WorldWideScience

Sample records for attached greenhouses

  1. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this attachment to the Annual report 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) the economic and personnel data of the UJD, used abbreviations, as well as the International nuclear event scales - INES are presented. Professional level of staff of the UJD is influenced by the education structure of its staff, when nearly 75% of the total number of staff has a university degree. A of 31.12.1999 there were 79 employees as average calculated number. Financing of the regulator in 1999 was mainly provided from the state budget, which represented 96% of all expenditures. The total volume of expenditures for UJD activity funded from the state budget achieved as of 31.12.1999 Slovak crowns (SK) 67 067 thousands. In the main category of expenditures an amount of SK 63 499 thous. was used for current activities, and the difference of SK 3 587 thous. was used for raising capital assets. Significant increase expenditures in the evaluated year compared to the 1998 was caused by a special purpose payment made by the Slovakia into the Fund for reconstruction of the Chernobyl cover (SK 19 996 thous.) funded through the budget chapter of the regulator. In the structure of current expenditures the highest share is taken by current transfers to abroad in total of SK 22 543 thous., i.e. contribution to reconstruction of Chernobyl cover made to the EBRD and contributions to the Fund of Technical Co-operation of the IAEA. For procurement of goods and services an amount of SK 19 814 thous. was spent, of which SK 7 054 thous. was used for funding science and technology tasks which were contracted out. The decision-making process in performing state supervision forced UJD to contact out various expert opinions and studies, for which UJD paid SK 2 058 thous. in total. Other expenditures in a volume of SK 10 702 thous. represent travel expenses, goods and services for UJD, rent for offices and other inevitable expenses. Salaries of staff represented SK 15 953

  2. Building and using the solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

  3. Greener greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paksoy, Halime; Turgut, Bekir; Beyhan, Beyza; Dasgan, H. Yildiz; Evliya, Hunay; Abak, Kazim; Bozdag, Saziye

    2010-09-15

    Agricultural greenhouses are solution to the increased demand for higher production yields, facilitating off season cultivation and allowing the growth of certain varieties in areas where it was not possible earlier. Heating and/or cooling system, required to maintain the inside micro-climate in greenhouses mostly rely on fossil fuels and/or electricity. This paper aims to discuss the 'greener' solutions for heating and cooling systems of greenhouses based on different thermal energy storage concepts. Results from a greenhouse Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) application in Turkey producing tomatoes with zero fossil fuels and up to 40% higher yield are presented.

  4. Product Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and the relationship between product attachment and product lifetime. In addition, we studied which determinants may affect the strength of the emotional bond with products and uncovered the role of the ...

  5. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and th

  6. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  7. Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These two papers deal with the political and strategical aspects of the Bonn meeting on the Kyoto protocol implementing. In this project, the engaged countries interests are often different but the european union seems ready to ratify the Kyoto protocol in 2002. The european industry has to implement now systems to reduce greenhouse gas and to integrate them into a global development strategy, before it is preceded by the Usa. (A.L.B.)

  8. Greenhouse sceptics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greenhouse sceptics' intent has always been to take the sting out of the climate debate. Not to deny that the enhanced greenhouse effect exist; rather, to play down the threat. The reason why this has succeeded, in part, is that the sceptics have been right a number of times, which is not to say that they are in the right in the entire debate. Sadly for them, data have been massaged and out of date findings have been used to justify their position. We can scarcely expect them to contribute constructively to the continuing climate debate. The author shows where the greenhouse mistakes were made and how the sceptics have misused them. He warns environmental organisations and involved scientists to make no statements that are not covered by the climate reports issued by the KNMI (Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute) and IPCC. 'People who deal in misplaced doom scenarios hand things to the sceptics on a plate. If climate policy fails because of that, then those people are also guilty'

  9. FY2010 Federal Government Greenhouse Gas Inventory by Agency

    Data.gov (United States)

    Council on Environmental Quality, Executive Office of the President — The comprehensive Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory for the Federal Government accounts for emissions associated with Federal operations in FY 2010. Attached...

  10. Gardening with Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  11. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  12. GREENHOUSE GASES AND AGRICULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically nhanced greenhouse effect. Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are anked first and second, respectively.) pecifically, greenhouse gas sources and inks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by...

  13. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Greenhouse Gase Widget allows the user to view greenhouse data in several geospatial and graphical formats for individual facilities or groups of facilities...

  14. Adult Attachment and Psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rietzschel, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the association between adult attachment and psychological therapy by examining attachment as an outcome variable of therapy, as well as a predictor of therapy outcome. The literature review systematically explores research that has examined changes in attachment representations during psychological therapy. The purpose of the review is to enhance understanding of change processes in adult attachment and to provide empirical support to the premises of attachment theory. I...

  15. Attachment behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sigling, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes studies into the rat as an animal model for attachment, along the lines of Bowlby's attachment theory. First, the relation between attachment and human psychopathology is reviewed. The conclusion is that psychopathology is more frequent in insecure attached persons and that there is a relationship between specific types of insecure attachment and specific types of psychiatric disorders. Next, a reinterpretation of the literature on social preference experiments in rodent...

  16. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  17. Chapter 14. Greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use very low- temperature fluids, they are a natural application. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements, and the system to meet those requirements. This chapter is intended to provide information on each of these areas.

  18. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  19. Electron-attachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics covered include: (1) modes of production of negative ions, (2) techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, (3) dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules, (4) dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), (5) molecular parent negative ions, and (6) negative ions formed by ion-pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms

  20. Attachment Without Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, o...

  1. Precision Attachment: Retained Overdenture

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasree, K; Mrs.M.Bharathi; Nag, V. Dileep; B. Vinod

    2011-01-01

    Precision attachments are small interlocking devices to connect prosthesis and abutments that offer a variety of solutions to the challenge of balance between functional stability and cosmetic appeal. Precision attachments have wide applications, used in fixed removable bridge, removable partial dentures, overdentures, implant retained overdentures, and maxillofacial prosthesis. Attachment retained overdentures helps in distribution of masticatory forces, minimizes trauma to abutments and sof...

  2. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  3. The greenhouse effect gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  4. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  5. Grappling with greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A natural greenhouse effect keeps the Earth at a temperature suitable for life. Some of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect are increasing at an unprecedented rate because of human activity. These increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will strengthen the natural greenhouse effect, leading to an overall warming of the Earth's surface. Global warming resulting from the enhanced greenhouse effect is likely to be obscured by normal climatic fluctuations for another ten years or more. The extent of human-caused climate change will depend largely on future concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In turn, the composition of the atmosphere depends on the release of greenhouse gases. Releases are hard to predict, because they require an understanding of future human activity. The composition of the atmosphere also depends on the processes which remove greenhouse gases from it. This booklet is summarizing the latest research results in the form of climate change scenarios. The present scenarios of change are based on climate models, together with an understanding of how present-day climate, with its inherent natural variability, affects human activities. These scenarios present a coherent range of future possibilities for climate; they are not predictions but they serve as a useful starting point. It is estimated that human-caused climate change will affect all aspects of life in Australia, including our cities, agriculture, pests and diseases, fisheries and natural ecosystems. 15 figs., ills

  6. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  7. Blade attachment assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  8. Climate, greenhouse effect, energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book has sections on the sun as energy source, the earth climate and it's changes and factors influencing this, the greenhouse effect on earth and other planets, greenhouse gases and aerosols and their properties and importance, historic climate and paleoclimate, climatic models and their uses and limitations, future climate, consequences of climatic changes, uncertainties regarding the climate and measures for reducing the greenhouse effect. Finally there are sections on energy and energy resources, the use, sources such as fossil fuels, nuclear power, renewable resources, heat pumps, energy storage and environmental aspects and the earth magnetic field is briefly surveyed

  9. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth;

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may be...

  10. Attachment and Early Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L. Alan

    1981-01-01

    Attachment outcomes of 31 maltreatment cases (involving extreme neglect or abuse), selected from a total poverty sample of 267 high-risk mothers and their children, were compared to those of a subsample of 33 cases with a history of excellent care. Attachment was assessed when infants were 12 and 18 months old. (Author/MP)

  11. Regional greenhouse climate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the impact of an increasing greenhouse effect on three aspects of regional climate: droughts, storms and temperature. A continuous of current growth rates of greenhouse gases causes an increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in their climate model simulations, with the greatest impacts in broad regions of the subtropics and middle latitudes. But the greenhouse effect enhances both ends of the hydrologic cycle in the model, that is, there is an increased frequency of extreme wet situations, as well as increased drought. Model results are shown to imply that increased greenhouse warming will lead to more intense thunderstorms, that is, deeper thunderstorms with greater rainfall. Emanual has shown that the model results also imply that the greenhouse warming leads to more destructive tropical cyclones. The authors present updated records of observed temperatures and show that the observations and model results, averaged over the globe and over the US, are generally consistent. The impacts of simulated climate changes on droughts, storms and temperature provide no evidence that there will be regional winners if greenhouse gases continue to increase rapidly

  12. The greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengeveld, H. [Environment Canada, Hull, PQ (Canada). Atmospheric Environment Service

    2000-05-01

    The primary contributors to the natural greenhouse effect were described in the power point presentation. It was shown that carbon dioxide contributes 25 per cent to the natural greenhouse effect. Some of the many viewgraphs depicted the following information: (1) trends in carbon dioxide concentrations in the past 1000 years, (2) global trends in fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions, (3) projected carbon dioxide concentrations to 2100, and (4) observed and modelled global temperature change. A pie chart depicting Canadian greenhouse gas emissions by gas type indicates that carbon dioxide is the biggest culprit at 76.3 per cent followed by methane at 13.2 per cent, nitrous oxides at 9.4 per cent and halons at 1.1 per cent. An illustration of global carbon dioxide concentrations in relation to the Kyoto scenarios versus IS92a suggests the two trends are fairly similar. It was concluded that human emissions have significantly disturbed the natural balance of greenhouse gases and that it is likely that carbon dioxide levels will double or even triple pre-industrial levels if no actions are taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Conservation and fuel switching are considered to be important steps in addressing this issue. 13 figs.

  13. Buying greenhouse insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A growing concern that the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases will lead to undesirable changes in global climate has resulted in proposals, both in the United States and internationally, to set physical targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But what will these proposals cost? This book outlines a way to think about greenhouse-effect decisions under uncertainty. It describes an insightful model for determining the economic costs of limiting CO2 emissions produced by burning fossil fuels and provides a solid analytical base for rethinking public policy on the far-reaching issue of global warming. It presents region-by-region estimates of the costs that would underlie an international agreement. Using a computer model known as Global 2100, they analyze the economic impacts of limiting CO2 emissions under alternative supply and conservation scenarios. The results clearly indicate that a reduction in emissions is not the sole policy response to potential climate change. Following a summary of the greenhouse effect, its likely causes, and possible consequences, this book takes up issues that concern the public at large. They provide an overview of Global 2100, look at how the U.S. energy sector is likely to evolve under business-as-usual conditions and under carbon constraints, and describe the concept of greenhouse insurance. They consider possible global agreements, including an estimate of benefits that might result from trading in an international market in emission rights. They conclude with a technical description directed toward modeling specialists

  14. Attachment and Psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between therapy outcome, the therapeutic alliance and both patient and therapist attachment styles. 14 therapists and 27 patients participated. 78.57% (n = 11) therapists and 29.63% (n = 8) patients were classified as securely attached by self-report measures. It was predicted that more patients of secure therapists would show clinically significant improvement as determined by CORE-OM scores. However, 21.05% of patients with a secure atta...

  15. Reusable frame greenhouse that saves money and erection time and reduces waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved greenhouse design has been proposed and tested for use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory for containing radioactive materials during decontamination, maintenance, and remodeling operations in nuclear facilities. The advantages of the greenhouse design include a reusable frame that is free standing and self-supporting and a plastic enclosure that is easily erected and attached to the frame. Manpower requirements appear to be about half that of the conventional greenhouse, the construction costs are approximately 20 to 40% lower, and the waste generated from the greenhouse is approximately 60% lower

  16. Attachment to land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a first study on attachment to national and sacred land and land as a protected value. A measure of attachment to the land of Israel is developed and administered to two groups, Jewish college students in Israel and the United States. Levels of land attachment are high and not significantly different in the two groups, with a great deal of variation. Land may become more important through being inhabited by a group over centuries. This is a positive contagion effect, and is opposed in some cases by negative contagion produced when the ``enemies'' live on the land for some period of time. We demonstrate a significant correlation of positive contagion sensitivity with attachment to the land of Israel. Unlike many other cases of the interaction of positive and negative contagion, negative contagion does not overwhelm positive contagion in the domain of land attachment. We also present evidence for linkages between political positions, religiosity, importance of Israel, Arab aversion, and vulnerability of Israel with attachment to land, but these do not fully account for the contagion effects. A number of significant differences between Israelis and Americans are described.

  17. Microclimatic conditions in greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Barreto, Pablo Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The study of heat transfer in a greenhouse is a tool for improving environmental management and efficiencies in this type of structures. The future improvement on the quality of cultivation and the control of pests are some examples of the use for this model. With the present research we will give the main technical parameters to characterize the greenhouse, and also an analysis of the behaviors of the inside air temperature, all heat fluxes involved in the heat transfer problem and how the s...

  18. The greenhouse ice age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a non-specialist way attention is paid to two processes that radically influence the world climate and that have adverse factors: the disturbance of the greenhouse effect and the already started solar radiation decrease, which will result in a glacial period. In particular, it is discussed to what extent these processes will reduce the greenhouse effect. Also feedbacks, Milankovitch cycles, modelled by Berger, the rising sea level, the impact of the oceans are briefly dealt with. Finally, attention is paid to the possibilities for humans to handle the fore-mentioned problems. 15 ills., 5 refs

  19. The greenhouse effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper

    1992-01-01

    of the 1988 conference in Toronto on "The Changing Atmosphere" and reduce global CO2 emissions by 20% until year 2005, or is it vital for the future of the World to reduce emissions at a much quicker pace? And how do we compare reductions of different greenhouse gases by different amounts...

  20. LEDs for greenhouse lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Nederhoff, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Light Emitting Diodes (LED's) are a promising technology for greenhouse lighting with their efficiency to activate plant photosynthesis potentially higher in red LEDs than in HPS lamps. Due to their particular light colour, LEDs can initiate special effects in plants or steer plant processes and plant balance

  1. Innovation in greenhouse engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, G.A.; Castilla, N.; Henten, van E.J.; Mears, D.R.; Sase, S.

    2008-01-01

    Innovations in greenhouse engineering are technical developments which help evolve the state-of-the-art in CEA (Controlled Environment Agriculture). They occur in response to the operational demands on the system, and to strategic changes in expectations of the production system. Influential operati

  2. Reducing Greenhouse Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    World Bank is applying to transport initiatives a new and distinctive method of greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis as part of its comprehensive GHG accounting policy. In transport, choices by travelers determine usage, and a fundamental trend in much of the world is strongly boosting GHG emissions: the massive rise in motorization as household incomes and technical advances make it affordable. ...

  3. LEDs for greenhouse lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Light Emitting Diodes (LED's) are a promising technology for greenhouse lighting with their efficiency to activate plant photosynthesis potentially higher in red LEDs than in HPS lamps. Due to their particular light colour, LEDs can initiate special effects in plants or steer plant processes and pla

  4. Smarter greenhouse climate control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Houter, G.

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse operators strive to be as economic as possible with energy. However, investing in fancy energy-saving equipment is often not cost-effective for smaller operations and in climate zones with mild winters. It is possible, though, for many growers to save energy without buying special equipme

  5. Greening the greenhouse grower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staats, Henk; Jansen, Lilian; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    Growing plants and flowers in greenhouses is a commercial activity that imposes a burden on the environment. Recently a system of registration, control, and licensing has been developed by the sector of greenhouse growers in the Netherlands, acknowledged by the state. The current study was execut......, descriptive norm, and self-efficacy. Actual pesticide use was predicted by the interaction of intention and response efficacy. Results can be used to improve communication with growers, focusing on the influential determinants of intention and behavior....... to understand the achievements of the greenhouse growers within this system. We applied a social-cognitive model to understand intentions to reduce emissions and predict actual pesticide use. The social-cognitive concepts from the model were measured in a questionnaire that was completed by 743...... greenhouse growers. Factual information on these growers’ pesticide use in 2004 and 2005 was provided by the agency responsible for the program, and could be linked to the questionnaire data. Using structural equation modeling we found that intention to reduce emission was primarily predicted by the attitude...

  6. Greenhouse Gas Data Publication Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool to gives you access to greenhouse gas data reported to EPA by large facilities and suppliers in the United States through EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting...

  7. Fuel rod attachment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reusable system for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. A locking cap is secured to the fuel rod and a locking strip is fastened to the support member or vice versa. The locking cap has two opposing fingers and shaped to form a socket having a body portion. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion. The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip causing the extension to temporarily deflect open the fingers to engage the socket's body portion. For removal, the process is reversed. In an alternative embodiment, the cap is rigid and the strip is transversely resiliently compressible. (author)

  8. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  9. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected

  10. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  11. MOWER ATTACHMENT NOISE

    OpenAIRE

    Mosdzianowski, G.

    1990-01-01

    The noise produced by grass mowing attachments fitted to small tractors and combining a number of rotary blades with a total cutting width of up to 120 cm was investigated. The paper develops a noise reduction concept based on an analysis of sound sources.

  12. Innovation in greenhouse engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomelli, G.A.; Castilla, N.; Henten, van, E.; Mears, D.R.; Sase, S.

    2008-01-01

    Innovations in greenhouse engineering are technical developments which help evolve the state-of-the-art in CEA (Controlled Environment Agriculture). They occur in response to the operational demands on the system, and to strategic changes in expectations of the production system. Influential operational factors include availability of labor, cost for energy, logistics of transport, etc. Influential strategic factors result from broader, regional issues such as environmental impact, product sa...

  13. Greenhouse gas strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because the overall effects of climate change will likely be more pronounced in the North than in other parts of the country, the Government of the Northwest Territories considers it imperative to support global and local actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Government support is manifested through a coordinating role played by senior government representatives in the development of the NWT Greenhouse Gas Strategy, and by participation on a multi-party working committee to identify and coordinate northern actions and to contribute a northern perspective to Canada's National Climate Change Implementation Strategy. This document outlines the NWT Government's goals and objectives regarding greenhouse gas emission reduction actions. These will include efforts to enhance awareness and understanding; demonstrate leadership by putting the Government's own house in order; encouraging action across sectors; promote technology development and innovation; invest in knowledge and building the foundation for informed future decisions. The strategy also outlines the challenges peculiar to the NWT, such as the high per person carbon dioxide emissions compared to the national average (30 tonnes per person per year as opposed to the national average of 21 tonnes per person per year) and the increasing economic activity in the Territories, most of which are resource-based and therefore energy-intensive. Appendices which form part of the greenhouse gas strategy document, provide details of the potential climate change impact in the NWT, a detailed explanation of the proposed measures, an emission forecast to 2004 from industrial processes, fuel combustion and incineration, and a statement of the official position of the Government of the NWT on climate change

  14. Temperature and relative humidity changes inside greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shafaei

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Better growing conditions are achieved in greenhouses by maintaining a higher internal ambient as compared with external ambient temperature. A computer-based control and monitoring system which provides visualization, control and coordination of temperature and humidity in a greenhouse was recently developed. To validate the system performance, a number of experiments were carried out during the autumn of 2003. In this paper, one of the experimental results conducted from 10 to 12 a.m. on December 7, 2003, in the city of Karaj, is presented and discussed. The system was tested for two modes of operation: the uncontrolled mode of operation and the controlled mode. Four sensors, three for temperature measurements and one for relative humidity measurements, were installed inside and outside. During the first hour and a half the system was tested as a data-acquisition system, ie, only data from the sensors were recorded and monitored on the screen with no operation of fans, sprayer and other installed environmental systems in the greenhouse. For the last 20 min of the experiment, inside air temperature was controlled by the system. The result on temperature measurements shows that external ambient temperature, Tout, is always less than the inside temperature. This is attributed to the solar radiation entering the greenhouse through transparent plastic and being trapped there. We also observed fluctuations on temperature profile inside the greenhouse. This is caused by natural conditions such as surface evaporation within the greenhouse, solar radiation, external ambient temperature and rapid weather changes during the time of the experiment. It was also found that the rate of change of temperature increase in the upper part, Tup, ie near plastic cover, is higher than that of the plants height, Tmid. This rise in vertical temperature gradient is partly due to the different amount of solar incident radiation being received at the locations of sensors

  15. Turbine nozzle attachment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine.

  16. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Eduard Scheidt; Elisabeth Waller

    2015-01-01

    Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure di...

  17. Universally Rigid Framework Attachments

    CERN Document Server

    Ratmanski, Kiril

    2010-01-01

    A framework is a graph and a map from its vertices to R^d. A framework is called universally rigid if there is no other framework with the same graph and edge lengths in R^d' for any d'. A framework attachment is a framework constructed by joining two frameworks on a subset of vertices. We consider an attachment of two universally rigid frameworks that are in general position in R^d. We show that the number of vertices in the overlap between the two frameworks must be sufficiently large in order for the attachment to remain universally rigid. Furthermore, it is shown that universal rigidity of such frameworks is preserved even after removing certain edges. Given positive semidefinite stress matrices for each of the two initial frameworks, we analytically derive the PSD stress matrices for the combined and edge-reduced frameworks. One of the benefits of the results is that they provide a general method for generating new universally rigid frameworks.

  18. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

    OpenAIRE

    Juen Florian; Arnold Lisa; Meissner Dominik; Nolte Tobias; Buchheim Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attach...

  19. Attachment as an Organizational Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Waters, Everett

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the conflict between situational influences and stable individual differences in attachment behavior and attempts to resolve this conflict by examining the functions, outcomes, and context sensitivity of attachment behavior and the underlying behavioral control systems that organize it. (JMB)

  20. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Independent analysis details quantifying the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  1. Attachment Behaviors in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Marian; Ungerer, Judy A.

    1984-01-01

    Observation of 14 autistic and 14 nonautistic children of equivalent mental age revealed that autistic Ss showed evidence of attachment to their mothers. Among autistic Ss, those showing increased attachment behaviors in response to separation and reunion demonstrated more advanced symbolic play skills than those showing no attachment change.…

  2. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  3. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  4. Holistic greenhouse gas management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, P. [Dept. of Applied and International Economics, Massey Univ. (New Zealand); Parshotam, A. [Inst. of Fundamental Sciences, Massey Univ. (New Zealand)

    2005-07-01

    A holistic greenhouse gas management strategy is described. The first stage is the growth of a large-scale global bio-energy market with world trade in bio-fuels and with a strategic stock of biomass raw material in new plantation forests. Later stages, more costly - as needs may be in response to possible future precursors of abrupt climate change - would involve linking CO2 capture and sequestration to bio-energy, yielding a negative emissions energy system. Illustrative calculations point to the feasibility of a return to pre-industrial CO{sub 2} levels before mid-century. This result is subject to significant caveats, but, prima facie, the first stage can provide several environmental and socio-economic side-benefits while yielding a positive financial return if oil prices remain above 35$/bbl. The vision is that the polluter pays principle can be turned to a greening of the earth. (orig.)

  5. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    home range, (3) identify how participant socio-demographic and home location attributes influence place attachment, (4) provide some guidance for mapping place attachment in future research. We found large spatial variability in individual place attachment and mapped landscape values using both area...... and distance-based measures. The area of place attachment is influenced by occupational roles such as farming or conservation, as well as home location, especially in coastal versus non-coastal contexts. The spatial distribution of mapped landscape values or values home range is related to, but not...... area. Aggregated place attachment across participants in the region showed similar spatial intensity to aggregated values home range, but area-based assessment of place attachment and values home range are distorted by edge effects such as a coastline. To further develop the mapping of place attachment...

  6. Greenhouse gases and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the enhanced greenhouse effect? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

  7. Turkish tomato greenhouse gets geothermal heating

    OpenAIRE

    Sikkema, A.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture will set up an ultramodern greenhouse in Turkey, together with Dutch greenhouse builders and contractors. Geothermal energy will be used there to provide heat and carbon dioxide for tomato cultivation.

  8. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  9. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    OpenAIRE

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented...

  10. Attachment theory and therapeutic relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Boysan, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the associations between current self-reported attachment styles, retrospective reports of childhood experiences, and the development of the therapeutic alliance. It was hypothesised that anxious and avoidant attachment would be correlated with negative childhood experiences and that both attachment anxiety and avoidance would be inversely correlated with the therapeutic alliance. The third hypothesis stated that negative childhood recollections would co...

  11. Global climate change : greenhouse effect

    OpenAIRE

    Attard, David

    1992-01-01

    One of the main problems caused by climate change is the greenhouse effect. Human activities emit so-called greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide which is produced through fossil fuel burning. These gases absorb the earth‘s radiation, forcing the earth‘s temperature, like that of in greenhouse, to rise. Global warming would lead to a rise in the global mean sea-level due to thermal expansion of the waters, and glaciers will melt at a fast rate, as will the Greenland ice...

  12. Climate - Greenhouse effect - Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explains what is understood by climate systems and the concept of greenhouse effect. It also gives a survey of the world's energy consumption, energy reserves and renewable energy sources. Today, 75 - 80 per cent of the world's energy consumption involves fossil fuel. These are the sources that cause the CO2 emissions. What are the possibilities of reducing the emissions? The world's population is increasing, and to provide food and a worthy life for everybody we have to use more energy. Where do we get this energy from without causing great climate changes and environmental changes? Should gas power plants be built in Norway? Should Swedish nuclear power plants be shut down, or is it advisable to concentrate on nuclear power, worldwide, this century, to reduce the CO2 emissions until the renewable energy sources have been developed and can take over once the petroleum sources have been depleted? The book also discusses the global magnetic field, which protects against particle radiation from space and which gives rise to the aurora borealis. The book is aimed at students taking environmental courses in universities and colleges, but is also of interest for anybody concerned about climate questions, energy sources and living standard

  13. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  14. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Greenhouse effect will be a challenge for the next decades. Increasing gas emissions into the atmosphere will interfere with the Earth's radiation balance, followed by a global heat-up and regional changes of climate. Especially the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased by 25% since the mid-19th century. CO2 is the inevitable product of C combustion - in coal, oil, gas, gasoline, and other fossil fuels. It is emitted into the atmosphere with the flue and exhaust gases, so the problem of technical measures for CO2 retention comes to the fore. Quite a number of techniques have been proposed in the last few years, mostly of the chemical sector. Not all of them were considered acceptable: After all, the problem of CO2 reduction is not just a problem of technical feasibility. What is required is a way of removing CO2 by other means than release into the atmosphere. In other words, the industries generating power from carbon have failed to find a way of disposing of the waste product CO2. The problem of final storage of nearly 21,000 million tonnes of CO2 per annum remains unresolved. The present method of 'atmospheric interim storage' involves an increasing threat to our climate.(orig./GL)

  15. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Florian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Besides the predominance of disorganized attachment, clinical participants demonstrated more “segregated system material” especially in stories representing aloneness and more “Personal Experience material” compared to healthy individuals. Within the disorganized/ unresolved clinical individuals, BPD and PTSD patients showed the highest proportion of attachment disorganization and were less able to use other attachment-related defenses to maintain organized. Furthermore, PTSD patients were emotionally overwhelmed by the projective attachment scenes compared to the other clinical groups as indexed by an incapacity to complete sections of the AAP. BPD and addicted patients were characterized by a high degree of self-other boundary confusion. Depressive and schizophrenic patients showed a high overall defensive intensity to remain organized.

  16. Fiber Attachment Module Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Reinaldo J.

    2014-01-01

    Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors (HFMB) are ideal systems for biological pretreatment of wastewater, however, optimization is still underway. The Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME) allows the simultaneous testing of potential materials, treatments on these and varying inoculums. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the material chosen for its ideal oxygen permeation properties, was treated with 1 sodium hydroxide 0.1 M ether for 18 seconds and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation oxygen plasma (OP) exposure for 1 hour. Preliminary chemistry and visual data indicate promising treatments when using OP and sodium hydroxide as treatments for PDMS fibers; however, due to the biological nature of the experiment, time is a constraint. Sodium hydroxide treatment chemistry data shows nitrification is occurring as urea and ammonia are decreasing and nitrite is increasing. A higher amount of biofilm can also be observed for this particular case. During the final two weeks of the internship x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and acridine orange (AO) cell counts will be employed for treatment effectiveness on the first batch of treatments (ether and sodium hydroxide). These same strategies will be used for the second batch of experiments due in four weeks (2nd week of August).

  17. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery. PMID:25815400

  18. Policy implications of greenhouse warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppock, Rob

    1992-03-01

    A study panel of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine recently issued the report Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. That report examined relevant scientific knowldeg and evidence about the potential of greenhouse warming, and assayed actions that could slow the onset of warming (mitigation policies) or help human and natural systems of plants and animals adapt to climatic changes (adaptation policies). The panel found that, even given the considerable uncertainties knowledge of the relevant phenomena, greenhouse warming poses a threat sufficient to merit prompt action. People in this country could probably adapt to the changes likely to accompany greenhouse warming. The costs, however, could be substantial. Investment in mitigation acts as insurance protection against the great uncertainties and the possibility of dramatic surprises. The panel found mitigation options that could reduce U.S. emissions by an estimated 10 to 40 percent at modest cost.

  19. Float Greenhouse Tobacco Transplant Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, T. David

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of growing tobacco transplants in greenhouses. Examines concerns such as sanitation, proper chemical usage, ventilation, temperature control, and fertilization. For hydroponic growth of tobacco seedlings, discusses water quality, clipping and other concerns.

  20. Greenhouses and their humanizing synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Paterson, Carrie; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Greenhouses in space will require advanced technical systems of automatic watering, soil-less cultivation, artificial lighting, and computerized observation of plants. Functions discussed for plants in space habitats include physical/health requirements and human psychology, social cohesion, as well as the complex sensorial benefits of plants for humans. The authors consider the role of plants in long-term space missions historically since 1971 (Salyut 1) and propose a set of priorities to be considered within the design requirements for greenhouses and constructed environments given a range of benefits associated with plant-human relationships. They cite recent research into the use of greenhouses in extreme environments to reveal the relative importance of greenhouses for people living in isolated locations. Additionally, they put forward hypotheses about where greenhouses might factor into several strata of human health. In a recent design-in-use study of astronauts' experiences in space habitats discussed in Architecture for Astronauts (Springer Press 2011) it was found that besides the basic advantages for life support there are clearly additional "side benefits" for habitability and physical wellbeing, and thus long-term mission success. The authors have composed several key theses regarding the need to promote plant-human relationships in space, including areas where synergy and symbiosis occur. They cite new comprehensive research into the early US Space Program to reveal where programmatic requirements could be added to space architecture to increase the less quantifiable benefits to astronauts of art, recreation, and poetic engagement with their existential condition of estrangement from the planet. Specifically in terms of the technological requirements, the authors propose the integration of a new greenhouse subsystem component into space greenhouses—the Mobile Plant Cultivation Subsystem—a portable, personal greenhouse that can be integrated

  1. Optimizing Greenhouse Corn Production: References

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy, Robert; Hahn, Daniel T

    2010-01-01

    This document is one entry in a series of questions and answers originally posted to the Purdue University Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture’s Plant Growth Facility Web site (http://www.hort.purdue.edu/hort/facilities/greenhouse/CornMethod.shtml) regarding best practices for corn plant growth in a greenhouse. Controlled studies were conducted with the goals of optimizing growth and yield; developing standardized methodology using readily available commercial materials; and p...

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Podkówka Zbigniew; Čermák Bohuslav; Podkówka Witold; Brouček Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG) which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted...

  3. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  4. Diameters in preferential attachment models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommers, S.; Van der Hofstad, R.; Hooghiemstra, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the diameter in preferential attachment (PA-) models, thus quantifying the statement that these models are small worlds. The models studied here are such that edges are attached to older vertices proportional to the degree plus a constant, i.e., we consider affine PA-mo

  5. Association between attachment and schizotypy

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Colm

    2011-01-01

    Background: The human genome project has affirmed the importance of non-genetic factors in human development. Attachment style is considered to be a diathesis for psychopathology and an important determinant regarding interpersonal functioning. Epidemiological research has indicated that there is significant aetiological continuity between symptoms of schizotypy and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia. Limited research has investigated the association between attachment and schi...

  6. Greenport greenhouse as a source of inspiration

    OpenAIRE

    Verkerke, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Greenport greenhouse in Venlo is a benchmark in greenhouse cultivation. Tomato grower, Joep Raemakers, achieves 10 percent higher productivity and a savings of 35 percent in energy costs with this semi-closed greenhouse. The nearby Health Centre, and the Mytyl School can also rack up large energy savings by using the surplus heat from the Greenport greenhouse.

  7. Attachment at work and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadt, Elizabeth A; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relations between self-reported attachment orientation at work and personality, self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence (aka emotional self-efficacy), and independently assessed career potential and job performance. Self-report data were collected from 211 managers in an international business in the hospitality industry; independent assessments of these managers' job performance and career potential were separately obtained from the organization. A self-report measure of romantic attachment was adapted for application in the work context; a two-factor solution was found for this measure. Secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work was positively related to self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and also to job performance. Not only was secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work statistically predictive of job performance, but the new measure also made a distinct contribution, beyond conscientiousness, to this prediction. PMID:21838647

  8. Electron attachment to fluorocarbon radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    Most plasma environments contain populations of short-lived species such as radicals, the chemistry of which can have significant effects on the overall chemistry of the system. However, few experimental measurements of the kinetics of electron attachment to radicals exist due to the inherent difficulties of working with transient species. Calculations from first principles have been attempted, but are arduous and, because electron attachment is so sensitive to the specifics of the potential surface, their accuracy has not been established. Electron attachment to small fluorocarbon radicals is particularly important, as the data are needed for predictive modeling of plasma etching of semiconductor materials, a key process in the industrial fabrication of microelectronics. We have recently developed a novel flowing afterglow technique to measure several types of otherwise difficult to study plasma processes, including thermal electron attachment to radicals. Variable Electron and Neutral Density Attachment Mass Spectrometry (VENDAMS) exploits dissociative electron attachment in a weakly ionized plasma as a radical source. Here, we apply VENDAMS to a series of halofluorocarbon precursors in order to measure the kinetics of thermal electron attachment to fluorocarbon radicals. Results are presented for CF2, CF3, C2F5,C2F3,1-C3F7, 2-C3F7, and C3F5 from 300 K to 900 K. Both the magnitude and the temperature dependences of rate coefficients as well as product branching between associative and dissociative attachment are highly system specific; however, thermal attachment to all species is inefficient, never exceeding 5% of the collision rate. The data are analyzed using a recently developed kinetic modeling approach, which uses extended Vogt-Wannier theory as a starting point, accounts for dynamic effects such as coupling between the electron and nuclear motions through empirically validated functional forms, and finally uses statistical theory to determine the fate of

  9. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.;

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  10. Greenhouse effect: analysis, incertitudes, consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general presentation of climatic changes due to greenhouse effect with their consequences is analysed. After a schematic description of this effect a simplified atmospheric model (box model) is proposed. This model integrates the main feedback effects and quantifies them. The effects of astronomic and atmospheric factors on climatic changes are analyzed and compared with classical paleoclimatic results. This study shows the need of good global modelization to evaluate long term quantification of climatic greenhouse effects according to the main time lag of the several biospheric boxes. An overview of biologic and agronomic consequences is given to promote new research subjects and to orientate protecting and conservative biospheric actions

  11. Greenhouse gas mitigation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Castellví Ballesté, Aleix

    2008-01-01

    This document would like to be clear information about the present and the future of the CO2 emissions in Spain. First of all greenhouse effect and the greenhouse gases contribution are explained to know what is happening with the atmosphere. Secondly, Spain’s emissions are detailed by sectors and origin. These details are going to show in which sectors there are more work to do and which origins are more important. Evolution is being studied to know the trend and the possible future. F...

  12. Livestock and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero, M; Gerber, P; Vellinga, T;

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions attributable to livestock range from 8 to 51%. This variability creates confusion among policy makers and the public as it suggests that there is a lack of consensus among scientists with regard to the contribution of livestock to global GHG em...

  13. Biological control in greenhouse systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulitz, T C; Bélanger, R R

    2001-01-01

    The controlled environment of greenhouses, the high value of the crops, and the limited number of registered fungicides offer a unique niche for the biological control of plant diseases. During the past ten years, over 80 biocontrol products have been marketed worldwide. A large percentage of these have been developed for greenhouse crops. Products to control soilborne pathogens such as Sclerotinia, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Fusarium include Coniothyrium minitans, species of Gliocladium, Trichoderma, Streptomyces, and Bacillus, and nonpathogenic Fusarium. Products containing Trichoderma, Ampelomyces quisqualis, Bacillus, and Ulocladium are being developed to control the primary foliar diseases, Botrytis and powdery mildew. The development of Pseudomonas for the control of Pythium diseases in hydroponics and Pseudozyma flocculosa for the control of powdery mildew by two Canadian research programs is presented. In the future, biological control of diseases in greenhouses could predominate over chemical pesticides, in the same way that biological control of greenhouse insects predominates in the United Kingdom. The limitations in formulation, registration, and commercialization are discussed, along with suggested future research priorities. PMID:11701861

  14. Greenhouse effect: the French plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some questions and their answers to fight against the greenhouse gases emissions are tackled here. Among the different propositions: carbon taxes ( between 150 and 500 French Francs/carbon ton), a change in transportation system by using the train for the freight as often as possible, a planning in urban area: urban housing, urbanism, transport. (N.C.)

  15. Optimal control of greenhouse cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, van G.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Henten, van E.J.; Ooteghem, van R.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Features Discusses economic optimization of greenhouse control through mathematical modeling Examines 30 years of scientific research to present a unified framework for efficient decision-making Presents modern methods of control and optimization including classical rule-based and multivariable feed

  16. The Living Rainforest Sustainable Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, G.P.A.; Zwart, de H.F.; Hansen, K.; Logan, A.; Witte Groenholland, H.

    2008-01-01

    The Living Rainforest (www.livingrainforest.org) is an educational charity that uses rainforest ecology as a metaphor for communicating general sustainability issues to the public. Its greenhouses and office buildings are to be renovated using the most sustainable methods currently available. This w

  17. Leaking gas in the greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gas emissions by the United Kingdom could be significantly reduced by replacement of old and leaking gas mains. Such a programme could even be cost-effective for the utility concerned. Calculations of gas leakage rates and the costs of saving emissions in terms of tonnes CDE (carbon dioxide equivalent) are given. (UK)

  18. Attachment bonding of delinquent adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čačić Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this research is to define adolescence bonding as well as to identify their typical bonding type. The bonding was observed in two ways. The analysis was based on seven attachment dimensions that were defined by N. Hanak, as well as on the basis of Bartholomew’s four-style attachment model. The research was conducted at multiple sites: two secondary schools in Sombor, the Juvenile Correctional Institution in Kruševac and the Juvenile Correctional Facility in Niš. It included 524 persons, 421 adolescents and 103 delinquents. Adolescents are the second and the third grade students of the Secondary Technical School and the Second­ary School of Economics, while delinquents were testable juveniles. All of them are under correctional measures in the above mentioned institutions. All results are in accordance with the theoretical expectations. Delinquents attach in insecure way more frequently: 68, 9% delinquents from our sample showed insecure attachment. The fearful type of attachment appears to be typical of delinquents. Delinquents are facing difficulties in obtaining support of close persons, as well as in using significant persons they are related to as safe harbours in stressful situations. In addition, they would see themselves as not worthy of attention and love. There is a high level of painful feelings related to childhood and family, as well as ambivalent and nega­tive current family relations.

  19. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  20. Energy consumption for different greenhouses' structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đević Milan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper influence of greenhouses' structure was estimated for four different double plastic covered greenhouses in winter lettuce production. Plastic coverings are introduced as mean of making this kind of plant production more efficient. Also, as a mean of lowering energy consumption, the tunnel structures are proposed. Four different double plastic covered greenhouses were used for energy analysis. Two tunnel types, 9 x 58m and 8 x 25m covered with double PE folia, and two gutter connected plastic covered greenhouses. One greenhouse is 2 x 7 m wide and 39 m long and the other 20 x 6.4 m wide and 42 m long. Results have shown the lowest energy consumption for gutter connected greenhouses. Energy out/in ratio was also higher in gutter connected greenhouse. Highest energy consumption was obtained in tunnel greenhouse 8 x 25m.

  1. Optimal Control Design for a Solar Greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Ooteghem, van, R.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: An optimal climate control has been designed for a solar greenhouse to achieve optimal crop production with sustainable instead of fossil energy. The solar greenhouse extends a conventional greenhouse with an improved roof cover, ventilation with heat recovery, a heat pump, a heat exchanger and an aquifer. It was found that in the optimal controlled solar greenhouse, gas use can be seriously reduced (by 52%), while the crop production is significantly increased (by 39%), as compared...

  2. Hamiltonian Dynamics of Preferential Attachment

    CERN Document Server

    Zuev, Konstantin; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment, known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton's equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in preferential attachment. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by preferential attachment is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree d...

  3. Partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmann, Peter R; Finch, Holmes; Parnell, Michele M; Downer, Jason T

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics in 134 nonclinical couples in long-term marriages. Irrespective of gender, spouses with greater anxiety over abandonment or discomfort with closeness endorsed dysfunctional relationship beliefs to a greater extent. On the anxiety over abandonment dimension, husbands with higher scores were rated less aggressive, less controlling, and more rebellious, whereas wives with higher scores were rated more dependent, more self-critical, and less competitive. Husbands higher on discomfort with closeness were rated less cooperative and responsible and were rated more aggressive and rebellious. Matched secure couples reported lower marital dissatisfaction than matched insecure or mismatched couples. Future research should contrast samples of nonclinical and clinical couples by marital duration to identify specific partner behaviors that are likely to foster marital dissatisfaction within particular attachment pairings. The authors' findings suggest the importance of marital therapists being attuned to the attachment-related beliefs and interpersonal styles uniquely operating within each couple. PMID:23252639

  4. The Greenhouse Effect and Built Environment Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

    The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…

  5. Greenhouse design applying CFD for Indonesian conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    In the design phase of a test site in Indonesia computational fluid dynamics has been used to design the construction of the plastic greenhouse. Greenhouses in Indonesia are built to protect the crop from heavy rain and insects. The climate in four different greenhouse designs is calculated without

  6. A validated physical model of greenhouse climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the greenhouse model the momentaneous environmental crop growth factors are calculated as output, together with the physical behaviour of the crop. The boundary conditions for this model are the outside weather conditions; other inputs are the physical characteristics of the crop, of the greenhouse and of the control system. The greenhouse model is based on the energy, water vapour and CO2 balances of the crop-greenhouse system. While the emphasis is on the dynamic behaviour of the greenhouse for implementation in continuous optimization, the state variables temperature, water vapour pressure and carbondioxide concentration in the relevant greenhouse parts crop, air, soil and cover are calculated from the balances over these parts. To do this in a proper way, the physical exchange processes between the system parts have to be quantified first. Therefore the greenhouse model is constructed from submodels describing these processes: a. Radiation transmission model for the modification of the outside to the inside global radiation. b. Ventilation model to describe the ventilation exchange between greenhouse and outside air. c. The description of the exchange of energy and mass between the crop and the greenhouse air. d. Calculation of the thermal radiation exchange between the various greenhouse parts. e. Quantification of the convective exchange processes between the greenhouse air and respectively the cover, the heating pipes and the soil surface and between the cover and the outside air. f. Determination of the heat conduction in the soil. The various submodels are validated first and then the complete greenhouse model is verified

  7. Optimal control design for a solar greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooteghem, van R.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The research of this thesis was part of a larger project aiming at the design of a greenhouse and an associated climate control that achieves optimal crop production with sustainable instead of fossil energy. This so called solar greenhouse design extends a conventional greenhouse with an improved r

  8. Diameters in preferential attachment models

    OpenAIRE

    Dommers, S.; van der Hofstad, R.; Hooghiemstra, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the diameter in preferential attachment (PA-) models, thus quantifying the statement that these models are small worlds. The models studied here are such that edges are attached to older vertices proportional to the degree plus a constant, i.e., we consider affine PA-models. There is a substantial amount of literature proving that, quite generally, PA-graphs possess power-law degree sequences with a power-law exponent \\tau>2. We prove that the diameter of the PA-...

  9. Electron attachment to HCl clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negatively charged cluster ions of hydrogen chloride are formed by electron attachment to HCl clusters, which are produced in a seeded supersonic beam traversing a sustained gas discharge. Cluster ions of (HCl)n-, with n = 2, and tentatively with n = 3 and 4 are observed. Cluster ions like Cln-, Cln- (HCl)m, and with Ar attached to them are also seen. The relevance to radiation chemistry of HCl is briefly discussed. Atoms evaporating from the hot, thoriated tungsten filament of the glow discharge lead to clusters such as Thn- and its oxides. (orig.)

  10. Sustainable gerbera production realised with the next generation greenhouse cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, de A.; Warmenhoven, M.G.; Dieleman, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of a considerable decrease during the last decade, energy consumption in greenhouse cultivation remains high. More sustainable greenhouse horticulture can be realised by developing new greenhouse and cultivation concepts. Recently, we developed the Next Generation Greenhouse Cultivation sys

  11. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, Victor; Genin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also: Provides the first comprehensive treatment of phys...

  12. Ground duct ventilation in greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Riera Sayol, Guiu

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse climate control system is simulated in MATLAB and Simulink. The model calculates for every 20 minutes the temperatures and energy consumption over a whole year. Ground ducts are used in order to save energy which is stored in the ground when there is an excess of heat during the day. This energy is used when the temperature is not high enough, generally in the early morning. Additionally, the ground ducts reduce the usage of windows, due to better dehumidification and...

  13. Improving Greenhouse Heating in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Meneses, J.F.; Baptista, Fátima

    2011-01-01

    Although several new solutions for greenhouse heating and environmental control are being investigated all over the world; to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts, to increase the efficiency of energy use for plant production in protected cultivation or to take advantage of the new renewable energy sources, in Portugal the great majority of producers still rely on more conventional heating systems for an economical year round production of vegetables and flowers....

  14. Mitigating Greenhouse Gases in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Adrian; Jawtusch, Julia; Gattinger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Climate change has severe adverse effects on the livelihood of millions of the world’s poorest people. Increasing temperatures, water scarcity and droughts, flooding and storms affect food security. Thus, mitigation actions are needed to pave the way for a sustainable future for all. Currently, agriculture directly contributes about 10-15 percent to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Adding emissions from deforestation and land use change for animal feed production, this rises to about 30...

  15. Personality and attachment to romantic partners

    OpenAIRE

    Marušić, Iris; Kamenov, Željka; Jelić, Margareta

    2007-01-01

    Since Hazan and Shaver formulated their theory of adult romantic attachment in the late 1980's (Hazan & Shaver, 1987), attachment theory has become one of the principal theoretical frameworks for the study of intimate relationships in adulthood. It conceptualizes romantic love, or couple bonding, as an attachment process that reflects the same kinds of individual differences as infant-parent attachment. However, this idea is not a new one. Although attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969) was origina...

  16. Attachment patterns and separation anxiety symptom

    OpenAIRE

    Sakineh - Mofrad; Rohani - Abdullah; Ikechkwu - Uba

    2010-01-01

    Literature suggests that child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns related differently to separation anxiety symptoms (fear of being alone, and fear of abandonment). Three attachment patterns assessed were secure, avoidant and ambivalent attachment. Findings indicated that ambivalent attachment was most consistently related with higher separation anxiety symptom. And also, different associations were found bet...

  17. PRECISION ATTACHMENTS; APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A unique concern of a removable denture when compare d to others is retention. Retention is the ability of the prosthesis to resist the movement of denture away from the supporting tissues/teeth. The component of removable d enture which provides retention is called as direct retainer. 1,3,4 A direct retainer can be either an extracoronal or intracoronal retainer. Extracoronal direct retainer uses mechanical resistance to displa cement through components placed on external surface of abutment teeth. Intracoronal retainer is either cast or attached to tally within the restored natural contours of an abutment tooth. 1 One of the main drawbacks of extracoronal retainers used in partial dentures is visibility. Many patients find themselves in an aest hetically compromised state when these retainers are placed on teeth in visible area. Preci sion attachments provide solution for this problem. Also, precision attachments provide better ve rtical support and better stimulation to the underlying tissue through intermittent vertical massage. 1,9 Although the history of intracoronal retainers goes back to 5 th and 4 th centuries BC, technically more sound developments began in early 2 0 th century AD, with Dr. Herman E. S. Chayes formulating the principle of internal attachme nt in 1906. Since then precision attachments are playing an important role in removabl e and fixed partial denture, conventional and implant supported overdenture. 9

  18. Electricity generation and greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison is presented of the emissions of carbon dioxide and methane associated with electricity generation and residential heating options found in Canada. Greenhouse impacts of thermal generating technologies and hydroelectric projects are evaluated along with impacts of fuel switching options. Technologies and options considered include coal-fired and combined-cycle plants, heat pumps, and direct combustion of oil or gas in new residential furnaces. Environmental effects taken into account include leaks of methane from natural gas production and coal mining, production of carbon dioxide and methane from decomposition of organic material flooded in a hydroelectric development, and combustion of fuels. It is seen that fuel switching from thermal generation sources to direct combustion of natural gas in space and water heating significantly reduces both total energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Additional gains can be achieved through use of high-efficiency technology. Substitution of direct combustion of oil where gas is unavailable for incremental oil- or coal-fired electricity will also reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Since direct combustion of natural gas is usually less costly than construction of new electric generating facilities, it may also prove to be a more successful strategy for encouraging energy exports by hydro-based systems to displace thermal electricity. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Greenhouse effect: doubts and unknowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few doubts today in the scientific world that atmospheric carbon dioxide traps in heat and therefore contributes to global warming; however, it is yet uncertain as to whether the presence of this gas in the upper atmosphere is the only cause of the greenhouse effect, and the scientific theories defining the effect and its causes present a few obvious and significant gaps. This paper cites the fact that most greenhouse effect models only marginally, if at all, consider the mechanisms governing the formation and absorption of carbon dioxide by the earth's oceans; yet oceanic CO2 concentration levels are about 60 times greater than those found in the atmosphere, and they depend on complex interactions, in seawater, among such factors as currents, carbon oxygenation, and vegetative activity. Another area of weakness in greenhouse effect modelling stems from the complexity and uncertainty introduced by the fact that, in addition to trapping heat, clouds reflect it, thus giving rise to an opposite cooling effect. In addition, it is pointed out that the current models are limited to predicting global and not regional or local effects

  20. Parasite Removal, but Not Herbivory, Deters Future Parasite Attachment on Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjiurutue, Muvari Connie; Palmer-Young, Evan C; Adler, Lynn S

    2016-01-01

    Plants face many antagonistic interactions that occur sequentially. Often, plants employ defense strategies in response to the initial damage that are highly specific and can affect interactions with subsequent antagonists. In addition to herbivores and pathogens, plants face attacks by parasitic plants, but we know little about how prior herbivory compared to prior parasite attachment affects subsequent host interactions. If host plants can respond adaptively to these different damage types, we predict that prior parasitism would have a greater deterrent effect on subsequent parasites than would prior herbivory. To test the effects of prior parasitism and prior herbivory on subsequent parasitic dodder (Cuscuta spp.) preference, we conducted two separate greenhouse studies with tomato hosts (Solanum lycopersicum). In the first experiment, we tested the effects of previous dodder attachment on subsequent dodder preference on tomato hosts using three treatments: control plants that had no previous dodder attachment; dodder-removed plants that had an initial dodder seedling attached, removed and left in the same pot to simulate parasite death; and dodder-continuous plants with an initial dodder seedling that remained attached. In the second experiment, we tested the effects of previous caterpillar damage (Spodoptera exigua) and mechanical damage on future dodder attachment on tomato hosts. Dodder attached most slowly to tomato hosts that had dodder plants previously attached and then removed, compared to control plants or plants with continuous dodder attachment. In contrast, herbivory did not affect subsequent dodder attachment rate. These results indicate that dodder preference depended on the identity and the outcome of the initial attack, suggesting that early-season interactions have the potential for profound impacts on subsequent community dynamics. PMID:27529694

  1. Greenhouse effect: there are solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of solutions that may be undertaken in order to reduce the greenhouse effect gas emissions is presented: clean energy generation through municipal, agricultural and industrial waste processing, reducing energy consumption through public transportation promotion, clean fuel buses and vehicles, or using energy efficient boilers, reduction of carbon dioxide emission from industry through process optimization, waste recycling, energy substitution and conservation, diminution of CO2 emissions in commercial and residential sectors through space heating and air conditioning retrofitting, lighting substitution. Pollution abatement potentials are evaluated in each case, notably in France

  2. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  3. A Note on Fourier and the Greenhouse Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Postma, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Joseph Fourier's discovery of the greenhouse effect is discussed and is compared to the modern conception of the greenhouse effect. It is confirmed that what Fourier discovered is analogous to the modern concept of the greenhouse effect. However, the modern concept of the greenhouse effect is found to be based on a paradoxical analogy to Fourier's greenhouse work and so either Fourier's greenhouse work, the modern conception of the greenhouse effect, or the modern definition of heat is incorr...

  4. Soil degradation and prevention in greenhouse production

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Y; Lin, X; Yamada, S; M. Inoue; Inosako, K

    2013-01-01

    Soil degradation has been a very serious problem for sustainable production, especially by a re-cropping of greenhouse-cultivated cucumber (Cucumis statirus L.). The aim of this research was to expound the actuality for soil degradation, at the same time, put forward some suggestion for preventing from soil degradation and maintain sustainable production in greenhouse basic on the two experiments conducted in a solar greenhouse during 2001-2008 suburb area of Yan'an, Shaanxi province in North...

  5. Greenhouse engineering: New technologies and approaches

    OpenAIRE

    J. I. Montero; Henten, van, J.W.; Son, J.E.; Castilla, N.

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, this article discusses the greenhouse engineering situation in three geographic areas which are relevant in the field of protected cultivation: Northern Asia, The Netherlands and the Mediterranean. For each area, the prevailing greenhouse type and equipment is briefly described. Secondly, the main technological constraints are pointed out and finally the research directions are discussed. For all areas under consideration, attempts to design more efficient greenhouse systems are unde...

  6. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Testa; Anna Maria di Trapani; Filippo Sgroi; Salvatore Tudisca

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harves...

  7. Attaching Chuck Keys to Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V.

    1984-01-01

    Chuck keys attached to portable machine tools by retracting lanyards. Lanyard held taut by recoil caddy attached to tool base. Chuck key available for use when needed and safely secured during operation of tool.

  8. Economic approaches to greenhouse warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global environmental problems raise a host of major policy questions. They are all scientifically complex and controversial, and no scientific consensus is likely to emerge until irreversible decisions have been made. The costs and benefits of these changes transcend national boundaries, and nations, which cannot appropriate the global costs and benefits of such changes, are unlikely to be able or willing to make efficient decisions on how to combat these global externalities. In addition, these concerns sometimes have impacts over hundreds of years and thereby strain political decision making, which often functions effectively only when the crisis is at hand. This chapter considers some of the economic issues involved in deciding how to react to the threat of global warming. The author first reviews the theory and evidence on the greenhouse effect. He then presents evidence on the impacts of greenhouse warming, the costs of stabilizing climate, and the kinds of adaptations that might be available. In the final section, he reviews the policy initiatives that nations might follow in the near term

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podkówka Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.

  10. The coal industry and its greenhouse challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian coal industry is actively involved in greenhouse gas emission management and abatement issues. An Australian Coal Association (ACA) position paper on greenhouse in November 1989, recommended a number of strategies to minimise the greenhouse effect, including the enhancement of energy utilisation efficiency, improved energy conversion efficiency at coal-fired power stations, expanded use of solar heating, and improved recycling. All of the strategies have been implemented to various degrees. The management and abatement of greenhouse gas emissions within the coal industry has been approached from an individual operational level, and a 'higher' industry level

  11. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Summary project inventory with independent analysis to quantify the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private...

  12. Attachment Theory, Foster Parents and Diversity Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...

  13. Development of foster mother-child attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, J

    2014-01-01

    The impact of early attachment relationships and child-adult attachment relationships to children’s social and emotional development has been recognised for a long time. Since the pioneering attachment theories of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth highlighting the importance of secure child-adult attachments, many other theories from various perspectives have risen to fill in the gaps. These theories are examined with the framework of foster care in mind. In Finland, the primary solution fo...

  14. Oxytocin enhances the experience of attachment security

    OpenAIRE

    Buchheim, Anna; Heinrichs, Markus; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Koops, Eva; Henningsen, Peter; O’Connor, Mary-Frances; Gundel, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Repeated interactions between infant and caregiver result in either secure or insecure relationship attachment patterns, and insecure attachment may affect individual emotion-regulation and health. Given that oxytocin enhances social approach behavior in animals and humans, we hypothesized that oxytocin might also promote the experience of attachment security in humans. Within a 3-week interval 26 healthy male students classified with an insecure attachment pattern were invited twice to an ex...

  15. After Love: Attachment Styles and Grief Themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole

    1996-01-01

    Examines the association of attachment organization and recalled grief responses following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. Data based on college students' (N=118) responses resulted in four interpretable grief themes. Preoccupied attachment predicted self-reproach, fearful attachment predicted partner blame, whereas both fearful and…

  16. Adolescents' Attachment and Coping with Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Michelle S.; Medway, Frederic J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how high school students cope with stress as a function of their attachment style. Data were gathered from 75 adolescent-parent pairs in Texas and included measures of attachment, coping style, life stress, and whom the respondent would turn to in times of stress. Adolescents' attachment security was positively related to…

  17. Synthetic greenhouse gases under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses new Swiss regulations on the use of synthetic materials that posses a considerable greenhouse-warming potential. Synthetic materials such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons HCFCs, perfluoride-hydrocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride have, in recent years, replaced chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, which were banned on account of their ozone depletion characteristics. The use of these persistent substances is now being limited to applications where more environment-friendly alternatives are not available. The measures decreed in the legislation, which include a general ban on HCFCs as of 2004 and a ban on the export of installations and equipment that use ozone-depleting refrigerants are described. Details on the legislation's effects on the Swiss refrigeration industry are listed and discussed

  18. Energy efficiency and greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estonia's energy balance for 1990 - 1994 is characterized by the dramatic changes in the economy after regaining independence in 1991. In 1990 - 1993, primary energy supply decreased about 1.9 times. The reasons were a sharp decrease in exports of electric energy and industrial products, a steep increase in fuel prices and the transition from the planned to a market-oriented economy. Over the same period, the total amount of emitted greenhouse gases decreased about 45%. In 1993, the decrease in energy production and consumption stopped, and in 1994, a moderate increase occurred (about 6%), which is a proof stabilizing economy. Oil shale power engineering will remain the prevailing energy resource for the next 20 - 25 years. After stabilization, the use of oil shale will rise in Estonia's economy. Oil shale combustion in power plants will be the greatest source of greenhouse gases emissions in near future. The main problem is to decrease the share of CO2 emissions from the decomposition of carbonate part of oil shale. This can be done by separating limestone particles from oil shale before its burning by use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Higher efficiency of oil shale power plants facilitates the reduction of CO2 emissions per generated MWh electricity considerably. The prognoses for the future development of power engineering depend essentially on the environmental requirements. Under the highly restricted development scenario, which includes strict limitations to emissions (CO2 , SO2 , thermal waste) and a severe penalty system, the competitiveness of nuclear power will increase. The conceptual steps taken by the Estonian energy management should be in compliance with those of neighboring countries, including the development programs of the other Baltic states

  19. Seasonal variation of heat consumption in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.F.; Amsen, M.G.; Strøm, J.S.

    The concept of dynamic variation is introduced as a method to visualize the dynamic fluctuations of heat consumption and thermal climate in greenhouses. The feasibility of the concept is illustrated by describing effects of different greenhouse designs. Engineering data on design heat consumption...

  20. Analysis of politics about greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the greenhouse effect which brings about increasing temperatures. It is based upon documents such as interviews, conferences, political speeches, newspaper articles and so on. After the problem of the greenhouse effect has been exposed, a lexicometric study is carried out. The analysis of all the texts that have been studied finally leads to semiologic interpretations. (TEC). 2 tabs

  1. Regulation perspectives for Danish greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark is close to complying with the emission targets in international agreements and national sector plans, when the emissions are corrected downwards for the electricity export. The emissions of CO2 are only 1.5 Mt CO2 eq. above the Kyoto target in 2010 and 1.5 Mt CO2 above the 2005 target in the Danish Energy Plan. The main reason is that the emissions from the transport sector already in 2005 are 2.4 Mt CO2 above the target in the National transport sector plan. If only uncorrected emissions are accepted in the international agreements, the emissions in Denmark originating from fossil fuel used for electricity export might give rise to a problem. The projected 17 TWh electricity exported in 2010 imply 12.8 Mt CO2 eq. emission excess. The successful measures implemented to reduce SO2 emissions was shown to bring the Danish emissions below the ECE-2010 target without correction for electricity export. However, the expected electricity export in 2010 will imply than the uncorrected NOx emissions are about 20 kt over ECE-2010 target. This problem could be solved by increasing the penalty for CO2 export above the quota to a level that would make the export uneconomical. To a certain extent both tradable emission permits and tradable green certificates are related to the need for implementing greenhouse gas-reduction options and both are intended to be traded internationally. But with regard to the tradable emission scheme, credits are attached directly to the emission permits, whilst this is not the case for green certificates; the certificate market will influence greenhouse gas emissions only through the development of renewable energy technologies that substitute an national energy supply produced by fossil fuel-fired plants. With regard to national GHG-reduction a main conclusion is that an optimal utilisation of the TGC (Tradable Green Certificate) regulated renewable production will only take place if a co-ordinated adjustment of the TEP (Tradable Emission

  2. Conducting a greenhouse gas emission inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, J. [Burns and McDonnell Engineering (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Although not yet mandatory, the author recommends that US electric utilities that have not already done so should conduct an inventory of greenhouse gases, in accordance with ANSI/ISO/NSF E 14064-1-2006. The World Resources Institute 'Greenhouse gas protocol - a corporate accounting and reporting standard' provides more detailed explanation and examples of ISO 14064 but does not provide much detail on making calculations. The inventory should address all six greenhouse gases. The article gives an example of how emissions are converted to CO{sub 2} equivalents and tabulates helpful CO{sub 2} combustion emissions factors. Advice is offered on establishing 'organisational boundaries', tracking emissions over time, identifying and calculating greenhouse has emissions, accounting for greenhouse gas removals and reporting on carbon intensity ratios. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. GREENHOUSE GASES AND MEANS OF PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Stojanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse effect can be defined as the consequence of increased heating of the Earth's surface, as well as the lower atmosphere by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other trace amounts gases. It is well-known that human industrial activities have released large amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, about 900 billion tons of carbon dioxide, and it is estimated that up to 450 billion are still in the atmosphere. In comparison to greenhouse gases water vapor is one of the greatest contributors to the greenhouse effect on Earth. Many projects, as does the PURGE project, have tendences to build on the already conducted research and to quantify the positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing of the population with greenhouse gas reduction strategies that are curently being implemented and should be increasingly applied in various sectors and urban areas, having offices in Europe, China and India.

  4. Nuclear energy and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent and nature of the greenhouse effect are examined and placed in an environmental and historical context. The effect of energy policies on the greenhouse effect are discussed and the offending countries are identified. What energy policies would mitigate the greenhouse effect, and yet make good sense whether or not the effect proves to be real? Conservation is a desirable though not completely understood strategy. Conservation may not be a better bet in every instance than is increase in supply. If the greenhouse effect turns out to be real, nuclear energy can be one of the supply options that we turn to. If the greenhouse effect turns out to be false, and acceptable, economic nuclear option is surely better than one that does nothing but create strife and dissension. Let us remember that nuclear energy is the only large-scale non-fossil source other than hydropower that has been demonstrated to be practical. (author)

  5. A greenhouse crop production system for tropical lowland conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impron, S.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: tropical lowland climate, tropical lowland greenhouse, plastic greenhouse, near infrared radiation (NIR) reflecting plastic, greenhouse climate model, determinate tomato, crop growth, development, truss appearance rate, crop simulation model, INTKAM.   The goal of this research w

  6. Multipurpose hooks for elastic attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As certain bracket systems do not include hooks on premolar brackets for elastic attachment, Kobayashi or custom made ligature hooks have proven as an alternative. However, these hooks tend to bend labially when used with heavy elastics and these elastics can even pop loose from the hooks on mouth opening. The following article describes an innovative multipurpose hook which is simple, stiff and inexpensive and can be used for engagement of class II elastics on premolars in case of missing molars as well as engagement of intermaxillary elastics for settling of occlusion in finishing stages. As the hooks can be prefabricated, this saves a lot of chair side time and is more practical for use in day-to-day orthodontic practice.

  7. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  8. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  9. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  10. Agricultural sources of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author described different sources of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from agricultural activities and the process by which carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are generated on Canadian farms. The author also proposed some practices that would contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A brief description of the greenhouse effect was also provided with special emphasis on the agricultural sector. In 1996, the Canadian agricultural sector was responsible for approximately 10 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions in the country. Given the increase in farm animals and more intensive agricultural activities, it is estimated that greenhouse gas emissions generated by the agricultural sector will increase by 20 per cent by 2010 if current practices remain in effect. The most optimistic scenarios indicate that the agricultural sector could achieve or even exceed Canada's Kyoto Protocol commitments mainly through organic material sequestration in soils. The possibility for farmers to sell greenhouse gas credits could motivate farmers into adopting various practices that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the author indicated that the best motivation for farmers is the fact that adopting such practices would also lead to more efficient agricultural production. 5 refs., 4 figs

  11. Attachment theory: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.

  12. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  13. Bad blood revisited: Attachment and psychoanalysis, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Fonagy, P; Campbell, C

    2015-01-01

    "There is bad blood between psychoanalysis and attachment theory. As with many family feuds, it is hard to identify where the problem began. (Fonagy, 2001, p.1)" Thus began an attempt, Attachment Theory and Psychoanalysis, written 15 years ago, to trace the relationship between attachment and psychoanalysis, disentangle conceptual similarities and differences, and point to areas of convergence that were then emerging in the field. Here, we will attempt a conceptual progress report on how thin...

  14. Emergence of tempered preferential attachment from optimization

    OpenAIRE

    D'Souza, Raissa M.; Borgs, Christian; Chayes, Jennifer T.; Berger, Noam; Kleinberg, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    We show how preferential attachment can emerge in an optimization framework, resolving a long-standing theoretical controversy. We also show that the preferential attachment model so obtained has two novel features, saturation and viability, which have natural interpretations in the underlying network and lead to a power-law degree distribution with exponential cutoff. Moreover, we consider a generalized version of this preferential attachment model with independent saturation and viability, ...

  15. Explaining gender differences in preschoolers’ attachment style

    OpenAIRE

    Tønnessen, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Gender has throughout most attachment literature not been considered an important factor in the development of individual differences in attachment. However, some studies on preschoolers, especially using story completion/narrative measures of attachment representations, have found prominent gender differences. The present study aims to replicate such gender differences, and to examine possible explanatory variables. This will be done by using a large community sample of preschoolers from Nor...

  16. Greenhouse effect. Energy priorities today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burberry, P.

    1989-03-01

    Reviews developments in energy conservation in buildings. In general, systems for using alternative energy have not proved cost-effective. The major developments have been in better insulated building fabrics and in more efficient and better controlled thermal installations. Since then, lighting has also come to the fore. However, little has been done to identify the forms which the built environment might need to take when environmental resources are reaching exhaustion. New buildings now have a much higher thermal performance than was the case 10 years ago. The concept of quality assurance is developing rapidly although quality assurance in the energy field presents special problems. Although the EEC has had little influence so far, the adoption of common standards will inevitably have major effects in the energy field. The article concludes by describing the greenhouse effect and the implications this has for energy conservation in buildings - buildings are inevitably a dominant element in carbon dioxide production as they are dominant in fossil fuel consumption. Also, major climatic changes seem inevitable which will require major changes in building design and substantial reductions in energy consumption.

  17. Cost functions of greenhouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benchmark is equal to the cost (D) caused by an increase in temperature since the middle of the nineteenth century (T) of nearly 2.5 deg. C. According to mainstream economists, the benchmark is 1-2% of GDP, but very different estimates can also be found. Even though there appears to be agreement among a number of economists that the benchmark is 1-2% of GDP, major differences exist when it comes to estimating D for different sectors. One of the main problems is how to estimate non-market activities. Normally, the benchmark is the best guess, but due to the possibility of catastrophic events this can be considerable smaller than the mean. Certainly, the cost function is skewed to the right. The benchmark is just one point on the cost curve. To a great extent, cost functions are alike in greenhouse models (D = α''.T''λ). Cost functions are region and sector dependent in several models. In any case, both α (benchmark) and λ are rough estimates. Besides being dependent on α and λ, the marginal emission cost depends on the discount rate. In fact, because emissions have effects continuing for many years, the discount rate is clearly the most important parameter. (au) (au)

  18. The earth in a greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive article discusses climate change as a challenge for the 21st century. The effects of the burning of fossil fuels and the resulting emissions of greenhouse gases are reviewed and the increase in average temperatures resulting from these emissions is commented on. The mechanisms involved are briefly described. The gulf stream's function as a 'heat-pump' in the transport of heat and the bipolar swing noted in the statistics for atmospheric temperature given by the analysis of air trapped in ice in the Arctic and Antarctic are commented on. When the 'heat-pump' stutters, abrupt changes in climatic conditions can occur. Details are shown in graphics and curves. The author also introduces a mathematical model for these temperature variations. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is looked at and its influence on the 'heat-pump' is discussed. Probable frequency distribution for summer temperatures in Europe are looked at. Popular short-term recipes for tackling the problem such as ocean-dumping of exhaust gases or reforestation are considered by the author as being practically useless. Only long-term measures such as increasing resource efficiencies and gradual reduction of emissions are considered to be effective

  19. Cosmopolitan egalitarianism and greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, I look at the way in which a maximin egalitarian theory of justice should deal with the greenhouse effect and its consequences. I adopt both a cosmopolitan and a 'local' approach (in Elster's sense). The paper concentrates on three dimensions of a Kyoto-type international regime raising issues of justice: the determination of a global cap on emissions for a given period, the way in which emission quotas should be distributed among countries for each period, and the questions arising from the tradability of such quotas. Regarding the cap issue, it is subject to both inter-generational and intra-generational constraints of justice. I show that a weak intra-generational principle of compensation is likely to lead to radically demanding implications. As to the initial allocation issue, I look at five possible reasons why egalitarians may want to depart from a population-based allocation among countries. Special attention is devoted to three of them: grand-fathering, the disadvantageous geographical specificities of some countries and historical emissions. I specify the extent to which such a departure from a population-based mode of allocation can be justified on egalitarian grounds. Finally, I look at possible objections to the tradability of such quotas, concluding that they are not sufficient to shift toward non-tradable quotas. (author)

  20. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  1. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented from the stand point of pioneers in this field (John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from the standpoint of their successors (Everett Waters and Malcolm West. Compacted ness of the theory, possibilities for operationalization of its key concepts and its application to empirical studies of complex psychological issues that have never been scientifically explored, makes it a very prospective theory in view of possible integration of existing research findings and initiating new research and new practices in psychotherapy, social work and work in schools. The goal of this integral presentation of attachment theory is to highlight its benefits and possibilities for understanding and research complex field of human's psychosocial functioning.

  2. Attachment fixation of the overdenture: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensor, M C

    1978-01-01

    Many attachment systems of the bar or stud type increase the stability of an overdenture. When selecting an attachment it is essential to consider the skill of the dentist-laboratory team as well as the dexterity of the patient and to use the easiest system that will still improve stabilization. Generally simplicity in design, ease of maintenance, and minimum leverage should be paramount considerations in selection. Use of a guide such as the EM Gauge and of the EM Attachment Selector significantly reduces the confusion in selecting attachments and increases the working armamentarium for stabilizing an overdenture. PMID:340660

  3. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  4. Oxytocin enhances the experience of attachment security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Anna; Heinrichs, Markus; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Koops, Eva; Henningsen, Peter; O’Connor, Mary-Frances; Gundel, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Summary Repeated interactions between infant and caregiver result in either secure or insecure relationship attachment patterns, and insecure attachment may affect individual emotion-regulation and health. Given that oxytocin enhances social approach behavior in animals and humans, we hypothesized that oxytocin might also promote the experience of attachment security in humans. Within a 3-week interval 26 healthy male students classified with an insecure attachment pattern were invited twice to an experimental session. Within each session, a single dose of oxytocin or placebo was administered, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design. In both conditions, subjects completed an attachment task based on the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Thirty-two AAP picture system presentations depicted attachment-related events (e.g. illness, solitude, separation, loss), and were each accompanied by four prototypical phrases representing one secure and three insecure attachment categories. In the oxytocin condition, a significant proportion of these insecure subjects (N = 18; 69%) changed their rankings of “secure attachment” phrases towards the more appropriate for the AAP picture presentation, and the same subjects decreased in overall rating of the “insecure attachment” phrases. In particular, there was a significant decrease in the number of subjects ranking the pictures with “insecure-preoccupied” phrases from the placebo to the oxytocin condition. We find that a single dose of intranasally administered oxytocin is sufficient to induce a significant increase in the experience of attachment security in adults classified previously as insecure. PMID:19457618

  5. Hamiltonian dynamics of preferential attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, Konstantin; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2016-03-01

    Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment (PA), known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton’s equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in PA. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by PA is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree distributions. In other words, PA generates nothing but random graphs with power-law degree distribution. The extension of the developed canonical formalism for network analysis to richer geometric network models with non-degenerate groups of symmetries may eventually lead to a system of equations describing network dynamics at small scales.

  6. Hamiltonian dynamics of preferential attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment (PA), known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton’s equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in PA. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by PA is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree distributions. In other words, PA generates nothing but random graphs with power-law degree distribution. The extension of the developed canonical formalism for network analysis to richer geometric network models with non-degenerate groups of symmetries may eventually lead to a system of equations describing network dynamics at small scales. (paper)

  7. Coexistence in preferential attachment networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antunović, Tonći; Racz, Miklos Z

    2013-01-01

    Competition in markets is ubiquitous: cell-phone providers, computer manufacturers, and sport gear brands all vie for customers. Though several coexisting competitors are often observed in empirical data, many current theoretical models of competition on small-world networks predict a single winner taking over the majority of the network. We introduce a new model of product adoption that focuses on word-of-mouth recommendations to provide an explanation for this coexistence of competitors. The key property of our model is that customer choices evolve simultaneously with the network of customers. When a new node joins the network, it chooses neighbors according to preferential attachment, and then chooses its type based on the number of initial neighbors of each type. This can model a new cell-phone user choosing a cell-phone provider, a new student choosing a laptop, or a new athletic team member choosing a gear provider. We provide a detailed analysis of the new model; in particular, we determine the possibl...

  8. The Greenhouse Effect in a Vial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Richard; Sneider, Cary

    1989-01-01

    Presents an example of a greenhouse-effect experiment from the Climate Protection Institute. Analyzes the amount of carbon dioxide in ambient air, human exhalation, automobile exhaust, and nearly pure carbon dioxide by titrating with ammonia and bromthymol blue. (MVL)

  9. Nuclear power and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greenhouse effect is first explained. The evidence is shown in global warming and changing weather patterns which are generally believed to be due to the emission of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide. Serious consequences are predicted if emission of the greenhouse gases is not reduced. Sources of these gases are identified - agriculture, carbon fluorocarbons, coal-fired power stations, vehicle exhausts. The need is to use energy more efficiently but such measures as combined heat and power stations, more fuel efficient cars and better thermal insulation in homes is advocated. The expansion of renewable energy sources such as wind and water power is also suggested. Nuclear power is promoted as it reduces the carbon dioxide emissions and in both the short and long-term will reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. (author)

  10. Multiagency Initiative to Provide Greenhouse Gas Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.

    2009-11-01

    Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.

  11. Arctic climate change: Greenhouse warming unleashed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Human activity alters the atmospheric composition, which leads to global warming. Model simulations suggest that reductions in emission of sulfur dioxide from Europe since the 1970s could have unveiled rapid Arctic greenhouse gas warming.

  12. Solar greenhouse training project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.; Kensil, D.; Lazar, B.; Yanda, B.; Yanda, S.

    1979-04-01

    The goals of this project were: (1) To train twenty teams, each from a different region, to organize and run workshops to build inexpensive, practical solar greenhouses. (2) To help create working solar greenhouse experts in the field available to respond to their community's needs. (3) To establish a national model program for solar greenhouse construction workshops. (4) To determine whether the barn-raising style used in the greenhouse construction workshops could be taught in the format of a 3 1/2 day seminar with a follow-up workshop. (5) To determine whether the audio-visual exhibit and printed materials used in the seminar were effective. (MOW)

  13. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  14. Greenhouses for food production and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse is essentially an enclosed structure, which traps the short wavelength solar radiation and stores the long wavelength thermal radiation to create a favourable microclimate for higher productivity. The sun’s radiation incident on the greenhouse has two parts: direct radiation and an associated diffuse sky radiation. The diffuse part is not focused by the lenses and goes right through Frensel lenses onto the surface of the absorbers. This energy is absorbed and transformed into heat, which is then transported via the liquid medium in copper pipes to the water (heat storage tanks or, if used, open fish tanks. In this way, an optimal temperature for both plant cultivation and fish production can be maintained. Stable plant growth conditions are light, temperature and air humidity. Light for the photosynthesis of plants comes from the diffuse radiation, which is without substantial fluctuations and variation throughout most of the day. The air temperature inside the greenhouse is one of the factors that have an influence on the precocity of production. The selective collector acts in a more perceptible way on extreme air temperatures inside the greenhouse. Hence, the system makes it possible to avoid the excessive deviation of the temperature inside the greenhouse and provides a favourable microclimate for the precocity of the culture. Sediment and some associated water from the sediment traps are used as organic fertiliser for the plant cultivation. The present trend in greenhouse cultivation is to extend the crop production season in order to maximise use of the equipment and increase annual productivity and profitability. However, in many Mediterranean greenhouses, such practices are limited because the improper cooling methods (mainly natural or forced ventilation used do not provide the desired micro-climatic condition during the summer of a composite climate. Also, some of these greenhouses have been built where the

  15. Greenhouse climate model : an aid to estimate the influence of supplemental lighting on greenhouse climate

    OpenAIRE

    Binotto, Marco 1987

    2012-01-01

    GeoGreenhouse project involves the construction of a greenhouse for growing tomatoes in Iceland. The first stage consists of a gross area of five hectares. Due to the peculiarities of such project and because of the unique weather, a greenhouse climate model is advisable to analyze various design solutions. Iceland's weather has a seasonal change in the length of day and night, creating unique weather phenomena. In midwinter, there is a period where darkness prevails. In midsummer, dayligh...

  16. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  17. Automated Greenhouse : Temperature and soil moisture control

    OpenAIRE

    Attalla, Daniela; Tannfelt Wu, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an automated greenhouse was built with the purpose of investigating the watering system’s reliability and if a desired range of temperatures can be maintained. The microcontroller used to create the automated greenhouse was an Arduino UNO. This project utilizes two different sensors, a soil moisture sensor and a temperature sensor. The sensors are controlling the two actuators which are a heating fan and a pump. The heating fan is used to change the temperature and the pump is ...

  18. Greenhouse Modeling Using Continuous Timed Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    Ofelia Begovich; Antonio Ramírez-Treviño; Javier Ruiz-León; José Luis Tovany; Roberto Ross-León

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a continuous timed Petri nets (ContPNs) based greenhouse modeling methodology. The presented methodology is based on the definition of elementary ContPN modules which are designed to capture the components of a general energy and mass balance differential equation, like parts that are reducing or increasing variables, such as heat, CO2 concentration, and humidity. The semantics of ContPN is also extended in order to deal with variables depending on external greenhouse vari...

  19. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  20. Optimizing Greenhouse Corn Production: Materials and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy, Robert; Hahn, Daniel T

    2010-01-01

    This document is one entry in a series of questions and answers originally posted to the Purdue University Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture’s Plant Growth Facility Web site (http://www.hort.purdue.edu/hort/facilities/greenhouse/CornMethod.shtml) regarding best practices for corn plant growth in a greenhouse. Controlled studies were conducted with the goals of optimizing growth and yield; developing standardized methodology using readily available commercial materials; and p...

  1. Greenhouses for food production and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2016-01-01

    A greenhouse is essentially an enclosed structure, which traps the short wavelength solar radiation and stores the long wavelength thermal radiation to create a favourable microclimate for higher productivity. The sun’s radiation incident on the greenhouse has two parts: direct radiation and an associated diffuse sky radiation. The diffuse part is not focused by the lenses and goes right through Frensel lenses onto the surface of the absorbers. This energy is absorbed and transformed into hea...

  2. Modern, sustainable, protected greenhouse cultivation in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Os, van, H.; Speetjens, S.L.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Bruins, M.A.; Sapounas, A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the project was to analyse the structure and technology level of protected cultivation in Algeria, which were followed by recommendations for improvements (technical, cultivation and economic aspects) of existing and newly built greenhouses. Further, in discussion with Dutch and Algerian parties, the goal was to come to a final design which can be built with local partners. The Wageningen UR “adaptive greenhouse approach” was used at which results of the simulation models for the ...

  3. Optimal greenhouse cultivation control: survey and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Straten, van, A.; Henten, van, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: A survey is presented of the literature on greenhouse climate control, positioning the various solutions and paradigms in the framework of optimal control. A separation of timescales allows the separation of the economic optimal control problem of greenhouse cultivation into an off-line problem at the tactical level, and an on-line problem at the operational level. This paradigm is used to classify the literature into three categories: focus on operational control, focus on the tact...

  4. Refutation of the theorie of gases greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Mallet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The explanation of global warming by the IPCC accumulation of gas greenhouse effect in theatmosphere is widely accepted by the analysis scientific community worldwide. However, as weshall prove it, this theory is a mistake because contrary to accepted laws of physical particular asregards the properties of the black body. The effect of Greenhouse invoked is not the right one andradiation that the Earth would send in Space is impossible because much higher than what the blackbody that is the t...

  5. Stabilising the global greenhouse: A simulation model

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelis, Peter

    1993-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic implications of a comprehensive approach to greenhouse policies that strives to stabilise the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases at an ecologicaliy determined threshold level. In a theoretical optimisation model conditions for an efficient allocation of abatement effort among pollutants and over time are derived. The model is empirically speeified and adapted to a dynamic GAMS-algorithm. By various Simulation runs for the period of 1990 to 2110,...

  6. Climate and Yield in a closed greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Heuvelink, E.; Bakker, M.J.; Marcelis, L. F. M.; Raaphorst, M.

    2008-01-01

    The so-called closed greenhouse (closed ventilation windows) is a recent innovation in Dutch greenhouse industry. The technical concept consists of a heat pump, underground (aquifer) seasonal energy storage as well as daytime storage, air treatment units with heat exchangers, and air distribution ducts. Savings of up to 30% in fossil fuel and production increases by up to 20%, mainly because of the continuously high CO2 concentration, have been reported. Economic feasibility of this innovativ...

  7. Lay perceptions of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the data from the French Environment Barometer EDF-RD 2004 (national representative sample of French citizens aged over 15) and surveys by ADEME between 2000 and 2005, the paper investigates lay perceptions of the causes and consequences of the greenhouse effect, which may be considered as archetypical of contemporary environmental risks. Beyond lay lack of knowledge, the greenhouse effect gives rise to coherent and meaningful cognitions, including causal explanations, shaped by the pre-existing cognitive framework. This cognitive work, based on analogic rather than scientific thought, strings together the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, air pollution and even nuclear power. The cognitive process is also fed by the individuals' general conceptions of Nature and of the rights and duties of humankind towards Nature. People are not greatly worried about the unseen and controversial consequences of the greenhouse effect: such worry could be one of those 'elite fears' mentioned by Beck. Finally, while the efficiency of public policies to counter the greenhouse effect requires extensive societal involvement, low confidence towards both political and scientific authorities may prevent the population from becoming aware of the environmental stakes tied to the greenhouse effect. (authors)

  8. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonde Jens

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4 (10–16% among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3, free triiodthyroxine (FT3 and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels.

  9. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta;

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  10. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  11. Attachment Theory Applied to Juvenile Sex Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrow, Kenneth K.; Lim, Mee-Gaik

    1998-01-01

    Attachment theory is applied to identify systemic patterns encouraging juveniles to commit sexual offenses. The role of the helping system in perpetuating offenses is reviewed. The priority of family integrity and the role of professionals in breaking cycles of abuse and repairing earlier destructive emotional attachments are discussed. (EMK)

  12. Attachment patterns and Mentalization in Traumatized Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    nærværende projekt bestod af de patienter i moderforsøget, som var arabisktalende (N=68). Måleredskaber består i The Adult Attachment Interview, The Reflective Functioning Scale, Revised Adult Attachment Scale, Working Alliance Inventory og Feeling Word Checklist-58. PTSD, depressions- og angstsymptomer...

  13. Study on thermocouple attachment in reflood experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of thermocouple attachment to a heater rods has been studied for surface temperature measurement in reflood experiments. The method used as far in JAERI's reflood experiments had some possibilities of not estimating exactly the quench times. Various attachment method have been tested and some proved to be effective in the respect. (auth.)

  14. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  15. Romantic adult attachment and basic personality structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zeleskov Djoric

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was localization of attachment dimensions in the space described by basic personality traits. Study purported to examine relations between attachment and basic personality structure, in a sample of 203 respondents. Romantic adult attachment was measured by the Experience in Close Relationship Scale, basic personality structure was assessed by the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, and Disintegration, which represents operationalization of Schizotypy as a basic personality trait, was estimated by the Delta 10 test. The results of Principal component analysis showed that attachment dimensions are not separate constructs in relation to basic personality traits. Furthermore, results indicate that attachment dimensions represent emotional dysregulation in close interpersonal relationships, because positive correlations are found between dimensions of Attachment and Mania (.35, Anxiety (.51 and Depression (.55. Negative correlations have been obtained between Attachment and Positive emotions (-.34 and Feelings (-.31. These results suggest that Attachment dimensions should be considered as an expression of basic personality traits in romantic adult's relationships.

  16. Attachment and Dependency in Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Distinguishes between attachment (the relationship between infant and caregiver) and dependency (the reliance of the child on adults for nurturance, attention, or assistance). Assesses preschool children with varying attachment histories and suggests that the roots of overdependency lie in the quality of the early infant-caregiver relationship.…

  17. Attachment to spextrophotometers for measuring scattering patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fsel' son, M.P.; Krikum, A.Z.; Sivyakov, Y.A.; Spivak, R.Y.

    1986-02-01

    The authors have developed a simple attachment to the Shimadsu MPS 50L spectrophotometer for measuring scattering patterns. The attachment is mounted directly at the cuvette section of the spectrophotometer. The radiation detector of the attachment is formed by an FR1-4 photoresistor disposed on the vertical section of a gamma-shaped bar adapted to be inclined by plus or minus 90 degrees with respect to the direction of the radiation beam. When the attachment is used, its radiation detector is connected into the measuring circuit of the spectrophotometer in place of the spectrophotometer's detector. When the spectrophotometer alone is used the detector of the attachment is moved out of the beam and the detector of the spectrophotometer proper is inserted into the measuring circuit.

  18. The Antimicrobial Activity of Porphyrin Attached Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lesley

    2008-03-01

    We are interested in testing the antimicrobial activity of a porphyrin that is attached to a polymer. The porphyrin (5-(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-pryridyl)) was synthesized from methyl 4-formyl benzoate, 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, and pyrrole and attached to a copolymer of polystyrene/poly(vinyl benzyl chloride), which was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The antimicrobial activity of the polymer-attached porphyrin was then determined for gram-negative E. Coli grown to 0.80 OD. In this procedure, glass slides were coated with polymer-attached porphyrin via dip-coating, and the E. Coli bacteria were plated in Luria Broth media. The plates were subsequently exposed to light overnight before they were incubated as porphyrins act as photo-sensitizers when irradiated with light. The polymer-attached porphyrin did exhibit antimicrobial activity and parameters that affect its efficiency will be discussed.

  19. Attachment to groups: theory and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E R; Murphy, J; Coats, S

    1999-07-01

    Aspects of people's identification with groups may be understood by borrowing theoretical ideas and measurement strategies from research on attachment in close relationships. People have mental models of the self as a group member and of groups as sources of identity and esteem. These models affect thoughts, emotions, and behaviors related to group membership. Three studies show that two dimensions of attachment to groups, attachment anxiety and avoidance, can be assessed with good reliability, validity, and over-time stability. These factors are distinct from relationship attachment and from other measures of group identification. Group attachment predicts several important outcomes, including emotions concerning the group, time and activities shared with a group, social support, collective self-esteem, and ways of resolving conflict. This conceptualization provides new insights into the nature of people's psychological ties to groups. PMID:10434410

  20. Continuous monitoring of bacterial attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeing, D. W.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    A major concern with the Space Station Freedom (SSF) water supply system is the control of longterm microbial contamination and biofilm development in the water storage and distribution systems. These biofilms have the potential for harboring pathogens as well as microbial strains containing resistance factors that could negatively influence crew health. The proposed means for disinfecting the water system on SSF (iodine) may encourage the selection of resistant strains. In fact, biofilm bacteria were observed in water lines from the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102); therefore, an alternative remediation method is required to disinfect spacecraft water lines. A thorough understanding of colonization events and the physiological parameters that will influence bacteria adhesion is required. The limiting factor for development of this technology is the ability to continuously monitor adhesion events and the effects of biocides on sessile bacteria. Methods were developed to allow bacterial adhesion and subsequent biocidal treatment to be monitored continuously. This technique couples automated image analysis with a continuous flow of a bacterial suspension through an optical flow cell. A strain of Pseudomonas cepacia isolated from the water supply of the Space Shuttle Discovery (OV-103) during STS-39 was grown in a nitrogen-limited continuous culture. This culture was challenged continuously with iodine during growth, and the adhesion characteristics of this strain was measure with regard to flow rate. Various biocides (ozone, hypochlorite, and iodine) were added to the flow stream to evaluate how well each chemical removed the bacteria. After biocide treatment, a fresh bacterial suspension was introduced into the flow cell, and the attachment rate was evaluated on the previously treated surface. This secondary fouling was again treated with biocide to determine the efficacy of multiple batch chemical treatments in removing biofilm.

  1. A Note on Fourier and the Greenhouse Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Postma, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    Joseph Fourier's discovery of the greenhouse effect is discussed and is compared to the modern conception of the greenhouse effect. It is confirmed that what Fourier discovered is analogous to the modern concept of the greenhouse effect. However, the modern concept of the greenhouse effect is found to be based on a paradoxical analogy to Fourier's greenhouse work and so either Fourier's greenhouse work, the modern conception of the greenhouse effect, or the modern definition of heat is incorrect. The solution to this problem is not feigned to be given here.

  2. Slides with no attached paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the different presentations (slides) given at the workshop but with no attached paper. These slides refer to the following presentations: - Presentation of ITN (Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear); - Minor Actinide Partitioning (Dominique Warin); - Transmutation (Janne Wallenius); - Radioactive Waste Management, IGD-TP (Gerald Ouzounian); - Present status of the Swedish nuclear waste management programme (Peter Wikberg); - The U.S. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program - Separations Research and Development (Terry Todd); - Strategies and national programs of closed fuel cycles - Russian Expert Vision (Mikhael Kormilitsyn) - Extraction Studies Of Potential Solvent Formulations For The GANEX Process (Fiona MacLachlan); - Investigations of The Fundamental Chemistry of the TALSPEAK Process (Ken Nash); - Extraction Separation of Trivalent Minor Actinides and Lanthanides by Hexa-dentate Nitrogen-donor Extractant, TPEN, and its Analogs (Kenji Takeshita); - Fluorinated Diluents for HLW Processing - technological point of view (Vasiliy Babain); - Extraction properties of some new pyridine molecules and search for better diluents (Irena Spendlikova); - Kinetics of extraction of Eu3+ ion by TODGA and CyMe4-BTBP studied using the RMC technique (Trong Hung Vu); - Redox Chemistry of Neptunium in Solutions of Nitric Acid (Alena Paulenova); - NMR applied to actinide ions and their complexes. In search of covalency effects (Geoffrey Vidick); - Towards 'Stability Rules' for Radiolysis of bis-DGA compounds (Ana Nunez); - Pyroprocess Research Activities at IGCAR, Kalpakkam, India (K. Nagarajan); - Critical issues of nuclear energy systems employing molten salt fluorides: from ISTC No. 1606 to No. 3749 (1. year of project activity) and MARS/EVOL cooperation (Victor Ignatiev); - Conversion processes: Internal Gelation and the Sphere-pac concept (Manuel Pouchon); - A Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry Master. A Unique Initiative

  3. A concept for reduced energy demand of greenhouses: the next generation greenhouse cultivation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, de A.; Poot, E.H.; Dieleman, J.A.; Zwart, de H.F.

    2012-01-01

    In high tech greenhouse cultivation like in The Netherlands, large amounts of fossil energy are used to optimize climate conditions like temperature and humidity. To achieve a more sustainable greenhouse horticulture, a considerable reduction in energy use is needed, but tradeoffs with production an

  4. Nuclear reactor fuel rod attachment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention involves a technique to quickly, inexpensively and rigidly attach a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. The invention also allows for the repeated non-destructive removal and replacement of the fuel rod. The proposed fuel rod and support member attachment and removal system consists of a locking cap fastened to the fuel rod and a locking strip fastened to the support member or vice versa. The locking cap has two or more opposing fingers shaped to form a socket. The fingers spring back when moved apart and released. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion

  5. The fourth pattern of attachment: Disorganized / disoriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment behavior, the author answers the following questions about: the behavior children categorized as Disorganized/disorientated or Controlling in the procedure of the Strange situation; the life circumstances, in which these children live; the reasons for lack of balanced strategies of attachment and characteristics of their general manner of adaptation. The author finds the characteristics of the mothers' (insensitivity to be significantly influential for the emergence of the fourth pattern of attachment. These children are heterogeneous regarding adaptation in general. Professional help preceding negative consequences for their socioemotional development is neccesary.

  6. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Testa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harvested production due to several structural problems that would require restructuring of the tomato supply chain. Thus, since recognition of real costs and profitability of tomato growing is a vital issue, both from the perspective of the farm, as well as from that of the entrepreneur, the aim of this paper was to analyze the economic sustainability of Sicilian greenhouse cherry tomato cultivated in the Ragusa Province. In particular, an economic analysis on 30 representative farms was conducted in order to estimate production costs and profits of greenhouse cherry tomato. According to our results, the lack of commercial organization, which characterizes the small farms we surveyed, determines low contractual power for farmers and, consequently, low profitability.

  7. Comparing greenhouse gases for policy purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to derive optimal policies for greenhouse gas emissions control, the discounted marginal damages of emissions from different gases must be compared. The greenhouse warming potential (GWP) index, which is most often used to compare greenhouse gases, is not based on such a damage comparison. This essay presents assumptions under which ratios of gas-specific discounted marginal damages reduce to ratios of discounted marginal contributions to radiative forcing, where the discount rate is the difference between the discount rate relevant to climate-related damages and the rate of growth of marginal climate-related damages over time. If there are important gas-specific costs or benefits not tied to radiative forcing, however, such as direct effects of carbon dioxide on plant growth, there is in general no shortcut around explicit comparison of discounted net marginal damages. 16 refs

  8. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called 'greenhouse gases.' Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth's atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide

  9. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  10. Nuclear power and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion accounts for about 40% of the global warming due to the 'greenhouse effect'. Thus national energy policies of the fuels used to generate electricity can have a significant effect on the levels of gas emissions which contribute to the 'greenhouse effect'. The more efficient use of energy is the first way of controlling the increase in gas emissions. The use of natural gas instead of coal or oil would also be beneficial but the reserves of natural gas are limited. The use of nuclear-generated electricity has already reduced the level of global warming by 3% but could have a greater effect in the future. Ways in which the government could reduce 'greenhouse' gas emissions are listed. These include the more extensive use of nuclear power for generating electricity not only for domestic but industrial uses. (U.K.)

  11. Cryogenic devices attached to electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cryoeenic equipement attached to electron accelerators used at the CEN.G for fundamental research on point defects in solids is presented and some of their essential technical characteristics are briefly described

  12. Attachment and the Roots of Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan

    1981-01-01

    Describes research with 12- to 18-month-old infants (N=108) determining whether the quality of an infant's attachment to his/her primary caregiver could predict the nature of his/her emerging personality. (CS)

  13. Attachment of Gold Nanoparticles to Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Cheng MA; Ning LUN; Shu Lin WEN

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes were initially chemically modified with an H2SO4-HNO3 treatment,and subsequently activated with Pd-Sn catalytic nuclei via a one-step activation approach. These activated nanotubes were used as precursors for obtaining gold nanoparticles-attached nanotubes via simple electroless plating. This approach provides an efficient method for attachment of metal nanostructures to carbon nanotubes. Such novel hybrid nanostructures are attractive for many applications.

  14. Attachment and Personality Disorders: A Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzini, N.; Fonagy, P

    2013-01-01

    Attachment theory is a biopsychosocial model referring to a person’s characteristic ways of relating in close relationships, such as with parents, children, and romantic partners. These ways of relating are learned during early infancy and mold subsequent intimate relationships. An adult who is securely attached has internalized a reliable relationship to his/her caregivers in infancy, and thus is capable of adapting to different social contexts and, more importantly, of maintaining an adequa...

  15. Attachment an interpersonal processes in hearing voices

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This study investigated the link between attachment anxiety/avoidance, interpersonal aspects of the voice relationship, and distress whilst considering the impact of beliefs about voices and paranoia. Method: A cross sectional correlational method was employed and participants were recruited mainly via online forums for people who hear voices. 44 participants who heard voices completed a number of self-report measures tapping attachment, interpersonal processes in the voice relationship...

  16. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Agina Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment languag

  17. Mating competitiveness of radiation sterilized greenhouse whiteflies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussed in the paper are the results of studies on the competitiveness of radiation sterilized whiteflies, which represent part of a complex research programme on the potential of the sterile insect technique for genetic control of this insect under greenhouse conditions. Data obtained in laboratory experiments are compared with the effects predicted by using a combinatorial statistical model which describes the interactions between sterile and fertile insects, depending on their ratio in the population, their reproduction physiology and the type of induced sterility. Results of small scale greenhouse trials are also presented. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  18. Greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to answer the question how a greenhouse gas neutral Germany would look like an interdisciplinary process was started by the Federal Environmental Agency. It was clear from the beginning of this work that a sustainable regenerative energy supply could not be sufficient. Therefore all relevant emission sources were included into the studies: traffic, industry, waste and waste water, agriculture, land usage, land usage changes and forestry. The necessary transformation paths to reach the aim of a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050, economic considerations and political instruments were not part of this study.

  19. Greenhouse of the future. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavin, B. III

    1998-07-03

    This greenhouse of the future is located at the Center for Regenerative Studies (CRS) at Cal Poly Pomona. The building design was driven by desired environmental conditions. The primary objective was to keep the interior space warm during winter for the breeding of fish and other greenhouse activities, especially in the winter. To do this, a highly insulating envelope was needed. Straw bales provide excellent insulation with an R-value of approximately 50 and also help solve the environmental problems associated with this agricultural waste product. A summary of the construction progress, construction costs and operating costs are included.

  20. Gas leaks and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas is mostly methane, one of the greenhouse gases. Minimizing the amount of gas that leaks from the supply system contributes both to public safety and to reducing the environmental impact of gas supply. Gas use emits lower quantities of carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas, than using other fossil fuels, and the gas industry is a relatively minor source of atmospheric methane. British Gas has a continuing programme of replacing older gas mains and lays new mains and transmission pipelines in materials which are less prone to leakage. British Gas is carrying out innovative research to provide the first reliable data on the actual amount of leakage from gas mains. (author)

  1. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  2. Removable partial overdentures with mechanical (precision) attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensor, M C

    1990-10-01

    Mechanical attachments for overdentures have been available in various forms for over a century. The explosive interest in osseointegration and the effort on the part of the profession to avoid the complete denture as a treatment modality has stirred the interest in positive retentive elements for overdentures represented by the mechanical stud and bar attachments. The cited references provide a resource as a trouble-free guide in the selection and use of the various stud and bar attachment systems. The clinical examples show a pattern of application not generally discussed by the manufacturers, illustrating the simplicity of use with the options for all attachments including magnets. The discussion on magnets comes from 9 years of clinical experience. Rare earth magnets provide excellent adjunct retention, and their assembly follows the same protocol and complexity as stud attachment systems. All magnets, at the present state of the art, have a corrosion potential with the exception of the Laser Sealed Units (Golden Dental, Golden, CO). Finally, the mechanics of the attachment overdenture serves as an excellent training field for the osseointegrated prosthesis, be it the classic Brånemark (Nobelpharma USA, Chicago, IL) restorative or the implant overdenture concept. PMID:2227040

  3. Attachment and cancer: a conceptual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacón, Anna M

    2002-12-01

    Cancer traditionally has been explained by the biomedical model; however, it is limited in comprehensively accounting for all factors in this disease. Recently, it has been suggested that a broader theoretical framework that includes psychosocial components in cancer is needed to complement the traditional approach. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to explore the utility of attachment theory as a biopsychosocial model of both development and health. Attachment, a developmental theory, explains how repeated interactions between caregiver and child in the early years establish lifelong psychosocial, physiological, affective, and cognitive patterns as well as enduring patterns of stress response to threat or illness. Despite attachment theory's biopsychosocial foundation, the application of attachment security as a factor in physical health and psychosomatic medicine is relatively recent. The current work reviews attachment theory and psychosocial literature with regard to cancer and follows with a novel attempt to conceptually integrate both bodies of literature. A concluding integrative model of attachment theory and the type C behavior pattern is provided to illustrate potential links and integrative processes that may lead to disease resilience or vulnerability. PMID:14664730

  4. Attachment styles and violence within couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Sharon B; Bond, Michael

    2004-12-01

    This study examined whether an individual's attachment style and/or a couple's combination of attachment styles predicted violence within the marriage and explored whether other variables moderated the risk of violence. Measures of attachment style were administered to 41 discordant couples who presented to four different clinics. The couples' presenting complaints were not violence, and those who did report violence on questioning did not manifest severe violence, i.e., requiring shelters or legal intervention. Self-report measures of violence and marital satisfaction, including problem-solving communication, were also given. Using analysis of covariance and logistic regression, the relative contributions to strength of predicting being a victim of conjugal violence were calculated. An anxious attachment style was a significant predictor of females being victims of violence and of men not being victims. A dismissive style in men was predictive of men being victims when entered into the model with problem solving communication. The combination of anxiously attached females and dismissive males was a potent predictor of violence, and longer duration of marriage and poor problem-solving communication added power to the prediction. Marital interaction, which is influenced by couples' attachment styles and problem-solving communication, is a significant factor in marital partners experiencing physical violence. For couples with milder levels of violence, a more nuanced approach (compared with the legally based approach used for severe violence) seems indicated. PMID:15583508

  5. Structure, attachment properties, and ecological importance of the attachment system of English ivy (Hedera helix)

    OpenAIRE

    Melzer, Björn; Seidel, Robin; Steinbrecher, Tina; Speck, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Root climbers such as English ivy (Hedera helix) rely on specialized adventitious roots for attachment, enabling the plants to climb on a wide range of natural and artificial substrates. Despite their importance for the climbing habit, the biomechanical properties of these specialized adventitious roots compared with standard roots and their performance in the attachment to different host species or inert substrates have not been studied. Here organs and tissues involved in the attachment are...

  6. Neurobiology of secure infant attachment and attachment despite adversity: a mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, T.L.; Raineki, C.; Salstein, L.; Perry, R; Wilson, T. A. Sullivan; Sloan, A.; Lalji, B.; Hammock, E.; Wilson, D. A.; Levitt, P; Okutani, F.; Kaba, H. (Harry); R.M. Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Attachment to an abusive caregiver has wide phylogenetic representation, suggesting that animal models are useful in understanding the neural basis underlying this phenomenon and subsequent behavioral outcomes. We previously developed a rat model, in which we use classical conditioning to parallel learning processes evoked during secure attachment (odor-stroke, with stroke mimicking tactile stimulation from the caregiver) or attachment despite adversity (odor-shock, with shock mimicking maltr...

  7. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  8. Measuring and managing reservoir greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with a heat trapping capacity 34 times greater than that of carbon dioxide on a 100 year time scale. Known anthropogenic CH4 sources include livestock production, rice agriculture, landfills, and natural gas...

  9. Misperception and mismanagement of the greenhouse effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a stochastic simulation model of the world economy, useful for the analysis of climate policy. The model will also be used in an experiment to investigate the ability of policy makers to tackle the greenhouse problem. Preliminary simulations are conducted to find an optimal stationary tax rate. 30 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol form corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large non-linearities in carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs

  11. A greenhouse without pesticides : fact or fantasy ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Crop protection in European greenhouses became strongly chemically oriented shortly after the Second World War in the 1950s. But an excellent climate for fast reproduction of pests and diseases demanded high spray frequencies and, thus, resulted in quick development of resistance against pesticides.

  12. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  13. Second Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, S. W.; Duren, R. M.; Mitchiner, J.; Rotman, D.; Sheffner, E.; Ebinger, M. H.; Miller, C. E.; Butler, J. H.; Dimotakis, P.; Jonietz, K.

    2009-12-01

    The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop was held May 20-22, 2009 at the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was organized by an interagency collaboration between NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and NOAA. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales in order to significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies. This talk provides an overview of the second Greenhouse Gas Information System workshop, presents its key findings, and discusses current status and next steps in this interagency collaborative effort.

  14. Off-season greenhouse strawberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawberry production in the mid-South is mostly done in the field with harvest from April to June. There is year-round demand for fruit with the highest prices from November through February. Our research is ongoing to evaluate off-season strawberry production in polyethylene-covered greenhouses....

  15. Occupational allergy in Strawberry Greenhouse workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Patiwael (Jiska); L.G.J. Vullings; N.W. de Jong (Nicolette); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); H. de Groot (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Employees in strawberry greenhouses are highly exposed to several (potential) allergenic agents. However, no occupational allergy in this branch has been described before. First, the presence of work-related allergic symptoms in strawberry workers was explored. Second, we aim

  16. Coal Briquette Technology reduces Greenhouse Gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses, in the context of Zambia's Energy Policy, the impact of substituting woodfuel with fossil fuels like Coal on Greenhouse gases, mainly CO2.Computation of comparative emissions of CO2 by implementing this energy substitution especially at household level is presented. Further, the processing of Coal into Briquettes is discused. 2 figs., chart

  17. Greenhouse gas emission from Australian coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1997, when the Australian Coal Association (ACA) signed a letter of Intent in respect of the governments Greenhouse Challenge Program, it has encouraged its member companies to participate. Earlier this year, the ACA commissioned an independent scoping study on greenhouse gas emissions in the black coal mining industry This was to provide background information, including identification of information gaps and R and D needs, to guide the formulation of a strategy for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions associated with the mining, processing and handling of black coals in Australia. A first step in the process of reducing emission levels is an appreciation of the source, quantity and type of emissions om nine sites. It is shown that greenhouse gas emissions on mine sites come from five sources: energy consumption during mining activities, the coal seam gas liberated due to the extraction process i.e. fugitive emissions, oxidation of carbonaceous wastes, land use, and embodied energy. Also listed are indications of the degree of uncertainty associated with each of the estimates

  18. Greenhouse breeding of a medicinal herb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A research project on the greenhouse cultivation of Swertia chirayita Buch.-Ham, a popular herbal drug used by the Tibetan people against liver and gallbladder diseases, recently passed the acceptance check by a panel of experts under the auspices of Qinghai Provincial S&T Bureau. The feat was accomplished by researchers from the Lanzhou-based CAS Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology.

  19. Nuclear power and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global levels of the ''Greenhouse'' gases - carbon dioxide, the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, nitrous oxide and tropospheric ozone are increasing as a result of man's activities. This increase is widely expected to bring about a rise in global temperature with concomitant environmental impacts. Global warming has been observed over the last century, and the last decade has seen seven of the warmest years on record. There has also been increased variability in the weather (an expected consequence of global warming). However, these possible manifestations of the Greenhouse Effect are within natural variations and proof must await more definitive indications. A brief outline of current views on the Greenhouse Effect is given. This report addresses the energy sector using CO2 emissions as a measure of its ''Greenhouse'' contribution. This approach understates the energy sector contribution. However, the difference is within the error band. It seems likely that the warming effect of non-energy related emissions will remain the same and there will be more pressure to reduce the emissions from the energy sector. To assess policy options the pattern of future energy demand is estimated. Two scenarios have been adopted to provide alternative frameworks. Both assume low energy growth projections based on increased energy efficiency. The role of nuclear power in reducing carbon dioxide emissions is considered. (author)

  20. Australian greenhouse governance; the twilight zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia is committed to limit greenhouse gas emissions in nine years' time to no more than 8% higher than an uncertain 1990 baseline. This will require a cut of 25 % points or some 100 millions tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent from the Business-as-Usual expected growth by 2010. Meeting the target will directly reduce global warming in about 50 years time by 0.001 degrees Celsius, at an opportunity cost estimated by ABARE as about 1% of GDP unless an emissions trading scheme is established. The author indicates that, if one accepts the Kyoto commitment, emissions trading and other flexibility mechanisms should be set up to minimise but not eliminate its negative impacts, while other beneficial returns from greenhouse governance, such as increased energy efficiency and improved technologies, must be developed driven in part by public enthusiasms for 'greenhouse' but mostly by economic returns. Even so, Australia with a greenhouse limit and already world-leader in efficiency in many areas, is faced by international competitors without such limits or efficiencies, so investments in energy-intensive value-adding industries may move offshore even though global emissions will increase. Australia may thus revert to a 'quarry' economy unless it can minimise the impacts of Kyoto and offset emissions against substantial new carbon 'sinks', and be given credit by way of emissions trading and other flexibility mechanisms. Australia cannot make a sensible decision about ratification without a comprehensive National Interest Analysis

  1. Greenhouse Gas Inventory in the Forestry Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel V. Francisco; Quintana, Sofio

    1999-01-01

    Among the components in the inventory of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, forestry and land use are the most complex. This paper summarizes the necessary data on land use. Analysis indicates a change in the inventory/sinks done by the Philippine Forestry and Land Use Change.

  2. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important factors in

  3. The greenhouse effect and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ongoing increase in the concentration of infrared-absorbing gases in the atmosphere is already causing and will continue to cause a growing unbalance in the radiation budget of the earth, and consequent warming of the lower atmosphere and earth surface. This climate phenomenon is the manifestation of the greenhouse or blanketing effect of absorbing gases (also known as ''greenhouse gases'') in the earth atmosphere. The main chemical species responsible for the build-up of the greenhouse effect are carbon dioxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or freons. Despite new regulatory efforts made by governments to slow down the emission of these gases, the combined atmospheric burden could be equivalent to doubling the pre-industrial concentration of carbon dioxide (2xCO2) by the middle of next century. The global warming of the earth surface would eventually reach about 4 deg. C if the 2xCO2 concentration then was maintained constant for a long period. As it is, the transient response of climate to an increasing greenhouse effect is delayed by 50 to 100 years. For this reason, we observe now a much smaller climate warming than would occur for climate equilibrium with the present atmospheric composition, i.e. 125% the pre-industrial concentration of CO2. Impacts of this phenomenon will range from disturbances of the existing hydrological regime of the planet to rise of the global mean sea-level. A warmer atmosphere means more rain but also faster evaporation: consequences in terms of the availability of water resources are unclear at temperate and high latitudes, but an aggravation of aridity in sub-tropical latitudes is probable. Sea-level rise may reach 50 cm by 2100. In general, the rate of climate warming when the climate system starts responding to the greenhouse effect could be 0.3 deg. C per decade, far exceeding the ability of natural ecosystems to adapt effectively to the change. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs

  4. Overview for Attached Payload Accommodations and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Craig; Cook, Gene; Nabizadeh, Rodney; Phillion, James

    2007-01-01

    External payload accommodations are provided at attach sites on the U.S provided ELC, U.S. Truss, the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) and the Columbus EPF (External Payload Facilities). The Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) provides the backbone structure for the ISS. It attaches the solar and thermal control arrays to the rest of the complex, and houses cable distribution trays Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment such as handholds and lighting; and providing for Extravehicular Robotic (EVR) accommodations using the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). It also provides logistics and maintenance, and payload attachment sites. The attachment sites accommodate logistics and maintenance and payloads carriers, zenith and nadir. The JEM-EF, a back porch-like attachment to the JEM Pressurized Module, accommodates up to eight payloads, which can be serviced by the crew via the JEM PM's airlock and dedicated robotic arm. The Columbus-EPF is another porch-like platform that can accommodate two zenith and two nadir looking payloads.

  5. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  6. Preferential attachment in randomly grown networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Iain S.

    2015-12-01

    We reintroduce the model of Callaway et al. (2001) as a special case of a more general model for random network growth. Vertices are added to the graph at a rate of 1, while edges are introduced at rate δ. Rather than edges being introduced at random, we allow for a degree of preferential attachment with a linear attachment kernel, parametrised by m. The original model is recovered in the limit of no preferential attachment, m → ∞. As expected, even weak preferential attachment introduces a power-law tail to the degree distribution. Additionally, this generalisation retains a great deal of the tractability of the original along with a surprising range of behaviour, although key mathematical features are modified for finite m. In particular, the critical edge density, δc which marks the onset of a giant network component is reduced with increasing tendency for preferential attachment. The positive degree-degree correlation introduced by the unbiased growth process is offset by the skewed degree distribution, reducing the network assortativity.

  7. Nocturnal Ventilation For Controling Greenhouse Humidity and Botrytis Cinerea Severity In Unheated Tomato Greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, F.J.; Bailey, B J; Meneses, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Grey mould disease is one of the most important diseases affecting crops grown in unheated greenhouses, where ventilation is the main technique used to control inside environmental conditions. The main goal of this investigation was to study the influence of nocturnal ventilation on the humidity conditions in unheated tomato greenhouses and the consequences for Botrytis cinerea control. Experimental work was realised at the High Institute of Agronomy in Lisbon in two identical ...

  8. The solar greenhouse: a survey of energy saving methods

    OpenAIRE

    Saye, A.; Loon, van, E.E.; Bot, G.P.A.; Zwart, de, F.

    2000-01-01

    The solar greenhouse project is aimed at the development of a greenhouse concept for the Netherlands with zero-fossil energy consumption. The solar greenhouse is formulated as a combination of a low energy demand greenhouse, an energy recovery installation and an energy storage facility. In this paper, energy saving options such as new building materials, a dehumidifier, a heat pump and long term storage are studied. A simplified model is being developed in MATLAB to describe the total system...

  9. Improving UK greenhouse gas emission estimates using tall tower observations

    OpenAIRE

    Howie, James Edward

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere play an important role in regulating surface temperatures. The UK is signatory to international agreements that legally commit the UK to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and there is a scientific and political need to better understand greenhouse gas sources on regional scales. The current methods used to provide greenhouse gas emission inventories rely on ‘bottom-up’ techniques and have large associated errors. However, it is also...

  10. Modelling of a humidification-dehumidification greenhouse in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ismaili, Abdulrahim M.

    2009-01-01

    The humidification-dehumidification (HD) greenhouse is a relatively new technology. In addition to the humidification process and cultivation normally present in greenhouses in arid countries, the HD greenhouse also integrates a dehumidification process. In these greenhouses, saline or brackish water is evaporated in the ordinary evaporative cooling pads (i.e. 1st humidifier) before passing through the main crop growing section. The air is further loaded with more moisture b...

  11. Measuring Lifestyle and Attachment: An Empirical Investigation Linking Individual Psychology and Attachment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Paul R.; Peluso, Jennifer P.; Buckner, Janine P.; Kern, Roy M.; Curlette, William

    2009-01-01

    P. R. Peluso, J. P. Peluso, J. F. White, and R. M. Kern (2004) reviewed the theoretical constructs underlying the similarities between lifestyle and attachment style. Specifically, they suggested that the individual psychology construct of lifestyle (or style of life) and attachment style should be empirically investigated. The present research…

  12. Attachment, Trauma, and Healing: Understanding and Treating Attachment Disorder in Children and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Terry M.; Orlans, Michael

    Attachment is the deep and enduring connection established between a child and caregiver in the first few years of life. It profoundly influences every component of the human condition: mind, body, emotions, relationships, and values. Children lacking secure attachments with caregivers experience many difficulties in life and may grow up to be…

  13. ATTACHMENT, RELATIONAL-NEEDS, AND PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC PRESENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans require the contactful presence of another person who is attuned and responsive to relational-needs. Insecure attachment patterns are the result of repeated disruptions in significant relationships. This article describes eight relational-needs that, when repeatedly unsatisfied, lead to insecure attachment patterns based on the fears of loss of relationship, vulnerability, violation, and invasion.The healing of insecure attachment patterns occurs through a contactful psychotherapeutic presence that occurs when the attitude, behavior and communication of the psychotherapist consistently respects and enhances the client's integrity while responding to relational-needs. The article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011.

  14. Dehumidification in greenhouses by condensation on finned pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.C.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, an experimental dehumidifying system for greenhouses is tested. The system uses finned pipes fixed under the gutter of the greenhouse. The pipes are cooled below the dewpoint of the greenhouse air by cold water. The humid air passes the pipe and fins by natural convection and condensa

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, KJ; Moll, HC; Nonhebel, S; Wilting, HC

    1999-01-01

    The consumption of food products involves emissions of greenhouse gases. Emissions occur in the various stages of the life cycle of food products. In this paper we discuss the greenhouse gas emissions, CO2, CH4, and N2O, related to Dutch household food consumption. Combinations of greenhouse gas int

  16. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  17. Greenhouse disaster and the problem of stable development of civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal distinctions between the greenhouse disaster and traditional scenarios of mean global temperature increase on Earth caused by greenhouse effect are discussed. Processes accompanying greenhouse disaster are compared with actual climatic catastrophies of Carbon and Cretaceous. DIfferent factors, such as underground nuclear explosions, are discussed in view of their influence on lithosphere stability and rate of mean global temperature increase. 7 refs., 4 figs

  18. Understanding Members’ Attachment to Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Eric T. K.; Cyr, Dianne; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2014-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are pervasive phenomena in today’s society. With greater connectivity and interactivity enabled through emerging technologies, SNSs provide communication platforms for individuals to bridge spatial and temporal differences when making friends, sharing experiences......, socializing with others and much more. This study therefore endeavors to shed light on this growing trend by decomposing members’ motives for participating within SNSs into identity-based, bondbased and comparison-based attachments. Each of these forms of attachment in turn affects members’ cooperative and...

  19. A methodology for model-based greenhouse design: Part 4, Economic evaluation of different greenhouse designs: a Spanish case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanthoor, B.H.E.; Gázquez, J.C.; Magán, J.J.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Baeza, E.; Stanghellini, C.; Henten, van E.J.; Visser, de P.H.B.

    2012-01-01

    An economic model was developed as a key component of a model-based method to design greenhouses for a broad range of climatic and economic conditions. This economic model was linked to an existing greenhouse climate-crop yield model to calculate the annual Net Financial Result (NFR) of a greenhouse

  20. Development of Lathe Attachment for a CNC Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, V.; Kumar, S.

    2013-04-01

    A lathe attachment has been developed for an existing CNC machine (installed with rapid prototyping attachment) using conceptual design. The CNC machine operates on mechatronic controls and a computer interface called CAMSOFT, and is used as a CNC Lathe after installing the respective attachment to it. The conceptual design phase, starts from an idea and different components of the lathe are designed as attachment using CAD modelling and is followed by fabrication phase. The lathe attachment is successfully developed and is installed to the CNC machine. The working of the CNC Lathe attachment is checked by making some machining operation like turning and thread cutting. The machining operations are successfully done. The CNC machine becomes multifunctional with the presently developed lathe attachment and the existing RP (rapid prototyping) attachment, and can be used accordingly by installing the respective attachment to it. The CNC machine is useful for carrying research work in both the fields, when installed with the appropriate attachment.

  1. Diversity of Trichoderma in greenhouse soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-hui; SUN Xiao-dong; YANG Rui-xiu; YANG Hong; LU Guo-zhong

    2004-01-01

    @@ The protected agricultural production has become one of the fast growing and widespread cultivation technology in the north parts of China. Continuous cultivation of single crop or less rotation of crops usually resulted in the large amount of accumulation of soilborne pathogens and serious crop diseases in the greenhouse. After a few years of investigation of soilborne fungi in the north parts of China, nearly one hundred species of mictosporic fungi have been identified by the authors. Among these fungi 11species of Trichoderma have been morphologically identified, namely T. atroviride, T.aureoviride, T. citrinoviride , T. fertile, T. harzianum , T. inhamatum , T.longibrachiatum, T. parceramosum, T. reeseii, T. virens and T. viride. Trichoderm is found to be a frequently occurring genus of fungi in greenhouse soil. As an important component of effective beneficial antibiotic mycoparasites in soil Trichoderma plays an important part to regulate the balance of beneficial and harmful soilborne microorganisms.

  2. A meteorologist's view of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greenhouse effect is a natural process in the atmosphere which keeps the earth's surface warm enough for human life There are theoretical and observational reasons for believing that increasing atmospheric concentrations of the trace gases responsible for this surface warmth are leading to enhanced warming and other changes of global and regional climate By modifying the meteorological models used for routine numerical weather prediction to incorporate the influences that are believed to be of most importance on decade to century and longer time scales, the climate research community are able to explore the possible impacts on global and regional climate of a range of possible future greenhouse gas emissions and concentrations. Despite many uncertainties, these provide the principal scientific basis for intergovernmental negotiation on the development of global strategies for averting or minimising adverse human impacts on climate and assisting national communities in planning to live with natural climate variability and possible future human-induced change

  3. Greenhouse role in reef stress unproven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the late 1980s, as coral reefs throughout the Caribbean and elsewhere fell victim to a phenomenon known as bleaching, a few scientists stated that greenhouse warming is upon us and that the exquisitely sensitive corals, reacting to elevated water temperatures, are serving as biological sentinels. This stirred up so much concern that Congress assigned the National Science Foundation (NSF) to investigate the connection between coral bleaching and global warming. Late last month investigators at an NSF-sponsored meeting rendered their verdict. Following the Miami meeting, which brought together, for the first time, climatologists, oceanographers, and meteorologists with marine biologists, ecologists, and other reef experts, the participants issued a statement saying essentially that, yes, higher temperatures seem to be at least partly at fault but, no, greenhouse warming cannot be blamed

  4. Greenhouse effect contributions of US landfill methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greenhouse effect has recently been receiving a great deal of scientific and popular attention. The term refers to a cause-and-effect relationship in which ''heat blanketing'' of the earth, due to trace gas increases in the atmosphere, is expected to result in global warming. The trace gases are increasing as the result of human activities. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the trace gas contributing most importantly to the ''heat blanketing'' and currently receives the most attention. Less widely recognized has been the high importance of methane (CH4). Methane's contribution to the increased heat blanketing occurring since 1980 is estimated to be over a third as much as that of carbon dioxide. Gas from landfills has in turn been recognized to be a source of methane to the atmospheric buildup. However the magnitude of the landfill methane contribution, and the overall significance of landfill methane to the greenhouse phenomenon has been uncertain and the subject of some debate. (Author)

  5. Greenhouse role in reef stress unproven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L.

    1991-07-19

    In the late 1980s, as coral reefs throughout the Caribbean and elsewhere fell victim to a phenomenon known as bleaching, a few scientists stated that greenhouse warming is upon us and that the exquisitely sensitive corals, reacting to elevated water temperatures, are serving as biological sentinels. This stirred up so much concern that Congress assigned the National Science Foundation (NSF) to investigate the connection between coral bleaching and global warming. Late last month investigators at an NSF-sponsored meeting rendered their verdict. Following the Miami meeting, which brought together, for the first time, climatologists, oceanographers, and meteorologists with marine biologists, ecologists, and other reef experts, the participants issued a statement saying essentially that, yes, higher temperatures seem to be at least partly at fault but, no, greenhouse warming cannot be blamed.

  6. MEMS climate sensor for crops in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Karen; Jensen, Kim Degn; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil;

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and fabricated a multi-sensor chip for greenhouse applications and demonstrated the functionality under controlled conditions. The sensor consists of a humidity sensor, temperature sensor and three photodiodes sensitive to blue, red and white light, respectively. The humidity...... sensor responds linearly with humidity with a full scale change of 5.6 pF. The best performing design measures a relative change of 48%. The temperature sensor responds linearly with temperature with a temperature coefficient of resistance of 3.95 x 10(-3) K-1 and a sensitivity of 26.5 Omega degrees C-1...... and humidity sensors have further been tested on plants in a greenhouse, demonstrating that individual plant behavior can be monitored....

  7. Sectoral Approaches to Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper explores sectoral approaches as a new set of options to enhance the effectiveness of greenhouse gas reduction policies and to engage emerging economies on a lower emission path. It surveys existing literature and recent policy trends in international climate change discussions, and provides an overview of sectoral approaches and related issues for trade-exposed, greenhouse-gas intensive industries (cement, iron and steel and aluminium). It is also based on interviews conducted by the IEA Secretariat in Australia, China, Europe, Japan, and the United States. Sectoral approaches were also discussed during workshops on technology and energy efficiency policies in industry, following the IEA's mandate under the Gleneagles Plan of Action.

  8. Modeling and control of greenhouse crop growth

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Francisco; Guzmán, José Luis; Ramírez-Arias, Armando

    2015-01-01

    A discussion of challenges related to the modeling and control of greenhouse crop growth, this book presents state-of-the-art answers to those challenges. The authors model the subsystems involved in successful greenhouse control using different techniques and show how the models obtained can be exploited for simulation or control design; they suggest ideas for the development of physical and/or black-box models for this purpose. Strategies for the control of climate- and irrigation-related variables are brought forward. The uses of PID control and feedforward compensators, both widely used in commercial tools, are summarized. The benefits of advanced control techniques—event-based, robust, and predictive control, for example—are used to improve on the performance of those basic methods. A hierarchical control architecture is developed governed by a high-level multiobjective optimization approach rather than traditional constrained optimization and artificial intelligence techniques.  Reference trajector...

  9. Cogeneration, renewables and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MENSA model is used to assess the potential role of cogeneration and selected new renewable energy technologies in cost-effectively reducing Greenhouse gas emissions. The model framework for analyzing these issues is introduced, together with an account of relevant aspects of its application. In the discussion of selected new renewable energy technologies, it is shown how microeconomic reform may encourage these technologies and fuels, and thereby reduce sector wide carbon dioxide emissions. Policy scenarios modelled are described and the simulation results are presented. Certain interventions in microeconomic reform may result in economic benefits while also reducing emissions: no regrets' opportunities. Some renewable energy technologies are also shown to be cost-effective in the event that targets and timetables for reducing Greenhouse gas emissions are imposed. However, ad hoc interventions in support of particular renewables options are unlikely to be consistent with a least cost approach to achieving environmental objectives. (author). 5 tabs., 5 figs., 21 refs

  10. Goniometric characterization of LED based greenhouse lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Lindén, Johannes; Corell, Dennis Dan;

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a demonstration of goniospectroradiometry for characterizations of new light emitting diode (LED) based luminaries for enhanced photosynthesis in greenhouses. It highlights the differences between measurement of the traditional high pressure sodium (HPS) luminaries and the LED...... based luminaries. The LED based luminaries are compared to traditional HPS luminaries; in terms of energy efficiency with regard to the photosynthetic photon flux, and the LED luminaries were found to be more effective than the HPS luminaries...

  11. Greenhouse gas benefits of fighting obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelowa, Axel; Dransfeld, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem in both industrialized and rapidly industrializing countries. It increases greenhouse gas emissions through higher fuel needs for transportation of heavier people, lifecycle emissions from additional food production and methane emissions from higher amounts of organic waste. A reduction of average weight by 5 kg could reduce OECD transport CO2 emissions by more than 10 million t, while a reduction of consumption of energy-rich food to 1990 le...

  12. Towards a low emission greenhouse horticulture

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijs, M.N.A.; Campen, J.B.; Raaphorst, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    For the pilot crop tomato, business concepts of low emission greenhouses for the midterm (10 year) have been designed. The study is carried out in cooperation with innovators in the horticultural sector, suppliers and extension services. The business concepts are evaluated for different indicators in the field of planet and compared to the current situation. The focus is on the reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emission for the cultivation with and without supplementary lighting. The en...

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions - a global challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes some greenhouse gas emission challenges in the Norwegian petroleum industry. Some of the conclusions are that the national taxation policies are insufficient and that international co-operation is essential in order to obtain significant pollution abatement. The mechanisms for this are not yet in place. Some possible measures are mentioned. The main solution to the problems internationally seems to be international co-operation projects generally with quota trade in order to meet the Kyoto agreement obligations

  14. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Awareness Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aubin, Pierre; Auger, Genevieve; Perreault, Claude

    2003-01-01

    This study falls within the enhancing awareness and understanding theme of the National Climate Change Strategy. It was conducted by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in January/February 2001 and involved 1,643 farming operation, feeder cattle, dairy cattle, hogs and poultry producers. The purpose of this study is to assess producers' level of awareness of climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as their understanding of the role of agriculture in the emissions of GHG. This s...

  15. Hydroponics Greenhouses for Sustainable Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Gligorescu, Anton

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for more sustainable agricultural practices, in order to secure environmentally acceptable solutions for feeding the (increasingly urban) growing population. One solution is the implementation of local CEA/ Hydroponics systems. The present paper is an overview of the opportunities for and challenges against implementing such systems in greenhouses in Hovedstaden Region, Denmark, in order to grow tomatoes locally, in a more resource conserving way. The first step is a theoretic...

  16. Occupational allergy in Strawberry Greenhouse workers

    OpenAIRE

    Patiwael, Jiska; Vullings, L.G.J.; de Jong, Nicolette; Toorenenbergen, Albert; Gerth Van Wijk, Roy; de Groot, Hans

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Employees in strawberry greenhouses are highly exposed to several (potential) allergenic agents. However, no occupational allergy in this branch has been described before. First, the presence of work-related allergic symptoms in strawberry workers was explored. Second, we aimed to prove the concept that an IgE-mediated allergy could be responsible for work-related symptoms. To test the possibility of an IgE response secondary to cross-reactivity to birch or grass polle...

  17. DLR’s Antarctic Greenhouse Module Project

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Daniel; Poulet, Lucie; Zeidler, Conrad; Zabel, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Humanity’s plans to further explore the solar system requires the development of bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS), fully incorporated into the habitat infrastructure. A Greenhouse Module (GHM) would contribute to food production, CO2 reduction, O2 production, water recycling and waste management. It is essential to test these GHM technologies in a similar environment to space and with relevant mass flows in order to increase their Technology Readiness Level. The German Aerospa...

  18. Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Burney, J. A; S. J. Davis; Lobell, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    As efforts to mitigate climate change increase, there is a need to identify cost-effective ways to avoid emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Agriculture is rightly recognized as a source of considerable emissions, with concomitant opportunities for mitigation. Although future agricultural productivity is critical, as it will shape emissions from conversion of native landscapes to food and biofuel crops, investment in agricultural research is rarely mentioned as a mitigation strategy. Here w...

  19. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeki Matsunaga

    2015-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence o...

  20. Global comparison of three greenhouse climate models

    OpenAIRE

    Bavel, van, M.A.H.J.; Takakura, T.; Bot, G.P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Three dynamic simulation models for calculating the greenhouse climate and its energy requirements for both heating and cooling were compared by making detailed computations for each of seven sets of data. The data sets ranged from a cold winter day, requiring heating, to a hot summer day, requiring cooling. On the whole, the models agreed in regard to calculated air temperature, humidity, and heating requirements. Significant differences were found between the estimates of fan-and-pad (evapo...

  1. Greenhouse gas reduction and Canada's nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change, dated December 10, 1997 committed Canada to reduce greenhouse gases to 6% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Subsequently the federal government initiated a broad review of the implications of such a reduction across all sectors of the Canadian economy to identify options for eventual implementation. The Canadian nuclear industry participated in this review. This paper examines the status of this review to date and identifies options, which may significantly influence the use of nuclear energy domestically and internationally. This paper provides a review of options established by the three key Issue Tables in the context of implications to the nuclear industry. Several of the other Issue Tables have also identified options, which have major future implications for the use of nuclear energy. For example the Transportation Table has addressed the possible production and use of hydrogen fuel as an energy carrier. Biological and geological sinks are emerging technologies which will likely lead to increased energy demand. Development of the necessary infrastructure to support these new technologies could lead to a substantial need for increased production of electricity from greenhouse gas free sources in Canada in coming decades. In conclusion, international concern with climate changes re-focuses attention to human application of nature's energy sources. The studies implemented by the climate change secretariat have resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of opportunities for Canada to contribute to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in Canada and abroad. The ability of Canada's nuclear industry to provide greenhouse gas free energy in the large quantities needed by modern society is recognized. (author)

  2. Optimization of a Spring for Dental Attachments

    OpenAIRE

    Hack, P.; Fritzen, C.-P.

    1989-01-01

    Special technological applications like the construction of a dental attachment require structural parts which have very small operall dimensions. Very often these parts are subjected to high loadings. The failure of a small spring was the starting point for an investigation with the aim to design a suitable new spring shape.

  3. Effect of attachment strategies on bipartite networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganguly, N.; Saha, S.; Maiti, A.;

    2013-01-01

    rate. Here, we focus on the case where one of the partitions can be assumed to be fixed while the other partition grows in time as observed in the codon-gene or alphabet-word network. We show that subtle changes in growth dynamics, particularly in the attachment kernel, can lead to drastic changes of...

  4. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  5. Attachment Styles, Abuse Experiences and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Bulent; Capri, Burhan; Akbay, Sinem Evin; Tunc, Aygul

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between abuse experiences, depression and attachment styles. The data for this study was collected from 251 students (123 females and 128 males) who attend Mersin University. As a part of the data collection, students completed the Experiences in Affiliation Inventory, Childhood Trauma Scale and Brief…

  6. What is preferential to preferential attachment?

    CERN Document Server

    Small, Michael; Stemler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Preferential attachment --- where new nodes are added and attached to existing nodes with probability proportional to the existing nodes' degree --- has become the standard growth model for scale-free networks, where the asymptotic probability of a node having degree $k$ is proportional to $k^{-\\gamma}$. However, the motivation for this model is entirely {\\em ad hoc}. We use exact likelihood arguments and show that the optimal way to build a scale-free network is to preferentially attach to low degree nodes. Asymptotically, the optimal strategy is to attach the new node to one of the nodes of degree $k$ (in a network with $N$ nodes) with probability proportional to $\\frac{1}{N+\\zeta(\\gamma)(k+1)^\\gamma}$. The algorithm we propose to do this can be employed to generate optimally scale-free networks (maximum likelihood realisations) as well as a random sampling of the space of all scale-free networks with a given degree exponent $\\gamma$. While we focus on scale free networks, these methods can be applied to a ...

  7. Agreements on emission of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agreements on emission of greenhouse gases is one of the instruments used by Norwegian authorities to meet their obligations with respect to the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. This book discusses the legal issues raised by these agreements. A main topic is how the industrial emissions conform to the Pollution Act. Does the Pollution Act apply to these emissions? What is the impact of the sanction rules in this act on the emissions? The book also deals with the following general questions that arise in connection with the application of public authority: (1) Can the administration grant concessions and permits in the form of agreements? (2) What commitments can be imposed on a private party by the administration by agreement? (3) Should the procedures set down in the Pollution Act and in the Public Administration Act be followed fully when the pollution authorities make agreements? Is the opportunity of the administration to reverse more restricted when they make agreements than when they make one-sided decisions? Although this discussion primarily deals with the emission of greenhouse gases, the reasoning and conclusions are relevant in many other types of agreements in which the public administration is one of the parties. The agreement that regulates the emissions of greenhouse gases from the Norwegian aluminium industry is described in a special section. The book also gives a brief account of how agreements are used in the Danish climate policy

  8. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) programme of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies is intended to clarify the economic issues involved in assessing the costs of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases and to propose approaches to comparable costing studies. Phase 1 of the Zimbabwe country study describes the current energy situation in Zimbabwe related to the national economy, energy supply and demand and amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Factors regarding the geography, (including a map illustrating the degree and character of land degradation by erosion) population, politics, international relations, land-use and management of the energy sector are dealt with in detail and the text is illustrated with data compiled from the study. It is estimated that Zimbabwe consumed 270.4 Tj of energy during 1988 and emitted 21.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide. An emission intensity of 80.2 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 63.6 tonnes/Tj for electric power generation alone was calculated. Forecasting for the year 2020 estimated carbon dioxide emission intensities of 73.5 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 43.7 tonnes for power generation. Net carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to be 30-42 tonnes during 2020. (AB)

  9. Nuclear energy and the greenhouse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last November - almost in parallel with the Hague Meeting on Climate Change - more than 1,500 of the world's top nuclear scientists and energy technologists met in Washington DC, at the Joint Conference of the American Nuclear Society, the European Nuclear Society, the Nuclear Energy Institute and the International Nuclear Energy Academy. Unlike the United Nations follow up to the Kyoto protocol, which ended in disarray, a note of high optimism and informed realism pervaded the nuclear conference which, among its multiple streams of subject material and papers by international experts, carried the two main themes of Long Term Globally Sustainable Energy Options and Nuclear Energy and the Greenhouse Problem. This paper considers the immense contribution to Greenhouse gas emission minimisation made by nuclear energy in 1999. In that year the global electricity production by the world's 435 nuclear power stations was 2,398 TWh or 16% of total electricity generation or 5% of total primary energy production. The amount of avoided carbon dioxide emission because of the use of nuclear energy in 1999 was 2.4 billion tonnes. This is 10% of total emissions. Japan's 54 nuclear power stations alone save the equivalent of Australia's total Greenhouse emissions. The secret of this success is Australia's uranium fuel

  10. Joint implementation: Biodiversity and greenhouse gas offsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Noel J.

    1996-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental issues today is the possibility that projected increases in global emissions of greenhouse gases from increased deforestation, development, and fossil-fuel combustion could significantly alter global climate patterns. Under the terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de Janeiro during the June 1992 Earth Summit, the United States and other industrialized countries committed to balancing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels in the year 2000. Included in the treaty is a provision titled “Joint Implementation,” whereby industrialized countries assist developing countries in jointly modifying long-term emission trends, either through emission reductions or by protecting and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (carbon sequestration). The US Climate Action Plan, signed by President Clinton in 1993, calls for voluntary climate change mitigation measures by various sectors, and the action plan included a new program, the US Initiative on Joint Implementation. Wisconsin Electric decided to invest in a Jl project because its concept encourages creative, cost-effective solutions to environmental problems through partnering, international cooperation, and innovation. The project chosen, a forest preservation and management effort in Belize, will sequester more than five million tons of carbon dioxide over a 40-year period, will become economically selfsustaining after ten years, and will have substantial biodiversity benefits.

  11. Greenhouse gas emission reduction options and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the energy-related components of the Clinton Administration's Climate Change Action Plan. The Action Plan was formulated to meet the Administration's commitment of returning US emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. The paper discusses what the energy industry and energy consumers will be requested to do in order to meet this commitment. Several themes addressed in this paper include: (1) the largely voluntary nature of the actions identified in the Action Plan; (2) consideration of diverse opportunities to reduce emissions; (3) the outlook for US greenhouse gas emissions after 2000; and (4) actions involved for speeding the utilization of new, energy efficient technologies both domestically and abroad. The value of employing a diverse set of activities and the important role of technology improvements will be explored further in section 10 of this volume: ''Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Strategies.'' Papers presented there include the utilization of more efficient fossil energy technologies, energy conservation and demand-side management programs, renewable energy and reforestation, and carbon dioxide capture and disposal

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from wood stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with the use of biomass for energy in Scandinavia. It accounts for 127 TWh (457 PJ) which is 9% of the total energy consumption. Combustion of biomass is CO2-neutral in the greenhouse effect balance. However, emissions of NOx, N2O, CO and CH4 contribute either direct or indirect to the greenhouse effect. Experiments have been performed in three different wood stove units, a traditional stove and two new stoves. The two new stoves consist of a staged combustion unit and a catalytic stove. The emissions of NOx, N2O, CO and UHC in addition to O2 and CO2 are measured with continuous analyzers. The emissions of NOx tend to decrease (in ppm) during the combustion cycle, while the emissions during the combustion cycle in g/kg wood increase in the charcoal phase compared to the pyrolysis phase. The average NOx emissions are higher for the catalytic stove than for the staged stove, but the average CO and UHC emissions are lower. The emissions of N2O are in general low, below 10 ppm. The total emissions of greenhouse gases for different wood stoves are calculated and compared to oil combustion. 9 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  13. The greenhouse effect, v. 15(59)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An explanation for the greenhouse effect, i.e. global warning and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and GWP (Global Warning Potential) as a factor for estimating their contributing on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate change in the previous period and projecting of likely scenarios for the future. Consequences on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resource. The main lines of the Kyoto Protocols and problems in its realization. Suggestions to the country strategy concerning to the acts of the Kyoto Protocol. A special attention is pointed out on the energy, its recourse, the structure of energy consumption and energy efficiency. Main sectors of the energy efficiency: buildings, industry and transport. Buildings: importance of heat insulation. District heating, suggestions for space heating. Heat pumps and CHP. Air conditioning and refrigeration. Industry: process heating, and integrated energy system, heat recovery, refrigeration, compressed air. Need of quality maintenance and servicing. Monitoring and automatic control. Education for energy and its saving. (Author)

  14. Feedback of peatlands on the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climatic change has an impact on many natural ecosystems, e.g. peat land ecosystems. The greenhouse gases have an impact on the climate and this is called the feedback effect of peat lands on the enhanced greenhouse effect. This report addresses the question (in a qualitative manner) whether the interposition of peatlands will reduce or enhance the greenhouse effect. Around 96% of the mondial carbon dioxide flux to the atmosphere is natural, of which only 0.1% is released by peatlands. Natural ecosystems determine presently only 40% of the methane fluxes, of which 65% are peatland emissions. The amount of the CH4 emission from peatlands is not precisely known. lt is often assumed to be 110 Mt methane per year. This is equal to 21% of all identified CH4 sources. Globally the CO2 fixation rate of virgin peatlands may neutralize the greenhouse enhancing effect of the CH4 emissions, as well as that they may be neutral or reduce the greenhouse effect. However, anthropogenic use of peatlands changes the flux rates. Peatlands are also important in the global carbon cycle since the world's peatlands represent a carbon pool equal to 60% of all carbon stored in the atmosphere. A small change in oxidation rate can cause large carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Presently, peatlands accumulate about 76 to 200 Mt C per year, while peat mining is estimated to cause an emission of about 55 to 73 Mt C/yr. Drainage of peatlands for agriculture and forestry adds an emission of about 200 Mt C/yr. The large uncertainty about the emissions allows both the conclusion that peatlands globally enhance the greenhouse effect and that they are globally neutral or even reduce the greenhouse effect (the present anthropogenic intervention is excluded). However, the greenhouse effect itself may change this position. Though about 60% of the peatland area in the European Union is drained for agriculture and forestry and only 3% is used for peat mining, the latter causes relatively the largest

  15. Comparative validity of the Adult Attachment Interview and the Adult Attachment Projective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Mason, Karen; Allen, I Elaine; Hamilton, Steve; Weiss, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and the Adult Attachment Projective (AAP) purport to measure the same attachment classifications. The aims of this study were to determine the concurrent validity of the AAI and AAP, and to compare their ability to predict indicators of risk associated with socioeconomic status (SES), depression, and 5-HTTLPR genotype. Results indicated no agreement between AAI and AAP attachment classifications in a sample of late adolescents. As predicted, individuals classified as "unresolved" with regard to loss or trauma were significantly more likely to be of lower SES, have higher levels of depression, and have the 5-HTTLPR "ss" genotype than individuals with secure, preoccupied, or dismissing attachments. These associations, however, were only significant when attachment was classified with the AAI. Results suggest that the AAI and AAP measure different facets of attachment as a result of their unique methodologies and coding criteria. Further research is needed to support their comparability before investigators can assume that the AAP is a valid substitute for the AAI. PMID:26362584

  16. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches. PMID:27056466

  17. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  18. THERMOPHILE ENDOSPORES HAVE RESPONSIVE EXOSPORIUM FOR ATTACHMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PANESSA-WARREN,B.; TORTORA,G.T.; WARREN,J.; SABATINI,R.

    1999-08-01

    Recently studies examining the colonization of Clostridial pathogens on agar and human tissue culture cells, demonstrated that (C. sporogenes ATCC 3584, C. difficile ATCC 43594 [patient isolate], C. difficile ATCC 9689 [non-clinical], C. clostridioforme [patient isolate]) bacterial spores (endospores) of the genus Clostridia have an outer membrane that becomes responsive at activation and exhibits extensions of the exosporial membrane that facilitate and maintain spore attachment to a nutritive substrate during germination and initial outgrowth of the newly developed bacterial cell. Therefore this attachment phenomenon plays an important role in insuring bacterial colonization of a surface and the initial stages of the infective process. To see if other non-clinical members of this genus also have this ability to attach to a substrate or food-source during spore germination, and how this attachment process in environmental thermophiles compares to the clinical paradigm (in relation to time sequence, exosporial membrane structure, type of attachment structures, composition of the membrane etc...), sediment samples were collected in sterile transport containers at 4 geothermal sites at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Because spore forming bacteria will produce spores when conditions are unfavorable for growth, the samples were sealed and stored at 4 C. After 8 months the samples were screened for the presence of spores by light microscope examination using malachite green/safranin, and traditional endospores were identified in significant quantities from the Terrace Spring site (a 46 C lake with bacterial mats and a rapidly moving run-off channel leading to a traditional hot spring). The highest spore population was found in the top sediment and benthic water of the run-off channel, pH 8.1.

  19. The Effect of Birth Order on Attachment Style According to Attachment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAKTAR, Seda; YAHŞİ, Gülşah

    2016-01-01

    Attachment is a vital neurobiopsychological phenomenon known to be dependent on the early relationship between baby and the caregiver. It mostly develops in the first year and out of repeated patterns of the primary attachment relationship. Birth order is defined as a person's rank by age among his or her siblings. Birth order is often believed to have a profound and lasting effect on psychological development. Also it has been thought that birth order has an impact on the attachment.  In thi...

  20. Biomass combustion for greenhouse carbon dioxide enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouses in northern climates have a significant heat requirement that is mainly supplied by non-renewable fuels such as heating oil and natural gas. This project's goal was the development of an improved biomass furnace able to recover the heat and the CO2 available in the flue gas and use them in the greenhouse. A flue gas purification system was designed, constructed and installed on the chimney of a wood pellet furnace (SBI Caddy Alterna). The purification system consists of a rigid box air filter (MERV rating 14, 0.3 μm pores) followed by two sets of heating elements and a catalytic converter. The air filter removes the particulates present in the flue gas while the heating elements and catalysers transform the noxious gases into less harmful gases. Gas analysis was sampled at different locations in the system using a TESTO 335 flue gas analyzer. The purification system reduces CO concentrations from 1100 cm3 m−3 to less than 1 cm3 m−3 NOx from 70 to 5.5 cm3 m−3 SO2 from 19 cm3 m−3 to less than 1 cm3 m−3 and trapped particulates down to 0.3 μm with an efficiency greater than 95%. These results are satisfactory since they ensure human and plant safety after dilution into the ambient air of the greenhouse. The recuperation of the flue gas has several obvious benefits since it increases the heat usability per unit biomass and it greatly improves the CO2 recovery of biomass heating systems for the benefit of greenhouse grown plants. - Highlights: • Biomass furnace shows high potential for greenhouse carbon dioxide enrichment. • Flue gas recuperation significantly increases the thermal efficiency of a furnace. • Catalytic converter can reduce CO and NOx below humans and plants exposure limit. • Particulates control is essential to maintain the efficiency of the catalytic conversion. • CO2 recovery from biomass heating systems reduces farmer's reliance on fossil fuel

  1. Attachment: A Study of a Child's Attachment to the Teacher as an Outgrowth of Her/His Attachment to the Mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Ann Jespersen

    This paper reviews the literature on attachment, presents a study of child-teacher attachment, and discusses child-teacher attachment as a secondary relationship influenced by the prototype bonding between mother and child. The literature review traces the development of psychoanalytic thought regarding the mother-child relationship and examines…

  2. A concept for reduced energy demand of greenhouses: the next generation greenhouse cultivation in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    de, Gelder, Beatrice; Poot, E.H.; Dieleman, J. A.; Zwart, de, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    In high tech greenhouse cultivation like in The Netherlands, large amounts of fossil energy are used to optimize climate conditions like temperature and humidity. To achieve a more sustainable greenhouse horticulture, a considerable reduction in energy use is needed, but tradeoffs with production and quality are not acceptable. Therefore, we developed a novel cultivation system for tomato to meet the goal: reduction of the energy input by 40% from 1.3 to 0.75 GJ.m-2.y-1, maintaining a product...

  3. A radio transmitter attachment technique for soras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    We modified a figure-8 leg-loop harness designed for small passerines to attach successfully 1.8-g radio transmitters over the synsacrum of migrant Soras (Porzana carolina). Because of the short caudal region of Soras, addition of a waist loop was critical to securing the transmitter while leg loops were maintained to center the package. Thin gauge (0.6-mm diameter) elastic thread proved ideal for transmitter attachment and allowed for freedom of movement and girth expansion associated with fattening during a 6-10 week stopover. Of 110 Soras radio tagged during three field seasons, only a single mortality was observed and only a single bird lost its transmitter. Migration from the study area was confirmed for 76 (69%) and suspected for another 25 birds (total 92%).

  4. Implications of attachment theory for developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L A; Carlson, E A; Levy, A K; Egeland, B

    1999-01-01

    Bowlby's attachment theory is a theory of psychopathology as well as a theory of normal development. It contains clear and specific propositions regarding the role of early experience in developmental psychopathology, the importance of ongoing context, and the nature of the developmental process underlying pathology. In particular, Bowlby argued that adaptation is always the joint product of developmental history and current circumstances (never either alone). Early experience does not cause later pathology in a linear way; yet, it has special significance due to the complex, systemic, transactional nature of development. Prior history is part of current context, playing a role in selection, engagement, and interpretation of subsequent experience and in the use of available environmental supports. Finally, except in very extreme cases, early anxious attachment is not viewed as psychopathology itself or as a direct cause of psychopathology but as an initiator of pathways probabilistically associated with later pathology. PMID:10208353

  5. [Locator or ball attachment: a guide for clinical decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttel, Adrian E; Bühler, Nico M; Marinello, Carlo P

    2009-01-01

    Various attachments are available to retain overdentures on natural roots or implants. Technical aspects, the clinical handling, the capability to adapt or repair and the costs are parameters to be considered when choosing the appropriate attachment. Ball attachments and bars are clinically established and well documented. Ball attachments as prefabricated, unsplinted units are easily replaceable and show hygienic advantages, while bars show favorable stability. The Locator is a newer, popular clinical alternative to these established attachments. The ball attachment and the Locator are compared from a technical and clinical point of view. PMID:19852208

  6. [Set of radiocirculographic attachments for radioisotope laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devishev, M I; Panfilova, N P; Ostrogradskaia, M G

    1980-01-01

    A set of radiocirculographic attachments is offered which serves for calibration and verification of readings taken from the apparatus during radiographic procedures. The set is designed for operation with all colimators of radiocirculographs produced in the USSR and Hungarian People's Republic. The set is able to imitate the investigation geometry, accumulation of radioactivity in the organ under study, absorption and scattering of radioactivty in the organism tissues. Series production of this device has already been initiated. PMID:7392870

  7. Attachment alternatives in implant-supported overdentures

    OpenAIRE

    Aktaş, Güliz; CANAY, Şenay

    2015-01-01

    Severe resorption of the alveolar ridges often makes it very difficult for patients to wear conventional dentures due to the lack of retention and stability of the dentures. Implant-supported overdentures offer edentulous patients a better retained and more stable prosthesis resulting in improved chewing ability and patient satisfaction compared against conventional complete dentures. There exist various attachment systems to be used with overdenture prostheses and are available in the market...

  8. Preferential attachment in the protein network evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Eli; Levanon, Erez Y.

    2003-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein-protein interaction map, as well as many natural and man-made networks, shares the scale-free topology. The preferential attachment model was suggested as a generic network evolution model that yields this universal topology. However, it is not clear that the model assumptions hold for the protein interaction network. Using a cross genome comparison we show that (a) the older a protein, the better connected it is, and (b) The number of interactions a prote...

  9. Electron attachment to the SF6 molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, B. M.; Kosarim, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Various models for transition between electron and nuclear subsystems are compared in the case of electron attachment to the SF6 molecule. Experimental data, including the cross section of electron attachment to this molecule as a function of the electron energy and vibrational temperature, the rate constants of this process in swarm experiments, and the rates of the chemionization process involving Rydberg atoms and the SF6 molecule, are collected and treated. Based on the data and on the resonant character of electron capture into an autodetachment ion state in accordance with the Breit-Wigner formula, we find that intersection of the molecule and negative ion electron terms proceeds above the potential well bottom of the molecule with the barrier height 0.05-0.1 eV, and the transition between these electron terms has both the tunnel and abovebarrier character. The limit of small electron energies e for the electron attachment cross section at room vibrational temperature takes place at ɛ ≪ 2 meV, while in the range 2 meV ≪ ɛ ≪ 80 meV, the cross section is inversely proportional to ɛ. In considering the attachment process as a result of the interaction between the electron and vibrational degrees of freedom, we find the coupling factor f between them to be f = aT at low vibrational temperatures T with a ≈ 3 × 10-4 K-1. The coupling factor is independent of the temperature at T > 400 K.

  10. Greenhouse gas reductions; not warranted, not beneficial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with climate change and greenhouse gas emissions, especially regional climate change predictions, from a sceptic's point of view. It rejects all the conventional evidence supporting claims of extreme man-made climate changes, dismissing them as alarmist and inherently uncertain. Similarly, it characterizes policy prescriptions based on this evidence as faulty and as measures which, if implemented, would do both current and future generations considerably more harm than good. Calls for energy efficiency and conservation, reliance on renewable energy sources, improved efficiency of conventional vehicles, hybrid and fuel-cell-driven cars, reducing the amount of driving, establishing greenhouse gas registries, are all dismissed as impractical, imposing higher costs on energy generally, slowing economic growth in the process, and scaring people to adopt unwise public policies by exaggerating the certainty of predictions about man-made climate change. While dismissing the arguments advanced by 'old-school' environmentalists, the report does not question the validity of the overall theory or details of the core greenhouse effect, its main targets are the anthropogenic components of the observed temperature record, and the evidence of a clear cause-and-effect link between anthropogenic forcing and changes in the Earth's surface temperature. Overall, the report dismisses the 'conventional' view of the extent of climate change, the cause of that change and the risk it poses. It emphasizes the limitations on economic freedom that proposed policies would inflict, and argues in favour of more studies to provide the foundation for a societal response based on a solid understanding of the science behind climate change, and the impact of proposed policy options. 32 refs., 2 figs

  11. Global initiatives to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joint implementation (JI) is a provision, included in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, that allows for two or more nations to jointly plan and implement a greenhouse gas or offsetting project. Joint implementation is important environmentally for two principal reasons: (1) it provides an opportunity to select projects on a global basis that maximize both greenhouse gas reduction benefits and other environmental benefits such as air pollution reduction while minimizing cost, and (2) it creates incentives for developing countries as well as multinational companies to begin to evaluate potential investments through a climate-friendly lens. While the debate on how to establish the criteria and institutional capacity necessary to encourage joint implementation projects continues in the international community, the US government is creating new incentives for US companies to develop joint implementation pilot projects now. While delegates to the United Nations' International Negotiating Committee (INC) debate whether to permit all Parties to the convention to participate in JI, opportunities in Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet states abound. The US has taken a leadership role in joint implementation, establishing two complementary domestic programs that allow US companies to measure, track and score their net greenhouse gas reduction achievements now. With a financial investment by three US utilities, the Center for Clean Air Policy is developing a fuel-switching and energy efficiency project in the city of Decin in the Czech Republic which offers a concrete example of what a real-world JI project could look like. The Decin project provides an ideal test case for assessing the adequacy and potential impact of the draft criteria for the US Initiative on Joint Implementation, as well as for the draft criteria prepared by the INC Secretariat

  12. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN TOMATOES PRODUCTION IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to appreciate the evolution of economic efficiency in tomatoes production in greenhouses within a private firm situated next to the capital. The firm owns 4 ha greenhouses and the weight of tomatoes crop in the cultivated area is just 38.75 %. In fact, during the last three years, the tomatoes cultivated surface has been diminished in favour of flowers production which, like tomatoes production is an important income source for any producer. The reduction of the tomatoes cultivated area was compensated by the increase of intensification grade using new high performance hybrids and modern technologies. Thus, the scientific production management has been looking for maintaining the total production at the same level from a year to another by an increased average tomatoes yield by 53.33 % . The continuous increase of farm input price has doubled the cost per surface unit and increased the cost per tomatoes kilogram by 33 %. The increase of tomatoes demand and of market price by 31 % have had a positive influence on the farm incomes which has doubled during the last three years. In the year 2000, the company has obtained USD 41,818 income/ha of which subtracting the related production cost we can easily get USD 4,815 profit/ha. The average profit rate recorded by the firm is 13 % in the period 2000-2002, when the study was made. As a conclusion, tomatoes production in greenhouses is a good deal. To keep a high economic efficiency, under the diminishing of the cultivated area, the producers have to increase average tomatoes production by using high performance technology based on high economic value hybrids.

  13. The greenhouse effect and climate warming up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present article is a follow-up to a previous article, under the same title, which describes the scientific bases of the greenhouse effect and the prospect, based on climatic global models, of a potential climate warming up. The conclusions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, August 1990) were summarized, predicting a mean global temperature increase between 2.4 and 5.1 deg C in 2070, among other changes. The recent IPCC work confirms 1990 conclusions but states that the decline of ozone in the lower stratosphere could neutralize the radiative forcing of chlorofluorocarbons. At least ten more years of investigation are needed to ascertain an increase of the greenhouse effect. Information is given on recent events which may be connected with the global climate problem, in particular the spectacular eruption of the Pinatubo volcano, in mid 1991, cause of a probable cooling of the atmosphere and a potential decrease of radiative forcing due to anthropogenic dioxide emissions. The most important recent events in the political field is a directive proposal by the European Commission aimed at a taxation of both energy in general and of carbon dioxide emissions by fossil fuels. Another event is the United Nations Convention on climate change, signed by 155 countries at the Rio de Janeiro Conference on Environment and Development, which pledges signatories to decrease their greenhouse gas - emissions but no figures are given on percentages and calendar of reduction. At last, a short chapter is devoted to the French ECLAT programme on climate change which consists both in participating in world programmes and in performing original investigations by French Scientists

  14. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  15. Integrin Expression Regulates Neuroblastoma Attachment and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Meyer

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NBL is the most common malignant disease of infancy, and children with bone metastasis have a mortality rate greater than 90%. Two major classes of proteins, integrins and growth factors, regulate the metastatic process. We have previously shown that tumorigenic NBL cells express higher levels of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR and that β1 integrin expression is inversely proportional to tumorigenic potential in NBL. In the current study, we analyze the effect of β1 integrin and IGF-IR on NBL cell attachment and migration. Nontumorigenic S-cells express high levels of β1 integrin, whereas tumorigenic N-cells express little β1 integrin. Alterations in (3, integrin are due to regulation at the protein level, as translation is decreased in N-type cells. Moreover, inhibition of protein synthesis shows that β1 integrin is degraded more slowly in S-type cells (SHEP than in N-type cells (SH-SY5Y and IMR32. Inhibition of α5β1 integrin prevents SHEP (but not SH-SY5Y or IMR32 cell attachment to fibronectin and increases SHEP cell migration. Increases in IGF-IR decrease β1 integrin expression, and enhance SHEP cell migration, potentially through increased expression of αvβ3. These data suggest that specific classes of integrins in concert with IGF-IR regulate NBL attachment and migration.

  16. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Matsunaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  17. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Aoustin, E.

    2009-01-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental...... specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited...

  18. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Blanchard, M.; Chadwick, D.;

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure...... effects of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and...

  19. Part III: Greenhouse-Gas Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVIER Jos; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2011-01-01

    The information in Part III has been provided by PBL- JRC based on the EDGAR 4.2 FT2008 database as part of and in cooperation with the Global Exchange and Interactions Activity (GEIA) of IGBP and the ACCENT Network of Excellence.Country data have been provided for 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2008. Moving from the EDGAR 4.1 to the EDGAR 4.2 FT2008 database has resulted in revisions of greenhouse-gas estimates for some source categories. However, in most cases there were only small changes in the glo...

  20. POWER SUPPLY UNIT FOR COMMERCIAL GREENHOUSES

    OpenAIRE

    Sit M.; Sit B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is to develop the energy efficient schemes for energy supply of the industrial greenhouse designed for year-round production of plants that requires year-round maintenance of strongly prescribed temperature and humidity inside. We have been elaborated the complex "gas driven heat pump “water-air” – electric generator" (for use during the heating season) as well as the "gas driven heat pump “water-air” – electric generator – desiccant – evaporative chiller" (for use during ...

  1. Veracruz State Preliminary Greenhouse Gases Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh Rodriguez, C.; Rodriquez Viqueira, L.; Guzman Rojas, S.

    2007-05-01

    At recent years, the international organisms such as United Nations, has discussed that the temperature has increased slightly and the pattern of precipitations has changed in different parts of the world, which cause either extreme droughts or floods and that the extreme events have increased. These are some of the risks of global climate change because of the increase of gas concentration in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and methane - which increase the greenhouse effect. Facing the consequences that could emerge because of the global temperature grown, there is a genuine necessity in different sectors of reduction the greenhouse gases and reduced the adverse impacts of climate change. To solve that, many worldwide conventions have been realized (Rio de Janeiro, Kyoto, Montreal) where different countries have established political compromises to stabilize their emissions of greenhouse gases. The mitigation and adaptation policies merge as a response to the effects that the global climate change could have, on the humans as well as the environment. That is the reason to provide the analysis of the areas and geographic zones of the country that present major vulnerability to the climate change. The development of an inventory of emissions that identifies and quantifies the principal sources of greenhouse gases of a country, and also of a region is basic to any study about climate change, also to develop specific political programs that allow to preserve and even improve a quality of the atmospheric environment, and maybe to incorporate to international mechanisms such as the emissions market. To estimate emissions in a systematic and consistent way on a regional, national and international level is a requirement to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit of instrumented possible mitigation strategies and to adopt politics and technologies to reduce emissions. Mexico has two national inventories of emissions, 1990 and 1995, now it is

  2. The greenhouse effect century, myth or reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different scenarios describing the human activities evolution in the next decades allow to assess the future climate system components; it is shown that, if we do not modify our development policy (deforestation and desertification), the earth system will be significantly perturbed during the 21st century; emissions of greenhouse gases such as CH4, N2O, CFC, ozone may represent in 2030 the CO2 amount produced by man since the industrial revolution. In that case, the air temperature increase will be comprised between 1.5 and 4.5 deg C in 2050

  3. Greenhouse problem in the Amazon jungle clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the contribution of Amazon jungle clearing to the greenhouse problem and makes an assessment of long-run prospects. The introductory sections pose the problem from both international and Brazilian perspectives. The next section describes major features of the Amazonia ecosystems and presents methods and evidence on deforestation and on its impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Based upon cross-section information for a sample of municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon, the following section estimates elasticities of deforestation in relation to major economic factors- government policies included- and uses them to make projections for the future pace of deforestation. The last section discusses policy alternatives to slow down forest conversion

  4. Greenhouse production in Macedonia - challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse tomato makes the largest share of vegetable production in the World. The developments of biological sciences and high technology in the protected crops sector have enabled drastic increase in the yield and contributed to improvement of the fruit quality. Main indicators for the fruit quality still remain to be evaluated by appearance (shape, color, size) whereas the sensor traits (taste and aroma) are somehow neglected. Among the consumers there is general impression that tomatoes grown on substrates are artificial, plastic, tasteless products, compared to the “genuine” tomato raised on soil. On the other hand, Macedonian vegetables have a very good reputation in the region with their fresh recognizable taste and aroma. It will be a challenge in the future to preserve it. Limiting factors for profitable glass house production in the Republic of Macedonia are the extreme temperatures in winter and in summer time. For that reason, not only that the glass house capacities are under utilized, but the expensive tomato hybrids that are intended for at least 10 months cropping period cannot return the profit within the short cropping period of 3-4 months. The institutional and educational systems in Macedonia do not keep the pace with latest developments in the greenhouse industry. Some of the Macedonian operators have made large investments in greenhouse production to be able to follow the market demands. In the newly erected greenhouses in Macedonia on total area of 7 ha in two locations (Kocani and Gevgelija) tomato is grown on substrates and the production is completely atomized in regards to fertirigation, environment control etc. This technology gives room for larger plants density and consequently, higher yields per unit of area. However, the substrate cultivation is not entirely adopted by the operators and they are completely dependent on the services provided by the supplier. It is of crucial importance to support them in this initial period of

  5. Monitoring Greenhouse using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit.K.Nikhade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in science and technology havebeen ledto facilitate monitoring the environment,collecting data, processing the sensed data,threshold-decision making process and lastlyperforming of suitable actions by using ofdistributed wireless sensor networks and actornetworks. Wireless sensor actor networks (WSANis a combination of at least one coordinator nodewith sensors and actor nodes that communicatewirelessly to perform somespecifiedtasks ofsensing, monitoring and actuation.This papersummarizes an idea that can be carriedouttoprovide an efficient control mechanism ofmicroclimateinto greenhouses through theimplementation of aninfrastructure of WirelessSensors Network to control environmentalparameters.

  6. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region. PMID:26729101

  7. Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions From China's Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiaoke

    2014-01-01

    Hydroelectricity has typically been regarded as a green energy source, but reservoirs created for its generation emit greenhouse gases (GHGs) just as natural lakes and rivers do. The role of reservoirs in GHG emissions has been overlooked. Substantial amounts of methane (CH4) are emitted from reservoir surfaces every year, which account for about 20% of the total CH4 emission from inland waters. GHG emissions (transferred into carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents) from some tropical reservoirs even exceed CO2 emissions from thermal power plants if the same amount of electricity is generated.

  8. Greenhouse mechanization: State of the art and future perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Henten, van, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art and future perspective of greenhouse mechanization. Driving forces for mechanization are identified. Dutch greenhouse crop production is used as an example. Analysis of a generic crop production process combined with a review of the state of the art in greenhouse mechanization revealed that the first phases of plant production such as seeding, cutting, grafting and transplanting as well as the final phase of crop production including sorting and packing...

  9. Tomato and cowpea crop evapotranspiration in an unheated greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Junzeng; Peng Shizhang; Luo Yufeng; Jiao Xiyun

    2008-01-01

    With the development of protected cultivation of vegetables in China, it is necessary to study the water requirements of crops in greenhouses. Lysimeter experiments were carried out to investigate tomato (2001) and cowpea (2004) crop evapotranspiration (ETc) in an unheated greenhouse in Eastern China. Results showed remarkably reduced crop evapotranspiration inside the greenhouse as compared with that outside. ETc increased with the growth of the crops, and varied in accordance with the tempe...

  10. Decision support for optimising energy consumption in European greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Korner, O.; D. Warner(Colorado State University); Tzilivakis, J.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.; Heuvelink, E.

    2008-01-01

    Improving existing greenhouse structures in terms of insulation and other features can save energy with significantly lower investment costs than building new greenhouses. Within the EU Framework VI project GREENERGY a decision support system has been developed that offers the potential to be used by the advisory services for growers all over Europe. It evaluates the impacts of either using different greenhouse materials (e.g. for the cover or screens) or building a complete new structure on ...

  11. Up scaling and test results of an advanced Fresnel greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Tuijl, van, B.A.J.; Janssen, H.J.J.; Zwart, de, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    A greenhouse with Fresnel lenses in the south facing roof and a receiver for concentrated Photovoltaics with water cooling (CPVT system) will result in electrical and thermal energy output from the solar energy excess entering a greenhouse. The PV system converts about half of the direct radiation into heat and electricity. During periods with direct radiation this will significantly reduce the heat load on the greenhouse. For an optimal performance the roof elements must be asymmetric with a...

  12. Limits and prospects of photovoltaic covers in Mediterranean greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Marucci; Adolfo Gusman; Barbara Pagniello; Andrea Cappuccini

    2013-01-01

    The use of plastic film coverings has made a significant contribution to the development of greenhouses in Italy and to a new generation of greenhouses that differ from those of Central and Northern Europe: the so called Mediterranean Greenhouse. This is a simple structure with cheap coverings and emergency artificial heating systems. During the winter season, the available solar energy is more than sufficient to meet energy requirements. During the hot season, however, the intense solar radi...

  13. CF3SF5 : a ‘super’ greenhouse gas

    OpenAIRE

    Tuckett, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    One molecule of the anthropogenic pollutant trifluoromethyl sulphur pentafluoride (CF\\(_3\\)SF\\(_5\\)), an adduct of the CF\\(_3\\) and SF\\(_5\\) free radicals, causes more global warming than one molecule of any other greenhouse gas yet detected in the Earth’s atmosphere. That is, it has the highest per molecule radiative forcing of any greenhouse pollutant, and the value of its global warming potential is only exceeded by that of SF\\(_6\\). First, the greenhouse effect is described, the propertie...

  14. Indoor Climate Requirements of Greenhouses in Tokat Region

    OpenAIRE

    Cemek, Bilal; ÜNLÜKARA, Sedat KARAMAN Ali

    2006-01-01

    In this research, the most suitable growing period for greenhouse warm season species was defined based on long term meteorological data. Considering the climate requirements of warm season species, air conditioning periods such as heating, natural ventilation and cooling periods were determined for nine locations in Tokat. In addition, the climate requirements for Tokat were compared to Antalya in which greenhouse production was done very intensively. Winter growing greenhouse production in ...

  15. Continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns across two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K Lee; Steele, Ryan D; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns within a higher-risk longitudinal sample of 55 female participants born into poverty. Infant attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation when participants were 12 and 18 months as well as several decades later with participants' children. Paralleling earlier findings from this sample on the stability of attachment patterns from infancy to young adulthood, results provided evidence for intergenerational continuities in attachment disorganization but not security. Children of adults with histories of infant attachment disorganization were at an increased risk of forming disorganized attachments. Although changes in infant attachment patterns across the two generations were not correlated with individuals' caregiving experiences or interpersonal stresses and supports during childhood and adolescence, higher quality social support during adulthood was associated with intergenerational changes from insecure to secure infant-caregiver attachment relationships. PMID:26213155

  16. Greenhouse gas exchange over grazed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Grasslands act as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and are, in conjunction with livestock production systems, responsible for a large share of GHG emissions. Whereas ecosystem scale flux measurements (eddy covariance) are commonly used to investigate CO2 exchange (and is becoming state-of-the-art for other GHGs, too), GHG emissions from agricultural animals are usually investigated on the scale of individual animals. Therefore eddy covariance technique has to be tested for combined systems (i.e. grazed systems). Our project investigates the ability of field scale flux measurements to reliably quantify the contribution of grazing dairy cows to the net exchange of CO2 and CH4. To quantify the contribution of the animals to the net flux the position, movement, and grazing/rumination activity of each cow are recorded. In combination with a detailed footprint analysis of the eddy covariance fluxes, the animal related CO2 and CH4 emissions are derived and compared to standard emission values derived from respiration chambers. The aim of the project is to test the assumption whether field scale CO2 flux measurements adequately include the respiration of grazing cows and to identify potential errors in ecosystem Greenhouse gas budgets.

  17. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  18. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to assess options and cost of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (with emphasis on carbon dioxide) from human activity in Zimbabwe. A brief description of the country's economy and energy sector, policy and pricing and regulations is given and substantial data related to the country's economy, technology, energy consumption, emission and fuel prices are presented. The energy demand in households and for other sectors in Zimbabwe are assessed, and documented in the case of the former. The reference scenarios on energy demand and supply assess greenhouse gas emissions under conditions whereby the present economic growth trends predominate. Energy efficiency improvements are discussed. Abatement technology options are stated as afforestation for carbon sequestration, more efficient coal-fired industrial boilers, extended use of hydroelectricity, prepayment electric meters, minimum tillage, optimization of coal-fired tobacco barns, industrial power factor correction equipment, domestic biogas digesters, solar water heating systems, time switches in electric geysers, optimization of industrial furnaces, photovoltaic water pumps, production of ammonia from coal for fertilizing purposes, and recovery of coke oven gases for use in thermal power generation. (AB)

  19. Hydrogen Greenhouse Planets Beyond the Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    We show that collision-induced absorption allows molecular hydrogen to act as an incondensible greenhouse gas, and that bars or tens of bars of primordial H2-He mixtures can maintain surface temperatures above the freezing point of water well beyond the "classical" habitable zone defined for CO2 greenhouse atmospheres. Using a 1-D radiative-convective model we find that 40 bars of pure H2 on a 3 Earth-mass planet can maintain a surface temperature of 280K out to 1.5AU from an early-type M dwarf star and 10 AU from a G-type star. Neglecting the effects of clouds and of gaseous absorbers besides H2, the flux at the surface would be sufficient for photosynthesis by cyanobacteria (in the G star case) or anoxygenic phototrophs (in the M star case). We argue that primordial atmospheres of one to several hundred bars of H2-He are possible, and use a model of hydrogen escape to show that such atmospheres are likely to persist further than 1.5 AU from M stars, and 2 AU from G stars, assuming these planets have protect...

  20. Nuclear power and greenhouse - twin issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that nuclear electric power generation has been widely vilified in recent years. Its detractors have gained ascendancy over its proponents in guiding the political processes that control the approval of new civilian nuclear power stations for electricity generation in many countries. As a consequence, worldwide nuclear capacity growth is slowing to about 2.5% per year through the 1990s with a potential decline in nuclear capacity thereafter. This is occurring despite nuclear power's excellent record of safety and economy in comparison with other means of producing electricity, and while technical developments to improve this record continue. Proponents hope that its virtue of being the only proven means of generating electricity worldwide on a large scale that does not produce any greenhouse gases will appeal to environmentalists and help lead to a renewed nuclear age. This paper suggests that more than hope and rational argument based on scientific facts are needed to persuade the public to revise its opinion of nuclear power. A widespread nuclear fear based in part on ignorance, misinformation, and nuclear mythology, encouraged by nuclear opponents and ineptly countered by nuclear advocates, has had an important role in creating this situation. The greenhouse issues, closely resembling the nuclear issues in a number of ways, are also discussed. 23 refs

  1. Hydropower may produce more greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to this article, dam projects in hydropower development may lead to increased emission of greenhouse gases and may create great inconveniences for the local community. Hence it is not without problems to sponsor such projects through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. In many countries the great era of hydroelectric development is over and the potential is now in the developing countries. The aim of the CDM is two-fold: sustainable development in the developing countries, and cheap reduction of greenhouse gas emission from developed nations. It has been agreed upon in the climate negotiations that it is the developing country receiving the investments that shall document that the projects conform to the goal of sustainable development of that country. The concept of sustain ability is a vague one, and it is a great challenge to make it more precise so that requirements may be posed on CDM projects. This is important as projects that are suitable from a climate point of view may have undesirable environmental or social effects, which may be in conflict with the goal of sustainable development. This also pertains to hydropower. It also appears that water reservoirs are not always as clean as has been assumed

  2. Soil Enzyme Activities with Greenhouse Subsurface Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-Long; WANG Yao-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Various environmental conditions determine soil enzyme activities, which are important indicators for changes of soil microbial activity, soil fertility, and land quality. The effect of subsurface irrigation scheduling on activities of three soil enzymes (phosphatase, urease, and catalase) was studied at five depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-60 cm) of a tomato greenhouse soil. Irrigation was scheduled when soil water condition reached the maximum allowable depletion(MAD) designed for different treatments (-10, -16, -25, -40, and -63 kPa). Results showed that soil enzyme activities had significant responses to the irrigation scheduling during the period of subsurface irrigation. The neutral phosphatase activity and the catalase activity were found to generally increase with more frequent irrigation (MAD of -10 and -16kPa). This suggested that a higher level of water content favored an increase in activity of these two enzymes. In contrast,the urease activity decreased under irrigation, with less effect for MAD of -40 and -63 kPa. This implied that relatively wet soil conditions were conducive to retention of urea N, but relatively dry soil conditions could result in increasing loss of urea N. Further, this study revealed that soil enzyme activities could be alternative natural bio-sensors for the effect of irrigation on soil biochemical reactions and could help optimize irrigation management of greenhouse crop production.

  3. Reducing greenhouse gases: Promoting an international accord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports on a Cornell Center for the Environmental sponsored workshop to explore the prospects for reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide as well as others through voluntary, market-based international accords. Cornell specialists in a range of fields were joined by participants from other universities and policy groups. The topics discussed covered the threat to the biosphere, why international measures are essential, and how they might be implemented. Tradeoffs in terms of emission sources and sinks were explored, along with issues of technology transfer. A panel of experts considered the potential interactions between increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases and agriculture, transportation systems, and national politics. Several participants presented the perspectives of developing nations. Other speakers discussed strategies for effluent monitoring to insure compliance with international accords, including the development and use of remote-sensing technology. The prospects for market-based mechanisms to alleviate other environmental problems, including the threat to biodiversity, were discussed by Cornell biology professor Thomas Eisner

  4. Algorithm of heating temperature for Chongqing's winter greenhouses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shou-yong; LI Xi-wen; YANG Shu-zi; YANG Ming-jin

    2007-01-01

    Internal temperature is crucial to plant growth in the greenhouse. We investigated the patterns of constructing and managing greenhouses in Chongqing, and developed an algorithm of heating temperature for closed winter plastic greenhouses under the conditions of no man-made illumination, no ventilation and hot wind machine as the heating equipment, which are the most adopted pattern of greenhouses in Chongqing area. The algorithm includes two functions of temperature outside the greenhouse, which calculate the values of the warming estimation coefficient (WEC) and the gap between temperatures inside and outside the greenhouse with the measured data of outside temperature, and then give the value of internal temperature; the heat rating of heating facilities required by a greenhouse can be determined by this algorithm with given values of floor area and internal temperature, measured outside temperature and calculated WEC. Verification of the algorithm demonstrates a desirable accuracy of estimation. Algorithms of computing heating temperature for greenhouses of different constructing and managing patterns and in different geographic conditions can also be derived in a similar way. This research presents a paradigm for developing a feasible method to fit out greenhouses with appropriate heating facilities, aiming at energy efficient and cost efficient production.

  5. Monitoring of climate variables in semi-closed greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Gieling, T.H.; Campen, J.B.; Dieleman, J. A.; Garcia Victoria, N.; Janssen, H.J.J.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Kromwijk, J.A.M.; Raaphorst, M.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Growers and Dutch government have concluded a covenant in which they express the ambition to reduce the carbon footprint of greenhouse production in order to improve the energy neutrality of newly built greenhouses. Conditioned cultivation in (semi-)closed greenhouses is seen as one of the instruments to reach this goal. It is appointed in the covenant to arrive in 2011 at 700 ha and in 2020 at 2,500 ha semi-closed greenhouses. This paper describes the instruments used to monitor the results ...

  6. Denmark's greenhouse gas projections until 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The purpose of the project is to make 'with measures' projections of the emissions from Danish sources of the greenhouse gases, CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6. The 'with measures' projection encompas currently implemented and adopted policies and measures. The time period covered is from 1972, the first year detailed Danish energy statistics were produced, until the first commitment period (2002-2012) under the Kyoto Protocol to the Climate Convention. Estimations of HFCs, PFCs and SF6-emissions and projections have not been carried out in this project, but are included for the purpose of full greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting. These estimations cover only the period from 1990 until 2008-2012. The last year with historic information is 1999. Only emissions caused by human activities are included in the calculation. However, it can sometimes be difficult to draw the borderline between emissions from nature and anthropogenic emissions. Due to difference between the methodology used in this project and the methodology (CORINAIR) used by the National Environmental Research Institute for the purpose of annual reporting the estimated emissions presented for the period 1990-1999 may deviate from the official emission estimates report to the EU and the Climate Convention (UNFCCC). Therefore the GHG emission estimates presented in this report for the period until 2000 should only be seen as an illustration of the order of magnitude. This is also the case for the parts of the trend analyses, which are based on the historic data coming from this project. The description of the emissions in the report is structured according to the IPCC sectors: 1) Energy. 2) Industrial processes. 3) Agriculture. 4) Land use change and forestry. 5) Waste. The NMVOC emission from solvent use and other sources is included as a souce of CO2 emission. A separate chapter is dedicated to each of these sectors

  7. The Association between State Attachment Security and State Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Pepping, Christopher A.; Penelope J Davis; Analise O'Donovan

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that attachment and mindfulness are related, though the nature of this association is unclear. Here we present two studies examining whether there is a causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness. Study 1 investigated the effects of experimentally increasing state mindfulness on state attachment security. State mindfulness was successfully enhanced, but this led to no change in state attachment security. Study 2 investigated the effects of exper...

  8. Examinations on retention of overdentures with elastic frictional attachments

    OpenAIRE

    W. Chladek; G. Chladek; M. Wrzuś-Wieliński; J. Żmudzki

    2010-01-01

    frictional attachments.Design/methodology/approach: The examinations of retention characteristics of traditional attachments, elastic frictional attachments and models of overdentures have been carried out using Zwick testing machine. Retention forces and work essential for separating the attachments have been determined as well. Next the force – displacement characteristics for overdenture model have been registered for two places where the force was applied and for three inclination angles ...

  9. Attachment at work: its construct, discriminant, and predictive validity.

    OpenAIRE

    Neustadt, E.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with Attachment Theory (e.g. Bowlby, 1969/82 1973 1980) as it may apply to adults at work, with particular attention to the bearing of attachment orientation on management style and job performance. Chapter 1 provides an overview of attachment theory, existing measures and salient measurement issues Chapter 2 examines the literature, with a particular focus on adult attachment. Chapters 3-9 present a series of studies that entail testing the construct, discrimin...

  10. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): An Item Response Theory Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q.

    2013-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6–16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item resp...

  11. Giardia lamblia Attachment Force Is Insensitive to Surface Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, W. R.; Tulyathan, O.; Dawson, S. C.; Cande, W Z; Fletcher, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    Giardia lamblia cell populations show 90% detachment from glass under normal forces of 2.43 ± 0.33 nN applied by centrifugation. Detachment forces were not significantly different for cells attached to positively charged, hydrophobic, or inert surfaces than for cells attached to plain glass. The insensitivity of attachment force to surface treatment is consistent with a suction-based mechanism of attachment.

  12. Neurobiology of secure infant attachment and attachment despite adversity: a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T L; Raineki, C; Salstein, L; Perry, R; Sullivan-Wilson, T A; Sloan, A; Lalji, B; Hammock, E; Wilson, D A; Levitt, P; Okutani, F; Kaba, H; Sullivan, R M

    2013-10-01

    Attachment to an abusive caregiver has wide phylogenetic representation, suggesting that animal models are useful in understanding the neural basis underlying this phenomenon and subsequent behavioral outcomes. We previously developed a rat model, in which we use classical conditioning to parallel learning processes evoked during secure attachment (odor-stroke, with stroke mimicking tactile stimulation from the caregiver) or attachment despite adversity (odor-shock, with shock mimicking maltreatment). Here we extend this model to mice. We conditioned infant mice (postnatal day (PN) 7-9 or 13-14) with presentations of peppermint odor and either stroking or shock. We used (14) C 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) to assess olfactory bulb and amygdala metabolic changes following learning. PN7-9 mice learned to prefer an odor following either odor-stroke or shock conditioning, whereas odor-shock conditioning at PN13-14 resulted in aversion/fear learning. 2-DG data indicated enhanced bulbar activity in PN7-9 preference learning, whereas significant amygdala activity was present following aversion learning at PN13-14. Overall, the mouse results parallel behavioral and neural results in the rat model of attachment, and provide the foundation for the use of transgenic and knockout models to assess the impact of both genetic (biological vulnerabilities) and environmental factors (abusive) on attachment-related behaviors and behavioral development. PMID:23927771

  13. Attachment icebergs: Maternal and child health nurses' evaluation of infant-caregiver attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Edith; Ridgway, Lael; Lucas, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    Secure attachment of infants to their caregiver is important when promoting the emotional wellbeing and mental health of infants. Maternal and child health (MCH) nurses are well positioned to observe the quality of interactions between infants and caregivers and to assess and intervene. However, as yet there are no approved methods to assess the emotional and mental health of infants in community settings. A qualitative descriptive study of 12 MCH nurses in Victoria, Australia, using semi-structured interviews, was thematically analysed. The data revealed that nurses used many skills to identify and manage attachment difficulties. Key among these were observations of interactions, collaboration with caregivers and reflective practice. Assessments and interventions are also influenced by nurses' emotions, attitudes and workplace factors. An unexpected finding was that attachment markers can be likened to an 'iceberg': warning indicators at the tip can be easily observed by the nurse, while the less obvious underlying factors need to be explored in order to support attachment and improve infant mental health outcomes. Education for nurses should include concepts of attachment and link behaviours with emotional wellbeing. PMID:27276798

  14. Attachment Organization and History of Suicidal Behavior in Clinical Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Kenneth S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents in psychiatric treatment (N=133) participated in a case-comparison study investigating the association of attachment patterns with a history of suicidal behaviors. Attachment patterns were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. In accordance with definitions provided in the scoring system, 86% of case and 78% of comparison…

  15. Device and process for attachment of parts to rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagla, Jon J.; Lowry, Robert W.; Mears, Otho L.

    1992-04-01

    An attachment platform positioned longitudinally on a rocket motor chamber and secured with laser welding techniques is described. Each attachment platform is continuously sealed longitudinally to the rocket motor chamber through the application of laser welding and optical seam tracking. Application of laser welding techniques allows for repair and installation of attachment platforms on rocket motors fully loaded with live propellant.

  16. Divergence in Siblings' Adult Attachment Security: Potential Contributors and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Keren

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has revealed only modest concordance in attachment security between siblings during childhood and adolescence. The first goal of this dissertation was to estimate sibling concordance in adult attachment security and identify factors contributing to divergence. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered to young adult…

  17. Attachment Representations and Characteristics of Friendship Relations during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that experiences with the primary caregivers are an important basis for the development of close social relationships outside the parent-child relationship. This study examined the association between representations of attachment, as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), representations of friendship and…

  18. Attachment and Social Problem Solving in Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Saritha S.; And Others

    This study investigates characteristics of juvenile delinquency and youth violence by examining attachment and social problem skills. Attachment theory integrates features of psychoanalytic theory, ethology, and cognitive psychology. Research on adolescent attachment suggests that parents continue to function as a secure base for their teenage…

  19. Predictors of Child Molestation: Adult Attachment, Cognitive Distortions, and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low…

  20. Anxious attachment may be a vulnerability factor for developing embitterment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, D.; Middendorp, H. van; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    By predisposing to ego-defensive strategies in social situations, a negative attachment history may promote embitterment. The present study identified attachment anxiety - more than attachment avoidance - as a possible vulnerability factor for the development and maintenance of embitterment. This fa

  1. Epistemological Development and Attachment in European College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Carla; Soares, Isabel; Silva, Carolina; Bastos, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Epistemological development and attachment theory have been independent frameworks for understanding psychological development. This study examined the association between epistemological development (using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection) and attachment (using the Adult Attachment Interview) in a sample of 60 pre- and postgraduated…

  2. Perceptions of Attachment Style and Marital Quality in Midlife Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollist, Cody S.; Miller, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    Based on attachment theory, Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) theorizes that attachment styles influence marital quality. Although research supports this relationship among young couples, no research has examined attachment styles and marital quality in midlife marriages. We examined this issue using data from 429 married people between the ages…

  3. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  4. 温室效应和温室气体监测%Greenhouse effect and greenhouse gases monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩香玉; 卢照方

    2011-01-01

    近年来,大气中温室气体含量的增加及其产生的温室效应,对气候和生态系统造成了一系列影响,因而对大气中温室气体含量的监测显得更为迫切.%Recently the increasing content of greenhouse gases in atmosphere and the greenhouse effect have created a series of influences on the climate and ecosystem, so it is urgent to minitor the content of greenhouse gases in atomosphere. This paper gives a general review of monitoring technologies for greenhouse gases.

  5. Attachments to the common-place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on ethnographic work concerning on-going collective efforts in the Japanese city of Kyoto aiming to reposition a vernacular style of wooden housing, known as kyō-machiya, into a hybrid eco-design widely considered an appropriate local response to the global challenges of climate...... change. To understand the dynamic interplay of architecture and community-building in this case, the article stages a theoretical debate on the politics of shared attachments between three proponents of French pragmatic sociology: Bruno Latour, Antoine Hennion, and Laurent Thévenot. Drawing in particular...

  6. Attachment anxiety and friendship group identification under attachment threat : the moderating role of priming support network expectations.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, H. E. S.; Walsh, J.; Crisp, R. J.; Farrow, C. V.; Waugh, M. J.; BLISSETT, J.; Millings, A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the role of priming participants’ own network expectations on their subsequent identification with their friendship group. We examined this prime alongside attachment anxiety and attachment threat, as predictors of friendship group identification. Previous research has suggested that attachment anxiety is associated with negative network expectations. In this study, we extended this work to show that when a network expectation prime was absent, higher attachment anxiety was ass...

  7. The Relation of Insecure Attachment States of Mind and Romantic Attachment Styles to Adolescent Aggression in Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Miga, Erin M.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell

    2010-01-01

    The relation of attachment states of mind and self reported attachment relationship styles to romantic partner aggression was examined in a community sample of 93 adolescents. Higher levels of insecure-preoccupied and insecure-dismissing states of mind, as assessed by the Adolescent Attachment Interview at age 14, were predictive, respectively, of perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression in romantic relationships four years later. Partners’ romantic attachment anxiety was li...

  8. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Alhede

    Full Text Available For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non

  9. Attachment and God Representations among Lay Catholics, Priests, and Religious: A Matched Comparison Study Based on the Adult Attachment Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassibba, Rosalinda; Granqvist, Pehr; Costantini, Alessandro; Gatto, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Based on the idea that believers' perceived relationships with God develop from their attachment-related experiences with primary caregivers, the authors explored the quality of such experiences and their representations among individuals who differed in likelihood of experiencing a principal attachment to God. Using the Adult Attachment Interview…

  10. Mothers of Securely Attached Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Are More Sensitive than Mothers of Insecurely Attached Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren-Karie, Nina; Oppenheim, David; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    In the current study we examined the links between maternal sensitivity and children's secure attachment in a sample of 45 preschool-age boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We hypothesized that mothers of securely attached children would be more sensitive to their children than mothers of insecurely attached children. Children's attachment…

  11. Attachment of killed Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells and membranes to erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To correlate viability with attachment capacity, Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells harvested at different growth phases and treated by various agents were tested for their capacity to attach to human erythrocytes. The results show that viability per se is not essential for M. gallisepticum attachment to erythrocytes, as cells killed by ultraviolet irradiation and membranes isolated by lysing M. gallisepticum cells by various means retained attachment capacity. However, treatment of the mycoplasmas by protein-denaturing agents, such as heart, glutaraldehyde, or prolonged exposure to low pH, drastically affected or even abolished attachment, supporting the protein nature of the mycoplasma membrane components responsible for specific binding to the sialoglycoprotein receptors on the erythrocytes

  12. Secondary traumatization and attachment among wives of former POWs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahav, Yael; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Solomon, Zahava

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the directionality of the association between post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and attachment insecurities across time among indirect trauma survivors. Wives of former prisoners of war (ex-POWs), with and without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD...... controls. There were significant associations between PTSS and attachment insecurities. Contrary to the hypothesis, the relationship between PTSS and attachment insecurities among wives of ex-POWs was unidirectional, with attachment anxiety at T1 predicting PTSS at T2, and not vice versa. Results indicate...... that attachment anxiety might act as a risk factor for secondary traumatic reactions....

  13. New Evidence of an Enhanced Greenhouse Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Benestad, Rasmus E

    2011-01-01

    The state of earth's climate is constrained by well-known physical principles such as energy balance and the conservation of energy. Increased greenhouse gas concentrations affect the atmospheric optical depth, and physical consistency implies that changes in the energy transfer in terms of infra-red light must be compensated by other means of energy flow. Here, a simple heuristic and comprehensive model is used to interpret new aspects of real-world data. It is shown that trends in tropospheric overturning activity and the estimated altitude where earth's bulk heat loss should place are two independent indicators of climate change. There has been increased vertical overturning in the middle and upper parts of the troposphere since 1995 on a global scale. Greater overturning compensates for reduced radiative energy transfer associated with increased optical depth. An increased optical depth is also expected to raise the altitude from where planetary bulk heat loss takes place according to the heuristic model,...

  14. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boer, IJM; Cederberg, C; Eady, S;

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG. They...... did not account for the complex interrelated effects on other GHGs or their relation with other aspects of sustainability, such as eutrophication, animal welfare, land use or food security. Current decisions on GHG mitigation in animal production, therefore, are hindered by the complexity and...... uncertainty of the combined effect of GHG mitigation options on climate change and their relation with other aspects of sustainability. There is an urgent need to integrate simulation models at animal, crop and farm level with a consequential life cycle sustainability assessment to gain insight into the...

  15. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements from ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stowasser, Christopher

    new sub-millennial-scale features, estimates of methane growth rates and new depth markers for cross-dating, which significantly improve our understanding of past changes of methane. (2) Methane and carbon monoxide mixing ratios were measured together with many chemical proxies along the NEEM shallow...... individual ice core samples, and to measure the mixing ratio of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the extracted air. The discrete measurements have become highly accurate and reproducible, but require relatively large amounts of ice per measured species and are both time...... core (410 m) and reveal the existence of non-atmospheric, high- frequency methane (carbon monoxide) signals in the ice and their relation to elevated concentrations of carbon- and nitrogen-based chemical impurities (pyrogenic aerosols). (3) Chemical impurities and methane mixing ratios were measured in...

  16. Climate change and greenhouse gas awareness study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perreault, C.; Aubin, P.; Auger, G. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-03-01

    Approximately 10 per cent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions result from agricultural production activities. This report assessed the level of understanding that farmers have on the issue of climate change and GHG emissions. It also examined the impact that their decisions have on soil, land, and livestock management. This information is intended to assist governments and industry in the development of policies aimed at meeting Canada's commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. In January-February of 2001, Leger Marketing conducted interviews with 1,643 producers from across Canada whose main farm type was field crops, beef cattle, dairy, hogs or poultry and whose annual gross farm revenues exceeded $10,000. The objective was to determine the farmers' level of awareness of climate change issues and GHG emissions in agriculture. The results of the survey indicated that producers generally do not understand how the agricultural sector contributes to climate change and GHG emissions. 5 tabs., 39 figs.

  17. Computing land use emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model has been developed to estimate the regional emission of greenhouse gases from land-use related sources. Driving forces for this model are the changing regional demand for food and wood products driven by demographic and economic developments. To include the environmental conditions, which are essential factors determining the flux for certain sources, emissions are grid-based where possible. Grid-based explicit calculations are given for CH4 emission from rice, wetlands, emissions from deforestation, savanna burning and agricultural waste burning and N2O from natural soils, arable lands and deforestation. For a number of sources (landfills, domestic sewage treatment, termites, methane hydrates and aquatic sources) geographically explicit calculations are not yet possible because of data limitations. For most of the sources the global results of the calculations are in agreement with other scenario studies, although there are differences for a number of individual sources. 59 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs

  18. Recycling of greenhouse gases via methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Eliasson, B.; Kogelschatz, U. [ABB Corporate Research Center, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere can be mitigated by using direct control technologies (capture, disposal or chemical recycling). We report on carbon dioxide and methane recycling with other chemicals, especially with hydrogen and oxygen, to methanol. Methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} is investigated on various catalysts at moderate pressures ({<=}30 bar) and temperatures ({<=}300{sup o}C). The catalysts show good methanol activities and selectivities. The conversion of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} to methanol is also studied in a silent electrical discharge at pressures of 1 to 4 bar and temperatures close to room temperature. Methanol yields are given for mixtures of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} and also for CH{sub 4} and air mixtures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  19. Landfill gas and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases are believed to be largely attributable to anthropogenic activities. Atmospheric methane concentrations are currently increasing at a rate of 1% per year. Methane is responsible for almost 20% of current increases in commitment to global warming. Major anthropogenic sources of methane include landfills, coal mining, and the production and distribution of natural gas. Early analysis of the global methane sources indicates potential for stabilization through the prevention/mitigation of some portions of the anthropogenic sources. This paper presents an overview of the current understanding of methane emissions from landfills that contribute to global climate change. The factors affecting landfill emissions are described and the uncertainties are identified. (author)

  20. Charisma and attachment theory: a crossdisciplinary interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberbach, D

    1995-08-01

    The attachment theory of Bowlby and his followers has not previously been applied to the interpretation of charismatic phenomena in the bonding of large numbers of people with their leaders in crisis. This essay, which builds on the author's 'Surviving trauma: loss, literature and psychoanalysis', attempts to use attachment theory and sociological concepts such as homogamy, anomie, negative imprinting and de-individuation, as well as classical Freudian concepts such as transference and splitting of the ego, in interpreting the charismatic bond. It is argued that charismatic homogamy becomes viable at the point of intersection between the inner world of the charismatic leader and social and political reality. The bonding of the individual and the public may be based partly upon a symbolic link between public crisis and the charismatic's experience of trauma that has deeply scarred or even ended the affectional bonds in his family of orientation. This trauma, however, is a source of insight and power as well as of disability, for it has schooled him in crisis and given him the capacity to offer directional leadership. The charismatic and his society are bonded in crisis through a mutual attempt to break free of anomie and alienation, and a sense of powerlessness and despair. PMID:8543437

  1. Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, O.; Arena, L.; Griffiths, D.

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for measuring air leakage is to use a single blower door to pressurize and/or depressurize the test unit. In detached housing, the test unit is the entire home and the single blower door measures air leakage to the outside. In attached housing, this 'single unit', 'total', or 'solo' test method measures both the air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces as well air leakage to the outside. Measuring and minimizing this total leakage is recommended to avoid indoor air quality issues between units, reduce energy losses to the outside, reduce pressure differentials between units, and control stack effect. However, two significant limitations of the total leakage measurement in attached housing are: for retrofit work, if total leakage is assumed to be all to the outside, the energy benefits of air sealing can be significantly over predicted; for new construction, the total leakage values may result in failing to meet an energy-based house tightness program criterion. The scope of this research is to investigate an approach for developing a viable simplified algorithm that can be used by contractors to assess energy efficiency program qualification and/or compliance based upon solo test results.

  2. Jet-diffuser Ejector - Attached Nozzle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, M.; Wu, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Attached primary nozzles were developed to replace the detached nozzles of jet-diffuser ejectors. Slotted primary nozzles located at the inlet lip and injecting fluid normal to the thrust axis, and rotating the fluid into the thrust direction using the Coanda Effect were investigated. Experiments indicated excessive skin friction or momentum cancellation due to impingement of opposing jets resulted in performance degradation. This indicated a desirability for location and orientation of the injection point at positions removed from the immediate vicinity of the inlet surface, and at an acute angle with respect to the thrust axis. Various nozzle designs were tested over a range of positions and orientations. The problems of aircraft integration of the ejector, and internal and external nozzle losses were also considered and a geometry for the attached nozzles was selected. The effect of leaks, protrusions, and asymmetries in the ejector surfaces was examined. The results indicated a relative insensitivity to all surface irregularities, except for large protrusions at the throat of the ejector.

  3. [Early attachement relationships and epigenetic customization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Giordana; Serio, Valentina; Carluccio, Giuseppe Mattia; Marini, Isabella; Meuti, Valentina; Zaccagni, Michela; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Aceti, Franca

    2015-01-01

    Recently, new findings in epigenetic science switched the focus from the observation of physiological intragenomic dynamics to the idea of an environmental co-construction of phenotypic expression. In psichodynamic field, objectual relations and attachement theoreticians emphasized the interpersonal dimension of individual development, focusing the attention on the relational matrix of self organization. The construction of stable affective-behavioral traits throughout different parenting styles has actually found a coincidence in ethological studies, which have explored the epigenetic processes underlying the relationship between caregiving and HPA stress responsiveness. An adequate parenting style seems to support affective regulation throughout psychobiological hidden moderators, which would tend to rebalance the physiological systems homeostasis; an unconfident attachment style would promote, on the other hand, the allostatic load rise. Sites of longlife epigenetic susceptibility have also been identified in humans; although associated with risk of maladaptive developing in adverse environmental conditions, they seem to confer protection under favorable conditions. This persisting possibility of reorganization of stable traits throughout lifetime, which seems to be activated by a relevant environmental input, grant to significant relationships, and to therapeutical one as well, an implicit reconditioning potential which could result into the configuration of new stable affective-behavioral styles. PMID:26418595

  4. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project initiated by the United Nations Environment Programme aims to clarify some economic issues involved in greenhouse gas limitation by carrying out comparative studies of various nations. The programme should contribute to the establishment of a consistent methodological framework for making cost assessments of greenhouse gas abatement and help to support countries in the process of establishing national and international agreements on actions to combat climate change. The publication gives a survey of Danish energy demand and supply, emissions and current energy policy issues and reviews existing studies of carbon dioxide reductions. This includes the overall national environmental policy and the plan of action for the transport sector. Conclusions are that there seems to be a long-term potential for significant reduction of CO2 emission by 10-15% by 2010 with no additional costs, a 50% reduction will cost DKK 25-50 per kg reduced CO2. The most promising options include increased use of cogeneration of heat and electricity, and electricity conservation in households, services and in industry. Economic growth is forecast as ca. 2.7% and energy prices for oil products should increase by ca. 4.8%. A 40% reduction of CO2 emission in the year 2005 would increase costs by 1-2%, and a reduction of two thirds of present emission should be possible at no additional cost compared to the reference cases. There is general agreement that a reduction of carbon dioxide emission of 15-30% by 2005-10 should involve no additional costs to society. (AB) (11 refs.)

  5. An Impact Triggered Runaway Greenhouse on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, T. L.; McKay, C. P.; Toon, O. B.

    2004-01-01

    When a planet is in radiative equilibrium, the incoming solar flux balances the outgoing longwave flux. If something were to perturb the system slightly, say the incoming solar flux increased, the planet would respond by radiating at a higher surface temperature. Since any radiation that comes in must go out, if the incoming is increased, the outgoing must also increase, and this increase manifests itself as a warmer equilibrium temperature. The increase in solar flux would correspond to an increase in temperature, which would increase the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere due to increased evaporation. Since water vapor is a greenhouse gas, it would absorb more radiation in the atmosphere leading to a yet warmer equilibrium temperature. The planet would reach radiative equilibrium at this new temperature. There exists a point, however, past which this positive feedback leads to a "runaway" situation. In this case, the planet does not simply evaporate a little more water and eventually come to a slightly higher equilibrium temperature. Instead, the planet keeps evaporating more and more water until all of the planet's available liquid and solid water is in the atmosphere. The reason for this is generally understood. If the planet's temperature increases, evaporation of water increases, and the absorption of radiation increases. This increases the temperature and the feedback continues until all water is in the atmosphere. The resulting equilibrium temperature is very high, much higher than the equilibrium temperature of a point with slightly lower solar flux. One can picture that as solar flux increases, planetary temperature also increases until the runaway point where temperature suddenly "jumps" to a higher value, in response to all the available water now residing in the atmosphere. This new equilibrium is called a "runaway greenhouse" and it has been theorized that this is what happened to the planet Venus, where the surface temperature is more than 700 K

  6. Ideas of Elementary Students about Reducing the "Greenhouse Effect."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Claire; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents the results of a questionnaire given to 563 elementary students to study their ideas of actions that would reduce the greenhouse effect. Most of the children (87%) appreciated that planting trees would help reduce global warming. During interviews it was discovered that children were confused between the greenhouse effect and ozone layer…

  7. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

  8. USDA, ARS European long greenhouse cucumber inbred backcross line population

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of 116 European Long Greenhouse market type inbred backcross lines (IBL) were released in January 2011 by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. The IBL were developed by initially crossing an elite commercial European Long Greenhouse line and PI 432858...

  9. Toward optimal control of flat plate photobioreactors: the greenhouse analogy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, van G.; Slegers, P.M.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Bosma, R.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The cultivation of algae in photo-bioreactors shows similarities to crop cultivation in greenhouses, especially when the reactors are driven by sun light. Advanced methodologies for dynamic optimization and optimal control for greenhouses are known from earlier research. The aim here is to

  10. The greenhouse effect; L'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development, this paper presents the greenhouse effect and its impact on the climatic change, the world interest from Rio to Buenos Aires, the human activities producing the carbon dioxide and responsible of the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide emission decrease possibilities and shows the necessity of the electric power producers contribution. (A.L.B.)

  11. The greenhouse effect; L'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Simulations used by the climatologists forecast an increase of the world average temperature of 2 degrees between 1990 and 2100, resulting from the greenhouse effect gases. This paper gives examples of consequences of this climatic warming and presents the international agreements to fight against the greenhouse effect gases decided at Rio, Kyoto and, Buenos Aires. (A.L.B.)

  12. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy crops Bioenergy cropping systems could help offset greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, but quantifying that offset is complex. We conducted a life cycle assessment of a range of bioenergy cropping systems to determine the impact on net greenho...

  13. Low environment impact glazing for solariums, greenhouses and skylights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorgan, M.

    1996-08-01

    Various environmentally friendly framing and glazing materials were described. Steel and silicone were favored over aluminum and vinyl. Three projects, involving a triple-glazed sunroom, a double-glazed year-around greenhouse, and a single glazed season extender greenhouse were profiled.

  14. Absorption of Greenhouse Gases in Liquids: A Molecular Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaji, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases is responsible for global warming over the past few years. A major portion of the emitted greenhouse gases contains carbon dioxide (CO2). The capture of carbon dioxide from the effluent sources, its transport, and storage has been identified as the

  15. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Fonte, S.J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon dio

  16. Evaluation of diffusing properties of greenhouse covering materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Breugel, van A.J.; Mohammadkhani, V.

    2016-01-01

    Modern greenhouse covering and screen materials are able to transform direct sunlight into diffuse light. After entering the greenhouse the sunlight is scattered and penetrates the crop where it is absorbed and used for photosynthesis. Diffuse light has been shown to increase light interception o

  17. Decision support for optimising energy consumption in European greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korner, O.; Warner, D.; Tzilivakis, J.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.; Heuvelink, E.

    2008-01-01

    Improving existing greenhouse structures in terms of insulation and other features can save energy with significantly lower investment costs than building new greenhouses. Within the EU Framework VI project GREENERGY a decision support system has been developed that offers the potential to be used b

  18. Intensity of competition in the market of greenhouse vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ivanovich Botkin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the competitive environment of the market greenhouse vegetables. Revealed specific features of the industry, determining the level of intensity of competition in the market greenhouse vegetables. Classified factors internal and external environment, identify indicators that affect the state of the market. The factors that determine the intensity of competition in the market greenhouse vegetables.The main competitors on the Russian market of greenhouse production.Identified indicators of the intensity level of competition, in particular: the level of monopolization of the market greenhouse vegetables, the level of concentration of production in the industry, the generalized index of the intensity of the competitive environment.Shows a comparative analysis of competitors’ market greenhouse vegetables in Udmurtia.Revealed competitive advantages which can help local producers to reduce the pressure of competition and intra-industry to occupy a leading position in the Russian market of greenhouse vegetable production.The dynamics of economic performance of Russian producers. Ways of improving the competitiveness of enterprises for the production of greenhouse vegetables

  19. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2001-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be...

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  1. Current Soil Nutrient Status of Intensively Managed Greenhouses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yun-Cai; SONG Zhi-Wen; LU Wen-Long; C.POSCHENRIEDER; U.SCHMIDHALTER

    2012-01-01

    Nine districts covering the main greenhouse vegetable areas in Tianjin Municipality of the North China Plain were selected for the soil investigation in 2010 to survey the current soil nutrient status (soil available N,P and K),acidification and salinization due to excessive input of fertilizers in greenhouses in Tianjin. The study showed that,in particular,soil available P content increased with the age of greenhouses.In contrast,our results did not reveal higher K accumulation and lowered pH in the greenhouse soils compared with cultivation in open fields.Over-fertilization,causing high NO3- accumulation,most likely resulted in salinity problems in the greenhouses.Ninety percent of the investigated greenhouse soils had electrical conductivity values of saturated paste extracts of 2-10 d S m-1,which might affect the yields of vegetable crops like green bean,pepper,cabbage,carrot,eggplant,lettuce,spinach,celery,cucumber and tomato. The findings of our survey of the current fertility and salinity problems in greenhouse soils suggest that there is an urgent need to improve the farmers' practices and strategies in fertilization management in greenhouses of China.Because education and the agricultural technical extension services may play a more important role in avoiding overuse of fertilizers,we suggest that current nutrient management practices should be improved in the near future through training of local farmers in farmers' schools and through strengthening the agricultural extension services with practical techniques.

  2. Greenhouse mechanization: State of the art and future perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art and future perspective of greenhouse mechanization. Driving forces for mechanization are identified. Dutch greenhouse crop production is used as an example. Analysis of a generic crop production process combined with a review of the state of the art in greenho

  3. Flow of greenhouse gases from mires and organic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Swedish research regarding greenhouse gas emissions from wetlands, both natural and those created for other purposes. Effects on the greenhouse gas balance due to different actions in the ecosystem, like cultivation, peat mining or inundation, is also discussed

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from traditional and biofuels cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropping systems can have a tremendous effect on the greenhouse gas emissions from soils. The objectives of this study were to compare greenhouse gas emissions from traditional (continuous corn or corn/soybean rotation) and biomass (miscanthus, sorghum, switchgrass) cropping systems. Biomass croppin...

  5. Microtrap assembly for greenhouse gas and air pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Somenath; Saridara, Chutarat

    2015-08-25

    A microtrap assembly includes a carbon nanotube sorbent. The microtrap assembly may be employed as a preconcentrator operable to deliver a sample to an analytical device to measure the concentrations of greenhouse gases. A system includes a microtrap having a carbon nanotube sorbent for measuring the concentrations of greenhouse gases in a sample.

  6. Environmental impact of greenhouse tomato production in France

    OpenAIRE

    Boulard, Thierry; Raeppel, Caroline; Brun, Richard; Lecompte, François; Hayer, Franck; Carmassi, Giulia; Gaillard, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impact of greenhouse production in France is poorly documented. Environmental benefits versus drawbacks of greenhouse production are not well known. Assessments that intregrate pesticide toxicology and transfer of mass and energy are scarce. Here, we compared the main types of tomato production, heated, year-round production in plastic houses or glasshouses, and seasonal production under polytunnel. Environmental impacts where assesse...

  7. Mediators of the Link Between Adult Attachment and Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon G. Caldwell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to be mindfully aware of the present moment without judgment is associated with a number of positive psychological and physiological outcomes. Experiences in attachment relationships are related to specific cognitive-emotional patterns that may contribute to dispositional mindfulness. A sample of adults (N = 93 completed questionnaires regarding adult attachment, rumination, thought suppression, attentional control, and mindfulness. Attachment-related avoidance predicted lower levels of mindfulness, a relation mediated by thought suppression and poorer attentional control. Attachment-related anxiety also predicted lower levels of mindfulness, a relation mediated by rumination and poorer attentional control. The results suggest that in the context of insecure attachment relationships thought suppression and rumination defend against personal and interpersonal losses by deactivating (in the case of avoidance or hyperactivating (in the case of anxiety the attachment system. These habitual defensive patterns may be important links between adult attachment orientations and mindfulness.

  8. The association between state attachment security and state Mindfulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Pepping

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that attachment and mindfulness are related, though the nature of this association is unclear. Here we present two studies examining whether there is a causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness. Study 1 investigated the effects of experimentally increasing state mindfulness on state attachment security. State mindfulness was successfully enhanced, but this led to no change in state attachment security. Study 2 investigated the effects of experimentally enhancing state attachment security on state mindfulness. State attachment security was successfully enhanced, but this did not lead to any change in state mindfulness. These findings suggest that there is not a direct, immediate causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness as a result of brief experimental manipulations. Future research should examine these associations in longer term interventions.

  9. Relationship between deposition and attachment rates in Jacobi room model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown in this work that parameters of the Jacobi model, which describes behavior of short-lived radon progeny, are not independent. The relationship between deposition rate of attached radon progeny and attachment rate of their unattached fraction was determined in this paper. It was found that deposition rate increases when the attachment rate is smaller; this effect is more pronounced for larger friction velocity. The deposition rate of attached radon progeny is presented here as a function of friction velocity, ventilation and attachment rate. Deposition rate of attached fraction was estimated in the range 0.012-0.46 h-1, when attachment rate varies from 10 h-1 to 100 h-1.

  10. Energy market reform and greenhouse gas emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report reviews micro-economic reform in the energy market and measures the impact that energy market reform is expected to have on greenhouse gas outcomes. It indicates that reform in the electricity and gas industries is delivering what was promised, an efficient market with lower energy prices and, over the longer term, will deliver a gradually reducing rate of greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy produced. It also recognises that energy market reform has removed some barriers to the entry of less greenhouse gas intense fuels. These trends will result in reduced greenhouse gas intensity in the supply of energy and significant reductions in the growth in greenhouse gas emissions compared to what may have been expected without the reforms

  11. Off-season cultivation of capsicums in a solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, M.K.; Tiwari, G.N. [Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2001-10-01

    The use of solar energy for growing capsicums in pots and in the ground has been studied both under a controlled environment in a solar greenhouse (IIT model) and in an open field during August 2000 to March 2001. Cooling arrangements (natural, forced convection, shading, evaporative cooling) and heating methods (ground air collector, movable insulation during the night) have been employed during the pre-winter and winter periods respectively to maintain the protected environment in the greenhouse. The effects of a north brick wall and the use of movable insulation during the night in the winter months to reduce heat loss from the greenhouse have been incorporated to study the efficacy of the greenhouse. The average height, weight and yield per plant of the greenhouse crop were higher than those of the open field. (author)

  12. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Parenting Behaviours, Parents' Attachment Relationships and Their Use of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyl, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.; Freeman, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, parenting behaviours (i.e. parent-child involvement, parenting consistency and co-parenting consistency) and parenting context (i.e. parents' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a sample of 235 culturally diverse families. The authors predicted that…

  13. Experienced Therapists' Approach to Psychotherapy for Adults with Attachment Avoidance or Attachment Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Katherine D.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2009-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with therapists (N = 12) nominated by peers as especially effective in working with clients with adult interpersonal problems. Open-ended questions asked how these therapists would approach 2 adult clients described in brief vignettes as having high attachment avoidance or anxiety. A coding team used a grounded theory…

  14. Technical Scientific Attaches and domotics. A special issue; Technisch Wetenschappelijk Attaches en domotica. Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinenberg, R.A. [Ministerie van Economische Zaken, The Hague (Netherlands); Uythof, B.H. [Invenit, Domotica Platform Nederland, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Benedetti, D [Ufficio Tecnico-Scientifico, Ambasciata del Regno dei Paesi Bassi, Rome (Italy); Van Wijngaarden, W.L. [Buero fuer Wissenschaft und Technologie, Kgl. Niederlaendische Botschaft, Bonn (Germany); Leniger, H.D.F. [Bureau du Conseiller Scientifique et Technique, Ambassade des Pays-Bas, Paris (France); Kieboom, J.P. [Office for Science and Technology, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Singapore (Singapore); Van Kooij, E.H. [Netherlands Office for Science and Technology, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Tokyo (Japan); Schuurmans, H.J.A. [Netherlands Office for Science and Technology, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In this Dutch magazine Dutch businesses and institutes are informed about technological developments in industrialized countries (USA, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Germany, France and Italy). In this special issue attaches in the different countries present information on developments and trends with respect to domotics, building automation, home networks, etc.

  15. NF ISO 14064-1 Greenhouse gases. Part 1: specifications and guidance at the organization level for quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes methodology for quantification, monitoring of greenhouse gas as well as for drafting of inventory report for organisms. Thus it suggests a method for inventory declarations for organism greenhouse gas and provides support for the monitoring and the management of their emission. It provides the terms and definitions, the principles, the greenhouse gases inventory design, development and components, the greenhouse inventory quality management, the reporting of greenhouse gases and the organization role in verification activities. (A.L.B.)

  16. Failure properties and strain distribution analysis of meniscal attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Diego F; Maes, Jason A; Magee, Sarah D; Donahue, Tammy L Haut

    2007-01-01

    The menisci are frequently injured due to both degeneration and traumatic tearing. It has been suggested that the success of a meniscal replacement is dependent on several factors, one of which is the secure fixation and firm attachment of the replacement to the tibial plateau. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were to (1) determine the failure properties of the meniscal horn attachments, and (2) determine the strain distribution over their surfaces. Eight bovine knee joints were used to study the mechanical response of the meniscal attachments. Three meniscal attachments from one knee of each animal were tested in uniaxial tension at 2%/s to determine the load deformation response. During the tests, the samples were marked and local strain distributions were determined with a video extensometer. The linear modulus of the medial anterior attachment (154+/-134 MPa) was significantly less than both the medial posterior (248+/-179 MPa, p=0.0111) and the lateral anterior attachment (281+/-214 MPa, p=0.0007). Likewise, the ultimate strain for the medial anterior attachments (13.5+/-8.8%) was significantly less than the medial posterior (23+/-13%, p0.05). No significant differences in ultimate strain or moduli across the surface of the attachments were noted. Based on the data obtained, a meniscal replacement would need different moduli for each of the different attachments. However, the attachments appear to be homogeneous. PMID:17359982

  17. Associations between adult attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Murphy, Paul DJ; Bailey, S Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. METHODS: A sample of undergraduate students (n=160) completed the Relationships Structures Questionnaire, which provides global ratings of adult attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance) by assessing attachment across four relationship targets (friend, mother, father and romantic partner). Attitudes regarding the acceptability of pain behaviour were assessed using male and female versions of the Appropriate Pain Behaviour Questionnaire (APBQ). RESULTS: Consistent with the hypothesis, attachment avoidance was negatively correlated with both APBQ-Female and APBQ-Male scores. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between the attachment scales and the APBQ scales while statistically adjusting for sex and testing for interaction effects. The findings revealed complex relationships involving interaction effects that provided further support for the hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provided support for the hypothesis that attachment avoidance is associated with less accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. Additional research regarding the role of attachment and attitudes on responses to pain behaviour is warranted. PMID:21165372

  18. Ecomorphology of parasite attachment: experiments with feather lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah E; Sohn, Edward; Clayton, Dale H

    2006-02-01

    The host specificity of some parasites can be reinforced by morphological specialization for attachment to mobile hosts. For example, ectoparasites with adaptations for attaching to hosts of a particular size might not be able to remain attached to larger or smaller hosts. This hypothesis is suggested by the positive correlation documented between the body sizes of many parasites and their hosts. We adopted an ecomorphological approach to test the attachment hypothesis. We tested the ability of host-specific feather lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) to attach to 6 novel species of pigeons and doves that vary in size by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. Surprisingly, Rock Pigeon lice (Columbicola columbae) remained attached equally well to all 6 novel host species. We tested the relative importance of 3 factors that could facilitate louse attachment: whole-body insertion, tarsal claw use, and mandible use. Insertion, per se, was not necessary for attachment. However, insertion on coarse feathers of large hosts allowed lice to access feather barbules with their mandibles. Mandible use was a key component of attachment regardless of feather size. Attachment constraints do not appear to reinforce host specificity in this system. PMID:16629310

  19. Handcrafting Attachment: A User-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Lowry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Management, above all, is the controlling element responsible for coordinating the three basic business functions; production, marketing, and finance.  Mechanisms exist to facilitate the finance function with influence coming from outside regulatory bodies such as the AICPA, IIA, SEC, and other regulators.  Integrating the finance function into organizations, then, becomes somewhat generic (although some would argue this point.  Coordinating the functions of marketing and production is a much more difficult endeavor because it lacks the standardization seen in finance.  This paper suggests employing a more user-focused approach as a means to improving the overall quality of products, and eventually, the success of the organization.  Specifically, this paper explores the role of the human brain in the calculus of choice, discusses the role of consumer involvement as it leads to product attachment, and offers suggestions for employing contextual research to improve product design and quality.

  20. The Turkish version of Maternal Attachment Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Kavlak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research has been designed as methodological with purpose of the validity and the reliability of the Turkish language version of Maternal Attachment Inventory on mothers within one and four months postpartum. Method: This study was carried out with mothers registered at 19 Health Clinics and three Maternal-Child Health and Family Planning Clinics in which connected to Bornova Health Presidency in Izmir. The sample of research has been composed three clinics in which determined with the purposive sampling technique. First stage, the research was studied on 165 mothers when their babies were approximately 30-40 days old in these registered clinics.At the second stage of research has been interviewed again with 78 mothers when their babies were approximately 90-105 days old.Results: It is determined that experts consensuses about content of items as a result of analysis (Kendall’s W=0.274, p=0.001

  1. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  2. Attached garages and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many homes have attached garages which can be a source of indoor air pollution such as carbon monoxide (CO) benzene, and other volatile organic compounds. The problem with CO in the home usually occurs in winter months because vehicles tend to be warmed in the garage for longer periods and air exchange to the outside is limited. The rate of CO emission from a typical gasoline engine is between 30,000 to 100,000 ppm, making it difficult to provide adequate ventilation and equally difficult to develop a truly gas-tight barrier. Studies have shown that from 5 to 85 per cent of the outdoor air leaking into a house comes through the garage, carrying with it CO and other pollutants. Houses with attached garages typically have gasoline concentrations that are 10 times higher than outdoor levels. Starting a cold car in a garage can send CO levels to more than 80,000 ppm. Also, the car will offgas a wide range of fumes as it cools down after use, leaving CO concentrations in the home at unsafe levels for several hours at a time. The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation and the American Lung Association suggest that the safest way to ensure protection against CO and other pollutants from entering a house is to build a garage detached from the house. Alternatively, walls and doors to the house should be sealed tightly and an exhaust fan venting outdoors should be used in the garage to prevent CO from entering the house. It was cautioned that since fans could depressurize a house, vented appliance such as furnaces, water heaters and boilers, should be checked for proper operation after a garage fan is installed. 1 fig

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  4. The greenhouse gas balance of European grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The long-term carbon balance (NBP of grasslands is estimated by combining scarce multi-year eddy-covariance observations at ecosystem observation sites where information on carbon inputs and harvesting removals is available. Following accounting for carbon leached to rivers, we estimated grasslands to be net carbon sinks of 74±10 g C m−2 yr−1. Uncertainties arise from the small number of sites and the short measurement period. Only 11 sites, out of a total of 20 grassland sites in Europe where eddy covariance systems are installed, were set-up for estimating NBP. These 11 selected sites are representative of intensive management practice and we lack information on disturbance history, such as plowing. This suggests that the grassland NBP estimate is likely biased towards overestimating the sink, compared to the European average. Direct measurements of Net Primary Productivity (NPP are not possible in grasslands given permanent biomass removal by grazing and mowing, uncertainties in rhizodeposition and production of volatile organic carbon compounds lost to the atmosphere. Therefore, the grassland process-based ecosystem model PASIM was used to estimate the spatial-temporal distribution of NPP, providing a European average value of 750±150 g C across extensively grazed, intensively grazed pastures, and forage production systems. In Europe the NPP of grasslands seems higher than that of croplands and forests. The carbon sequestration efficiency of grasslands, defined as the ratio of NBP to NPP, amounts to 0.09±0.10. Therefore, per unit of carbon input, grasslands sequester 3–4 times more carbon in the soil than forests do, making them a good candidate for managing onsite carbon sinks. When using the 100 yr greenhouse warming potential for CH4 and N2O, their emissions due to management of grasslands together offset roughly 70–80% of the carbon sink. Uncertainties on the European grassland

  5. Subtropical Modern Greenhouse Cucumber Canopy Transpiration Under Summer Climate Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Wei-hong; WANG Xiao-han; DING Wei-min; CHEN Yu-qing; DAI Jian-feng

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse canopy transpiration not only has effects on greenhouse air temperature and humidity, but also is important for determining the set-point of fertigation. In this study, Penman-Monteith equation was used to calculate the greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration under summer climate condition.The effects of greenhouse environmental factors on canopy transpiration were analyzed based on the measurements of greenhouse microclimate factors and canopy transpiration. The results showed that Penman-Monteith equation was reliable and robust in estimating greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration under summer climate condition. Greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration rate increased linearly with the increase of net radiation and water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) above the canopy. But the maximum value of the canopy transpiration rate occurred at the same time as that of VPD whereas about two hours later than that of net radiation. Based on the results, it was concluded that in addition to radiation, air humidity should also be considered when determine the set-point of fertigation.

  6. Application Problem of Biomass Combustion in Greenhouses for Crop Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Atsuhiro; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    It is consumed much energy in fossil fuels to production crops in greenhouses in Japan. And fl ue gas as CO2 fertilization is used for growing crops in modern greenhouses. If biomass as renewable energy can use for production vegetables in greenhouses, more than 800,000 kl of energy a year (in crude oil equivalent) will be saved. In this study, at fi rst, we made the biomass combustion equipment, and performed fundamental examination for various pellet fuel. We performed the examination that considered an application to a real greenhouse next. We considered biomass as both a source of energy and CO2 gas for greenhouses, and the following fi ndings were obtained: 1) Based on the standard of CO2 gas fertilization to greenhouses, it is diffi cult to apply biomass as a CO2 fertilizer, so that biomass should be applied to energy use only, at least for the time being. 2) Practical biomass energy machinery for economy, high reliability and greenhouses satisfying the conservatism that it is easy is necessary. 3) It is necessary to develop crop varieties and cultivation systems requiring less strict environmental control. 4) Disposal of combustion ash occurring abundantly, effective practical use is necessary.

  7. An example of fingerprint detection of greenhouse climate changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karoly, D.J.; Cohen, J.A. [Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Meehl, G.A. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    As an example of the technique of fingerprint detection of greenhouse climate change, a multivariate signal or fingerprint of the enhanced greenhouse effect is defined using the zonal mean atmospheric temperature change as a function of height and latitude between equilibrium climate model simulations with control and doubled CO{sub 2} concentrations. This signal is compared with observed atmospheric temperature variations over the period 1963 to 1988 from radiosonde-based global analyses. There is a signiificant increase of this greenhouse signal in the observational data over this period. These results must be treated with caution. Upper air data are available for a short period only, possibly, to be able to resolve any real greenhouse climate change. The greenhouse fingerprint used in this study may not be unique to the enhanced greenhouse effect and may be due to other forcing mechanisms. However, it is shown that the patterns of atmospheric temperature change associated with uniform global increases of sea surface temperature, with El Nino-Southern Oscillation events and with decreases of stratospheric ozone concentrations individually are different from the greenhouse fingerprint used here. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Low Simulated Radiation Limit for Runaway Greenhouse Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Colin; Robinson, Tyler D.; Zahnle, Kevin J.; Crisp, David

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial planet atmospheres must be in long-term radiation balance, with solar radiation absorbed matched by thermal radiation emitted. For hot moist atmospheres, however, there is an upper limit on the thermal emission which is decoupled from the surface temperature. If net absorbed solar radiation exceeds this limit the planet will heat uncontrollably, the so-called \\runaway greenhouse". Here we show that a runaway greenhouse induced steam atmosphere may be a stable state for a planet with the same amount of incident solar radiation as Earth has today, contrary to previous results. We have calculated the clear-sky radiation limits at line-by-line spectral resolution for the first time. The thermal radiation limit is lower than previously reported (282 W/sq m rather than 310W/sq m) and much more solar radiation would be absorbed (294W/sq m rather than 222W/sq m). Avoiding a runaway greenhouse under the present solar constant requires that the atmosphere is subsaturated with water, and that cloud albedo forcing exceeds cloud greenhouse forcing. Greenhouse warming could in theory trigger a runaway greenhouse but palaeoclimate comparisons suggest that foreseeable increases in greenhouse gases will be insufficient to do this.

  9. An assessment of the utilization of waste heat in greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic feasibility of utilizing waste heat from the moderator circuit of the CANDU G-2 reactor to heat greenhouses was examined. Three waste heat recovery systems were compared to a conventional gas-fired system. Each waste heat recovery system involved the recirculation of warm light water from modified moderator heat exchangers through a distribution system to finned-tube heat exchangers in the greenhouses. The distribution system was assumed to service an eight or ten hectare (20-25 acre) greenhouse vegetable industry located immediately outside the 914 m reactor exclusion zone. Two greenhouse configurations were evaluated, one consisting of individual houses connected by a corridor to form 4047 m2 (1 acre) units while the other was a single roof covering 4047 m2. The lowest calculated heating ad ventilation costs for waste heat systems were $9.55 per year per square meter of growing surface for the climate of Winnipeg, Manitoba. A conventional greenhouse heated by natural gas at about $1.50 per 1000 standard cubic feet would experience the same annual heating costs. Three potential improvements to the waste heat utilization system were discussed, each of which would make the system economically competitive at current natural gas prices. Since the price of natural gas is expected to increase above its current level, and since an unfilled, expanding demand for greenhouse-grown produce exists in Canada, the concept of waste heat utilization in greenhouses merits further development. (author)

  10. Implant-supported overdentures: the ZAAG attachment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, S R

    1997-11-01

    It has been amply demonstrated during the last decade that there are significant advantages to implant-supported overdentures beyond conventional complete dentures. Several attachment systems exist for connecting the overdenture to the implants, and practically all of them present notable benefits to the patients. This article discusses the use of the Zest Anchor Advanced Generation (ZAAG). This system, an outgrowth from the original Zest attachment, uses both individual implant attachments and bar attachments, and is compatible with all major implant systems. In addition to the retention, stability, and resiliency the ZAAG implant attachment system provides, it has the advantage of placing the resistance force of the attachment close to the implant body. PMID:9533347

  11. Electron Attachment to DNA and RNA Nucleobases: An EOMCC Investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Chintya Kumar; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    We report a benchmark theoretical investigation of both adiabatic and vertical electron affinities of five DNA and RNA nucleobases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil using state-of-the-art equation of motion coupled cluster (EOMCC) method. We have calculated the vertical electron affinity values of first five electron attached states of the DNA and RNA nucleobases and only the first electron attached state is found to be energetically accessible in gas phase. An analysis of the natural orbitals shows that the first electron attached states of uracil and thymine are valence-bound type and undergo significant structural changes on attachment of excess electron, which is reflected in the deviation of the adiabatic electron affinity from the vertical one. On the other hand, the first electron attached state of cytosine, adenine and guanine are dipole-bound type and their structure remain unaffected on attachment of an extra electron, which results in small deviation of adiabatic electron affinity fro...

  12. Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Promote Secure Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Edginton, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age <13 years). This article aims to inform clinicians about the parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research. PMID:27583298

  13. Hubungan Attachment Terhadap Ayah Dengan Kecerdasan Emosi Pada Remaja Laki-Laki

    OpenAIRE

    Asyava, Tengku Shella

    2011-01-01

    Ainsworth (1969) Attachment is the emotional bond that formed an individual with specific other people, they tied Dalan eternal attachment all the time. . Attachments will survive long enough in human life span that begins with the attachment of children to the mother or substitute mother figure (the father) This study aims to determine the relationship attachment (secure attachment, anxious attachment and avoidant attachment) with father male adolescent emotional intelligence male. Sampling ...

  14. Innovative technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.

  15. Greenhouse gas benefits of fighting obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem in both industrialized and rapidly industrializing countries. It increases greenhouse gas emissions through higher fuel needs for transportation of heavier people, lifecycle emissions from additional food production and methane emissions from higher amounts of organic waste. A reduction of average weight by 5 kg could reduce OECD transport CO2 emissions by more than 10 million t. While the shift from beef to other forms of meat in industrialized and countries in transition has lead to lifecycle emissions savings of 20 million t CO2 equivalent between 1990 and 2005, emissions due to obesity-promoting foodstuffs have increased by more than 400 million t in advanced developing countries. Emissions in OECD countries could be reduced by more than 4 million t through reduction of associated food waste. Due to the intimate behavioural nature of the obesity problem, policies to reduce obesity such as food taxation, subsidization of human-powered transport, incentives to reduce sedentary leisure and regulation of fat in foodstuffs have not yet been implemented to any extent. The emissions benefits of fiscal and regulatory measures to reduce obesity could accelerate the tipping point where a majority of voters feels that the problem warrants policy action. (author)

  16. Modeling of greenhouse gas emission from livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo eJose

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on humans and other living ecosystems is an area of on-going research. The ruminant livestock sector is considered to be one of the most significant contributors to the existing greenhouse gas (GHG pool. However the there are opportunities to combat climate change by reducing the emission of GHGs from ruminants. Methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O are emitted by ruminants via anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the rumen and manure, and by denitrification and nitrification processes which occur in manure. The quantification of these emissions by experimental methods is difficult and takes considerable time for analysis of the implications of the outputs from empirical studies, and for adaptation and mitigation strategies to be developed. To overcome these problems computer simulation models offer substantial scope for predicting GHG emissions. These models often include all farm activities while accurately predicting the GHG emissions including both direct as well as indirect sources. The models are fast and efficient in predicting emissions and provide valuable information on implementing the appropriate GHG mitigation strategies on farms. Further, these models help in testing the efficacy of various mitigation strategies that are employed to reduce GHG emissions. These models can be used to determine future adaptation and mitigation strategies, to reduce GHG emissions thereby combating livestock induced climate change.

  17. The greenhouse effect and the Arctic ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact on the Arctic ice of global warming is important for many people and for the environment. Less ice means changed conditions for the Inuits, hard times for the polar bears and changed conditions for the fishing sector. There is at present some uncertainty about the thickness of the ice and what might be the cause of its oscillation. It was reported a few years ago that the thickness of the ice had almost been reduced by 50 per cent since the 1950s and some researchers suggested that within a few decades the ice would disappear during the summer. These measurements have turned out not to be representative for the whole Arctic region, and it now appears that a great deal of the measured thickness variation can be attributed to changes in the atmospheric circulation. The article discusses the Arctic Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation in relation to the ice thickness, and climate models. Feedback mechanisms such as reduced albedo may have a big impact in the Arctic in a global greenhouse warming. Model simulations are at variance, and the scenarios for the future are uncertain

  18. Greenhouse gas flux dynamics in wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvola, J.; Alm, J.; Saarnio, S. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1996-12-31

    Two important greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, are closely connected to the carbon cycling of wetlands. Although virgin wetlands are mostly carbon accumulating ecosystems, major proportion of the CO{sub 2} bound annually in photosynthesis is released back to the atmosphere. Main portion of the carbon cycling in wetlands is quite fast while a small proportion of carbon diffusing from soil is released from organic matter, which may be ten thousand years old. Methane is formed in the anaerobic layers of wetlands, from where it is released gradually to the atmosphere. The decomposition in anaerobic conditions is very slow, which means that usually only a few percent of the annual carbon cycling takes place as methane. Research on CO{sub 2} fluxes of different virgin and managed peatlands was the main topic of this project during the first phase of SILMU. The measurements were made during two seasons in varying conditions in c. 30 study sites. In the second phase of SILMU the research topics were the spatial and temporal variation of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes, the relationships between vegetation and gas fluxes as well as carbon balance studies in wetlands at some intensive sites

  19. Embodied greenhouse gas emissions in diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Juergen P

    2013-01-01

    Changing food consumption patterns and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. The agricultural sector is one of the major GHG emitters and thus holds a large potential for climate change mitigation through optimal management and dietary changes. We assess this potential, project emissions, and investigate dietary patterns and their changes globally on a per country basis between 1961 and 2007. Sixteen representative and spatially differentiated patterns with a per capita calorie intake ranging from 1,870 to >3,400 kcal/day were derived. Detailed analyses show that low calorie diets are decreasing worldwide, while in parallel diet composition is changing as well: a discernable shift towards more balanced diets in developing countries can be observed and steps towards more meat rich diets as a typical characteristics in developed countries. Low calorie diets which are mainly observable in developing countries show a similar emission burden than moderate and high calorie diets. This can be explained by a less efficient calorie production per unit of GHG emissions in developing countries. Very high calorie diets are common in the developed world and exhibit high total per capita emissions of 3.7-6.1 kg CO(2eq.)/day due to high carbon intensity and high intake of animal products. In case of an unbridled demographic growth and changing dietary patterns the projected emissions from agriculture will approach 20 Gt CO(2eq.)/yr by 2050. PMID:23700408

  20. Greenhouse gas reduction - inventories what then?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, H.E.; Akhurst, M.A.; Rutter, P.R. [BP Amoco plc (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    BP Amoco has set itself the target of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from its operations, by 10% by 2010, compared with a 1990 baseline. Over the past 2 years, the company has been working proactively to produce externally verifiable baselines of GHG emissions. The next stage is to use these data to ensure that the GHG target is met in the most efficient manner. To this end the company has applied a combined approach of operations based database and metrics. The database is populated with generic and operation specific technology options with metrics providing the analysis, communication and incentive for innovation. This paper describes: the approach and GHG metrics that was used to assess and communicate BP Amoco's current position on identified reduction options: how the company developed the intranet technology database, which has been used to share knowledge on GHG reduction technologies and compare cost efficiency of differing technologies; what stretch we could apply to known abatement technologies; what innovative solutions were required; and how the data will support BP Amoco's GHG trading systems. 6 figs.

  1. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K. [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  2. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  3. Air passenger transport and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercial aviation sector accounts for 2.5 % of total worldwide anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Water vapour (H2O) and NOx emissions, the formation of condensation trails and increased formation of cirrus clouds due to altitude (indirect effects) also accentuate the greenhouse effect. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the effects apart from CO2 emissions are relatively higher for aviation than for other human activities. For one tonne of CO2 emissions, the radiative forcing of aviation is twice as important as other activities. On this basis, a Paris-New York return trip for one passenger on a charter flight corresponds to a quarter of the total climate impact caused by the annual consumption of a French person. Increased mobility and a rise in international tourism suggest that past trends in the growth of air passenger transport will continue. The improvements in energy efficiency achieved are seemingly not sufficient to prevent a significant increase in the impact of air transport on climate change. (author)

  4. Greenhouse gas benefits of fighting obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelowa, Axel [University of Zuerich, Muehlegasse 21, 8001 Zuerich (Switzerland); Dransfeld, Bjoern [Perspectives GmbH, Sonnenredder 55, 22045 Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem in both industrialized and rapidly industrializing countries. It increases greenhouse gas emissions through higher fuel needs for transportation of heavier people, lifecycle emissions from additional food production and methane emissions from higher amounts of organic waste. A reduction of average weight by 5 kg could reduce OECD transport CO{sub 2} emissions by more than 10 million t. While the shift from beef to other forms of meat in industrialized and countries in transition has lead to lifecycle emissions savings of 20 million t CO{sub 2} equivalent between 1990 and 2005, emissions due to obesity-promoting foodstuffs have increased by more than 400 million t in advanced developing countries. Emissions in OECD countries could be reduced by more than 4 million t through reduction of associated food waste. Due to the intimate behavioural nature of the obesity problem, policies to reduce obesity such as food taxation, subsidization of human-powered transport, incentives to reduce sedentary leisure and regulation of fat in foodstuffs have not yet been implemented to any extent. The emissions benefits of fiscal and regulatory measures to reduce obesity could accelerate the tipping point where a majority of voters feels that the problem warrants policy action. (author)

  5. Inhomogeneous radiative forcing of homogeneous greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Tan, Xiaoxiao; Xia, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Radiative forcing of a homogeneous greenhouse gas (HGG) can be very inhomogeneous because the forcing is dependent on other atmospheric and surface variables. In the case of doubling CO2, the monthly mean instantaneous forcing at the top of the atmosphere is found to vary geographically and temporally from positive to negative values, with the range (-2.5-5.1 W m-2) being more than 3 times the magnitude of the global mean value (2.3 W m-2). The vertical temperature change across the atmospheric column (temperature lapse rate) is found to be the best single predictor for explaining forcing variation. In addition, the masking effects of clouds and water vapor also contribute to forcing inhomogeneity. A regression model that predicts forcing from geophysical variables is constructed. This model can explain more than 90% of the variance of the forcing. Applying this model to analyzing the forcing variation in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models, we find that intermodel discrepancy in CO2 forcing caused by model climatology leads to considerable discrepancy in their projected change in poleward energy transport.

  6. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  7. Imaging the molecular dynamics of dissociative electron attachment to water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaniya, Hidihito; Rudek, B.; Osipov, Timur; Haxton, Dan; Weber, Thorsten; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C.W.; Belkacem, Ali

    2009-10-19

    Momentum imaging experiments on dissociative electron attachment to the water molecule are combined with ab initio theoretical calculations of the angular dependence of the quantum mechanical amplitude for electron attachment to provide a detailed picture of the molecular dynamics of dissociation attachment via the two lowest energy Feshbach resonances. The combination of momentum imaging experiments and theory can reveal dissociation dynamics for which the axial recoil approximation breaks down and thus provides a powerful reaction microscope for DEA to polyatomics.

  8. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela eGander; Kathrin eSevecke; Anna eBuchheim

    2015-01-01

    In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attac...

  9. Retention profiles of stud-type precision attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, T; Preiskel, H W

    1991-01-01

    This study measured the retention profiles of 11 commercially available stud-type attachment systems suitable for use with overdentures. The vertical distance over which resistance to separation existed was recorded and related to the configuration of the attachments. In many of the systems tested, only a small portion of the vertical length of the attachment contributed to the retention of the unit. PMID:1781881

  10. Attachment and Aggressive Manifestations in Younger Adulthood - "Preliminary Findings"

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Lorincová

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection) and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility) among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver...

  11. Attachment Dimensions and Young Children’s Response to Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Trudi M; McGrath, Patrick J; Douglas K Symons

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the relationship between attachment dimensions and child pain behaviour following both an everyday pain incident (eg, bumps and scrapes) and acute pain incident (eg, immunization) in 66 five-year-old children.METHODS: Secure, avoidant, ambivalent and controlling attachment dimensions were assessed using aggregates of laboratory-based reunion behaviour, performance on representational measures of attachment and the measure of emotion regulation....

  12. Hypnosis, attachment, and oxytocin:an integrative perspective (1.).

    OpenAIRE

    Zelinka, Vladimir; Cojan, Yann; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers links between clinical hypnosis, attachment theory, and oxytocin. First, it proposes that commonalities between clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may improve our understanding of the hypnotherapeutic process. Then, it suggests that an integrative model unifying clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may constitute a link between clinical hypnosis and a neurobiological factor such as oxytocin. Finally, it discusses the implications of these hypotheses for clinical...

  13. Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Polymorphisms and Attachment in Human Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Frances S.; Barth, Maria E.; Johnson, Stephen L; Gotlib, Ian H.; Johnson, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Ordinary variations in human infants’ attachment behaviors – their proclivity to seek and accept comfort from caregivers – are associated with a wide range of individual differences in psychological functioning in adults. The current investigation examined variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene as one possible source of these variations in infant attachment. One hundred seventy-six infants (77 Caucasian, 99 non-Caucasian) were classified as securely or insecurely attached based on the...

  14. Mediators of the Link Between Adult Attachment and Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Jon G.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to be mindfully aware of the present moment without judgment is associated with a number of positive psychological and physiological outcomes. Experiences in attachment relationships are related to specific cognitive-emotional patterns that may contribute to dispositional mindfulness. A sample of adults (N = 93) completed questionnaires regarding adult attachment, rumination, thought suppression, attentional control, and mindfulness. Attachment-related avoidance predicted lower l...

  15. Attachment of Young People to Their Home District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkkonen, Merja

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on young people's attachment to their home district. The purpose of this study was to establish how attached young people aged 17 were to their home district and what factors were involved in young people's attachment to their home districts. The structure of the young people's lives was studied on the basis of…

  16. The role of brand attachment strength in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Charles; Papagiannidis, Savvas; Alamanos, Eleftherios; Bourlakis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of brand attachment and its antecedents on commitment, satisfaction, trust and brand equity in the context of Higher Education Institutions. The findings from an online survey with students and recent graduates (n=605) in the United States indicate that brand meaning is the main antecedent of brand attachment strength that affects satisfaction, trust, and commitment as well as brand equity. The effect of the brand attachment antecedents on satisfaction is strong...

  17. Effects of pitch accents in attachment ambiguity resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Kyung; Watson, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has found that listeners prefer to attach ambiguous syntactic constituents to nouns produced with a pitch accent (Schafer et al., 1996). This study examines what factors underlie previously established accent attachment effects by testing whether these effects are driven by a preference to attach syntactic constituents to new or important information (the Syntax Hypothesis) or whether there is a bias to respond to post-sentence probe questions with an accented word (the Salience...

  18. Attachment of cells to basement membrane collagen type IV

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Of ten different cell lines examined, three showed distinct attachment and spreading on collagen IV substrates, and neither attachment nor spreading was enhanced by adding soluble laminin or fibronectin. This reaction was not inhibited by cycloheximide or antibodies to laminin, indicating a direct attachment to collagen IV without the need of mediator proteins. Cell-binding sites were localized to the major triple-helical domain of collagen IV and required an intact triple helical conformatio...

  19. Attachment Style and Political Ideology: A Review of Contradictory Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva, Spassena P.; Rip, Blanka

    2009-01-01

    Relational attachment style—a lifespan factor whose first manifestation at the age of 6 months continues into old age—has recently been theoretically and empirically linked to political ideology. A review of the literature that links these two constructs reveals a conflicting pattern. Secure attachment is predominantly associated with liberalism and its covariates, although the relationship is not robust, and there are some exceptions. Insecure avoidant attachment is associated with both libe...

  20. Attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii to human buccal epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, J M; MILLER, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    A standardized assay was used to measure the attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 12104 to washed human buccal epithelial cells. Treatment of the A. naeslundii cells with hyaluronidases, wheat germ lipase, protease, trypsin, heat, or sonic oscillation significantly reduced their ability to attach to epithelial cells. Treatment of the epithelial cells with the above enzymes did not influence the attachment of A. naeslundii. Extraction of A. naeslundii with NaOH also significantly reduced ...

  1. Insecure attachment style is associated with chronic widespread pain

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, K. A.; Macfarlane, G. J.; McBeth, J.; Morriss, R.; Dickens, C

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with “insecure” adult attachment styles have been shown to experience more pain than people with secure attachment, though results of previous studies have been inconsistent. We performed a cross-sectional study on a large population-based sample to investigate whether, compared to pain free individuals, subjects with chronic widespread pain were more likely to report insecure adult attachment style. Subjects in a population-based cross-sectional study completed a self-rated asses...

  2. Phenotypes of Non-Attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregates Resemble Surface Attached Biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2011-01-01

    physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis......For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse...... age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance) and resistance to phagocytes...

  3. Attachment in cultural context: Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    OpenAIRE

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic differences between Russia, Hungary, the Netherlands and Poland. In this chapter we also introduce A theoretical basis of acculturation and attachment theory. In Chapter 2 we focused on the replicability ...

  4. Associations between Adult Attachment Dimensions And Attitudes Toward Pain Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan A McWilliams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour.

  5. Flagellar generated flow mediates attachment of Giardia Lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Theodore; Polackwich, Jamie; Burrola Gabilondo, Beatriz; McAllister, Ryan; Powers, Tom; Elmendorf, Heidi; Urbach, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite responsible for widespread diarrheal disease in humans and animals worldwide. Attachment to the host intestinal mucosa and resistance to peristalsis is necessary for establishing infection, but the physical basis for this attachment is poorly understood. We report results from confocal fluorescence microscopy that demonstrate that the regular beating of the posterior flagella generate a flow through the ventral disk, a suction-cup shaped structure that is against the substrate during attachment. Finite element simulations show that the negative pressure generated by the flow is consistent with the measured force of attachement between the parasite and its substrate.

  6. Adult attachment security and college student substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, Jon D; Wardle, Margaret; Roberts, John E

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated strong links between quality of adult attachment styles and various forms of psychological distress. A burgeoning literature further points to a relationship between insecure attachment and drug use, particularly alcohol consumption. In the present study, we expanded upon the existing literature by examining the relationship between adult attachment style and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in a sample of 212 college students. Moreover, based on our previous work [Hankin, B.L., Kassel, J.D., and Abela, J.R.Z. (2005). Adult attachment dimensions and specificity of emotional distress symptoms: prospective investigations of cognitive risk and interpersonal stress generation as mediating mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 136-151.], we proposed a conceptual model positing that adult attachment style influences both frequency of drug use and stress-motivated drug use through its impact on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Initial correlational analyses indicated significant (positive) associations between anxious attachment (tapping neediness and fear of abandonment) and both drug use frequency and stress-motivated drug use. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that, for drug use frequency, the influence of anxious attachment operated primarily through its effect on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Regarding drug use attributable to negative affect reduction, anxious attachment demonstrated direct, independent effects on both cigarette smoking and alcohol use. These findings highlight the potential importance of adult attachment styles as a risk factor for drug use among college students. PMID:16996225

  7. A meta-analysis of attachment to parents and delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Put, Van Der, Marius; Dubas, J.S.; Laan, van der,Gerard; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the link between attachment to parents and delinquency, and the potential moderating effects of age and sex, 74 published and unpublished manuscripts (N = 55,537 participants) were subjected to a multilevel meta-analysis. A mean small to moderate effect size was found (r = 0.18). Poor attachment to parents was significantly linked to delinquency in boys and girls. Stronger effect sizes were found for attachment to mothers than attachment to fathers. In addition, stronger effect...

  8. Examinations on retention of overdentures with elastic frictional attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Chladek

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available frictional attachments.Design/methodology/approach: The examinations of retention characteristics of traditional attachments, elastic frictional attachments and models of overdentures have been carried out using Zwick testing machine. Retention forces and work essential for separating the attachments have been determined as well. Next the force – displacement characteristics for overdenture model have been registered for two places where the force was applied and for three inclination angles of the line of application of force.Findings: The obtained results of laboratory examinations gave evidence of high effectiveness of elastic frictional attachments.Research limitations/implications: It has not been possible to register mechanical characteristics due to limitations of clinical conditions. Wide analysis of retention characteristics requires examinations carried out in laboratory conditions.Practical implications: Thorough analysis of force - displacement characteristics enables to understand better the mechanisms which are essential for the effectiveness of particular attachments. Applying such knowledge in practice helps to use more effectively the properties of silicone rubbers for making the elastic frictional attachments.Originality/value: The presented method of evaluating the effectiveness of attachments is based on determining retention work of the attachments and it allows to compare quite objectively even relatively different solutions. The so far used criterion of measuring vertical retention force makes it possible to compare only the solutions which are based on similar mechanical principles.

  9. Observation of attachment ratio of fission products on solution aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attachment behavior of fission products to solution aerosols has been observed to elucidate the role of chemical effects in the generation mechanism of fissionproduct aerosols. Primary aerosols generated from aqueous solution of sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate were passed through a fission-product chamber, and radioactive aerosols were generated by attaching fission products to the primary aerosol particles. Attachment ratios of the fission products on aerosols were estimated from activity measurements. It was found that the attachment ratio of the sodium chloride solution aerosol is larger than that of the ammonium sulfate solution aerosol. (author)

  10. Substratum interfacial energetic effects on the attachment of marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ista, Linnea Kathryn

    Biofilms represent an ancient, ubiquitous and influential form of life on earth. Biofilm formation is initiated by attachment of bacterial cells from an aqueous suspension onto a suitable attachment substratum. While in certain, well studied cases initial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation is mediated by specific ligand-receptor pairs on the bacteria and attachment substratum, in the open environment, including the ocean, it is assumed to be non-specific and mediated by processes similar to those that drive adsorption of colloids at the water-solid interface. Colloidal principles are studied to determine the molecular and physicochemical interactions involved in the attachment of the model marine bacterium, Cobetia marina to model self-assembled monolayer surfaces. In the simplest application of colloidal principles the wettability of attachment substrata, as measured by the advancing contact angle of water (theta AW) on the surface, is frequently used as an approximation for the surface tension. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach for attachment of C. marina and algal zoospores and extend it to the development of a means to control attachment and release of microorganisms by altering and tuning surface thetaAW. In many cases, however, thetaAW does not capture all the information necessary to model attachment of bacteria to attachment substrata; SAMs with similar thetaAW attach different number of bacteria. More advanced colloidal models of initial bacterial attachment have evolved over the last several decades, with the emergence of the model proposed by van Oss, Chaudhury and Good (VCG) as preeminent. The VCG model enables calculation of interfacial tensions by dividing these into two major interactions thought to be important at biointerfaces: apolar, Lifshitz-van der Waals and polar, Lewis acid-base (including hydrogen bonding) interactions. These interfacial tensions are combined to yield DeltaGadh, the free energy associated with

  11. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions related to household consumption patterns (GreenHouse project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonhebel, S.; Moll, H.C. [Center for energy and environmental studies IVEM, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    It is in the core of the NRP to analyse the future potential for reduction of energy use and of greenhouse gas emissions by the society. Energy is used in all sectors of the society and for several purposes (including exports), which makes it complicated to obtain an overall picture. Previous research has shown that attribution of the emissions to the consumption sector (the households) is a convenient method to study the effects of individual reduction measures on nation wide emissions. The research project presented here follows that successful approach and is the continuation of the Life Style project conducted in the NRP-1. The Life Style project demonstrated that large differences (up to 40%) between households existed with respect to the energy requirements (direct and indirect energy) of their consumption at the same income class. This implies that a large potential for reduction exists within the household consumption sector. In the GreenHouse project we focus on this further and attention is paid to the determination of reduction options for greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions within the household sector. The main goal of the project is to design and develop realistic options to reduce the nation wide GHG emissions by changing consumption patterns. The time horizon of the project is 10-20 years, which implies that no major changes in infrastructure are considered. The project is not yet finished, therefore in this paper attention is paid to the structure of the project and the methodological principles and approaches followed and some preliminary results are presented. 3 refs.

  12. Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

    1988-01-01

    Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

  13. Chromosome aberrations in pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, B F; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Gamborg, M O;

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of subtoxic exposure to pesticides causing chromosome aberrations in greenhouse workers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional and prospective study design chromosome aberration frequencies in cultured lymphocytes were examined for 116...... greenhouse workers exposed to a complex mixture of almost 50 insecticides, fungicides, and growth regulators and also for 29 nonsmoking, nonpesticide-exposed referents. RESULTS: The preseason frequencies of chromosome aberrations were slightly but not statistically significantly elevated for the greenhouse...... workers when they were compared with the referents. After a summer season of pesticide spraying in the greenhouses, the total frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations were significantly higher than in the preseason samples (P=0.02) and also higher than for the referents (P=0.05). This finding was...

  14. Elementary Pre-Service Teacher Perceptions of the Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    1999-01-01

    Expands on earlier work to examine pre-service teachers' views on environmental issues, especially global warming and the related term "greenhouse effect." Suggests that pre-service elementary teachers hold many misconceptions about environmental issues. (DDR)

  15. Greenhouse effect: information and misinformation. Open letter to goodwill people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper strikes the balance of knowledge about greenhouse effect and climatic change. After a brief review of the controversy, the variations of carbon dioxide and temperature in earth atmosphere, glaciers volume are presented. 4 figs

  16. The greenhouse effect - little strokes fell great oaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a common assumption that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases constitute only a very small fraction of the atmosphere and thus cannot be as important as the climate researchers maintain. However, the adage of the title is appropriate for the impact of the greenhouse gases on the atmosphere. During the last 25 years, the global temperature has risen 0,5 oC, and during the last century by 0,75 oC. Thus according to the UN Climate Panel, there is evidence of a noticeable anthropogenic impact on the global climate. The article discusses the concept of greenhouse effect, the composition of the atmosphere, greenhouse gases and their importance, emission of carbon dioxide and natural climate changes

  17. Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. This project will address: The regional and seasonal details of the expected climatic changes; how rapidly will these changes occur; how and when will the climatic effects of CO2 and other greenhouse gases be first detected; and the relationships between greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and changes caused by other external and internal factors. The present project addresses all of these questions. Many of the diverse facets of greenhouse-gas-related climate research can be grouped under three interlinked subject areas: modeling, first detection and supporting data. This project will include the analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulation Models (GCMs)

  18. Quantification Of Greenhouse Gases From Three Danish Composting Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Samuelsson, J.; Kjeldsen, Peter; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    A measurement method combining a controlled trace gas release with downwind concentrations measurements was successfully used to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from three Danish open windrow composting facilities. Overall, the results showed that composting of organic waste generate GHG ...

  19. Self-Calibrating Greenhouse Gas Balloon-Borne Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, the importance of understanding the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases has been recognized. In particular,...

  20. The fight against the greenhouse effect. Equity and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the definition of an equitable division rule of the global effort of greenhouse gases emissions decrease, the research of the economic efficiency, the flexibility mechanisms and the emissions trading. (A.L.B.)

  1. Self-Calibrating Greenhouse Gas Balloon-Borne Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases has been recognized as critical to predicting climate change and global warming. A...

  2. Humidification - Fogging and other evaporative cooling in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Weel, van P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Fogging, misting, roof sprinklers, pad-and-fan and other techniques based on water evaporation are effective tools for improving the growing conditions in a greenhouse when humidity is low. They should be used wisely though.

  3. Millipedes and centipedes in German greenhouses (Myriapoda: Diplopoda, Chilopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Decker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A review is given of all the literature records of millipedes and centipedes that have been found in German greenhouses together with additional records for 29 such sites. Species lists are given for 46 greenhouses investigated throughout Germany. Thirty-five diplopod and 18 chilopod species were found to occur in greenhouses, of which 15 (3 Chilopoda, 12 Diplopoda are restricted to this type of habitat. First records for Germany include Anadenobolus monilicornis (Porat, 1876, Epinannolene cf. trinidadensis Chamberlin, 1918, Epinannolene sp., Mesoiulus gridellii Strasser, 1934, Leptogoniulus sorornus (Butler, 1876, Rhinotus purpureus (Pocock, 1894, Cryptops doriae Pocock, 1891, Lamyctes coeculus (Brölemann, 1889 and Tygarrup javanicus (Attems, 1907. The millipedes Oxidus gracilis (C. L. Koch, 1847 and Amphitomeus attemsi (Schubart, 1934 and the centipedes Lithobius forficatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cryptops hortensis (Donovan, 1810 are the species most frequently found in greenhouses.

  4. A demonstration greenhouse for Malaysian Horticulture : trip report October 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Elings, A.; Stijger, I.

    2010-01-01

    This report results from the project “Tropical Horticulture in Malaysia”. Modernization of the greenhouse horticulture sector in Malaysiar is required in order to realize better quality of the product, higher yields and less production costs.

  5. Interagency Pilot of Greenhouse Gas Accounting Tools: Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Kandt, A.

    2013-02-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Tongass National Forest (Tongass) partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct a pilot study of three greenhouse gas (GHG) inventorying tools.

  6. Inguinal endometriosis attaching to the round ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of endometriosis in the right inguinal region, attached to the right round ligament in a 28-year-old woman. At the age of 20, laparoscopic left ovarian cystectomy and pelvic adhesiolysis for endometriosis was carried out. She noticed a right tender groin mass 7 months previously, and the tumour size fluctuated with the menstrual cycle. A poorly circumscribed elastic hard mass, measuring 3 cm in diameter, was palpated in her right inguinal region. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm mass in the right inguinal canal and a 5.4 cm x 6.8 cm mass was seen in the left ovary. The mass enlarged during menstruation. The groin mass was removed, in addition to carrying out laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. At operation, the groin mass was found to be in continuity with the round ligament of extraperitoneal portion. Histological diagnosis of endometriosis was made in both ovarian and inguinal tumours. After surgery, the pain disappeared completely. Worth mentioning is that MRI clearly showed the change of tumour size depending on the menstrual cycle, which aided in arriving at the correct diagnosis of endometriosis in an unusual location

  7. Date attachable offline electronic cash scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chun-I; Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling. PMID:24982931

  8. A Novel Single-Stage Procedure for Increasing the Width of Attached Gingiva and Eliminating the Aberrant Frenal Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common treatment for buccal gingival recession caused by an aberrant frenal attachment includes elimination of the frenum and treatment of the gingival reces-sion by soft tissue graft to increase the width of the attached gingiva that in turn results in root coverage. Keratinised gingival, if present in adequate amount, maintains the gingival health by protecting the marginal gingiva. This not only considers the desires of the patient but also explores the potential regenerative capacity of the tissues. This report describes a novel single-stage procedure for increasing the width of the attached gingiva and eliminating the aberrant frenal attachment.

  9. Greenhouse effect: science or religion of the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a study about the natural phenomenon of the greenhouse effect, about its importance for the development of life on the Earth's surface and about the effect of human activities on its enhancement and on the future climatic changes. In particular, the increase of the greenhouse gases content of the atmosphere due to the combustion of fossil fuels is analyzed and some possible solutions to oppose this evolution are evoked. (J.S.)

  10. The Extension of the RAINS Model to Greenhouse Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Klaassen, G.; Amann, M.; Berglund, C.; J. Cofala; Hoeglund-Isaksson, L.; C. Heyes; Mechler, R.; Tohka, A.; W. Schoepp; Winiwarter, W.

    2004-01-01

    Many of the traditional air pollutants and greenhouse gases have common sources, offering a cost-effective potential for simultaneous improvements for both traditional air pollution problems as well as climate change. A methodology has been developed to extend the RAINS integrated assessment model to explore synergies and trade-offs between the control of greenhouse gases and air pollution. With this extension, the RAINS model allows now the assessment of emission control costs for the six gr...

  11. Enantioselective Degradation of Triadimefon in Green-house Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hong Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To study enantioselctive degradation of triadimefon, the enantioselective degradation of triadimefon in greenhouse soil and normal soil were investigated in detail. The enantiomers of triadimefon were separated by Chiralpak AD column and determined by Liquid Chromatography Via Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The degradation exhibited some enantioselective, resulting in a concentration order of R-(- tridimefon>S-(+ triadimefon and the degradation of triadimefon in greenhouse soils with high content of organic matter was faster than normal soil.

  12. Enantioselective Degradation of Triadimefon in Green-house Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Hong Cheng; Feng Lei; Shao Jingliang; Niu Zhi Rui; Li Qiwan

    2015-01-01

    To study enantioselctive degradation of triadimefon, the enantioselective degradation of triadimefon in greenhouse soil and normal soil were investigated in detail. The enantiomers of triadimefon were separated by Chiralpak AD column and determined by Liquid Chromatography Via Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The degradation exhibited some enantioselective, resulting in a concentration order of R-(-) tridimefon>S-(+) triadimefon and the degradation of triadimefon in greenhouse soils with ...

  13. Optimizing Greenhouse Rice Production: What Is the Best Plant Spacing?

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy, Robert; Acosta, Kevin; Liu, Yisi; Russell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This document is one entry in a series of questions and answers originally posted to the Purdue University Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture’s Plant Growth Facility Web site [http://www.hort.purdue.edu/hort/facilities/greenhouse/RiceMethod.shtml] regarding best practices for rice plant growth in a greenhouse. Controlled studies were conducted with the goals of optimizing growth and yield; developing standardized methodology using readily available commercial materials; and p...

  14. Empirical Quantification of the Runaway Greenhouse Limit on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, C.; Dewey, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been many modeling studies of the runaway greenhouse effect and the conditions required to produce one on an Earth-like planet, however these models have not been verified with empirical evidence. It has been suggested that the Earth's tropics may be near a state of localized runaway greenhouse, meaning the surface temperature and atmospheric composition in those areas could cause runaway greenhouse, were it not for the tempering effects of meridional heat transport and circulation (Pierrehumbert, 1995). Using the assumption that some areas of the Earth's tropics may be under these conditions, this study uses measurements of the atmospheric properties, surface properties, and radiation budgets of these areas to quantify a radiation limit for runaway greenhouse on Earth, by analyzing the dependence of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) at the top of the atmosphere on surface temperature and total column water vapour. An upper limit on OLR for clear-sky conditions was found between 289.8 W/m2 and 292.2 W/m2, which occurred at surface temperatures near 300K. For surface temperatures above this threshold, total column water vapour increased, but OLR initially decreased and then remained relatively constant, between 273.6 W/m2 and 279.7 W/m2. These limits are in good agreement with recent modeling results (Goldblatt et al., 2013), supporting the idea that some of the Earth's tropics may be in localized runaway greenhouse, and that radiation limits for runaway greenhouse on Earth can be empirically derived. This research was done as part of Maura Dewey's undergraduate honours thesis at the University of Victoria. Refs: Robert T. Pierrehumbert. Thermostats, radiator fins, and the local runaway greenhouse. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 52(10):1784-1806, 1995. Colin Goldblatt, Tyler D. Robinson, Kevin J. Zahnle, and David Crisp. Low simulated radiation limit for runaway greenhouse climates. Nature Geoscience, 6:661-667, 2013.

  15. Enhanced chemistry-climate feedbacks in past greenhouse worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Beerling, David J.; Fox, Andrew; Stevenson, David S; Valdes, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Trace greenhouse gases are a fundamentally important component of Earth’s global climate system sensitive to global change. However, their concentration in the pre-Pleistocene atmosphere during past warm greenhouse climates is highly uncertain because we lack suitable geochemical or biological proxies. This long-standing issue hinders assessment of their contribution to past global warmth and the equilibrium climate sensitivity of the Earth system (Ess) to CO2. Here we report results from a s...

  16. Optimizing Greenhouse Corn Production: What Is the Best Root Medium?

    OpenAIRE

    Gambrel, Derek; Rink, Westin; Mason, Tyler; Kottkamp, Justin; Varjabedian, Arek; Ross, Jeannie; Eddy, Robert; Hahn, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    This document is one entry in a series of questions and answers originally posted to the Purdue University Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture’s Plant Growth Facility Web site (http://www.hort.purdue.edu/hort/facilities/greenhouse/CornMethod.shtml) regarding best practices for corn plant growth in a greenhouse. Controlled studies were conducted with the goals of optimizing growth and yield; developing standardized methodology using readily available commercial materials; and p...

  17. Monitoring of greenhouse gases and aerosols at Svalbard and Birkenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, C.L.; Hermansen, O.; Fjaeraa, A.M.; Lunder, C.; Fiebig, M.; Schmidbauer, N.; Krognes, T.; Stebel, K.

    2012-07-01

    The report summaries the activities and results of the greenhouse gas monitoring at the Zeppelin and observatory situated on Svalbard in Arctic Norway during the period 2001-2010 and the greenhouse gas monitoring and aerosol observations from Birkenes for 2010. The monitoring programme is performed by the NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research and funded by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT) (now Climate and Pollution Agency) and NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research.(Author)

  18. STUDY ON ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN FLOWERCULTURE IN GREENHOUSES

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the economic efficiency in flowerculture in the greenhouses belonging to a private company next to the capital. The firm owns 2.45 ha greenhouses where it cultivates Fresia Species, Chrysanthemum Species and Alstroemeria Species. The average production was 1,200 thou Fresia flowers, 405 thou Chrysanthemum flowers and 610 thou Alstroemeria flowers/ha. All the three flower species assure a high economic efficiency, but Fresia is the most profitable one. It assures t...

  19. Absorption of Greenhouse Gases in Liquids: A Molecular Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Balaji, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases is responsible for global warming over the past few years. A major portion of the emitted greenhouse gases contains carbon dioxide (CO2). The capture of carbon dioxide from the effluent sources, its transport, and storage has been identified as the most promising method to mitigate global warming by reducing the carbon footprint in the atmosphere. Post-combustion CO2 capture processes mainly use chemical solvents like monoethanolamine (MEA) t...

  20. Greenhouse effect and climate; Effet de serre et climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitou, J

    2008-04-15

    In the framework of the climatic change, the author aims to explain the phenomena of greenhouse effect. He details the historical aspects of the scientific knowledge in the domain, the gases produced, some characteristic of the greenhouse effect, the other actors which contribute to the climate, the climate simulation, the different factors of climate change since 1750 and the signs of the global heating. (A.L.B.)