strategies in contrast to adaptive strategies of emotion regulation is more frequent in clinical samples. In this study the association of the quality of attachment and emotion regulation strategies was investigated in juveniles (age 12-15 with and without emotional and behavioural disorders. Results show that the more secure the representation of the attachment to the mother and to peers of individuals in the non-clinical group were the more adaptive strategies of emotion regulation and the use of social support they reported. More insecure relationships were related to more maladaptive strategies and emotion control. In the clinical group, only alienation as indicator of an insecure attachment to the mother and to peers was related to maladaptive strategies, emotion control and seeking social support less frequently. The results underline the importance of the quality of attachment for adequate emotion regulation.

  1. Investigating the Effect of Brand Satisfaction, Brand Trust and Brand Attachment on Purchase Behavior of Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Asadollahi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive model that combines brand satisfaction, brand trust and brand attachment perspectives on brands and demonstrate how affect current and future purchases. These researchers used structural equation modeling to test the significance of the overall model and the specified paths. Findings indicate that brand satisfaction is affected by directly by brand trust, current purchase and indirectly by brand attachment. Brand trust is affected by directly by brand attachment and indirectly by future purchase. In contrast, brand attachment is affected by current purchase and future purchase. And finally current purchase is affected by directly by future purchase. The present study did not examine feedback effects and only included consumer categories, no individual differences variables. As such, these researchers recommend that future research examine feedback effects and include additional consumer categories, B2B categories and individual-differences variables such as variety seeking and innovativeness. These researchers recommend that practitioners also use brand relationship measures and develop strategic and tactical initiatives that ensure consumers are satisfied with brand trust and feel attached to a brand. This is a cross-paradigm study and it is the first that combines two separate broad-based perspectives on brands in a simple comprehensive model for researchers and brand managers.

  2. The Adolescent Unresolved Attachment Questionnaire: the assessment of perceptions of parental abdication of caregiving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Rose, S; Spreng, S; Adam, K

    2000-12-01

    This article reports on the Adolescent Unresolved Attachment Questionnaire (AUAQ), a brief questionnaire that assesses the caregiving experiences of unresolved adolescents (as recipients of caregiving). The AUAQ was developed and validated in a large normative sample (n = 691) and a sample of 133 adolescents in psychiatric treatment. It is a self-report questionnaire consisting of 3 scales with Likert-type responses ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The Aloneness/Failed Protection Scale assesses the adolescent's perception of the care provided by the attachment figure. The Fear Scale taps the fear generated by the adolescent's appraisal of failed attachment figure care. The Anger/Dysregulation Scale assesses negative affective responses to the perceived lack of care from the attachment figure. All scales demonstrated satisfactory internal reliability and agreement between scores for adolescents (n = 91) from the normative sample who completed the AUAQ twice. Adolescents in the clinical sample also completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1984/1985/1996); the AUAQ demonstrated high convergent validity with the AAI. PMID:11117104

  3. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who w...

  4. The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

  5. Using sutures to attach miniature tracking tags to small bats for multimonth movement and behavioral studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Kevin T; Weller, Theodore J; Cryan, Paul M; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R

    2015-07-01

    Determining the detailed movements of individual animals often requires them to carry tracking devices, but tracking broad-scale movement of small bats (bat dispersal and migration, particularly in the context of emerging conservation issues such as fatalities at wind turbines and diseases. We tested a novel method of attaching lightweight global positioning system (GPS) tags and geolocating data loggers to small bats. We used monofilament, synthetic, absorbable sutures to secure GPS tags and data loggers to the skin of anesthetized big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Colorado and hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) in California. GPS tags and data loggers were sutured to 17 bats in this study. Three tagged bats were recaptured 7 months after initial deployment, with tags still attached; none of these bats showed ill effects from the tag. No severe injuries were apparent upon recapture of 6 additional bats that carried tags up to 26 days after attachment; however, one of the bats exhibited skin chafing. Use of absorbable sutures to affix small tracking devices seems to be a safe, effective method for studying movements of bats over multiple months, although additional testing is warranted. This new attachment method has the potential to quickly advance our understanding of small bats, particularly as more sophisticated miniature tracking devices (e.g., satellite tags) become available. PMID:26306181

  6. Attachment as an Organizational Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Waters, Everett

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the conflict between situational influences and stable individual differences in attachment behavior and attempts to resolve this conflict by examining the functions, outcomes, and context sensitivity of attachment behavior and the underlying behavioral control systems that organize it. (JMB)

  7. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…

  8. Autonomic, Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Correlates of Paternal Behavior in Male Prairie Voles

    OpenAIRE

    Kenkel, William M.; Suboc, Gessa; Carter, C. Sue

    2014-01-01

    Socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are biparental and alloparental. In the present study, we compared behavioral, cardiovascular and neuroendocrine parameters in male prairie voles with experience caring for pups (Fathers), versus reproductively inexperienced Virgin males. Father and Virgins showed generally similar responses to unrelated pups. However, in Fathers studied prior to and during pup exposure, heart rate was lower and respiratory sinus arrhythmia tended to be...

  9. Effect of growth conditions and staining procedure upon the subsurface transport and attachment behaviors of a groundwater protist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R.W.; Mayberry, N.; Kinner, N.E.; Metge, D.W.; Novarino, F.

    2002-01-01

    The transport and attachment behaviors of Spumella guttula (Kent), a nanoflagellate (protist) found in contaminated and uncontaminated aquifer sediments in Cape Cod, Mass., were assessed in flowthrough and static columns and in a field injection-and-recovery transport experiment involving an array of multilevel samplers. Transport of S. guttula harvested from low-nutrient (10 mg of dissolved organic carbon per liter), slightly acidic, granular (porous) growth media was compared to earlier observations involving nanoflagellates grown in a traditional high-nutrient liquid broth. In contrast to the highly retarded (retardation factor of ???3) subsurface transport previously reported for S. guttula, the peak concentration of porous-medium-grown S. guttula traveled concomitantly with that of a conservative (bromide) tracer. About one-third of the porous-medium-grown nanoflagellates added to the aquifer were transported at least 2.8 m downgradient, compared to only ???2% of the broth-grown nanoflagellates. Flowthrough column studies revealed that a vital (hydroethidine [HE]) staining procedure resulted in considerably less attachment (more transport) of S. guttula in aquifer sediments than did a staining-and-fixation procedure involving 4???,6???-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and glutaraldehyde. The calculated collision efficiency (???10-2. for porous-medium-grown, DAPI-stained nanoflagellates) was comparable to that observed earlier for the indigenous community of unattached ground-water bacteria that serve as prey. The attachment of HE-labeled S. guttula onto aquifer sediment grains was independent of pH (over the range from pH 3 to 9) suggesting a primary attachment mechanism that may be fundamentally different from that of their prey bacteria, which exhibit sharp decreases in fractional attachment with increasing pH. The high degree of mobility of S. guttula in the aquifer sediments has important ecological implications for the protistan community within the

  10. Changes in Parenting Behaviors, Attachment, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation in Attachment-Based Family Therapy for Depressive and Suicidal Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpigel, Maya S.; Diamond, Gary M.; Diamond, Guy S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) was associated with decreases in maternal psychological control and increases in maternal psychological autonomy granting, and whether such changes were associated with changes in adolescents' attachment schema and psychological symptoms. Eighteen suicidal adolescents and their…

  11. 高尔夫球手功能依赖和情感依恋与购后行为关系研究%A study on relationships among golfers' functional attachment,emotional attachment and after-purchase behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴克祥; 张园园; 蒙小育

    2013-01-01

    本研究根据“场所依恋”理论,利用结构方程模型(SEM)对高尔夫球手的球场依恋与购后行为之间的关系进行了分析.结果表明,场所依恋与购后行为之间存在显著的正相关关系,而且与其它场所不同,球手对高尔夫球场的依恋感主要源自功能依赖,而情感依恋的作用力相对较弱,需要借助满意度的中介作用才能对球手的购后行为产生影响,且满意度所起的中介作用并不明显.%This study took the Place Attachment as theoretical basis and used SEM to explore relationships among golfers' functional attachment,place attachment and after-purchase behaviors.Results showed that there was a positive correlation between golfers' place attachment and after-purchase behaviors.Besides,functional attachment played a more apparent and direct role in affecting the after-purchase behaviors than emotional attachment.The golfers' emotional attachment held on weaker power and it could act on the after-purchase behaviors with the intermediary function of satisfaction.However,satisfaction did not play a significant role in intermediation.

  12. The impact of parental self-esteem and parental rearing behavior on adolescent attachment to parents

    OpenAIRE

    Anbo Yang

    2011-01-01

    In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU(Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980), the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998), and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965). The results suggested that parental global self-esteem ...

  13. The Influence of Place Attachment and Experience Use History on Perceived Depreciative Visitor Behavior and Crowding in an Urban National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Renate; Arnberger, Arne

    2012-10-01

    Research on recreational place attachment suggests that place identity, or the emotional/symbolic ties people have to places, and place dependence, which describes a functional attachment to a specific place, influence the perception of social and environmental site conditions. Recent research, however, has found that place attachment is not always a predictor of such perceptions. This study investigated the influence of place attachment and experience use history on the perception of depreciative visitor behavior, recreation impacts and crowding in an urban national park. In 2006, 605 on-site visitors to the heavily-used Viennese part of the Danube Floodplains National Park were asked about past experience, place attachment, perceptions of depreciative visitor behavior, crowding, changes in visitor numbers during the past ten years, and recreation impacts on wildlife. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two dimensions of place attachment. Linear regression analyses found that place identity and place dependence were related to some perceived depreciative visitor behaviors and visitor number changes but not to crowding, while experience use history additionally related to perceived crowding. Visitors with higher place attachment and past experience were more sensitive to social and environmental site conditions. Management implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. Specifying the Neurobiological Basis of Human Attachment: Brain, Hormones, and Behavior in Synchronous and Intrusive Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Atzil, Shir; Hendler, Talma; Feldman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The mother–infant bond provides the foundation for the infant's future mental health and adaptation and depends on the provision of species-typical maternal behaviors that are supported by neuroendocrine and motivation-affective neural systems. Animal research has demonstrated that natural variations in patterns of maternal care chart discrete profiles of maternal brain–behavior relationships that uniquely shape the infant's lifetime capacities for stress regulation and social affiliation. Su...

  15. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  16. Discovery of room-temperature spin-glass behaviors in two-dimensional oriented attached single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji; Chen, Kezheng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, room-temperature spin-glass behaviors were observed in flake-like oriented attached hematite (α-Fe2O3) and iron phosphate hydroxide hydrate (Fe5(PO4)4(OH)3·2H2O) single crystals. Remarkably, their coercivity (HC) values were found to be almost invariable at various given temperatures from 5 to 300 K. The spin topographic map in these flakes was assumed as superparamagnetic (SPM) "islands" isolated by spin glass (SG)-like "bridges". A spin-glass model was then proposed to demonstrate the spin frustration within these "bridges", which were formed by the staggered atomic planes in the uneven surfaces belonging to different attached nanoparticles. Under the spatial limitation and coupling shield of these "bridges", the SPM "islands" were found to be collectively frozen to form a superspin glass (SSG) state below 80 K in weak applied magnetic fields; whereas, when strong magnetic fields were applied, the magnetic coupling of these "islands" would become superferromagnetic (SFM) through tunneling superexchange, so that, these SFM spins could antiferromagnetically couple with the SG-like "bridges" to yield pronounced exchange bias (EB) effect.

  17. Early attachment behavior in mother-infant dyad: a study on Maternal Physical Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Bembich, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study, is to compare the extent and types of physical proximity and contact between mothers and infants across different countries during the early child stage of life, and to discuss how those activities are modulated by contrasting cultural styles. We have compared the way in which mothers are physical engaged with their children in different societies, to investigate similarities and differences in the physical and proximal maternal behaviors, selecting 5 different coun...

  18. Specifying the neurobiological basis of human attachment: brain, hormones, and behavior in synchronous and intrusive mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzil, Shir; Hendler, Talma; Feldman, Ruth

    2011-12-01

    The mother-infant bond provides the foundation for the infant's future mental health and adaptation and depends on the provision of species-typical maternal behaviors that are supported by neuroendocrine and motivation-affective neural systems. Animal research has demonstrated that natural variations in patterns of maternal care chart discrete profiles of maternal brain-behavior relationships that uniquely shape the infant's lifetime capacities for stress regulation and social affiliation. Such patterns of maternal care are mediated by the neuropeptide Oxytocin and by stress- and reward-related neural systems. Human studies have similarly shown that maternal synchrony--the coordination of maternal behavior with infant signals--and intrusiveness--the excessive expression of maternal behavior--describe distinct and stable maternal styles that bear long-term consequences for infant well-being. To integrate brain, hormones, and behavior in the study of maternal-infant bonding, we examined the fMRI responses of synchronous vs intrusive mothers to dynamic, ecologically valid infant videos and their correlations with plasma Oxytocin. In all, 23 mothers were videotaped at home interacting with their infants and plasma OT assayed. Sessions were micro-coded for synchrony and intrusiveness. Mothers were scanned while observing several own and standard infant-related vignettes. Synchronous mothers showed greater activations in the left nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and intrusive mothers exhibited higher activations in the right amygdala. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that among synchronous mothers, left NAcc and right amygdala were functionally correlated with emotion modulation, theory-of-mind, and empathy networks. Among intrusive mothers, left NAcc and right amygdala were functionally correlated with pro-action areas. Sorting points into neighborhood (SPIN) analysis demonstrated that in the synchronous group, left NAcc and right amygdala activations showed clearer

  19. Long-term effects of infant attachment organization on adult behavior and health in nursery-reared, captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, A.; Bloomsmith, M.; Bard, Kim; Maple, T. L.; Marr, M J

    2015-01-01

    This research traces the long-term effects on health, well-being, personality, and behavior of adult chimpanzees as a function of their attachment to a primary human caregiver assessed when they were 1 year of age (van IJzendoorn, Bard, Bakermans-Kranenburg & Ivan, 2009). Of the 46 chimpanzees assessed at 1 year of age, we assessed health in 43 individuals, adult behavior in 20 individuals, and adult well-being and personality in 21 individuals. Attachment disorganization was found to be a si...

  20. Variation in Oxytocin Receptor Density in the Nucleus Accumbens has Differential Effects on Affiliative Behaviors in Monogamous and Polygamous Voles

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Heather E.; Freeman, Sara M.; Spiegel, Lauren L.; Ren, Xianghui; Terwilliger, Ernest F.; Young, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Oxytocin receptors in the nucleus accumbens have been implicated in the regulation of alloparental behavior and pair bond formation in the socially monogamous prairie vole. Oxytocin receptor density in the nucleus accumbens is positively correlated with alloparenting in juvenile and adult female prairie voles, and oxytocin receptor antagonist infused into the nucleus accumbens blocks this behavior. Furthermore, prairie voles have higher densities of oxytocin receptors in the accumbens than no...

  1. Developmental effects of vasotocin and nonapeptide receptors on early social attachment and affiliative behavior in the zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nicole M; Sklar, Nathan C; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    Zebra finches demonstrate selective affiliation between juvenile offspring and parents, which, like affiliation between pair partners, is characterized by proximity, vocal communication and contact behaviors. This experiment tested the hypothesis that the nonapeptide arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homologue of vasopressin) and nonapeptide receptors play a role prior to fledging in the development of affiliative behavior. Zebra finch hatchlings of both sexes received daily intracranial injections (post-hatch days 2-8) of either AVT, Manning Compound (MC, a potent V1a receptor antagonist) or saline (vehicle control). The social development of both sexes was assessed by measuring responsiveness to isolation from the family and subsequent reunion with the male parent after fledging. In addition, we assessed the changes in affiliation with the parents, unfamiliar males, and unfamiliar females each week throughout juvenile development. Compared to controls, MC subjects showed decreased attachment to the parents and MC males did not show the normal increase in affiliative interest in opposite sex individuals as they reached reproductive maturity. In contrast, AVT subjects showed a sustained affiliative interest in parents throughout development, and males showed increased interest in opposite sex conspecifics as they matured. These results provide the first evidence suggesting that AVT and nonapeptide receptors play organizational roles in social development in a bird. PMID:26476409

  2. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    OpenAIRE

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented...

  3. Attachment in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Examination of Separation and Reunion Behaviors with both Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca L.; Luyster, Rhiannon; Spencer, Amelia Gunn; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Most studies examining attachment in children with autism spectrum disorder used a strange situation paradigm and have found few significant group differences between children with autism spectrum disorder and comparisons. However, these studies predominantly used formal attachment categorizations (e.g. secure vs insecure), a method that may…

  4. How do relationships support parenting? Effects of attachment style and social support on parenting behavior in an at-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Beth L; Furrer, Carrie; McAllister, Carol

    2007-09-01

    The importance of supportive relationships for new parents has been the focus of both research and parenting interventions. Attachment style, typically viewed as a relatively stable trait reflecting one's comfort in social relationships, as well as social support, or one's perception of the social context, have both been found to be important for fostering engaged, involved parenting. Less is known, however, about how these variables work together to influence parenting behavior, especially in families at higher risk for negative child outcomes. Data were collected from 152 urban, predominantly African American, low-income parents when their children were 14 and 36 months of age. Results suggest that parents with more social support show greater increases in the frequency of positive parent-child activities over time, but that this effect is mediated by mothers' attachment style, specifically, their level of anxious/ambivalent attachment. Mothers with more social support tended to be less anxious/ambivalent about close relationships, and this in turn led to increases over time in the frequency of parent-child interactions. Mothers' tendency to avoid close relationships, however, while correlated with social support, was unrelated to changes in parenting behavior. Implications of these findings for program development, parenting, and the malleability of attachment style based on social context are discussed. PMID:17610062

  5. Interaction of recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing behavior with current attachment and emotional dysfunction in adult offspring with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel, Marc-Andreas; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2010-06-30

    Research into attachment and emotion regulation has shown that children with ADHD are at risk of developing attachment disorders and emotion regulation disturbances, which in part may be due to the rearing style of their parents. No such data exists for adults with persistent ADHD. We hypothesized that current attachment style and emotion processing of adult patients with ADHD may be influenced by the presence of parental ADHD symptoms when the now adult patients were children, assuming that ADHD symptoms of parents have an impact on their parenting style. We examined recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing style as well as current attachment and emotion regulation abilities in a sample of 73 adults with ADHD using several self-rating instruments. Recalled prevalence of ADHD symptoms in the mother, and less so in the father, of adult patients with ADHD was significantly associated with partly adverse parental rearing styles, current attachment problems in romantic partnerships and emotion regulation disturbances compared with adult ADHD patients without possibly affected parent. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with ADHD may present a risk factor for attachment problems and poor emotion regulation when ADHD children are grown. PMID:20452044

  6. Product Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and the relationship between product attachment and product lifetime. In addition, we studied which determinants may affect the strength of the emotional bond with products and uncovered the role of the ...

  7. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and th

  8. Attachment of linear poly(amido amine) to silica surface and evaluation of metal-binding behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation reports preparation of two new adsorbent materials, SiPOLHET and SiPOLHOM, by attachment of linear poly(amido amine) (PAA) to silica surface by adopting heterogeneous and homogeneous modification procedures, respectively. Their structures were characterized by FTIR, 13C and 29Si NMR spectroscopy. Surface morphologies and corresponding elemental composition were determined by using SEM and EDS techniques. The metal binding characteristics of the adsorbents towards Cu2+ and Ni2+ were studied in dilute aqueous solution which presents an interesting aspect of increasing trend.

  9. Study of Anode Attachment Behavior and Its Influence on Plasma Jet in Water-Argon Plasma Torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chumak, Oleksiy; Hrabovský, Milan; Kopecký, Vladimír; Konrád, Miloš

    Brno: Department of Power Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Technology Brno, 2003 - (Gross, B.; Vávra, Z.; Bartl, J.), s. 44-47 ISBN 80-214-2307-2. [Symposium on Physics of Schwitching Arc/15th./. Nové Město na Moravě (CZ), 22.09.2003-26.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1057202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : DC Torch, anode attachment, restrike Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  10. Theoretical Study on the Dynamic Behavior of a Plate-Like Micro-Cantilever with Multiple Particles Attached.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Wang, Fei; Zhang, YanLing; Zhao, Xuezeng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the dynamic characteristics of a plate-like micro-cantilever beam attached with multiple concentrated masses are studied. The vibration modes of the cantilever plate are represented by combinations of beam functions. Using classical mechanics (the effect of size is not considered) and the corrected Cosserat's theorem (the effect of size is considered), we employ the Lagrange equations to establish a dynamic model of the plate-like micro-cantilever beam attached with multiple concentrated masses. The accuracy of the model proposed in this paper is verified by comparing with the results of published literature. Then, the natural frequencies of the cantilever plates are calculated with self-compiled algorithms, and the results of the plates with 1-5 masses are displayed. The results are in high accordance with the exact solution, and all errors are within 0.5%. The analysis shows that the proposed model and analysis method converges quickly and is highly efficient. In addition, the effects of characteristic lengths, Poisson's ratios and plate thickness on the micro-cantilever plate's resonant frequency for the first five modes are analyzed. PMID:27023056

  11. Development of a noncontact heart rate monitoring system for sedentary behavior based on an accelerometer attached to a chair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although people spend a third of their day engaged in sedentary activities, research on heart activity during sitting is almost nonexistent because of the discomfort experienced when electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement electrodes are attached to the body. Accordingly, in this study, a system was developed to monitor heart rate (HR) in a noncontact and unconstrained way while subjects were seated, by attaching an accelerometer on the backrest of a chair. Acceleration signals were obtained three times from 20 healthy adults, a detection algorithm was applied, and HR detection performance was evaluated by comparing the R-peak values from the ECG. The system had excellent performance results, with a sensitivity of 96.10% and a positive predictive value of 96.43%. In addition, the HR calculated by the new system developed in this study was compared with HR calculated using ECG. The new system exhibited excellent performance; its results were strongly correlated with that of ECG (r = 0.97, p ≪ 0.0001; average difference of −0.08  ±  4.60 [mean ± 1.96∙standard deviation] in Bland–Altman analysis). Accordingly, the method presented in this study is expected to be applicable for evaluating diverse autonomic nervous system components in a noncontact and unconstrained way using an accelerometer to monitor the HR of sedentary workers or adolescents. (note)

  12. Comparison of transport and attachment behaviors of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and oocyst-sized microspheres being advected through three minerologically different granular porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanram, A.; Ray, C.; Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Ryan, J.N.; Chorover, J.; Eberl, D.D.

    2010-01-01

    In order to gain more information about the fate of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in tropical volcanic soils, the transport and attachment behaviors of oocysts and oocyst-sized polystyrene microspheres were studied in the presence of two soils. These soils were chosen because of their differing chemical and physical properties, i.e., an organic-rich (43-46% by mass) volcanic ash-derived soil from the island of Hawaii, and a red, iron (22-29% by mass), aluminum (29-45% by mass), and clay-rich (68-76% by mass) volcanic soil from the island of Oahu. A third agricultural soil, an organic- (13% by mass) and quartz-rich (40% by mass) soil from Illinois, was included for reference. In 10-cm long flow-through columns, oocysts and microspheres advecting through the red volcanic soil were almost completely (98% and 99%) immobilized. The modest breakthrough resulted from preferential flow-path structure inadvertently created by soil-particle aggregation during the re-wetting process. Although a high (99%) removal of oocysts and microsphere within the volcanic ash soil occurred initially, further examination revealed that transport was merely retarded because of highly reversible interactions with grain surfaces. Judging from the slope of the substantive and protracted tail of the breakthrough curve for the 1.8-??m microspheres, almost all (>99%) predictably would be recovered within ~4000 pore volumes. This suggests that once contaminated, the volcanic ash soil could serve as a reservoir for subsequent contamination of groundwater, at least for pathogens of similar size or smaller. Because of the highly reversible nature of organic colloid immobilization in this soil type, C. parvum could contaminate surface water should overland flow during heavy precipitation events pick up near-surface grains to which they are attached. Surprisingly, oocyst and microsphere attachment to the reference soil from Illinois appeared to be at least as sensitive to changes in pH as was observed

  13. Effects of neonatal oxytocin manipulation on development of social behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Kazutaka; Ooyama, Rumi; Nagasawa, Miho; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2014-06-22

    The oxytocin (OT) neural system is thought to be involved in the underlying mechanisms that guide the development of social behaviors. In the present study, we examined the effects of neonatal oxytocin manipulation in mice. Within 24 hours after birth, pups in the treatment group randomly received an intraperitoneal injection of OT or OT antagonist (OTA), and those in the control group received a saline injection or handling only. Some of these mice underwent a test that counted the number of isolation-induced ultrasound vocalizations they made on postnatal day 6, and they were further tested for sociability at 8-9 weeks of age and for neuroendocrine stress response to novel environments at 19-20 weeks of age. Another group of mice was tested for alloparental responsiveness at 13-15 weeks of age. The OT injection affected sociability and alloparental responsiveness. In an approach/avoidance test, most of the mice made a social approach to an unfamiliar conspecific of the same sex, but females that had received a neonatal injection of 3 μg of OTA did not show this response. The neonatal OTA treatment appeared to inhibit females' sociability in a dose-dependent fashion. In a retrieving test, females that had received a neonatal injection of 3 μg of OT retrieved significantly more pups than did those that had received 3 μg of OTA, although neither of the treatments caused the females to behave significantly differently from control group females. Meanwhile, a neonatal injection of 3 μg of OTA increased the latency to retrieve pups in males. These results suggested that neonatal OT action may positively regulate alloparental responsiveness in adulthood. Considering that the organizational effects of OT have also been shown in voles and rats, the mechanism by which neonatal OT modifies the development of social behaviors appears to be common to all rodents. PMID:24857720

  14. Oxytocin enhances the experience of attachment security

    OpenAIRE

    Buchheim, Anna; Heinrichs, Markus; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Koops, Eva; Henningsen, Peter; O’Connor, Mary-Frances; Gundel, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Repeated interactions between infant and caregiver result in either secure or insecure relationship attachment patterns, and insecure attachment may affect individual emotion-regulation and health. Given that oxytocin enhances social approach behavior in animals and humans, we hypothesized that oxytocin might also promote the experience of attachment security in humans. Within a 3-week interval 26 healthy male students classified with an insecure attachment pattern were invited twice to an ex...

  15. 团体体育游戏改善幼儿不安全依恋行为的个案研究%A Case Study of Group Sports Games on Improving Children’s Unsafe Attachment Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩流; 李丹

    2015-01-01

    通过团体体育游戏对不安全依恋幼儿进行干预实验,被试为来自大连市 HYL婴幼园的3名托班幼儿。从依恋理论出发,通过个案研究的方法,探讨团体体育游戏干预方法在早期不安全依恋儿童中的应用情况。研究结果显示,团体体育游戏对幼儿在语言认知、情绪情感、社会交往和人格发展等方面存在的不安全依恋行为均具有积极的干预作用。%This study makes intervention experiment on children’s unsafe attachement behavior through group sports games for the first time .The subjects are 3 kindergarten child from Dalian HYL kindergarten .From the points of attachment theory ,through the method of case study ,this paper explores the application of group sports games intervention methods on chil‐dren’s early unsafe attachment behavior .The result shows that the group sports games have positive influence on unsafe attachment behavior existing in the children’s language cognition , emotion ,social communication and personality development .

  16. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  17. 儿童依恋、移情与攻击性行为的关系%The Relationship of Children's Attachment and Empathy with Aggressive Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵欢欢; 张和云; 王福兴; 周宗奎

    2012-01-01

    攻击性行为是一种不良的社会性行为。儿童攻击性行为的发生是一个涉及诸多因素共同影响的复杂过程.其中依恋和移情是影响攻击性行为的两个重要因素。通过分析近年来有关依恋或移情的单一因素与攻击性行为之间关系的研究.认为儿童依恋和移情通过复杂的作用共同抑制攻击性行为的发生。未来研究应该在概念界定、研究方法、测量方法以及研究领域及指标等方面进一步完善,以更好地探索儿童攻击性行为的深层机制。%Aggressive behavior is a negative social behavior. The occurrence of children's aggressive behav- ior is a complicated process which involves many factors; attachment and empathy are included. Many pre- vious studies explained aggressive behavior from attachment or empathy. However, attachment and empathy may generate a composite force through complex effects and restrain the occurrence of aggressive behavior. It will be necessary to explore the deeper mechanisms of children's aggressive behavior via making more improvement in terms of concepts, research method, measurements and research fields in future research.

  18. Adult Attachment and Psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rietzschel, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the association between adult attachment and psychological therapy by examining attachment as an outcome variable of therapy, as well as a predictor of therapy outcome. The literature review systematically explores research that has examined changes in attachment representations during psychological therapy. The purpose of the review is to enhance understanding of change processes in adult attachment and to provide empirical support to the premises of attachment theory. I...

  19. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  20. Partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmann, Peter R; Finch, Holmes; Parnell, Michele M; Downer, Jason T

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics in 134 nonclinical couples in long-term marriages. Irrespective of gender, spouses with greater anxiety over abandonment or discomfort with closeness endorsed dysfunctional relationship beliefs to a greater extent. On the anxiety over abandonment dimension, husbands with higher scores were rated less aggressive, less controlling, and more rebellious, whereas wives with higher scores were rated more dependent, more self-critical, and less competitive. Husbands higher on discomfort with closeness were rated less cooperative and responsible and were rated more aggressive and rebellious. Matched secure couples reported lower marital dissatisfaction than matched insecure or mismatched couples. Future research should contrast samples of nonclinical and clinical couples by marital duration to identify specific partner behaviors that are likely to foster marital dissatisfaction within particular attachment pairings. The authors' findings suggest the importance of marital therapists being attuned to the attachment-related beliefs and interpersonal styles uniquely operating within each couple. PMID:23252639

  1. Attachment theory: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.

  2. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  3. Electron-attachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics covered include: (1) modes of production of negative ions, (2) techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, (3) dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules, (4) dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), (5) molecular parent negative ions, and (6) negative ions formed by ion-pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms

  4. Attachment Without Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, o...

  5. The fourth pattern of attachment: Disorganized / disoriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment behavior, the author answers the following questions about: the behavior children categorized as Disorganized/disorientated or Controlling in the procedure of the Strange situation; the life circumstances, in which these children live; the reasons for lack of balanced strategies of attachment and characteristics of their general manner of adaptation. The author finds the characteristics of the mothers' (insensitivity to be significantly influential for the emergence of the fourth pattern of attachment. These children are heterogeneous regarding adaptation in general. Professional help preceding negative consequences for their socioemotional development is neccesary.

  6. Precision Attachment: Retained Overdenture

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasree, K; Mrs.M.Bharathi; Nag, V. Dileep; B. Vinod

    2011-01-01

    Precision attachments are small interlocking devices to connect prosthesis and abutments that offer a variety of solutions to the challenge of balance between functional stability and cosmetic appeal. Precision attachments have wide applications, used in fixed removable bridge, removable partial dentures, overdentures, implant retained overdentures, and maxillofacial prosthesis. Attachment retained overdentures helps in distribution of masticatory forces, minimizes trauma to abutments and sof...

  7. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  8. Association of family factors and parent-child attachment with aggressive behaviors in middle school students%家庭因素及亲子依恋与中学生攻击行为的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾璇; 姚荣英; 袁长江; 李克勤

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation between family factors together with parent-child attachment and the aggressive behaviors in middle school students so as to provide basis for prevention of the behavior. Methods: Two thousand six hundred and twenty-six students from 4 middle schools in Bengbu were investigated with stratified and random cluster sampling method. All the students were surveyed by a self-designed questionnaire, Aggressive Questionnaire and Inventory of Parents. Results: The students' grade, gender, parental occupation, rearing pattern, attitude and parent-child attachment all affected the aggressive behavior of the middle school students to some extent(P <0. 05 to P <0. 01) . Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the main influential factors for middle school students' aggressive behaviors were parental alienation(P <0. 01). Conclusions:The middle school students' aggressive behaviors are related with family factors, and the degree of parent-child attachment and parental alienation are risk factors for the aggressive behaviors of middle school students.%目的:探讨家庭因素及亲子依恋与中学生攻击行为的相关性,为预防和减少中学生攻击行为的发生提供参考依据.方法:采用多阶段分层整群抽样方法抽取蚌埠市4所中学在校学生2 626名,进行问卷调查,调查内容包括自编一般情况调查表、攻击问卷和父母依恋量表.结果:年级、性别、父母的职业、管教方式、教育态度及亲子依恋对中学生攻击行为的发生均有一定影响(P<0.05~P<0.01).多元线性回归分析显示:中学生攻击行为的主要影响因素为母子疏离和父子疏离(P<0.01).结论:中学生攻击性行为与家庭因素及亲子依恋程度均具有一定关系,其中母子疏离和父子疏离为中学生攻击行为的危险因素.

  9. Neurobiology of secure infant attachment and attachment despite adversity: a mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, T.L.; Raineki, C.; Salstein, L.; Perry, R; Wilson, T. A. Sullivan; Sloan, A.; Lalji, B.; Hammock, E.; Wilson, D. A.; Levitt, P; Okutani, F.; Kaba, H. (Harry); R.M. Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Attachment to an abusive caregiver has wide phylogenetic representation, suggesting that animal models are useful in understanding the neural basis underlying this phenomenon and subsequent behavioral outcomes. We previously developed a rat model, in which we use classical conditioning to parallel learning processes evoked during secure attachment (odor-stroke, with stroke mimicking tactile stimulation from the caregiver) or attachment despite adversity (odor-shock, with shock mimicking maltr...

  10. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented from the stand point of pioneers in this field (John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from the standpoint of their successors (Everett Waters and Malcolm West. Compacted ness of the theory, possibilities for operationalization of its key concepts and its application to empirical studies of complex psychological issues that have never been scientifically explored, makes it a very prospective theory in view of possible integration of existing research findings and initiating new research and new practices in psychotherapy, social work and work in schools. The goal of this integral presentation of attachment theory is to highlight its benefits and possibilities for understanding and research complex field of human's psychosocial functioning.

  11. Oxytocin enhances the experience of attachment security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Anna; Heinrichs, Markus; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Koops, Eva; Henningsen, Peter; O’Connor, Mary-Frances; Gundel, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Summary Repeated interactions between infant and caregiver result in either secure or insecure relationship attachment patterns, and insecure attachment may affect individual emotion-regulation and health. Given that oxytocin enhances social approach behavior in animals and humans, we hypothesized that oxytocin might also promote the experience of attachment security in humans. Within a 3-week interval 26 healthy male students classified with an insecure attachment pattern were invited twice to an experimental session. Within each session, a single dose of oxytocin or placebo was administered, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design. In both conditions, subjects completed an attachment task based on the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Thirty-two AAP picture system presentations depicted attachment-related events (e.g. illness, solitude, separation, loss), and were each accompanied by four prototypical phrases representing one secure and three insecure attachment categories. In the oxytocin condition, a significant proportion of these insecure subjects (N = 18; 69%) changed their rankings of “secure attachment” phrases towards the more appropriate for the AAP picture presentation, and the same subjects decreased in overall rating of the “insecure attachment” phrases. In particular, there was a significant decrease in the number of subjects ranking the pictures with “insecure-preoccupied” phrases from the placebo to the oxytocin condition. We find that a single dose of intranasally administered oxytocin is sufficient to induce a significant increase in the experience of attachment security in adults classified previously as insecure. PMID:19457618

  12. Blade attachment assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  13. Attachment to groups: theory and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E R; Murphy, J; Coats, S

    1999-07-01

    Aspects of people's identification with groups may be understood by borrowing theoretical ideas and measurement strategies from research on attachment in close relationships. People have mental models of the self as a group member and of groups as sources of identity and esteem. These models affect thoughts, emotions, and behaviors related to group membership. Three studies show that two dimensions of attachment to groups, attachment anxiety and avoidance, can be assessed with good reliability, validity, and over-time stability. These factors are distinct from relationship attachment and from other measures of group identification. Group attachment predicts several important outcomes, including emotions concerning the group, time and activities shared with a group, social support, collective self-esteem, and ways of resolving conflict. This conceptualization provides new insights into the nature of people's psychological ties to groups. PMID:10434410

  14. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery. PMID:25815400

  15. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  16. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth;

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may be...

  17. Attachment and Early Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L. Alan

    1981-01-01

    Attachment outcomes of 31 maltreatment cases (involving extreme neglect or abuse), selected from a total poverty sample of 267 high-risk mothers and their children, were compared to those of a subsample of 33 cases with a history of excellent care. Attachment was assessed when infants were 12 and 18 months old. (Author/MP)

  18. Investigating the Effect of Consumer’s Risk Aversion and Product Involvement on their Brand Loyalty and Word of Mouth Behavior: The Mediating Role of Brand Attachment and Brand Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Bahrainizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly competitive markets, brand loyalty is a central element of marketingstrategies and tactics. Therefore, the sources of loyalty and the processes through which it isestablished is becoming central concern of marketers. The purpose of this study is to explorethe relationship between the consumer’s risk aversion and product involvement with theirbrand loyalty and positive word of mouth behaviors and also to test empirically whether thisrelationship is mediated by brand trust and brand attachment. Required data were collectedthrough a questionnaire survey among female consumers that used cosmetic products.Questionnaires were distributed among consumers in Yazd, Shiraz, and Bushehr cities.Structural Equation Modeling and path analysis were used to test the hypothesized model.The results of this study indicate that consumer’s product involvement has significant effectdirectly on brand loyalty and positive word of mouth and also indirectly through brand trustand brand attachment. The results also indicate that the effect of consumers risk aversion onbrand loyalty and positive word of mouth is mediated through brand trust and brand loyalty.

  19. Investigating the effect of consumer’s risk aversion and product involvement on their brand loyalty and word of mouth behavior: the mediating role of brand attachment and brand trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    manijeh Bahrainizadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly competitive markets, brand loyalty is a central element of marketing strategies and tactics. Therefore, the sources of loyalty and the processes through which it is established is becoming central concern of marketers. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the consumer’s risk aversion and product involvement with their brand loyalty and positive word of mouth behaviors and also to test empirically whether this relationship is mediated by brand trust and brand attachment. Required data were collected through a questionnaire survey among female consumers that used cosmetic products. Questionnaires were distributed among consumers in Yazd, Shiraz, and Bushehr cities. Structural Equation Modeling and path analysis were used to test the hypothesized model. The results of this study indicate that consumer’s product involvement has significant effect directly on brand loyalty and positive word of mouth and also indirectly through brand trust and brand attachment. The results also indicate that the effect of consumers risk aversion on brand loyalty and positive word of mouth is mediated through brand trust and brand loyalty.

  20. Attachment and Psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between therapy outcome, the therapeutic alliance and both patient and therapist attachment styles. 14 therapists and 27 patients participated. 78.57% (n = 11) therapists and 29.63% (n = 8) patients were classified as securely attached by self-report measures. It was predicted that more patients of secure therapists would show clinically significant improvement as determined by CORE-OM scores. However, 21.05% of patients with a secure atta...

  1. Attachment to land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a first study on attachment to national and sacred land and land as a protected value. A measure of attachment to the land of Israel is developed and administered to two groups, Jewish college students in Israel and the United States. Levels of land attachment are high and not significantly different in the two groups, with a great deal of variation. Land may become more important through being inhabited by a group over centuries. This is a positive contagion effect, and is opposed in some cases by negative contagion produced when the ``enemies'' live on the land for some period of time. We demonstrate a significant correlation of positive contagion sensitivity with attachment to the land of Israel. Unlike many other cases of the interaction of positive and negative contagion, negative contagion does not overwhelm positive contagion in the domain of land attachment. We also present evidence for linkages between political positions, religiosity, importance of Israel, Arab aversion, and vulnerability of Israel with attachment to land, but these do not fully account for the contagion effects. A number of significant differences between Israelis and Americans are described.

  2. 亲子依恋、学校联结对初中生攻击性行为的影响%The Influence of Parent -adolescent Attachment and School Connectedness on Early Adolescents’ Aggressive Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦萍; 李董平; 张卫

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influences and its’ mechanisms which parent -adolescent attachment and school connectedness on junior middle school students ’ aggressive behaviors .Methods :We randomly selected 697 students ;with the self -made questionnaire“adolescents’ aggressive behaviors questionnaire” ,“IPPA” ,“school con-nectedness questionnaire” and“normative beliefs questionnaire” ,we took a concentrate survey .Results:① The main effects of gender (Wilks’λ=0 9.1 ,P<0 0.01)and grade(Wilks’λ=0 9.8 ,P<0 0.1)were both significant .Boys’ phys-ical aggressions was significantly higher than girls” ,but the relational aggressions was contrary .The third grade students’ relational aggressive behaviors was more than first grade students’ significantly ,but there were no signifi-cant differences between other grades .②Parent-adolescent attachment and school connectedness negatively predica-ted early adolescents’ aggressive behaviors .Normative beliefs about aggression also negatively predicated early ado-lescents’ aggressive behaviors ,and beliefs -behavior associations were specific to aggression forms (β= -0 1.9 ,-0 2.1 ,-0 2.1 ,-0 2.7;Ps<0 0.01) .③Parent-adolescent attachment not only directly influenced the physical and rela-tional aggression ,but also indirectly affected it through school connectedness ;School connectedness only indirectly affected aggressive behaviors through beliefs .Conclusion:Parent -adolescent attachment not only directly influences the aggression ,but also indirectly affects it through school connectedness S.chool connectedness indirectly affects ag-gressive behaviors through beliefs .%目的:考察亲子依恋、学校联结对初中生攻击性行为的影响及其作用机制。方法:以整群抽样的方法选取初中生697名;用青少年攻击行为量表、亲子依恋问卷(IPPA )、学校联结量表、攻击行为规范信念量表进行测查。

  3. Adult Attachment Styles: Relations with Emotional Well-Being, Marriage, and Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L.; Notaro, Paul C.; Larsen, Joelle J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the pairings of adult attachment styles among married couples raising young children. There was no relation between adult attachment styles, parenting behavior, and the security of infant/parent attachments. Future work would benefit by focusing on the dyadic constellations of adult attachment styles and their implications for family…

  4. The effects of aging time on the size, morphology, oriented attachment and magnetic behavior of hematite nanocrystals synthesized by forced hydrolysis of FeIII solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Three-dimensional (3-D) nanoarchitectures composed of self-organized hematite nanocrystals were successfully prepared by thermally induced hydrolysis of iron (III) solutions in the presence of urea and without additional stabilizers. The size, morphology and microstructure of these nanocrystal aggregates were investigated as a function of aging time using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The evolution of the microstructural parameters, including crystallite size, root mean square strain and lattice parameters, was analyzed by the Rietveld method using the MAUD software program and adopting the size–strain–shape Popa model. In addition, vibrating-sample magnetometry measurements were carried out to examine the magnetic behavior of the nanoarchitectures. These studies suggested that the formation mechanism of the observed nanoarchitectures consisted of several self-organization processes linked in hierarchical levels. The nanocrystals within these nanoarchitectures grew in size by Ostwald ripening and subsequent grain growth when they were aged at 98 °C in tightly capped tubes for an aging time that varied from 2 h up to 45 days. The crystal morphology evolved favoring a rhombohedral shape until intergrowth between the densely packed nanocrystals occurred. Consequently, the morphology of the nanoarchitectures, their effective magnetic anisotropy, the occurrence of the Morin transition and the exchange bias effect were also strongly dependent on the aging time

  5. Fuel rod attachment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reusable system for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. A locking cap is secured to the fuel rod and a locking strip is fastened to the support member or vice versa. The locking cap has two opposing fingers and shaped to form a socket having a body portion. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion. The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip causing the extension to temporarily deflect open the fingers to engage the socket's body portion. For removal, the process is reversed. In an alternative embodiment, the cap is rigid and the strip is transversely resiliently compressible. (author)

  6. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  7. Relationship between deposition and attachment rates in Jacobi room model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown in this work that parameters of the Jacobi model, which describes behavior of short-lived radon progeny, are not independent. The relationship between deposition rate of attached radon progeny and attachment rate of their unattached fraction was determined in this paper. It was found that deposition rate increases when the attachment rate is smaller; this effect is more pronounced for larger friction velocity. The deposition rate of attached radon progeny is presented here as a function of friction velocity, ventilation and attachment rate. Deposition rate of attached fraction was estimated in the range 0.012-0.46 h-1, when attachment rate varies from 10 h-1 to 100 h-1.

  8. Native American Students in U.S. Higher Education: A Look from Attachment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, Demi; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the behavioral patterns of Native American college students in U.S. higher education. Attachment theory is the theoretical framework used in this analysis. Developed by Bowlby ("Attachment and loss: Separation, anxiety and anger," 1973), attachment theory postulates that behaviors can be predicted based on one's…

  9. Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Polymorphisms and Attachment in Human Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Frances S.; Barth, Maria E.; Johnson, Stephen L; Gotlib, Ian H.; Johnson, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Ordinary variations in human infants’ attachment behaviors – their proclivity to seek and accept comfort from caregivers – are associated with a wide range of individual differences in psychological functioning in adults. The current investigation examined variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene as one possible source of these variations in infant attachment. One hundred seventy-six infants (77 Caucasian, 99 non-Caucasian) were classified as securely or insecurely attached based on the...

  10. Attachment and cancer: a conceptual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacón, Anna M

    2002-12-01

    Cancer traditionally has been explained by the biomedical model; however, it is limited in comprehensively accounting for all factors in this disease. Recently, it has been suggested that a broader theoretical framework that includes psychosocial components in cancer is needed to complement the traditional approach. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to explore the utility of attachment theory as a biopsychosocial model of both development and health. Attachment, a developmental theory, explains how repeated interactions between caregiver and child in the early years establish lifelong psychosocial, physiological, affective, and cognitive patterns as well as enduring patterns of stress response to threat or illness. Despite attachment theory's biopsychosocial foundation, the application of attachment security as a factor in physical health and psychosomatic medicine is relatively recent. The current work reviews attachment theory and psychosocial literature with regard to cancer and follows with a novel attempt to conceptually integrate both bodies of literature. A concluding integrative model of attachment theory and the type C behavior pattern is provided to illustrate potential links and integrative processes that may lead to disease resilience or vulnerability. PMID:14664730

  11. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  12. MOWER ATTACHMENT NOISE

    OpenAIRE

    Mosdzianowski, G.

    1990-01-01

    The noise produced by grass mowing attachments fitted to small tractors and combining a number of rotary blades with a total cutting width of up to 120 cm was investigated. The paper develops a noise reduction concept based on an analysis of sound sources.

  13. Neurobiology of secure infant attachment and attachment despite adversity: a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T L; Raineki, C; Salstein, L; Perry, R; Sullivan-Wilson, T A; Sloan, A; Lalji, B; Hammock, E; Wilson, D A; Levitt, P; Okutani, F; Kaba, H; Sullivan, R M

    2013-10-01

    Attachment to an abusive caregiver has wide phylogenetic representation, suggesting that animal models are useful in understanding the neural basis underlying this phenomenon and subsequent behavioral outcomes. We previously developed a rat model, in which we use classical conditioning to parallel learning processes evoked during secure attachment (odor-stroke, with stroke mimicking tactile stimulation from the caregiver) or attachment despite adversity (odor-shock, with shock mimicking maltreatment). Here we extend this model to mice. We conditioned infant mice (postnatal day (PN) 7-9 or 13-14) with presentations of peppermint odor and either stroking or shock. We used (14) C 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) to assess olfactory bulb and amygdala metabolic changes following learning. PN7-9 mice learned to prefer an odor following either odor-stroke or shock conditioning, whereas odor-shock conditioning at PN13-14 resulted in aversion/fear learning. 2-DG data indicated enhanced bulbar activity in PN7-9 preference learning, whereas significant amygdala activity was present following aversion learning at PN13-14. Overall, the mouse results parallel behavioral and neural results in the rat model of attachment, and provide the foundation for the use of transgenic and knockout models to assess the impact of both genetic (biological vulnerabilities) and environmental factors (abusive) on attachment-related behaviors and behavioral development. PMID:23927771

  14. The Attachment Acquisition Process as Evidenced in the Maternal Conditioning of Cued Infant Responding (Particularly Crying)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    1976-01-01

    Behavioral indicators of attachments of children to others are surveyed with emphasis on crying or cued by a mother's departures, separations or absences. Some risks in using single attachment indices are explored. (MS)

  15. Autonomic, behavioral and neuroendocrine correlates of paternal behavior in male prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, William M; Suboc, Gessa; Carter, C Sue

    2014-04-10

    Socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are biparental and alloparental. In the present study, we compared behavioral, cardiovascular and neuroendocrine parameters in male prairie voles with experience caring for pups (Fathers), versus reproductively inexperienced Virgin males. Father and Virgins showed generally similar responses to unrelated pups. However, in the Fathers studied prior to and during pup exposure, heart rate was lower and respiratory sinus arrhythmia tended to be higher than that in Virgins. Fathers also displayed comparatively lower levels of anxiety-related behaviors in an open field test. In Fathers, compared to Virgin males, we also found higher levels of oxytocin-immunoreactivity in the paraventricular hypothalamus and two brainstem regions involved in the autonomic regulation of the heart--the nucleus ambiguus and nucleus tractus solitarius. However, Fathers had less oxytocin in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Vasopressin did not differ significantly in these regions. Fathers also weighed less and had less subcutaneous fat and larger testes as a percentage of bodyweight. In conjunction with earlier findings in this species, the present study supports the hypothesis that oxytocin may be involved in the adaptation to fatherhood. These findings also support the hypothesis that males, with or without prior pup experience, may show simultaneous patterns of behavioral nurturance and autonomic states compatible with mobilization and vigilance. PMID:24534169

  16. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches. PMID:27056466

  17. Turbine nozzle attachment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine.

  18. Observation of attachment ratio of fission products on solution aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attachment behavior of fission products to solution aerosols has been observed to elucidate the role of chemical effects in the generation mechanism of fissionproduct aerosols. Primary aerosols generated from aqueous solution of sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate were passed through a fission-product chamber, and radioactive aerosols were generated by attaching fission products to the primary aerosol particles. Attachment ratios of the fission products on aerosols were estimated from activity measurements. It was found that the attachment ratio of the sodium chloride solution aerosol is larger than that of the ammonium sulfate solution aerosol. (author)

  19. ATTACHMENT, RELATIONAL-NEEDS, AND PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC PRESENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans require the contactful presence of another person who is attuned and responsive to relational-needs. Insecure attachment patterns are the result of repeated disruptions in significant relationships. This article describes eight relational-needs that, when repeatedly unsatisfied, lead to insecure attachment patterns based on the fears of loss of relationship, vulnerability, violation, and invasion.The healing of insecure attachment patterns occurs through a contactful psychotherapeutic presence that occurs when the attitude, behavior and communication of the psychotherapist consistently respects and enhances the client's integrity while responding to relational-needs. The article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011.

  20. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Eduard Scheidt; Elisabeth Waller

    2015-01-01

    Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure di...

  1. Universally Rigid Framework Attachments

    CERN Document Server

    Ratmanski, Kiril

    2010-01-01

    A framework is a graph and a map from its vertices to R^d. A framework is called universally rigid if there is no other framework with the same graph and edge lengths in R^d' for any d'. A framework attachment is a framework constructed by joining two frameworks on a subset of vertices. We consider an attachment of two universally rigid frameworks that are in general position in R^d. We show that the number of vertices in the overlap between the two frameworks must be sufficiently large in order for the attachment to remain universally rigid. Furthermore, it is shown that universal rigidity of such frameworks is preserved even after removing certain edges. Given positive semidefinite stress matrices for each of the two initial frameworks, we analytically derive the PSD stress matrices for the combined and edge-reduced frameworks. One of the benefits of the results is that they provide a general method for generating new universally rigid frameworks.

  2. Attachment, Loss, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reite, Martin; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The influence of 10 days of maternal separation on behavior and physiology was studied in monkey infants. Individual variability in behavioral and physiological response was marked and showed only minimal correlation with measures of early behavioral development and early mother-infant interaction. Implications for understanding pathophysiology of…

  3. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

    OpenAIRE

    Juen Florian; Arnold Lisa; Meissner Dominik; Nolte Tobias; Buchheim Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attach...

  4. The Association between Adult Attachment Styles and Conflict Resolution in Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether adult attachment was predictive of conflict resolution behaviors and satisfaction in romantic relationships. Both adult attachment dimensions, Avoidance and Anxiety, were predictive of conflict resolution behaviors and relationship satisfaction. Gender differences existed in conflict resolution behaviors, but they were not as…

  5. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  6. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  7. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    home range, (3) identify how participant socio-demographic and home location attributes influence place attachment, (4) provide some guidance for mapping place attachment in future research. We found large spatial variability in individual place attachment and mapped landscape values using both area...... and distance-based measures. The area of place attachment is influenced by occupational roles such as farming or conservation, as well as home location, especially in coastal versus non-coastal contexts. The spatial distribution of mapped landscape values or values home range is related to, but not...... area. Aggregated place attachment across participants in the region showed similar spatial intensity to aggregated values home range, but area-based assessment of place attachment and values home range are distorted by edge effects such as a coastline. To further develop the mapping of place attachment...

  8. 职业中学学生亲子依恋、自尊与问题行为的关系%The Study of the Relationship between Parent-child Attachment, Self-esteem and Behavior Problems to Vocational High School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨枫

    2012-01-01

    The study uses 3 sorts of surveys of the inventory of parent and peer attachment ( IPPA), the self-esteem scale (SES), early detection of problem behavior scale (PPCT) to evaluate the students in 3 vocational schools of Beijing. The purpose is to check how the students' attachment and self-esteem affect their problem behavior. The results have found that self-esteem level of senior girls in grade 3 are higher than boys' and boys and girls' self-esteem level in other grades have no difference. The attachment of trust, the father infant attachment and self-esteem have negative correlation with behavior problems. The alienation has positive correlation with problem behaviors.%该研究采用青少年与父母和同伴依恋问卷(IPPA)、自尊量表(SES)、问题行为早期发现量表(PPCT)对北京市三所职业中学的学生进行调查,目的是测查亲子依恋、自尊对问题行为的影响。结果发现:高三年级女生的自尊水平高于男生,其他年级男生和女生的自尊水平没有差异;母子依恋的信任与问题行为有负相关,母子疏离与问题行为有正相关;父子依恋与问题行为有负相关;自尊与问题行为有负相关。

  9. Attachment avoidance predicts inflammatory responses to marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Glaser, Ronald; Loving, Timothy J; Malarkey, William B; Stowell, Jeffrey; Houts, Carrie; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2009-10-01

    Marital stress has been associated with immune dysregulation, including increased production of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Attachment style, one's expectations about the availability and responsiveness of others in intimate relationships, appears to influence physiological stress reactivity and thus could influence inflammatory responses to marital conflict. Thirty-five couples were invited for two 24-h admissions to a hospital research unit. The first visit included a structured social support interaction, while the second visit comprised the discussion of a marital disagreement. A mixed effect within-subject repeated measure model indicated that attachment avoidance significantly influenced IL-6 production during the conflict visit but not during the social support visit. Individuals with higher attachment avoidance had on average an 11% increase in total IL-6 production during the conflict visit as compared to the social support visit, while individuals with lower attachment avoidance had, on average, a 6% decrease in IL-6 production during the conflict visit as compared to the social support visit. Furthermore, greater attachment avoidance was associated with a higher frequency of negative behaviors and a lower frequency of positive behaviors during the marital interaction, providing a mechanism by which attachment avoidance may influence inflammatory responses to marital conflict. In sum, these results suggest that attachment avoidance modulates marital behavior and stress-induced immune dysregulation. PMID:18952163

  10. Roots and Wings: How Attachment and Temperament Shape Development. Revolutionary Studies in Child Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Christopher A.

    2003-01-01

    Summaries of four studies in child psychology reveal that children's attachment to caregivers depends on physical contact more than food; secure attachment to loving caregivers provides a base from which children explore and learn; children's separation behaviors reveal much about their attachment relationship; and children are born with traits…

  11. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  12. Attachment theory and therapeutic relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Boysan, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the associations between current self-reported attachment styles, retrospective reports of childhood experiences, and the development of the therapeutic alliance. It was hypothesised that anxious and avoidant attachment would be correlated with negative childhood experiences and that both attachment anxiety and avoidance would be inversely correlated with the therapeutic alliance. The third hypothesis stated that negative childhood recollections would co...

  13. [Attachment theory and baby slings/carriers: technological network formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Lin, Wan-Shiuan

    2011-12-01

    Healthcare providers recognize the important role played by attachment theory in explaining the close relationship between mental health and social behavior in mothers and their children. This paper uses attachment theory in a socio-cultural context to ascertain the mechanism by which baby slings/carriers, a new technology, produced and reproduced the scientific motherhood. It further applies a social history of technology perspective to understand how baby carriers and attachment theory are socially constructed and historically contingent on three major transformations. These transformations include the use of attachment theory-based baby carriers to further scientific motherhood; the use of baby slings/carriers to further the medicalization of breastfeeding and enhance mother-infant attachment; and the use of baby slings/carriers to transform woman's identities by integrating scientific motherhood, independence and fashion. Implications for nursing clinical policy are suggested. PMID:22113629

  14. Attachment-Based Family Therapy: "Adherence" and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Gary M.; Diamond, Guy S.; Hogue, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the fidelity of attachment-based family therapy (ABFT) for depressed adolescents. Trained observers used the therapist behavior rating scale (3rd version) to code therapist behaviors in 45 sessions of ABFT and 45 sessions each from two empirically based treatments for adolescent substance abusers: multidimensional family…

  15. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Florian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Besides the predominance of disorganized attachment, clinical participants demonstrated more “segregated system material” especially in stories representing aloneness and more “Personal Experience material” compared to healthy individuals. Within the disorganized/ unresolved clinical individuals, BPD and PTSD patients showed the highest proportion of attachment disorganization and were less able to use other attachment-related defenses to maintain organized. Furthermore, PTSD patients were emotionally overwhelmed by the projective attachment scenes compared to the other clinical groups as indexed by an incapacity to complete sections of the AAP. BPD and addicted patients were characterized by a high degree of self-other boundary confusion. Depressive and schizophrenic patients showed a high overall defensive intensity to remain organized.

  16. Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR Polymorphisms and Attachment in Human Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SusanCJohnson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary variations in human infants’ attachment behaviors—their proclivity to seek and accept comfort from caregivers—are associated with a wide range of individual differences in psychological functioning in adults. The current investigation examined variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene as one possible source of these variations in infant attachment. One hundred and seventy-six infants (77 Caucasian, 99 non-Caucasian were classified as securely or insecurely attached based on their behavior in the Strange Situation (Ainsworth et al., 1976. The A allele at OXTR rs2254298 was associated with attachment security in the non-Caucasian infants (p < .005. These findings underscore the importance of oxytocin in the development of human social behavior and support its role in social stress-regulation and the development of trust.

  17. Externalizing and internalizing problems: contributions of attachment and parental practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Adriana Neves Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between attachment and parental practices with externalizing (aggression and delinquency and internalizing (social withdrawal and anxiety/depression behavioral problems were investigated in this study. Participants were 289 children (from 9 to 12 years old and 205 caregivers who answered distinct questionnaires: the formers on attachment and the later on parental practices. Results indicated that poor maternal attachment relationships, high levels of parental rejection and being a boy predicted aggression. Moreover, poor paternal attachment and father's low education predicted social withdrawal. Finally, parental rejection was marginally associated with anxiety/depression. The results reinforce, partially, the existing literature and help to understand the complex relationship between parenting and behavioral problems.

  18. Fiber Attachment Module Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Reinaldo J.

    2014-01-01

    Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors (HFMB) are ideal systems for biological pretreatment of wastewater, however, optimization is still underway. The Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME) allows the simultaneous testing of potential materials, treatments on these and varying inoculums. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the material chosen for its ideal oxygen permeation properties, was treated with 1 sodium hydroxide 0.1 M ether for 18 seconds and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation oxygen plasma (OP) exposure for 1 hour. Preliminary chemistry and visual data indicate promising treatments when using OP and sodium hydroxide as treatments for PDMS fibers; however, due to the biological nature of the experiment, time is a constraint. Sodium hydroxide treatment chemistry data shows nitrification is occurring as urea and ammonia are decreasing and nitrite is increasing. A higher amount of biofilm can also be observed for this particular case. During the final two weeks of the internship x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and acridine orange (AO) cell counts will be employed for treatment effectiveness on the first batch of treatments (ether and sodium hydroxide). These same strategies will be used for the second batch of experiments due in four weeks (2nd week of August).

  19. Filial Attachment and its Disruption: Insights from the Guinea Pig

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs are precocial rodents that show evidence of a selective attachment to the mother who, in turn, exhibits little active maternal care. Effects of separation in guinea pigs are, therefore, more likely to reflect the disruption of attachment than the removal of, or alterations in, patterns of maternal care. Here, effects in guinea pigs of the presence or absence of the mother on psychobiological endpoints and of maternal separation on depressive-like behavior are reviewed. It is argue...

  20. Temperamental precursors of infant attachment with mothers and fathers☆

    OpenAIRE

    Planalp, Elizabeth M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant–mother and infant–father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent sens...

  1. Adolescent Attachment Security, Family Functioning, and Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, R. Michael; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual’s social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 a...

  2. Neuroscience of Human Social Interactions and Adult Attachment Style

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Vrticka

    2012-01-01

    Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using co...

  3. Diameters in preferential attachment models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommers, S.; Van der Hofstad, R.; Hooghiemstra, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the diameter in preferential attachment (PA-) models, thus quantifying the statement that these models are small worlds. The models studied here are such that edges are attached to older vertices proportional to the degree plus a constant, i.e., we consider affine PA-mo

  4. Association between attachment and schizotypy

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Colm

    2011-01-01

    Background: The human genome project has affirmed the importance of non-genetic factors in human development. Attachment style is considered to be a diathesis for psychopathology and an important determinant regarding interpersonal functioning. Epidemiological research has indicated that there is significant aetiological continuity between symptoms of schizotypy and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia. Limited research has investigated the association between attachment and schi...

  5. DISORGANIZED INFANT ATTACHMENT STRATEGIES AND HELPLESS-FEARFUL PROFILES OF PARENTING: INTEGRATING ATTACHMENT RESEARCH WITH CLINICAL INTERVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; SPIELMAN, EDA

    2004-01-01

    In this article, recent research on parenting behaviors associated with infant attachment disorganization is summarized and applied to a parent–infant psychotherapy case. Both hostile/self-referential and helpless-fearful patterns of parentingare described and viewed theoretically as alternate aspects of a single hostile-helpless internal working model of attachment relationships. The case material focuses on the more subtle and harder to identify manifestations of a helpless-fearful parental...

  6. Working models of attachment and attribution processes in intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Nancy L; Ford, Máire B; Guichard, AnaMarie C; Allard, Lisa M

    2006-02-01

    Two studies examined the link between working models of attachment and social construal processes in romantic relationships. In Study 1, individuals high in attachment-related anxiety responded to hypothetical partner transgressions by endorsing relationship-threatening attributions, experiencing emotional distress, and endorsing behavioral intentions that were likely to result in conflict. These effects emerged after controlling for pessimistic explanatory style, depressed mood, and self-esteem. In addition, the association between anxiety and emotional distress was mediated by attributions and attachment-related needs. In Study 2, anxious individuals endorsed relationship-threatening attributions for their partner's transgressions but less so for their partner's positive behaviors, and these effects occurred primarily among those in unhappy relationships. In contrast, avoidant individuals endorsed pessimistic attributions for their partner's positive behavior but less so for their partner's transgressions, and these effects occurred regardless of their level of relationship satisfaction. PMID:16382082

  7. 皖北某地区小学高年级留守和非留守儿童攻击行为与父母依恋状况及其关系分析%The aggressive behavior and parental attachment in left-behind and non-left-behind senior pupils in north of Anhui Province and their relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚荣英; 刘峰; 庄蔚然; 张建明; 刘馨宇; 付连国

    2015-01-01

    目的::了解皖北某地区小学高年级农村留守和非留守儿童攻击行为与亲子依恋的状况,并探索二者之间的关系。方法:采用分层整群随机抽样法,抽取皖北某地区农村小学4~6年级学生进行问卷调查,调查内容包括儿童的一般情况、攻击行为问卷和亲子依恋问卷。采用多重线性回归法分析儿童攻击行为与亲子依恋的关系。结果:儿童攻击行为方面,父亲单方打工与父母均打工男童身体攻击行为得分高于非留守男童(P<0.05),父母均打工留守女童身体攻击行为得分高于非留守儿童和父、母单方打工的留守女童(P<0.05);儿童父母依恋方面,各年级比较显示,四年级男童父、母亲近维度得分均高于五、六年级(P<0.01),而四、五年级女童高于六年级(P<0.05);留守儿童攻击行为与父母依恋四维度关系显示:父母依恋得分高的儿童,其攻击行为低(P<0.05~ P<0.01)。男童方面,非留守和父亲单方打工儿童攻击行为及其因子影响因素仅为母亲信赖维度,母亲单方打工留守男童的影响因素有父亲信赖和亲近2个维度,父、母均打工男童攻击行为的影响因素为父、母亲近2个维度;女童方面,父、母依恋4个维度中影响非留守女童的因素仅有母亲信赖维度,母亲单方打工女童的影响维度为父、母信赖,父亲单方打工的影响维度有父、母信赖与母亲亲近3个维度,父、母均打工儿童攻击行为的影响维度有父、母信赖和父、母亲近4个维度。结论:留守因素主要影响女童攻击行为;亲子依恋关系对不同性别、不同留守类型儿童攻击行为的影响不同,针对性地建立安全的亲子依恋关系可有效减少儿童的攻击行为。%Objective:To investigate the aggressive behavior and parental attachment in left-behind and non-left-behind senior pupils in north of Anhui province and their

  8. Attachment styles, emotion regulation, and adjustment in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M L; Shaver, P R; Collins, N L

    1998-05-01

    Attachment style differences in psychological symptomatology, self-concept, and risky or problem behaviors were examined in a community sample (N = 1,989) of Black and White adolescents, 13 to 19 years old. Overall, secure adolescents were the best-adjusted group, though not necessarily the least likely to engage in risky behaviors. Anxious adolescents were the worst-adjusted group, reporting the poorest self-concepts and the highest levels of symptomatology and risk behaviors. In contrast, avoidant adolescents reported generally high levels of symptomatology and poor self-concepts but similar levels of risk behaviors to those found among secures. Mediation analyses suggested that the observed differences in problem behaviors were at least partially accounted for by the differential experience of distress symptoms (primarily hostility and depression) and by social competence. Finally, patterns of attachment effects were similar across age, gender, and racial groups, with some important exceptions. PMID:9599450

  9. Attachment at work and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadt, Elizabeth A; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relations between self-reported attachment orientation at work and personality, self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence (aka emotional self-efficacy), and independently assessed career potential and job performance. Self-report data were collected from 211 managers in an international business in the hospitality industry; independent assessments of these managers' job performance and career potential were separately obtained from the organization. A self-report measure of romantic attachment was adapted for application in the work context; a two-factor solution was found for this measure. Secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work was positively related to self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and also to job performance. Not only was secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work statistically predictive of job performance, but the new measure also made a distinct contribution, beyond conscientiousness, to this prediction. PMID:21838647

  10. Electron attachment to fluorocarbon radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    Most plasma environments contain populations of short-lived species such as radicals, the chemistry of which can have significant effects on the overall chemistry of the system. However, few experimental measurements of the kinetics of electron attachment to radicals exist due to the inherent difficulties of working with transient species. Calculations from first principles have been attempted, but are arduous and, because electron attachment is so sensitive to the specifics of the potential surface, their accuracy has not been established. Electron attachment to small fluorocarbon radicals is particularly important, as the data are needed for predictive modeling of plasma etching of semiconductor materials, a key process in the industrial fabrication of microelectronics. We have recently developed a novel flowing afterglow technique to measure several types of otherwise difficult to study plasma processes, including thermal electron attachment to radicals. Variable Electron and Neutral Density Attachment Mass Spectrometry (VENDAMS) exploits dissociative electron attachment in a weakly ionized plasma as a radical source. Here, we apply VENDAMS to a series of halofluorocarbon precursors in order to measure the kinetics of thermal electron attachment to fluorocarbon radicals. Results are presented for CF2, CF3, C2F5,C2F3,1-C3F7, 2-C3F7, and C3F5 from 300 K to 900 K. Both the magnitude and the temperature dependences of rate coefficients as well as product branching between associative and dissociative attachment are highly system specific; however, thermal attachment to all species is inefficient, never exceeding 5% of the collision rate. The data are analyzed using a recently developed kinetic modeling approach, which uses extended Vogt-Wannier theory as a starting point, accounts for dynamic effects such as coupling between the electron and nuclear motions through empirically validated functional forms, and finally uses statistical theory to determine the fate of

  11. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.;

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  12. Temperamental precursors of infant attachment with mothers and fathers☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planalp, Elizabeth M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant–mother and infant–father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent sensitivity was coded during the Still Face Paradigm (Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, & Brazelton, 1978); attachment was coded using the Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). Results indicate that mothers and fathers were less sensitive with insecure-avoidant infants. Whereas only one difference was found for infant–mother attachment groups and temperament, five significant differences emerged for infant–father attachment groups, with the majority involving insecure-ambivalent attachment. Infants classified as ambivalent with fathers were higher in perceptual sensitivity and cuddliness and these infants also showed a greater increase in low-intensity pleasure over time compared with other infants. Results indicate the importance of both parent sensitivity and infant temperament, though operating in somewhat different ways, in the development of the infant–mother and infant–father attachment relationship. PMID:24103401

  13. Parental PTSD, adverse parenting and child attachment in a refugee sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ee, Elisa; Kleber, Rolf J; Jongmans, Marian J; Mooren, Trudy T M; Out, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    In contrast with traumatic experiences, there is a dearth of studies on the link between trauma symptoms, disconnected (frightened, threatening and dissociative) parenting behavior, extremely insensitive parenting behavior and child attachment. This study extends previous work on the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on families by studying the unique contribution of disconnected and extremely insensitive parenting behavior on child attachment in a highly traumatized sample of 68 asylum seekers and refugees and their children (18-42 months). The results show that parental symptoms of PTSD are directly related to children's insecure attachment and disorganized attachment. The greatest proportion of the risk could be attributed to factors related to the dyad and not the family. A mediation effect of adverse parenting behavior was not confirmed. On the one hand the results indicate the need for an effective treatment of PTSD symptomatology while on the other hand the results indicate the need for clinical attention to insecure attachment relationships. PMID:26982876

  14. [Early attachement relationships and epigenetic customization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Giordana; Serio, Valentina; Carluccio, Giuseppe Mattia; Marini, Isabella; Meuti, Valentina; Zaccagni, Michela; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Aceti, Franca

    2015-01-01

    Recently, new findings in epigenetic science switched the focus from the observation of physiological intragenomic dynamics to the idea of an environmental co-construction of phenotypic expression. In psichodynamic field, objectual relations and attachement theoreticians emphasized the interpersonal dimension of individual development, focusing the attention on the relational matrix of self organization. The construction of stable affective-behavioral traits throughout different parenting styles has actually found a coincidence in ethological studies, which have explored the epigenetic processes underlying the relationship between caregiving and HPA stress responsiveness. An adequate parenting style seems to support affective regulation throughout psychobiological hidden moderators, which would tend to rebalance the physiological systems homeostasis; an unconfident attachment style would promote, on the other hand, the allostatic load rise. Sites of longlife epigenetic susceptibility have also been identified in humans; although associated with risk of maladaptive developing in adverse environmental conditions, they seem to confer protection under favorable conditions. This persisting possibility of reorganization of stable traits throughout lifetime, which seems to be activated by a relevant environmental input, grant to significant relationships, and to therapeutical one as well, an implicit reconditioning potential which could result into the configuration of new stable affective-behavioral styles. PMID:26418595

  15. Attachment Style and Less Severe Forms of Sexual Coercion: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantzas, Gery C; McCabe, Marita P; Karantzas, Kellie M; Pizzirani, Bengianni; Campbell, Hilary; Mullins, Ellie R

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined how attachment insecurity (i.e., attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance) is associated with the more subtle and less severe forms of sexual coercion, such as verbal threats and partner manipulation. This is despite the fact that past research has indicated some of the relationship behaviors exhibited by insecurely attached individuals represent behaviors indicative of either the perpetration or victimization of less severe forms of sexual coercion. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the association between attachment style and less severe forms of sexual coercion. Our search, which included published journal papers, book chapters, and theses published between January 1970 and October 2014, yielded 1091 records. Examination of these records against exclusion criteria yielded 11 studies that focused on the associations between attachment orientation and perpetration of sexual coercion (n = 3), sexual coercion victimization (n = 3), or both perpetration and victimization (n = 5). Findings revealed that attachment anxiety appeared to be more consistently associated with being the victim of sexual coercion than attachment avoidance. In terms of perpetration, attachment avoidance was more consistently associated with sexual coercion. These findings were observed when examining the association between attachment dimensions and motives for sexual coercion. The findings also revealed gender to be a moderator for victimization. This review provides insights into how attachment style may influence the perpetration and victimization of sexual coercion. PMID:26415749

  16. Slides with no attached paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the different presentations (slides) given at the workshop but with no attached paper. These slides refer to the following presentations: - Presentation of ITN (Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear); - Minor Actinide Partitioning (Dominique Warin); - Transmutation (Janne Wallenius); - Radioactive Waste Management, IGD-TP (Gerald Ouzounian); - Present status of the Swedish nuclear waste management programme (Peter Wikberg); - The U.S. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program - Separations Research and Development (Terry Todd); - Strategies and national programs of closed fuel cycles - Russian Expert Vision (Mikhael Kormilitsyn) - Extraction Studies Of Potential Solvent Formulations For The GANEX Process (Fiona MacLachlan); - Investigations of The Fundamental Chemistry of the TALSPEAK Process (Ken Nash); - Extraction Separation of Trivalent Minor Actinides and Lanthanides by Hexa-dentate Nitrogen-donor Extractant, TPEN, and its Analogs (Kenji Takeshita); - Fluorinated Diluents for HLW Processing - technological point of view (Vasiliy Babain); - Extraction properties of some new pyridine molecules and search for better diluents (Irena Spendlikova); - Kinetics of extraction of Eu3+ ion by TODGA and CyMe4-BTBP studied using the RMC technique (Trong Hung Vu); - Redox Chemistry of Neptunium in Solutions of Nitric Acid (Alena Paulenova); - NMR applied to actinide ions and their complexes. In search of covalency effects (Geoffrey Vidick); - Towards 'Stability Rules' for Radiolysis of bis-DGA compounds (Ana Nunez); - Pyroprocess Research Activities at IGCAR, Kalpakkam, India (K. Nagarajan); - Critical issues of nuclear energy systems employing molten salt fluorides: from ISTC No. 1606 to No. 3749 (1. year of project activity) and MARS/EVOL cooperation (Victor Ignatiev); - Conversion processes: Internal Gelation and the Sphere-pac concept (Manuel Pouchon); - A Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry Master. A Unique Initiative

  17. Health Protective Effects of Attachment Among African American Girls in Psychiatric Care

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.; Wilson, Helen W.

    2011-01-01

    African American (AA) girls in psychiatric care are at increased risk for HIV and STI infection through sexual risk taking. Adolescent sexual behavior often reflects peer norms and behavior. Secure attachment patterns with mothers and peers might lessen the effects of negative peer influences and reduce sexual risk taking among AA girls. This study examined the relationships among mother-daughter and peer attachment, peer norms, and sexual risk behaviors in African American girls seeking outp...

  18. Attachment bonding of delinquent adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čačić Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this research is to define adolescence bonding as well as to identify their typical bonding type. The bonding was observed in two ways. The analysis was based on seven attachment dimensions that were defined by N. Hanak, as well as on the basis of Bartholomew’s four-style attachment model. The research was conducted at multiple sites: two secondary schools in Sombor, the Juvenile Correctional Institution in Kruševac and the Juvenile Correctional Facility in Niš. It included 524 persons, 421 adolescents and 103 delinquents. Adolescents are the second and the third grade students of the Secondary Technical School and the Second­ary School of Economics, while delinquents were testable juveniles. All of them are under correctional measures in the above mentioned institutions. All results are in accordance with the theoretical expectations. Delinquents attach in insecure way more frequently: 68, 9% delinquents from our sample showed insecure attachment. The fearful type of attachment appears to be typical of delinquents. Delinquents are facing difficulties in obtaining support of close persons, as well as in using significant persons they are related to as safe harbours in stressful situations. In addition, they would see themselves as not worthy of attention and love. There is a high level of painful feelings related to childhood and family, as well as ambivalent and nega­tive current family relations.

  19. Attachment Styles and Aggression in Physically Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, Ricky; Ram, Anca; Har-Even, Dov; Shnit, Dan; Weizman, Abraham

    2001-01-01

    Compared physically abused (n=41) and neglected (n=38) children with nonabused, nonneglected children (n=35) aged 6 to 12 years in terms of their attachment styles and their levels of aggression. Findings show that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and suspicion toward others, and neglected children are at risk of…

  20. College Student Binge Eating: Insecure Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suejung; Pistole, M. Carole

    2014-01-01

    Because college students who have accomplished developmental tasks less effectively may be at risk for detrimental behavior such as binge eating, we examined emotion regulation as a mediator of attachment insecurity and binge eating. Based on undergraduate and graduate student responses to a Web-based survey ("N" = 381), structural…

  1. Bullying among Korean Adolescents: The Role of Empathy and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sukkyung; Lee, June; Lee, Yunoug; Kim, Ann Y.

    2015-01-01

    In efforts to increase the field and society's understanding of bullying, the authors investigated how various forms of attachment (mother, peer, and school) are directly and indirectly related to bullying behavior through empathy, and whether these relationships are moderated by gender. Adolescents, of grades 7 through 9, from one middle school…

  2. Adult Attachment and Longterm Effects in Survivors of Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Pamela C.; Anderson, Catherine L.; Brand, Bethany; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Grelling, Barbara Z.; Kretz, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Ninety-two adult female incest survivors were interviewed and completed measures of current functioning. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that adult attachment behavior was significantly associated with personality structure, depression, and distress; and abuse severity was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and…

  3. Hamiltonian Dynamics of Preferential Attachment

    CERN Document Server

    Zuev, Konstantin; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment, known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton's equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in preferential attachment. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by preferential attachment is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree d...

  4. Attention to Faces Expressing Negative Emotion at 7 Months Predicts Attachment Security at 14 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Mikko J; Forssman, Linda; Puura, Kaija; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2015-01-01

    To investigate potential infant-related antecedents characterizing later attachment security, this study tested whether attention to facial expressions, assessed with an eye-tracking paradigm at 7 months of age (N = 73), predicted infant-mother attachment in the Strange Situation Procedure at 14 months. Attention to fearful faces at 7 months predicted attachment security, with a smaller attentional bias to fearful expressions associated with insecure attachment. Attachment disorganization in particular was linked to an absence of the age-typical attentional bias to fear. These data provide the first evidence linking infants' attentional bias to negative facial expressions with attachment formation and suggest reduced sensitivity to facial expressions of negative emotion as a testable trait that could link attachment disorganization with later behavioral outcomes. PMID:26011101

  5. Diameters in preferential attachment models

    OpenAIRE

    Dommers, S.; van der Hofstad, R.; Hooghiemstra, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the diameter in preferential attachment (PA-) models, thus quantifying the statement that these models are small worlds. The models studied here are such that edges are attached to older vertices proportional to the degree plus a constant, i.e., we consider affine PA-models. There is a substantial amount of literature proving that, quite generally, PA-graphs possess power-law degree sequences with a power-law exponent \\tau>2. We prove that the diameter of the PA-...

  6. Electron attachment to HCl clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negatively charged cluster ions of hydrogen chloride are formed by electron attachment to HCl clusters, which are produced in a seeded supersonic beam traversing a sustained gas discharge. Cluster ions of (HCl)n-, with n = 2, and tentatively with n = 3 and 4 are observed. Cluster ions like Cln-, Cln- (HCl)m, and with Ar attached to them are also seen. The relevance to radiation chemistry of HCl is briefly discussed. Atoms evaporating from the hot, thoriated tungsten filament of the glow discharge lead to clusters such as Thn- and its oxides. (orig.)

  7. Temperament, disordered attachment and parental sensitivity in foster care: Differential findings on attachment security for shy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, de J.C.; Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    In a foster care sample, we tested the moderating effect of temperamental shyness on the association between parental sensitivity and attachment quality. The foster parents of 59 foster children (age M = 57 months, SD = 16.4) filled out the Child Behavior Questionnaire. To control for confounds, sym

  8. Attachment and Autonomy as Predictors of the Development of Social Skills and Delinquency During Midadolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joseph P.; Marsh, Penny; McFarland, Christy; MCELHANEY, KATHLEEN BOYKIN; Land, Deborah J.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Peck, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    This study examined adolescent attachment organization as a predictor of the development of social skills and delinquent behavior during midadolescence. Delinquent activity and skill levels were assessed for 117 moderately at-risk adolescents at ages 16 and 18, and maternal and adolescent attachment organization and autonomy in interactions were assessed at age 16. Adolescent attachment security predicted relative increases in social skills from age 16 to 18, whereas an insecure–preoccupied a...

  9. The ultimatum game and expected utility maximization: In view of attachment theory

    OpenAIRE

    Almakias, Shaul; Avi WEISS

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we import a mainstream psycholgical theory, known as attachment theory, into economics and show the implications of this theory for economic behavior by individuals in the ultimatum bargaining game. Attachment theory examines the psychological tendency to seek proximity to another person, to feel secure when that person is present, and to feel anxious when that person is absent. An individual's attachment style can be classified along two-dimensional axes, one representing attac...

  10. Kindergarten children's attachment security, inhibitory control, and the internalization of rules of conduct

    OpenAIRE

    Heikamp, Tobias; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Druey, Michel D.; Hübner, Ronald; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Starting from research on relations between attachment and the development of self-regulation, the present study aimed to investigate research questions on relations among inhibitory control, internalization of rules of conduct (i.e., behavior regulation, concern occasioned by others transgressions, confession, reparation after wrongdoing), and attachment security. Attachment security and internalization of rules of conduct of German kindergarten children (N = 82) were assessed by maternal re...

  11. Kindergarten children’s attachment security, inhibitory control, and the internalization of rules of conduct

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias eHeikamp; Gisela eTrommsdorff; Michel Daniel Druey; Ronald eHübner; Antje evon Suchodoletz

    2013-01-01

    Starting from research on relations between attachment and the development of self-regulation, the present study aimed to investigate research questions on relations among inhibitory control, internalization of rules of conduct (i.e., behavior regulation, concern occasioned by others transgressions, confession, reparation after wrongdoing), and attachment security. Attachment security and internalization of rules of conduct of German kindergarten children (N = 82) were assessed by maternal re...

  12. Psychometric Characteristics of the Persian (Farsi) Version of Attachment Style Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Firoozabadi; Zabihollah Abedi; Roqayeh Aliyari; Behzad Zolfaghari; Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attachment relationship provides a secure base for the infants from which to explore the environment and a safe haven to return to in times of danger. Attachment style shapes the behavior of individuals in adulthood. There are many different measures of attachment and a lot of controversy about what they measure and how they relate to each other. Hence, we tried to evaluate the psychometric properties of one of such questionnaires on a sample of the Iranian population. Methods...

  13. Child-mother attachments in the face of grandparent HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mary J; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Lester, Patricia; Beckwith, Leila; Sigman, Marian; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2016-10-01

    Child-mother attachment, as observed in the Strange Situation (SSP), was assessed in 61 families affected by HIV and 18 neighborhood comparison families not affected by HIV, but of similar ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Children were aged one to three years at the assessment. Secure attachment was significantly less likely among children in the HIV-affected group than among comparison group children (36% versus 67%). The most common pattern of attachment in the HIV-affected group was disorganized/disoriented, observed in 41% of children (versus 22% of comparison children). Children from families that included a surviving grandparent with HIV showed disorganized attachments more often than children whose grandparents died (53% versus 36%). Child attachment classifications were not associated with families' participation in a family-based, cognitive-behavioral HIV intervention. These results document the inter-generational impact of young mothers' who were growing up with an HIV-infected parent. These findings suggest that families affected by HIV may benefit from interventions that address attachment issues. PMID:27434834

  14. The contribution of social rank and attachment theory to depression in a non clinical sample of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Puissant, Sylvia Pinna; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Van Oirbeek, R. KUL

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relative contribution of the overall quality of attachment to the mother, to the father and to peers (Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment scales), the style of attachment towards peers (Attachment Questionnaire for Children scale), the social rank variables (submissive behavior and social comparison), and sex and age variables in predicting the depression score (Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) on a non-psychiatric sample of 13-18 year old adoles...

  15. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, Victor; Genin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also: Provides the first comprehensive treatment of phys...

  16. Health-protective effects of attachment among African American girls in psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R; Wilson, Helen W

    2012-02-01

    African American girls in psychiatric care are at increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) through sexual risk taking. Adolescent sexual behavior often reflects peer norms and behavior. Secure attachment patterns with mothers and peers might lessen the effects of negative peer influences and reduce sexual risk taking among African American girls. This study examined the relationships among mother-daughter and peer attachment, peer norms, and sexual-risk behaviors in African American girls seeking outpatient psychiatric care. A group of 12-16-year-old African American girls (N = 262; M age = 14.45 years) reported on their attachment to their mothers and peers, peer risk-taking and dating behaviors, peer pressure, and sexual-risk behaviors (e.g., number of partners, high-risk partners, and condom use). Structural equation modeling examined whether peer attachment and peer norms mediated the relationship between mother attachment and sexual risk. Findings supported peer norms, but not peer attachment, as a mediator of mother attachment and girls' sexual-risk behaviors. Findings revealed important family and peer factors for African American girls in psychiatric care. HIV prevention programs may be strengthened by improving mother-daughter relationships, addressing the importance of peer relationships, and emphasizing how secure mother-daughter relationships can temper the impact of peer norms. PMID:22182334

  17. Personality and attachment to romantic partners

    OpenAIRE

    Marušić, Iris; Kamenov, Željka; Jelić, Margareta

    2007-01-01

    Since Hazan and Shaver formulated their theory of adult romantic attachment in the late 1980's (Hazan & Shaver, 1987), attachment theory has become one of the principal theoretical frameworks for the study of intimate relationships in adulthood. It conceptualizes romantic love, or couple bonding, as an attachment process that reflects the same kinds of individual differences as infant-parent attachment. However, this idea is not a new one. Although attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969) was origina...

  18. Attachment patterns and separation anxiety symptom

    OpenAIRE

    Sakineh - Mofrad; Rohani - Abdullah; Ikechkwu - Uba

    2010-01-01

    Literature suggests that child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns related differently to separation anxiety symptoms (fear of being alone, and fear of abandonment). Three attachment patterns assessed were secure, avoidant and ambivalent attachment. Findings indicated that ambivalent attachment was most consistently related with higher separation anxiety symptom. And also, different associations were found bet...

  19. PRECISION ATTACHMENTS; APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A unique concern of a removable denture when compare d to others is retention. Retention is the ability of the prosthesis to resist the movement of denture away from the supporting tissues/teeth. The component of removable d enture which provides retention is called as direct retainer. 1,3,4 A direct retainer can be either an extracoronal or intracoronal retainer. Extracoronal direct retainer uses mechanical resistance to displa cement through components placed on external surface of abutment teeth. Intracoronal retainer is either cast or attached to tally within the restored natural contours of an abutment tooth. 1 One of the main drawbacks of extracoronal retainers used in partial dentures is visibility. Many patients find themselves in an aest hetically compromised state when these retainers are placed on teeth in visible area. Preci sion attachments provide solution for this problem. Also, precision attachments provide better ve rtical support and better stimulation to the underlying tissue through intermittent vertical massage. 1,9 Although the history of intracoronal retainers goes back to 5 th and 4 th centuries BC, technically more sound developments began in early 2 0 th century AD, with Dr. Herman E. S. Chayes formulating the principle of internal attachme nt in 1906. Since then precision attachments are playing an important role in removabl e and fixed partial denture, conventional and implant supported overdenture. 9

  20. Secure Attachment Conceptualizations: The Influence of General and Specific Relational Models on Conflict Beliefs and Conflict Resolution Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl C. Woolley

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Attachment theory focuses on the cognitive models that underlie our interactions with attachment figures. Global or generalized mental models are thought to develop on the basis of attachment models with parents and might form the initial basis of internal working models in novel relationships. However, as discrepant information presents itself in a new relationship, it is thought that specific relational models develop. When conflict arises it can threaten the attachment bonds of the relationship. An Internet survey of 134 individuals in couple relationships was conducted to test the influence of secure parental and partner attachment conceptualizations on romantic relationship variables (conflict beliefs and conflict resolution styles. Results indicated that for the most part relationship variables were influenced by current secure romantic attachment conceptualizations. Analyses also indicated differential gender results for positive problem solving in terms of secure parental and partner attachment. Secure parental attachment was also found to impact on the report of compliant behavior during conflict resolution. Lastly, the belief that arguing is threatening was found to be impacted by an interaction effect between parental and partner attachment. In general secure partner attachment was more predictive of conflict resolution behavior and conflict beliefs, than a global attachment model. However, it would appear that the global attachment model can be activated in the context of the current relationship under certain conditions. This research lends support to the notion that generalized and specific attachment representations impacts differently on close relationship functioning, and encourages a further mapping of relationship functions in this regard.

  1. Dissociation and Variability of Adult Attachment Dimensions and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Sexual and Violent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elina; Beech, Anthony R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of constructs that may indicate the presence of disorganized attachment style in sexual and violent offenders. Constructs measured were dissociation, variability on self-report measures of attachment style and early maladaptive schemas, and variability in observed behavior. Data on variability…

  2. Mother-Child Attachment Patterns and Different Types of Anxiety Symptoms: Is There Specificity of Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test Manassis' proposal (Child-parent relations: Attachment and anxiety disorders, 255-272, 2001) that attachment patterns (secure, ambivalent, avoidant, and disorganized) may relate to different types of anxiety symptoms, and that behavioral inhibition may moderate these relations. Using a story stem interview to…

  3. Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

  4. Development and testing of attachment methods for pop-up satellite archival transmitters in European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Økland, Finn; Thorstad, Eva B.; Westerberg, Håkan;

    2013-01-01

    Background Four methods for attaching pop-up satellite transmitters to European eel were tested in the laboratory by recording long-term tag retention, growth and survival; short-term behavioral responses; and physical damage from attachments. Results All eels survived until they lost their tag, ...

  5. Heart Rate Correlates of Attachment Status in Young Mothers and Their Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenko, Marina; Kraemer, Helena; Huffman, Lynne; Gschwendt, Miriam; Pageler, Natalie; Steiner, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore heart rate (HR) correlates of attachment behavior in young mothers and their infants to generate specific hypotheses and to provide pilot data on which studies to test those hypotheses might be based. Method: Using the strange situation procedure, patterns of attachment were assessed in 41 low-income adolescent mothers and…

  6. Culture and Attachment: Perceptions of the Child in Context. Culture and Human Development: A Guilford Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Robin L.; Miller, Joan G.; Irizarry, Nydia Lucca

    Noting that the role of culture in the development of child attachment provides a provocative arena for debate among a wide array of scholars, this book details two studies of cultural differences in the meanings given to attachment behavior by middle- and working-class Anglo and Puerto Rican mothers. The book reviews the cultural adaptationism…

  7. Attachment Classification from the Perspective of Infant-Caregiver Relationships and Infant Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan

    1985-01-01

    Temperament and attachment, as defined by Bowlby and his followers, are fundamentally different constructs, and research guided by the attachment perspective cannot meaningfully be assimilated to the temperament construct. Qualitative aspects of relationships simply cannot be reduced to individual behavioral dimensions. (RH)

  8. The Correlation between Children's Personal Behavioural Characteristics and Indicators of Children's Attachment to Their Mother or Father, Respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugmas, Zlatka

    1998-01-01

    Analyzed relationships between the quality of parental attachment and preschool children's behavioral characteristics, including social skills, productivity, behavior problems, neurosis, anxiety and self-evaluation. Found a positive relationship between parental attachment and the child's adaptation, but failed to confirm the hypothesis regarding…

  9. Investigating the Effect of Consumer’s Risk Aversion and Product Involvement on their Brand Loyalty and Word of Mouth Behavior: The Mediating Role of Brand Attachment and Brand Trust

    OpenAIRE

    manijeh Bahrainizadeh; Alireza Ziaei Bide2

    2013-01-01

    In today’s highly competitive markets, brand loyalty is a central element of marketing strategies and tactics. Therefore, the sources of loyalty and the processes through which it is established is becoming central concern of marketers. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the consumer’s risk aversion and product involvement with their brand loyalty and positive word of mouth behaviors and also to test empirically whether this relationship is mediated by brand trus...

  10. Neuroscience of Human Social Interactions and Adult Attachment Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Vrticka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved vs. unresolved attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual’s attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum and cortical (insula, cingulate limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective mentalization mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive mentalization processes, subserving theory of mind, cognitive control, and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network (in medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, and temporo-parietal junction, among others. Such research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulations is likely to play an important (causal role.

  11. Client attachment security predicts alliance in a randomized controlled trial of two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Sofie; Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Poulsen, Stig Bernt;

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the relation between clients’ attachment patterns and the therapeutic alliance in two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa. Method: Data derive from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychoanalytic psychotherapy for bulimia...... interaction whereby dismissing clients would develop weaker alliances in psychoanalytic psychotherapy and preoccupied clients would develop weaker alliances in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Conclusions: As the first study to examine client attachment and therapeutic alliance using observer-based instruments...

  12. Attachment, recalled parental rearing, and ADHD symptoms predict emotion processing and alexithymia in adults with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Edel, Marc-Andreas; Edel, Susanne; Krüger, Marie; Assion, Hans-Jörg; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the aricle is to study the relationship between attachment, parental rearing behavior, and (infant and current) ADHD symptoms with emotion processing and alexithymia in adults with ADHD. Methods Attachment, parental behavior, and ADHD variables were tested for predictive value regarding emotion processing and alexithymia in the total sample, the pooled ADHD groups (with inattentive type and combined type, each with n = 26) and a control group (n = 26). Comparisons were p...

  13. On the Prediction of Opium Addicts’ Changeability through Early Maladaptive Schemas and Attachment Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Asghari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to investigate the role of early maladaptive schemas and attachment styles in changeability of opium addicts. Method: The research method was descriptive-correlation and the number of 162 male opium addicts was selected via convenience sampling. For data collection purposes, Yang's early maladaptive schemas and Collins and Read’s adult attachment scale, and Rhode Island’s changeability scale were used. Results: The results showed that 38.1% of the changeability variance is predicted by secure attachment, avoidant attachment, and early maladaptive schemas. In the same way, avoidant and ambivalent attachment styles were positively associated with early maladaptive schemas. Conclusion: Due to the effect of early maladaptive schemas and insecure attachment styles on the incidence of maladaptive behavior, changeability of opium addicts can be expected to increase through the modification dysfunctional thoughts and systemic relations. 

  14. The role of attachment in predicting CBT treatment outcome in children with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walczak, Monika Anna; Normann, Nicoline; Tolstrup, Marie;

    2015-01-01

    attachment to parents, and parental attachment in predicting treatment outcome in anxious children receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment. Method: A total of 69 children aged 7-13 years were diagnosed at intake and post-treatment, using Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (Silverman and Albano......Introduction: Child’s insecure attachment to parents and insecure parental attachment has been linked to childhood anxiety (Brumariu & Kerns, 2010; Manassis et al.,1994).Whether attachment patterns can predict treatment outcome, is yet to be investigated. We examined the role of children’s......, 1996). In addition, children’s attachment to both parents was assessed using the Friends and Family Interview (Steele, Steele & Kriss, 2009) and Security Scale Revised (Kerns, Aspelmeier, Gentzler, & Grabill, 2001). Parents filled in the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (Fraley, Waller...

  15. Attaching Chuck Keys to Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V.

    1984-01-01

    Chuck keys attached to portable machine tools by retracting lanyards. Lanyard held taut by recoil caddy attached to tool base. Chuck key available for use when needed and safely secured during operation of tool.

  16. Attachment Theory, Foster Parents and Diversity Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...

  17. Development of foster mother-child attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, J

    2014-01-01

    The impact of early attachment relationships and child-adult attachment relationships to children’s social and emotional development has been recognised for a long time. Since the pioneering attachment theories of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth highlighting the importance of secure child-adult attachments, many other theories from various perspectives have risen to fill in the gaps. These theories are examined with the framework of foster care in mind. In Finland, the primary solution fo...

  18. After Love: Attachment Styles and Grief Themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole

    1996-01-01

    Examines the association of attachment organization and recalled grief responses following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. Data based on college students' (N=118) responses resulted in four interpretable grief themes. Preoccupied attachment predicted self-reproach, fearful attachment predicted partner blame, whereas both fearful and…

  19. Adolescents' Attachment and Coping with Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Michelle S.; Medway, Frederic J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how high school students cope with stress as a function of their attachment style. Data were gathered from 75 adolescent-parent pairs in Texas and included measures of attachment, coping style, life stress, and whom the respondent would turn to in times of stress. Adolescents' attachment security was positively related to…

  20. The Wolf Boy: Reactive Attachment Disorder in an Adolescent Boy

    OpenAIRE

    Swain, James E.; Leckman, James F.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2005-01-01

    An adolescent boy presented with episodic wolf-like aggressive behaviors, for which his rural community planned an exorcism. Admission to a tertiary care hospital revealed an adolescent suffering an array of severe psychiatric symptoms, which best fit the diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder (RAD). The differential diagnosis included delusional disorder, mood problems, anxiety, schizophrenia, and “feral child” syndrome. Nosology and pathophysiology as well as pharmacological and psychoso...

  1. Changes in Relationship-Specific Attachment in Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess Moser, Melissa; Johnson, Susan M; Dalgleish, Tracy L; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Wiebe, Stephanie A; Tasca, Giorgio A

    2016-04-01

    Emotionally focused couple therapy (EFT; Johnson, The practice of emotionally focused couple therapy (1st/2nd edition). Brunner-Routledge, New York, 2004) is an effective treatment of relationship distress (Johnson et al., Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 1999; 6, 67). However, less is known about EFT's impact on couples' relationship-specific attachment bond. Using hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of 32 couples, we examined session-by-session changes in couples' relationship-specific attachment anxiety and avoidance and pre- to posttherapy changes in their relationship-specific attachment behaviors. Couples significantly decreased in relationship-specific attachment avoidance, and those who completed a blamer softening significantly decreased in relationship-specific attachment anxiety. Couples' attachment behavior significantly increased toward security. Finally, session-by-session decreases in relationship-specific attachment anxiety and avoidance were significant associated with increases in relationship satisfaction across sessions. These results provide empirical support for the attachment-based assumptions of EFT. Video abstract accessible by clicking here. PMID:26511674

  2. End-attaching copolymer adsorption: Effects of chain architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorgan, J.R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Stamm, M. [Max Planck Institut fur Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Ellipsometry is used to measure the adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms of end-attaching copolymers. Diblock and triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene and adsorbed onto silicon dioxide from toluene; only the polar end blocks adsorb. At short times, the kinetics of adsorption follow Fickian behavior. The scaling behavior of the grafting density for the two different polymer architectures is examined. It is found that the diblock material scales as expected. The triblock material scales according to a mechanism which is dominated by the interaction of nonadsorbing blocks; this is true even for triblocks of moderate asymmetry.

  3. Shifting internal parent-child representations among caregivers of teens with serious behaviour problems: An attachment-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, M. M.; Obsuth, I.; Mayseless, O.; SCHARF, M.

    2012-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a rich framework for the development of interventions for trauma. This study examined processes underlying treatment outcomes of an attachment-based program (Connect; Moretti, Braber, & Obsuth, 2009) for parents of teens with severe behavior problems. Caregivers completed the Parenting Representations Interview and the Child Behavior Checklist prior to and following treatment. Results confirmed significant reductions in teens' problem behavior and changes in par...

  4. Attachment, positive affect, and competence in the peer group: two studies in construct validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, E; Wippman, J; Sroufe, L A

    1979-09-01

    2 studies were undertaken to assess the positive affective correlates of secure attachment in infancy and to assess the relation between secure attachment in infancy and competence in the peer group at age 3 1/2 years. In study 1, smiling and smiling combined with vocalizing and/or showing toys distinguished securely from anxiously attached infants during free play at age 18 months. Rated quality of affective sharing distinguished securely from anxiously attached infants during free play at 18 months and 24 months. Thus, secure attachment involves more than the absence of negative or maladaptive behavior directed toward a caregiver. Study 2 assessed cross-age, cross-situational, and cross-behavioral consistency in quality of social adaptation. Quality of infant-mother attachment relationships at age 15 months was related to Q-sort assessments of personal and interpersonal competence in the preschool play-group at age 3 1/2 years. The results contribute to the validation of attachment as an important developmental construct. They also suggest that age appropriate assessment of developmental social competence constructs can be a useful alternative to the study of homotypic behavioral continuity. PMID:498856

  5. The Role of Attachment Style in Predicting Repetition of Adolescent Self-Harm: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, Katie; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated whether insecure attachment is associated with poorer outcomes at 6-month follow-up in adolescents who self-harm. At baseline the Child Attachment Interview was administered to 52 adolescents (13-17 years) referred to specialist child and adolescent mental health services and with a recent history of self-harm. Participants also completed self-report measures of self-harm, peer attachment, anxiety, and depression and were administered the means end problem-solving task. Self-harm behavior and problem-solving skills were assessed again at 6-month follow-up. At baseline, 14 (27%) were securely attached to their mothers. In the 49 (94%) adolescents followed-up, those with insecure maternal attachment and insecure peer attachment were more likely to have repeated self-harm. In addition, securely attached adolescents showed greater improvement in problem-solving skills. These findings indicate that secure maternal and peer attachments may help recovery from self-harm, possibly by supporting the acquisition of problem-solving skills, and highlights the importance of social connections and attachments for youth with a history of self-harm. PMID:25845416

  6. Attachment and caregiver-infant interaction: a review of observational-assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota D; Letourneau, Nicole; Ditommaso, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between maternal-infant interaction and attachment quality to infant developmental outcomes has long been established. As children mature, problems stemming from troubled caregiver-infant relations may result in referral to mental health or child protection services. The accurate and appropriate assessment of attachment is critical for early recognition of problematic relations and for informing suitable treatment modalities. Evaluating the quality of attachment poses a challenge for researchers and clinicians seeking to explore the association between infant development and the quality of early caregiving experiences. Although providing a definitive answer to the question of which of these assessment procedures is the single universal standard for measuring attachment quantity is beyond the scope of this article, readers will be provided with a description and comparison of strengths and limitations of the most commonly used measures of attachment, including the Strange Situation Procedure (M.D.S. Ainsworth, M.C. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978), Attachment Q-Sort (E. Waters & K.E. Deane, 1985), Toddler Attachment Sort (TAS-45; J. Kirkland, D. Bimler, A. Drawneek, M. McKim, & A. Scholmerich, 2004), CARE-Index (P. Crittenden, 1985), Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE; E. Bronfman, E. Parsons, & K. Lyons-Ruth, 1999), Massie-Campbell Scale of Mother-Infant Attachment Indicators During Stress Scale (Attachment During Stress Scale; H.N. Massie & B.K. Campbell, 1983), and the Risky Situation Procedure (D. Paquette & M. Bigras, 2010). PMID:25798513

  7. Multipurpose hooks for elastic attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As certain bracket systems do not include hooks on premolar brackets for elastic attachment, Kobayashi or custom made ligature hooks have proven as an alternative. However, these hooks tend to bend labially when used with heavy elastics and these elastics can even pop loose from the hooks on mouth opening. The following article describes an innovative multipurpose hook which is simple, stiff and inexpensive and can be used for engagement of class II elastics on premolars in case of missing molars as well as engagement of intermaxillary elastics for settling of occlusion in finishing stages. As the hooks can be prefabricated, this saves a lot of chair side time and is more practical for use in day-to-day orthodontic practice.

  8. Attachment, Neurobiology, and Mentalizing along the Psychosis Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbané, Martin; Salaminios, George; Luyten, Patrick; Badoud, Deborah; Armando, Marco; Solida Tozzi, Alessandra; Fonagy, Peter; Brent, Benjamin K

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we outline the evidence linking attachment adversity to psychosis, from the premorbid stages of the disorder to its clinical forms. To better understand the neurobiological mechanisms through which insecure attachment may contribute to psychosis, we identify at least five neurobiological pathways linking attachment to risk for developing psychosis. Besides its well documented influence on the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA) axis, insecure attachment may also contribute to neurodevelopmental risk through the dopaminergic and oxytonergic systems, as well as bear influence on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress responses. We further consider the neuroscientific and behavioral studies that underpin mentalization as a suite of processes potentially moderating the risk to transition to psychotic disorders. In particular, mentalization may help the individual compensate for endophenotypical impairments in the integration of sensory and metacognitive information. We propose a model where embodied mentalization would lie at the core of a protective, resilience response mitigating the adverse and potentially pathological influence of the neurodevelopmental cascade of risk for psychosis. PMID:27597820

  9. Attachment, Neurobiology, and Mentalizing along the Psychosis Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbané, Martin; Salaminios, George; Luyten, Patrick; Badoud, Deborah; Armando, Marco; Solida Tozzi, Alessandra; Fonagy, Peter; Brent, Benjamin K.

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we outline the evidence linking attachment adversity to psychosis, from the premorbid stages of the disorder to its clinical forms. To better understand the neurobiological mechanisms through which insecure attachment may contribute to psychosis, we identify at least five neurobiological pathways linking attachment to risk for developing psychosis. Besides its well documented influence on the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA) axis, insecure attachment may also contribute to neurodevelopmental risk through the dopaminergic and oxytonergic systems, as well as bear influence on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress responses. We further consider the neuroscientific and behavioral studies that underpin mentalization as a suite of processes potentially moderating the risk to transition to psychotic disorders. In particular, mentalization may help the individual compensate for endophenotypical impairments in the integration of sensory and metacognitive information. We propose a model where embodied mentalization would lie at the core of a protective, resilience response mitigating the adverse and potentially pathological influence of the neurodevelopmental cascade of risk for psychosis. PMID:27597820

  10. The use and abuse of attachment theory in clinical practice with maltreated children, part I: diagnosis and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Debate has ensued regarding the appropriate assessment and diagnosis for school-age children who display severe behavioral problems as a result of previous abuse and neglect within the primary attachment relationship. The current nomenclature recognizes reactive attachment disorder and some clinicians have suggested broader categories of attachment disorder. These attempts at classification are often criticized on empirical grounds; however, often lost in these criticisms is the fact that that these diagnostic approaches often misapply attachment theory and research. This article summarizes the original contributions of John Bowlby and other attachment researchers to our understanding of child development, examines misguided attempts to apply attachment theory to the diagnosis and assessment of maltreated children, and offers a diagnostic conceptualization and assessment recommendations consistent with the available attachment research. PMID:21288931

  11. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  12. Relationship between attachment behavior and social adaptation among left-behind middle school students: mediation effect of sense of responsibility%留守初中生责任心在依恋行为与社会适应间的中介作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    延艳娜; 闫春平; 单鸿博; 崔文娟; 杨世昌

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between responsibility and social adaptation of the left-behind middle school students and to provide evidence for mental health education of left-behind children.Methods 290 left-behind middle school students were selected by cluster-random-sampling.All of them were assessed by the middle school students' social adaptability scale (SAS-SSS),the inventory of parent and peer attachment (IPPA) and the scale of high school students' responsibility.Results The correlation between responsibility,attachment behavior and social adaptation of left-behind middle school students were significant(r=0.39,r=0.56,P<0.01).There were significant differences between gender on the responsibility(male(202.64±26.78) vs female(212.67±23.24)).Regression analysis showed that mother attachment,overall responsibility,general responsibility and special fault responsibility could predict the social adaptation(P<0.05).Responsibility and its factors played a mediating role between attachment and adaptation,taking 52.1%,20.1%,30.8%,9.1%,47.9%,40.7% proportion of the total effect.Conclusion Responsibility is an important factor affecting the social adaptation of left-behind middle school students.%目的 了解留守初中生责任心与社会适应状况的关系,为留守儿童的心理健康教育提供实证依据.方法 采用中学生社会适应性量表(SAS-SSS)、青少年父母与同伴依恋问卷(IPPA)和中学生责任心量表,对整群随机抽取的留守初中生290名进行调查.结果 留守初中生的责任心、依恋行为与社会适应状况之间存在正相关(r=0.39,r=0.56);在责任心方面性别差异有统计学意义[男生:(202.64±26.78)分;女生:(212.67±23.24)分,P<0.05];回归分析显示,母亲依恋、总体责任心、一般责任心、一般过失心与特殊义务责任心可以在一定程度上预测留守初中生的社会适应状况(P<0.05);留守初中生的责任心及其5个因子在

  13. 企业声誉对消费者情感依恋和顾客公民行为的影响机制--基于顾客-企业认同视角%The Mechanisms of Corporate Reputation Impact on Consumer Emotion Attachment and Customer Citizenship Behavior--Based on Customer-Company Identify Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何美贤; 罗建河

    2016-01-01

    顾客—企业认同是联结顾客与企业的坚实纽带,顾客对企业的认同是导致购买和忠诚的重要因素。首先,顾客—企业认同在企业声誉与情感依恋之间起完全中介作用,即企业声誉并不会直接导致顾客形成情感依恋,而是通过顾客—企业认同的中介作用才得以实现,只有当企业有效地促进顾客与企业之间的关联时,才能让消费者产生依恋;其次,顾客—企业认同和情感依恋在企业声誉与顾客公民行为之间起到部分中介的作用,即当消费者进行认知加工时,其情感对信息的处理过程、注意力、记忆以及决策等各种认知活动都具有非常明显的作用,顾客只有与企业建立起认同关系,才能实现与企业在心理上的契约联结、承诺关系。因此,企业要注重维护自身的良好声誉,重视与目标顾客建立认同关系并利用顾客作为兼职员工。%Customer-Company identification is the bond tie linking customer to company,and it is an important factor that leads to consumers’purchase and loyalty. First,the customer-company identification fully mediates corporate reputation and emotional attachment. Specifically speaking,corporate reputation will not directly lead to consumers’emotional attachment;only with the help of the mediate role of customer-company identification,will the consumers’emotional attachment be realized. Second,customer-company identification and emotional attachment act partial mediators between corporate reputation and customer citizenship behavior. Specifically speaking,during the process of identification,customer emotion plays the obvious role in such identification activities as information processing,attention,memory,and decision-making;only with the help of identification relation between customer and corporate,will the contract linkage and commitment relation between customer and corporate be realized. So,the corporates should pay

  14. Fundamentals in Microalgae Harvesting: From Flocculation to Self-attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan

    envisioned algal attachment, the third objective was to investigate the cell to substrata attachment by a thermodynamic model. Based on the theoretical analysis, when the polar surface energy of the cell is greater than that of water, cellular attachment would be more favorable on materials with higher dispersive surface energy but lower polar surface energy. If the polar surface energy of the cell is smaller than that of water, more cell attachment would be expected on materials that are higher in both dispersive and polar surface energies. The model was also validated its capability in designing, selecting, and matching algal strains and solid carrier materials to enhance cell attachment. The forth objective was to investigate the effect of surface texturing on algal attachment. It was found that surface texturing had a greater effect than surface free energy, by changing the liquid wetting behavior and real contact area. The attachment is preferred when the feature size is close to the diameter of the cell attempting to settle. Larger or smaller feature dimensions have the potential to reduce cellular attachment. The fifth objective was to study the role of carrier materials and their surface roughness in attachment. If the surface chemical composition was similar, the attachment and orientation of algal cells was found to depend on the surface average roughness, wherein rougher surfaces resulted in increased attachment. Whereas, the attachment was strongly related to surface free energy as described by the thermodynamic model if materials were chemically different.

  15. IMPACT OF FATHERS’ ALCOHOLISM AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS ON PARENT–INFANT ATTACHMENT STABILITY FROM 12 TO 18 MONTHS

    OpenAIRE

    EDWARDS, ELLEN P.; Eiden, Rina D.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined short-term attachment stability and sought to identify predictors of stability and change within a sample characterized by fathers’ alcoholism. Results suggest moderate stability of attachment classifications (60% for mothers, 53% for fathers) from 12 to 18 months. Higher paternal and maternal alcohol symptoms, maternal depression, and maternal antisocial behavior were found in families with stable insecure mother–infant attachment compared to those who were stable secure....

  16. Bad blood revisited: Attachment and psychoanalysis, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Fonagy, P; Campbell, C

    2015-01-01

    "There is bad blood between psychoanalysis and attachment theory. As with many family feuds, it is hard to identify where the problem began. (Fonagy, 2001, p.1)" Thus began an attempt, Attachment Theory and Psychoanalysis, written 15 years ago, to trace the relationship between attachment and psychoanalysis, disentangle conceptual similarities and differences, and point to areas of convergence that were then emerging in the field. Here, we will attempt a conceptual progress report on how thin...

  17. Emergence of tempered preferential attachment from optimization

    OpenAIRE

    D'Souza, Raissa M.; Borgs, Christian; Chayes, Jennifer T.; Berger, Noam; Kleinberg, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    We show how preferential attachment can emerge in an optimization framework, resolving a long-standing theoretical controversy. We also show that the preferential attachment model so obtained has two novel features, saturation and viability, which have natural interpretations in the underlying network and lead to a power-law degree distribution with exponential cutoff. Moreover, we consider a generalized version of this preferential attachment model with independent saturation and viability, ...

  18. Explaining gender differences in preschoolers’ attachment style

    OpenAIRE

    Tønnessen, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Gender has throughout most attachment literature not been considered an important factor in the development of individual differences in attachment. However, some studies on preschoolers, especially using story completion/narrative measures of attachment representations, have found prominent gender differences. The present study aims to replicate such gender differences, and to examine possible explanatory variables. This will be done by using a large community sample of preschoolers from Nor...

  19. Neural basis of attachment-caregiving systems interaction:insights from neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia eLenzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The attachment and the caregiving system are complementary systems which are active simultaneously in infant and mother interactions. This ensures the infant survival and optimal social, emotional and cognitive development. In this brief review we first define the characteristics of these two behavioral systems and the theory that links them, according to what Bowlby called the attachment-caregiving social bond (Bowlby, 1969. We then follow with those neuroimaging studies that have focused on this particular issue, i.e. those which have studied the activation of the careging system in women (using infant stimuli and have explored how the individual attachment model (through the Adult Attachment Interview modulates its activity. Studies report altered activation in limbic and prefrontal areas and in basal ganglia and hypothalamus/pituitary regions. These altered activations are thought to be the neural substrate of the attachment-caregiving systems interaction.

  20. Attachment fixation of the overdenture: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensor, M C

    1978-01-01

    Many attachment systems of the bar or stud type increase the stability of an overdenture. When selecting an attachment it is essential to consider the skill of the dentist-laboratory team as well as the dexterity of the patient and to use the easiest system that will still improve stabilization. Generally simplicity in design, ease of maintenance, and minimum leverage should be paramount considerations in selection. Use of a guide such as the EM Gauge and of the EM Attachment Selector significantly reduces the confusion in selecting attachments and increases the working armamentarium for stabilizing an overdenture. PMID:340660

  1. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  2. WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT “ATTACHMENT DISORDERS” IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia VELOTTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Current nosology describes reactive attachm­ent disorder as represented by two distinct disorders: reactive attachment disorder, characterized by markedly inhibited and emotionally withdrawn behavior toward adult caregivers, minimally seeking comfort or minimally responding to comfort in time of distress, and disinhibited social engagement disorder, which is represented by an indiscriminate social behavior, sanctioned from culture and which crosses social boundaries, in the presence of unfamiliar adults. Both disorders, despite their different phenotypes, are caused by a pathogenic caregiving environment, repeated changes of attachment figures, social neglect and deprivation in the first years of life.The article examines recent diagnostic criteria reported in the literature comparing diag­nostic classifications and attempting to understand the etiology of the disorder. Unresolved questions exist in current nosology, which means that the quality of the evidence supporting the diagnostic criteria needs to be improved. This review concludes that, despite the currently available diagnostic classifications, future longitudinal studies should be conducted to assess the evolution of reactive attachment disorder over the time and to discriminate its features from other psychopathologies.

  3. Adult Attachment Style and Stress as Risk Factors for Early Maternal Sensitivity and Negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Appleyard, Karen; Barnett, Melissa; Deng, Min; Putallaz, Martha; Cox, Martha

    2011-05-01

    The current study examined the individual and joint effects of self-reported adult attachment style, psychological distress, and parenting stress on maternal caregiving behaviors at 6 and 12 months of child age. We proposed a diathesis-stress model to examine the potential deleterious effects of stress for mothers with insecure adult attachment styles. Data from 137 mothers were gathered by the longitudinal Durham Child Health and Development Study. Mothers provided self-reports using Hazan and Shaver's (1987) Adult Attachment Style measure, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Parent Stress Inventory; observations of parenting data were made from 10-minute free play interactions. Consistently avoidant mothers were less sensitive with their infants than consistently secure mothers; however, this effect was limited to avoidant mothers who experienced elevated levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that the association between insecure adult attachment style and insensitive parenting behavior is moderated by concurrent psychosocial stress. Clinical implications for these findings are discussed. PMID:24855326

  4. Hamiltonian dynamics of preferential attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, Konstantin; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2016-03-01

    Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment (PA), known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton’s equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in PA. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by PA is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree distributions. In other words, PA generates nothing but random graphs with power-law degree distribution. The extension of the developed canonical formalism for network analysis to richer geometric network models with non-degenerate groups of symmetries may eventually lead to a system of equations describing network dynamics at small scales.

  5. Hamiltonian dynamics of preferential attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment (PA), known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton’s equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in PA. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by PA is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree distributions. In other words, PA generates nothing but random graphs with power-law degree distribution. The extension of the developed canonical formalism for network analysis to richer geometric network models with non-degenerate groups of symmetries may eventually lead to a system of equations describing network dynamics at small scales. (paper)

  6. Coexistence in preferential attachment networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antunović, Tonći; Racz, Miklos Z

    2013-01-01

    Competition in markets is ubiquitous: cell-phone providers, computer manufacturers, and sport gear brands all vie for customers. Though several coexisting competitors are often observed in empirical data, many current theoretical models of competition on small-world networks predict a single winner taking over the majority of the network. We introduce a new model of product adoption that focuses on word-of-mouth recommendations to provide an explanation for this coexistence of competitors. The key property of our model is that customer choices evolve simultaneously with the network of customers. When a new node joins the network, it chooses neighbors according to preferential attachment, and then chooses its type based on the number of initial neighbors of each type. This can model a new cell-phone user choosing a cell-phone provider, a new student choosing a laptop, or a new athletic team member choosing a gear provider. We provide a detailed analysis of the new model; in particular, we determine the possibl...

  7. Oxytocin is associated with infant-care behavior and motivation in cooperatively breeding marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenwirth, Christa; Martins, Eloisa; Deschner, Tobias; Burkart, Judith M

    2016-04-01

    The neurohormone oxytocin (OT) is positively involved in the regulation of parenting and social bonding in mammals, and may thus also be important for the mediation of alloparental care. In cooperatively breeding marmosets, infants are raised in teamwork by parents and adult and sub-adult non-reproductive helpers (usually older siblings). Despite high intrinsic motivation, which may be mediated by hormonal priming, not all individuals are always equally able to contribute to infant-care due to competition among care-takers. Among the various care-taking behaviors, proactive food sharing may reflect motivational levels best, since it can be performed ad libitum by several individuals even if competition among surplus care-takers constrains access to infants. Our aim was to study the link between urinary OT levels and care-taking behaviors in group-living marmosets, while taking affiliation with other adults and infant age into account. Over eight reproductive cycles, 26 individuals were monitored for urinary baseline OT, care-taking behaviors (baby-licking, -grooming, -carrying, and proactive food sharing), and adult-directed affiliation. Mean OT levels were generally highest in female breeders and OT increased significantly in all individuals after birth. During early infancy, high urinary OT levels were associated with increased infant-licking but low levels of adult-affiliation, and during late infancy, with increased proactive food sharing. Our results show that, in marmoset parents and alloparents, OT is positively involved in the regulation of care-taking, thereby reflecting the changing needs during infant development. This particularly included behaviors that are more likely to reflect intrinsic care motivation, suggesting a positive link between OT and motivational regulation of infant-care. PMID:26836769

  8. The relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lacasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the relationship between attachment and psychopathology during adolescence have been performed separately for clinical and nonclinical adolescents and have used different assessment measures, which together might produce a methodological bias that increases the association between attachment and psychopathology. With the aim of avoiding this bias, the present study used identical measures to explore the relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical samples of adolescents. The sample consisted of 258 adolescents, 129 clinical and 129 nonclinical, aged between 14 and 18 years. The adolescents in each sample were matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Attachment was assessed using the CaMir Q-sort, and psychopathological symptoms were assessed by means of the Youth Self Report (YSR. The relationships between attachment and psychopathology were similar for clinical and nonclinical adolescents. A preoccupied attachment style predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms, somatic complaints, anxious-fearful behavior, verbal aggression, attention-seeking behavior, and thinking problems. Compared to previous studies, this research has made it possible to identify broader, stronger, and more specific associations between preoccupied attachment style and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents.

  9. Anger and hostility in adolescents: relationships with self-reported attachment style and perceived parental rearing styles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, P.; Meesters, C.; Morren, M.; Moorman, L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine relationships between self-reported attachment style and parental rearing behaviors, on the one hand, and anger/hostility, on the other hand, in a sample of nonclinical adolescents (N=441). METHOD: Participants completed (a) a single-item measure of attachment style; (b) a ques

  10. New Child-Caregiver Attachment Relationships: Entering Childcare when the Caregiver Is and Is Not an Ethnic Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Shivers, Eva Marie

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the research reported in this article was to examine the process of forming attachment to caregivers in children new to childcare. We examined child and adult behaviors and the adult's perception of the child at entry, and the ethnic/racial match between the child and caregiver as predictors of attachment relationship quality measured…

  11. The child attachment interview: A psychometric study of reliability and discriminant validity

    OpenAIRE

    Shmueli-Goetz, Y.; Target, M; Fonagy, P.; Datta, A.

    2008-01-01

    While well-established attachment measures have been developed for infancy, early childhood, and adulthood, a "measurement gap" has been identified in middle childhood, where behavioral or representational measures are not yet sufficiently robust. This article documents the development of a new measure-the Child Attachment Interview (CAI)-which seeks to bridge this gap. The CAI is a semistructured interview, in which children are invited to describe their relationships with their primary care...

  12. Psychodynamic mechanism and weight reduction in obesity group therapy – first observations with different attachment styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesewetter, Sybille; Köpsel, Andrea; Köpp, Werner; Kallenbach-Dermutz, Bettina; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Spranger, Joachim; Deter, Hans-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Successful long-term results are extremely rare in non-surgical obesity treatment. Interactional difficulties with the attending physicians and the limited compliance of obese patients are a frequently described dilemma in repeated psychotherapeutic group treatment attempts. The type of relationship initiation and the attachment behavior probably play a central role in this connection but have not yet been systematically investigated. Methods: This paper focuses on the attachment ...

  13. Psychodynamic mechanism and weight reduction in obesity group therapy - first observations with different attachment styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesewetter, S.; Köpsel, A; Köpp, W; Kallenbach-Dermutz, B; Pfeiffer, AFH; Spranger, J; Deter, HC

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Successful long-term results are extremely rare in non-surgical obesity treatment. Interactional difficulties with the attending physicians and the limited compliance of obese patients are a frequently described dilemma in repeated psychotherapeutic group treatment attempts. The type of relationship initiation and the attachment behavior probably play a central role in this connection but have not yet been systematically investigated.Methods: This paper focuses on the attachment...

  14. Neural basis of attachment-caregiving systems interaction:insights from neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Delia eLenzi; Cristina eTrentini; Renata eTambelli; Patrizia ePantano

    2015-01-01

    The attachment and the caregiving system are complementary systems which are active simultaneously in infant and mother interactions. This ensures the infant survival and optimal social, emotional and cognitive development. In this brief review we first define the characteristics of these two behavioral systems and the theory that links them, according to what Bowlby called the attachment-caregiving social bond (Bowlby, 1969). We then follow with those neuroimaging studies that have focused ...

  15. Neural basis of attachment-caregiving systems interaction: insights from neuroimaging studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzi, Delia; Trentini, Cristina; Tambelli, Renata; Pantano, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The attachment and the caregiving system are complementary systems which are active simultaneously in infant and mother interactions. This ensures the infant survival and optimal social, emotional, and cognitive development. In this brief review we first define the characteristics of these two behavioral systems and the theory that links them, according to what Bowlby called the “attachment-caregiving social bond” (Bowlby, 1969). We then follow with those neuroimaging studies that have focuse...

  16. Childhood Trauma and Attachment to Birth Parents in Foster Children. An Empirical Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Skjold, Solvei Harila

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and aspects of attachment behavior towards birth parents are assessed in a sample of 80 young individuals who have been or are currently in foster care in Norway. Associations between traumatic childhood experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and attachment to birth parents are explored. Traumatic childhood experiences were assessed with a Norwegian version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). ...

  17. Interpersonal Stress Regulation and the Development of Anxiety Disorders: An Attachment-Based Developmental Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias eNolte; Jo eGuiney; Peter eFonagy; Mayes, Linda C.; Patrick eLuyten

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the aetiology and maintainance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral fi...

  18. Adult Attachment Style and Stress as Risk Factors for Early Maternal Sensitivity and Negativity

    OpenAIRE

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Appleyard, Karen; Barnett, Melissa; Deng, Min; Putallaz, Martha; Cox, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the individual and joint effects of self-reported adult attachment style, psychological distress, and parenting stress on maternal caregiving behaviors at 6 and 12 months of child age. We proposed a diathesis-stress model to examine the potential deleterious effects of stress for mothers with insecure adult attachment styles. Data from 137 mothers were gathered by the longitudinal Durham Child Health and Development Study. Mothers provided self-reports using Hazan a...

  19. Structure of reflective functioning and adult attachment scales: overlap and distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, Allison; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C; Wong, Maria S; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Brown, Geoffrey L

    2016-04-01

    This investigation examined the structure of reflective functioning (RF) - an understanding of the links between mental states and behaviors - and adult attachment scales. Both RF and traditional adult attachment scales were coded based on 194 prebirth Adult Attachment Interviews (AAI). Correlational and factor analyses indicated considerable overlap between RF and traditional AAI coding. Exploratory factor analyses of RF and AAI state-of-mind scales indicated that RF loaded, along with coherence of mind, on the primary factor distinguishing between individuals categorized as secure and dismissing. These findings indicate substantial overlap between RF and AAI scales; however, the magnitude of the correlations between these scales indicates that they are not redundant. PMID:26754258

  20. Adult attachment, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD. PMID:23330631

  1. Contributions of attachment theory and research: a framework for future research, translation, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D; Shaver, Phillip R

    2013-11-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive "working models" and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious "transmission gap" between parental Adult Attachment Interview classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology; (b) neurobiology; (c) health and immune function; (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism; (e) school readiness; and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses. PMID:24342848

  2. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta;

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  3. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  4. Attachment Theory Applied to Juvenile Sex Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrow, Kenneth K.; Lim, Mee-Gaik

    1998-01-01

    Attachment theory is applied to identify systemic patterns encouraging juveniles to commit sexual offenses. The role of the helping system in perpetuating offenses is reviewed. The priority of family integrity and the role of professionals in breaking cycles of abuse and repairing earlier destructive emotional attachments are discussed. (EMK)

  5. Attachment patterns and Mentalization in Traumatized Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    nærværende projekt bestod af de patienter i moderforsøget, som var arabisktalende (N=68). Måleredskaber består i The Adult Attachment Interview, The Reflective Functioning Scale, Revised Adult Attachment Scale, Working Alliance Inventory og Feeling Word Checklist-58. PTSD, depressions- og angstsymptomer...

  6. Study on thermocouple attachment in reflood experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of thermocouple attachment to a heater rods has been studied for surface temperature measurement in reflood experiments. The method used as far in JAERI's reflood experiments had some possibilities of not estimating exactly the quench times. Various attachment method have been tested and some proved to be effective in the respect. (auth.)

  7. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  8. Romantic adult attachment and basic personality structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zeleskov Djoric

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was localization of attachment dimensions in the space described by basic personality traits. Study purported to examine relations between attachment and basic personality structure, in a sample of 203 respondents. Romantic adult attachment was measured by the Experience in Close Relationship Scale, basic personality structure was assessed by the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, and Disintegration, which represents operationalization of Schizotypy as a basic personality trait, was estimated by the Delta 10 test. The results of Principal component analysis showed that attachment dimensions are not separate constructs in relation to basic personality traits. Furthermore, results indicate that attachment dimensions represent emotional dysregulation in close interpersonal relationships, because positive correlations are found between dimensions of Attachment and Mania (.35, Anxiety (.51 and Depression (.55. Negative correlations have been obtained between Attachment and Positive emotions (-.34 and Feelings (-.31. These results suggest that Attachment dimensions should be considered as an expression of basic personality traits in romantic adult's relationships.

  9. Attachment and Dependency in Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Distinguishes between attachment (the relationship between infant and caregiver) and dependency (the reliance of the child on adults for nurturance, attention, or assistance). Assesses preschool children with varying attachment histories and suggests that the roots of overdependency lie in the quality of the early infant-caregiver relationship.…

  10. Attachment to spextrophotometers for measuring scattering patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fsel' son, M.P.; Krikum, A.Z.; Sivyakov, Y.A.; Spivak, R.Y.

    1986-02-01

    The authors have developed a simple attachment to the Shimadsu MPS 50L spectrophotometer for measuring scattering patterns. The attachment is mounted directly at the cuvette section of the spectrophotometer. The radiation detector of the attachment is formed by an FR1-4 photoresistor disposed on the vertical section of a gamma-shaped bar adapted to be inclined by plus or minus 90 degrees with respect to the direction of the radiation beam. When the attachment is used, its radiation detector is connected into the measuring circuit of the spectrophotometer in place of the spectrophotometer's detector. When the spectrophotometer alone is used the detector of the attachment is moved out of the beam and the detector of the spectrophotometer proper is inserted into the measuring circuit.

  11. The Antimicrobial Activity of Porphyrin Attached Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lesley

    2008-03-01

    We are interested in testing the antimicrobial activity of a porphyrin that is attached to a polymer. The porphyrin (5-(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-pryridyl)) was synthesized from methyl 4-formyl benzoate, 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, and pyrrole and attached to a copolymer of polystyrene/poly(vinyl benzyl chloride), which was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The antimicrobial activity of the polymer-attached porphyrin was then determined for gram-negative E. Coli grown to 0.80 OD. In this procedure, glass slides were coated with polymer-attached porphyrin via dip-coating, and the E. Coli bacteria were plated in Luria Broth media. The plates were subsequently exposed to light overnight before they were incubated as porphyrins act as photo-sensitizers when irradiated with light. The polymer-attached porphyrin did exhibit antimicrobial activity and parameters that affect its efficiency will be discussed.

  12. Continuous monitoring of bacterial attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeing, D. W.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    A major concern with the Space Station Freedom (SSF) water supply system is the control of longterm microbial contamination and biofilm development in the water storage and distribution systems. These biofilms have the potential for harboring pathogens as well as microbial strains containing resistance factors that could negatively influence crew health. The proposed means for disinfecting the water system on SSF (iodine) may encourage the selection of resistant strains. In fact, biofilm bacteria were observed in water lines from the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102); therefore, an alternative remediation method is required to disinfect spacecraft water lines. A thorough understanding of colonization events and the physiological parameters that will influence bacteria adhesion is required. The limiting factor for development of this technology is the ability to continuously monitor adhesion events and the effects of biocides on sessile bacteria. Methods were developed to allow bacterial adhesion and subsequent biocidal treatment to be monitored continuously. This technique couples automated image analysis with a continuous flow of a bacterial suspension through an optical flow cell. A strain of Pseudomonas cepacia isolated from the water supply of the Space Shuttle Discovery (OV-103) during STS-39 was grown in a nitrogen-limited continuous culture. This culture was challenged continuously with iodine during growth, and the adhesion characteristics of this strain was measure with regard to flow rate. Various biocides (ozone, hypochlorite, and iodine) were added to the flow stream to evaluate how well each chemical removed the bacteria. After biocide treatment, a fresh bacterial suspension was introduced into the flow cell, and the attachment rate was evaluated on the previously treated surface. This secondary fouling was again treated with biocide to determine the efficacy of multiple batch chemical treatments in removing biofilm.

  13. Attachment Behaviors in Human Infants: Discriminative Vocalization on Maternal Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleener, Don E.; Cairns, Robert B.

    1970-01-01

    Study of 64 infants showed that (1) once infants began to cry, they tended to persist, (2) only older infants specifically missed their mothers, and (3) tendency to cry was not related to maternal responsiveness or sex of child. (MH)

  14. Evolved mechanisms in depression: the role and interaction of attachment and social rank in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, L; Gilbert, P; Hasey, G

    2003-04-01

    Evolved mechanisms underpinning attachment and social rank behavior may be the basis for some forms of major depression, especially those associated with chronic stress. We note the heterogeneity of depression, but suggest that some of its core symptoms, such as behavioral withdrawal, low self-esteem and anhedonia, may have evolved in order to regulate behavior and mood and convey sensitivity to threats and safety. Focusing on the evolved mental mechanisms for attachment and social rank helps to make sense of (1) depression's common early vulnerability factors (e.g., attachment disruptions, neglect and abuse), (2) the triggering events (e.g., loss of close relationships, being defeated and/or trapped in low socially rewarding or hostile environments), and (3) the psychological preoccupations of depressed people (e.g., sense of unlovableness, self as inferior and a failure). This focus offers clues as to how these two systems interact and on how to intervene. PMID:12706512

  15. Nuclear reactor fuel rod attachment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention involves a technique to quickly, inexpensively and rigidly attach a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. The invention also allows for the repeated non-destructive removal and replacement of the fuel rod. The proposed fuel rod and support member attachment and removal system consists of a locking cap fastened to the fuel rod and a locking strip fastened to the support member or vice versa. The locking cap has two or more opposing fingers shaped to form a socket. The fingers spring back when moved apart and released. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion

  16. Traffic of cytoskeletal motors with disordered attachment rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeschik, H.; Harris, R. J.; Santen, L.

    2010-03-01

    Motivated by experimental results on the interplay between molecular motors and tau proteins, we extend lattice-based models of intracellular transport to include a second species of particle which locally influences the motor-filament attachment rate. We consider various exactly solvable limits of a stochastic multiparticle model before focusing on the low-motor-density regime. Here, an approximate treatment based on the random-walk behavior of single motors gives good quantitative agreement with simulation results for the tau dependence of the motor current. Finally, we discuss the possible physiological implications of our results.

  17. Research to practice: emotional development and maternal/infant attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, L A

    1999-01-01

    A mother's responsiveness to her infant's signals is important for developing their personal relationship and the child's social and cognitive competence. While interacting, both mother and infant emit signals to capture each other's attention and to indicate whether to join, sustain, or terminate their interaction. Maternal sensitivity to these signals is a central feature in the development of optimal or secure attachment. However, a mother's perceptions and expectations of her infant's behavior affects her sensitivity to infant signals. Because of the effect of these parental perceptions, modifying the parent's cognitive sets and coping strategies to help them better deal with the challenge of responding to infant distress can be beneficial. PMID:10531913

  18. Disorganized attachment in infancy predicts greater amygdala volume in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons-Ruth, K; Pechtel, P; Yoon, S A; Anderson, C M; Teicher, M H

    2016-07-15

    Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r=0.679, pimportance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes. PMID:27060720

  19. Direct and indirect relations between parent-child attachments, peer acceptance, and self-esteem for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alexandra; Veríssimo, Manuela; Gatinho, Ana; Santos, António J; Vaughn, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to test Bowlby's suggestions concerning relations between the child's attachment quality with parents and subsequently constructed models of self-worth during early childhood. In most research on this question, attachment with mothers is considered in relation to self-worth but the child's attachment with fathers is not. Neither has the peer group been studied as an influence on child self-esteem, in the context of attachment research. This study addresses these relatively unstudied influences on child self-esteem. Attachment security to mother and father was measured by the Attachment Behavior Q-Set at two and half years of age. At five years of age social acceptance was measured using two sociometric techniques, and the self-esteem with the California Child Q-Sort. Our analyses indicated that security of the attachment to father and peer acceptance are both unique, significant predictors of the childrens' self-esteem. The security of the attachment to mother was also related to child self-esteem but did not emerge as a uniquely significant predictor. Peer acceptance appeared to moderate of the effect of the security of the attachment to father on the self-esteem of children. Our results extend the relatively sparse literature relating early attachments to self-esteem during early childhood. PMID:26426975

  20. Cryogenic devices attached to electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cryoeenic equipement attached to electron accelerators used at the CEN.G for fundamental research on point defects in solids is presented and some of their essential technical characteristics are briefly described

  1. Attachment and the Roots of Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan

    1981-01-01

    Describes research with 12- to 18-month-old infants (N=108) determining whether the quality of an infant's attachment to his/her primary caregiver could predict the nature of his/her emerging personality. (CS)

  2. Attachment of Gold Nanoparticles to Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Cheng MA; Ning LUN; Shu Lin WEN

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes were initially chemically modified with an H2SO4-HNO3 treatment,and subsequently activated with Pd-Sn catalytic nuclei via a one-step activation approach. These activated nanotubes were used as precursors for obtaining gold nanoparticles-attached nanotubes via simple electroless plating. This approach provides an efficient method for attachment of metal nanostructures to carbon nanotubes. Such novel hybrid nanostructures are attractive for many applications.

  3. Attachment and Personality Disorders: A Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzini, N.; Fonagy, P

    2013-01-01

    Attachment theory is a biopsychosocial model referring to a person’s characteristic ways of relating in close relationships, such as with parents, children, and romantic partners. These ways of relating are learned during early infancy and mold subsequent intimate relationships. An adult who is securely attached has internalized a reliable relationship to his/her caregivers in infancy, and thus is capable of adapting to different social contexts and, more importantly, of maintaining an adequa...

  4. Attachment an interpersonal processes in hearing voices

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This study investigated the link between attachment anxiety/avoidance, interpersonal aspects of the voice relationship, and distress whilst considering the impact of beliefs about voices and paranoia. Method: A cross sectional correlational method was employed and participants were recruited mainly via online forums for people who hear voices. 44 participants who heard voices completed a number of self-report measures tapping attachment, interpersonal processes in the voice relationship...

  5. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Agina Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment languag

  6. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  7. Removable partial overdentures with mechanical (precision) attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensor, M C

    1990-10-01

    Mechanical attachments for overdentures have been available in various forms for over a century. The explosive interest in osseointegration and the effort on the part of the profession to avoid the complete denture as a treatment modality has stirred the interest in positive retentive elements for overdentures represented by the mechanical stud and bar attachments. The cited references provide a resource as a trouble-free guide in the selection and use of the various stud and bar attachment systems. The clinical examples show a pattern of application not generally discussed by the manufacturers, illustrating the simplicity of use with the options for all attachments including magnets. The discussion on magnets comes from 9 years of clinical experience. Rare earth magnets provide excellent adjunct retention, and their assembly follows the same protocol and complexity as stud attachment systems. All magnets, at the present state of the art, have a corrosion potential with the exception of the Laser Sealed Units (Golden Dental, Golden, CO). Finally, the mechanics of the attachment overdenture serves as an excellent training field for the osseointegrated prosthesis, be it the classic Brånemark (Nobelpharma USA, Chicago, IL) restorative or the implant overdenture concept. PMID:2227040

  8. Attachment styles and violence within couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Sharon B; Bond, Michael

    2004-12-01

    This study examined whether an individual's attachment style and/or a couple's combination of attachment styles predicted violence within the marriage and explored whether other variables moderated the risk of violence. Measures of attachment style were administered to 41 discordant couples who presented to four different clinics. The couples' presenting complaints were not violence, and those who did report violence on questioning did not manifest severe violence, i.e., requiring shelters or legal intervention. Self-report measures of violence and marital satisfaction, including problem-solving communication, were also given. Using analysis of covariance and logistic regression, the relative contributions to strength of predicting being a victim of conjugal violence were calculated. An anxious attachment style was a significant predictor of females being victims of violence and of men not being victims. A dismissive style in men was predictive of men being victims when entered into the model with problem solving communication. The combination of anxiously attached females and dismissive males was a potent predictor of violence, and longer duration of marriage and poor problem-solving communication added power to the prediction. Marital interaction, which is influenced by couples' attachment styles and problem-solving communication, is a significant factor in marital partners experiencing physical violence. For couples with milder levels of violence, a more nuanced approach (compared with the legally based approach used for severe violence) seems indicated. PMID:15583508

  9. Attachment-based family therapy for depressed and suicidal adolescents: theory, clinical model and empirical support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, E Stephanie Krauthamer; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) is a manualized family-based intervention designed for working with depressed adolescents, including those at risk for suicide, and their families. It is an empirically informed and supported treatment. ABFT has its theoretical underpinnings in attachment theory and clinical roots in structural family therapy and emotion focused therapies. ABFT relies on a transactional model that aims to transform the quality of adolescent-parent attachment, as a means of providing the adolescent with a more secure relationship that can support them during challenging times generally, and the crises related to suicidal thinking and behavior, specifically. This article reviews: (1) the theoretical foundations of ABFT (attachment theory, models of emotional development); (2) the ABFT clinical model, including training and supervision factors; and (3) empirical support. PMID:25778674

  10. 'Soft' harness for external attachment of large radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herke, S.W.; Moring, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a 'soft' harness for dorsally attaching large, external radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius). The key harness component was a soft, flexible, thick-walled tubing that prevented tissue abrasion by the attachment lines which passed through the tubing. Six field-tagged fish (1.5-7.5 kg) were monitored for 45-115 days before tracking was terminated. Tracking patterns of fish indicated no apparent effect of these large, external transmitters on movement behavior; further, the transmitters did not appear to entangle the fish in vegetation. One fish with its transmitter still secure was recaptured after 54 days, and there was minimal tissue erosion under the transmitter. With minor improvements for the attachment lines and the transmitter saddle, the method is suitable for externally attaching large telemetry transmitters to fish.

  11. Client attachment and therapist feelings in the treatment of bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Lunn, Susanne; Poulsen, Stig

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between client attachment and therapist postsession feelings was investigated in a randomized clinical trial of psychoanalytic psychotherapy (PPT) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa. Therapists completed feeling word checklists after each session, and client attachment was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview. A factor analysis identified 3 feeling factors, Happy/Enthusiastic, Overwhelmed/Moved, and Indifferent/Bored. Positive feelings were predominant, but PPT therapists reported more negative and fewer positive feelings than CBT therapists did. Client improvement in terms of frequency of bulimic episodes and general psychiatric distress was related to an increase in Happy/Enthusiastic feelings. Multilevel analyses indicated significant interactions between therapy type and client dismissing versus preoccupied attachment in predicting therapist negative emotional reactions. PPT therapist felt more Indifferent/Bored the more dismissing clients were, whereas CBT therapists felt more Overwhelmed/Moved the more preoccupied clients were. PMID:25985045

  12. Structure, attachment properties, and ecological importance of the attachment system of English ivy (Hedera helix)

    OpenAIRE

    Melzer, Björn; Seidel, Robin; Steinbrecher, Tina; Speck, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Root climbers such as English ivy (Hedera helix) rely on specialized adventitious roots for attachment, enabling the plants to climb on a wide range of natural and artificial substrates. Despite their importance for the climbing habit, the biomechanical properties of these specialized adventitious roots compared with standard roots and their performance in the attachment to different host species or inert substrates have not been studied. Here organs and tissues involved in the attachment are...

  13. Attachment Representation Moderates the Influence of Emotional Context on Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyh, Rainer; Heinisch, Christine; Kungl, Melanie T.; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    The induction of emotional states has repeatedly been shown to affect cognitive processing capacities. At a neurophysiological level, P3 amplitude responses that are associated with attention allocation have been found to be reduced to task-relevant stimuli during emotional conditions as compared to neutral conditions suggesting a draining impact of emotion on cognitive resources. Attachment theory claims that how individuals regulate their emotions is guided by an internal working model (IWM) of attachment that has formed early in life. While securely attached individuals are capable of freely evaluating their emotions insecurely attached ones tend to either suppress or heighten the emotional experience in a regulatory effort. To explore how attachment quality moderates the impact of emotional contexts on information processing event-related potentials (ERPs) in 41 individuals were assessed. Subjects were instructed to detect neutral target letters within an oddball paradigm. Various images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) served as background pictures and represented negative, positive and neutral task-irrelevant contexts. Attachment representation was assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and individuals were assigned to one of three categories (secure, insecure-dismissing, insecure-preoccupied). At a behavioral level, the study revealed that negative emotionally conditions were associated with the detection of less target stimuli in insecure-dismissing subjects. Accordingly, ERPs yielded reduced P3 amplitudes in insecure-dismissing subjects when given a negative emotional context. We interpret these findings in terms of less sufficient emotion regulation strategies in insecure-dismissing subjects at the cost of accurate behavioral performance. The study suggests that attachment representation differentially moderates the relationship between emotional contexts and information processing most evident in insecure

  14. Attachment Representation Moderates the Influence of Emotional Context on Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyh, Rainer; Heinisch, Christine; Kungl, Melanie T; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    The induction of emotional states has repeatedly been shown to affect cognitive processing capacities. At a neurophysiological level, P3 amplitude responses that are associated with attention allocation have been found to be reduced to task-relevant stimuli during emotional conditions as compared to neutral conditions suggesting a draining impact of emotion on cognitive resources. Attachment theory claims that how individuals regulate their emotions is guided by an internal working model (IWM) of attachment that has formed early in life. While securely attached individuals are capable of freely evaluating their emotions insecurely attached ones tend to either suppress or heighten the emotional experience in a regulatory effort. To explore how attachment quality moderates the impact of emotional contexts on information processing event-related potentials (ERPs) in 41 individuals were assessed. Subjects were instructed to detect neutral target letters within an oddball paradigm. Various images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) served as background pictures and represented negative, positive and neutral task-irrelevant contexts. Attachment representation was assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and individuals were assigned to one of three categories (secure, insecure-dismissing, insecure-preoccupied). At a behavioral level, the study revealed that negative emotionally conditions were associated with the detection of less target stimuli in insecure-dismissing subjects. Accordingly, ERPs yielded reduced P3 amplitudes in insecure-dismissing subjects when given a negative emotional context. We interpret these findings in terms of less sufficient emotion regulation strategies in insecure-dismissing subjects at the cost of accurate behavioral performance. The study suggests that attachment representation differentially moderates the relationship between emotional contexts and information processing most evident in insecure

  15. Congruence between Spouses’ Perceptions and Observers’ Ratings of Responsiveness: The Role of Attachment Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Lindsey A.; Pietromonaco, Paula R.; DeVito, Cassandra C.; Powers, Sally I.; Boyle, Alysia M.

    2016-01-01

    Although close relationships require partners to depend on one another for mutual responsiveness, avoidantly-attached individuals are especially averse to risking such dependency. The authors propose that both avoidant and non-avoidant individuals perceive signs of their own and their partners’ responsiveness in ways that reflect motivated perceptions of dependency. The present research examined how the interplay between spouses’ attachment avoidance and observed responsive behaviors during marital conflict shaped perceptions of their own and their partners’ responsiveness. Newlywed couples attempted to resolve a relationship conflict, then reported perceptions of their own and their partners’ responsiveness during the conflict. Observers also coded both partners’ responsive behaviors during the conflict. Avoidant husbands perceived themselves as less responsive than did observers; avoidant wives’ perceptions that their husbands were less responsive matched observers’ ratings. The discussion highlights the role of gender role norms in understanding links between attachment and responsiveness. PMID:24132245

  16. Overview for Attached Payload Accommodations and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Craig; Cook, Gene; Nabizadeh, Rodney; Phillion, James

    2007-01-01

    External payload accommodations are provided at attach sites on the U.S provided ELC, U.S. Truss, the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) and the Columbus EPF (External Payload Facilities). The Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) provides the backbone structure for the ISS. It attaches the solar and thermal control arrays to the rest of the complex, and houses cable distribution trays Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment such as handholds and lighting; and providing for Extravehicular Robotic (EVR) accommodations using the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). It also provides logistics and maintenance, and payload attachment sites. The attachment sites accommodate logistics and maintenance and payloads carriers, zenith and nadir. The JEM-EF, a back porch-like attachment to the JEM Pressurized Module, accommodates up to eight payloads, which can be serviced by the crew via the JEM PM's airlock and dedicated robotic arm. The Columbus-EPF is another porch-like platform that can accommodate two zenith and two nadir looking payloads.

  17. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  18. Preferential attachment in randomly grown networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Iain S.

    2015-12-01

    We reintroduce the model of Callaway et al. (2001) as a special case of a more general model for random network growth. Vertices are added to the graph at a rate of 1, while edges are introduced at rate δ. Rather than edges being introduced at random, we allow for a degree of preferential attachment with a linear attachment kernel, parametrised by m. The original model is recovered in the limit of no preferential attachment, m → ∞. As expected, even weak preferential attachment introduces a power-law tail to the degree distribution. Additionally, this generalisation retains a great deal of the tractability of the original along with a surprising range of behaviour, although key mathematical features are modified for finite m. In particular, the critical edge density, δc which marks the onset of a giant network component is reduced with increasing tendency for preferential attachment. The positive degree-degree correlation introduced by the unbiased growth process is offset by the skewed degree distribution, reducing the network assortativity.

  19. The Integrated Attachment and Sexual Minority Stress Model: Understanding the Role of Adult Attachment in the Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Calebs, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Gay and bisexual boys and men experience social stigma associated with their sexual minority status that can negatively influence health. In addition, experiencing sexual orientation stigma may be linked to a decreased capacity to effectively form and maintain secure attachment relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners across the life-course. We proposed that utilizing a framework that integrates the process by which sexual minority men develop attachment relationships in the context of sexual minority stress can lead to a better understanding of health and well-being among sexual minority boys and men. In addition, we highlight where future research can expand upon the presented model in order to better understand the developmental processes through which attachment and sexual minority stress influences health and health behaviors among sexual minority boys and men. PMID:27337620

  20. The Role of Parenting and Mother-Adolescent Attachment in the Intergenerational Similarity of Internalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, Katrijn; Soenens, Bart; Braet, Caroline; Bal, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Parental depression has been identified as a risk factor for children's and adolescents' internalizing problems. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of maternal parenting behaviors (i.e., responsiveness and autonomy-support) and adolescents' representations of attachment to their mother (i.e., anxiety and avoidance) in the…

  1. Understanding Aggression through Attachment and Social Emotional Competence in Korean Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sukkyung; Kim, Ann Y.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increase in adolescent crime in the Republic of Korea has put adolescent aggression in the spotlight. This study examines whether the quality of attachment to parents and peers influences aggressive behaviors and whether social emotional competencies serve as significant mediators for middle school students. These relationships…

  2. Children of Neglect with Attachment and Time Perception Deficits: Strategies and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Dennis; Johnson, Gail; Johnson, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Early childhood neglect can limit a child's normal cognitive development and result in behavior problems in the classroom. When normal attachment is disrupted, learning difficulties can result in problems with time awareness. It has also been shown that an awareness of time is a key concept for the formation of organizational and math skills. This…

  3. Maternal attachment representations after very preterm birth and the effect of early intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Meijssen; M.J. Wolf; H. van Bakel; K. Koldewijn; J. de Kok; A. van Baar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: For very preterm infants the mother-infant relationship may be compromised. Maternal attachment representations 18 (corrected) months after very preterm birth and the effect of the post-discharge Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) were studied. The IBAIP is desi

  4. Attachment Categories as Reflections of Multiple Dimensions: Comment on Fraley and Spieker (2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan

    2003-01-01

    Ainsworth's system of classifying attachment patterns will not be easily displaced primarily because of difficulties involved in a dimensional approach. Problems include the number of dimensions involved, need to develop reliable scales, and need to describe how behavior changes across age and in the Strange Situation. Only when an alternative…

  5. Measuring Lifestyle and Attachment: An Empirical Investigation Linking Individual Psychology and Attachment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Paul R.; Peluso, Jennifer P.; Buckner, Janine P.; Kern, Roy M.; Curlette, William

    2009-01-01

    P. R. Peluso, J. P. Peluso, J. F. White, and R. M. Kern (2004) reviewed the theoretical constructs underlying the similarities between lifestyle and attachment style. Specifically, they suggested that the individual psychology construct of lifestyle (or style of life) and attachment style should be empirically investigated. The present research…

  6. Attachment, Trauma, and Healing: Understanding and Treating Attachment Disorder in Children and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Terry M.; Orlans, Michael

    Attachment is the deep and enduring connection established between a child and caregiver in the first few years of life. It profoundly influences every component of the human condition: mind, body, emotions, relationships, and values. Children lacking secure attachments with caregivers experience many difficulties in life and may grow up to be…

  7. Morphology of muscle attachment sites in the modern human hand does not reflect muscle architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Williams-Hatala, E. M.; K. G. Hatala; Hiles, S; Rabey, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle attachment sites (entheses) on dry bones are regularly used by paleontologists to infer soft tissue anatomy and to reconstruct behaviors of extinct organisms. This method is commonly applied to fossil hominin hand bones to assess their abilities to participate in Paleolithic stone tool behaviors. Little is known, however, about how or even whether muscle anatomy and activity regimes influence the morphologies of their entheses, especially in the hand. Using the opponens muscles from a ...

  8. Understanding Members’ Attachment to Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Eric T. K.; Cyr, Dianne; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2014-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are pervasive phenomena in today’s society. With greater connectivity and interactivity enabled through emerging technologies, SNSs provide communication platforms for individuals to bridge spatial and temporal differences when making friends, sharing experiences......, socializing with others and much more. This study therefore endeavors to shed light on this growing trend by decomposing members’ motives for participating within SNSs into identity-based, bondbased and comparison-based attachments. Each of these forms of attachment in turn affects members’ cooperative and...

  9. Infant humor perception from 3- to 6-months and attachment at one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireault, Gina; Sparrow, John; Poutre, Merlin; Perdue, Brittany; Macke, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Infancy is a critical time for the development of secure attachment, which is facilitated by emotionally synchronous interactions with parents. Humor development, which includes shared laughter and joint attention to an event, emerges concurrently with attachment, but little is known regarding the relationship, if any, between humor development and attachment in the first year. Thirty 3-month-old infants were videoed at home each month until they were 6-months old while their parents attempted to amuse them. Frequency of infants' smiles and laughs served as a measure of "state humor", and the smiling/laughing subscale of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised served as a measure of "trait humor". State and trait humor were not correlated. Lower trait humor as 6 months predicted higher attachment security on the Attachment Q-sort at 12-months (r=.46), suggesting that less good-humored infants elicit greater parental engagement, which works to the benefit of attachment, or vice versa. Future studies should examine the importance of smiling and laughter as they relate to other developmental phenomena in the first year. PMID:22982281

  10. The effect of academic stress and attachment stress on stress-eaters and stress-undereaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Michael; Ten Eycke, Kayla; Kosmerly, Stacey; Robinson, Adele Lafrance; Stillar, Amanda; Van Blyderveen, Sherry

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that stress is related to changes in eating patterns. Some individuals are more likely to increase their overall food intake under conditions of stress, whereas others are more likely to consume less food when stressed. Attachment style has been linked to disordered eating and eating disorders; however, comparisons of eating behaviors under attachment versus other types of stress have yet to be explored. The present laboratory study examined the eating patterns in self-identified stress-undereaters and stress-eaters under various types of stress. More specifically, the study examined the effects of academic and attachment stress on calorie, carbohydrate and sugar consumption within these two groups. Under the guise of critiquing student films, university students viewed either one of two stress-inducing videos (academic stress or attachment stress, both designed to be emotionally arousing) or a control video (designed to be emotionally neutral), and their food intake was recorded. Results demonstrated that the video manipulations were effective in inducing stress. Differential patterns of eating were noted based on group and stress condition. Specifically, stress-undereaters ate fewer calories, carbohydrates and sugars than stress-eaters in the academic stress condition, but not in the attachment stress or control condition. Findings suggest that specific types of stressors may influence eating behaviors differently. PMID:26850311

  11. Mentalization, specific attachment, and relational satisfaction from the intrapsychic and interpersonal perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górska Dominika

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mentalization is a process of social cognition that involves making inferences about one’s own behavior and the behavior of other people on the basis of unobservable mental states. Particularly in psychodynamic approaches, mentalization is conceptualized in the context of activation of internal representation of emotional relationship. In this study, we checked whether mentalization constitutes a predictor of relational satisfaction in the context of one’s own and the partner’s specific attachment. The research sample was composed of 32 heterosexual couples living together for at least two years. Three tools were applied: the Mental State Task, Experiences in Close Relationships-Relationship Structures, and the Relationship Assessment Scale. The results indicate a strong negative effect of one’s own attachment anxiety and avoidance, and a strong effect of the partner’s attachment anxiety on the relationship satisfaction for both men and women. In women, the incremental validity of mentalization in predicting satisfaction in the relationship beyond the attachment of their partners has been observed. The results are discussed in the context of the intrapsychic and interpersonal aspects of mentalization and attachment.

  12. Development of Lathe Attachment for a CNC Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, V.; Kumar, S.

    2013-04-01

    A lathe attachment has been developed for an existing CNC machine (installed with rapid prototyping attachment) using conceptual design. The CNC machine operates on mechatronic controls and a computer interface called CAMSOFT, and is used as a CNC Lathe after installing the respective attachment to it. The conceptual design phase, starts from an idea and different components of the lathe are designed as attachment using CAD modelling and is followed by fabrication phase. The lathe attachment is successfully developed and is installed to the CNC machine. The working of the CNC Lathe attachment is checked by making some machining operation like turning and thread cutting. The machining operations are successfully done. The CNC machine becomes multifunctional with the presently developed lathe attachment and the existing RP (rapid prototyping) attachment, and can be used accordingly by installing the respective attachment to it. The CNC machine is useful for carrying research work in both the fields, when installed with the appropriate attachment.

  13. Optimization of a Spring for Dental Attachments

    OpenAIRE

    Hack, P.; Fritzen, C.-P.

    1989-01-01

    Special technological applications like the construction of a dental attachment require structural parts which have very small operall dimensions. Very often these parts are subjected to high loadings. The failure of a small spring was the starting point for an investigation with the aim to design a suitable new spring shape.

  14. Effect of attachment strategies on bipartite networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganguly, N.; Saha, S.; Maiti, A.;

    2013-01-01

    rate. Here, we focus on the case where one of the partitions can be assumed to be fixed while the other partition grows in time as observed in the codon-gene or alphabet-word network. We show that subtle changes in growth dynamics, particularly in the attachment kernel, can lead to drastic changes of...

  15. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  16. Attachment Styles, Abuse Experiences and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Bulent; Capri, Burhan; Akbay, Sinem Evin; Tunc, Aygul

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between abuse experiences, depression and attachment styles. The data for this study was collected from 251 students (123 females and 128 males) who attend Mersin University. As a part of the data collection, students completed the Experiences in Affiliation Inventory, Childhood Trauma Scale and Brief…

  17. What is preferential to preferential attachment?

    CERN Document Server

    Small, Michael; Stemler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Preferential attachment --- where new nodes are added and attached to existing nodes with probability proportional to the existing nodes' degree --- has become the standard growth model for scale-free networks, where the asymptotic probability of a node having degree $k$ is proportional to $k^{-\\gamma}$. However, the motivation for this model is entirely {\\em ad hoc}. We use exact likelihood arguments and show that the optimal way to build a scale-free network is to preferentially attach to low degree nodes. Asymptotically, the optimal strategy is to attach the new node to one of the nodes of degree $k$ (in a network with $N$ nodes) with probability proportional to $\\frac{1}{N+\\zeta(\\gamma)(k+1)^\\gamma}$. The algorithm we propose to do this can be employed to generate optimally scale-free networks (maximum likelihood realisations) as well as a random sampling of the space of all scale-free networks with a given degree exponent $\\gamma$. While we focus on scale free networks, these methods can be applied to a ...

  18. Toward a Radically Embodied Neuroscience of Attachment and Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane Beckes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969/1982 posits that internal working models are a foundational feature of human bonds. Radical embodied approaches suggest that cognition requires no computation or representation, favoring a cognition situated in a body in context with affordances for action (Barrett, 2011; Chemero, 2009; Wilson & Golonka, 2013. We explore whether embodied approaches to social soothing, interpersonal warmth, separation distress, and support seeking could replace representational constructs such as internal working models with a view of relationship cognition anchored in the resources afforded to the individual by their brain, body, and environment interacting. We review the neurobiological bases for social attachments and relationships and attempt to delineate how these systems overlap or don’t with more basic physiological systems in ways that support or contradict a radical embodied explanation. We suggest that many effects might be the result of the fact that relationship cognition depends on and emerges out of the action of neural systems that regulate several clearly physically grounded systems. For example, the neuropeptide oxytocin appears to be central to attachment and pair-bond behavior (Carter & Keverne, 2002 and is implicated in social thermoregulation, being necessary for maintaining a warm body temperature in rats (Kasahara et al., 2007 and humans (Beck et al., 1979. Finally, we discuss the most challenging issues around taking a radically embodied perspective on social relationships. We find the most crucial challenge in individual differences in support seeking and responses to social contact, which have long been thought to be a function of representational structures in the mind (e.g., Baldwin, 1995. Together we entertain the thought to explain such individual differences without mediating representations or computations ending with a discussion of how representational approaches might be integrated with embodied

  19. Toward a radically embodied neuroscience of attachment and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckes, Lane; IJzerman, Hans; Tops, Mattie

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969/1982) posits the existence of internal working models as a foundational feature of human bonds. Radical embodied approaches instead suggest that cognition requires no computation or representation, favoring a cognition situated in a body in an environmental context with affordances for action (Chemero, 2009; Barrett, 2011; Wilson and Golonka, 2013; Casasanto and Lupyan, 2015). We explore whether embodied approaches to social soothing, interpersonal warmth, separation distress, and support seeking could replace representational constructs such as internal working models with a view of relationship cognition anchored in the resources afforded to the individual by their brain, body, and environment in interaction. We review the neurobiological bases for social attachments and relationships and attempt to delineate how these systems overlap or don't with more basic physiological systems in ways that support or contradict a radical embodied explanation. We suggest that many effects might be the result of the fact that relationship cognition depends on and emerges out of the action of neural systems that regulate several clearly physically grounded systems. For example, the neuropeptide oxytocin appears to be central to attachment and pair-bond behavior (Carter and Keverne, 2002) and is implicated in social thermoregulation more broadly, being necessary for maintaining a warm body temperature (for a review, see IJzerman et al., 2015b). Finally, we discuss the most challenging issues around taking a radically embodied perspective on social relationships. We find the most crucial challenge in individual differences in support seeking and responses to social contact, which have long been thought to be a function of representational structures in the mind (e.g., Baldwin, 1995). Together we entertain the thought to explain such individual differences without mediating representations or computations, but in the end propose a hybrid model of

  20. Characteristics of lightning leader propagation and ground attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rubin; Qie, Xiushu; Wang, Zhichao; Zhang, Hongbo; Lu, Gaopeng; Sun, Zhuling; Liu, Mingyuan; Li, Xun

    2015-12-01

    The grounding process and the associated leader behavior were analyzed by using high-speed video record and time-correlated electric field change for 37 natural negative cloud-to-ground flashes. Weak luminous grounded channel was recognized below the downward leader tip in the frame preceding the return stroke, which is inferred as upward connecting leader considering the physical process of lightning attachment, though not directly confirmed by sequential frames. For stepped leader-first return strokes, the upward connecting leaders tend to be induced by those downward leader branches with brighter luminosity and lower channel tip above ground, and they may accomplish the attachment with great possibility. The upward connecting leaders for 2 out of 61 leader-subsequent stroke sequences were captured in the frame prior to the return stroke, exhibiting relatively long channel lengths of 340 m and 105 m, respectively. The inducing downward subsequent leaders were of the chaotic type characterized by irregular electric field pulse train with duration of 0.2-0.3 ms. The transient drop of the high potential difference between stepped leader system and ground when the attachment occurred would macroscopically terminate the propagation of those ungrounded branches while would not effectively prevent the development of the existing space stem systems in the low-conductivity streamer zone apart from the leader tip. When the ungrounded branches are of poor connection with the main stroke channel, their further propagation toward ground would be feasible. These two factors may contribute to the occurrence of multiple grounding within the same leader-return stroke sequence.

  1. Comparative validity of the Adult Attachment Interview and the Adult Attachment Projective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Mason, Karen; Allen, I Elaine; Hamilton, Steve; Weiss, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and the Adult Attachment Projective (AAP) purport to measure the same attachment classifications. The aims of this study were to determine the concurrent validity of the AAI and AAP, and to compare their ability to predict indicators of risk associated with socioeconomic status (SES), depression, and 5-HTTLPR genotype. Results indicated no agreement between AAI and AAP attachment classifications in a sample of late adolescents. As predicted, individuals classified as "unresolved" with regard to loss or trauma were significantly more likely to be of lower SES, have higher levels of depression, and have the 5-HTTLPR "ss" genotype than individuals with secure, preoccupied, or dismissing attachments. These associations, however, were only significant when attachment was classified with the AAI. Results suggest that the AAI and AAP measure different facets of attachment as a result of their unique methodologies and coding criteria. Further research is needed to support their comparability before investigators can assume that the AAP is a valid substitute for the AAI. PMID:26362584

  2. Attachment patterns trigger differential neural signature of emotional processing in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josefina Escobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research suggests that individuals with different attachment patterns process social information differently, especially in terms of facial emotion recognition. However, few studies have explored social information processes in adolescents. This study examined the behavioral and ERP correlates of emotional processing in adolescents with different attachment orientations (insecure attachment group and secure attachment group; IAG and SAG, respectively. This study also explored the association of these correlates to individual neuropsychological profiles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a modified version of the dual valence task (DVT, in which participants classify stimuli (faces and words according to emotional valence (positive or negative. Results showed that the IAG performed significantly worse than SAG on tests of executive function (EF attention, processing speed, visuospatial abilities and cognitive flexibility. In the behavioral DVT, the IAG presented lower performance and accuracy. The IAG also exhibited slower RTs for stimuli with negative valence. Compared to the SAG, the IAG showed a negative bias for faces; a larger P1 and attenuated N170 component over the right hemisphere was observed. A negative bias was also observed in the IAG for word stimuli, which was demonstrated by comparing the N170 amplitude of the IAG with the valence of the SAG. Finally, the amplitude of the N170 elicited by the facial stimuli correlated with EF in both groups (and negative valence with EF in the IAG. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that individuals with different attachment patterns process key emotional information and corresponding EF differently. This is evidenced by an early modulation of ERP components' amplitudes, which are correlated with behavioral and neuropsychological effects. In brief, attachments patterns appear to impact multiple domains, such as emotional processing and EFs.

  3. THERMOPHILE ENDOSPORES HAVE RESPONSIVE EXOSPORIUM FOR ATTACHMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PANESSA-WARREN,B.; TORTORA,G.T.; WARREN,J.; SABATINI,R.

    1999-08-01

    Recently studies examining the colonization of Clostridial pathogens on agar and human tissue culture cells, demonstrated that (C. sporogenes ATCC 3584, C. difficile ATCC 43594 [patient isolate], C. difficile ATCC 9689 [non-clinical], C. clostridioforme [patient isolate]) bacterial spores (endospores) of the genus Clostridia have an outer membrane that becomes responsive at activation and exhibits extensions of the exosporial membrane that facilitate and maintain spore attachment to a nutritive substrate during germination and initial outgrowth of the newly developed bacterial cell. Therefore this attachment phenomenon plays an important role in insuring bacterial colonization of a surface and the initial stages of the infective process. To see if other non-clinical members of this genus also have this ability to attach to a substrate or food-source during spore germination, and how this attachment process in environmental thermophiles compares to the clinical paradigm (in relation to time sequence, exosporial membrane structure, type of attachment structures, composition of the membrane etc...), sediment samples were collected in sterile transport containers at 4 geothermal sites at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Because spore forming bacteria will produce spores when conditions are unfavorable for growth, the samples were sealed and stored at 4 C. After 8 months the samples were screened for the presence of spores by light microscope examination using malachite green/safranin, and traditional endospores were identified in significant quantities from the Terrace Spring site (a 46 C lake with bacterial mats and a rapidly moving run-off channel leading to a traditional hot spring). The highest spore population was found in the top sediment and benthic water of the run-off channel, pH 8.1.

  4. The Effect of Birth Order on Attachment Style According to Attachment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAKTAR, Seda; YAHŞİ, Gülşah

    2016-01-01

    Attachment is a vital neurobiopsychological phenomenon known to be dependent on the early relationship between baby and the caregiver. It mostly develops in the first year and out of repeated patterns of the primary attachment relationship. Birth order is defined as a person's rank by age among his or her siblings. Birth order is often believed to have a profound and lasting effect on psychological development. Also it has been thought that birth order has an impact on the attachment.  In thi...

  5. Attachment: A Study of a Child's Attachment to the Teacher as an Outgrowth of Her/His Attachment to the Mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Ann Jespersen

    This paper reviews the literature on attachment, presents a study of child-teacher attachment, and discusses child-teacher attachment as a secondary relationship influenced by the prototype bonding between mother and child. The literature review traces the development of psychoanalytic thought regarding the mother-child relationship and examines…

  6. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals’ recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals’ lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  7. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals' recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals' lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  8. A simple and reliable method for attaching radio-transmitters to lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Warner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.—The development of simple and effective techniques for attaching transmitters to animals is essential for radiotelemetricstudies. For a recent study, we developed a method for attaching radio-transmitters to Jacky Dragons(Amphibolurus muricatus, a semi-arboreal agamid lizard from southeastern Australia. Our method utilized a harness designand proved to be very effective. During the study, transmitters were never dislodged from the animals and our design did notappear to affect the animals’ natural behaviors. Herein, we provide a detailed description of our technique and its efficiency.

  9. Social networking sites in romantic relationships: attachment, uncertainty, and partner surveillance on facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2014-01-01

    Social networking sites serve as both a source of information and a source of tension between romantic partners. Previous studies have investigated the use of Facebook for monitoring former and current romantic partners, but why certain individuals engage in this behavior has not been fully explained. College students (N=328) participated in an online survey that examined two potential explanatory variables for interpersonal electronic surveillance (IES) of romantic partners: attachment style and relational uncertainty. Attachment style predicted both uncertainty and IES, with preoccupieds and fearfuls reporting the highest levels. Uncertainty did not predict IES, however. Future directions for research on romantic relationships and online surveillance are explored. PMID:23952623

  10. Statistical properties and attack tolerance of growing networks with algebraic preferential attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider growing networks with algebraic preferential attachment and address two questions: (1) what is the effect of temporal fluctuations in the number of new links acquired by the network? and (2) what is the network tolerance against random failures and intentional attacks? We find that the fluctuations generally have little effect on the network properties, although they lead to a plateau behavior for small degrees in the connectivity distribution. Formulas are derived for the evolution and distribution of the network connectivity, which are tested by numerical simulations. Numerical study of the effect of failures and attacks suggests that networks constructed under algebraic preferential attachment are more robust than scale-free networks

  11. Mind the gap: In-session silences are associated with client attachment insecurity, therapeutic alliance, and treatment outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Folke, Sofie; Lunn, Susanne; Gondan, Matthias; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2016-01-01

    cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Client attachment was assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. Early, middle and late sessions (N = 175) were evaluated with the Vanderbilt Therapeutic Alliance Scales, and quality of in-session silences was coded with the Pausing Inventory Categorization System (PICS......Objective: The association between in-session silences and client attachment, therapeutic alliance, and treatment outcome was investigated in two treatments for bulimia nervosa. Method: 69 women and one man were randomized to two years of psychoanalytic psychotherapy (PPT) or 20 sessions of...

  12. Defining the brain systems of lust, romantic attraction, and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen E; Aron, Arthur; Mashek, Debra; Li, Haifang; Brown, Lucy L

    2002-10-01

    Mammals and birds have evolved three primary, discrete, interrelated emotion-motivation systems in the brain for mating, reproduction, and parenting: lust, attraction, and male-female attachment. Each emotion-motivation system is associated with a specific constellation of neural correlates and a distinct behavioral repertoire. Lust evolved to initiate the mating process with any appropriate partner; attraction evolved to enable individuals to choose among and prefer specific mating partners, thereby conserving their mating time and energy; male-female attachment evolved to enable individuals to cooperate with a reproductive mate until species-specific parental duties have been completed. The evolution of these three emotion-motivation systems contribute to contemporary patterns of marriage, adultery, divorce, remarriage, stalking, homicide and other crimes of passion, and clinical depression due to romantic rejection. This article defines these three emotion-motivation systems. Then it discusses an ongoing project using functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain to investigate the neural circuits associated with one of these emotion-motivation systems, romantic attraction. PMID:12238608

  13. Electron attachment to antipyretics: Possible implications of their metabolic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A.; Modelli, Alberto

    2012-06-01

    The empty-level structures and formation of negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0-15 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals in a series of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), namely aspirin, paracetamol, phenacetin, and ibuprofen, were investigated in vacuo by electron transmission and dissociative electron attachment (DEA) spectroscopies, with the aim to model the behavior of these antipyretic agents under reductive conditions in vivo. The experimental findings are interpreted with the support of density functional theory calculations. The negative and neutral fragments formed by DEA in the gas phase display similarities with the main metabolites of these commonly used NSAIDs generated in vivo by the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes, as well as with several known active agents. It is concluded that xenobiotic molecules which possess pronounced electron-accepting properties could in principle follow metabolic pathways which parallel the gas-phase dissociative decay channels observed in the DEA spectra at incident electron energies below 1 eV. Unwanted side effects as, e.g., hepatoxicity or carcinogenicity produced by the NSAIDs under study in human organism are discussed within the "free radical model" framework, reported earlier to describe the toxic action of the well-known model toxicant carbon tetrachloride.

  14. Parental attachment style: examination of links with parent secure base provision and adolescent secure base use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason D; Cassidy, Jude

    2014-01-01

    The secure base construct represents one of attachment theory's most important contributions to our understanding of parent-child relationships and child development. The present study represents the first examination of how parents' self-reported attachment styles relate to parental secure base provision and adolescent (mean age = 16.6 years, SE = .59) secure base use during an observed parent-adolescent interaction. Further, the present study is the first to examine how fathers', as well as mothers', attachment styles relate to observed behavior in a parent-child interaction. At the bivariate level, maternal avoidance, but not anxiety, was negatively associated with observed adolescent secure base use. In addition, path analysis revealed that maternal avoidance was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through mothers' self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents and through adolescents' less positive perceptions of their mothers. Further, paternal anxiety, but not avoidance, was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through fathers' self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents. No significant findings emerged in relation to parental secure base provision. We discuss these results in the context of attachment theory and suggest directions for future research. PMID:24897927

  15. Dissociative electron attachment to HCCH, HCN and HCCCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chourou, S T; Orel, A E, E-mail: stchourou@ucdavis.ed, E-mail: aeorel@ucdavis.ed [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, CA-95616 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Previous work on the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to acetylene, hydrogen cyanide and its isomer and cyano-acetylene shows that the dissociation process for these systems is inherently polyatomic. We present a comparative summary of the study of these species believed to play a role in the chemistry of interstellar media and to present key elements in the prebiotic synthesis in early Earth. Our treatment was carried out in the low energy range (0-6 eV for HCCH and HCN/HNC and 0-12 eV for HCCCN) using a suitable coordinate system that allows taking into account distortions in the symmetry of the polyatomic target molecule. Computations show that these systems exhibit an intrinsic polyatomic behavior as they break apart.

  16. A radio transmitter attachment technique for soras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    We modified a figure-8 leg-loop harness designed for small passerines to attach successfully 1.8-g radio transmitters over the synsacrum of migrant Soras (Porzana carolina). Because of the short caudal region of Soras, addition of a waist loop was critical to securing the transmitter while leg loops were maintained to center the package. Thin gauge (0.6-mm diameter) elastic thread proved ideal for transmitter attachment and allowed for freedom of movement and girth expansion associated with fattening during a 6-10 week stopover. Of 110 Soras radio tagged during three field seasons, only a single mortality was observed and only a single bird lost its transmitter. Migration from the study area was confirmed for 76 (69%) and suspected for another 25 birds (total 92%).

  17. Implications of attachment theory for developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L A; Carlson, E A; Levy, A K; Egeland, B

    1999-01-01

    Bowlby's attachment theory is a theory of psychopathology as well as a theory of normal development. It contains clear and specific propositions regarding the role of early experience in developmental psychopathology, the importance of ongoing context, and the nature of the developmental process underlying pathology. In particular, Bowlby argued that adaptation is always the joint product of developmental history and current circumstances (never either alone). Early experience does not cause later pathology in a linear way; yet, it has special significance due to the complex, systemic, transactional nature of development. Prior history is part of current context, playing a role in selection, engagement, and interpretation of subsequent experience and in the use of available environmental supports. Finally, except in very extreme cases, early anxious attachment is not viewed as psychopathology itself or as a direct cause of psychopathology but as an initiator of pathways probabilistically associated with later pathology. PMID:10208353

  18. [Locator or ball attachment: a guide for clinical decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttel, Adrian E; Bühler, Nico M; Marinello, Carlo P

    2009-01-01

    Various attachments are available to retain overdentures on natural roots or implants. Technical aspects, the clinical handling, the capability to adapt or repair and the costs are parameters to be considered when choosing the appropriate attachment. Ball attachments and bars are clinically established and well documented. Ball attachments as prefabricated, unsplinted units are easily replaceable and show hygienic advantages, while bars show favorable stability. The Locator is a newer, popular clinical alternative to these established attachments. The ball attachment and the Locator are compared from a technical and clinical point of view. PMID:19852208

  19. Quitting before leaving: the mediating effects of psychological attachment and detachment on voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Ethan R; Detert, James R; Chiaburu, Dan S

    2008-07-01

    This research advances understanding of the psychological mechanisms that encourage or dissuade upward, improvement-oriented voice. The authors describe how the loyalty and exit concepts from A. O. Hirschman's (1970) seminal framework reflect an employee's psychological attachment to or detachment from the organization, respectively, and they argue that psychological attachment and detachment should not be considered as separate, alternative options to voice but rather as influences on voice behavior. Findings from 499 managers in the restaurant industry show that psychological detachment (measured as intention to leave) is significantly related to voice and mediates relationships between perceptions of leadership (leader-member exchange and abusive supervision) and voice, whereas psychological attachment (measured as affective commitment) is neither a direct predictor of voice nor a mediator of leadership-voice relationships. PMID:18642993

  20. The Effects of Community Attachment and Information Seeking on Displaced Disaster Victims' Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kong Joo; Nakakido, Ryo; Horie, Shinya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses original survey data of the Great East Japan earthquake disaster victims to examine their decision to apply for the temporary housing as well as the timing of application. We assess the effects of victims' attachment to their locality as well as variation in victims' information seeking behavior. We additionally consider various factors such as income, age, employment and family structure that are generally considered to affect the decision to choose temporary housing as victims' solution for their displacement. Empirical results indicate that, ceteris paribus, as the degree of attachment increases, victims are more likely to apply for the temporary housing but attachment does not affect the timing of application. On the other hand, the victims who actively seek information and are able to collect higher quality information are less likely to apply for the temporary housing and if they do apply then they apply relatively later. PMID:27007117

  1. The Effects of Community Attachment and Information Seeking on Displaced Disaster Victims’ Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kong Joo; Nakakido, Ryo; Horie, Shinya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses original survey data of the Great East Japan earthquake disaster victims to examine their decision to apply for the temporary housing as well as the timing of application. We assess the effects of victims’ attachment to their locality as well as variation in victims’ information seeking behavior. We additionally consider various factors such as income, age, employment and family structure that are generally considered to affect the decision to choose temporary housing as victims’ solution for their displacement. Empirical results indicate that, ceteris paribus, as the degree of attachment increases, victims are more likely to apply for the temporary housing but attachment does not affect the timing of application. On the other hand, the victims who actively seek information and are able to collect higher quality information are less likely to apply for the temporary housing and if they do apply then they apply relatively later. PMID:27007117

  2. The Effects of Community Attachment and Information Seeking on Displaced Disaster Victims' Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Joo Shin

    Full Text Available This paper uses original survey data of the Great East Japan earthquake disaster victims to examine their decision to apply for the temporary housing as well as the timing of application. We assess the effects of victims' attachment to their locality as well as variation in victims' information seeking behavior. We additionally consider various factors such as income, age, employment and family structure that are generally considered to affect the decision to choose temporary housing as victims' solution for their displacement. Empirical results indicate that, ceteris paribus, as the degree of attachment increases, victims are more likely to apply for the temporary housing but attachment does not affect the timing of application. On the other hand, the victims who actively seek information and are able to collect higher quality information are less likely to apply for the temporary housing and if they do apply then they apply relatively later.

  3. [Set of radiocirculographic attachments for radioisotope laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devishev, M I; Panfilova, N P; Ostrogradskaia, M G

    1980-01-01

    A set of radiocirculographic attachments is offered which serves for calibration and verification of readings taken from the apparatus during radiographic procedures. The set is designed for operation with all colimators of radiocirculographs produced in the USSR and Hungarian People's Republic. The set is able to imitate the investigation geometry, accumulation of radioactivity in the organ under study, absorption and scattering of radioactivty in the organism tissues. Series production of this device has already been initiated. PMID:7392870

  4. Attachment alternatives in implant-supported overdentures

    OpenAIRE

    Aktaş, Güliz; CANAY, Şenay

    2015-01-01

    Severe resorption of the alveolar ridges often makes it very difficult for patients to wear conventional dentures due to the lack of retention and stability of the dentures. Implant-supported overdentures offer edentulous patients a better retained and more stable prosthesis resulting in improved chewing ability and patient satisfaction compared against conventional complete dentures. There exist various attachment systems to be used with overdenture prostheses and are available in the market...

  5. Preferential attachment in the protein network evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Eli; Levanon, Erez Y.

    2003-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein-protein interaction map, as well as many natural and man-made networks, shares the scale-free topology. The preferential attachment model was suggested as a generic network evolution model that yields this universal topology. However, it is not clear that the model assumptions hold for the protein interaction network. Using a cross genome comparison we show that (a) the older a protein, the better connected it is, and (b) The number of interactions a prote...

  6. Electron attachment to the SF6 molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, B. M.; Kosarim, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Various models for transition between electron and nuclear subsystems are compared in the case of electron attachment to the SF6 molecule. Experimental data, including the cross section of electron attachment to this molecule as a function of the electron energy and vibrational temperature, the rate constants of this process in swarm experiments, and the rates of the chemionization process involving Rydberg atoms and the SF6 molecule, are collected and treated. Based on the data and on the resonant character of electron capture into an autodetachment ion state in accordance with the Breit-Wigner formula, we find that intersection of the molecule and negative ion electron terms proceeds above the potential well bottom of the molecule with the barrier height 0.05-0.1 eV, and the transition between these electron terms has both the tunnel and abovebarrier character. The limit of small electron energies e for the electron attachment cross section at room vibrational temperature takes place at ɛ ≪ 2 meV, while in the range 2 meV ≪ ɛ ≪ 80 meV, the cross section is inversely proportional to ɛ. In considering the attachment process as a result of the interaction between the electron and vibrational degrees of freedom, we find the coupling factor f between them to be f = aT at low vibrational temperatures T with a ≈ 3 × 10-4 K-1. The coupling factor is independent of the temperature at T > 400 K.

  7. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  8. Integrin Expression Regulates Neuroblastoma Attachment and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Meyer

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NBL is the most common malignant disease of infancy, and children with bone metastasis have a mortality rate greater than 90%. Two major classes of proteins, integrins and growth factors, regulate the metastatic process. We have previously shown that tumorigenic NBL cells express higher levels of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR and that β1 integrin expression is inversely proportional to tumorigenic potential in NBL. In the current study, we analyze the effect of β1 integrin and IGF-IR on NBL cell attachment and migration. Nontumorigenic S-cells express high levels of β1 integrin, whereas tumorigenic N-cells express little β1 integrin. Alterations in (3, integrin are due to regulation at the protein level, as translation is decreased in N-type cells. Moreover, inhibition of protein synthesis shows that β1 integrin is degraded more slowly in S-type cells (SHEP than in N-type cells (SH-SY5Y and IMR32. Inhibition of α5β1 integrin prevents SHEP (but not SH-SY5Y or IMR32 cell attachment to fibronectin and increases SHEP cell migration. Increases in IGF-IR decrease β1 integrin expression, and enhance SHEP cell migration, potentially through increased expression of αvβ3. These data suggest that specific classes of integrins in concert with IGF-IR regulate NBL attachment and migration.

  9. Trauma and Psychotherapy: Implications from a Behavior Analysis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of abuse in children. This article examines attachment theory and traditional models of family therapy from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a rationale for a behavioral treatment approach for abused children and their foster or…

  10. Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eNolte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the aetiology and maintainance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework.The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualised as the key organiser of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental and epigentic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial aetiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterised by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety.In the model, the cumulative allostatic load and subsequent wear and tear effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments

  11. Application of a modified harness design for attachment of radio transmitters to shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzenbacher, Peter; Haig, Susan M.; Oring, L.W.

    2000-01-01

    Radio transmitter attachment methodology is important to the design of radio telemetry studies. In 1998, we attached 5 transmitters to a captive population of Western Sandpipers(Calidris mauri) and 7 transmitters to wild Killdeer (Charadriusv ociferus) using a modified version of the Rappolea nd Tipton (1991) figure-8 leg-loop harness. Captive birds fitted with harnesses did not exhibit quantifiable differences in behavior relative to control birds. Based on initial success in using the leg-loop harnesses, we used harnesses to attach transmitters in the wild to 30 Killdeer and 49 Dunlin (Calidris alpina) during the winters of 1998-1999 and 1999-2000. This was part of a study on movements of wintering shorebirds in the Willamette Valley of Oregon,USA. Wild birds showed no adverse effects of the harnesses.Thus, the described harness is a practical method for attachment of transmitters to shorebirds. Advantages of this harness method include a reduction in handling time at capture, elimination of the need to clip feathers for attachment, and increased transmitter retention time.

  12. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities: links with parental attachment style and adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-04-01

    Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. PMID:25730406

  13. Neural correlates of attachment trauma in borderline personality disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Anna; Erk, Susanne; George, Carol; Kächele, Horst; Kircher, Tilo; Martius, Philipp; Pokorny, Dan; Ruchsow, Martin; Spitzer, Manfred; Walter, Henrik

    2008-08-30

    Functional imaging studies have shown that individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display prefrontal and amygdala dysfunction while viewing or listening to emotional or traumatic stimuli. The study examined for the first time the functional neuroanatomy of attachment trauma in BPD patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the telling of individual stories. A group of 11 female BPD patients and 17 healthy female controls, matched for age and education, told stories in response to a validated set of seven attachment pictures while being scanned. Group differences in narrative and neural responses to "monadic" pictures (characters facing attachment threats alone) and "dyadic" pictures (interaction between characters in an attachment context) were analyzed. Behavioral narrative data showed that monadic pictures were significantly more traumatic for BPD patients than for controls. As hypothesized BPD patients showed significantly more anterior midcingulate cortex activation in response to monadic pictures than controls. In response to dyadic pictures patients showed more activation of the right superior temporal sulcus and less activation of the right parahippocampal gyrus compared to controls. Our results suggest evidence for potential neural mechanisms of attachment trauma underlying interpersonal symptoms of BPD, i.e. fearful and painful intolerance of aloneness, hypersensitivity to social environment, and reduced positive memories of dyadic interactions. PMID:18635342

  14. Continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns across two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K Lee; Steele, Ryan D; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns within a higher-risk longitudinal sample of 55 female participants born into poverty. Infant attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation when participants were 12 and 18 months as well as several decades later with participants' children. Paralleling earlier findings from this sample on the stability of attachment patterns from infancy to young adulthood, results provided evidence for intergenerational continuities in attachment disorganization but not security. Children of adults with histories of infant attachment disorganization were at an increased risk of forming disorganized attachments. Although changes in infant attachment patterns across the two generations were not correlated with individuals' caregiving experiences or interpersonal stresses and supports during childhood and adolescence, higher quality social support during adulthood was associated with intergenerational changes from insecure to secure infant-caregiver attachment relationships. PMID:26213155

  15. A Review of Attachment in Children With Autism%自闭症儿童依恋研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林云强; 张福娟

    2012-01-01

    For a long time, children with autism have been thought to be unable to establish attachment relationship with their parents. This paper presents a systematic review of the latest development in the following aspects of the attachment in autistic children. The first is whether autistic children exhibit attachment behaviors, secure attachment behaviors in particular. Many studies at home and abroad have confirmed that there exist attachment behaviors among autistic children, and they can develop a secure attachment rela- tionship. This provides a theoretical premise for families with autistic children to establish good parent-child relationships. The second is whether there is a theory that can explain the development of the attachment behaviors among children with autism. Some researchers have proposed pervasive developmental disorders interpretive theory, disorder of the attention and arousal systems interpretive theory, and primary deficit to hinder the development of attachment theory. In addition, some researches have studied certain symptoms of autism from the perspective of regression, mainly focusing on the question as to whether regression is a critical phenomenon or an accidental occurrence among children with autism, and explored the relationship between regression and the language, social connections and attachment behaviors of autistic children. The authors maintain that traditional attachment development theory can' t be completely applicable to autistic children. The third is whether there are any research approaches to the attachment behaviors in autistic children. As to this question, re- searchers have given their answers, with some proposing the Strange Situation Procedure, some advocating the Attachment Q-Sort, while others suggesting Attachment Interview, and so on. However, there have emerged considerable arguments and doubts about the ecologi- cal validity of these approaches during the process of actual application. And due to the doubts

  16. Do dogs live in joint families? Understanding allo-parental care in free-ranging dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Manabi; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative breeding is an excellent example of altruistic cooperation in social groups. Domestic dogs have evolved from cooperatively hunting and breeding ancestors, but have adapted to a facultatively social scavenging lifestyle on streets, and solitary living in human homes. Pets typically breed and reproduce under human supervision, but free-ranging dogs can provide insights into the natural breeding biology of dogs. We conducted a five year long study on parental care of free-ranging dog...

  17. MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND ATTACHMENT: THE EVALUATION OF MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS DURING FEEDING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eSantona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Internal working models of attachment (IWM can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation biological rhythms and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasises parents’ emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children’s age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression,, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive

  18. Infant attachment predicts bodily freezing in adolescence: evidence from a prospective longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah C. M. Niermann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Early life-stress, particularly maternal deprivation, is associated with long-lasting deviations in animals’ freezing responses. Given the relevance of freezing for stress-coping, translational research is needed to examine the relation between insecure infant-parent attachment and bodily freezing-like behavior in humans. Therefore, we investigated threat-related reductions in body sway (indicative of freezing-like behavior in 14-year-old adolescents (N=79, for whom attachment security was earlier assessed in infancy. As expected, insecure (versus secure attachment was associated with less body sway for angry versus neutral faces. This effect remained when controlling for intermediate life-events. These results suggest that the long-lasting effects of early negative caregiving experiences on the human stress and threat systems extend to the primary defensive reaction of freezing. Additionally, we replicated earlier work in adults, by observing a significant correlation (in adolescents assessed as securely attached between subjective state anxiety and reduced body sway in response to angry versus neutral faces. Together, this research opens venues to start exploring the role of freezing in the development of human psychopathology.

  19. The Association between State Attachment Security and State Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Pepping, Christopher A.; Penelope J Davis; Analise O'Donovan

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that attachment and mindfulness are related, though the nature of this association is unclear. Here we present two studies examining whether there is a causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness. Study 1 investigated the effects of experimentally increasing state mindfulness on state attachment security. State mindfulness was successfully enhanced, but this led to no change in state attachment security. Study 2 investigated the effects of exper...

  20. Examinations on retention of overdentures with elastic frictional attachments

    OpenAIRE

    W. Chladek; G. Chladek; M. Wrzuś-Wieliński; J. Żmudzki

    2010-01-01

    frictional attachments.Design/methodology/approach: The examinations of retention characteristics of traditional attachments, elastic frictional attachments and models of overdentures have been carried out using Zwick testing machine. Retention forces and work essential for separating the attachments have been determined as well. Next the force – displacement characteristics for overdenture model have been registered for two places where the force was applied and for three inclination angles ...

  1. Attachment at work: its construct, discriminant, and predictive validity.

    OpenAIRE

    Neustadt, E.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with Attachment Theory (e.g. Bowlby, 1969/82 1973 1980) as it may apply to adults at work, with particular attention to the bearing of attachment orientation on management style and job performance. Chapter 1 provides an overview of attachment theory, existing measures and salient measurement issues Chapter 2 examines the literature, with a particular focus on adult attachment. Chapters 3-9 present a series of studies that entail testing the construct, discrimin...

  2. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): An Item Response Theory Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q.

    2013-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6–16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item resp...

  3. Giardia lamblia Attachment Force Is Insensitive to Surface Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, W. R.; Tulyathan, O.; Dawson, S. C.; Cande, W Z; Fletcher, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    Giardia lamblia cell populations show 90% detachment from glass under normal forces of 2.43 ± 0.33 nN applied by centrifugation. Detachment forces were not significantly different for cells attached to positively charged, hydrophobic, or inert surfaces than for cells attached to plain glass. The insensitivity of attachment force to surface treatment is consistent with a suction-based mechanism of attachment.

  4. Community implementation outcomes of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, E B; Weston-Lee, Patria; Haggerty, Danielle; Dozier, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Bringing evidence-based treatments to community practice is a critical challenge for the field. When implemented in the community, evidence-based treatments often fail to provide the benefits shown in laboratory settings. Therefore, when evidence-based treatments are transported to the community, it is essential to investigate implementation process and outcomes. The present study assessed whether Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), an intervention for high-risk parents that has been shown to be efficacious in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), changed parent behavior in a community-based setting. This study examined data collected from 78 cases by 9 parent coaches in a diverse community setting in Hawaii, and compared data to benchmarks from RCTs. Parent coach fidelity was coded from intervention session video clips, and was also compared with benchmarks. Caregivers participating in ABC were primarily birth parents, and most were referred through Child Protective Services involvement or for reasons of harsh parenting or neglect. Parental behavior was assessed before and after intervention using a semi-structured play task. Increases in parental following the lead and delight, and decreases in parental intrusiveness, were observed; these changes were comparable to effect sizes observed in RCTs. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using behavioral data from videotaped sessions, and suggested that ABC also improved following the lead in parents who subsequently dropped out of treatment. These results support the viability of ABC for enhancing parenting behavior among parents at high risk for maltreatment, and demonstrate that parent coaches in community agencies can successfully implement ABC. PMID:26746112

  5. Attachment icebergs: Maternal and child health nurses' evaluation of infant-caregiver attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Edith; Ridgway, Lael; Lucas, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    Secure attachment of infants to their caregiver is important when promoting the emotional wellbeing and mental health of infants. Maternal and child health (MCH) nurses are well positioned to observe the quality of interactions between infants and caregivers and to assess and intervene. However, as yet there are no approved methods to assess the emotional and mental health of infants in community settings. A qualitative descriptive study of 12 MCH nurses in Victoria, Australia, using semi-structured interviews, was thematically analysed. The data revealed that nurses used many skills to identify and manage attachment difficulties. Key among these were observations of interactions, collaboration with caregivers and reflective practice. Assessments and interventions are also influenced by nurses' emotions, attitudes and workplace factors. An unexpected finding was that attachment markers can be likened to an 'iceberg': warning indicators at the tip can be easily observed by the nurse, while the less obvious underlying factors need to be explored in order to support attachment and improve infant mental health outcomes. Education for nurses should include concepts of attachment and link behaviours with emotional wellbeing. PMID:27276798

  6. Device and process for attachment of parts to rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagla, Jon J.; Lowry, Robert W.; Mears, Otho L.

    1992-04-01

    An attachment platform positioned longitudinally on a rocket motor chamber and secured with laser welding techniques is described. Each attachment platform is continuously sealed longitudinally to the rocket motor chamber through the application of laser welding and optical seam tracking. Application of laser welding techniques allows for repair and installation of attachment platforms on rocket motors fully loaded with live propellant.

  7. Divergence in Siblings' Adult Attachment Security: Potential Contributors and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Keren

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has revealed only modest concordance in attachment security between siblings during childhood and adolescence. The first goal of this dissertation was to estimate sibling concordance in adult attachment security and identify factors contributing to divergence. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered to young adult…

  8. Attachment Representations and Characteristics of Friendship Relations during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that experiences with the primary caregivers are an important basis for the development of close social relationships outside the parent-child relationship. This study examined the association between representations of attachment, as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), representations of friendship and…

  9. Attachment and Social Problem Solving in Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Saritha S.; And Others

    This study investigates characteristics of juvenile delinquency and youth violence by examining attachment and social problem skills. Attachment theory integrates features of psychoanalytic theory, ethology, and cognitive psychology. Research on adolescent attachment suggests that parents continue to function as a secure base for their teenage…

  10. Predictors of Child Molestation: Adult Attachment, Cognitive Distortions, and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low…

  11. Anxious attachment may be a vulnerability factor for developing embitterment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, D.; Middendorp, H. van; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    By predisposing to ego-defensive strategies in social situations, a negative attachment history may promote embitterment. The present study identified attachment anxiety - more than attachment avoidance - as a possible vulnerability factor for the development and maintenance of embitterment. This fa

  12. Epistemological Development and Attachment in European College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Carla; Soares, Isabel; Silva, Carolina; Bastos, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Epistemological development and attachment theory have been independent frameworks for understanding psychological development. This study examined the association between epistemological development (using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection) and attachment (using the Adult Attachment Interview) in a sample of 60 pre- and postgraduated…

  13. Perceptions of Attachment Style and Marital Quality in Midlife Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollist, Cody S.; Miller, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    Based on attachment theory, Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) theorizes that attachment styles influence marital quality. Although research supports this relationship among young couples, no research has examined attachment styles and marital quality in midlife marriages. We examined this issue using data from 429 married people between the ages…

  14. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  15. Attachments to the common-place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on ethnographic work concerning on-going collective efforts in the Japanese city of Kyoto aiming to reposition a vernacular style of wooden housing, known as kyō-machiya, into a hybrid eco-design widely considered an appropriate local response to the global challenges of climate...... change. To understand the dynamic interplay of architecture and community-building in this case, the article stages a theoretical debate on the politics of shared attachments between three proponents of French pragmatic sociology: Bruno Latour, Antoine Hennion, and Laurent Thévenot. Drawing in particular...

  16. Attachment anxiety and friendship group identification under attachment threat : the moderating role of priming support network expectations.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, H. E. S.; Walsh, J.; Crisp, R. J.; Farrow, C. V.; Waugh, M. J.; BLISSETT, J.; Millings, A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the role of priming participants’ own network expectations on their subsequent identification with their friendship group. We examined this prime alongside attachment anxiety and attachment threat, as predictors of friendship group identification. Previous research has suggested that attachment anxiety is associated with negative network expectations. In this study, we extended this work to show that when a network expectation prime was absent, higher attachment anxiety was ass...

  17. The Relation of Insecure Attachment States of Mind and Romantic Attachment Styles to Adolescent Aggression in Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Miga, Erin M.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell

    2010-01-01

    The relation of attachment states of mind and self reported attachment relationship styles to romantic partner aggression was examined in a community sample of 93 adolescents. Higher levels of insecure-preoccupied and insecure-dismissing states of mind, as assessed by the Adolescent Attachment Interview at age 14, were predictive, respectively, of perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression in romantic relationships four years later. Partners’ romantic attachment anxiety was li...

  18. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Alhede

    Full Text Available For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non

  19. Attachment in the Making: Mother and Father Sensitivity and Infants’ Responses during the Still-Face Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Zentall, Shannon; Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Ekas, Naomi V.; Oshio, Toko; Planalp, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which infant and parent response trajectories during the Still-Face-Paradigm (SFP) in early infancy predicted later infant-mother and infant-father attachment. Families (n = 135) participated in the SFP when infants were 3, 5, and 7 months and the Strange Situation when infants were 12 (mothers) and 14 months (fathers). Multilevel models showed that parent sensitivity assessed during the SFP was related to infants’ affective and behavioral response trajectories during the SFP, and that sensitivity and infant response trajectories predicted attachment. Results from the present study support the notion that parent and infant responses in the SFP with mothers and fathers during Bowlby’s Attachment in the Making phase provide insight into the developing parent-child attachment relationship. PMID:24833270

  20. The influence of maternal attachment and postpartum depression on abnormal development of the child until the age of 18 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Beetz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems in the psychological or physical development of children seem to increase in Western Societies, probably also due to suboptimal interactions with caregivers and insecure attachments, and can be observed already in early childhood. In the present study, the association of children’s abnormal development until the age of 18 months with attachment representation, prenatal attachment and postpartum depression of their 161 primiparae mothers with a relatively high educational background were investigated. A high level of maternal attachment disorganization and even medium levels of postpartum depression were significantly linked to noticeable problems with physical and behavioral development in the regular child screening exams (at 6 and 12 months and with the problem behaviour reported by the mothers. This suggests that also mothers without obvious and known risk factors, who are usually not targeted by early interventions, would profit from professional support. A simple indicator for a screening would be maternal depression at 6 months postpartum.

  1. Morphology of muscle attachment sites in the modern human hand does not reflect muscle architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hatala, E M; Hatala, K G; Hiles, S; Rabey, K N

    2016-01-01

    Muscle attachment sites (entheses) on dry bones are regularly used by paleontologists to infer soft tissue anatomy and to reconstruct behaviors of extinct organisms. This method is commonly applied to fossil hominin hand bones to assess their abilities to participate in Paleolithic stone tool behaviors. Little is known, however, about how or even whether muscle anatomy and activity regimes influence the morphologies of their entheses, especially in the hand. Using the opponens muscles from a sample of modern humans, we tested the hypothesis that aspects of hand muscle architecture that are known to be influenced by behavior correlate with the size and shape of their associated entheses. Results show no consistent relationships between these behaviorally-influenced aspects of muscle architecture and entheseal morphology. Consequently, it is likely premature to infer patterns of behavior, such as stone tool making in fossil hominins, from these same entheses. PMID:27334440

  2. Attachment and God Representations among Lay Catholics, Priests, and Religious: A Matched Comparison Study Based on the Adult Attachment Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassibba, Rosalinda; Granqvist, Pehr; Costantini, Alessandro; Gatto, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Based on the idea that believers' perceived relationships with God develop from their attachment-related experiences with primary caregivers, the authors explored the quality of such experiences and their representations among individuals who differed in likelihood of experiencing a principal attachment to God. Using the Adult Attachment Interview…

  3. Mothers of Securely Attached Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Are More Sensitive than Mothers of Insecurely Attached Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren-Karie, Nina; Oppenheim, David; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    In the current study we examined the links between maternal sensitivity and children's secure attachment in a sample of 45 preschool-age boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We hypothesized that mothers of securely attached children would be more sensitive to their children than mothers of insecurely attached children. Children's attachment…

  4. Attachment of killed Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells and membranes to erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To correlate viability with attachment capacity, Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells harvested at different growth phases and treated by various agents were tested for their capacity to attach to human erythrocytes. The results show that viability per se is not essential for M. gallisepticum attachment to erythrocytes, as cells killed by ultraviolet irradiation and membranes isolated by lysing M. gallisepticum cells by various means retained attachment capacity. However, treatment of the mycoplasmas by protein-denaturing agents, such as heart, glutaraldehyde, or prolonged exposure to low pH, drastically affected or even abolished attachment, supporting the protein nature of the mycoplasma membrane components responsible for specific binding to the sialoglycoprotein receptors on the erythrocytes

  5. Secondary traumatization and attachment among wives of former POWs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahav, Yael; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Solomon, Zahava

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the directionality of the association between post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and attachment insecurities across time among indirect trauma survivors. Wives of former prisoners of war (ex-POWs), with and without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD...... controls. There were significant associations between PTSS and attachment insecurities. Contrary to the hypothesis, the relationship between PTSS and attachment insecurities among wives of ex-POWs was unidirectional, with attachment anxiety at T1 predicting PTSS at T2, and not vice versa. Results indicate...... that attachment anxiety might act as a risk factor for secondary traumatic reactions....

  6. Attachment Representations and Early Interactions in Drug Addicted Mothers: A Case Study of Four Women with Distinct Adult Attachment Interview Classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Alessio; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra; Capra, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children. This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing, and U-unresolved/with losses). Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985), while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive, and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27014153

  7. Attachment representations and early interactions in drug addicted mothers: a case study of four women with distinct Adult Attachment Interview classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio ePorreca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children.This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing and U-unresolved/with losses. Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985, while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008.As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  8. Attachment Representations and Early Interactions in Drug Addicted Mothers: A Case Study of Four Women with Distinct Adult Attachment Interview Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Alessio; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra; Capra, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children. This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing, and U-unresolved/with losses). Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985), while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive, and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27014153

  9. Early Attachment-Figure Separation and Increased Risk for Later Depression: Potential Mediation by Proinflammatory Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Michael B.; Deak, Terrence; Schiml-Webb, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Early maternal separation and other disruptions of attachment relations are known to increase risk for the later onset of depressive illness in vulnerable individuals. It is suggested here that sensitization involving proinflammatory processes may contribute to this effect. This argument is based on: (1) current notions of the role of proinflammatory cytokines in depressive illness; (2) evidence that proinflammatory cytokines mediate depressive-like behavior during separation in a rodent mode...

  10. Attachment organization and patterns of conflict resolution in friendships predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms over time

    OpenAIRE

    Chango, Joanna M.; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Allen, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating effects of observed conflict management styles with friends on the link between adolescents’ preoccupied attachment organization and changing levels of depressive symptoms from age 13 to age 18 years. Adolescents and their close friends were observed during a revealed differences task, and friends’ behaviors were coded for both conflict avoidance and overpersonalizing attacks. Results indicated that preoccupied adolescents showed greater relative incr...

  11. The role of line managers in employee career management: An attachment theory perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Crawshaw, Jonathan; Game, Annilee

    2015-01-01

    Line managers increasingly play a key role in organizational career development systems, yet few studies have examined the nature of this role or its implications for employee career attitudes and behaviors. In two studies, we used attachment theory to explore this issue. In Study 1, in-depth interviews (N = 20) showed that employees viewed career management as a relational process in which line managers are expected to act as ‘caregiver’ to support individualized career development. Study 2 ...

  12. The Effects of Community Attachment and Information Seeking on Displaced Disaster Victims’ Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Kong Joo Shin; Ryo Nakakido; Shinya Horie; Shunsuke Managi

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses original survey data of the Great East Japan earthquake disaster victims to examine their decision to apply for the temporary housing as well as the timing of application. We assess the effects of victims' attachment to their locality as well as variation in victims' information seeking behavior. We additionally consider various factors such as income, age, employment and family structure that are generally considered to affect the decision to choose temporary housing as victi...

  13. Maternal depression and attachment: the evaluation of mother–child interactions during feeding practice

    OpenAIRE

    Santona, Alessandra; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; De Carli, Pietro; Pace, Cecilia S.; Parolin, Laura; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Internal working models (IWMs) of attachment can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother–child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger–satiation, biological rhythms, and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions betwee...

  14. MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND ATTACHMENT: THE EVALUATION OF MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS DURING FEEDING PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra eSantona; Angela eTagini; Diego eSarracino; Pietro eDe Carli; Cecilia Serena ePace; Laura eParolin; Grazia eTerrone

    2015-01-01

    Internal working models of attachment (IWM) can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation biological rhythms and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between d...

  15. Charisma and attachment theory: a crossdisciplinary interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberbach, D

    1995-08-01

    The attachment theory of Bowlby and his followers has not previously been applied to the interpretation of charismatic phenomena in the bonding of large numbers of people with their leaders in crisis. This essay, which builds on the author's 'Surviving trauma: loss, literature and psychoanalysis', attempts to use attachment theory and sociological concepts such as homogamy, anomie, negative imprinting and de-individuation, as well as classical Freudian concepts such as transference and splitting of the ego, in interpreting the charismatic bond. It is argued that charismatic homogamy becomes viable at the point of intersection between the inner world of the charismatic leader and social and political reality. The bonding of the individual and the public may be based partly upon a symbolic link between public crisis and the charismatic's experience of trauma that has deeply scarred or even ended the affectional bonds in his family of orientation. This trauma, however, is a source of insight and power as well as of disability, for it has schooled him in crisis and given him the capacity to offer directional leadership. The charismatic and his society are bonded in crisis through a mutual attempt to break free of anomie and alienation, and a sense of powerlessness and despair. PMID:8543437

  16. Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, O.; Arena, L.; Griffiths, D.

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for measuring air leakage is to use a single blower door to pressurize and/or depressurize the test unit. In detached housing, the test unit is the entire home and the single blower door measures air leakage to the outside. In attached housing, this 'single unit', 'total', or 'solo' test method measures both the air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces as well air leakage to the outside. Measuring and minimizing this total leakage is recommended to avoid indoor air quality issues between units, reduce energy losses to the outside, reduce pressure differentials between units, and control stack effect. However, two significant limitations of the total leakage measurement in attached housing are: for retrofit work, if total leakage is assumed to be all to the outside, the energy benefits of air sealing can be significantly over predicted; for new construction, the total leakage values may result in failing to meet an energy-based house tightness program criterion. The scope of this research is to investigate an approach for developing a viable simplified algorithm that can be used by contractors to assess energy efficiency program qualification and/or compliance based upon solo test results.

  17. Jet-diffuser Ejector - Attached Nozzle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, M.; Wu, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Attached primary nozzles were developed to replace the detached nozzles of jet-diffuser ejectors. Slotted primary nozzles located at the inlet lip and injecting fluid normal to the thrust axis, and rotating the fluid into the thrust direction using the Coanda Effect were investigated. Experiments indicated excessive skin friction or momentum cancellation due to impingement of opposing jets resulted in performance degradation. This indicated a desirability for location and orientation of the injection point at positions removed from the immediate vicinity of the inlet surface, and at an acute angle with respect to the thrust axis. Various nozzle designs were tested over a range of positions and orientations. The problems of aircraft integration of the ejector, and internal and external nozzle losses were also considered and a geometry for the attached nozzles was selected. The effect of leaks, protrusions, and asymmetries in the ejector surfaces was examined. The results indicated a relative insensitivity to all surface irregularities, except for large protrusions at the throat of the ejector.

  18. Mediators of the Link Between Adult Attachment and Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon G. Caldwell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to be mindfully aware of the present moment without judgment is associated with a number of positive psychological and physiological outcomes. Experiences in attachment relationships are related to specific cognitive-emotional patterns that may contribute to dispositional mindfulness. A sample of adults (N = 93 completed questionnaires regarding adult attachment, rumination, thought suppression, attentional control, and mindfulness. Attachment-related avoidance predicted lower levels of mindfulness, a relation mediated by thought suppression and poorer attentional control. Attachment-related anxiety also predicted lower levels of mindfulness, a relation mediated by rumination and poorer attentional control. The results suggest that in the context of insecure attachment relationships thought suppression and rumination defend against personal and interpersonal losses by deactivating (in the case of avoidance or hyperactivating (in the case of anxiety the attachment system. These habitual defensive patterns may be important links between adult attachment orientations and mindfulness.

  19. The association between state attachment security and state Mindfulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Pepping

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that attachment and mindfulness are related, though the nature of this association is unclear. Here we present two studies examining whether there is a causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness. Study 1 investigated the effects of experimentally increasing state mindfulness on state attachment security. State mindfulness was successfully enhanced, but this led to no change in state attachment security. Study 2 investigated the effects of experimentally enhancing state attachment security on state mindfulness. State attachment security was successfully enhanced, but this did not lead to any change in state mindfulness. These findings suggest that there is not a direct, immediate causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness as a result of brief experimental manipulations. Future research should examine these associations in longer term interventions.

  20. Early Life Trauma and Attachment: Immediate and Enduring Effects on Neurobehavioral and Stress Axis Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2014-01-01

    Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e., olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory) embedded in mother–infant interactions. This stimulation provides “hidden regulators” of pups’ behavioral, physiological, and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology, and increase risk for later-life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant-attachment relationships program later-life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired-odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning) and rearing with an abusive mother that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later-life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver. PMID:24711804

  1. Early life trauma and attachment: Immediate and enduring effects on neurobehavioral and stress axis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millie eRincón-Cortés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e. olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory embedded in mother-infant interactions. This stimulation provides hidden regulators of pups’ behavioral, physiological and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology and increase risk for later life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant attachment relationships program later life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning and rearing with an abusive mother, that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver.

  2. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Parenting Behaviours, Parents' Attachment Relationships and Their Use of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyl, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.; Freeman, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, parenting behaviours (i.e. parent-child involvement, parenting consistency and co-parenting consistency) and parenting context (i.e. parents' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a sample of 235 culturally diverse families. The authors predicted that…

  3. Experienced Therapists' Approach to Psychotherapy for Adults with Attachment Avoidance or Attachment Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Katherine D.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2009-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with therapists (N = 12) nominated by peers as especially effective in working with clients with adult interpersonal problems. Open-ended questions asked how these therapists would approach 2 adult clients described in brief vignettes as having high attachment avoidance or anxiety. A coding team used a grounded theory…

  4. Technical Scientific Attaches and domotics. A special issue; Technisch Wetenschappelijk Attaches en domotica. Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinenberg, R.A. [Ministerie van Economische Zaken, The Hague (Netherlands); Uythof, B.H. [Invenit, Domotica Platform Nederland, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Benedetti, D [Ufficio Tecnico-Scientifico, Ambasciata del Regno dei Paesi Bassi, Rome (Italy); Van Wijngaarden, W.L. [Buero fuer Wissenschaft und Technologie, Kgl. Niederlaendische Botschaft, Bonn (Germany); Leniger, H.D.F. [Bureau du Conseiller Scientifique et Technique, Ambassade des Pays-Bas, Paris (France); Kieboom, J.P. [Office for Science and Technology, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Singapore (Singapore); Van Kooij, E.H. [Netherlands Office for Science and Technology, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Tokyo (Japan); Schuurmans, H.J.A. [Netherlands Office for Science and Technology, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In this Dutch magazine Dutch businesses and institutes are informed about technological developments in industrialized countries (USA, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Germany, France and Italy). In this special issue attaches in the different countries present information on developments and trends with respect to domotics, building automation, home networks, etc.

  5. Failure properties and strain distribution analysis of meniscal attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Diego F; Maes, Jason A; Magee, Sarah D; Donahue, Tammy L Haut

    2007-01-01

    The menisci are frequently injured due to both degeneration and traumatic tearing. It has been suggested that the success of a meniscal replacement is dependent on several factors, one of which is the secure fixation and firm attachment of the replacement to the tibial plateau. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were to (1) determine the failure properties of the meniscal horn attachments, and (2) determine the strain distribution over their surfaces. Eight bovine knee joints were used to study the mechanical response of the meniscal attachments. Three meniscal attachments from one knee of each animal were tested in uniaxial tension at 2%/s to determine the load deformation response. During the tests, the samples were marked and local strain distributions were determined with a video extensometer. The linear modulus of the medial anterior attachment (154+/-134 MPa) was significantly less than both the medial posterior (248+/-179 MPa, p=0.0111) and the lateral anterior attachment (281+/-214 MPa, p=0.0007). Likewise, the ultimate strain for the medial anterior attachments (13.5+/-8.8%) was significantly less than the medial posterior (23+/-13%, p0.05). No significant differences in ultimate strain or moduli across the surface of the attachments were noted. Based on the data obtained, a meniscal replacement would need different moduli for each of the different attachments. However, the attachments appear to be homogeneous. PMID:17359982

  6. Associations between adult attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Murphy, Paul DJ; Bailey, S Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. METHODS: A sample of undergraduate students (n=160) completed the Relationships Structures Questionnaire, which provides global ratings of adult attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance) by assessing attachment across four relationship targets (friend, mother, father and romantic partner). Attitudes regarding the acceptability of pain behaviour were assessed using male and female versions of the Appropriate Pain Behaviour Questionnaire (APBQ). RESULTS: Consistent with the hypothesis, attachment avoidance was negatively correlated with both APBQ-Female and APBQ-Male scores. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between the attachment scales and the APBQ scales while statistically adjusting for sex and testing for interaction effects. The findings revealed complex relationships involving interaction effects that provided further support for the hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provided support for the hypothesis that attachment avoidance is associated with less accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. Additional research regarding the role of attachment and attitudes on responses to pain behaviour is warranted. PMID:21165372

  7. Ecomorphology of parasite attachment: experiments with feather lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah E; Sohn, Edward; Clayton, Dale H

    2006-02-01

    The host specificity of some parasites can be reinforced by morphological specialization for attachment to mobile hosts. For example, ectoparasites with adaptations for attaching to hosts of a particular size might not be able to remain attached to larger or smaller hosts. This hypothesis is suggested by the positive correlation documented between the body sizes of many parasites and their hosts. We adopted an ecomorphological approach to test the attachment hypothesis. We tested the ability of host-specific feather lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) to attach to 6 novel species of pigeons and doves that vary in size by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. Surprisingly, Rock Pigeon lice (Columbicola columbae) remained attached equally well to all 6 novel host species. We tested the relative importance of 3 factors that could facilitate louse attachment: whole-body insertion, tarsal claw use, and mandible use. Insertion, per se, was not necessary for attachment. However, insertion on coarse feathers of large hosts allowed lice to access feather barbules with their mandibles. Mandible use was a key component of attachment regardless of feather size. Attachment constraints do not appear to reinforce host specificity in this system. PMID:16629310

  8. Handcrafting Attachment: A User-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Lowry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Management, above all, is the controlling element responsible for coordinating the three basic business functions; production, marketing, and finance.  Mechanisms exist to facilitate the finance function with influence coming from outside regulatory bodies such as the AICPA, IIA, SEC, and other regulators.  Integrating the finance function into organizations, then, becomes somewhat generic (although some would argue this point.  Coordinating the functions of marketing and production is a much more difficult endeavor because it lacks the standardization seen in finance.  This paper suggests employing a more user-focused approach as a means to improving the overall quality of products, and eventually, the success of the organization.  Specifically, this paper explores the role of the human brain in the calculus of choice, discusses the role of consumer involvement as it leads to product attachment, and offers suggestions for employing contextual research to improve product design and quality.

  9. The Turkish version of Maternal Attachment Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Kavlak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research has been designed as methodological with purpose of the validity and the reliability of the Turkish language version of Maternal Attachment Inventory on mothers within one and four months postpartum. Method: This study was carried out with mothers registered at 19 Health Clinics and three Maternal-Child Health and Family Planning Clinics in which connected to Bornova Health Presidency in Izmir. The sample of research has been composed three clinics in which determined with the purposive sampling technique. First stage, the research was studied on 165 mothers when their babies were approximately 30-40 days old in these registered clinics.At the second stage of research has been interviewed again with 78 mothers when their babies were approximately 90-105 days old.Results: It is determined that experts consensuses about content of items as a result of analysis (Kendall’s W=0.274, p=0.001

  10. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  11. Attached garages and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many homes have attached garages which can be a source of indoor air pollution such as carbon monoxide (CO) benzene, and other volatile organic compounds. The problem with CO in the home usually occurs in winter months because vehicles tend to be warmed in the garage for longer periods and air exchange to the outside is limited. The rate of CO emission from a typical gasoline engine is between 30,000 to 100,000 ppm, making it difficult to provide adequate ventilation and equally difficult to develop a truly gas-tight barrier. Studies have shown that from 5 to 85 per cent of the outdoor air leaking into a house comes through the garage, carrying with it CO and other pollutants. Houses with attached garages typically have gasoline concentrations that are 10 times higher than outdoor levels. Starting a cold car in a garage can send CO levels to more than 80,000 ppm. Also, the car will offgas a wide range of fumes as it cools down after use, leaving CO concentrations in the home at unsafe levels for several hours at a time. The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation and the American Lung Association suggest that the safest way to ensure protection against CO and other pollutants from entering a house is to build a garage detached from the house. Alternatively, walls and doors to the house should be sealed tightly and an exhaust fan venting outdoors should be used in the garage to prevent CO from entering the house. It was cautioned that since fans could depressurize a house, vented appliance such as furnaces, water heaters and boilers, should be checked for proper operation after a garage fan is installed. 1 fig

  12. Effects of Familial Attachment, Social Support, Involvement, and Self-Esteem on Youth Substance Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christina Hamme; Buser, Trevor J.; Westburg, Nancy G.

    2010-01-01

    A study of protective factors against substance use and sexual risk taking was conducted among 610 high-poverty urban youth. Higher levels of family attachment, social support, involvement, and self-esteem were associated with lower levels of risk behaviors. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  13. Psychological and physiological effects of an animal-assisted intervention with unsecurely and desorganizedly attached children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Kotrschal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with insecure/disorganized attachment become less stressed and more prosocial in the presence of a guinea pig during an empathy training. This hypothesis is based on studies that show that insecure attachment representations, which are associated with low abilities to regulate stress and social relations, are transferred to human figures but not to pets. 12 boys and 4 girls (age 7-9, selected via the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT for insecure/disorganized attachment representation, were randomly assigned to the intervention and control group. The children of the intervention group attended an empathy training, in which every child received a guinea pig during every session while the controls got the same training without a guinea pig. In comparsion to controls the children of the animal assisted intervention group showed less aggression towards their peers as well as more prosocial behavior towards their teachers and peers. In addition the strongest decrease of cortisol levels were obtained in the animal-assisted intervention group. The more these children stroked the guinea pig, the more their cortisol levels decreased. These data suggest that children with insecure/disorganized attachment can better regulate stress and become less aggressive as well as more prosocial in the presence of a guinea pig. The authors discuss if these results can be interpreted as oxytocin mediated effects.

  14. Constituent attachment and voluntary turnover in low-wage/low-skill service work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Jill E; Tews, Michael J; Dachner, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on life stage theory, ethnographic research conducted in the service sector, and evidence for secondary segmentation within the low-wage/low-skill labor force to offer evidence that social bond development with coworkers can help reduce the high rate of turnover observed in low-wage/low-skill service work. Contrary to the belief that these employees will leave before social ties can develop, constituent attachment was found to be the only significant predictor of turnover in 2 samples of front-line service workers in a casual dining, national restaurant chain after controlling for other aspects of work that can create a sense of attachment to a job, and other job attitudes, such as satisfaction and commitment. However, the effect was dependent on developmental life stage. Constituent attachment reduced turnover among workers classified as emerging adults, whereas constituent attachment did little to affect turnover among nonemerging adults. Implications of the results are discussed with respect to the value of considering segmentation in future research on turnover in the service sector and the use of life stage theory for understanding the leaving behavior of workers in different stages of adulthood. PMID:26121092

  15. Peer Attachment and Cyber Aggression Involvement among Chinese, Indian, and Japanese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F. Wright

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant advancements have been made in cyber aggression literature, with many studies revealing the consequences associated with adolescents’ involvement in these behaviors. Few studies have focused on cyber aggression involvement in China, India, and Japan. The present study examined differences in cyber aggression perpetration and victimization among 1637 adolescents living in China, India, and Japan, while controlling for face-to-face bullying involvement, individualism, and collectivism. Another aim of the present study was to examine country of origin and cyber aggression involvement (i.e., the uninvolved, cyberaggressor-cybervictims, cyberaggressors, and cybervictims differences in peer attachment. Findings revealed that adolescents from India had the highest levels of cyber aggression involvement when compared to adolescents from China or Japan. Chinese adolescents engaged in more cyber aggression perpetration and were victimized more by cyber aggression when compared to Japanese adolescents. No country of origin differences were found for peer attachment. However, uninvolved adolescents reported higher levels of peer attachment when compared to the other groups. Cyberaggressor-cybervictims had the lowest levels of peer attachment, followed by cybervictims and cyberaggressors. These results suggest that there should be concern about cyber aggression involvement among adolescents in these countries, especially in India, where cyber aggression research has been slow to develop.

  16. Implant-supported overdentures: the ZAAG attachment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, S R

    1997-11-01

    It has been amply demonstrated during the last decade that there are significant advantages to implant-supported overdentures beyond conventional complete dentures. Several attachment systems exist for connecting the overdenture to the implants, and practically all of them present notable benefits to the patients. This article discusses the use of the Zest Anchor Advanced Generation (ZAAG). This system, an outgrowth from the original Zest attachment, uses both individual implant attachments and bar attachments, and is compatible with all major implant systems. In addition to the retention, stability, and resiliency the ZAAG implant attachment system provides, it has the advantage of placing the resistance force of the attachment close to the implant body. PMID:9533347

  17. Electron Attachment to DNA and RNA Nucleobases: An EOMCC Investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Chintya Kumar; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    We report a benchmark theoretical investigation of both adiabatic and vertical electron affinities of five DNA and RNA nucleobases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil using state-of-the-art equation of motion coupled cluster (EOMCC) method. We have calculated the vertical electron affinity values of first five electron attached states of the DNA and RNA nucleobases and only the first electron attached state is found to be energetically accessible in gas phase. An analysis of the natural orbitals shows that the first electron attached states of uracil and thymine are valence-bound type and undergo significant structural changes on attachment of excess electron, which is reflected in the deviation of the adiabatic electron affinity from the vertical one. On the other hand, the first electron attached state of cytosine, adenine and guanine are dipole-bound type and their structure remain unaffected on attachment of an extra electron, which results in small deviation of adiabatic electron affinity fro...

  18. Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Promote Secure Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Edginton, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age <13 years). This article aims to inform clinicians about the parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research. PMID:27583298

  19. Hubungan Attachment Terhadap Ayah Dengan Kecerdasan Emosi Pada Remaja Laki-Laki

    OpenAIRE

    Asyava, Tengku Shella

    2011-01-01

    Ainsworth (1969) Attachment is the emotional bond that formed an individual with specific other people, they tied Dalan eternal attachment all the time. . Attachments will survive long enough in human life span that begins with the attachment of children to the mother or substitute mother figure (the father) This study aims to determine the relationship attachment (secure attachment, anxious attachment and avoidant attachment) with father male adolescent emotional intelligence male. Sampling ...

  20. Imaging the molecular dynamics of dissociative electron attachment to water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaniya, Hidihito; Rudek, B.; Osipov, Timur; Haxton, Dan; Weber, Thorsten; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C.W.; Belkacem, Ali

    2009-10-19

    Momentum imaging experiments on dissociative electron attachment to the water molecule are combined with ab initio theoretical calculations of the angular dependence of the quantum mechanical amplitude for electron attachment to provide a detailed picture of the molecular dynamics of dissociation attachment via the two lowest energy Feshbach resonances. The combination of momentum imaging experiments and theory can reveal dissociation dynamics for which the axial recoil approximation breaks down and thus provides a powerful reaction microscope for DEA to polyatomics.

  1. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela eGander; Kathrin eSevecke; Anna eBuchheim

    2015-01-01

    In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attac...

  2. Retention profiles of stud-type precision attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, T; Preiskel, H W

    1991-01-01

    This study measured the retention profiles of 11 commercially available stud-type attachment systems suitable for use with overdentures. The vertical distance over which resistance to separation existed was recorded and related to the configuration of the attachments. In many of the systems tested, only a small portion of the vertical length of the attachment contributed to the retention of the unit. PMID:1781881

  3. Attachment and Aggressive Manifestations in Younger Adulthood - "Preliminary Findings"

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Lorincová

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection) and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility) among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver...

  4. Attachment Dimensions and Young Children’s Response to Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Trudi M; McGrath, Patrick J; Douglas K Symons

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the relationship between attachment dimensions and child pain behaviour following both an everyday pain incident (eg, bumps and scrapes) and acute pain incident (eg, immunization) in 66 five-year-old children.METHODS: Secure, avoidant, ambivalent and controlling attachment dimensions were assessed using aggregates of laboratory-based reunion behaviour, performance on representational measures of attachment and the measure of emotion regulation....

  5. Hypnosis, attachment, and oxytocin:an integrative perspective (1.).

    OpenAIRE

    Zelinka, Vladimir; Cojan, Yann; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers links between clinical hypnosis, attachment theory, and oxytocin. First, it proposes that commonalities between clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may improve our understanding of the hypnotherapeutic process. Then, it suggests that an integrative model unifying clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may constitute a link between clinical hypnosis and a neurobiological factor such as oxytocin. Finally, it discusses the implications of these hypotheses for clinical...

  6. Mediators of the Link Between Adult Attachment and Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Jon G.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to be mindfully aware of the present moment without judgment is associated with a number of positive psychological and physiological outcomes. Experiences in attachment relationships are related to specific cognitive-emotional patterns that may contribute to dispositional mindfulness. A sample of adults (N = 93) completed questionnaires regarding adult attachment, rumination, thought suppression, attentional control, and mindfulness. Attachment-related avoidance predicted lower l...

  7. Attachment of Young People to Their Home District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkkonen, Merja

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on young people's attachment to their home district. The purpose of this study was to establish how attached young people aged 17 were to their home district and what factors were involved in young people's attachment to their home districts. The structure of the young people's lives was studied on the basis of…

  8. The role of brand attachment strength in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Charles; Papagiannidis, Savvas; Alamanos, Eleftherios; Bourlakis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of brand attachment and its antecedents on commitment, satisfaction, trust and brand equity in the context of Higher Education Institutions. The findings from an online survey with students and recent graduates (n=605) in the United States indicate that brand meaning is the main antecedent of brand attachment strength that affects satisfaction, trust, and commitment as well as brand equity. The effect of the brand attachment antecedents on satisfaction is strong...

  9. Effects of pitch accents in attachment ambiguity resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Kyung; Watson, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has found that listeners prefer to attach ambiguous syntactic constituents to nouns produced with a pitch accent (Schafer et al., 1996). This study examines what factors underlie previously established accent attachment effects by testing whether these effects are driven by a preference to attach syntactic constituents to new or important information (the Syntax Hypothesis) or whether there is a bias to respond to post-sentence probe questions with an accented word (the Salience...

  10. Attachment of cells to basement membrane collagen type IV

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Of ten different cell lines examined, three showed distinct attachment and spreading on collagen IV substrates, and neither attachment nor spreading was enhanced by adding soluble laminin or fibronectin. This reaction was not inhibited by cycloheximide or antibodies to laminin, indicating a direct attachment to collagen IV without the need of mediator proteins. Cell-binding sites were localized to the major triple-helical domain of collagen IV and required an intact triple helical conformatio...

  11. Attachment Style and Political Ideology: A Review of Contradictory Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva, Spassena P.; Rip, Blanka

    2009-01-01

    Relational attachment style—a lifespan factor whose first manifestation at the age of 6 months continues into old age—has recently been theoretically and empirically linked to political ideology. A review of the literature that links these two constructs reveals a conflicting pattern. Secure attachment is predominantly associated with liberalism and its covariates, although the relationship is not robust, and there are some exceptions. Insecure avoidant attachment is associated with both libe...

  12. Attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii to human buccal epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, J M; MILLER, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    A standardized assay was used to measure the attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 12104 to washed human buccal epithelial cells. Treatment of the A. naeslundii cells with hyaluronidases, wheat germ lipase, protease, trypsin, heat, or sonic oscillation significantly reduced their ability to attach to epithelial cells. Treatment of the epithelial cells with the above enzymes did not influence the attachment of A. naeslundii. Extraction of A. naeslundii with NaOH also significantly reduced ...

  13. Insecure attachment style is associated with chronic widespread pain

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, K. A.; Macfarlane, G. J.; McBeth, J.; Morriss, R.; Dickens, C

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with “insecure” adult attachment styles have been shown to experience more pain than people with secure attachment, though results of previous studies have been inconsistent. We performed a cross-sectional study on a large population-based sample to investigate whether, compared to pain free individuals, subjects with chronic widespread pain were more likely to report insecure adult attachment style. Subjects in a population-based cross-sectional study completed a self-rated asses...

  14. Phenotypes of Non-Attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregates Resemble Surface Attached Biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2011-01-01

    physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis......For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse...... age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance) and resistance to phagocytes...

  15. Attachment in cultural context: Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    OpenAIRE

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic differences between Russia, Hungary, the Netherlands and Poland. In this chapter we also introduce A theoretical basis of acculturation and attachment theory. In Chapter 2 we focused on the replicability ...

  16. Associations between Adult Attachment Dimensions And Attitudes Toward Pain Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan A McWilliams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour.

  17. Flagellar generated flow mediates attachment of Giardia Lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Theodore; Polackwich, Jamie; Burrola Gabilondo, Beatriz; McAllister, Ryan; Powers, Tom; Elmendorf, Heidi; Urbach, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite responsible for widespread diarrheal disease in humans and animals worldwide. Attachment to the host intestinal mucosa and resistance to peristalsis is necessary for establishing infection, but the physical basis for this attachment is poorly understood. We report results from confocal fluorescence microscopy that demonstrate that the regular beating of the posterior flagella generate a flow through the ventral disk, a suction-cup shaped structure that is against the substrate during attachment. Finite element simulations show that the negative pressure generated by the flow is consistent with the measured force of attachement between the parasite and its substrate.

  18. Adult attachment security and college student substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, Jon D; Wardle, Margaret; Roberts, John E

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated strong links between quality of adult attachment styles and various forms of psychological distress. A burgeoning literature further points to a relationship between insecure attachment and drug use, particularly alcohol consumption. In the present study, we expanded upon the existing literature by examining the relationship between adult attachment style and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in a sample of 212 college students. Moreover, based on our previous work [Hankin, B.L., Kassel, J.D., and Abela, J.R.Z. (2005). Adult attachment dimensions and specificity of emotional distress symptoms: prospective investigations of cognitive risk and interpersonal stress generation as mediating mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 136-151.], we proposed a conceptual model positing that adult attachment style influences both frequency of drug use and stress-motivated drug use through its impact on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Initial correlational analyses indicated significant (positive) associations between anxious attachment (tapping neediness and fear of abandonment) and both drug use frequency and stress-motivated drug use. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that, for drug use frequency, the influence of anxious attachment operated primarily through its effect on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Regarding drug use attributable to negative affect reduction, anxious attachment demonstrated direct, independent effects on both cigarette smoking and alcohol use. These findings highlight the potential importance of adult attachment styles as a risk factor for drug use among college students. PMID:16996225

  19. A meta-analysis of attachment to parents and delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Put, Van Der, Marius; Dubas, J.S.; Laan, van der,Gerard; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the link between attachment to parents and delinquency, and the potential moderating effects of age and sex, 74 published and unpublished manuscripts (N = 55,537 participants) were subjected to a multilevel meta-analysis. A mean small to moderate effect size was found (r = 0.18). Poor attachment to parents was significantly linked to delinquency in boys and girls. Stronger effect sizes were found for attachment to mothers than attachment to fathers. In addition, stronger effect...

  20. Examinations on retention of overdentures with elastic frictional attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Chladek

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available frictional attachments.Design/methodology/approach: The examinations of retention characteristics of traditional attachments, elastic frictional attachments and models of overdentures have been carried out using Zwick testing machine. Retention forces and work essential for separating the attachments have been determined as well. Next the force – displacement characteristics for overdenture model have been registered for two places where the force was applied and for three inclination angles of the line of application of force.Findings: The obtained results of laboratory examinations gave evidence of high effectiveness of elastic frictional attachments.Research limitations/implications: It has not been possible to register mechanical characteristics due to limitations of clinical conditions. Wide analysis of retention characteristics requires examinations carried out in laboratory conditions.Practical implications: Thorough analysis of force - displacement characteristics enables to understand better the mechanisms which are essential for the effectiveness of particular attachments. Applying such knowledge in practice helps to use more effectively the properties of silicone rubbers for making the elastic frictional attachments.Originality/value: The presented method of evaluating the effectiveness of attachments is based on determining retention work of the attachments and it allows to compare quite objectively even relatively different solutions. The so far used criterion of measuring vertical retention force makes it possible to compare only the solutions which are based on similar mechanical principles.

  1. DNA entropic elasticity for short molecules attached to beads

    CERN Document Server

    Li, J; Nelson, P C; Li, Jinyu; Nelson, Philip C.

    2006-01-01

    Single-molecule experiments in which force is applied to DNA or RNA molecules have enabled important discoveries of nucleic acid properties and nucleic acid-enzyme interactions. These experiments rely on a model of the polymer force-extension behavior to calibrate the experiments; typically the experiments use the worm-like chain (WLC) theory for double-stranded DNA and RNA. This theory agrees well with experiments for long molecules. Recent single-molecule experiments have used shorter molecules, with contour lengths in the range of 1-10 persistence lengths. Most WLC theory calculations to date have assumed infinite molecule lengths, and do not agree well with experiments on shorter chains. Key physical effects that become important when shorter molecules are used include (i) boundary conditions which constrain the allowed fluctuations at the ends of the molecule and (ii) rotational fluctuations of the bead to which the polymer is attached, which change the apparent extension of the molecule. We describe the...

  2. Substratum interfacial energetic effects on the attachment of marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ista, Linnea Kathryn

    Biofilms represent an ancient, ubiquitous and influential form of life on earth. Biofilm formation is initiated by attachment of bacterial cells from an aqueous suspension onto a suitable attachment substratum. While in certain, well studied cases initial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation is mediated by specific ligand-receptor pairs on the bacteria and attachment substratum, in the open environment, including the ocean, it is assumed to be non-specific and mediated by processes similar to those that drive adsorption of colloids at the water-solid interface. Colloidal principles are studied to determine the molecular and physicochemical interactions involved in the attachment of the model marine bacterium, Cobetia marina to model self-assembled monolayer surfaces. In the simplest application of colloidal principles the wettability of attachment substrata, as measured by the advancing contact angle of water (theta AW) on the surface, is frequently used as an approximation for the surface tension. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach for attachment of C. marina and algal zoospores and extend it to the development of a means to control attachment and release of microorganisms by altering and tuning surface thetaAW. In many cases, however, thetaAW does not capture all the information necessary to model attachment of bacteria to attachment substrata; SAMs with similar thetaAW attach different number of bacteria. More advanced colloidal models of initial bacterial attachment have evolved over the last several decades, with the emergence of the model proposed by van Oss, Chaudhury and Good (VCG) as preeminent. The VCG model enables calculation of interfacial tensions by dividing these into two major interactions thought to be important at biointerfaces: apolar, Lifshitz-van der Waals and polar, Lewis acid-base (including hydrogen bonding) interactions. These interfacial tensions are combined to yield DeltaGadh, the free energy associated with

  3. Calibrating Use of Emotion Regulation Strategies to the Relationship Context: An Attachment Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterheld, Heike A

    2016-06-01

    This research tested whether adult attachment orientations predict use of emotion regulation strategies in theoretically consistent ways, and whether associations among attachment orientations and emotion regulatory strategies are moderated by critical features of the relationship context. Ninety-six couples (192 individuals) reported on their attachment orientations, habitual use of emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, negative emotion expressivity), and perceptions of relationship closeness and negative partner behaviors. Highly secure individuals reported greater use of cognitive reappraisal, especially when they felt closer to their partners, and engaged in less suppression when their partners behaved more negatively toward them. Highly avoidant individuals reported greater use of suppression, especially when they perceived more negative partner behaviors, and when their partners were more avoidant. Highly anxious individuals also used more suppression when their partners were more avoidant, but they expressed more negative emotions when they were paired with less avoidant partners. Fearful-avoidant individuals' emotion regulation patterns resembled those of both highly secure and dismissive-avoidant individuals. This study illustrates how attending to moderating effects within specific relationships and testing joint effects of both partners' personality characteristics can help identify contextual boundaries of emotion regulation strategies and clarify emotional response patterns in couples. PMID:25643648

  4. Inguinal endometriosis attaching to the round ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of endometriosis in the right inguinal region, attached to the right round ligament in a 28-year-old woman. At the age of 20, laparoscopic left ovarian cystectomy and pelvic adhesiolysis for endometriosis was carried out. She noticed a right tender groin mass 7 months previously, and the tumour size fluctuated with the menstrual cycle. A poorly circumscribed elastic hard mass, measuring 3 cm in diameter, was palpated in her right inguinal region. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm mass in the right inguinal canal and a 5.4 cm x 6.8 cm mass was seen in the left ovary. The mass enlarged during menstruation. The groin mass was removed, in addition to carrying out laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. At operation, the groin mass was found to be in continuity with the round ligament of extraperitoneal portion. Histological diagnosis of endometriosis was made in both ovarian and inguinal tumours. After surgery, the pain disappeared completely. Worth mentioning is that MRI clearly showed the change of tumour size depending on the menstrual cycle, which aided in arriving at the correct diagnosis of endometriosis in an unusual location

  5. Date attachable offline electronic cash scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chun-I; Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling. PMID:24982931

  6. A Novel Single-Stage Procedure for Increasing the Width of Attached Gingiva and Eliminating the Aberrant Frenal Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common treatment for buccal gingival recession caused by an aberrant frenal attachment includes elimination of the frenum and treatment of the gingival reces-sion by soft tissue graft to increase the width of the attached gingiva that in turn results in root coverage. Keratinised gingival, if present in adequate amount, maintains the gingival health by protecting the marginal gingiva. This not only considers the desires of the patient but also explores the potential regenerative capacity of the tissues. This report describes a novel single-stage procedure for increasing the width of the attached gingiva and eliminating the aberrant frenal attachment.

  7. Psychometric Characteristics of the Persian (Farsi Version of Attachment Style Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Firoozabadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attachment relationship provides a secure base for the infants from which to explore the environment and a safe haven to return to in times of danger. Attachment style shapes the behavior of individuals in adulthood. There are many different measures of attachment and a lot of controversy about what they measure and how they relate to each other. Hence, we tried to evaluate the psychometric properties of one of such questionnaires on a sample of the Iranian population. Methods: “Attachment style questionnaire” designed by Van Oudenhoven measures four dimensions: secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing. Psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated in a cross sectional study on 730 adults in Isfahan, Iran. Statistical analysis of data was performed by the explanatory factor analysis with the principal component method, Cronbach’s alpha, Pearson correlation coefficients, and the multiple analysis of variance (MANCOVA. Results:The Cronbach’s alpha for all items was 0.704. As a whole, the internal consistency was good. There was a high inter-scale correlation between preoccupied and fearful, also the secure style correlated negatively with fearful and preoccupied. The stability coefficient of the attachment scales were 0.625, 0.685, 0.777 and 0.605 for secure, fearful, preoccupied and dismissing styles respectively (P<0.001. Regarding construct validity, factor analysis showed that some items require iterations to fit the Iranian population. Conclusion: This study showed that the Persian version of ASQ has a reasonable reliability and validity in general and the questionnaire is appropriate for use among the Iranian population in future studies.

  8. RESTORING SAFETY: AN ATTACHMENT-BASED APPROACH TO CLINICAL WORK WITH A TRAUMATIZED TODDLER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaudo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case study explores the integration of infancy research, brain development, attachment theory, and models of infant-parent/child-parent psychotherapy to address the needs of abused and neglected young children placed in foster or adoptive homes. Traumatized children employ defensive strategies to survive when there is no "good enough" caregiver (D.W. Winnicott, 1953, p. 94), and helping professionals can provide therapeutic experiences to develop or restore a child's sense of safety. With the case example of Anthony and his foster/adoptive parents, I illustrate how to manage and contain a traumatized child's terror, rage, and grief through therapeutic sessions with the parent and child together, and supportive parental guidance. I promote attention to the child's ability to self-integrate and to regulate his own affect, and encourages secure-base parental responses that facilitate a child's shift toward secure attachment behavior. PMID:26714611

  9. The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, R F; Leary, M R

    1995-05-01

    A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness hypothesis, people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds. Belongingness appears to have multiple and strong effects on emotional patterns and on cognitive processes. Lack of attachments is linked to a variety of ill effects on health, adjustment, and well-being. Other evidence, such as that concerning satiation, substitution, and behavioral consequences, is likewise consistent with the hypothesized motivation. Several seeming counterexamples turned out not to disconfirm the hypothesis. Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation. PMID:7777651

  10. Correlates of Instrumental and Affective Attachment to Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Harold L.

    It has been suggested that different forms of organizational commitment have different outcomes as well as different antecedents. To test the hypothesis that instrumental attachment to an organization is associated with members' investments in the organization, and that affective attachment to an organization is influenced primarily by the way the…

  11. Children's Family Drawings: A Study of Attachment, Personality, and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Limor; Scharf, Miri

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between children's attachment security, as manifested in their family drawings, and their personality and adjustment. Family drawings were collected from 222 Israeli children, as well as data regarding their personality and adjustment. Each drawing was coded and classified into 1 of 4 attachment categories…

  12. College Students' Ended Love Relationships: Attachment Style and Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, Carole M.

    1995-01-01

    Probed attachment-related differences in emotional responses to ended romantic relationships. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that securely attached students recalled a more positive emotional experience after a relationship concluded, whereas persons with fearful and preoccupied styles reported a more negative experience overall.…

  13. Hostile attributional style, mentalisation and attachment in preadolescence.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, L.

    2005-01-01

    This review aims to explore social information processing styles, mentalisation abilities, and attachment security, and their associations, in relation to aggressive behaviours. These literatures are considered separately before possible relationships between these constructs are discussed. Existing theory and empirical findings around the relationships between social information processing, attachment and mentalisation are described. The author poses some further suggestions about how these ...

  14. Attachment, Individuation, and Risk of Suicide in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Marjolein L.

    1992-01-01

    Security of attachment and level of individuation from parents and peers was examined among 42 undergraduates with a history of suicidality, 42 undergraduates with depression, and 42 undergraduate controls. Suicidal students had the least security of attachment, the least degree of individuation, and the highest incidence of parental…

  15. Stability and Change in Attachment Security Across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph P.; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Jodl, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined both continuity and familial, intrapsychic, and environmental predictors of change in adolescent attachment security across a 2-year period from middle to late adolescence. Assessments included the Adult Attachment Interview, observed mother-adolescent interactions, test-based data, and adolescent self-reports obtained from an…

  16. Adult Attachment and Developmental Personality Styles: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Alissa; Lyddon, William J.; Henson, Robin K.

    2007-01-01

    The current study was designed to test specific hypotheses associated with W. J. Lyddon and A. Sherry's (2001) attachment theory model of developmental personality styles. More specifically, 4 adult attachment dimensions were correlated with 10 personality scales on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (T. Millon, R. Davis, & C. Millon,…

  17. The Link between Types of Attachment and Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between childhood trauma and types of attachment and the predictive role of childhood trauma on types of attachment. The sample was composed of 911 (492 female; 419 male) university students at Mugla Sitki Kocman University, in Turkey. Data were collected using the brief screening version of the Childhood…

  18. [Attaching single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreulen, C.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A single- or multi-unit fixed dental prosthesis can be attached to the abutment teeth through mechanical retention and gap sealing or by adhesion. For sealing the gap, water-soluble cements are appropriate, such as zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, and (resin-modified) glasionomer cement. Attachment

  19. "You Live 'Where'?!" Lesbian Mothers' Attachment to Nonmetropolitan Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Ramona Faith; Lazarevic, Vanja

    2011-01-01

    A positive attachment to one's residential community has been linked to better mental health (McLaren, 2009), stronger social support (Young, Russell, & Powers, 2004), and a higher quality of life (Mak, Cheung, & Law, 2009). Attachment to residential community has been understudied in research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)…

  20. Supervision Challenges Encountered during Kenyan University Students' Practicum Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuri-Ogola, Lucy; VanLeeuwen, Charlene; Kabaria-Muriithi, Joan; Weeks, Lori E.; Kieru, Jane; Ndayala, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    There is little published research that examines the supervision experience of field attachment supervisors in Kenya. In this study, we identify the challenges encountered by field supervisors during student field attachments with community organizations. Fifteen organizations that had hosted third year students from the Department of Community…

  1. Attachment in Middle Childhood: An Evolutionary-Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Middle childhood is a key transitional stage in the development of attachment processes and representations. Here I discuss the middle childhood transition from an evolutionary-developmental perspective and show how this approach offers fresh insight into the function and organization of attachment in this life stage. I begin by presenting an…

  2. Direction-specific interactions control crystal growth by oriented attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongsheng; Nielsen, Michael H; Lee, Jonathan R.I.;

    2012-01-01

    The oriented attachment of molecular clusters and nanoparticles in solution is now recognized as an important mechanism of crystal growth in many materials, yet the alignment process and attachment mechanism have not been established. We performed high-resolution transmission electron microscopy ...

  3. Adaptive Insecure Attachment and Resource Control Strategies during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin-Bin; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    By integrating the life history theory of attachment with resource control theory, the current study examines the hypothesis that insecure attachment styles reorganized in middle childhood are alternative adaptive strategies used to prepare for upcoming competition with the peer group. A sample of 654 children in the second through seventh grades…

  4. The Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire (ACIQ): scale development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marc A; Thomas, Stuart W

    2011-01-01

    In line with dynamic systems and dialectical theories of development, it was theorized that a psychopathology such as an addiction could have several causes (equifinality) and that more specific diagnoses and treatments of the most salient clinical issues for individuals coming from different developmental paths could increase the success rates of most therapies. Further, the issues from a developmental dynamic systems perspective should include not only individual clinical issues, but also relational, familial, peer, and organizational functioning. The Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire (ACIQ) was developed as a research and clinical instrument relevant to these concerns. The 29 scales were based on naturalistic observations of patients in treatment and 12-step groups, attachment theory, and the clinical literature dealing with the addictions. The attachment scales were taken from classic attachment theory but, in line with more recent formulations, included relations to mother, father, and partner. Study 1 found the ACIQ to have good coefficient alphas (.79), and factor analyses revealed that the eight factors loaded on different attachment figures and sets of clinical issues rather than attachment styles per se. Study 2 found test-retest reliability to be, on average, .79. The results were in line with the developmental hypothesis that partner and father attachments are different than attachments to mother, and that family and peer relations as well as clinical issues need to be considered separately. PMID:22256681

  5. Addressing the Complex Needs of Students with Attachment Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinski, Mickey; Katsiyannis, Antonis; White, Sherry; Wiseman, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Attachment disorders are a relatively rare condition affecting children. This is particularly true for those who are adopted or living in foster care, and are thought to be attributed to an interruption in the bonding between a child and his or her caregiver. Attachment disorders are divided into two distinct categories: a predominately withdrawn…

  6. Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

  7. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... providing mechanical ventilation at a preset rate. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV)...

  8. Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions…

  9. Aging, Neighborhood Attachment, and Fear of Crime: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Sangmoon

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the reciprocal effects between fear of crime and neighborhood attachment because aging is a critical factor in both discussions of fear of crime and neighborhood attachment (friendship, neighboring, social cohesion and trust, informal social control, and participation in neighborhood watch program). Using data from…

  10. Attachment styles at work: Measurement, collegial relationships, and burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Leiter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the potential deleterious effects of negative social interactions at work have been well established in the literature, the impact of personal factors in forming work relationships has been relatively neglected. Therefore, using a survey of 1624 Canadian healthcare providers, we examined the extent to which attachment styles at work were associated with the quality of social relationships. We found support for a new measure of attachment styles at work that differentiated between anxiety and avoidance attachment. Avoidance was negatively correlated with positive social constructs (civility, psychological safety, and trust and with the efficacy dimension of burnout. Overall, compared to attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety was more strongly correlated with experienced and instigated workplace incivility, exhaustion, and cynicism. Attachment avoidance was negatively correlated with positive social constructs (civility, psychological safety, and trust and with the efficacy dimension of burnout. Adding these two attachment dimensions to a model of burnout as a function of workload, value congruence, and coworker incivility significantly improved its fit. This study suggests that employees with high attachment anxiety tend to be more closely involved in work relationships and processes, but this closeness comes at a cost in that they experience more strain when participating in social encounters.

  11. Effects of Infant Massage on Attachment Security: An Experimental Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Vonda K.

    The formation of attachments is an important phenomenon occurring in the realm of socioemotional development. This study examined the impact of infant massage on infants' subsequent attachment security. Fifty-seven mother-infant dyads (48 dyads from Head Start, 9 from the community at large) were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group…

  12. Earned-Secure Attachment Status in Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Padron, Elena; Sroufe, L. Alan; Egeland, Byron

    2002-01-01

    This 23-year longitudinal study examined the attachment history of earned-secure young adults who coherently describe negative childhood experiences. Findings indicated that retrospective earned-secures were not more likely than continuous-secures to have been anxiously attached in infancy, and were observed in childhood and adolescence to have…

  13. Attachment, Coping, and Explanatory Style in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Ellen; McLaughlin, Caitlin S.

    1998-01-01

    Self-report data from 157 college students show that, in general, more secure attachments were positively related to support-seeking and active problem-solving coping styles and to females', but not males', tendency to explain hypothetical successes and failures in a positive or self-enhancing manner. Sex differences in security of attachments are…

  14. Maternal depression and attachment: the evaluation of mother-child interactions during feeding practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santona, Alessandra; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; De Carli, Pietro; Pace, Cecilia S; Parolin, Laura; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Internal working models (IWMs) of attachment can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation, biological rhythms, and the establishment of children's autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasizes parents' emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children's age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive conflicts and negative affective states, all of which can hinder the development of adequate interactive patterns during feeding. The results suggest that IWMs can constitute an indicator for the evaluation of the relational quality of the dyad and that evaluations of dyadic interactions should be considered when programming interventions. PMID:26379576

  15. Perinatal Depression and Patterns of Attachment: A Critical Risk Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Meuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to verify if the presence and severity of perinatal depression are related to any particular pattern of attachment. Methods. The study started with a screening of a sample of 453 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, who were administered a survey data form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Experience in Close Relationship (ECR. A clinical group of subjects with perinatal depression (PND, 89 subjects was selected and compared with a control group (C, regarding psychopathological variables and attachment patterns. Results. The ECR showed a prevalence of “Fearful-Avoidant” attachment style in PND group (29.2% versus 1.1%, p<0.001; additionally, the EPDS average score increases with the increasing of ECR dimensions (Avoidance and Anxiety. Conclusion. The severity of depression increases proportionally to attachment disorganization; therefore, we consider attachment as both an important risk factor as well as a focus for early psychotherapeutic intervention.

  16. Emergence of global preferential attachment from local interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global degree/strength-based preferential attachment is widely used as an evolution mechanism of networks. But it is hard to believe that any individual can get global information and shape the network architecture based on it. In this paper, it is found that the global preferential attachment emerges from the local interaction models, including the distance-dependent preferential attachment (DDPA) evolving model of weighted networks (Li et al 2006 New J. Phys. 8 72), the acquaintance network model (Davidsen et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 128701) and the connecting nearest-neighbor (CNN) model (Vazquez 2003 Phys. Rev. E 67 056104). For the DDPA model and the CNN model, the attachment rate depends linearly on the degree or vertex strength, whereas for the acquaintance network model, the dependence follows a sublinear power law. It implies that for the evolution of social networks, local contact could be more fundamental than the presumed global preferential attachment.

  17. Adult Attachment and Dyadic Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Teresa C; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moreira, Helena

    2016-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that adult attachment is associated with romantic relationship quality, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of external and internal shame on the association between attachment and dyadic adjustment. A battery of self-report measures was completed by 228 Portuguese participants and a serial multiple mediation model was tested. Data showed that, in the population under study, attachment dimensions were associated with worse dyadic adjustment through high external and internal shame. Internal shame alone also mediated the association between attachment avoidance and dyadic adjustment. This study identifies a new putative mechanism linking adult attachment and intimate relationship functioning that may be targeted in couples therapy to promote a better dyadic adjustment and relationship functioning. PMID:26759960

  18. Electron attachment to biological relevant molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The interaction of low energy electrons with compounds of DNA/RNA leading to negative ions gives insight into radiation damage processes in human cells. We demonstrate that electrons at sub excitation energies (- with X = T, C, U or G. This observation has significant consequences for the molecular picture of radiation damage, i.e. genotoxic effects or damage of living cells due to the secondary component of high energy radiation. The present experiment is performed in a crossed electron/neutral molecule beam arrangement. A highly monochromatized electron beam, generated by an electrostatic hemispherical electron monochromator, interacts with an effusive molecular beam of biomolecules. Negative ions are extracted from the collision region and focused into a quadrupole mass spectrometer, where they are mass analyzed and detected by single pulse counting electronics. In the present measurements the dominant negative ions formed via electron attachment (EA) reaction to T, C, U and G, are (T-H)-, (C-H)-, (U-H)- and (G-H)-. Using a simple calibration procedure, values for the respective partial EA cross section for (T-H)-, (C-H)-, (U-H)-, and (G-H)- could be determined yielding a peak value of σ (1.05 eV) = 1.2 x 10-19 m2, σ (1.54 eV) = 2.3 x 10-20 m2, σ (1.0 eV) = 3 x 10-20 m2, σ (1.3 eV) = 5 x 10-20 m2 , respectively. At higher electron energies, we observe further product anions, but at significantly lower cross sections. (author)

  19. The Moderating Effect of Parent and Peer Influences on Hedonistic Behavior among Undergraduate Students in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Raba’ah Hamzah; Steven Eric Krauss; Turiman Suandi; Azimi Hamzah; Ezhar Tamam

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the moderating influence of parental and peer attachment on hedonistic behavior among a sample of youth in Malaysia. Using Bronfenbrenner’s theory of human ecology and Armsden and Greenberg’s attachment model, this study examines the direct and indirect influence of religiosity and worldview on the development of hedonistic behavior as moderated through parental and peer attachment. Drawing on a quantitative survey of 408 Malaysian university students (M age = 21.0, SD = ....

  20. Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Christy L.; Chen, Pan; SERPELL, James A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pet...

  1. The Development of Father-Child Attachment: Associations between Adult Attachment Representations, Recollections of Childhood Experiences and Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Hazen, Nancy; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Boyd-Soisson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The association between fathers' adult attachment representations and their recollections of childhood experiences with their caregiving quality with their eight-month-old infants and with father-infant attachment classification was examined in a longitudinal study of 117 fathers and their infants. Sensitive caregiving was related to…

  2. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  3. Electron attachment in F2 - Conclusive demonstration of nonresonant, s-wave coupling in the limit of zero electron energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.

    1987-01-01

    Dissociative electron attachment to F2 has been observed in the energy range 0-140 meV, at a resolution of 6 meV (full width at half maximum). Results show conclusively a sharp, resolution-limited threshold behavior consistent with an s-wave cross section varying as sq rt of epsilon. Two accurate theoretical calculations predict only p-wave behavior varying as the sq rt of epsilon. Several nonadiabatic coupling effects leading to s-wave behavior are outlined.

  4. Mentalization and Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Charles R; Choi-Kain, Lois W

    2015-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT) are two approaches to the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). While DBT has the most empirical support, MBT has a small but significant evidence base. Dialectical behavior therapy synthesizes behaviorism, mindfulness, and dialectics, while MBT is conceptually anchored in psychoanalysis, attachment theory, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychopathology. While coming from strikingly different orientations, DBT and MBT therapists share more interventions and stances than one might suppose. The central purported active ingredient of MBT is the capacity to mentalize, which is crucial for the formation of secure attachment, and this ability is thought to be weak and unstable in individuals with borderline personality disorder. This article explores the question of whether or not mentalizing is already present in DBT practice, whether it would be compatible with DBT conceptually and practically, and whether a focus on mentalizing would be of use to the DBT therapists and their patients. PMID:26160623

  5. Why the Center-Point of Bridged Carbon Nanotube Length is the Most Mass Sensitive Location for Mass Attachment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdipour, I; Barari, Amin

    2012-01-01

    The continuum mechanics method and a bending model were used to obtain the resonant frequencies of bridged single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with masses rigidly attached at various positions along the tube. The frequency response equations were derived using the Euler–Bernoulli theory. The ...... be used to model the behavior of CNT-based biosensors with reasonable accuracy. As a result, center point of bridged carbon nanotube is the most sensitive location for mass attachment.......The continuum mechanics method and a bending model were used to obtain the resonant frequencies of bridged single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with masses rigidly attached at various positions along the tube. The frequency response equations were derived using the Euler–Bernoulli theory. The...

  6. Interaction with the Mother in Children Born as a Result of in Vitro Fertilization (IVF: Attachment and Parenting Style Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dueva A.A.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the social and emotional development of children. We tested and partially confirmed the hypothesis that children born as a result of reproductive technology, less often show reliable attachment type than the naturally born children. Such a pattern may emerge because of the behavior of IVF mothers. The present study involved 11 children aged from 5 years to 6 years 11 months, born as a result of IVF, and 10 control children conceived naturally, as well as their mothers. To collect anamnesis, we used: survey of parents with Child-parent emotional interaction questionnaire, and techniques Analysis of family education, projective drawing techniques Nest drawing and Drawing dialogue aimed at identifying the quality of the child's attachment to his mother and interaction in the dyad, as well as Kaplan method for determining the type of attachment.

  7. Attachment Competences in Children With ADHD During the Social-Skills Training and Attachment (SOSTRA) Randomized Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria Annette Annelie; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of social-skills training and a parental training program on children with ADHD as measured by the children's attachment competences. Method: The SOSTRA trial is a randomized, parallel-group, outcome-assessor-blinded, superiority trial evaluating 8 weeks social......-skills training and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment alone for 8- to 12-year old children with ADHD. Results: There were no significant differences in attachment competences at 6 months between the experimental (n = 25) and the control (n = 22) groups (odds ratio = 1.06, 95......% confidence interval = [0.31, 3.58], p = .91). In total, 17 children (36%) changed their entry status, 1 (2%) from secure to insecure attachment, while 16 (34%) changed from insecure to secure attachment. Conclusion: The experimental treatment does not seem to affect attachment competences compared with...

  8. Great Importance Attached to Intangible Cultural Heritage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Intangible Cultural Heritage on Verge of Extinction? With the acceleration of globalization and modernization, dramatic changes have taken place in China's cultural ecology: intangible cultural heritage is confronted with great challenges and a lot of orally and behaviorally transmitted cultural heritage disappear one after another; a great deal of traditional craftsmanship is on the verge of extinction; a large number of precious objects and materials of historical and cultural values are destroyed,deserted or lost in foreign countries; arbitrary misuse and excessive exploitation of intangible cultural heritage occur from time to time. Therefore, the protection of intangible cultural heritage brooks no delay.

  9. Radical attached aluminum nanoclusters: an alternative way of cluster stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Turbasu; Pal, Sourav

    2016-08-21

    The stability and electronic structure of radical attached aluminum nanoclusters are investigated using density functional theory (DFT). A detailed investigation shows good correlation between the thermodynamic stability of radical attached clusters and the stability of the attached radical anions. All other calculated parameters like HOMO-LUMO gap and charge transfer are also found to be consistent with the observed thermodynamic stabilities of the complexes. Investigation of the electronic structure of radical attached complexes further shows the presence of jellium structures within the core similar to the ligated clusters. Comparison with available experimental and theoretical data also proves the validity of superatomic complex theory for the radical attached clusters as well. Based on the evaluated thermodynamic parameters, selected radical attached clusters are observed to be more thermodynamically stable in comparison with experimentally synthesized ligated clusters. Stabilization of small metal clusters is one of the greatest challenges in current cluster science and the present investigation confirms the fact that radical attached clusters can provide a viable alternative to ligated clusters in the future. PMID:27435912

  10. Beyond Behavioral Inhibition: Etiological Factors in Childhood Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, Katharina; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Webb, Alicia; Albano, Anne Marie

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical models of childhood anxiety have emphasized temperamental vulnerability, principally behavioral inhibition, and its interaction with various environmental factors promoting anxiety (for example, overprotective parenting, insecure attachment, life stress). Although clearly establishing the importance of both nature and nurture in…

  11. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores. PMID:24033268

  12. Direct laser interference patterning for decreased bacterial attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Denise; Valle, Jaoine; Burgui, Saioa; Gil, Carmen; Solano, Cristina; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Helbig, Ralf; Werner, Carsten; Lasa, Inigo; Lasagni, Andrés. F.

    2016-03-01

    In the past 15 years, many efforts were made to create functionalized artificial surfaces showing special anti-bacterial and anti-biofouling properties. Thereby, the topography of medical relevant materials plays an important role. However, the targeted fabrication of promising surface structures like hole-, lamella- and pyramid-like patterns with feature sizes in the sub-micrometer range in a one-step process is still a challenge. Optical and e-beam lithography, molding and selfassembly layers show a great potential to design topographies for this purpose. At the same time, most of these techniques are based on sequential processes, require masks or molds and thus are very device relevant and time consuming. In this work, we present the Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) technology as a capable method for the fast, flexible and direct fabrication of periodic micrometer- and submicrometer structures. This method offers the possibility to equip large plain areas and curved devices with 1D, 2D and 3D patterns. Simple 1D (e.g. lines) and complex 3D (e.g. lamella, pillars) patterns with periodic distances from 0.5 μm to 5 μm were fabricated on polymeric materials (polyimide, polystyrene). Subsequently, we characterized the adhesion behavior of Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus bacteria under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The results revealed that the topographies have a significant impact on bacteria adhesion. On the one side, one-dimensional line-like structures especially with dimensions of the bacteria enhanced microbe attachment. While on the other hand, complex three-dimensional patterns prevented biofilm formation even after implantation and contamination in living organisms.

  13. Postpartum depression and infant-mother attachment security at one year: The impact of co-morbid maternal personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Steele, Howard; Cordes, Katharina; Mehlhase, Heike; Vaever, Mette Skovgaard

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies on effects of postpartum depression (PPD) on infant-mother attachment have been divergent. This may be due to not taking into account the effects of stable difficulties not specific for depression, such as maternal personality disorder (PD). Mothers (N=80) were recruited for a longitudinal study either during pregnancy (comparison group) or eight weeks postpartum (clinical group). Infants of mothers with depressive symptoms only or in combination with a PD diagnosis were compared with infants of mothers with no psychopathology. Depression and PD were assessed using self-report and clinical interviews. Infant-mother attachment was assessed when infants were 13 months using Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Attachment (in)security was calculated as a continuous score based on the four interactive behavioral scales of the SSP, and the conventional scale for attachment disorganization was used. PPD was associated with attachment insecurity only if the mother also had a PD diagnosis. Infants of PPD mothers without co-morbid PD did not differ from infants of mothers with no psychopathology. These results suggest that co-existing PD may be crucial in understanding how PPD impacts on parenting and infant social-emotional development. Stable underlying factors may magnify or buffer effects of PPD on parenting and child outcomes. PMID:27400381

  14. The Emergence of Attachment following Early Social Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Hostinar, Camelia E.; Mliner, Shanna B.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the formation and quality of attachment of 65 post-institutionalized (PI) toddlers with their parents at 1-3 and 7-9 months post adoption compared to 52 non-adopted (NA) children. The formation of attachment relationships of PI children with adoptive parents occurred relatively quickly. Children exposed to greater pre-adoption adversity took longer to form an attachment to their adoptive parents, although by 7-9 months post adoption, nearly all (90%) of the children achiev...

  15. Root canal retained restorations: 3. Root-face attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummer, P M; Edmunds, D H; Gidden, J R

    1990-10-01

    It has been common practice for many years to use retained roots to provide support and stability for partial or full dentures. The retention of such overdentures is greatly enhanced if the remaining roots are modified and restored with posts and root-face attachments. The final article in this series on root canal retained restorations classifies and describes some of the root-face attachments currently available, and also describes a number of prefabricated post systems with integral overdenture attachments. Guidelines for clinical and laboratory procedures are given. PMID:2097234

  16. International Children Adoptions in Finland: : an attachment perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wachira, Moses

    2011-01-01

    Thesis description: In this thesis, I will consider the factors that attachment has on the case of adopted children in Finland. I seek to identify the effects of children adopted to Finland in regard to the attachments they strive to form with their new caregivers, and how they strive to build close bonds with their new internationally adopted children. Theoretical and conceptual summary: Attachment is seen as the basis of a child‘s start to development. The separation and/or loss of a car...

  17. Design and Development of Attachment for Hydraulic Stacker

    OpenAIRE

    S.H. Gawande; A.A. Arole; K.H. Barhate,; R.P. Gujar; M. Viroff

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to develop an Attachment which will enable the lateral movement of the manufacturing Dies by mounting it on the forks of any Hydraulic Stacker or Fork Lift. The Attachmentmanufactured is unique because it can be attached or mounted on any hydraulic stalker in the One Tonne range. The attachment is a combination of two separate bed of rollers, a lead screw, a gear mechanism and a moving frame which enables the hydraulic stacker to easily load or unload Dies up...

  18. Attachments and the Moral Psychology of Value Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    I explain the way in which values, i.e., pretty immaterial things, can come into real conflict and can in fact generate conflicts that are more serious and difficult to resolve than other types of conflicts. In my explanation, I avail myself of the notion of an attachment as a persistent and perv...... pervading form of valuing. Our attachments, I argue, shape our affections, cognitions, volitions and identity. Conflicts of value represent threats to our attachments and thereby to our identity and the way we experience the world. Hence their gravity and difficulty....

  19. BEWARE OF OPENING ATTACHMENTS IN E-MAIL

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Following the recent e-mail viruses you are asked to be cautious when opening e-mail attachments on your PC. Attachments that are apparently harmless might hide active content producing nasty effects as soon as they are opened. Some of these so called 'Trojan horses' can conceal themselves in very attractive pictures and funny slide shows.On the PC Windows infrastructure, CERN runs software to protect users from known viruses, but new ones can sometimes arrive before our software recognises them. They can enter your system when you open an attachment. To remove them it may be necessary to re-install the Windows software on your PC.

  20. STABILITY EVALUATION OF METAL CASK ATTACHED TO A TRANSFER PALLET DURING LONG-PERIOD SEISMIC MOTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Shohei; Shirai, Koji; Kanazawa, Kenji

    Rocking behavior of unfixed body is affected by center of mass, material coefficient of restitution and so on. 2/5 scale metal cask model considering these parameter was used for seismic test to evaluate stability of grounding metal cask attached to a transfer pallet under the influence of long-period earthquake motion. The newest knowledge from seismic test indicates seismic motion with high velocity over 100 kine not always cause the raise of response velocity of metal cask because of energy consumption by cask sliding and impact deformation of concrete. And new estimation method (called "Window energy spectrum method") of earthquake response spectrum gives suitable evaluation of response energy.