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Sample records for attachable automated injector

  1. Ictal SPECT Using an Attachable Automated Injector: Clinical Usefulness in the Prediction of Ictal Onset Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung-Ju (Dept. of Neurology, Eulji General Hospital, Eulji Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)). e-mail. sangunlee@dreamwiz.com; Lee, Sang Kun (Dept. of Neurology, Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)); Choi, Jang Wuk (Dept. of Neurology, Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea)) (and others)

    2009-12-15

    Background: Ictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a valuable method for localizing the ictal onset zone in the presurgical evaluation of patients with intractable epilepsy. Conventional methods used to localize the ictal onset zone have problems with time lag from seizure onset to injection. Purpose: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of a method that we developed, which involves an attachable automated injector (AAI), in reducing time lag and improving the ability to localize the zone of seizure onset. Material and Methods: Patients admitted to the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) between January 1, 2003, and June 30, 2008, were included. The definition of ictal onset zone was made by comprehensive review of medical records, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), data from video electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring, and invasive EEG monitoring if available. We comprehensively evaluated the time lag to injection and the image patterns of ictal SPECT using traditional visual analysis, statistical parametric mapping-assisted, and subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered to an MRI-assisted means of analysis. Image patterns were classified as localizing, lateralizing, and nonlateralizing. The whole number of patients was 99: 48 in the conventional group and 51 in the AAI group. Results: The mean (SD) delay time to injection from seizure onset was 12.4+-12.0 s in the group injected by our AAI method and 40.4+-26.3 s in the group injected by the conventional method (P=0.000). The mean delay time to injection from seizure detection was 3.2+-2.5 s in the group injected by the AAI method and 21.4+-9.7 s in the group injected by the conventional method (P=0.000). The AAI method was superior to the conventional method in localizing the area of seizure onset (36 out of 51 with AAI method vs. 21 out of 48 with conventional method, P=0.009), especially in non-temporal lobe epilepsy (non-TLE) patients (17 out of 27 with AAI method vs. 3 out of 13 with conventional

  2. Donor disc attachment assessment with intraoperative spectral optical coherence tomography during descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wylegala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography has already been proven to be useful for pre- and post-surgical anterior eye segment assessment, especially in lamellar keratoplasty procedures. There is no evidence for intraoperative usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT. We present a case report of the intraoperative donor disc attachment assessment with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in case of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK surgery combined with corneal incisions. The effectiveness of the performed corneal stab incisions was visualized directly by OCT scan analysis. OCT assisted DSAEK allows the assessment of the accuracy of the Descemet stripping and donor disc attachment.

  3. Laboratory Injector for Spray Studies Related to Liquid Propellant Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    CODE Ap edfor publi iuleau diatulbwio unlimiu&. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 worck) Fm orh jnpue of suatuin a a ebomty scale Injectij on F. mypical of a...geometry mode K ..................................... 3 lb Injector attachment for annular geometry mode J...Figure 2. The major parts and features of the injector are identified on both Figures 1 and 2. The injector has three modes of operation K , J, and L

  4. Liquid rocket engine injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, G. S.; Nurick, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    The injector in a liquid rocket engine atomizes and mixes the fuel with the oxidizer to produce efficient and stable combustion that will provide the required thrust without endangering hardware durability. Injectors usually take the form of a perforated disk at the head of the rocket engine combustion chamber, and have varied from a few inches to more than a yard in diameter. This monograph treats specifically bipropellant injectors, emphasis being placed on the liquid/liquid and liquid/gas injectors that have been developed for and used in flight-proven engines. The information provided has limited application to monopropellant injectors and gas/gas propellant systems. Critical problems that may arise during injector development and the approaches that lead to successful design are discussed.

  5. The Mmf Linac H- Injector Development

    CERN Document Server

    Yakushev, V P; Feschenko, A V; Frolov, O T; Nikulin, E S

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the existing proton injector the new H- injector with parameters as follows is under construction: energy of negative ions - 400keV; beam pulse duration - 200μs; pulse repetition rate - 50Hz; average beam current - 500μA The results of beam forming system synthesis and ion source power system automation control development are given. The television application for the beam parameters monitoring proposed.

  6. Redirecting by Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.; Lee, Diana D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We describe the Object Infrastructure Framework, a system that seeks to simplify the creation of distributed applications by injecting behavior on the communication paths between components. We touch on some of the ilities and services that can be achieved with injector technology, and then focus on the uses of redirecting injectors, injectors that take requests directed at a particular server and generate requests directed at others. We close by noting that OIF is an Aspect-Oriented Programming system, and comparing OIF to related work.

  7. Rocket injector head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A high number of liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen orifices per unit area are provided in an injector head designed to give intimate mixing and more thorough combustion. The injector head comprises a main body portion, a cooperating plate member as a flow chamber for one propellant, a cooperating manifold portion for the second propellant, and an annular end plate for enclosing an annular propellant groove formed around the outer edge of the body. All the openings for one propellant are located at the same angle with respect to a radial plane to permit a short combustion chamber.

  8. Linac pre-injector

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

  9. A fully automated health-care monitoring at home without attachment of any biological sensors and its clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoi, Kosuke; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Ueno, Hiroshi; Kuwae, Yutaka; Ikarashi, Akira; Yuji, Tadahiko; Higashi, Yuji; Tanaka, Shinobu; Fujimoto, Toshiro; Asanoi, Hidetsugu; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Daily monitoring of health condition is important for an effective scheme for early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases such as adiposis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and other diseases. Commercially available devices for health care monitoring at home are cumbersome in terms of self-attachment of biological sensors and self-operation of the devices. From this viewpoint, we have been developing a non-conscious physiological monitor installed in a bath, a lavatory, and a bed for home health care and evaluated its measurement accuracy by simultaneous recordings of a biological sensors directly attached to the body surface. In order to investigate its applicability to health condition monitoring, we have further developed a new monitoring system which can automatically monitor and store the health condition data. In this study, by evaluation on 3 patients with cardiac infarct or sleep apnea syndrome, patients' health condition such as body and excretion weight in the toilet and apnea and hypopnea during sleeping were successfully monitored, indicating that the system appears useful for monitoring the health condition during daily living.

  10. Direct Fuel Injector Temporal Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    optimize engine performance and emissions. Fuel injectors contain an actuator, pintle (or needle), and nozzle. The most common actuator is a solenoid ...Introduction Fuel injectors have a long history in metering fuel in modern engines by either port fuel injection (PFI) or direct fuel injection (DFI...Compared with a carburetor, fuel injectors have more accurate fuel delivering capability, thus giving engineers and technicians more flexibility to

  11. Injector Design for Advanced Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Faltens, A.

    1996-11-01

    Accelerator designs intended to provide acceleration at a much lower cost per Joule than the ILSE or ELISE designs are under study. For these designs, which typically have many beams, an injector of significantly lower cost is needed. A goal, which from our design appears to be achievable, is to reduce the transverse dimension to half that of the 2 MeV, 800 mA ILSE injector(E. Henestroza, ``Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion", Proc. of the 11th International Wkshp. on Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, 1993.) while generating about the same current. A single channel of a lower cost injector includes an 800 kV column, accelerating a 700 mA beam extracted from a potassium source of 4 cm radius by a 120 kV electrode. The beam passes into a superconducting 7 T solenoid of 15 cm aperture and 15 cm length. This high-field solenoid provides the focusing needed for a small beam without increasing the electric field gradient. The injector and its matching section, also designed, fit within a 12 cm radius, which is small enough to allow construction of attractive multi-beam injectors. We will present solutions for the generation and transport of 700 mA potassium beams of up to 1.6 MeV within the same transverse constraint.

  12. Extended temperature range rocket injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A rocket injector is provided with multiple sets of manifolds for supplying propellants to injector elements. Sensors transmit the temperatures of the propellants to a suitable controller which is operably connnected to valves between these manifolds and propellant storage tanks. When cryogenic propellant temperatures are sensed, only a portion of the valves are opened to furnish propellants to some of the manifolds. When lower temperatures are sensed, additional valves are opened to furnish propellants to more of the manifolds.

  13. LHC Report: imaginative injectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Pierre Freyermuth for the LHC team

    2016-01-01

    A new bunch injection scheme from the PS to the SPS allowed the LHC to achieve a new peak luminosity record.   Figure 1: PSB multi-turn injection principle: to vary the parameters during injection with the aim of putting the newly injected beam in a different region of the transverse phase-space plan. The LHC relies on the injector complex to deliver beam with well-defined bunch populations and the necessary transverse and longitudinal characteristics – all of which fold directly into luminosity performance. There are several processes taking place in the PS Booster (PSB) and the Proton Synchrotron (PS) acting on the beam structure in order to obtain the LHC beam characteristics. Two processes are mainly responsible for the beam brightness: the PSB multi-turn injection and the PS radio-frequency (RF) gymnastics. The total number of protons in a bunch and the transverse emittances are mostly determined by the multi-turn Booster injection, while the number of bunches and their time spacin...

  14. A new biolistic intradermal injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, M.; Doré, M.; Hébert, C.; Spooner, M.-F.; Marchand, S.; Côté, J.; Gobeil, F.; Rivest, M.; Lafrance, M.; Talbot, B. G.; Moutquin, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel intradermal needle-free drug delivery device which exploits the unsteady high-speed flow produced by a miniature shock tube to entrain drug or vaccine particles onto a skin target. A first clinical study of pain and physiological response of human subjects study is presented, comparing the new injector to intramuscular needle injection. This clinical study, performed according to established pain assessment protocols, demonstrated that every single subject felt noticeably less pain with the needle-free injector than with the needle injection. Regarding local tolerance and skin reaction, bleeding was observed on all volunteers after needle injection, but on none of the subjects following powder injection. An assessment of the pharmacodynamics, via blood pressure, of pure captopril powder using the new device on spontaneously hypertensive rats was also performed. It was found that every animal tested with the needle-free injector exhibited the expected pharmacodynamic response following captopril injection. Finally, the new injector was used to study the delivery of an inactivated influenza vaccine in mice. The needle-free device induced serum antibody response to the influenza vaccine that was comparable to that of subcutaneous needle injection, but without requiring the use of an adjuvant. Although no effort was made to optimize the formulation or the injection parameters in the present study, the novel injector demonstrates great promise for the rapid, safe and painless intradermal delivery of systemic drugs and vaccines.

  15. DIAGNOSTICS AND REGENERATION OF COMMON RAIL INJECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KONIECZNY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodology of Common Rail injector diagnostic, regeneration and regulation with use of professional test stands. The EPS 815 machine can be used to test and repair all BOSCH injectors fully satisfying the producer requirements and standards. The article describes an example injector diagnosis with use of such test stand and additionally presents appropriate injector regeneration and encoding techniques

  16. The design and performance of a twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector for Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbahn, John A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    A twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector has been designed, built and tested both in the laboratory and on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak at MIT. The injector functions by firing pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium deep into the plasma discharge for the purpose of fueling the plasma, modifying the density profile and increasing the global energy confinement time. The design goals of the injector are: (1) Operational flexibility, (2) High reliability, (3) Remote operation with minimal maintenance. These requirements have lead to a single stage, pipe gun design with twenty barrels. Pellets are formed by in- situ condensation of the fuel gas, thus avoiding moving parts at cryogenic temperatures. The injector is the first to dispense with the need for cryogenic fluids and instead uses a closed cycle refrigerator to cool the thermal system components. The twenty barrels of the injector produce pellets of four different size groups and allow for a high degree of flexibility in fueling experiments. Operation of the injector is under PLC control allowing for remote operation, interlocked safety features and automated pellet manufacturing. The injector has been extrusively tested and shown to produce pellets reliably with velocities up to 1400 m/sec. During the period from September to November of 1993, the injector was successfully used to fire pellets into over fifty plasma discharges. Experimental results include data on the pellet penetration into the plasma using an advanced pellet tracking diagnostic with improved time and spatial response. Data from the tracker indicates pellet penetrations were between 30 and 86 percent of the plasma minor radius.

  17. ATA injector-gun calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A.C.

    1981-08-03

    ATA is a pulsed, 50 ns 10 KA, 50 MeV linear induction electron accelerator at LLNL. The ETA could be used as an injector for ATA. However the possibility of building a new injector gun for ATA, raised the question as to what changes from the ETA gun in electrode dimensions or potentials, if any, should be considered. In this report the EBQ code results for the four electrode configurations are reviewed and an attempt is made to determine the geometrical scaling laws appropriate to these ETA type gun geometries. Comparison of these scaling laws will be made to ETA operation. The characteristic operating curves for these geometries will also be presented and the effect of washer position determined. It will be shown that emittance growth will impose a limitation on beam current for a given anode potential before the virtual cathode limit is reached.

  18. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs.

  19. Micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Koenka, Israel Joel; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Müller, Beat; Chwalek, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-08-01

    A novel micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis for the handling of samples with volumes down to as little as 300 nL was designed and built in our laboratory for analyses in which the available volume is a limitation. The sample is placed into a small cavity located directly in front of the separation capillary, and the injection is then carried out automatically by controlled pressurization of the chamber with compressed air. The system also allows automated flushing of the injection chamber as well as of the capillary. In a trial with a capillary electrophoresis system with contactless conductivity detector, employing a capillary of 25 μm diameter, the results showed good stability of migration times and peak areas. To illustrate the technique, the fast separation of five inorganic cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH4 (+) , Ca(2+) , and Mg(2+) ) was set up. This could be achieved in less than 3 min, with good limits of detection (10 μM) and linear ranges (between about 10 and 1000 μM). The system was demonstrated for the determination of the inorganic cations in porewater samples of a lake sediment core.

  20. Coaxial Propellant Injectors With Faceplate Annulus Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Mark D.; Miyata, Shinjiro; Farhangi, Shahram

    2010-01-01

    An improved design concept for coaxial propellant injectors for a rocket engine (or perhaps for a non-rocket combustion chamber) offers advantages of greater robustness, less complexity, fewer parts, lower cost, and less bulk, relative to prior injectors of equivalent functionality. This design concept is particularly well suited to small, tight-tolerance injectors, for which prior designs are not suitable because the practical implementation of those designs entails very high costs and difficulty in adhering to the tolerances.

  1. Diesel injector fouling bench test methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinoha, Leon L.; Yost, Douglas M.; Lestz, Sidney J.

    1992-06-01

    Compared to conventional compression ignition (CI) engine operation with the fuel being delivered at approximately 149 C (300 F), adiabatic engine operation potentially may deliver the fuel at temperatures as high as 260 C (500 F). Hypergolic CI engine combustion systems now in theoretical design stages will deliver fuel at temperatures approaching 427 to 538 C (800 to 1000 F). The ability of a fuel to resist formation of deposits on internal injector system surfaces is a form of thermal oxidative stability for which test methodology will be required. The injector Fouling Bench Test (IFBT) methodology evaluated in this report will assist in defining fuel contribution to injector fouling and control of fuel thermal stability in procurement specifications. The major observations from this project are discussed. Forty-hour cyclic IFB tests employing both Bosch APE 113 and Detroit Diesel (DD) N70 injectors are viable procedures for evaluating fuel effects on injector fouling. Cyclic operation appears to be superior to steady-state operation for both type injectors. Eighty-hour cyclic tests are more discriminating than 40-hour cyclic tests using the Bosch APE 113 injectors. JFTOT tests of fuels provide directional information on thermal stability-related deposits and filter plugging but show limited good correlation with IFBT DD N70 ratings, and none with IFBT Bosch APE 113 injector ratings. Deposition on injector pintles was more realistically rated by optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) than conventional visual and bench rating methods. High-sulfur fuel readily caused sticking of Detroit Diesel injectors. Injector sticking is an important mode of injector fouling.

  2. Injector for liquid fueled rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael David (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An injector for liquid fueled rocket engines wherein a generally flat core having a frustoconical dome attached to one side of the core to serve as a manifold for a first liquid, with the core having a generally circular configuration having an axis. The other side of the core has a plurality of concentric annular first slots and a plurality of annular concentric second slots alternating with the first slots, the second slots having a greater depth than said first slots. A bore extends through the core for inletting a second liquid into said core, the bore intersecting the second slots to feed the second liquid into the second slots. The core also has a plurality of first passageways leading from the manifold to the first annular slots for feeding the first liquid into said first slots. A faceplate brazed to said other side of the core is provided with apertures extending from the first and second slots through said face plate, these apertures being positioned to direct fuel and liquid oxygen into contact with each other in the combustion chamber. The first liquid may be liquid oxygen and the second liquid may be kerosene or liquid hydrogen.

  3. Characteristics of response factors of coaxial gaseous rocket injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardan, B. A.; Daniel, B. R.; Zinn, B. T.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation undertaken to determine the frequency dependence of the response factors of various gaseous propellant rocket injectors subject to axial instabilities are presented. The injector response factors were determined, using the modified impedance-tube technique, under cold-flow conditions simulating those observed in unstable rocket motors. The tested injectors included a gaseous-fuel injector element, a gaseous-oxidizer injector element and a coaxial injector with both fuel and oxidizer elements. Emphasis was given to the determination of the dependence of the injector response factor upon the open-area ratio of the injector, the length of the injector orifice, and the pressure drop across the injector orifices. The measured data are shown to be in reasonable agreement with the corresponding injector response factor data predicted by the Feiler and Heidmann model.

  4. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and th

  5. 49 CFR 230.57 - Injectors and feedwater pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Injectors and feedwater pumps. 230.57 Section 230... Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.57 Injectors and feedwater pumps. (a) Water.... Injectors and feedwater pumps must be kept in good condition, free from scale, and must be tested at...

  6. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  7. Work on the high voltage platform of the pre-injector of PS Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Henry Charmot adjusting the electronics of the ion source on a platform which, during operation, was at 520 kV to ground. The cage containing the electronics is opened by hydraulic jacks. Visible on the left is the ion source (pill box structure) attached to the corrugated acceleration column, where the protons pass from 520 kV to ground potential. See 7403120 and for more details on the pre-injector see 7403064X and 7403066X.

  8. Liquid atomization by coaxial rocket injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, S. V.; Brena De La Rosa, A.; Isakovic, A.; Bachalo, W. D.

    1991-01-01

    The atomization characteristics of a scaled-down version of a coaxial rocket injector was investigated using a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). The injector was operated in the conventional mode with liquid being injected through its inner orifice and gas being injected through its outer annulus. The shearing action occurring at the liquid-gas interface causes the liquid jet to atomize. In this study, two different liquid-air systems, namely a water-air system and a liquid nitrogen-gaseous nitrogen system, were chosen for detailed investigation. This paper discusses the performance characteristics of the coaxial injector under different flow and geometric conditions. Specifically, the effects of injection gas pressure and the injector cavity size on variables such as the mean particle diameter, Sauter mean diameter, number density, volume flux, and velocity have been presented.

  9. Triaxial Swirler Liquid Injector Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sierra Engineering Inc. (Sierra) believes that the subject triaxial liquid propellant swirl injector has the potential to meet many of NASA's Earth-to-Orbit (ETO)...

  10. Heavy ion fusion 2 MV injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.] [and others

    1995-04-01

    A heavy-ion-fusion driver-scale injector has been constructed and operated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector has produced 2.3 MV and 950 mA of K{sup +}, 15% above original design goals in energy and current. Normalized edge emittance of less than 1 {pi} mm-mr was measured over a broad range of parameters. The head-to-tail energy flatness is less than {+-} 0.2% over the 1 {micro}s pulse.

  11. Automated Solar-Array Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffa, A.; Bycer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Large arrays are rapidly assembled from individual solar cells by automated production line developed for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Apparatus positions cells within array, attaches interconnection tabs, applies solder flux, and solders interconnections. Cells are placed in either straight or staggered configurations and may be connected either in series or in parallel. Are attached at rate of one every 5 seconds.

  12. The Injector Chain for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schindl, Karlheinz

    1999-01-01

    The LHC will be supplied with protons from the injector chain Linac2 - PS Booster - PS - SPS. These accelerators are being upgraded so as to meet the very demanding needs of the LHC: many high intensity bunches (25 ns spacing) with small emittances (transverse and longitudinal). The injector scheme which will satisfy these requirements is presented and the main challenges and problems for the machines are outlined. Some of the open issues which need further elaboration, such as tolerances on bunch intensity, are touched upon. The conversion of the PS complex enters its final phase and the first LHC-type beams have been delivered to the SPS. Finally, the Pb ion injector scheme is sketched and the promising outcome of a test campaign in LEAR is highlighted.

  13. Status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, T.; Angot, J.; Barué, C.; Bertrand, P.; Biarrotte, J. L.; Canet, C.; Denis, J.-F.; Ferdinand, R.; Flambard, J.-L.; Jacob, J.; Jardin, P.; Lamy, T.; Lemagnen, F.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B.; Peaucelle, C.; Roger, A.; Sole, P.; Touzery, R.; Tuske, O.; Uriot, D.

    2016-02-01

    The SPIRAL2 injector, installed in its tunnel, is currently under commissioning at GANIL, Caen, France. The injector is composed of two low energy beam transport lines: one is dedicated to the light ion beam production, the other to the heavy ions. The first light ion beam, created by a 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, has been successfully produced in December 2014. The first beam of the PHOENIX V2 18 GHz heavy ion source was analyzed on 10 July 2015. A status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning is given. An upgrade of the heavy ion source, named PHOENIX V3 aimed to replace the V2, is presented. The new version features a doubled plasma chamber volume and the high charge state beam intensity is expected to increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 up to the mass ˜50. A status of its assembly is proposed.

  14. Status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuillier, T., E-mail: thuillier@lpsc.in2p3.fr; Angot, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Sole, P. [LPSC, Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barué, C.; Bertrand, P.; Canet, C.; Ferdinand, R.; Flambard, J.-L.; Jardin, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B. [GANIL, CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Biarrotte, J. L. [IPN Orsay, Université Paris Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, 15 rue Georges Clémenceau, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Denis, J.-F.; Roger, A.; Touzery, R.; Tuske, O.; Uriot, D. [Irfu, CEA Saclay, DSM/Irfu/SACM, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); and others

    2016-02-15

    The SPIRAL2 injector, installed in its tunnel, is currently under commissioning at GANIL, Caen, France. The injector is composed of two low energy beam transport lines: one is dedicated to the light ion beam production, the other to the heavy ions. The first light ion beam, created by a 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, has been successfully produced in December 2014. The first beam of the PHOENIX V2 18 GHz heavy ion source was analyzed on 10 July 2015. A status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning is given. An upgrade of the heavy ion source, named PHOENIX V3 aimed to replace the V2, is presented. The new version features a doubled plasma chamber volume and the high charge state beam intensity is expected to increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 up to the mass ∼50. A status of its assembly is proposed.

  15. Challenges and Plans for the Proton Injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R

    2015-01-01

    The flexibility of the LHC injectors combined with multiple longitudinal beam gymnastics have significantly contributed to the excellent performance of the LHC during its first run, delivering beam with twice the ultimate brightness with 50 ns bunch spacing. To meet the requirements of the High Luminosity LHC, 25 ns bunch spacing is required, the intensity per bunch at injection has to double and brightness shall almost triple. Extensive hardware modifications or additions are therefore necessary in all accelerators of the injector complex, as well as new beam gymnastics.

  16. VIPMOS-A novel buried injector structure for EPROM applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijburg, Rutger C.; Hemink, Gertjan J.; Middelhoek, Jan; Wallinga, Hans; Mouthaan, Ton J.

    1991-01-01

    A buried injector is proposed as a source of electrons for substrate hot electrons injection. To enhance the compatibility with VLSI processing, the buried injector is formed by the local overlap of the n-well and p-well of a retrograde twin-well CMOS process. The injector is activated by means of p

  17. The Heidelberg High Current Injector A Versatile Injector for Storage Ring Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Von Hahn, R; Repnow, R; Schwalm, D; Welsch, C P

    2004-01-01

    The High Current Injector (HCI) was designed and built as a dedicated injector for the Test Storage Ring in Heidelberg to deliver mainly singly charged Li- and Be-ions. After start for routine operation in 1999 the HCI delivered stable beams during the following years for about 50 % of the experiments with very high reliability. Due to the requirements from the experiment the HCI changed during that period from a machine for singly charged positive ions to an injector for a large variety of molecules as well as positively or negatively charged light ions. After successful commissioning of the custom built 18 GHz high power ECR-source at its present test location various modifications and additions were made in preparation of a possible conversion into an injector for highly charged heavy ions as a second phase. This paper gives an overview of the experience gained in the passed 5 years and presents the status of the upgrade of the HCI.

  18. Molten metal injector system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA); Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Bigler, Nicolas (Morin Heights, CA); Arnaud, Guy (Riviere-Beaudette, CA)

    2003-04-01

    Disclosed is a molten metal injector system including a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and a molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal having a metal oxide film surface. The bottom side of the mold faces the holder furnace. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The injector projects into the holder furnace and is in fluid communication with the mold cavity. The injector includes a piston positioned within a piston cavity defined by a cylinder for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace and injecting the molten metal into the mold cavity under pressure. The piston and cylinder are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder further includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity. The molten metal intake is located below the metal oxide film surface of the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. A method of injecting molten metal into a mold cavity of a casting mold is also disclosed.

  19. Plans for ions in the injector complex

    CERN Document Server

    Manglunki, D

    2012-01-01

    The heavy ion beams required during the HL-LHC era will imply significant modifications to the existing injector chain. We review the various options, highlighting the importance of an early definition of the future needs and keeping in mind the compatibility with the rest of the future CERN physics programme.

  20. Measurements of reactive gaseous rocket injector admittances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardan, B. A.; Daniel, B. R.; Bell, W. A.; Zinn, B. T.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the results of an experimental study of the quantitative determination of the capabilities of the combustion processes associated with coaxial gaseous propellant rocket injectors to drive combustor pressure oscillations. The data, obtained by employing the modified impedance tube technique with compressed air as the oxidizer and acetylene gas as the fuel, describe the frequency dependence of the admittance of the combined injector-combustion process. The measured data are compared with the predictions of the Feiler and Heidmann analytical model utilizing different values for the characteristic combustion time tau sub b. The values of tau sub b which result in a best fit between the measured and predicted data are indicated for different equivalence ratios. It is shown that for the coaxial injector investigated in this study the tau sub b varies between 0.7 and 1.2 msec for equivalence ratios in the range of 0.57 to 1.31. In addition, the experimental data indicate that the tested injector system could drive combustion instabilities over a frequency range that is in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the Feiler and Heidmann model.

  1. Triaxial Swirl Injector Element for Liquid-Fueled Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muss, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    A triaxial injector is a single bi-propellant injection element located at the center of the injector body. The injector element consists of three nested, hydraulic swirl injectors. A small portion of the total fuel is injected through the central hydraulic injector, all of the oxidizer is injected through the middle concentric hydraulic swirl injector, and the balance of the fuel is injected through an outer concentric injection system. The configuration has been shown to provide good flame stabilization and the desired fuel-rich wall boundary condition. The injector design is well suited for preburner applications. Preburner injectors operate at extreme oxygen-to-fuel mass ratios, either very rich or very lean. The goal of a preburner is to create a uniform drive gas for the turbomachinery, while carefully controlling the temperature so as not to stress or damage turbine blades. The triaxial injector concept permits the lean propellant to be sandwiched between two layers of the rich propellant, while the hydraulic atomization characteristics of the swirl injectors promote interpropellant mixing and, ultimately, good combustion efficiency. This innovation is suited to a wide range of liquid oxidizer and liquid fuels, including hydrogen, methane, and kerosene. Prototype testing with the triaxial swirl injector demonstrated excellent injector and combustion chamber thermal compatibility and good combustion performance, both at levels far superior to a pintle injector. Initial testing with the prototype injector demonstrated over 96-percent combustion efficiency. The design showed excellent high -frequency combustion stability characteristics with oxygen and kerosene propellants. Unlike the more conventional pintle injector, there is not a large bluff body that must be cooled. The absence of a protruding center body enhances the thermal durability of the triaxial swirl injector. The hydraulic atomization characteristics of the innovation allow the design to be

  2. Swirl Coaxial Injector Testing with LOX/RP-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Sandra Elam; Casiano, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Testing was conducted at NASA fs Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the fall of 2012 to evaluate the operation and performance of liquid oxygen (LOX) and kerosene (RP ]1) in an existing swirl coaxial injector. While selected Russian engines use variations of swirl coaxial injectors, component level performance data has not been readily available, and all previously documented component testing at MSFC with LOX/RP ]1 had been performed using a variety of impinging injector designs. Impinging injectors have been adequate for specific LOX/RP ]1 engine applications, yet swirl coaxial injectors offer easier fabrication efforts, providing cost and schedule savings for hardware development. Swirl coaxial elements also offer more flexibility for design changes. Furthermore, testing with LOX and liquid methane propellants at MSFC showed that a swirl coaxial injector offered improved performance compared to an impinging injector. So, technical interest was generated to see if similar performance gains could be achieved with LOX/RP ]1 using a swirl coaxial injector. Results would allow such injectors to be considered for future engine concepts that require LOX/RP ]1 propellants. Existing injector and chamber hardware was used in the test assemblies. The injector had been tested in previous programs at MSFC using LOX/methane and LOX/hydrogen propellants. Minor modifications were made to the injector to accommodate the required LOX/RP ]1 flows. Mainstage tests were performed over a range of chamber pressures and mixture ratios. Additional testing included detonated gbombs h for stability data. Test results suggested characteristic velocity, C*, efficiencies for the injector were 95 ]97%. The injector also appeared dynamically stable with quick recovery from the pressure perturbations generated in the bomb tests.

  3. Field Developmental Test of the Dual Barrel Automatic Injector, MARK II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    criteria OCCURRENCE - a detected event 2-PAM-CL BARREL - the larger black-tipped cylinder contained within the autoinjector housing SAFETY PIN - the...yellow plastic protrusion from the safety cap which prevents injector activation SAFETY SCREW - the metal screw which attaches the safety pin to the...2 0 0 (1.1) (1.0) loose safety pin 164 27 10 13 (11.0) (10.7) (18.8) (21.7) NO DEFECTS NOTED 1184 209 42 35 (76.5) (82.9) (70.0) (58.0) UNKNOWN

  4. Work on the high voltage platform of the pre-injector of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Henry Charmot adjusting the electronics of the ion source on a platform which, during operation, was at a potential of 520 kV to ground. The cage containing the electronics is opened by hydraulic jacks. Visible on the right is the ion source (pill box structure) attached to the corrugated acceleration column, where the protons pass from 520 keV to ground potential. For more details on the pre-injector see 7403064X, 7403066X, 7403067X, 7403070, 7403071X, 7403124.

  5. LS1 Report: injectors 2.0

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Launched in 2009, the Accelerator Controls Renovation Project (ACCOR) will come to an end this year. It was brought in to replace the approximately 450 real-time control systems of the LHC injector complex, some of which were based on technology more than 20 years old.   One of the approximately 450 real-time systems that have been modified in the ACCOR project. These systems, which use special software and thousands of electronics boards, control devices that are essential to the proper functioning of the injectors – the radiofrequency system, the instrumentation, the injection kicker system, the magnets, etc. – and some of them were no longer capable of keeping pace with the LHC. As a result, they urgently needed to be upgraded. "In 2009, after assessing the new technology available on the market, we signed contracts with Europe's most cutting-edge electronics manufacturers," explains Marc Vanden Eynden, ACCOR Project Leader. We then quickly m...

  6. PROGRESS ON LEAD PHOTOCATHODES FOR SUPERCONDUCTING INJECTORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMEDLEY, J.; RAO, T.; SEKUTOWICZ, J.; KNEISEL, P.; LANGNER, J.; STRZYZEWSKI, P.; LEFFERTS, R.; LIPSKI, A.

    2005-05-16

    We present the results of our investigation of bulk lead, along with various types of lead films, as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. The quantum efficiency of each sample is presented as a function of the photon energy of the incident light, from 3.9 eV to 6.5 eV. Quantum efficiencies of 0.5% have been obtained. Production of a niobium cavity with a lead-plated cathode is underway.

  7. Progress on lead photocathodes for superconducting injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, John; Rao, Triveni; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Kneisel, Peter; Langner, J; Strzyzewski, P; Lefferts, Richard; Lipski, Andrzej

    2005-05-16

    We present the results of our investigation of bulk lead, along with various types of lead films, as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. The quantum efficiency of each sample is presented as a function of the photon energy of the incident light, from 3.9 eV to 6.5 eV. Quantum efficiencies of 0.5% have been obtained. Production of a niobium cavity with a lead plated cathode is underway.

  8. Visualisation of diesel injector with neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Jollet, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hansen, H.; Dinkelacker, F.

    2015-12-01

    The injection process of diesel engines influences the pollutant emissions. The spray formation is significantly influenced by the internal flow of the injector. One of the key parameters here is the generation of cavitation caused by the geometry and the needle lift. In modern diesel engines the injection pressure is established up to 3000 bar. The details of the flow and phase change processes inside the injector are of increasing importance for such injectors. With these experimental measurements the validation of multiphase and cavitation models is possible for the high pressure range. Here, for instance, cavitation effects can occur. Cavitation effects in the injection port area destabilize the emergent fuel jet and improve the jet break-up. The design of the injection system in direct-injection diesel engines is an important challenge, as the jet breakup, the atomization and the mixture formation in the combustion chamber are closely linked. These factors have a direct impact on emissions, fuel consumption and performance of an engine. The shape of the spray at the outlet is determined by the internal flow of the nozzle. Here, geometrical parameters, the injection pressure, the injection duration and the cavitation phenomena play a major role. In this work, the flow dependency in the nozzles are analysed with the Neutron-Imaging. The great advantage of this method is the penetrability of the steel structure while a high contrast to the fuel is given due to the interaction of the neutrons with the hydrogen amount. Compared to other methods (optical with glass structures) we can apply real components under highest pressure conditions. During the steady state phase of the injection various cavitation phenomena are visible in the injector, being influenced by the nozzle geometry and the fuel pressure. Different characteristics of cavitation in the sac and spray hole can be detected, and the spray formation in the primary breakup zone is influenced.

  9. CTF3 Drive Beam Injector Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082899; Doebert, S

    2015-01-01

    In the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) the RF power for the acceleration of the Main Beam is extracted from a high-current Drive Beam that runs parallel to the main linac. The main feasibility issues of the two-beam acceleration scheme are being demonstrated at CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3). The CTF3 Drive Beam injector consists of a thermionic gun followed by the bunching system and two accelerating structures all embedded in solenoidal magnetic field and a magnetic chicane. Three sub-harmonic bunchers (SHB), a prebuncher and a travelling wave buncher constitute the bunching system. The phase coding process done by the sub-harmonic bunching system produces unwanted satellite bunches between the successive main bunches. The beam dynamics of the CTF3 Drive Beam injector is reoptimised with the goal of improving the injector performance and in particular decreasing the satellite population, the beam loss in the magnetic chicane and the beam emittance in transverse plane compare to the original model based on P. Ur...

  10. Lithium Pellet Injector Development for NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Gettelfinger; J. Dong; R. Gernhardt; H. Kugel; P. Sichta; J. Timberlake

    2003-12-04

    A pellet injector suitable for the injection of lithium and other low-Z pellets of varying mass into plasmas at precise velocities from 5 to 500 m/s is being developed for use on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). The ability to inject low-Z impurities will significantly expand NSTX experimental capability for a broad range of diagnostic and operational applications. The architecture employs a pellet-carrying cartridge propelled through a guide tube by deuterium gas. Abrupt deceleration of the cartridge at the end of the guide tube results in the pellet continuing along its intended path, thereby giving controlled reproducible velocities for a variety of pellets materials and a reduced gas load to the torus. The planned injector assembly has four hundred guide tubes contained in a rotating magazine with eight tubes provided for injection into plasmas. A PC-based control system is being developed as well and will be described elsewhere in these Proceedings. The development path and mechanical performance of the injector will be described.

  11. Warehouse automation

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačnik, Jure

    2017-01-01

    An automated high bay warehouse is commonly used for storing large number of material with a high throughput. In an automated warehouse pallet movements are mainly performed by a number of automated devices like conveyors systems, trolleys, and stacker cranes. From the introduction of the material to the automated warehouse system to its dispatch the system requires no operator input or intervention since all material movements are done automatically. This allows the automated warehouse to op...

  12. Disintegration process and performance of a coaxial porous injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keonwoong; Kim, Dohun; Koo, Jaye

    2016-10-01

    In order to understand the breakup performance of coaxial porous injectors, the sprays of coaxial porous injectors with two different porous material cylinder lengths were compared with those of conventional shear coaxial injectors. To allow comparison, the wall injection lengths were designed to be equivalent to the value of the recess depth. Cold flow sprays were visualized using back-lit photography methods and analyzed quantitatively with a laser diffraction apparatus, in order to study the effects of the momentum flux ratio and Weber number on the breakup for each type of injector. In case of the shear coaxial injector, the large liquid core was observed in low air mass flow rate condition. However, the destabilization of the liquid jet from the coaxial porous injector is almost complete within the inner region, near the injector face plate. Additionally, better breakup performance in low gas flow rate condition was obtained when the porous cylinder length decreased, while the shear coaxial injectors showed better breakup efficiency when the recess length increased. In conclusion, the different breakup process caused by the radial momentum in the inner region of the porous injector disintegrated the liquid core.

  13. Gas velocity and temperature near a liquid rocket injector face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, D. M.; Ohara, J.

    1973-01-01

    The gas flow near the injector of a liquid propellant rocket was investigated by rapidly inserting butt-welded platinum-platinum rhodium thermocouples through the injector into the chamber. The transient responses of the thermocouples were analyzed to determine average gas temperatures and velocities. A method of fitting exponential curves to repeated measurements of the transient temperature at several positions near the injector face produced consistent results. Preliminary tests yielded gas flow directions and gas compositions at the injector face. Average gas temperatures were found to be between 3100 (1700) and 3500 F (1950 C) and the average gas velocities between 550 (170) and 840 feet/second (260 m/sec).

  14. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  15. Injetor multicanal com válvulas de estrangulamento para análise em fluxo Pinch valve injector for flow analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano S. Palgrossi

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available An important component for the automation of flow injection analysis (FIA systems is the sample injection valve. A simple and inexpensive commutator with 16 pinch valves (8 normally open and 8 closed was developed and configured as a multichannel injection valve. It is activated by a single solenoid of 3 Kgf, powered by a pulsed driver circuit, controlled by a microcomputer or a switch. FIA with spectrophometric detection of potassium dichromate solution was used for the evaluation of the new injection valve and its comparison with other valves, for sample loops of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 muL. The repeatability was favorable (RSD 1.0% for 15 injections at each loop volume compared to a manual injector, an electropneumatic injector and an injector configured with three mini solenoid valves (RSD 1.1, 1.3 and 1.0%, respectively, for15 injections at each loop volume.

  16. CFD Simulation of Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Richard; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detailed design issues associated with liquid rocket engine injectors and combustion chamber operation require CFD methodology which simulates highly three-dimensional, turbulent, vaporizing, and combusting flows. The primary utility of such simulations involves predicting multi-dimensional effects caused by specific injector configurations. SECA, Inc. and Engineering Sciences, Inc. have been developing appropriate computational methodology for NASA/MSFC for the past decade. CFD tools and computers have improved dramatically during this time period; however, the physical submodels used in these analyses must still remain relatively simple in order to produce useful results. Simulations of clustered coaxial and impinger injector elements for hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels, which account for real fluid properties, is the immediate goal of this research. The spray combustion codes are based on the FDNS CFD code' and are structured to represent homogeneous and heterogeneous spray combustion. The homogeneous spray model treats the flow as a continuum of multi-phase, multicomponent fluids which move without thermal or velocity lags between the phases. Two heterogeneous models were developed: (1) a volume-of-fluid (VOF) model which represents the liquid core of coaxial or impinger jets and their atomization and vaporization, and (2) a Blob model which represents the injected streams as a cloud of droplets the size of the injector orifice which subsequently exhibit particle interaction, vaporization, and combustion. All of these spray models are computationally intensive, but this is unavoidable to accurately account for the complex physics and combustion which is to be predicted, Work is currently in progress to parallelize these codes to improve their computational efficiency. These spray combustion codes were used to simulate the three test cases which are the subject of the 2nd International Workshop on-Rocket Combustion Modeling. Such test cases are considered by

  17. Microfluidic system with integrated microinjector for automated Drosophila embryo injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delubac, Daniel; Highley, Christopher B; Witzberger-Krajcovic, Melissa; Ayoob, Joseph C; Furbee, Emily C; Minden, Jonathan S; Zappe, Stefan

    2012-11-21

    Drosophila is one of the most important model organisms in biology. Knowledge derived from the recently sequenced 12 genomes of various Drosophila species can today be combined with the results of more than 100 years of research to systematically investigate Drosophila biology at the molecular level. In order to enable automated, high-throughput manipulation of Drosophila embryos, we have developed a microfluidic system based on a Pyrex-silicon-Pyrex sandwich structure with integrated, surface-micromachined silicon nitride injector for automated injection of reagents. Our system automatically retrieves embryos from an external reservoir, separates potentially clustered embryos through a sheath flow mechanisms, passively aligns an embryo with the integrated injector through geometric constraints, and pushes the embryo onto the injector through flow drag forces. Automated detection of an embryo at injection position through an external camera triggers injection of reagents and subsequent ejection of the embryo to an external reservoir. Our technology can support automated screens based on Drosophila embryos as well as creation of transgenic Drosophila lines. Apart from Drosophila embryos, the layout of our system can be easily modified to accommodate injection of oocytes, embryos, larvae, or adults of other species and fills an important technological gap with regard to automated manipulation of multicellular organisms.

  18. BEPCII Injector Linac Upgrade and Beam Instabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-Hong; GENG Zhe-Qiao; PEI Shi-Lun; DENG Bing-Lin; CHEN Zhi-Bi; PEI Guo-Xi; CHI Yun-Long; CHEN Yan-Wei; CAO Jian-She; KONG Xiang-Cheng; ZHAO Feng-Li; HOU Mi; LIU Wei-Bin

    2008-01-01

    The upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) and its injector linac is working well.The linac upgrade aims at a higher injection rate of 50 mA/min into the storage ring,which requires an injected beam with low emittance,low energy spread and high beam orbit and energy stabilities. This goal is finally reached recently by upgrading the linac components and by dealing with rich and practical beam physics,which are described in this study.

  19. A gap clearing kicker for Main Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Kourbanis, I; Biggs, J; Brown, B; Capista, D; Jensen, C C; Krafczyk, G E; Morris, D K; Scott, D; Seiya, K; Ward, S R; Wu, G; Yang, M -J

    2012-01-01

    Fermilab Main Injector has been operating at high Beam Power levels since 2008 when multi-batch slip stacking became operational. In order to maintain and increase the beam power levels the localized beam loss due to beam left over in the injection kicker gap during slip stacking needs to be addressed. A set of gap clearing kickers that kick any beam left in the injection gap to the beam abort have been built. The kickers were installed in the summer of 2009 and became operational in November of 2010. The kicker performance and its effect on the beam losses will be described.

  20. Nanoscale carrier injectors for high luminescence Si-based LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccolo, G.; Kovalgin, A.Y.; Schmitz, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the increased light emission for Sip–i–n light emitting diodes (LEDs) by geometrical scaling of the injector size for p- and n- type carriers. Simulations and electrical and optical characteristics of our realized devices support our findings. Reducing the injector size decr

  1. Performance of a CW RFQ Injector for the IUCF Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Derenchuk, Vladimir Peter; East, Gary W; Friesel, Dennis; Hamm, Robert W; Jones, William P; Staples, John W

    2005-01-01

    A 750 keV RFQ proton pre-injector was installed in place of a 600 keV Cockroft-Walton high voltage terminal for the IUCF k220 Cyclotron.* The pre-injector consists of a 20 keV microwave ion source and LEBT, a unique design 750 keV CW RFQ, and a short transfer beam line to the k15 injector cyclotron center region.** This pre-injector system was installed and commissioned in June of 2003 and is now in routine service as the sole injection system to the cyclotrons. This contribution will discuss the performance of the CW RFQ pre-injector and the transmission properties of the beam through the cyclotrons.

  2. Geometrical characterization and performance optimization of monopropellant thruster injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Nada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The function of the injector in a monopropellant thruster is to atomize the liquid hydrazine and to distribute it over the catalyst bed as uniformly as possible. A second objective is to place the maximum amount of catalyst in contact with the propellant in as short time as possible to minimize the starting transient time. Coverage by the spray is controlled mainly by cone angle and diameter of the catalyst bed, while atomization quality is measured by the Sauter Mean Diameter, SMD. These parameters are evaluated using empirical formulae. In this paper, two main types of injectors are investigated; plain orifice and full cone pressure swirl injectors. The performance of these two types is examined for use with blow down monopropellant propulsion system. A comprehensive characterization is given and design charts are introduced to facilitate optimizing the performance of the injector. Full-cone injector is a more suitable choice for monopropellant thruster and it might be available commercially.

  3. Attachment behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigling, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes studies into the rat as an animal model for attachment, along the lines of Bowlby's attachment theory. First, the relation between attachment and human psychopathology is reviewed. The conclusion is that psychopathology is more frequent in insecure attached persons and that the

  4. Accounting Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

    Accounting Automation   Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/accounting-automation/  Or Visit www.hwcampus.com Accounting Automation” Please respond to the following: Imagine you are a consultant hired to convert a manual accounting system to an automated system. Suggest the key advantages and disadvantages of automating a manual accounting system. Identify the most important step in the conversion process. Provide a rationale for your response. ...

  5. An improved injector bunching geometry for ATLAS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Richard C Pardo; J Bogaty; B E Clifft; S Sherementov; P Strickhorn

    2002-12-01

    The bunching system of the ATLAS positive ion injector (PII) has been improved by relocating the harmonic buncher to a point significantly closer to the second stage sine-wave buncher and the injector LINAC. The longitudinal optics design has also been modified and now employs a virtual waist from the harmonic buncher feeding the second stage sine-wave buncher. This geometry improves the handling of space charge for high-current beams, significantly increases the capture fraction into the primary rf bucket and reduces the capture fraction of the unwanted parasitic rf bucket. Total capture and transport through the PII has been demonstrated as high as 80% of the injected dc beam while the population of the parasitic, unwanted rf bucket is typically less than 3% of the total transported beam. To remove this small residual parasitic component a new traveling-wave transmission-line chopper has been developed reducing both transverse and longitudinal emittance growth from the chopping process. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract W-31-109-ENG-38.

  6. An improved injector bunching geometry for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Richard C; Clifft, B E; Sherementov, S; Strickhorn, P

    2002-01-01

    The bunching system of the ATLAS positive ion injector (PII) has been improved by relocating the harmonic buncher to a point significantly closer to the second stage sine-wave buncher and the injector LINAC. The longitudinal optics design has also been modified and now employs a virtual waist from the harmonic buncher feeding the second stage sine-wave buncher. This geometry improves the handling of space charge for high-current beams, significantly increases the capture fraction into the primary rf bucket and reduces the capture fraction of the unwanted parasitic rf bucket. Total capture and transport through the PH has been demonstrated as high as 80% of the injected dc beam while the population of the parasitic, unwanted rf bucket is typically less than 3% of the total transported beam. To remove this small residual parasitic component a new traveling-wave transmission- line chopper has been developed reducing both transverse and longitudinal emittance growth from the chopping process. This work was suppor...

  7. Target Injector and Sabot Remover for IFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroki; Kameyama, Nobukazu

    2012-10-01

    Target injectors for IFE are required to inject targets to the reactor center at a velocity of over 100 m/s with accuracy of several millimeters. A target injector system with a magnetic sabot remover is developed to demonstrate injection of polystyrene targets. A typical target used in this study is 4.0 mm in diameter and 0.8 mg in weight. It is inserted in to an aluminum sabot that is 9.2 mm in outer diameter and 40 mm in length. They are accelerated together by a pneumatic gun. Before injection into the reactor, the sabot is removed for laser irradiation. The sabot remover is composed of Neodymium magnets array that generates Lorentz force as a result of interaction between the magnets' field and induced current on the sabot. The Neodymium magnets are 14 mm at inner diameter and 316 mT on its surface. The magnetic array is designed and optimized its magnets number for complete target extraction. The theoretically and experimentally confirmed deceleration rate of the sabot is 60.2 m/s/s per one meter. The targets are shot into the vacuum chamber after extraction from the sabot at accelerated velocity of 30 m/s. The experimentally obtained injection accuracy is 5.3 mm in horizontal direction and 4.8 mm in vertical direction.

  8. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  9. Depression and attachment problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettem, O; M. West; Mahoney, A; Keller, A.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics related to attachment of 42 depressed psychiatric patients and 42 non-depressed psychiatric controls. The depressed subjects demonstrated an anxious pattern of attachment, characterized by either intense care-seeking in relation to their attachment figure or angry withdrawal from their attachment figure when their desire for security was frustrated. The results are discussed in terms of Bowlby's attachment construct.

  10. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  11. Technical Scientific Attaches and domotics. A special issue; Technisch Wetenschappelijk Attaches en domotica. Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinenberg, R.A. [Ministerie van Economische Zaken, The Hague (Netherlands); Uythof, B.H. [Invenit, Domotica Platform Nederland, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Benedetti, D [Ufficio Tecnico-Scientifico, Ambasciata del Regno dei Paesi Bassi, Rome (Italy); Van Wijngaarden, W.L. [Buero fuer Wissenschaft und Technologie, Kgl. Niederlaendische Botschaft, Bonn (Germany); Leniger, H.D.F. [Bureau du Conseiller Scientifique et Technique, Ambassade des Pays-Bas, Paris (France); Kieboom, J.P. [Office for Science and Technology, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Singapore (Singapore); Van Kooij, E.H. [Netherlands Office for Science and Technology, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Tokyo (Japan); Schuurmans, H.J.A. [Netherlands Office for Science and Technology, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In this Dutch magazine Dutch businesses and institutes are informed about technological developments in industrialized countries (USA, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Germany, France and Italy). In this special issue attaches in the different countries present information on developments and trends with respect to domotics, building automation, home networks, etc.

  12. Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Chitarin, G.; Fonnesu, N.; Marconato, N.; Pilan, N.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G., E-mail: gianluigi.serianni@igi.cnr.it; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla fusione, c.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università n. 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R and D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented.

  13. Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, V; Agostinetti, P; Aprile, D; Cavenago, M; Chitarin, G; Fonnesu, N; Marconato, N; Pilan, N; Sartori, E; Serianni, G; Veltri, P

    2014-02-01

    Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R&D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented.

  14. Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-04-05

    The outwardly-opening piezoelectric injector is gaining popularity as a high efficient spray injector due to its precise control of the spray. However, few modeling studies have been reported on these promising injectors. Furthermore, traditional linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide spray angles and string-like film structures. In this study, a new spray injection modeling was proposed for outwardly-opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mass flow rate and injection pressure instead of ambiguous annular nozzle geometry. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like structure. Spray injection was modeled using a Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the new model was implemented through the user-defined functions. A Siemens outwardly-opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated with existing experimental data at the injection pressure of 100 bar. It was found that the collision modeling becomes important in the current injector because of dense spray near nozzle. The injection distribution model showed insignificant effects on spray due to small initial droplets. It was demonstrated that the new model can predict the liquid penetration length and local SMD with improved accuracy for the injector under study.

  15. Characterizing gas flow from aerosol particle injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Horke, Daniel; Worbs, Lena; Küpper, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    A novel methodology for measuring gas flow from small orifices or nozzles into vacuum is presented. It utilizes a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse to create a plasma within the gas plume produced by the nozzle, which is imaged by a microscope. Calibration of the imaging system at known chamber pressures allows for the extraction of absolute number densities, and we show detection down to helium densities of $4\\times10^{16}$~cm$^{-3}$ with a spatial resolution of a few micrometer. The technique is used to characterize the gas flow from a convergent-nozzle aerosol injector as used in single-particle diffractive imaging experiments at free-electron laser sources. Based on the measured gas-density profile we estimate the scattering background signal under typical operating conditions of single-particle imaging experiments and estimate that fewer than 50 photons per shot can be expected on the typical detector of such an experiment.

  16. 3 GeV Injector Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-12-16

    This Design Handbook is intended to be the main reference book for the specifications of the 3 GeV SPEAR booster synchrotron project. It is intended to be a consistent description of the project including design criteria, key technical specifications as well as current design approaches. Since a project is not complete till it's complete changes and modifications of early conceptual designs must be expected during the duration of the construction. Therefore, this Design Handbook is issued as a loose leaf binder so that individual sections can be replaced as needed. Each page will be dated to ease identification with respect to latest revisions. At the end of the project this Design Handbook will have become the 'as built' reference book of the injector for operations and maintenance personnel.

  17. Siberian snakes for the Fermilab Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anferov, V.A.; Baiod, R.; Courant, E.D. [and others

    1993-04-01

    Appropriate Siberian snakes were designed to maintain the proton beam polarization during acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector from 8 to 150 GeV. Various snake designs were investigated to find one fitting into the 14 m straight section spaces with the required spin rotation axis and the minimum orbit excursion. The authors studied both cold and warm discrete magnet snakes as well as warm snakes with helical magnets. For the warm discrete magnet snake, obtaining small orbit excursions required a nearly longitudinal snake axis, while axes near {+-}45{degrees} are needed when using two snakes in a ring. The authors found acceptable snakes either by using superconducting magnets or by using warm magnets with a helical dipole field.

  18. Main injector particle production experiment at Fermilab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sonam Mahajan; Ashok Kumar; Rajendran Raja

    2012-11-01

    The main injector particle production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab uses particle beams of charged pions, kaons, proton and antiproton with beam momenta of 5–90 GeV/c to measure particle production cross-sections of various nuclei including liquid hydrogen, MINOS target and thin targets of beryllium, carbon, bismuth and uranium. The physics motivation to perform such cross-section measurements is described here. Recent results on the analysis of NuMI target and forward neutron cross-sections are presented here. Preliminary cross-section measurements for 58 GeV/c proton on liquid hydrogen target are also presented. A new method is described to correct for low multiplicity inefficiencies in the trigger using KNO scaling.

  19. Assembly process of the ITER neutral beam injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graceffa, J., E-mail: joseph.graceffa@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R.; Petrov, V.; Schunke, B.; Urbani, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Pilard, V. [Fusion for Energy, C/ Josep Pla, n°2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    The ITER neutral beam (NB) injectors are used for heating and diagnostics operations. There are 4 injectors in total, 3 heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and one diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). Two HNBs and the DNB will start injection into ITER during the hydrogen/helium phase of ITER operations. A third HNB is considered as an upgrade to the ITER heating systems, and the impact of the later installation and use of that injector have to be taken into account when considering the installation and assembly of the whole NB system. It is assumed that if a third HNB is to be installed, it will be installed before the nuclear phase of the ITER project. The total weight of one injector is around 1200 t and it is composed of 18 main components and 36 sets of shielding plates. The overall dimensions are length 20 m, height 10 m and width 5 m. Assembly of the first two HNBs and the DNB will start before the first plasma is produced in ITER, but as the time required to assemble one injector is estimated at around 1.5 year, the assembly will be divided into 2 steps, one prior to first plasma, and the second during the machine second assembly phase. To comply with this challenging schedule the assembly sequence has been defined to allow assembly of three first injectors in parallel. Due to the similar design between the DNB and HNBs it has been decided to use the same tools, which will be designed to accommodate the differences between the two sets of components. This reduces the global cost of the assembly and the overall assembly time for the injector system. The alignment and positioning of the injectors is a major consideration for the injector assembly as the alignment of the beamline components and the beam source are critical if good injector performance is to be achieved. The theoretical axes of the beams are defined relative to the duct liners which are installed in the NB ports. The concept adopted to achieve the required alignment accuracy is to use the

  20. Reactive Attachment Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) Children with RAD are less likely to interact with other people because of negative experiences with adults in their early years. They have difficulty calming ...

  1. Belt attachment and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  2. Attachment Without Fear

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, o...

  3. Attachment Without Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2009-12-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, openness, and dependence interact with the caregiving elements of caring, empathy, and responsibility.

  4. Attachment over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Feiring, Candice; Rosenthal, Saul

    2000-01-01

    Examined continuity in attachment classification from infancy through adolescence and related it to autobiographical memories of childhood, divorce, and maladjustment in white middle-class children. Found no continuity in attachment classification from 1 to 18 years and no relation between infant attachment status and adolescent adjustment.…

  5. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  6. The Advanced Photon Source Injector Test Stand Control System

    CERN Document Server

    MacLean, J F

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) primary and backup injectors consist of two thermionic-cathode rf guns. These guns are being upgraded to provide improved performance, to improve ease of maintenance, and to reduce downtime required for repair or replacement of a failed injector. As part of the process, an injector test stand is being prepared. This stand is effectively independent of the APS linac and will allow for complete characterization and validation of an injector prior to its installation into the APS linac. A modular control system for the test stand has been developed using standard APS control solutions with EPICS to deliver a flexible and comprehensive control system. The modularity of the system will allow both the future expansion of test stand functionality and the evaluation of new control techniques and solutions.

  7. Injector for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehne, D.; Godlove, T.; Haldemann, P.; Bernal, S.; Guharay, S.; Kishek, R.; Li, Y.; O'Shea, P.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; Zou, Y.; Haber, I.

    2001-05-01

    The electron beam injector constructed by FM technologies for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) program is described. The program will use an electron beam to model space-charge-dominated ion beams in a recirculating linac for heavy ion inertial fusion, as well as for high-current muon colliders. The injector consists of a 10 keV, 100 mA electron gun with 50-100 nsec pulse width and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The e-gun system includes a 6-mask, rotatable aperture plate, a Rogowski current monitor, an ion pump, and a gate valve. The injector beamline consists of a solenoid, a five-quadrupole matching section, two diagnostic chambers, and a fast current monitor. An independent diagnostic chamber also built for UMER will be used to measure horizontal and vertical emittance, current, energy, energy spread, and the evolution of the beam envelope and profile along the injector beamline.

  8. Requirements specification for the Neutral Beam Injector on FAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruzzo, M., E-mail: matteo.baruzzo@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Bolzonella, T. [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Calabro, G.; Crisanti, F.; Cucchiaro, A. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, CP 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Marcuzzi, D.; Rigato, W. [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Schneider, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sonato, P.; Valisa, M.; Zaccaria, P. [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Artaud, J.F.; Basiuk, V. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Cardinali, A. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, CP 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Imbeaux, F. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lauro Taroni, L. [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Marinucci, M. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, CP 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Mantica, P. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma ' P.Caldirola' , Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy); Zonca, F. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, CP 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    This paper discusses the scientific and technical requirements for a Neutral Beam Injection system on the FAST tokamak and describes a preliminary conceptual design of a suitable injector. FAST is being proposed as a European experiment in support to the operations on ITER and to the design of DEMO. The specific mission of this device is an integrated approach to a number of outstanding burning plasmas physics and operational issues with an emphasis on the impact of fast particles on turbulent transport. Such scientific requirements set a series of technical challenges regarding the injector and the coupling of the injector to the FAST main chamber that are addressed in the paper. A preliminary conceptual design of the injector is proposed which attempts to meet the stated requirements.

  9. Fluid damping clearance in a control valve of injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianming; ZHANG Weigang; YANG Bing; WANG Yawei

    2007-01-01

    A force model of a control valve of injector is set up, and the changes of the fluid damping clearance are investigated on the basis of the results of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the experiments of control valve of injector. Results indicate that a damping clearance of 0.02-0.03 mm between the poppet and the valve guide is the most sufficient to dampen any excessive control valve poppet bouncing.

  10. Longitudinal Beam Diagnostics for the ILC Injectors and Bunch Compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.; Bracke, Adam [Northern Illinois U.; Demir, Veysel [Northern Illinois U.; Maxwell, Timothy [Fermilab; Rihaoui, Marwan [Argonne; Jing, Chunguang [Euclid Techlabs, Solon; Power, John [Argonne

    2010-12-01

    We present a diagnostics suite and analyze techniques for setting up the longitudinal beam dynamics in ILC e⁻ injectors and e⁺ and e⁻ bunch compressors. Techniques to measure the first order moments and recover the first order longitudinal transfer map of the injector's intricate bunching scheme are presented. Coherent transition radiation diagnostics needed to measure and monitor the bunch length downstream of the ~5 GeV bunch compressor are investigated using a vector diffraction model.

  11. Scaling of heat transfer in gas-gas injector combustor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiao-Wei; Cai Guo-Biao; Gao Yu-Shan

    2011-01-01

    The scaling of heat transfer in gas-gas injector combuetor is investigated theoretically, numerically and experimentally based on the previous study on the scaling of gas-gas combustion flowfield. The similarity condition of the gas-gas injector combustor heat transfer is obtained by conducting a formulation analysis of the boundary layer Navier-Stokes equations and a dimensional analysis of the corresponding heat transfer phenomenon. Then, a practicable engineering scaling criterion of the gas-gas injector combustor heat transfer is put forward. The criterion implies that when the similarity conditions of inner flowfield are satisfied, the size and the pressure of gas-gas combustion chamber can be changed, while the heat transfer can still be qualitatively similar to the distribution trend and quantitatively correlates well with the size and pressure as q ∝ pc0.8dt-0.2. Based on the criterion, single-element injector chambers with different geometric sizes and at different chamber pressures ranging from 1 MPa to 20 MPa are numerically simulated. A single-element injector chamber is designed and hot-fire tested at seven chamber pressures from 0.92 MPa to 6.1 MPa.The inner wall heat flux are obtained and analysed. The numerical and experimental results both verified the scaling criterion in gas-gas injector combustion chambers under different chamber pressures and geometries.

  12. Effect of injector configuration in rocket nozzle film cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A. Lakshya; Pisharady, J. C.; Shine, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    Experimental and numerical investigations are carried out to analyze the effect of coolant injector configuration on overall film cooling performance in a divergent section of a rocket nozzle. Two different injector orientations are investigated: (1) shaped slots with a divergence angle of 15° (semi-divergent injector) (2) fully divergent slot (fully divergent injector). A 2-dimensional, axis-symmetric, multispecies computational model using finite volume formulation has been developed and validated against the experimental data. The experiments provided a consistent set of measurements for cooling effectiveness for different blowing ratios ranging from 3.7 to 6. Results show that the semi divergent configuration leads to higher effectiveness compared to fully divergent slot at all blowing ratios. The spatially averaged effectiveness results show that the difference between the two configurations is significant at higher blowing ratios. The increase in effectiveness was around 2 % at BR = 3.7 whereas it was around 12 % in the case of BR = 6. Numerical results show the presence of secondary flow recirculation zones near the jet exit for both the injectors. An additional recirculation zone present in the case of fully divergent injector caused an increase in mixing of the coolant and mainstream, and a reduction in film cooling performance.

  13. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth;

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...... be disrupted by PTSS. The study sample included 104 subjects who were combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War comprising of 60 male ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and 44 comparable male combat veterans. Both attachment and pain were investigated experimentally in the laboratory and via questionnaires. We...... found that ex-POWs showed higher levels of clinical pain and attachment insecurities compared to controls. Moreover, attachment avoidance and soothing effect of attachment (SEA) were both associated with lower levels of clinical pain. Most importantly, PTSS moderated the associations between attachment...

  14. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V.; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  15. Development of a repetitive compact torus injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onchi, Takumi; McColl, David; Dreval, Mykola; Rohollahi, Akbar; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Zushi, Hideki

    2013-10-01

    A system for Repetitive Compact Torus Injection (RCTI) has been developed at the University of Saskatchewan. CTI is a promising fuelling technology to directly fuel the core region of tokamak reactors. In addition to fuelling, CTI has also the potential for (a) optimization of density profile and thus bootstrap current and (b) momentum injection. For steady-state reactor operation, RCTI is necessary. The approach to RCTI is to charge a storage capacitor bank with a large capacitance and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of integrated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). When the CT bank is fully charged, the IGBT stack will be turned off to isolate banks, and CT formation/acceleration sequence will start. After formation of each CT, the fast bank will be replenished and a new CT will be formed and accelerated. Circuits for the formation and the acceleration in University of Saskatchewan CT Injector (USCTI) have been modified. Three CT shots at 10 Hz or eight shots at 1.7 Hz have been achieved. This work has been sponsored by the CRC and NSERC, Canada.

  16. An Injector Test Facility for the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, E., (ed.); /SLAC

    2007-03-14

    SLAC is in the privileged position of being the site for the world's first 4th generation light source as well as having a premier accelerator research staff and facilities. Operation of the world's first x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facility will require innovations in electron injectors to provide electron beams of unprecedented quality. Upgrades to provide ever shorter wavelength x-ray beams of increasing intensity will require significant advances in the state-of-the-art. The BESAC 20-Year Facilities Roadmap identifies the electron gun as ''the critical enabling technology to advance linac-based light sources'' and recognizes that the sources for next-generation light sources are ''the highest-leveraged technology'', and that ''BES should strongly support and coordinate research and development in this unique and critical technology''.[1] This white paper presents an R&D plan and a description of a facility for developing the knowledge and technology required to successfully achieve these upgrades, and to coordinate efforts on short-pulse source development for linac-based light sources.

  17. Preparation of the SPS as LHC injector

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A major project (SLI) for the preparation the SPS in its role as the final link in the injector chain to the LHC was launched one year ago [1,2]. The major areas of work include the upgrade of the RF and the injection systems, together with the provision of a new extraction channel to serve ring 2 of the LHC. In addition, studies have been made on the ability of the SPS to meet the stringent trans verse and longitudinal beam requirements of the LHC. This has lead to several other programmes of work including upgrades to the beam instrumentation, the transverse damper and the shielding of over 8 00 inter-magnet pumping ports to reduce the impedance of the machine. The planning of the project is influenced by the continued operation of LEP and the proposed new long base-line neutrino facility (NGS). In addition, during the machine upgrades, the SPS must continue to deliver high quality proton beams to the fixed-target experimental community and for an extensive range of experimental detect or test beams. The ma...

  18. Computational simulation of liquid fuel rocket injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, D. Brian

    1994-01-01

    A major component of any liquid propellant rocket is the propellant injection system. Issues of interest include the degree of liquid vaporization and its impact on the combustion process, the pressure and temperature fields in the combustion chamber, and the cooling of the injector face and chamber walls. The Finite Difference Navier-Stokes (FDNS) code is a primary computational tool used in the MSFC Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch. The branch has dedicated a significant amount of resources to development of this code for prediction of both liquid and solid fuel rocket performance. The FDNS code is currently being upgraded to include the capability to model liquid/gas multi-phase flows for fuel injection simulation. An important aspect of this effort is benchmarking the code capabilities to predict existing experimental injection data. The objective of this MSFC/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship term was to evaluate the capabilities of the modified FDNS code to predict flow fields with liquid injection. Comparisons were made between code predictions and existing experimental data. A significant portion of the effort included a search for appropriate validation data. Also, code simulation deficiencies were identified.

  19. LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, Elena; Damerau, Heiko; Funken, Anne; Gilardoni, Simone; Goddard, Brennan; Hanke, Klaus; Kobzeva, Lelyzaveta; Lombardi, Alessandra; Manglunki, Django; Mataguez, Simon; Meddahi, Malika; Mikulec, Bettina; Rumolo, Giovanni; Scrivens, Richard; Vretenar, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    A massive improvement program of the LHC injector chain is presently being conducted under the LIU project. For the proton chain, this includes the replacement of Linac2 with Linac4 as well as all necessary upgrades to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), aimed at producing beams with the challenging High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) parameters. Regarding the heavy ions, plans to improve the performance of Linac3 and the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) are also pursued under the general LIU program. The full LHC injection chain returned to operation after Long Shutdown 1, with extended beam studies taking place in Run 2. A general project Cost and Schedule Review also took place in March 2015, and several dedicated LIU project reviews were held to address issues awaiting pending decisions. In view of these developments, 2014 and 2015 have been key years to define a number of important aspects of the final LIU path. This paper will describe the reviewed LI...

  20. Automation or De-automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlach, Igor; Wessel, Oliver

    2008-09-01

    In the global automotive industry, for decades, vehicle manufacturers have continually increased the level of automation of production systems in order to be competitive. However, there is a new trend to decrease the level of automation, especially in final car assembly, for reasons of economy and flexibility. In this research, the final car assembly lines at three production sites of Volkswagen are analysed in order to determine the best level of automation for each, in terms of manufacturing costs, productivity, quality and flexibility. The case study is based on the methodology proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The results of the analysis indicate that fully automated assembly systems are not necessarily the best option in terms of cost, productivity and quality combined, which is attributed to high complexity of final car assembly systems; some de-automation is therefore recommended. On the other hand, the analysis shows that low automation can result in poor product quality due to reasons related to plant location, such as inadequate workers' skills, motivation, etc. Hence, the automation strategy should be formulated on the basis of analysis of all relevant aspects of the manufacturing process, such as costs, quality, productivity and flexibility in relation to the local context. A more balanced combination of automated and manual assembly operations provides better utilisation of equipment, reduces production costs and improves throughput.

  1. Blade attachment assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  2. Fundamental rocket injector/spray programs at the Phillips Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    The performance and stability of liquid rocket engines is determined to a large degree by atomization, mixing, and combustion processes. Control over these processes is exerted through the design of the injector. Injectors in liquid rocket engines are called upon to perform many functions. They must first of all mix the propellants to provide suitable performance in the shortest possible length. For main injectors, this is driven by the tradeoff between the combustion chamber performance, stability, efficiency, and its weight and cost. In gas generators and preburners, however, it is also driven by the possibility of damage to downstream components, for example piping and turbine blades. This can occur if unburned fuel and oxidant later react to create hot spots. Weight and cost considerations require that the injector design be simple and lightweight. For reusable engines, the injectors must also be durable and easily maintained. Suitable atomization and mixing must be produced with as small a pressure drop as possible, so that the size and weight of pressure vessels and turbomachinery can be minimized. However, the pressure drop must not be so small as to promote feed system coupled instabilities. Another important function of the injectors is to ensure that the injector face plate and the chamber and nozzle walls are not damaged. Typically this requires reducing the heat transfer to an acceptable level and also keeping unburned oxygen from chemically attacking the walls, particularly in reusable engines. Therefore the mixing distribution is often tailored to be fuel-rich near the walls. Wall heat transfer can become catastrophically damaging in the presence of acoustic instabilities, so the injector must prevent these from occurring at all costs. In addition to acoustic stability (but coupled with it), injectors must also be kinetically stable. That is, the flame itself must maintain ignition in the combustion chamber. This is not typically a problem with main

  3. Achromatic beam transport of High Current Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-02-01

    The high current injector (HCI) provides intense ion beams of high charge state using a high temperature superconducting ECR ion source. The ion beam is accelerated upto a final energy of 1.8 MeV/u due to an electrostatic potential, a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a drift tube linac (DTL). The ion beam has to be transported to superconducting LINAC which is around 50 m away from DTL. This section is termed as high energy beam transport section (HEBT) and is used to match the beam both in transverse and longitudinal phase space to the entrance of LINAC. The HEBT section is made up of four 90 deg. achromatic bends and interconnecting magnetic quadrupole triplets. Two RF bunchers have been used for longitudinal phase matching to the LINAC. The ion optical design of HEBT section has been simulated using different beam dynamics codes like TRACEWIN, GICOSY and TRACE 3D. The field computation code OPERA 3D has been utilized for hardware design of all the magnets. All the dipole and quadrupole magnets have been field mapped and their test results such as edge angles measurements, homogeneity and harmonic analysis etc. are reported. The whole design of HEBT section has been performed such that the most of the beam optical components share same hardware design and there is ample space for beam diagnostics as per geometry of the building. Many combination of achromatic bends have been simulated to transport the beam in HEBT section but finally the four 90 deg. achromatic bend configuration is found to be the best satisfying all the geometrical constraints with simplified beam tuning process in real time.

  4. Evaluation of the jet injector in paediatric fibreoptic bronchoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, I A; McLeod, M E

    1985-01-01

    The use of the Sanders venturi system during bronchoscopy in adults has been studied extensively. Its use in paediatric bronchoscopy has been limited because small changes in the characteristics of the system may produce large changes in the patient. With jet ventilation, peak inflation pressures and flow rates are influenced by the driving pressure, diameter and shape of the bronchoscope, the diameter of the injector and its length and angle from the axial line of the bronchoscope. Storz 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm rigid fibreoptic bronchoscopes were evaluated in a test lung with an injector of 1.5 mm internal diameter fixed in the side-arm at 20 degrees to the axial line. Pilling 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm rigid fibreoptic bronchoscopes were also examined using the standard injector with a 0.89 mm orifice in the axial line. The Storz bronchoscopes produced consistently higher peak inflation pressures and flow rates at all driving pressures in spite of the relatively large angle of the injector from the axial line. Caution is advised in the use of the Storz injector system as excessively high inflation pressures may be reached.

  5. Measurements of reactive gaseous rocket injector response factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardan, B. A.; Daniel, B. R.; Bell, W. A.; Zinn, B. T.

    1977-01-01

    The results presented represent the first successful attempt at the measurement of the driving capabilities of coaxial gaseous propellant rocket injectors. The required data have been obtained by employing the modified impedance tube technique with compressed air as the oxidizer and acetylene gas as the fuel. The data describe the frequency dependence of the injector admittances, from which the frequency dependence of the injection response factors can be calculated. The measured injector admittances have been compared with the predictions of the Feiler and Heidmann (1967) analytical model assuming different values for the characteristic combustion time. The values of combustion time which result in a best fit between the measured and predicted data are indicated for different equivalence ratios. It is shown that for the coaxial injector system investigated in this study the characteristic combustion times vary between .7 and 1.2 msec for equivalence ratios in the range of .57 to 1.31. The experimental data clearly show that the tested injector system could indeed drive combustion instabilities over a frequency range that is in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the Feiler and Heidmann model.

  6. Attachment and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to further our understanding of current psychosocial models by introducing attachment as a relevant developmental framework. Firstly, attachment theory provides a psychosocial model for a developmental pathway to psychosis. Secondly, after expression of psychotic sym

  7. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  8. Temperament and Attachment Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2004-01-01

    Reviewed in this article is research on children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) who exhibit specific patterns of socially aberrant behavior resulting from being maltreated or having limited opportunities to form selective attachments. There are no data explaining why 2 different patterns of the disorder, an emotionally withdrawn-inhibited…

  9. Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Written by a British parent, this case study tells the story of an adopted child who experienced many difficulties adjusting to life at home and school. It describes attachment disorder, possible causes of attachment difficulties, the bonding cycle, therapeutic parenting, and how schools can support the re-nurturing process. (Contains references.)…

  10. Adolescent attachment and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, D S; Horowitz, H A

    1996-04-01

    The relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. The concordance of attachment classification was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Adolescents showing a dismissing attachment organization were more likely to have a conduct or substance abuse disorder, narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported narcissistic, antisocial, and paranoid personality traits. Adolescents showing a preoccupied attachment organization were more likely to have an affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive, histrionic, borderline or schizotypal personality disorder, and self-reported avoidant, anxious, and dysthymic personality traits. The results support a model of development of psychopathology based partially on relational experiences with parents.

  11. Late-life attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  12. Performance of the 6 MeV injector for the Moscow racetrack microtron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimov, A. S.; Chepurnov, A. S.; Chubarov, O. V.; Gribov, I. V.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Piskarev, I. M.; Rzhanov, A. G.; Sotnikov, M. A.; Surma, I. V.; Shumakov, A. V.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Tiunov, A. V.; Ushkanov, V. A.

    1993-03-01

    The 6 MeV injector for the Moscow racetrack microtron is described. The work presents the accelerator description, the rf power supply system and results of the computer simulation. The method of injector tuning and experimental results are discussed.

  13. Development of the platelet micro-orifice injector. [for liquid propellant rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Botz, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    For some time to come, liquid rocket engines will continue to provide the primary means of propulsion for space transportation. The injector represents a key to the optimization of engine and system performance. The present investigation is concerned with a unique injector design and fabrication process which has demonstrated performance capabilities beyond that achieved with more conventional approaches. This process, which is called the 'platelet process', makes it feasible to fabricate injectors with a pattern an order of magnitude finer than that obtainable by drilling. The fine pattern leads to an achievement of high combustion efficiencies. Platelet injectors have been identified as one of the significant technology advances contributing to the feasibility of advanced dual-fuel booster engines. Platelet injectors are employed in the Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System (OMS) engines. Attention is given to injector design theory as it relates to pattern fineness, a description of platelet injectors, and test data obtained with three different platelet injectors.

  14. Jefferson Lab injector development for next generation parity violation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grames, J.; Hansknect, J.; Poelker, M.; Suleiman, R.

    2011-11-01

    To meet the challenging requirements of next generation parity violation experiments at Jefferson Lab, the Center for Injectors and Sources is working on improving the parity-quality of the electron beam. These improvements include new electron photogun design and fast helicity reversal of the Pockels Cell. We proposed and designed a new scheme for slow helicity reversal using a Wien Filter and two Solenoids. This slow reversal complements the insertable half-wave plate reversal of the laser-light polarization by reversing the electron beam polarization at the injector while maintaining a constant accelerator configuration. For position feedback, fast air-core magnets located in the injector were commissioned and a new scheme for charge feedback is planned.

  15. Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23 March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  16. Final design of the beam source for the MITICA injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuzzi, D., E-mail: diego.marcuzzi@igi.cnr.it; Agostinetti, P.; Dalla Palma, M.; De Muri, M.; Chitarin, G.; Gambetta, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pavei, M.; Pilan, N.; Rizzolo, A.; Serianni, G.; Toigo, V.; Trevisan, L.; Visentin, M.; Zaccaria, P.; Zaupa, M. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Boilson, D.; Graceffa, J.; Hemsworth, R. S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2016-02-15

    The megavolt ITER injector and concept advancement experiment is the prototype and the test bed of the ITER heating and current drive neutral beam injectors, currently in the final design phase, in view of the installation in Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated facility in Padova, Italy. The beam source is the key component of the system, as its goal is the generation of the 1 MeV accelerated beam of deuterium or hydrogen negative ions. This paper presents the highlights of the latest developments for the finalization of the MITICA beam source design, together with a description of the most recent analyses and R&D activities carried out in support of the design.

  17. Final design of the beam source for the MITICA injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, D.; Agostinetti, P.; Dalla Palma, M.; De Muri, M.; Chitarin, G.; Gambetta, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pavei, M.; Pilan, N.; Rizzolo, A.; Serianni, G.; Toigo, V.; Trevisan, L.; Visentin, M.; Zaccaria, P.; Zaupa, M.; Boilson, D.; Graceffa, J.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Choi, C. H.; Marti, M.; Roux, K.; Singh, M. J.; Masiello, A.; Froeschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Tobari, H.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Muvvala, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    The megavolt ITER injector and concept advancement experiment is the prototype and the test bed of the ITER heating and current drive neutral beam injectors, currently in the final design phase, in view of the installation in Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated facility in Padova, Italy. The beam source is the key component of the system, as its goal is the generation of the 1 MeV accelerated beam of deuterium or hydrogen negative ions. This paper presents the highlights of the latest developments for the finalization of the MITICA beam source design, together with a description of the most recent analyses and R&D activities carried out in support of the design.

  18. Parametric Design of Injectors for LDI-3 Combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Mongia, Hukam; Lee, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Application of a partially calibrated National Combustion Code (NCC) for providing guidance in the design of the 3rd generation of the Lean-Direct Injection (LDI) multi-element combustion configuration (LDI-3) is summarized. NCC was used to perform non-reacting and two-phase reacting flow computations on several LDI-3 injector configurations in a single-element and a five-element injector array. All computations were performed with a consistent approach for mesh-generation, turbulence, spray simulations, ignition and chemical kinetics-modeling. Both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the computed flowfield characteristics of the several design options led to selection of an optimal injector LDI- 3 design that met all the requirements including effective area, aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing criteria. Computed LDI-3 emissions (namely, NOx, CO and UHC) will be compared with the prior generation LDI- 2 combustor experimental data at relevant engine cycle conditions.

  19. Measuring the needle lift and return timing of a CRDI injector using an accelerometer

    OpenAIRE

    Choong Hoon Lee

    2014-01-01

    The needle lift and return timing of a CRDI (common rail direct injection) injector were investigated using an accelerometer and the Bosch injection rate measurement method. The Bosch method was used to measure the fuel injection rate shape when fuel was injected with several patterns. An accelerometer was mounted on the outside of the injector to catch the needle lift and return timing of the injector according to the switching signal of the injector driving voltage. The accelerometer accura...

  20. Initial diagnostics commissioning results for the APS injector subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, A.; Chung, Y.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Smith, T.; Wang, X.

    1995-05-01

    In recent months the first beams have been introduced into the various injector subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). An overview will be given of the diagnostics results on beam profiling, beam position monitors (BPMs), loss rate monitors (LRMs), current monitors (CMs), and photon monitors on the low energy transport lines, positron accumulator ring (PAR), and injector synchrotron (IS). Initial measurements have been done with electron beams at energies from 250 to 450 MeV and 50 to 400 pC per macrobunch. Operations in single turn and stored beam conditions were diagnosed in the PAR and IS.

  1. An EBIS-based heavy ion injector for the AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.; Raparia, D.

    1994-09-01

    An electron beam ion source (EBIS), followed by a heavy ion RFQ and superconducting linac, can be considered as a heavy ion injector for high energy accelerators, such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A test EBIS, on long term loan from Sandia National Laboratory, is presently being commissioned at BNL. Experiments on this source will be used in evaluating the parameters for an EBIS-based RHIC injector. Some results of this commissioning, as well as the conceptual designs of the RFQ and linac, are presented.

  2. Development of the 2-MV injector for HIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Kwan, J.W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C.

    2000-03-17

    The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated.

  3. Attachment-related psychodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Phillip R; Mikulincer, Mario

    2002-09-01

    Because there has been relatively little communication and cross-fertilization between the two major lines of research on adult attachment, one based on coded narrative assessments of defensive processes, the other on simple self-reports of 'attachment style' in close relationships, we here explain and review recent work based on a combination of self-report and other kinds of method, including behavioral observations and unconscious priming techniques. The review indicates that considerable progress has been made in testing central hypotheses derived from attachment theory and in exploring unconscious, psychodynamic processes related to affect-regulation and attachment-system activation. The combination of self-report assessment of attachment style and experimental manipulation of other theoretically pertinent variables allows researchers to test causal hypotheses. We present a model of normative and individual-difference processes related to attachment and identify areas in which further research is needed and likely to be successful. One long-range goal is to create a more complete theory of personality built on attachment theory and other object relations theories.

  4. The neurobiology of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, T R; Young, L J

    2001-02-01

    It is difficult to think of any behavioural process that is more intrinsically important to us than attachment. Feeding, sleeping and locomotion are all necessary for survival, but humans are, as Baruch Spinoza famously noted, "a social animal" and it is our social attachments that we live for. Over the past decade, studies in a range of vertebrates, including humans, have begun to address the neural basis of attachment at a molecular, cellular and systems level. This review describes some of the important insights from this work.

  5. Aggression And Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Verma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.

  6. Attachment to land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a first study on attachment to national and sacred land and land as a protected value. A measure of attachment to the land of Israel is developed and administered to two groups, Jewish college students in Israel and the United States. Levels of land attachment are high and not significantly different in the two groups, with a great deal of variation. Land may become more important through being inhabited by a group over centuries. This is a positive contagion effect, and is opposed in some cases by negative contagion produced when the ``enemies'' live on the land for some period of time. We demonstrate a significant correlation of positive contagion sensitivity with attachment to the land of Israel. Unlike many other cases of the interaction of positive and negative contagion, negative contagion does not overwhelm positive contagion in the domain of land attachment. We also present evidence for linkages between political positions, religiosity, importance of Israel, Arab aversion, and vulnerability of Israel with attachment to land, but these do not fully account for the contagion effects. A number of significant differences between Israelis and Americans are described.

  7. The injector microtron for the TEUFEL infrared laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botman, J.I.M.; Webers, G.A.; Delhez, J.L.; Timmermans, J.C.M.; Theeuwen, M.J.H.; Kleeven, W.J.G.M.; Hagedoorn, H.L.; Ernst, G.J.; Verschuur, J.W.J.; Witteman, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Progress is reported on a 25 MeV injector racetrack microtron for a 10 ¿m radiation free electron laser (TEUFEL project). The accelerator exhibits transverse focusing in 180° inhomogeneous two-sector dipole magnets which are slightly rotated with respect to each other in the bending plane. This prov

  8. Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain - POSTPONED!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB The lectures are postponed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  9. X-ray Radiography Measurements of Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    These injectors rely on the shear between an outer lower-density, high-velocity annulus and a higher-density, low-velocity inner jet to atomize and...velocities and the distance between radial points – Large uncertainty given the small distances, high velocities, and limited number of points

  10. Modeling Liquid Rocket Engine Atomization and Swirl/Coaxial Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-27

    Macdonald, M., Canino , J. V., and Heister, S. D., "On the Nonlinear Response of Plain Orifice Injectors", to appear, AIAA J. Propulsion & Power, 2007. 15...Richardson1, Hongbok Park2, James V. Canino , and Stephen D. Heister4 School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907

  11. Review of Combustion Stability Characteristics of Swirl Coaxial Element Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulka, J. R.; Casiano, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid propellant rocket engine injectors using coaxial elements where the center liquid is swirled have become more common in the United States over the past several decades, although primarily for technology or advanced development programs. Currently, only one flight engine operates with this element type in the United States (the RL10 engine), while the element type is very common in Russian (and ex-Soviet) liquid propellant rocket engines. In the United States, the understanding of combustion stability characteristics of swirl coaxial element injectors is still very limited, despite the influx of experimental and theoretical information from Russia. The empirical and theoretical understanding is much less advanced than for the other prevalent liquid propellant rocket injector element types, the shear coaxial and like-on-like paired doublet. This paper compiles, compares and explores the combustion stability characteristics of swirl coaxial element injectors tested in the United States, dating back to J-2 and RL-10 development, and extending to very recent programs at the NASA MSFC using liquid oxygen and liquid methane and kerosene propellants. Included in this study are several other relatively recent design and test programs, including the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), COBRA, J-2X, and the Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE). A presentation of the basic data characteristics is included, followed by an evaluation by several analysis techniques, including those included in Rocket Combustor Interactive Design and Analysis Computer Program (ROCCID), and methodologies described by Hewitt and Bazarov.

  12. Development and validation of a railgun hydrogen pellet injector model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, T.L. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Zhang, J.; Kim, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A railgun hydrogen pellet injector model is presented and its predictions are compared with the experimental data. High-speed hydrogenic ice injection is the dominant refueling method for magnetically confined plasmas used in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. As experimental devices approach the scale of power-producing fusion reactors, the fueling requirements become increasingly more difficult to meet since, due to the large size and the high electron densities and temperatures of the plasma, hypervelocity pellets of a substantial size will need to be injected into the plasma continuously and at high repetition rates. Advanced technologies, such as the railgun pellet injector, are being developed to address this demand. Despite the apparent potential of electromagnetic launchers to produce hypervelocity projectiles, physical effects that were neither anticipated nor well understood have made it difficult to realize this potential. Therefore, it is essential to understand not only the theory behind railgun operation, but the primary loss mechanisms, as well. Analytic tools have been used by many researchers to design and optimize railguns and analyze their performance. This has led to a greater understanding of railgun behavior and opened the door for further improvement. A railgun hydrogen pellet injector model has been developed. The model is based upon a pellet equation of motion that accounts for the dominant loss mechanisms, inertial and viscous drag. The model has been validated using railgun pellet injectors developed by the Fusion Technology Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  13. Single-element coaxial injector for rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, L. L.

    1969-01-01

    Improved injector for oxygen difluoride and diborane has better mixing characteristics and is able to project fuel onto the wall of the combustion chamber for better cooling. It produces an essentially conical, diverging, continuous sheet of propellant mixture formed by similarly shaped and continuously impinging sheets of fuel and oxidant.

  14. The Effect of Resistance on Rocket Injector Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability, where unsteady heat release couples with acoustic modes, has long been an area of concern in liquid rocket engines. Accurate modeling of the acoustic normal modes of the combustion chamber is important to understanding and preventing combustion instability. The injector resistance can have a significant influence on the chamber normal mode shape, and hence on the system stability.

  15. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is satura

  16. Automating Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  17. Commissioning of the 123 MeV injector for 12 GeV CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Hofler, Alicia S. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Kazimi, Reza [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The upgrade of CEBAF to 12GeV included modifications to the injector portion of the accelerator. These changes included the doubling of the injection energy and relocation of the final transport elements to accommodate changes in the CEBAF recirculation arcs. This paper will describe the design changes and the modelling of the new 12GeV CEBAF injector. Stray magnetic fields have been a known issue for the 6 GeV CEBAF injector, the results of modelling the new 12GeV injector and the resulting changes implemented to mitigate this issue are described in this paper. The results of beam commissioning of the injector are also presented.

  18. Mixing characteristics of injector elements in liquid rocket engines - A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Jonathan C.; Trinh, Huu P.

    1992-01-01

    A computational study has been performed to better understand the mixing characteristics of liquid rocket injector elements. Variations in injector geometry as well as differences in injector element inlet flow conditions are among the areas examined in the study. Most results involve the nonreactive mixing of gaseous fuel with gaseous oxidizer but preliminary results are included that involve the spray combustion of oxidizer droplets. The purpose of the study is to numerically predict flowfield behavior in individual injector elements to a high degree of accuracy and in doing so to determine how various injector element properties affect the flow.

  19. Digital Measuring Devices Used for Injector Hydraulic Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leontiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure a high specific impulse of the LRE (liquid-propellant engine chamber it is necessary to have optimally organized combustion of the fuel components. This can be ensured by choosing the optimum geometry of gas-dynamic contour of the LRE combustor, as well as by improving the sputtering processes and mixing the fuel components, for example, by selection of the optimum type, characteristics, and location of injectors on the mixing unit of the chamber.These particular reasons arise the interest in the injector characteristics in terms of science, and technological aspects determine the need for control of underlying design parameters in their manufacture.The objective of this work is to give an experimental justification on used digital measurement instrumentation and research the hydraulic characteristics of injectors.To determine injector parameters most widely were used the units with sectional collectors. A technique to control injector parameters using the sectional collectors involves spraying the liquid by injector at a given pressure drop on it for a certain time (the longer, the higher the accuracy and reliability of the results and then determining the amount of liquid in each section to calculate the required parameters of injector.In this work the liquid flow through the injector was determined by high-precision flowmeters FLONET FN2024.1 of electromagnetic type, which have very high metrological characteristics, in particular a flow rate error does not exceed 0.5% in a range of water flow from Qmin= 0.0028 l/s to Qmax Qmax = 0.28 l/s. To determine the coefficient of uneven spray were used differential pressure sensors DMD 331-ASLX of company "DB Sensors RUS", which have an error of 0.075% with a range of differential pressure 0 ... 5 kPa. Measuring complex MIC-200 of company "NPP Measure" and WinPos software for processing array information provided entry, recording, and processing of all the data of the experiment.In this

  20. Table-top pellet injector (TATOP) for impurity pellet injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepesi, Tamás, E-mail: szepesi.tamas@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP, RMI, Konkoly Thege 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Herrmann, Albrecht [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kocsis, Gábor; Kovács, Ádám; Németh, József [Wigner RCP, RMI, Konkoly Thege 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Ploeckl, Bernhard [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A portable pellet injector for solid state pellets was designed. • Aims to study ELM triggering potential of impurity pellets. • Aims for multi-machine comparison of pellet–plasma interaction. • Max. pellet speed: 450 m/s, max. rate: 25 Hz. • Pellet size: 0.5–1.5 mm (diameter). - Abstract: A table-top pellet injector (TATOP) has been designed to fulfill the following scientific aims: to study the ELM triggering potential of impurity pellets, and to make pellet injection experiments comparable over several fusion machines. The TATOP is based on a centrifugal accelerator therefore the complete system is run in vacuum, ensuring the compatibility with fusion devices. The injector is able to launch any solid material (stable at room temperature) in form of balls with a diameter in the 0.5–1.5 mm range. The device hosts three individual pellet tanks that can contain e.g. pellets of different materials, and the user can select from those without opening the vacuum chamber. A key element of the accelerator is a two-stage stop cylinder that reduces the spatial scatter of pellets exiting the acceleration arm below 6°, enabling the efficient collection of all fired pellets. The injector has a maximum launch speed of 450 m/s. The launching of pellets can be done individually by providing TTL triggers for the injector, giving a high level of freedom for the experimenter when designing pellet trains. However, the (temporary) firing rate cannot be larger than 25 Hz. TATOP characterization was done in a test bed; however, the project is still in progress and before application at a fusion oriented experiment.

  1. Optimization of a GO2/GH2 Impinging Injector Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, P. Kevin; Shyy, Wei; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar

    2001-01-01

    An injector optimization methodology, method i, is used to investigate optimal design points for a gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) impinging injector element. The unlike impinging element, a fuel-oxidizer- fuel (F-O-F) triplet, is optimized in terms of design variables such as fuel pressure drop, (Delta)P(sub f), oxidizer pressure drop, (Delta)P(sub o), combustor length, L(sub comb), and impingement half-angle, alpha, for a given mixture ratio and chamber pressure. Dependent variables such as energy release efficiency, ERE, wall heat flux, Q(sub w), injector heat flux, Q(sub inj), relative combustor weight, W(sub rel), and relative injector cost, C(sub rel), are calculated and then correlated with the design variables. An empirical design methodology is used to generate these responses for 163 combinations of input variables. Method i is then used to generate response surfaces for each dependent variable. Desirability functions based on dependent variable constraints are created and used to facilitate development of composite response surfaces representing some, or all, of the five dependent variables in terms of the input variables. Three examples illustrating the utility and flexibility of method i are discussed in detail. First, joint response surfaces are constructed by sequentially adding dependent variables. Optimum designs are identified after addition of each variable and the effect each variable has on the design is shown. This stepwise demonstration also highlights the importance of including variables such as weight and cost early in the design process. Secondly, using the composite response surface which includes all five dependent variables, unequal weights are assigned to emphasize certain variables relative to others. Here, method i is used to enable objective trade studies on design issues such as component life and thrust to weight ratio. Finally, specific variable weights are further increased to illustrate the high marginal cost of

  2. Minimally Intrusive and Nonintrusive Supersonic Injectors for LANTR and RBCC/Scramjet Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggele, Alvin E.; Gallagher, John R.

    2002-10-01

    A family of supersonic injectors for use on spaceplanes, rockets and missiles and the like is disclosed and claimed. Each injector maintains a specific constant (uniform) Mach number along its length when used while being minimally intrusive at significantly higher injectant pressure than combuster freestream total pressure. Each injector is substantially non-intrusive when it is not being used. The injectors may be used individually or in a group. Different orientations of the injectors in a group promotes greater penetration and mixing of fuel or oxidizer into a supersonic combustor. The injectors can be made from single piece of Aluminum, investment cast metal, or ceramic or they can be made from starboard and port blocks strapped together to accurately control the throat area. Each injector includes an elongated body having an opening which in cross section is an hour glass (venturi shaped) and the opening diverges in width and depth from the bow section to the stem section of the opening.

  3. LER-LHC injector workshop summary and super-ferric fast cycling injector in the SPS tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, Giorgio; Hays, Steven; Huang, Yuenian; Johnstone, John; Kashikhin, Vadim; MacLachlan, James; Mokhov, Nikolai; Piekarz, Henryk; Sen, Tanaji; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab; de Rijk, Gijsbert; /CERN

    2007-03-01

    A Workshop on Low Energy Ring (LER) in the LHC tunnel as main injector was convened at CERN on October 11-12, 2006. We present the outline of the LER based on the presentations, and respond to the raised questions and discussions including the post-workshop studies. We also outline the possibility of using the LER accelerator technologies for the fast cycling injector accelerator in the SPS tunnel (SF-SPS). A primary goal for the LER (Low Energy Ring) injector accelerator is to inject 1.5 TeV proton beams into the LHC, instead of the current injection scheme with 0.45 TeV beams from the SPS. At this new energy, the field harmonics [1] of the LHC magnets are sufficiently satisfactory to prevent the luminosity losses expected to appear when applying the transfer of the 0.45 TeV SPS beams. In addition, a feasibility study of batch slip stacking in the LER has been undertaken with a goal of increasing in this way the LHC luminosity by up to a factor of 4. A combined luminosity increase may, therefore, be in the range of an order of magnitude. In the long term, the LER injector accelerator would greatly facilitate the implementation of a machine, which doubles the LHC energy (DLHC).

  4. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  5. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  6. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  7. Heating automation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažič, Tomaž

    2013-01-01

    This degree paper presents usage and operation of peripheral devices with microcontroller for heating automation. The main goal is to make a quality system control for heating three house floors and with that, increase efficiency of heating devices and lower heating expenses. Heat pump, furnace, boiler pump, two floor-heating pumps and two radiator pumps need to be controlled by this system. For work, we have chosen a development kit stm32f4 - discovery with five temperature sensors, LCD disp...

  8. Automation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  9. Marketing automation

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2017-01-01

    The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the...

  10. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Korstanje, Maximiliano

    2007-01-01

    The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to jou...

  11. Ladder attachment platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  12. Attachment and Women's Faith Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Eun Sim

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between human attachment and God attachment, particularly in Christian women's experiences of faith. It is based on the attachment perspective as a conceptual framework. The main aim was to evolve an attachment-theoretical approach to women's faith development and to offer a complementary path to interpret…

  13. System Development Report for Automated Polymer Die Attach Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-18

    controlled variables in an effort to reduce cost while maintaining or increasing equipment volume handling capability. An important area in which this can...8217 -, ~Lk~L The final ’design activty which is specifibd in Task 0003 of Army’ Contract #DAAHO1-81-D-AO02 is included in a separate volume entitled...Placement Rate 11 5 6 R-4 System - Die Placement Rate 12 7 X-Y System - Plan View 14 8 R4 System - Plan View 15 9 Photograph of SPAR Based System Mockup 17 p

  14. An Approach to Improved Credibility of CFD Simulations for Rocket Injector Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Paul K.; Menon, Suresh; Merkle, Charles L.; Oefelein, Joseph C.; Yang, Vigor

    2007-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has the potential to improve the historical rocket injector design process by simulating the sensitivity of performance and injector-driven thermal environments to. the details of the injector geometry and key operational parameters. Methodical verification and validation efforts on a range of coaxial injector elements have shown the current production CFD capability must be improved in order to quantitatively impact the injector design process.. This paper documents the status of an effort to understand and compare the predictive capabilities and resource requirements of a range of CFD methodologies on a set of model problem injectors. Preliminary results from a steady Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS), an unsteady Reynolds-Average Navier Stokes (URANS) and three different Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques used to model a single element coaxial injector using gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants are presented. Initial observations are made comparing instantaneous results, corresponding time-averaged and steady-state solutions in the near -injector flow field. Significant differences in the flow fields exist, as expected, and are discussed. An important preliminary result is the identification of a fundamental mixing mechanism, accounted for by URANS and LES, but missing in the steady BANS methodology. Since propellant mixing is the core injector function, this mixing process may prove to have a profound effect on the ability to more correctly simulate injector performance and resulting thermal environments. Issues important to unifying the basis for future comparison such as solution initialization, required run time and grid resolution are addressed.

  15. Day Care and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Fern C.; Simmons, Carolyn H.

    1978-01-01

    The attachment behavior of 35 white, middle-class 3 1/2- to 4-year-olds who had experienced different rearing histories was observed through a series of standardized episodes involving separations and reunions with the mother and a stranger. (Author/JMB)

  16. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  17. Electron Cloud Measurements in Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott [Indiana U.; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    This conference paper presents a series of electron cloud measurements in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler. A new instability was observed in the Recycler in July 2014 that generates a fast transverse excitation in the first high intensity batch to be injected. Microwave measurements of electron cloud in the Recycler show a corresponding depen- dence on the batch injection pattern. These electron cloud measurements are compared to those made with a retard- ing field analyzer (RFA) installed in a field-free region of the Recycler in November. RFAs are also used in the Main Injector to evaluate the performance of beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. The diamond-like carbon coating, in contrast, reduced the electron cloud signal to 1% of that measured in uncoated stainless steel beampipe.

  18. Beam dynamics and optics studies for the LHC injectors upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, Hannes; Benedikt, Michael

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade, which aims at reaching significantly higher luminosities at the experiment sites, requires the existing injector chain to provide proton beams with unprecedented beam intensity and brightness. The required beam parameters are out of reach for the CERN accelerator complex in its present state. Therefore, upgrade possibilities of the existing injectors for mitigating their performance limitations or their partial replacement by new machines have been studied. The transition energy plays a central role for the performance of synchrotrons. Designing a lattice with negative momentum compaction (NMC), i.e. imaginary transition energy, allows avoiding transition crossing and thus the associated performance limitations. In the first part of this thesis, the properties of an NMC cell are studied. The limits of betatron stability are evaluated by a combination of analytical and numerical calculations. The NMC cell is then used for the design study of a new synchrotron called P...

  19. Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion: Plasma Injectors for MTF Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2003-01-01

    To achieve increased payload size and decreased trip time for interplanetary travel, a low mass, high specific impulse, high thrust propulsion system is required. This suggests the need for research into fusion as a source of power and high temperature plasma. The plasma would be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) research consists of several related investigations into these topics. These include the orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the gun as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability are under investigation. One of the items under development is the plasma injector. This is a surface breakdown driven plasma generator designed to function at very low pressures. The performance, operating conditions and limitations of these injectors need to be determined.

  20. A hot-spare injector for the APS linac.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1999-04-13

    Last year a second-generation SSRL-type thermionic cathode rf gun was installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. This gun (referred to as ''gun2'') has been successfully commissioned and now serves as the main injector for the APS linac, essentially replacing the Koontz-type DC gun. To help ensure injector availability, particularly with the advent of top-up mode operation at the APS, a second thermionic-cathode rf gun will be installed in the APS linac to act as a hot-spare beam source. The hot-spare installation includes several unique design features, including a deep-orbit Panofsky-style alpha magnet. Details of the hot-spare beamline design and projected performance are presented, along with some plans for future performance upgrades.

  1. Control System of Pellet Injector on the HT-7 Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the control system of the pellet injector is introduced in detail and the system mainly includes two parts: the present and the remote control system. The present control system controls the injector and provides the interface to the remote system. And the remote control system has acquired present signals with analog input card and perform the actions through digit output card, it also has an interface for Windows programming easily used by the operators when carrying out the pellet injection experiments. Through several HT-7 campaigns, the remote control system has been validated to be feasible and reliable and has made successful shots for studying the interactions between the pellets and plasma.

  2. Transmission of electrons inside the cryogenic pumps of ITER injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltri, P., E-mail: pierluigi.veltri@igi.cnr.it; Sartori, E. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Large cryogenic pumps are installed in the vessel of large neutral beam injectors (NBIs) used to heat the plasma in nuclear fusion experiments. The operation of such pumps can be compromised by the presence of stray secondary electrons that are generated along the beam path. In this paper, we present a numerical model to analyze the propagation of the electrons inside the pump. The aim of the study is to quantify the power load on the active pump elements, via evaluation of the transmission probabilities across the domain of the pump. These are obtained starting from large datasets of particle trajectories, obtained by numerical means. The transmission probability of the electrons across the domain is calculated for the NBI of the ITER and for its prototype Megavolt ITer Injector and Concept Advancement (MITICA) and the results are discussed.

  3. Transmission of electrons inside the cryogenic pumps of ITER injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, P; Sartori, E

    2016-02-01

    Large cryogenic pumps are installed in the vessel of large neutral beam injectors (NBIs) used to heat the plasma in nuclear fusion experiments. The operation of such pumps can be compromised by the presence of stray secondary electrons that are generated along the beam path. In this paper, we present a numerical model to analyze the propagation of the electrons inside the pump. The aim of the study is to quantify the power load on the active pump elements, via evaluation of the transmission probabilities across the domain of the pump. These are obtained starting from large datasets of particle trajectories, obtained by numerical means. The transmission probability of the electrons across the domain is calculated for the NBI of the ITER and for its prototype Megavolt ITer Injector and Concept Advancement (MITICA) and the results are discussed.

  4. Characterization of coaxial rocket injector sprays under high pressure environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, S. V.; Wang, G.; Brena De La Rosa, A.; Rudoff, R. C.; Isakovic, A.; Bachalo, W. D.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of elevated environment pressures on the atomization characteristics of a single element, scaled-down, shear-coaxial rocket injector has been investigated. In this study, the shear coaxial injector was operated with water and air as simulants for conventionally used liquid oxygen and hydrogen gas, respectively. The experiments were conducted in a specially designed high pressure rig. A two-component PDPA/DSA system was used to study the spray characteristics at different chamber pressures ranging from atmospheric to 100 psig. The study showed an overall increase in the droplet sizes at higher chamber pressures. This phenomenon is attributed to a decrease in the secondary atomization effects at higher chamber pressures which, in turn, is directly related to a decrease in the shear experienced by the droplets as they move axially through the pressure chamber.

  5. Fermilab main injector: High intensity operation and beam loss control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bruce C.; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Chou, Weiren; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton K.; Seiya, Kiyomi; Wu, Guan Hong; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2013-07-01

    From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

  6. Optimization of RF Compressor in the SPARX Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Ronsivalle, Concetta; Ferrario, Massimo; Serafini, Luca; Spataro, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The SPARX photoinjector consists in a rf gun injecting into three SLAC accelerating sections, the first one operating in the RF compressor configuration in order to achieve higher peak current. A systematic study based on PARMELA simulations has been done in order to optimize the parameters that influence the compression also in view of the application of this system as injector of the so called SPARXINO 3-5 nm FEL test facility. The results of computations show that peak currents at the injector exit up to kA level are achievable with a good control of the transverse and longitudinal emittance by means of a short SW section operating at 11424 MHz placed before the first accelerating section. Some working points in different compression regimes suitable for FEL experiments have been selected. The stability of these points and the sensitivity to various types of random errors are discussed.

  7. Beam Loss Control for the Fermilab Main Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bruce C

    2013-01-01

    From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Losses were at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

  8. Scaling of Gas-Centered Swirl-Coaxial Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-14

    the liquid was a film while the outer, “ hollow ” cone contains larger droplets (likely 0.25 mm or larger) created from ligaments which form after part... CFD , but these models remain impractically time-consuming and are unvalidated at the conditions considered here. Instead, a geometric parameter...ratios. Such behavior is predicted from models of the injector. INTRODUCTION There has been much recent interest in moving from cryogenic

  9. Modeling of an Electron Injector for the AWAKE Project

    CERN Document Server

    Mete, O; Apsimon, R; Burt, G; Doebert, S; Fiorito, R; Welsch, C

    2015-01-01

    Particle-in-cell simulations were performed by using PARMELA to characterise an electron injector with a booster linac for the AWAKE project in order to provide the baseline specifications required by the plasma wakefield experiments. Tolerances and errors were investigated. A 3 GHz travelling wave structure designed by using CST code. Particles were tracked by using the field maps acquired from these electromagnetic simulations. These results are pre- sented in comparison with the generic accelerating structure model within PARMELA.

  10. Study of Cavitation/Vaporization in Liquid Rocket Thruster Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    Caveny, L. H., and Summerfield, M., Aluminized Solid Propellants Burning in a Rocket Motor Flowfield, AIAA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 7, 1978, pp. 736-739. [2...the swirl chamber, and the pulsator and manifold are made of 304 stainless steel . Figure 1: Nomenclature defined for swirl injector. Table 1...Wayne, NJ, 2009 [17] MATLAB, Matrix Laboratory, Software Package, R2009a, The MathWorks, Natick, MA, 2009. [18] Coleman, H.W. and Steele , W.G

  11. Ethnic dimensions of habitus among homeless heroin injectors

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgois, Philippe; Schonberg, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Ten years of participant-observation fieldwork and photography among a multi-ethnic social network of homeless heroin injectors and crack smokers in California reveal hierarchical interpersonal relations between African Americans, whites and Latinos despite the fact that they all share a physical addiction to heroin and live in indigent poverty in the same encampments. Focusing on tensions between blacks and whites, we develop the concept of ‘ethnicized habitus’ to understand how divisions dr...

  12. Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

    2005-04-08

    Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

  13. Space-Charge Compensation Options for the LHC Injector Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Dorda, U; Franchetti, G; Garoby, R; Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Martini, M; Métral, E; Papaphilippou, Y; Scandale, Walter; Shiltsev, V; Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    Space-charge effects have been identified as the most serious intensity limitation in the CERN PS and PS Booster, on the way towards ultimate LHC performance and beyond. We here explore the application of several previously proposed space-charge compensation methods to the two LHC pre-injector rings, and the challenges which need to be overcome. The methods considered include the reduction of tune shift and resonance strengths via octupoles, pole-face windings, electron lenses, or neutralisation.

  14. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  15. A Compact High-Brightness Heavy-Ion Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Westenskow, Glen; Grote, D P; Halaxa, Erni; Kwan, Joe W

    2005-01-01

    To provide compact high-brightness heavy-ion beams for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerators, we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. In an 80-kV 20-microsecond experiment, the RF plasma source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar+ in a single beamlet. An extraction current density of 100 mA/cm2 was achieved, and the thermal temperature of the ions was below 1 eV. More than 90% of the ions were in the Ar+ state, and the energy spread from charge exchange was found to be small. We have tested at full voltage gradient the first 4 gaps of a 61-beamlet injector design. Einzel lens were used to focus the beamlets while reducing the beamlet to beamlet space charge interaction. We will report on a converging 119 multi-beamlet source. Although the source has the same optics as a full 1.6 MV injector system, the test will be carried out at 400 kV due to the test stand HV limit. We will measure the beam’s emittance after the beamlets are merged and have bee...

  16. Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on...

  17. Hollow-Cone Spray Modeling for Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-01-04

    Linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) breakup model has been widely used for modeling hollow-cone spray. However, the model was originally developed for inwardlyopening pressure-swirl injectors by assuming toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, LISA model is not suitable for simulating outwardly opening injectors having string-like structures at wide spray angles. Furthermore, the varying area and shape of the annular nozzle exit makes the modeling difficult. In this study, a new spray modeling was proposed for outwardly opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mas flow rate and injection pressure regardless of ambiguous nozzle exit geometries. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like liquid film spray. Liquid spray injection was modeled using Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the detailed model was implemented by user defined functions. It was found that the new model predicted the liquid penetration length and local SMD accurately for various fuels and chamber conditions.

  18. High Brightness, High Average Current Injector Development at Cornell

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, C K

    2005-01-01

    Cornell University is constructing a 100 mA average current, high brightness electron injector for a planned Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) hard X-ray synchrotron radiation source. This injector will employ a very high voltage DC gun with a negative electron affinity photoemission cathode. Relatively long duration electron pulses from the photocathode will be drift bunched, and accelerated to 5-15 MeV with five two-cell, 1300 MHz superconducting cavities. The total beam power will be limited to 575 kW by the DC and RF power sources. A genetic algorithm based computational optimization of this injector has resulted in simulated rms normalized emittances of 0.1 mm-mrad at 80 pC/bunch, and 0.7 mm-mrad at 1 nC/bunch. The many technical issues and their design solutions will be discussed. Construction of the gun and the SRF cavities is well underway. The schedule for completion, and the planned measurements, will be presented.

  19. Bonding and Integration Technologies for Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2008-01-01

    Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding, titanium interlayers (PVD and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness (10, 20, and 50 microns), processing time and temperature, and cooling rates were investigated. Microprobe analysis was used to identify the phases in the bonded region. For bonds that were not fully reacted an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner titanium interlayers and/or longer processing times resulted in stable and compatible phases that did not contribute to microcracking and resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Non-destructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

  20. Initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Claudia Goncalves de; Costa, Fernando de Souza [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil). Associated Lab. of Combustion and Propulsion], Emails: claudia@lcp.inpe.br, fernando@lcp.inpe.br; Couto, Heraldo da Silva [Vale Energy Solution, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: heraldo.couto@vsesa.com.br

    2010-07-01

    The increasing costs of fossil fuels, environmental concerns and stringent regulations on fuel emissions have caused a significant interest on biofuels, especially ethanol and biodiesel. The combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engines, turbines, rocket engines and industrial furnaces depends on the effective atomization to increase the surface area of the fuel and thus to achieve high rates of mixing and evaporation. In order to promote combustion with maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, an injector must create a fuel spray that evaporates and disperses quickly to produce a homogeneous mixture of vaporized fuel and air. Blurry injectors can produce a spray of small droplets of similar sizes, provide excellent vaporization and mixing of fuel with air, low emissions of NO{sub x} and CO, and high efficiency. This work describes the initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels. Theoretical droplet sizes are calculated in terms of feed pressures and mass flow rates of fuel and air. Droplet size distribution and average diameters are measured by a laser system using a diffraction technique. (author)

  1. A Design Tool for Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R.; Cheng, G.; Trinh, H.; Tucker, K.

    2000-01-01

    A practical design tool which emphasizes the analysis of flowfields near the injector face of liquid rocket engines has been developed and used to simulate preliminary configurations of NASA's Fastrac and vortex engines. This computational design tool is sufficiently detailed to predict the interactive effects of injector element impingement angles and points and the momenta of the individual orifice flows and the combusting flow which results. In order to simulate a significant number of individual orifices, a homogeneous computational fluid dynamics model was developed. To describe sub- and supercritical liquid and vapor flows, the model utilized thermal and caloric equations of state which were valid over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The model was constructed such that the local quality of the flow was determined directly. Since both the Fastrac and vortex engines utilize RP-1/LOX propellants, a simplified hydrocarbon combustion model was devised in order to accomplish three-dimensional, multiphase flow simulations. Such a model does not identify drops or their distribution, but it does allow the recirculating flow along the injector face and into the acoustic cavity and the film coolant flow to be accurately predicted.

  2. New Beam Position Monitor System Design for the APS Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, R.; Singh, O.; Arnold, N.

    2002-12-01

    Demands on the APS injector have evolved over the last few years to the point that an upgrade to the existing beam position monitor (BPM) electronics is required. The injector is presently being used as a source for both the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) project and the top-up mode of operation. These new requirements and the fact that many new rf receiver components are available at reasonable cost make this upgrade very desirable at this time. The receiver topology selected is a logarithmic processor, which is designed around the Analog Devices AD8313 log amplifier demodulation chip. This receiver will become the universal replacement for all injector applications measuring positions signals from 352 to 2856 MHz with minimum changes in hardware and without the use of a downconverter. The receiver design features integrated front-end gain and built-in self test. The data acquisition being considered at this time is a 100-MHz, 12-bit transient recorder digitizer. The latest experimental and commissioning data and results will be presented.

  3. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2015-04-01

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ˜ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic "steerer" to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  4. Structural analyses and integrated design of the MITICA Injector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzucco, G., E-mail: gianluca.mazzucco@dicea.unipd.it [Department ICEA, Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Muraro, D.; Salomoni, V.; Majorana, C. [Department ICEA, Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Marcuzzi, D.; Rigato, W.; Sonato, P.; Zaccaria, P.; Toigo, V. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Inoue, T.; Takemoto, J.; Tobari, H.; Tsuchida, K.; Yamanaka, H.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Seismic design has been carried out on PRIMA building. ► Three-dimensional FE models have been developed the vessel and TL device. ► Three bellows stiffness have been considered to evaluate maximum TL displacements. -- Abstract: In the framework of the activities foreseen for PRIMA (Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated) the MITICA neutral beam injector plays the role of main experiment, aiming to build, operate, test and optimize a full power and full scale prototype of the ITER Heating Neutral Beam Injector [1–3]. The entire MITICA system will be housed in special buildings, suitably designed to provide all the necessary supports, interfaces and shielding walls for nuclear radiation safety. Therefore an integrated design of the MITICA system and relevant buildings shall be developed and verified carefully, considering all the different configurations, operational modes and load combinations. This paper presents the numerical models and the results of MITICA assembly integrated analyses. The model takes into account properly constraints to ground and surrounding buildings, to study and verify the static and seismic response of the whole assembly. The load cases are defined and the numerical analyses described. Load definition and analyses have been performed considering the requirements of both the ASME [4] and the National Standard NTC2008 [5] for the seismic verification of structures subject to design response spectra. The obtained results are finally shown in detail and discussed, also comparing some different design options for design optimization.

  5. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltri, P., E-mail: pierluigi.veltri@igi.cnr.it; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4 - 35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, viale dell' Università n. 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2015-04-08

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ∼ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic ”steerer” to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  6. Measuring the needle lift and return timing of a CRDI injector using an accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Hoon Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The needle lift and return timing of a CRDI (common rail direct injection injector were investigated using an accelerometer and the Bosch injection rate measurement method. The Bosch method was used to measure the fuel injection rate shape when fuel was injected with several patterns. An accelerometer was mounted on the outside of the injector to catch the needle lift and return timing of the injector according to the switching signal of the injector driving voltage. The accelerometer accurately caught the timing of the injector needle lift and return for a single-injection pattern, but it could not for the second or third injection when multiple injections occurred. Only the first needle lift timing of the injector was caught with the injection rate shape obtained from the Bosch method, however, this method cannot identify any other lift or return timing values after the first lift timing.

  7. Study on biodiesel heat transfer through self-temperature limit injector during vehicle cold start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of Self-Temperature Limit-Injector (STL- injector is proposed to reduce the biodiesel consumption and emission in vehicle cold start process. The STL-injector is capable of fast raising fuel temperature, which helps improve the quality of diesel spray and its combustion efficiency. A STL-injector model is established with consideration of electro-mechanic coupling and fluid-structure interaction. A transient simulation is conducted using dynamic grid technology. The results show that STL-injector can effectively raise biodiesel temperature to 350K from 300K in 32 seconds. That is to say, adding STL-injector to existing biodiesel combustion system is an environment-friendly solution due to improving atomization and spray quality quickly.

  8. Injector power supplies reliability improvements at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillman, A.; Pasky, S.; Sereno, N.; Soliday, R.; Wang, J.

    2006-01-01

    Operational goals for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) facility include 97% availability and a mean time between unscheduled beam losses (faults) of 70 hours, with more than 5000 user hours of scheduled beam per year. To meet this objective, our focus has been maximizing the mean time between faults (MTBF). We have made various hardware and software improvements to better operate and monitor the injector power supply systems. These improvements have been challenging to design and implement in light of the facility operating requirements but are critical to maintaining maximum reliability and availability of beam for user operations. This paper presents actions taken as well as future plans to continue improving injector power supply hardware and software to meet APS user operation goals. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has two major components. The storage ring (SR) accelerator is the primary accelerator that delivers X-ray beams to users and uses over 1,400 power supplies. The injector accelerators provide beam to the SR and use 361 different supplies. The control system ranges from the standard VME-IOC and Allen Bradley to GESPAC with additional mini-PLCs for monitoring. Injector power supplies range from {approx}30 watts DC to a ramped peak of 4.6 megawatts in 250 ms. Finally, all accelerators use pulsed supplies, and some of them deliver peak power in megawatts. In the SR, each multipole and corrector magnet is separately powered, with only the main dipole magnets on a common bus. Independent power supplies provide increased flexibility, but place additional demands on power supply reliability. The APS reliability goals are 97% availability and 70 hours mean time to unscheduled beam loss. There are 5,129 user hours scheduled per year, 1,315 hours used for machine studies, and the remaining 2,316 hours used for maintenance. The present annual operating schedule provides for three user runs (typically 10 to 12 weeks long), and three machine shutdowns (typically

  9. Picturing Urban Green Attachments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Meilvang, Marie Leth

    2015-01-01

    in the plural’ in the city. In particular, we stress the role assumed in such engagements by various image-making practices, as means for activists to express, share and render publicly visible a range of embodied urban attachments. Pragmatic sociology, we conclude, may contribute to a novel understanding......In this article, we explore the cultural-political tensions and ambiguities of urban ecology, by way of following how activists move and translate between ‘familiar’ and ‘public’ engagements in the green city. Empirically, we locate our exploration in and around Nordhavnen (The North Harbor...... of urban politics as inclusive learning processes, more hospitable to a wider diversity of familiar attachments to cities and their ecologies....

  10. The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions by Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, Chol-Bum Kweon...Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, and Chol-Bum Kweon Vehicle Technology...March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  11. Interpretation of Core Length in Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Cleveland, OH, 28-30 July, 2014. PA#14340 14. ABSTRACT Shear coaxial injectors are so named because they...Length in Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements S. Alexander Schumaker1, Stephen A. Danczyk2 and Malissa D.A. Lightfoot2

  12. Experimental study of hydrogen-rich/oxygen-rich gas-gas injectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Ping; Li Mao; Cai Guobiao

    2013-01-01

    Five types of coaxial injectors were investigated experimentally using hot hydrogen-rich gas and oxygen-rich gas, which were respectively provided by a GH2/GO2 hydrogen-rich perburner and a GH2/GO2 oxygen-rich preburner. The injectors were the shear coaxial injector, the oxidizer post expansion coaxial injector, the fuel impinging coaxial injector, the central body coaxial injec-tor, and the shear tri-coaxial injector. The characteristic velocity efficiency and the combustor’s wall temperatures were obtained for different design parameters through the experiments. It can be con-cluded that angles of the oxidizer post expansion and the fuel impinging have little influence on the combustion performance and the wall temperatures. The contact area between fuel and oxidizer and the mass flow rate have significant impacts on the combustion performance. The shear tri-coaxial injector has the best combustion performance but also the highest wall temperatures among the five types of injectors.

  13. Drag and distribution measurements of single-element fuel injectors for supersonic combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    The drag caused by several vortex generating fuel injectors for scramjet combustors was measured in a Mach 2 to 3.5 airstream. Injector drag was found to be strongly dependent on injector thickness ratio. The distribution of helium injected into the stream was measured both in the near field and the far field of the injectors for a variety of pressure ratios. The far field results differed appreciably from measurements in the near field. Injection pressure ratio was found to profoundly influence the penetration. One of the aerowing configurations tested yielded low drag consistent with desirable penetration and spreading characteristics.

  14. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  15. Automation 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    This book consists of papers presented at Automation 2017, an international conference held in Warsaw from March 15 to 17, 2017. It discusses research findings associated with the concepts behind INDUSTRY 4.0, with a focus on offering a better understanding of and promoting participation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Each chapter presents a detailed analysis of a specific technical problem, in most cases followed by a numerical analysis, simulation and description of the results of implementing the solution in a real-world context. The theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines presented are valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and practitioners looking for solutions to industrial problems. .

  16. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  17. Attachment: Theoretical Development and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Zeanah argues that ethological attachment theory, as outlined by John Bowlby, has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development. However, although attachment theory and the notion of attachment disorders have influenced such initiatives, many psychologists,…

  18. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event…

  19. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  20. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event representation can be…

  1. Report of the APSAC task force on attachment therapy, reactive attachment disorder, and attachment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Hanson, Rochelle; Saunders, Benjamin E; Nichols, Todd; Barnett, Douglas; Zeanah, Charles; Berliner, Lucy; Egeland, Byron; Newman, Elana; Lyon, Tom; LeTourneau, Elizabeth; Miller-Perrin, Cindy

    2006-02-01

    Although the term attachment disorder is ambiguous, attachment therapies are increasingly used with children who are maltreated, particularly those in foster care or adoptive homes. Some children described as having attachment disorders show extreme disturbances. The needs of these children and their caretakers are real. How to meet their needs is less clear. A number of attachment-based treatment and parenting approaches purport to help children described as attachment disordered. Attachment therapy is a young and diverse field, and the benefits and risks of many treatments remain scientifically undetermined. Controversies have arisen about potentially harmful attachment therapy techniques used by a subset of attachment therapists. In this report, the Task Force reviews the controversy and makes recommendations for assessment, treatment, and practices. The report reflects American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children's (APSAC) position and also was endorsed by the American Psychological Association's Division 37 and the Division 37 Section on Child Maltreatment.

  2. Novel design for transparent high-pressure fuel injector nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines are closely tied to the formation of the combustible air-fuel mixture. Direct-injection engines have become more common due to their increased practical flexibility and efficiency, and sprays dominate mixture formation in these engines. Spray formation, or rather the transition from a cylindrical liquid jet to a field of isolated droplets, is not completely understood. However, it is known that nozzle orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on the formation of fuel injector sprays, even if the exact details of this effect remain unknown. A number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles (OTN) to allow observation of the nozzle orifice flow. Our goal in this work is to design various OTN concepts that mimic the flow inside commercial injector nozzles, at realistic fuel pressures, and yet still allow access to the very near nozzle region of the spray so that interior flow structure can be correlated with primary breakup dynamics. This goal has not been achieved until now because interior structures can be very complex, and the most appropriate optical materials are brittle and easily fractured by realistic fuel pressures. An OTN design that achieves realistic injection pressures and grants visual access to the interior flow and spray formation will be explained in detail. The design uses an acrylic nozzle, which is ideal for imaging the interior flow. This nozzle is supported from the outside with sapphire clamps, which reduces tensile stresses in the nozzle and increases the nozzle's injection pressure capacity. An ensemble of nozzles were mechanically tested to prove this design concept.

  3. Monitoring system experiments on beam loss at SSRF injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Xia, XiaoBin; Xu, XunJiang; Liu, Xin; Xu, JiaQiang; Wang, GuangHong; Zeng, Ming

    2011-12-01

    Experiments on beam loss by using beam loss monitoring (BLM) system were carried out at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) injector. This system used highly sensitive and current-integrated Si-photodiode detectors and an Ethernet data acquisition (DAQ) system. The experimental results demonstrate that the Si-photodiode detectors are a useful tool that provides dynamic information on beam loss and investigates problems of machine operation. It also shows that the Si-photodiode BLM system is suitable for pulse-radiation of high-energy accelerators.

  4. Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Liquid Injector Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, A. K.; Strakey, P. A.; Talley, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    Development of Liquid Rocket Engines is expensive. Extensive testing at large scales usually required. In order to verify engine lifetime, large number of tests required. Limited Resources available for development. Sub-scale cold-flow and hot-fire testing is extremely cost effective. Could be a necessary (but not sufficient) condition for long engine lifetime. Reduces overall costs and risk of large scale testing. Goal: Determine knowledge that can be gained from sub-scale cold-flow and hot-fire evaluations of LRE injectors. Determine relationships between cold-flow and hot-fire data.

  5. Status of Resistive Magnets in the LHC Injectors Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, D; Thonet, P; Bauche, J; Zickler, T; Newborough, A; Sgobba, S; Lopez, R

    2010-01-01

    About 4650 normal conducting magnets are presently installed in the CERN accelerators complex, more than 3000 of them belonging to the LHC injector chain and 163 installed in the LHC. The oldest magnets have been in operation for 50 years, and some of them are submitted to aggressive conditions, either in terms of radiation, extreme water cooling conditions or temperature. The smallest magnets in the linacs weigh a few kilograms, whilst each of the main magnets of the Proton Synchrotron weighs 33 tons. The paper reviews the status of these magnets and gives some examples of findings and relevant recent actions undertaken to ensure their reliable operation in the coming years.

  6. Control System for the NSTX Lithium Pellet Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sichta; J. Dong; R. Gernhardt; G. Gettelfinger; H. Kugel

    2003-10-27

    The Lithium Pellet Injector (LPI) is being developed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The LPI will inject ''pellets'' of various composition into the plasma in order to study wall conditioning, edge impurity transport, liquid limiter simulations, and other areas of research. The control system for the NSTX LPI has incorporated widely used advanced technologies, such as LabVIEW and PCI bus I/O boards, to create a low-cost control system which is fully integrated into the NSTX computing environment. This paper will present the hardware and software design of the computer control system for the LPI.

  7. Monitoring system experiments on beam loss at SSRF injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Experiments on beam loss by using beam loss monitoring (BLM) system were carried out at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) injector. This system used highly sensitive and current-integrated Si-photodiode detectors and an Ethernet data acquisition (DAQ) system. The experimental results demonstrate that the Si-photodiode detectors are a useful tool that provides dynamic information on beam loss and investigates problems of machine operation. It also shows that the Si-photodiode BLM system is suitable for pulse-radiation of high-energy accelerators.

  8. On-Body Injector: An Administration Device for Pegfilgrastim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Linda J; DiBlasi, Regina; Perez, Anielka; Gaspard, Jeannie; McCauley, Dayna

    2017-02-01

    Many chemotherapy regimens used today require the support of a granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor for the prevention of life-threatening neutropenia. In March 2015, a delivery method was introduced for Neulasta® (pegfilgrastim) through an on-body injector (Onpro®), which may eliminate the need for patients to return for injection after chemotherapy, increase workflow, and allow more patients to be seen. The purpose of this study was to monitor the implementation of the Onpro delivery system in an outpatient facility.

  9. An Optimization-Based Approach to Injector Element Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, P. Kevin; Shyy, Wei; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An injector optimization methodology, method i, is used to investigate optimal design points for gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) injector elements. A swirl coaxial element and an unlike impinging element (a fuel-oxidizer-fuel triplet) are used to facilitate the study. The elements are optimized in terms of design variables such as fuel pressure drop, APf, oxidizer pressure drop, deltaP(sub f), combustor length, L(sub comb), and full cone swirl angle, theta, (for the swirl element) or impingement half-angle, alpha, (for the impinging element) at a given mixture ratio and chamber pressure. Dependent variables such as energy release efficiency, ERE, wall heat flux, Q(sub w), injector heat flux, Q(sub inj), relative combustor weight, W(sub rel), and relative injector cost, C(sub rel), are calculated and then correlated with the design variables. An empirical design methodology is used to generate these responses for both element types. Method i is then used to generate response surfaces for each dependent variable for both types of elements. Desirability functions based on dependent variable constraints are created and used to facilitate development of composite response surfaces representing the five dependent variables in terms of the input variables. Three examples illustrating the utility and flexibility of method i are discussed in detail for each element type. First, joint response surfaces are constructed by sequentially adding dependent variables. Optimum designs are identified after addition of each variable and the effect each variable has on the element design is illustrated. This stepwise demonstration also highlights the importance of including variables such as weight and cost early in the design process. Secondly, using the composite response surface that includes all five dependent variables, unequal weights are assigned to emphasize certain variables relative to others. Here, method i is used to enable objective trade studies on design issues

  10. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  11. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  12. Phenomenological and mathematical modeling of a high pressure steam driven jet injector. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, G.

    1993-12-31

    An injector is a particular type of jet pump which uses condensable vapor to entrain a liquid and discharge against a pressure higher than either motive or suction pressures. The injector has no moving parts and requires no external power supply nor any complex control system. Thus, the injector is particularly suited for emergency core cooling operations. A detailed survey has indicated that various injector designs are available for operating pressures below 250 psig. However, the design of these injectors from the viewpoint of a basic understanding of heat and mass transfer processes has not been well developed. A critical review of the models showed serious discrepancies between the analytical models and the experimental observations. The discrepancies evolved from the neglect of non-equilibrium aspects of the flow. The origin of the non-equilibrium aspects can be traced to the extremely small time scales governing the flow in the injector. Thus, time scales of the order of 10{sup {minus}2} seconds are involved in the injector, accompanied by mass, momentum, and heat transfer rates of orders of magnitude higher than that observed in conventional two-phase flows. The present study focuses on the phenomenological and mathematical modeling of the processes in the injector from the viewpoint of its non-equilibrium nature.

  13. Experimental study of acoustic damping induced by gas-liquid scheme injectors in a combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Soon; Sohn, Chae Hoon [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-01-15

    In a liquid rocket engine, acoustic damping induced by gas-liquid scheme injectors is studied experimentally for combustion stability by adopting linear acoustic test. In the previous work, it has been found that gas-liquid scheme injector can play a significant role in acoustic damping or absorption when it is tuned finely. Based on this finding, acoustic-damping characteristics of multi-injectors are intensively investigated. From the experimental data, it is found that acoustic oscillations are almost damped out by multi-injectors when they have the tuning length proposed in the previous study. The length corresponds to a half wavelength of the first longitudinal overtone mode traveling inside the injector with the acoustic frequency intended for damping in the chamber. But, new injector-coupled acoustic modes show up in the chamber with the injectors of the tuning length although the target mode is nearly damped out. And, appreciable frequency shift is always observed except for the case of the worst tuned injector. Accordingly, it is proposed that the tuning length is adjusted to have the shorter length than a half wavelength when these phenomena are considered

  14. Measurements of acoustic responses of gaseous propellant injectors. [for rocket combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardan, B. A.; Daniel, B. R.; Zinn, B. T.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an investigation intended to provide experimental data that can quantitatively describe the way in which various coaxial injector designs affect the stability of gaseous propellant rocket motors. The response factors of configurations that simulate the flow conditions in a gaseous-fuel injector element and a gaseous-oxidizer injector element are measured by using a modified impedance-tube technique and under cold-flow conditions simulating those observed in rocket motors with axial instability. The measured injector response factor data are presented and discussed. It is shown that there is reasonable agreement between the measured injector response factors and those predicted by the Feiler and Heidmann model (1967), and that the orifice length can be varied to shift the resonant frequency of the injector without any change in the magnitude of the response factor at resonance. A change in the injector open-area ratio is found to have a significant effect on the characteristics of the injector response factor.

  15. Breakup structure of two-phase jets with various momentum flux from a porous injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inchul; Kim, Dohun; Koo, Jaye

    2014-02-01

    Spray structure and atomization characteristics were investigated through a comparison of a porous and a shear coaxial injector. The porous injector shows better atomization performance than the shear coaxial injector. To increase atomization performance and mixing efficiency of two-phase jets, a coaxial porous injector which can be applicable to liquid rocket combustors was designed and tested. The characteristics of atomization and spray from a porous and a shear coaxial injector were characterized by the momentum flux ratio. The breakup mechanism of the porous injector is governed by Taylor-Culick flow and axial shear forces. Momentum of injected gas flow through a porous material which is composed of sintered metal is radically transferred to the center of the liquid column, and then liquid column is effectively broken up. Although the shapes of spray from porous and shear coaxial jets were similar for various momentum ratio, spray structures such as spray angle and droplet sizes were different. As increasing the momentum flux ratio, SMD from the porous injector showed smaller value than the shear coaxial injector

  16. Multifunction automated crawling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Joffe, Benjamin (Inventor); Backes, Paul Gregory (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an automated crawling robot system including a platform, a first leg assembly, a second leg assembly, first and second rails attached to the platform, and an onboard electronic computer controller. The first leg assembly has an intermittent coupling device and the second leg assembly has an intermittent coupling device for intermittently coupling the respective first and second leg assemblies to a particular object. The first and second leg assemblies are slidably coupled to the rail assembly and are slidably driven by motors to thereby allow linear movement. In addition, the first leg assembly is rotary driven by a rotary motor to thereby provide rotary motion relative to the platform. To effectuate motion, the intermittent coupling devices of the first and second leg assemblies alternately couple the respective first and second leg assemblies to an object. This motion is done while simultaneously moving one of the leg assemblies linearly in the desired direction and preparing the next step. This arrangement allows the crawler of the present invention to traverse an object in a range of motion covering 360 degrees.

  17. Measurement application for injector solenoid : measurement application for an injector solenoid in the Wärtsilä 46CR engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ohls, Tony Conny Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned by Wärtsilä Finland Services and concerns creating an application with LabVIEW that will measure key values from an injector solenoid intended for a Wärtsilä 46CR engine. The application created will analyse two signals that are sampled with a frequency of 100 000 Hz and based on these signals, the key values will be calculated. The key values are: the time it takes for a valve to start opening from the moment power is fed into the solenoid, the time it takes...

  18. Characterization of typical platelet injector flow configurations. [liquid propellant rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickox, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    A study to investigate the hydraulic atomization characteristics of several novel injector designs for use in liquid propellant rocket engines is presented. The injectors were manufactured from a series of thin stainless steel platelets through which orifices were very accurately formed by a photoetching process. These individual platelets were stacked together and the orifices aligned so as to produce flow passages of prescribed geometry. After alignment, the platelets were bonded into a single, 'platelet injector', unit by a diffusion bonding process. Because of the complex nature of the flow associated with platelet injectors, it was necessary to use experimental techniques, exclusively, throughout the study. Large scale models of the injectors were constructed from aluminum plates and the appropriate fluids were modeled using a glycerol-water solution. Stop-action photographs of test configurations, using spark-shadowgraph or stroboscopic back-lighting, are shown.

  19. Experimental Evaluation of a Subscale Gaseous Hydrogen/gaseous Oxygen Coaxial Rocket Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Farhangi, Shahram; Sutton, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The next generation reusable launch vehicle may utilize a Full-Flow Stage Combustion (FFSC) rocket engine cycle. One of the key technologies required is the development of an injector that uses gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen as propellants. Gas-gas propellant injection provides an engine with increased stability margin over a range of throttle set points. This paper summarizes an injector design and testing effort that evaluated a coaxial rocket injector for use with gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. A total of 19 hot-fire tests were conducted up to a chamber pressure of 1030 psia, over a range of 3.3 to 6.7 for injector element mixture ratio. Post-test condition of the hardware was also used to assess injector face cooling. Results show that high combustion performance levels could be achieved with gas-gas propellants and there were no problems with excessive face heating for the conditions tested.

  20. Construction and test of a high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, E W; Hagena, O F; Henkes, P R W; Klingelhofer, R; Moser, H O; Obert, W; Poth, I

    1979-01-01

    A high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions, rated for 1 MV and 100 kW, is described. The injector is split in three separate tanks connected by a 1 MV transfer line. The cluster ion beam source and all its auxiliary equipment is placed at high voltage, insulated by SF/sub 6/ gas at pressure of 4 bar. The main components of the injector are: The cluster ion beam source with integrated helium cryopumps, the CERN type acceleration tube with 750 mm ID, the beam dump designed to handle the mass and energy flux under DC conditions, a 1 MV high voltage terminal for the auxiliary equipment supplied by its 40 kVA power supply with power, and the 1 MV 120 kW DC high voltage generator. This injector is installed in Karlsruhe. Performance tests were carried out successfully. It is intended to use this injector for refuelling experiments at the ASDEX Tokamak. (12 refs).

  1. Installation and first operation of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility injector at the Rokkasho site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobin, Raphael, E-mail: rjgobin@cea.fr; Bogard, Daniel; Bolzon, Benoit; Bourdelle, Gilles; Chauvin, Nicolas; Chel, Stéphane; Girardot, Patrick; Gomes, Adelino; Guiho, Patrice; Harrault, Francis; Loiseau, Denis; Lussignol, Yves; Misiara, Nicolas; Roger, Arnaud; Senée, Franck; Valette, Matthieu [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France); Cara, Philippe; Duglué, Daniel; Gex, Dominique [Fusion for Energy, BFD Department, Garching (Germany); Okumura, Yoshikazu [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Obuchi-Omotedate, 2-166, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); and others

    2016-02-15

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) linear IFMIF prototype accelerator injector dedicated to high intensity deuteron beam production has been designed, built, and tested at CEA/Saclay between 2008 and 2012. After the completion of the acceptance tests at Saclay, the injector has been fully sent to Japan. The re-assembly of the injector has been performed between March and May 2014. Then after the check-out phase, the production of the first proton beam occurred in November 2014. Hydrogen and deuteron beam commissioning is now in progress after having proceeded with the final tests on the entire injector equipment including high power diagnostics. This article reports the different phases of the injector installation pointing out the safety and security needs, as well as the first beam production results in Japan and chopper tests. Detailed operation and commissioning results (with H{sup +} and D{sup +} 100 keV beams) are reported in a second article.

  2. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-08-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.

  3. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.

  4. Radiation shielding for the Main Injector collimation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhno, Igor; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The results of Monte Carlo radiation shielding studies performed with the MARS15 code for the Main Injector collimation system are presented and discussed. A Proton Plan was developed recently at Fermilab for the benefit of the existing neutrino programs as well as to increase anti-proton production for the Tevatron programs [1]. As a part of the plan, the intensity of proton beams in the Main Injector (MI) should be increased by means of slip-stacking injection. In order to localize beam loss associated with the injection, a collimation system was designed [2] that satisfies all the radiation and engineering constraints. The system itself comprises a primary collimator and four secondary ones to which various masks are added. It is assumed that beam loss at the slip-stacking injection is equal to 5% of total intensity which is 5.5 x 10{sup 13} protons per pulse [2]. As far as pulse separation is 2.2 seconds, one has (5.5 x 10{sup 13}/2.2) x 0.05 = 1.25 x 10{sup 12} protons interacting per second with the primary collimator. In the paper the geometry model of the corresponding MI region and beam loss model are described. The model of the region was built by means of the MAD-MARS Beam Line Builder (MMBLB) [3] using results of the collimation studies [2]. The results of radiation shielding calculations performed with the MARS15 code [4] are presented.

  5. Electron injector for Iranian Infrared Free Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, A.; Jazini, J.; Fathi, M.; Khosravi, N.; Shokri, B.

    2016-12-01

    The quality of the electron beam for applications like free electron lasers (FELs) has a direct impact on the quality of the laser radiation. The electron injector considered for Iranian Infrared Free Electron Laser (IRIFEL) includes a thermionic RF electron gun plus a bunch compressor as the electron preinjector and a 50 MeV constant gradient traveling wave linac as the main accelerator of the electron injector. In the present work, a thermionic RF gun is designed and matched with an optimized linac to produce a high quality mono-energetic electron beam. The results show that the preinjector is capable of delivering an electron bunch with 1 ps bunch length and 3 mm-mrad emittance to the linac entrance which is desirable for IRIFEL operation. The results also show that by geometrical manipulation and optimization of the linac structure, the pattern of the RF fields in the linac will be more symmetric, which is important in order to produce high stable mono-energetic bunches.

  6. Energy-Spread-Feedback System for the KEKB Injector Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Satoh, Masanori; Suwada, Tsuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    New energy-spread feedback system using nondestructive energy-spread monitors have been developed in order to control and stabilize the energy spreads of single-bunch electron and positron beams in the KEKB injector linac. The well-controlled feedback systems of the injector linac are successfully working in dairy operation not only for keeping the injection rate higher along with the beam-orbit and energy feedback systems but also for reducing a background level to the high-energy B-factory experiment. The energy spreads of the injection beams are well stabilized within 0.2%, 0.5% and 0.3% for the electron beam, the positron beam, and the high-current primary electron beam for positron production, respectively, through the energy-spread feedback system under the nominal operation condition. In this paper, we will report in detail the energy-spread feedback system using the nondestructive energy-spread monitors with multi-strip-line electrodes and their performance in the KEKB operation.

  7. Heavy ion upgrade of the Bevatron local injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staples, J.; Gough, R.; Abbott, S.; Dwinell, R.; Halliwell, J.; Howard, D.; Richter, R.; Stover, G.; Tanabe, J.; Zajec, E.

    1984-05-01

    A new heavy ion injector system for the Bevatron, consisting of a PIG ion source, an RFQ linac, and two Alvarez linacs, is nearing completion. It will make available to the Bevatron a source of ions up to mass 40 independent of the SuperHILAC, enhancing the operational flexibility of the Bevalac complex. The RFQ accelerator, made operational in mid 1983, accelerates ions with q/A greater than or equal to 0.14 to 200 keV/n. The RFQ is followed by a new 200 MHz Alvarez linac operating in the 2..beta..lambda mode which further accelerates the ions to 800 keV/n. This linac is followed by a foil stripper and a portion of the old injector linac, rebuilt to accelerate beams with q/A greater than or equal to 0.35 to 5 MeV/n in the 2..beta..lambda mode. Details are given of the configuration, equipment modifications, and project status.

  8. Development of Compact Toroid Injector for C-2 FRCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Junichi; Asai, Tomohiko; Gota, Hiroshi; Garate, Eusebio; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Smith, Brett; Morehouse, Mark; TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    Collaborative research project with Tri Alpha Energy has been started and we have developed a new compact toroid (CT) injector for the C-2 device, mainly for fueling field-reversed configurations (FRCs). The CT is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylinder electrodes; a spheromak-like plasma is generated by discharge and pushed out from the gun by Lorentz force. The inner diameter of outer electrode is 83.1 mm and the outer diameter of inner electrode is 54.0 mm. The surface of the inner electrode is coated with tungsten in order to reduce impurities coming out from the electrode. The bias coil is mounted inside of the inner electrode. We have recently conducted test experiments and achieved a supersonic CT translation speed of up to ~100 km/s. Other typical plasma parameters are as follows: electron density ~ 5 × 1021 m-3, electron temperature ~ 40 eV, and the number of particles ~0.5-1.0 × 1019. The CT injector is now planned to be installed on C-2 and the first CT injection experiment will be conducted in the near future. The detailed MCPG design as well as the test experimental results will be presented.

  9. RF Design for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Dowell, D H; Boyce, Richard F; Hodgson, J A; Li, Zenghai; Limborg-Deprey, C; Xiao, Liling; Yu, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world’s first free electron laser, and the successful operation of this very short-wavelength FEL will require excellent beam quality from its electron source. Therefore a critical component is the RF photocathode injector. This paper describes the design issues of the LCLS RF gun and accelerator structures. The injector consists of a 1.6 cell s-band gun followed by two 3-meter SLAC sections. The gun and the first RF section will have dual RF feeds both to eliminate transverse RF kicks and to reduce the pulsed heating of the coupling ports. In addition, the input coupler cavity of the first accelerator section will be specially shaped to greatly reduce the RF quadrupole fields. The design for the accelerator section is now complete, and the RF design of the gun’s dual coupler and the full cell shape is in progress. These and other aspects of the gun and structure designs will be discussed.

  10. Cavitation Inside High-Pressure Optically Transparent Fuel Injector Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2015-12-01

    Nozzle-orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on primary breakup of sprays. For this reason, a number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles so that orifice flow cavitation can be examined directly. Many of these studies use injection pressures scaled down from realistic injection pressures used in modern fuel injectors, and so the geometry must be scaled up so that the Reynolds number can be matched with the industrial applications of interest. A relatively small number of studies have shown results at or near the injection pressures used in real systems. Unfortunately, neither the specifics of the design of the optical nozzle nor the design methodology used is explained in detail in these papers. Here, a methodology demonstrating how to prevent failure of a finished design made from commonly used optically transparent materials will be explained in detail, and a description of a new design for transparent nozzles which minimizes size and cost will be shown. The design methodology combines Finite Element Analysis with relevant materials science to evaluate the potential for failure of the finished assembly. Finally, test results imaging a cavitating flow at elevated pressures are presented.

  11. CFD-Based Design Optimization for Single Element Rocket Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Tucker, Kevin; Papila, Nilay; Shyy, Wei

    2003-01-01

    To develop future Reusable Launch Vehicle concepts, we have conducted design optimization for a single element rocket injector, with overall goals of improving reliability and performance while reducing cost. Computational solutions based on the Navier-Stokes equations, finite rate chemistry, and the k-E turbulence closure are generated with design of experiment techniques, and the response surface method is employed as the optimization tool. The design considerations are guided by four design objectives motivated by the consideration in both performance and life, namely, the maximum temperature on the oxidizer post tip, the maximum temperature on the injector face, the adiabatic wall temperature, and the length of the combustion zone. Four design variables are selected, namely, H2 flow angle, H2 and O2 flow areas with fixed flow rates, and O2 post tip thickness. In addition to establishing optimum designs by varying emphasis on the individual objectives, better insight into the interplay between design variables and their impact on the design objectives is gained. The investigation indicates that improvement in performance or life comes at the cost of the other. Best compromise is obtained when improvements in both performance and life are given equal importance.

  12. Characteristics of spray pattern on injection conditions using GDI injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.H. [Hanyang University, Graduate School, Seoul (Korea); Lee, K.H.; Lee, C.S. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, J.Y.; Baik, S.K. [Kefico (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    Recently GDI(Gasoline Direct Injection) engine is spotlighted to achieve higher thermal efficiency under partial loads and better performance at full loads. To realize these, it is essential to make both super-lean stratified combustion and homogeneous combustion. When compared to PFI(Port Fuel Injection) engine, GDI engine needs more complicated control and optimal design with piston cavity. In addition, spray pattern must be optimized according to injection timing because ambient pressure in combustion chamber is also varied. Thus spray structure should be analyzed in details to meet various conditions. In this experimental study, system of spray visualization was built for coping with variable ambient pressures in high pressure chamber and the spray characteristics were investigated for a few sample GDI injectors. To make clear spray pattern, the images for vertical and horizontal sections were taken as fuel injection was processed. With an increase at the ambient pressure in chamber, the tip penetration and spray diameter is inclined to decrease due to rising resistance caused by the drag force of the ambient air. These results provide the information on macro spray structure and design factors for developing GDI injector. (author). 4 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  13. PIP-II Injector Test: Challenges and Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derwent, P. F. [Fermilab; Carneiro, J. P. [Fermilab; Edelen, J. [Fermilab; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Prost, L. [Fermilab; Saini, A. [Fermilab; Shemyakin, A. [Fermilab; Steimel, J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    The Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) at Fermilab is a program of upgrades to the injection complex. At its core is the design and construction of a CW-compatible, pulsed H- superconducting RF linac. To validate the concept of the front-end of such machine, a test accelerator known as PIP-II Injector Test is under construction. It includes a 10mA DC, 30 keV H- ion source, a 2 m-long Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 2.1 MeV CW RFQ, followed by a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) that feeds the first of 2 cryomodules increasing the beam energy to about 25 MeV, and a High Energy Beam Transport section (HEBT) that takes the beam to a dump. The ion source, LEBT, RFQ, and initial version of the MEBT have been built, installed, and commissioned. This report presents the overall status of the Injector Test warm front end, including results of the beam commissioning through the installed components, and progress with SRF cryomodules and other systems.

  14. F-18 production with the TOP linac injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianfarani, Cesidio [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Cisbani, Evaristo [ISS, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome (Italy); Orlandi, Gianluca [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Frullani, Salvatore [ISS, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: salvatore.frullani@iss.infn.it; Picardi, Luigi [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Ronsivalle, Concetta [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy)

    2006-06-23

    ENEA and ISS (Italian National Institute of Health), are collaborating to develop a dedicated proton medical accelerator, TOP (Oncological Therapy with Protons) linac, consisting of a sequence of three pulsed linear accelerators. The 7 MeV injector can be used in three operating modes: Protontherapy and Radiobiology Mode-injecting low current proton beam into the TOP linac accelerating sections; Radioisotope Mode-generating an intense proton beam (8-10 mA, 50-100 {mu}s, 30-100 Hz) to produce the positron-emitting radionuclide F18 for PET analyses. In the high current mode, at the exit of the injector the beam is guided through a magnetic quadrupoles channel to a target composed by a thin chamber (0.5 mm thick and 1 in. diameter) containing water enriched with O18. Production yield as well as total activity similar to these achieved with higher energy cyclotrons have been obtained. Environmental doses measured give indications on the shielding required for operation under current radioprotection regulations. Improvements are foreseen to optimize the production yield, the useful beam current and to better characterize gamma and neutron dose rates in the different operational modes.

  15. NSLS-II injector commissioning and initial operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacha, B.; Blum, E.; Bassi, B.; Bengtsson, J.; Blednykh, A.; Buda, S.; Cheng, W.; Choi, J.; Cuppolo, J.; D Alsace, R.; Davidsaver, M.; DeLong, J.; Doom, L.; Durfee, d.; fliller, R.; Fulkerson, M.; Ganetis, G.; Gao, F.; Gardner, C.; Guo, W.; Heese, R.; Hidaka, Y.; Hu, Y.; Johanson, M.; Kosciuk, B.; Kowalski, S.; Dramer, S.; Krinsky, S.; Li, Y.; Louie, W.; Maggipinto, M.; Marino, P.; Mead, J.; Oliva, G.; Padrazo, D.; Pedersen, K.; Podobedov, B.; Rainer, R.; Rose, J.; Santana, M.; Seletskiy, S.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Singh, P.; Smalyuk, V.; Smith, R.; Summers, T.; Tagger, J.; Tian, Y.; Wahl, W.; Wang, G.; Weiner, G.; Willeke, F.; Yang, L.; Yang, X.; Zeitler, E.; Zitvogel, E.; Zuhoski, P.

    2015-05-03

    The injector for the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) storage ring consists of a 3 GeV booster synchrotron and a 200 MeV S-band linac. The linac was designed to produce either a single bunch with a charge of 0.5 nC of electrons or a train of bunches up to 300 ns long containing a total charge of 15 nC. The booster was designed to accelerate up to 15 nC each cycle in a train of bunches up to 300 ns long. Linac commissioning was completed in April 2012. Booster commissioning was started in November 2013 and completed in March 2014. All of the significant design goals were satisfied including beam emittance, energy spread, and transport efficiency. While the maximum booster charge accelerated was only 10 nC, this has proven to be more than sufficient for storage ring commissioning and operation. The injector has operated reliably during storage ring operation since then. Results will be presented showing measurements of linac and booster operating parameters achieved during commissioning and initial operation. Operating experience and reliability during the first year of NSLS-II operation will be discussed.

  16. Administration of the adrenaline auto-injector at the nursery/kindergarten/school in Western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitaka, Michiko; Ogata, Mika; Zaitsu, Masafumi; Motomura, Chikako; Kuzume, Kazuyo; Toku, Yuchiro; Ikeda, Masanori; Odajima, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Background In view of the increasing prevalence of food allergies, there has been an associated increase in frequency of situations requiring an emergency response for anaphylaxis at the home, childcare facilities and educational institutions. Objective To clarify the situation of adrenaline auto-injector administration in nursery/kindergarten/school, we carried out a questionnaire survey on pediatric physicians in Western Japan. Methods In 2015, self-reported questionnaires were mailed to 421 physicians who are members of the West Japan Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy and Shikoku Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy. Results The response rate was 44% (185 physicians) where 160 physicians had a prescription registration for the adrenaline auto-injector. In the past year, 1,330 patients were prescribed the adrenaline auto-injector where 83 patients (6% of the prescribed patients) actually administered the adrenaline auto-injector, of which 14 patients (17% of the administered patients) self-administered the adrenaline auto-injector. “Guardians” at the nursery/kindergarten and elementary school were found to have administered the adrenaline auto-injector the most. Among 117 adrenaline auto-injector prescription-registered physicians, 79% had experienced nonadministration of adrenaline auto-injector at nursery/kindergarten/school when anaphylaxis has occurred. The most frequent reason cited for not administering the adrenaline auto-injector was “hesitation about the timing of administration.” Conclusion If the adrenaline auto-injector was administered after the guardian arrived at the nursery/kindergarten/school, it may lead to delayed treatment of anaphylaxis in which symptoms develop in minutes. Education and cooperation among physicians and nursery/kindergarten/school staff will reduce the number of children suffering unfortunate outcomes due to anaphylaxis. PMID:28154804

  17. Using CFD as Rocket Injector Design Tool: Recent Progress at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kevin; West, Jeff; Williams, Robert; Lin, Jeff; Rocker, Marvin; Canabal, Francisco; Robles, Bryan; Garcia, Robert; Chenoweth, James

    2003-01-01

    The choice of tools used for injector design is in a transitional phase between exclusive reliance on the empirically based correlations and extensive use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program goals emphasizing lower costs and increased reliability have produced a need to enable CFD as an injector design tool in a shorter time frame. This is the primary objective of the Staged Combustor Injector Technology Task currently under way at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The documentation of this effort begins with a very brief status of current injector design tools. MSFC's vision for use of CFD as a tool for combustion devices design is stated and discussed with emphasis on the injector. The concept of the Simulation Readiness Level (SRL), comprised of solution fidelity, robustness and accuracy, is introduced and discussed. This quantitative measurement is used to establish the gap between the current state of demonstrated capability and that necessary for regular use in the design process. MSFC's view of the validation process is presented and issues associated with obtaining the necessary data are noted and discussed. Three current experimental efforts aimed at generating validation data are presented. The importance of uncertainty analysis to understand the data quality is also demonstrated. First, a brief status of current injector design tools is provided as context for the current effort. Next, the MSFC vision for using CFD as an injector design tool is stated. A generic CFD-based injector design methodology is also outlined and briefly discussed. Three areas where MSFC is using injector CFD analyses for program support will be discussed. These include the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) engine which uses hydrogen and oxygen propellants in a full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle and the TR-107 and the RS84 engine both of which use RP-1 and oxygen in an ORSC cycle. Finally, an attempt is made to

  18. Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.

  19. Borderline disorder and attachment pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Keller, A; Links, P; Patrick, J

    1993-02-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the theoretical and empirical association between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline personality disorder. Attachment theory focuses on the maintenance of a sense of safety and security through a close personal relationship with a particular person. Based on a biological behavioural system, functional attachment relationships in adulthood rely on experiences and expectations of security within the relationship. These issues are also important to the definition and dynamics of borderline personality disorder. The dimensions and patterns of reciprocal attachment were compared with other scales measuring components of psychopathology and interpersonal relationships. In a sample of 85 female outpatients, only four of the attachment scales--feared loss, secure base, compulsive care-seeking and angry withdrawal--identified patients with high scores on a measure of borderline disorder. Of these four scales, feared loss had the predominant effect. These empirical results support the hypothesized relationship between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline disorder.

  20. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  1. Attachment and Outcomes in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslim Guvendeger Doksat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The term and ldquo;attachment and rdquo; is used to imply the bonding between mother and child or the relationship between parents and child. Establishment of secure attachment is the healthiest way for the mental and physical development of the child. Secure attachment system constitutes a protection mechanism from high levels of stress. Insecurely attached children are presented with mental and physical developmental delays and problems in identity formation and personality in the future. To avoid all these, all the requirements of the child by means of affection, nutrition, protection, shelter and health are required to be met in a consistent and healthy way by the caregiver. This review article discuss the term attachment; features associated with insecure attachment and its negative influences in adulthood. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 489-501

  2. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult attachment and psychosocial functioning, predominately in the realm of close relationships. In the first part of the thesis, the focus lay on the assessment of the adult attachment construct. In Cha...

  3. Manufacturing and automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

  4. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Florian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Besides the predominance of disorganized attachment, clinical participants demonstrated more “segregated system material” especially in stories representing aloneness and more “Personal Experience material” compared to healthy individuals. Within the disorganized/ unresolved clinical individuals, BPD and PTSD patients showed the highest proportion of attachment disorganization and were less able to use other attachment-related defenses to maintain organized. Furthermore, PTSD patients were emotionally overwhelmed by the projective attachment scenes compared to the other clinical groups as indexed by an incapacity to complete sections of the AAP. BPD and addicted patients were characterized by a high degree of self-other boundary confusion. Depressive and schizophrenic patients showed a high overall defensive intensity to remain organized.

  5. Finding a solution to internal diesel injector deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, Robert; Quigley, Robert; Panesar, Avtar; Payne, James [Lubrizol Limited, Derby (United Kingdom); Arters, David; Bush, Jim; Stevens, Andrew [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Internal diesel injector deposits (IDIDs) have caused widespread problems in the automotive industry since around 2005. Modem injectors that have been precisely engineered to operate highly controlled injection strategies are experiencing problems in the field due to deposits that have formed on their critical moving parts, such as the needle and control valve. Problems range from rough idling to a failure to start, when the moving parts become stuck. Early studies showed that the composition of these deposits is variable. In some cases the deposit contained noticeable amounts of sodium carboxylate; these are now generally referred to as 'sodium soaps'. In other incidences the dominant chemical functionality observed was an amide group, and hence these deposits are referred to as 'amide lacquers'. A combination of both types has been observed in many cases and other metals, like calcium, have also been detected. Further studies have shown that the sodium soap type can be formed from specific types of corrosion inhibitors. The source of the amide lacquers is less certain, but there are indications that they originate from specific fuel additives that contain critical levels of low molecular weight species. This paper broadly explores this area of high interest. It will report results on the analysis of deposits and the conditions needed to reproduce both types of IDID in bench engine testing. It will also investigate the types of contaminants that are likely to form IDIDs and explore difference in chemical structure that can lead to pro-fouling, non-fouling and anti-fouling behaviour. It will then show that a deposit control additive, specifically designed to control nozzle tip deposits in modem direct injection diesels, is equally effective in controlling IDIDs; both in terms of prevention and removal. Since IDIDS are formed from multiple sources, some of which are difficult to control in today' s market, the use of a broadly acting fuel

  6. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  7. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery.

  8. What factors affect the carriage of epinephrine auto-injectors by teenagers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macadam Clare

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Methods Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Results Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Conclusions Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments.

  9. Influence of injector technology on injection and combustion development - Part 1: Hydraulic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, R.; Salvador, F.J.; Gimeno, J.; Morena, J. de la [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    An experimental study of two real multi-hole Diesel injectors is performed under current DI Diesel engine operating conditions. The aim of the investigation is to study the influence of injector technology on the flow at the nozzle exit and to analyse its effect on the spray in evaporative conditions and combustion development. The injectors used are two of the most common technologies used nowadays: solenoid and piezoelectric. The nozzles for both injectors are very similar since the objective of the work is the understanding of the influence of the injector technology on spray characteristics for a given nozzle geometry. In the first part of the study, experimental measurements of hydraulic characterization have been analyzed for both systems. Analysis of spray behaviour in evaporative conditions and combustion development will be carried out in the second part of the work. Important differences between both injectors have been observed, especially in their transient opening and closing of the needle, leading to a more efficient air-fuel mixing and combustion processes for the piezoelectric actuated injector. (author)

  10. Measurement of high-speed water column inside a Steam Injector using Dynamic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Koji; Narabayashi, Sunao; Mori, Michitsugu

    2005-11-01

    The Steam Injector is the superior system to pump the fluid without rotating machine. Because the water column is surrounded by the saturated steam, very high heat transfer is also expected with direct condensation. The inside of the Steam Injector is very complicated. To improve the efficiency of the Steam Injector, the water column behavior inside the Injector is visualized using the Dynamic PIV system. Dynamic PIV system consists of the high-speed camera and lasers. In this study, 384x180 pixel resolution with 30,000fps camera is used to visualize the flow. For the illumination CW green laser with 300mW is applied. To view inside the Injector, relay lens system is set at the Injector wall. Very high speed water column during the starting up of Steam Injector had been clearly visualized with 30,000fps. The wave velocity on the water column had been analyzed using PIV technique. The instability of the water column is also detected.

  11. First operational tests of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Benaroya, R.; Billquist, P.J.; Clifft, B.E.; Markovich, P.; Munson, F.H. Jr.; Nixon, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status and first operational experience with the positive-ion injector for ATLAS. The new injector consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platform, followed by a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. In Phase I of this project, the ECR source, voltage platform, bunching system, beam-transport system, and a 3-MV injector linac were completed and tested in early 1989 by a successful acceleration of an /sup 40/Ar/sup 12 +/ beam. Most of the new system operated as planned, and the longitudinal emittance of the 36-MeV beam out of the injector was measured to be only 5 ..pi.. keV-ns, much smaller than the emittance for the present tandem injector. When completed in 1990, the final injector linac will be enlarged to 12 MV, enough to allow the original ATLAS linac to accelerate uranium ions up to 8 MeV/u. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Technology for the fully automated milking of cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gouws

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Since dairy farming is a very labour intensive, seven-days-per-week activity, increasing emphasis is being placed on the use of advanced technology in dairying throughout the world. Dairy mechanisation has been well established for many years, whereas dairy automation has only started to gain momentum fairly recently. An important milestone was the introduction of systems for automatic animal identification in the 1970’s. That paved the way for all further dairy automation activities. An analysis of the current status of the fully automated milking of cows shows that the automated attachment of a milking machine’s teat cups to a cow ’s teats is the most important task in dairying that remains to be automated.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Characteristics of a Double-Base Swirl Injector in a Liquid Rocket Propellant Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollah OMMI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the fundamentals of swirl injector calculation is investigated and new design procedure is proposed. The design method for double-base liquid-liquid injectors is presented based on this theory and experimental results. Then special conditions related to double-based liquid-liquid injectors are studied and the corresponding results are applied in design manipulation. The behaviour of injector in various performing conditions is studied, and the design procedure is presented based on obtained results. A computer code for designing the injector is proposed. Based on this code, four injectors are manufactured. A specialized laboratory was setup for the measurement of macroscopic spray characteristics under different pressure such as homogeneous droplet distribution, spray angle, swirl effect. Finally, through PDA cold test, the microscopic characteristics of injectors spray are also obtained and measured. The results, which will be explained in detail, are satisfactory.

  14. Advancing the State-of-the-Practice for Liquid Rocket Engine Injector Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, P. K.; Kenny, R. J.; Richardson, B. R.; Anderso, W. E.; Austin, B. J.; Schumaker, S. A.; Muss, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Current shortcomings in both the overall injector design process and its underlying combustion stability assessment methodology are rooted in the use of empirically based or low fidelity representations of complex physical phenomena and geometry details that have first order effects on performance, thermal environments and combustion stability. The result is a design and analysis capability that is often inadequate to reliably arrive at a suitable injector design in an efficient manner. Specifically, combustion instability has been particularly difficult to predict and mitigate. Large hydrocarbon-fueled booster engines have been especially problematic in this regard. Where combustion instability has been a problem, costly and time-consuming redesign efforts have often been an unfortunate consequence. This paper presents an overview of a recently completed effort at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to advance the state-of-the-practice for liquid rocket engine injector design. Multiple perturbations of a gas-centered swirl coaxial (GCSC) element that burned gaseous oxygen and RP-1 were designed, assessed for combustion stability, and tested. Three designs, one stable, one marginally unstable and one unstable, were used to demonstrate both an enhanced overall injector design process and an improved combustion stability assessment process. High-fidelity results from state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics CFD simulations were used to substantially augment and improve the injector design methodology. The CFD results were used to inform and guide the overall injector design process. They were also used to upgrade selected empirical or low-dimensional quantities in the ROCket Combustor Interactive Design (ROCCID) stability assessment tool. Hot fire single element injector testing was used to verify both the overall injector designs and the stability assessments. Testing was conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory and at Purdue University. Companion papers

  15. An automated swimming respirometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEFFENSEN, JF; JOHANSEN, K; BUSHNELL, PG

    1984-01-01

    An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks.......An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks....

  16. Configuration Management Automation (CMA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  17. Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  18. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2 ex

  19. Descemet′s tear due to injector cartridge tip deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foldable intraocular lens (IOL implantation using an injector system through 2.8-mm clear corneal incision following phacoemulsification provides excellent speedy postoperative recovery. In our reported case, a Sensar AR40e IOL (Abbott Medical Optics, USA was loaded into Emerald C cartridge, outside the view of the operating microscope, by the first assistant. The surgeon proceeded with the IOL injection through a 2.8-mm clear corneal incision after uneventful phacoemulsification, immediately following which he noted a Descemet′s tear with a rolled out flap of about 2 mm near the incision site. Gross downward beaking of the bevelled anterior end of the cartridge was subsequently noticed upon examination under the microscope. We suggest careful preoperative microscopic inspection of all instruments and devices entering the patient′s eyes to ensure maximum safety to the patient.

  20. The injector microtron for the TEUFEL infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botman, J. I. M.; Webers, G. A.; Delhez, J. L.; Timmermans, C. J.; Theeuwen, M. E. H. J.; Kleeven, W. J. G. M.; Hagedoorn, H. L.; Ernst, G. J.; Verschuur, J. W. J.; Witteman, W. J.

    1992-07-01

    Progress is reported on a 25 MeV injector racetrack microtron for a 10 μm radiation free electron laser (TEUFEL project). The accelerator exhibits transverse focusing in 180° inhomogeneous two-sector dipole magnets which are slightly rotated with respect to each other in the bending plane. This provides closed orbits, isochronism and a large transverse acceptance. Details on this unconventional microtron focusing system will be given. An analytical treatment, based on conformal mapping, of the field near pole boundaries and at the hill-valley boundaries in the microtron dipole is compared with Poisson calculated results and with field measurements. The design of a model accelerating cavity is presented together with field measurements based on the perturbation ball method.

  1. Cap assembly for a bundled tube fuel injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Westmoreland, III, James Harold; Flanagan, James Scott

    2016-04-26

    A cap assembly for a bundled tube fuel injector includes an impingement plate and an aft plate that is disposed downstream from the impingement plate. The aft plate includes a forward side that is axially separated from an aft side. A tube passage extends through the impingement plate and the aft plate. A tube sleeve extends through the impingement plate within the tube passage towards the aft plate. The tube sleeve includes a flange at a forward end and an aft end that is axially separated from the forward end. A retention plate is positioned upstream from the impingement plate. A spring is disposed between the retention plate and the flange. The spring provides a force so as to maintain contact between at least a portion of the aft end of the tube sleeve and the forward side of the aft plate.

  2. The Pre-Injector Linac for the Diamond Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, C

    2004-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source is a new medium-energy high brightness synchrotron light facility which is under construction on the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory site in the U.K. The accelerator facility can be divided into three major components; a 3 GeV 561 m circumference storage ring, a full-energy booster synchrotron and a 100 MeV pre-injector linac. This paper describes the linac design and plans for operation. The linac is supplied by ACCEL Instruments GmbH under a turn-key contract, with Diamond Light Source Ltd. providing linac beam diagnostics, control system hardware and standard vacuum components. Commissioning of the linac will take place in early 2005 and user operation of the facility will commence in 2007.

  3. Rocket injector anomalies study. Volume 2: Results of parametric studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Singhal, A. K.; Tam, L. T.

    1984-01-01

    The employment of a existing computer program to simulate three dimensional two phase gas spray flows in liquid propellant rocket engines. This was accomplished by modification of an existing three dimensional computer program (REFLAN3D) with Euler/Lagrange approach for simulating two phase spray flow, evaporation and combustion. The modified code is referred to as REFLAN3D-SPRAY. Computational studies of the model rocket engine combustion chamber are presented. The parametric studies of the two phase flow and combustion shows qualitatively correct response for variations in geometrical and physical parameters. The injection nonuniformity test with blocked central fuel injector holes shows significant changes in the central flame core and minor influence on the wall heat transfer fluxes.

  4. Low loss injector for liquid propellant rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonpragenau, G. L. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A low pressure loss injector element is disclosed for the main combustion chamber of a rocket engine which includes a lox post terminating in a cylindrical barrel. Received within the barrel is a lox plug which is threaded in the lox post and includes an interchangeable lox metering sieve which meters the lox into an annular lox passage. A second annular gas passage is coaxial with the annular lox passage. A cylindrical sleeve surrounds the annular gas passage and includes an interchangeable gas metering seive having metering orifices through which a hot gas passes into the annular passage. The jets which emerge from the annular lox passage and annular gas passage intersect in a recessed area away from the combustion area. Thus, mixing and combustion stability are enhanced.

  5. Controllable injector for local flux entry into superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, D.; Colauto, F.; de Andrade, A. M. H.; Oliveira, A. A. M.; Ortiz, W. A.; Johansen, T. H.

    2016-07-21

    A superconducting flux injector (SFI) has been designed to allow for controlled injections of magnetic flux into a superconducting film from a predefined location along the edge. The SFI is activated by an external current pulse, here chosen to be 200 ms long, and it is demonstrated on films of Nb that the amount of injected flux is controlled by the pulse height. Examples of injections at two different temperatures where the flux enters by stimulated flux-flow and by triggered thermomagnetic avalanches are presented. The boundary between the two types of injection is determined and discussed. The SFI opens up for active use of phenomena which up to now have been considered hazardous for a safe operation of superconducting devices.

  6. Beam forming system modernization at the MMF linac proton injector

    CERN Document Server

    Derbilov, V I; Nikulin, E S; Frolov, O T

    2001-01-01

    The isolation improvements of the beam forming system (BFS) of the MMF linac proton injector ion source are reported. The mean beam current and,accordingly, BFS electrode heating were increased when the MMF linac has began to operate regularly in long beam sessions with 50 Hz pulse repetition rate. That is why the BFS electrode high-voltage isolation that was made previously as two consequently and rigidly glued solid cylinder insulators has lost mechanical and electric durability. The substitution of large (160 mm) diameter cylinder insulator for four small diameter (20 mm) tubular rods has improved vacuum conditions in the space of beam forming and has allowed to operate without failures when beam currents being up to 250 mA and extraction and focusing voltage being up to 25 and 40 kV respectively. Moreover,the construction provides the opportunity of electrode axial move. The insulators are free from electrode thermal expansion mechanical efforts in a transverse direction.

  7. Study of RF-asymmetry in photo-injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xin; Tang, Chuanxiang; Chen, Huaibi; Huang, Wenhui; He, Xiaozhong; Xu, Peng; Li, Renkai

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the RF-asymmetry existing in the full cell of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell type photo-injector has been investigated. The fields of the multi-pole modes have been analyzed respectively, and lastly, a simple and reliable technique is presented to eliminate the dipole mode with the RF-asymmetry induced by dipole mode. In the process of simulation, the time domain module of CST Microwave Studio is mainly used as the tool to calculate the electro-magnetic fields. The FFT technique is employed to conduct frequency domain analysis for the fields. The results of FFT are utilized to estimate emittance growth induced by higher multi-pole modes, according to the framework of Panofsky-Wenzal theorem. Based on the above analysis, efforts have been made to eliminate dipole fields by modifying the length of vacuum port on the opposite side of RF-coupling port.

  8. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10{sup 9} electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE`s evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc.

  9. Krokodile Injectors in Ukraine: Fueling the HIV Epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Robert E; Davis, Jonathan M; Brewster, John T; Lisovska, Oksana; Dvoryak, Sergey

    2016-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the characteristics of krokodile injectors, a recent phenomenon in Ukraine, and HIV-related risk factors among people who inject drugs (PWID). In three Ukraine cities, Odessa, Donetsk and Nikolayev, 550 PWID were recruited between December 2012 and October 2013 using modified targeted sampling methods. The sample averaged 31 years of age and they had been injecting for over 12 years. Overall, 39 % tested positive for HIV, including 45 % of krokodile injectors. In the past 30 days, 25 % reported injecting krokodile. Those who injected krokodile injected more frequently (p < 0.001) and they injected more often with others (p = 0.005). Despite knowing their HIV status to be positive, krokodile users did not reduce their injection frequency, indeed, they injected as much as 85 % (p = 0.016) more frequently than those who did not know their HIV status or thought they were negative. This behavior was not seen in non-krokodile using PWID. Although only a small sample of knowledgeable HIV positive krokodile users was available (N = 12), this suggests that krokodile users may disregard their HIV status more so than nonkrokodile users. In spite of widespread knowledge of its harmful physical consequences, a growing number of PWID are turning to injecting krokodile in Ukraine. Given the recency of krokodile use the country, the associated higher frequency of injecting, a propensity to inject more often with others, and what could be a unique level of disregard of HIV among krokodile users, HIV incidence could increase in future years.

  10. Experimental Results from Initial Operation of Plasma Injector 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    General Fusion has begun operation of its first full-scale plasma injector, designed to accelerate high density spheromak plasmas into the compression chamber of a proposed MTF reactor. The geometry of Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is that of a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with a conical converging accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, while pulsed power is applied in the same configuration as the RACE device. PI-1 is 5 meters in length and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration/compression stage is 4 m long and tapers to a final outer diameter of 40 cm. PI-1 is now operating at 1 MJ of total capacitor power, which will be doubled again before it reaches its design parameters. Diagnostics include 3 interferometer chords, 21 magnetic probes (2 axis poloidal/toroidal), 13 fast photodiode chords, as well as one Thomson scattering chord, a visible light survey spectrometer, and a Langmuir triple probe. Electrode voltage and current are also monitored. So far spheromaks of poloidal flux exceeding 100 mWb have been formed in the expansion region, and spheromaks of 40-50 mWb have been formed and accelerated out the end of the accelerator into a flux conserving target chamber. Expansion region densities are typically ˜5 x10^14cm-3, while conditions in the target chamber have reached ne˜10^16cm-3, and lifetimes of 300 μs.

  11. Vortex flow and cavitation in diesel injector nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, A.; Gavaises, M.; Arcoumanis, C.

    Flow visualization as well as three-dimensional cavitating flow simulations have been employed for characterizing the formation of cavitation inside transparent replicas of fuel injector valves used in low-speed two-stroke diesel engines. The designs tested have incorporated five-hole nozzles with cylindrical as well as tapered holes operating at different fixed needle lift positions. High-speed images have revealed the formation of an unsteady vapour structure upstream of the injection holes inside the nozzle volume, which is referred to as . Computation of the flow distribution and combination with three-dimensional reconstruction of the location of the strings inside the nozzle volume has revealed that strings are found at the core of recirculation zones; they originate either from pre-existing cavitation sites forming at sharp corners inside the nozzle where the pressure falls below the vapour pressure of the flowing liquid, or even from suction of outside air downstream of the hole exit. Processing of the acquired images has allowed estimation of the mean location and probability of appearance of the cavitating strings in the three-dimensional space as a function of needle lift, cavitation and Reynolds number. The frequency of appearance of the strings has been correlated with the Strouhal number of the vortices developing inside the sac volume; the latter has been found to be a function of needle lift and hole shape. The presence of strings has significantly affected the flow conditions at the nozzle exit, influencing the injected spray. The cavitation structures formed inside the injection holes are significantly altered by the presence of cavitation strings and are jointly responsible for up to 10% variation in the instantaneous fuel injection quantity. Extrapolation using model predictions for real-size injectors operating at realistic injection pressures indicates that cavitation strings are expected to appear within the time scales of typical injection

  12. Attachment styles in alcoholic inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rick, Ann; Vanheule, Stijn

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that addiction has often been identified as an attachment disorder, empirical studies on this topic are rather scarce. In our study we explore attachment style (secure vs. insecure) in alcoholic inpatients and its relationship with perceived parenting and alcohol-related and psychiatric problems in a sample of 101 alcoholic inpatients (Belgium). Our results reveal that in comparison to the securely-attached group, insecurely-attached alcoholic inpatients perceived their mother as more controlling, reported more severe psychiatric problems in the European Addiction Severity Index, had higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, showed more schizotypal and depressive personality traits and had more difficulties with communicating emotions (alexithymia). We argue that it makes sense to differentiate alcoholic inpatients on the basis of attachment style and that both groups (secure/insecure) need different treatment approaches.

  13. Thermal effects in high power cavities for photoneutralization of D- beams in future neutral beam injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Donatella; Feng, Jiatai; Pichot, Mikhaël; Chaibi, Walid

    2015-04-01

    Photoneutralization may represent a key issue in the neutral beam injectors for future fusion reactors. In fact, photodetachment based neutralization combined with an energy recovery system increase the injector overall efficiency up to 60%. This is the SIPHORE injector concept in which photoneutralization is realized in a refolded cavity [1]. However, about 1 W of the several megaWatts intracavity power is absorbed by the mirrors coatings and gives rise to important thermoelastic distortions. This is expected to change the optical behavior of the mirrors and reduce the enhancement factor of the cavity. In this paper, we estimate these effects and we propose a thermal system to compensate it.

  14. Design and experiment of insulation support of 2 MeV injector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Meng; Dai Guang Sen; Wang Jing Sheng; Xia Lian Sheng; Huang Hai Bo

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at the technical request of high power injector, the authors designed two Nylon radial graded insulation supports on the heads of cathode and anode of the existing 2 MeV injector. The experiment results showed that, on the basis of credible insulation, the supports improved the quality of coaxiality between the cathode and the anode, ameliorated the identity of the three axes of beams, magnetic field and mechanism, and settled the groundwork for advancing each technical performances of the 2 MeV injector

  15. SIMULATION AND OPTIMISATION OF A 100MA DC PHOTO-INJECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay Hannon; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia

    2006-08-03

    A prototype 100mA injector is presently being designed and manufactured jointly between Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and Advanced Energy Systems (AES). This paper discusses the physics optimization and performance of the injector which has been studied using the space-charge tracking code ASTRA. The objective is to operate the 7MeV injector with 135pC electron bunches at 748.5MHz repetition rate. We show that the longitudinal and transverse electron bunch properties can be realized within the constraints of the design.

  16. Holographic analysis of the microstructure of atomized liquid issuing from centrifugal injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weclas, M.

    Holographs of sprays of atomized water issuing from centrifugal injectors have been analyzed, and the results are reported. The atomization spectrum was characterized by the presence of a principal maximum of distribution and distinct local maxima. Those extremum values occurred for the same droplet diameters, independently of the size of the injector and of the supply pressure. The character of the spectrum is independent of the distance from the injector outlet at any cross section of the spray. Most of the droplets are 20 to 60 microns in diameter, and the number of droplets within the 60 to 280 micron interval increases with increasing supply pressure.

  17. Visualization of cavitating and flashing flows within a high aspect ratio injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew S.

    Thermal management issues necessitate the use of fuel as a heat sink for gas turbine and liquid rocket engines. There are certain benefits to using heated fuels, namely, increased sensible enthalpy, increased combustion efficiency, a decrease in certain emissions, and enhanced vaporization characteristics. However, the thermal and pressure enviornment inside an injector can result in the fuel flashing to vapor. Depending on the injector design, this can have deleterious effects on engine performance. As interest in heated fuels inreases, it is important to understand what occurs in the flow path of an injector under flashing conditions. At the High Pressure Laboratory at Purdue University's Maurice J. Zucrow Laboritories, a test rig was designed and built to give visual access into the flow path of a 2-D slot injector. The rig is capable of pressurizing and heating a liquid to superheated conditions and utilizes a pneumatically actuated piston to pusth the liquid through the slot injector. Methanol was chosen as a surrogate fuel to allow for high levels of superheat at relatively low temperatures. Testing was completed with acrylic and quartz injectors of varying L/DH. Flashing conditions inside the injector flow path were induced via a combination of heating and back pressure adjustments. Volume flow rate, pressure measurements, and temperature measurements were made which allowed the discharge characteristics, the level of superheat, and other parameters to be calculated and compared. To give a basis for comparison the flashing results are compared to the flow through the injector under cavitating conditions. Cavitation and flashing appear to be related phenomena and this relationship is shown. Bubble formation under cavitating or flashing conditions is observed to attenuate the injector's discharge characteristics. High speed videos of the flow field were also collected. Several flow regimes and flow structures, unique to these regimes, were observed. A

  18. Design of spheromak injector using conical accelerator for large helical device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazawa, J.; Yamada, H.; Yasui, K.; Kato, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T. [Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Optimization of CT injector for LHD has been carried out and conical electrode for adiabatic CT compression is adopted in the design. Point-model of CT acceleration in a co-axial electrode is solved to optimize the electrode geometry and the power supplies. Large acceleration efficiency of 34% is to be obtained with 3.2 m long conical accelerator and 40 kV - 42 kJ power supply. The operation scenario of a CT injector named SPICA mk. I (SPheromak Injector using Conical Accelerator) consisting of 0.8 m conical accelerator is discussed based on this design. (author)

  19. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  20. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  1. Unplugging and Profile Adjusting Technology By Using Gas in Water Injectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guangyuan

    1994-01-01

    @@ A new technique of unplugging and profile controlling by gas in water-injectors has been developed by Mr. Sun Hongyu, the lecturer of Chemical Department of Jilin Oilfield Technical Training School, and his colleagues.

  2. Evolutionary genetic optimization of the injector beam dynamics for the ERL test facility at IHEP

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Jiao

    2013-01-01

    The energy recovery linac test facility (ERL-TF), a compact ERL-FEL (free electron laser) two-purpose machine, was proposed at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing. As one important component of the ERL-TF, the photo-injector started with a photocathode direct-current gun was designed and preliminarily optimized. In this paper an evolutionary genetic method, non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II, is applied to optimize the injector beam dynamics, especially in the high-charge operation mode. Study shows that using an incident laser with rms transverse size of 1~1.2 mm, the normalized emittance of the electron beam can be kept below 1 mm.mrad at the end of the injector. This work, together with the previous optimization for the low-charge operation mode by using the iterative scan method, provides guidance and confidence for future constructing and commissioning of the ERL-TF injector.

  3. Design of low energy beam transport for new LANSCE H+ injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batygin, Y. K.; Draganic, I. N.; Fortgang, C. M.; Garnett, R. W.; Kurennoy, S. S.; McCrady, R. C.; O'Hara, J. F.; Rybarcyk, L. J.

    2014-07-01

    The present LANSCE injector utilizes two 750-keV Cockcroft-Walton (CW) based injectors for simultaneous injection of H+ and H- beams into 800-MeV accelerator. To reduce long-term operational risks, the new project to replace the existing H+ CW injector with a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator is underway [1]. The new injector requires a Low-Energy Beam Transport (LEBT). An ion source and 2-solenoid magnetic LEBT have been designed and optimized to transport beams over a wide range of space-charge neutralization and transverse emittance, while allowing sufficient space for diagnostics and a beam deflector. The design layout minimizes the beam size in the LEBT and potential emittance growth due to solenoid aberrations and nonlinear space-charge forces. This paper describes the details of the LEBT design activity.

  4. Design of low energy beam transport for new LANSCE H{sup +} injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batygin, Y.K., E-mail: batygin@lanl.gov; Draganic, I.N.; Fortgang, C.M.; Garnett, R.W.; Kurennoy, S.S.; McCrady, R.C.; O’Hara, J.F.; Rybarcyk, L.J.

    2014-07-01

    The present LANSCE injector utilizes two 750-keV Cockcroft–Walton (CW) based injectors for simultaneous injection of H{sup +} and H{sup −} beams into 800-MeV accelerator. To reduce long-term operational risks, the new project to replace the existing H{sup +} CW injector with a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator is underway [1]. The new injector requires a Low-Energy Beam Transport (LEBT). An ion source and 2-solenoid magnetic LEBT have been designed and optimized to transport beams over a wide range of space-charge neutralization and transverse emittance, while allowing sufficient space for diagnostics and a beam deflector. The design layout minimizes the beam size in the LEBT and potential emittance growth due to solenoid aberrations and nonlinear space-charge forces. This paper describes the details of the LEBT design activity.

  5. Everything You Want To Know about Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses infant attachment, which it defines as a long-lasting emotional bond revealed when a child under stress seeks out and tries to stay close to a specific figure. The paper addresses: (1) What is attachment? Who are the pioneers in attachment theory?; (2) How do we notice attachment in action?; (3) Is attachment the only…

  6. Effect of Cup Length on Film Profiles in Gas-Centered Swirl-Coaxial Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    cup. If the liquid film is not completely broken up within the cup then a secondary, hollow , outer cone will form. This cone contains many droplets...is difficult to measure and costly three-dimensional CFD simulations would be needed to accurately model it. Its effect on atomization/design...This difficulty was recognized early in the US development of GCSC injectors and models specific to GCSC injectors were sought. 2 Further

  7. Concentric-flow electrokinetic injector enables serial crystallography of ribosome and photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Raymond G; Gati, Cornelius; Laksmono, Hartawan; Dao, E Han; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin; Kern, Jan; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Brewster, Aaron S; Young, Iris D; Michels-Clark, Tara; Aquila, Andrew; Liang, Mengning; Hunter, Mark S; Koglin, Jason E; Boutet, Sébastien; Junco, Elia A; Hayes, Brandon; Bogan, Michael J; Hampton, Christina Y; Puglisi, Elisabetta V; Sauter, Nicholas K; Stan, Claudiu A; Zouni, Athina; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K; Soltis, S Michael; Puglisi, Joseph D; DeMirci, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    We describe a concentric-flow electrokinetic injector for efficiently delivering microcrystals for serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography analysis that enables studies of challenging biological systems in their unadulterated mother liquor. We used the injector to analyze microcrystals of Geobacillus stearothermophilus thermolysin (2.2-Å structure), Thermosynechococcus elongatus photosystem II (<3-Å diffraction) and Thermus thermophilus small ribosomal subunit bound to the antibiotic paromomycin at ambient temperature (3.4-Å structure).

  8. Conceptual Design of an Ultra-Dense Phase Injector and Feed System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Sprouse; Fred Widman; Alan Darby

    2006-03-30

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept that uses rocket engine technology to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to current state-of-the-art systems. One key feature of the PWR concept is the use of an ultra-dense phase feed system to provide dry coal to the multi-element injector. This report describes the design of an ultra-dense phase multi-element injector and feed system for use on PWR gasifiers operating at pressures to 1,000 psia. For the design of this injector and feed system, the pulverized coal's Bingham fluid yield stress is approximately 11 Pascals (Pa) with a coefficient of rigidity of 10 centipoise (cp). These values are typical of earlier experimental testing conducted with dried pulverized coal below 18 wt% moisture -- see, e.g., Sprouse and Schuman (1983, 1986). Each individual injector element is designed for a coal flow rate between 3 and 4 tons/hr (0.76 to 1.0 kg/sec) at full flow conditions. Hence, a small 400 to 500 tons/day (4.2 to 5.25 kg/sec) gasifier will require a 6-element injector, a 1,500 tons/day (15.7 kg/sec) gasifier will require an 18-element injector and a 3,000 tons/day (31.5 kg/sec) gasifier will require a 36-element injector. These injectors and feed systems are capable of 'turn-down' below 50% of full-flow operation.

  9. STUDY ON FLUID THICKNESS BETWEEN POPPET AND VALVE GUIDE IN CONTROL VALVE OF INJECTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jianming; Zhang Weigang; Wang Yawei

    2004-01-01

    The physical model of -20 diesel oil and force model of injector control valve of common rail system is built. The changes of the fluid thickness are investigated on the base of the results of CFD and experiments for control valve of injector. The results indicate that a fluid thickness of 0.02~0.03 mm between the poppet and valve guide is sufficient to dampen any excessive control valve poppet bouncing.

  10. Status report on the positive ion injector (PII) for ATLAS at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkann, G.P.; Added, N.; Billquist, P.; Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.; Markovich, P.; Phillips, D.; Strickhorn, P.; Shepard, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Positive Ion Injector (PII) is part of the Uranuim upgrade for ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper will include a technical discussion of the Positive Ion Injector (PII) accelerator with its superconducting, niobium, very low-velocity accelerating structures. It will also discuss the current construction schedule of PII, and review an upgrade of the fast- tuning system. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Attachment at work and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadt, Elizabeth A; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relations between self-reported attachment orientation at work and personality, self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence (aka emotional self-efficacy), and independently assessed career potential and job performance. Self-report data were collected from 211 managers in an international business in the hospitality industry; independent assessments of these managers' job performance and career potential were separately obtained from the organization. A self-report measure of romantic attachment was adapted for application in the work context; a two-factor solution was found for this measure. Secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work was positively related to self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and also to job performance. Not only was secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work statistically predictive of job performance, but the new measure also made a distinct contribution, beyond conscientiousness, to this prediction.

  12. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    in a regional study in South Australia. Our research objectives were to (1) analyze and present the spatial results of the mapping method as a benchmark for future research, (2) compare mapped place attachment to the more common practice of mapping landscape values in PPGIS that comprise a values home range, (3......-based measures. The area of place attachment is influenced by occupational roles such as farming or conservation, as well as home location, especially in coastal versus non-coastal contexts. The spatial distribution of mapped landscape values or values home range is related to, but not identical to mapped place......The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachment...

  13. Development of a measuring system for vapor-jet forms of small-sized fuel injectors; Kogata injector funmu keijo sokutei system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibino, H.; Komatsubara, H.; Kawashima, O.; Fujita, A. [Aisan Industry Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In the small-sized fuel injectors adapted to the United States` exhaust-gas regulation or the like, the vapor jet is extremely atomized and the jet form as one of the performances of the product has become more important than before. Accordingly, we have developed a measuring system in which the vapor jet of the small-sized fuel injector is irradiated with a flat laser light, the sectional form of the jet that is shining due to diffusion is sampled, and the distribution and the form of the sampled sections are determined by the image processing. 2 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Diagnostics for a 1.2 kA, 1 MeV electron induction injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houck, T.L.; Anderson, D.E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.M.; Vanecek, D.L.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1998-05-11

    We are constructing a 1.2-kA, 1-MeV, electron induction injector as part of the RTA program, a collaborative effort between LLNL and LBNL to develop relativistic klystrons for Two-Beam Accelerator applications. The RTA injector will also be used in the development of a high-gradient, low-emittance, electron source and beam diagnostics for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility. The electron source will be a 3.5``-diameter, thermionic, flat-surface, m-type cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 200 {pi}-mm-mr. Precise measurement of the beam parameters is required so that performance of the RTA injector can be confidently scaled to the 4-kA, 3-MeV, and 2-microsecond pulse parameters of the DARHT injector. Planned diagnostics include an isolated cathode with resistive divider for direct measurement of current emission, resistive wall and magnetic probe current monitors for measuring beam current and centroid position, capacitive probes for measuring A-K gap voltage, an energy spectrometer, and a pepper-pot emittance diagnostic. Details of the injector, beam line, and diagnostics are presented.

  15. Hygiene and uncertainty in qualitative accounts of hepatitis C transmission among drug injectors in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Tim; Zikic, Bojan; Prodanović, Ana; Kuneski, Elena; Bernays, Sarah

    2008-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity related to injecting drug use. In Serbia, recent estimates suggest that approximately a third of drug injectors are hepatitis C positive. We undertook the first qualitative study of drug injecting in Serbia with a focus on exploring drug injectors' accounts of hepatitis C risk. Drawing upon 67 qualitative interviews with drug injectors in Belgrade, we explore accounts of hepatitis C risk and its transmission. We find that accounts portray a social context of pervasive risk in relation to hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is characterised as ubiquitous among drug injectors, and as a hardy virus with immense transmission potential. Narratives of hygiene emerge as core to accounts of transmission, in which the virus is linked to dirt, including dirty environments, dirty drugs and dirty injecting equipment. These hygiene narratives not only have symbolic function but also appear to stem from ambiguities in accounts wherein hepatitis C is conflated with the signs, symptoms and transmission routes of hepatitis A. In addition, accounts portrayed hepatitis C risk management as a responsibility of individuals in the absence of secure trust or certainty in knowledge about risk, including in relation to others' disclosed antibody status. Hygiene narratives are a core and symbolic feature of injectors' accounts of hepatitis C transmission. There is an urgent need for health promotion fostering hepatitis C risk awareness and risk avoidance among drug injectors in Serbia.

  16. Mixing Characteristics of Coaxial Injectors at High Gas to Liquid Momentum Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakey, P. A.; Talley, D. G.; Hutt, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the spray of a swirl coaxial gas-liquid injector operating at high gas to liquid momentum ratios is reported. Mixing and droplet size characteristics of the swirl injector are also compared to a shear coaxial injector, currently being used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner. The injectors were tested at elevated chamber pressures using water as a LOX simulant and nitrogen and helium as gaseous hydrogen simulants. The elevated chamber pressure allowed for matching of several of the preburner injector conditions including; gas to liquid momentum ratio, density ratio and Mach number. Diagnostic techniques used to characterize the spray included; strobe back-light imaging, laser sheet spray imaging, mechanical patternation, and a phase Doppler interferometry. Results thus far indicate that the radial spreading of the swirl coaxial spray is much less than was reported in previous studies of swirl injectors operating at atmospheric back-pressure. The swirl coaxial spray does, however, exhibit a smaller overall droplet size which may be interpreted as an increase in local mixing.

  17. Effects of compression and expansion ramp fuel injector configuration on scramjet combustion and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffer, Scott D.; Baker, N. R.; Capriotti, D. P.; Northam, G. B.

    1993-01-01

    A scramjet combustor with four wall-ramp injectors containing Mach-1.7 fuel jets in the base of the ramps was investigated experimentally. During the test program, two swept ramp injector designs were evaluated. One swept-ramp model had 10-deg compression-ramps and the other had 10-deg expansion cavities between flush wall ramps. The scramjet combustor model was instrumented with pressure taps and heat-flux gages. The pressure measurements indicated that both injector configurations were effective in promoting mixing and combustion. Autoignition occurred for the compression-ramp injectors, and the fuel began to burn immediately downstream of the injectors. In tests of the expansion ramps, a pilot was required to ignite the fuel, and the fuel did not burn for a distance of at least two gaps downstream of the injectors. Once initiated, combustion was rapid in this configuration. Heat transfer measurements showed that the heat flux differed greatly both across the width of the combustor and along the length of the combustor.

  18. Some injector element detail effects on screech in hydrogen-oxygen rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, N. P.; Russell, L. M.; Vincent, D. W.; Conrad, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to learn more about how the specific details of a concentric tube injection element affect the screech characteristics of a hydrogen-oxygen rocket engine. The four variables investigated were (1) impingement angle, (2) oxidizer tube blunt base thickness, (3) oxidizer tube recess and extension, and (4) oxidizer tube-annulus concentricity. Tests were made using a 27.34-cm (10.77-in.) diameter heat sink combustor at nominally 300-psia chamber pressure. All of the test variables were investigated using a 157 element circular pattern injector. Additional oxidizer tube recess tests were made with a 421 element hexagonal pattern injector. Tests were conducted over the oxidant-fuel ratio range of 4 to 6. Stability evaluation for each configuration was made using the hydrogen temperature rating technique. Several element configurations were also cold flow tested using nitrogen and water as simulants. The element detail changes resulted in changes in hydrogen injector pressure drop even though the physical injection area was constant for all similar tests in both hot firing and cold flow tests. These changes in injector pressure drop produced changes in combustion stability. The data were correlated with a modified version of a previously reported injection area ratio correlation. By interpreting changes in injector pressure drop as changes in injector hydrogen flow resistance, the data were compared with a hydrogen flow response stability model and were found to be in agreement.

  19. Design and Study of a LOX/GH2 Throttleable Swirl Injector for Rocket Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Christopher; Woodward, Roger; Pal, Sibtosh; Santoro, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A LOX/GH2 swirl injector was designed for a 10:1 propellant throttling range. To accomplish this, a dual LOX manifold was used feeding a single common vortex chamber of the swirl element. Hot-fire experiments were conducted for rocket chamber pressures from 80 to 800 psia at a mixture ratio of nominally 6.0 using steady flow, single-point-per-firing cases as well as dynamic throttling conditions. Low frequency (mean) and high frequency (fluctuating) pressure transducer data, flow meter measurements, and Raman spectroscopy images for mixing information were obtained. The injector design, experimental setup, low frequency pressure data, and injector performance analysis are presented. C* efficiency was very high (approx. 100%) at the middle of the throttleable range with somewhat lower performance at the high and low ends. From the analysis of discreet steady state operating conditions, injector pressure drop was slightly higher than predicted with an inviscid analysis, but otherwise agreed well across the design throttling range. Dynamic throttling of this injector was attempted with marginal success due to the immaturity of the throttling control system. Although the targeted mixture ratio of 6.0 was not maintained throughout the dynamic throttling profile, the injector behaved well over the wide range of conditions.

  20. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  1. Conceptual design report: Neutrino physics after the Main Injector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, R.; Beverly, L.; Browning, F.; Childress, S.; Freeman, W.; Jacobsen, V.; Koizumi, G.; Krider, J.; Kula, L.; Malensek, A.; Pordes, Stephen H.; /Fermilab /Ohio State U.

    1991-01-01

    The Main Injector will provide an unprecedented opportunity for challenging the Standard Model. The increased fluxes available from this essential upgrade make possible neutrino experiments of great power both at the Tevatron and at intermediate energies. With a factor of six increase in flux, experiments at higher energies probe with great sensitivity the electroweak sector, test QCD, and search for rare processes which could point the way to new physics. Such experiments can make simultaneous measurements of the Standard Model {rho} parameter and sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} to 0.25% and 0.6%, respectively. Measurements of the radiative corrections in electroweak physics will reveal physics at the TeV mass scale. {rho} probes the Higgs sector, and deviations from its expected value would be unambiguous signals of new phenomena and possibly our first clear window into physics beyond the Standard Model. Another way to quantify these corrections is through measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} in different processes; comparisons among an ensemble of precise electroweak measurements can then distinguish among alternatives and pin down the sources of new phenomena. Four processes likely to be important in the coming decade are the direct boson mass measurements, Z polarization asymmetries, atomic parity violation, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. Each of these processes has a different dependence on the various sources of new physics: such phenomena as multiple Z's, supersymmetry, or technicolor are just three of many possibilities. Neutral current measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} and {rho} have already provided constraints on m{sub t}; improved measurements will extend their reach and help us interpret the information from the colliders. QCD tests, especially those involving the structure function xF{sub 3}, can check two fundamental predictions of the theory: the dependence of the strong-coupling constant {alpha}{sub S}(Q{sup 2}) on Q{sup 2}, and the

  2. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  3. Cooperative Testing of Rocket Injectors That Use Gaseous Oxygen and Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Gaseous oxygen and hydrogen propellants used in a special engine energy cycle called Full-Flow Staged Combustion are believed to significantly increase the lifetime of a rocket engine's pumps. The cycle can also reduce the operating temperatures of the engine. Improving the lifetime of the hardware reduces its overall maintenance and operations costs, and is critical to reducing costs for the joint NASA/industry Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). The work in this project will demonstrate the performance and lifetime of one-element and many-element combustors with gaseous O2/H2 injectors. This work supporting the RLV program is a cooperative venture of the NASA Lewis Research Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Rocketdyne, and the Pennsylvania State University. Information about gas-gas rocket injector performance with O2/H2 is very limited. Because of this paucity of data, new testing is needed to improve the knowledge base for testing and designing new injectors for the RLV and to improve computer models that predict the combusting gas flows of new injector designs. Therefore, detailed observations and measurements of the combusting flow from many-element injectors in a rocket engine are being sought. These observations and measurements will be done with three different tools: schlieren photography, ultraviolet imaging, and Raman spectroscopy. The schlieren system will take photos of the density differences in combusting flow, the ultraviolet movies will determine the location of the hydroxyl (OH) radical in the combustion flow, and the Raman spectroscopic measurements will provide the combustion temperature and amount of water (H2O), hydrogen (H2), and oxygen (O2) in the combustor. Marshall is providing overall program management, design and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses, as well as funding for the work at Penn State. An existing, windowed combustor and several injectors will be provided by Rocketdyne--two injectors for the initial screening

  4. Ophthalmic viscosurgical device backflow into cartridge during intraocular lens insertion using injectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuki Matsuura,1 Yoshitsugu Inoue2 1Nojima Hospital, 2Tottori University, Kurayoshi City, Tottori, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of intraocular contamination caused by intraocular lens (IOL insertion with injectors by observing the dynamics of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD. Methods: Each type of injector was equipped with a colored OVD and IOL, and a 2 mm length from the tip of the cartridge was replaced with a colored OVD. The various combinations of IOLs and injectors used were: a three-piece shaped IOL, VA60BBR + TypeE1 (HOYA incision size 2.5 mm; group A, n=5; a single-piece IOL, 251+ iSert micro, preloaded (HOYA, incision size 2.2 mm; group G, n=5; and a single-piece IOL, SN6CWS preloaded (Alcon, incision size 2.7 mm; group C, n=5. Results: In group A, the intraocular OVD instantly flowed backward into the injector, whereas the colored OVD was pushed backward deep inside the cartridge without flowing into the eye. In group B, the backflow of the intraocular OVD into the injector was limited, resulting in the influx of a large amount of the colored OVD into the eye along with the IOL. In group C, as in group A, a large amount of the intraocular OVD flowed backward into the injector. Consequently, a small amount of the colored OVD flowed into the eye. Conclusion: The tip of the injector and OVD could be contaminated because the surgical field cannot be completely sterile, even after preoperative disinfection. Our experiments revealed that OVD backflow into the injector cavity occurs during IOL insertion, and this phenomenon may have minimized intraocular contamination. However, small-diameter cartridges along with plate-type haptics allow insufficient OVD backflow, resulting in intraocular influx of the contaminated OVD. Surgeons have to be notified that intraoperative bacterial contamination can occur even after IOL insertion using injectors. Keywords: intraocular lens insertion

  5. Efficient GO2/GH2 Injector Design: A NASA, Industry and University Cooperative Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, P. K.; Klem, M. D.; Fisher, S. C.; Santoro, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Developing new propulsion components in the face of shrinking budgets presents a significant challenge. The technical, schedule and funding issues common to any design/development program are complicated by the ramifications of the continuing decrease in funding for the aerospace industry. As a result, new working arrangements are evolving in the rocket industry. This paper documents a successful NASA, industry, and university cooperative effort to design efficient high performance GO2/GH2 rocket injector elements in the current budget environment. The NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program initially consisted of three vehicle/engine concepts targeted at achieving single stage to orbit. One of the Rocketdyne propulsion concepts, the RS 2100 engine, used a full-flow staged-combustion cycle. Therefore, the RS 2100 main injector would combust GO2/GH 2 propellants. Early in the design phase, but after budget levels and contractual arrangements had been set the limitations of the current gas/gas injector database were identified. Most of the relevant information was at least twenty years old. Designing high performance injectors to meet the RS 2100 requirements would require the database to be updated and significantly enhanced. However, there was no funding available to address the need for more data. NASA proposed a teaming arrangement to acquire the updated information without additional funds from the RLV Program. A determination of the types and amounts of data needed was made along with test facilities with capabilities to meet the data requirements, budget constraints, and schedule. After several iterations a program was finalized and a team established to satisfy the program goals. The Gas/Gas Injector Technology (GGIT) Program had the overall goal of increasing the ability of the rocket engine community to design efficient high-performance, durable gas/gas injectors relevant to RLV requirements. First, the program would provide Rocketdyne with data on

  6. Progress and upgrading of the Heidelberg high current injector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roland Repnow

    2002-11-01

    A specialized rf-accelerator system HSI consisting of two RFQ’s and 8 rf seven-gap cavities was built for injection of high intensities of singly charged heavy ions into the Heidelberg heavy ion storage ring TSR. With different ion sources, this system now is used to deliver positive or negative, atomic and molecular ion beams with energies between 150 keV/a.m.u. and 5.3 MeV/a.m.u. final energy. For a future replacement of the MP-tandem-postaccelerator-system the new HSI-accelerator is to be equipped with an ECR source for high intensities of highly charged ions. An advanced commercial ECR source with a 18 GHz rf klystron and an adjustable extraction system for adaption of a wide range of injection energies has been commissioned at the manufacturer and is delivered. Test bench operation presently is in preparation at Heidelberg. A stripper section with an achromatic charge state selector is under construction between injector and postaccelerator. Other ion sources, e.g., for ultra cold $H^{+}_{3}$ molecular ion beams are under development.

  7. Development of high current injector for tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Takashi; Iwamoto, Eiji [Nissin - High Voltage Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan); Kishimoto, Naoki; Saito, Tetsuya; Mori, Yoshiharu

    1997-02-01

    The development of the electrostatic type tandem accelerators has been carried out so far, but by the recent remarkable progress of negative ion sources, the beam current which was inconceivable so far has become obtainable, and the use as the electrostatic type tandem accelerators is expanding rapidly. The problem which must be solved in the development of a high energy, large current heavy ion injection device is the development of an injector. As to the generation of negative ions, by the development of plasma sputter negative ion sources, the almost satisfactory performance has been obtained in beam current, emittance, life and so on, but as for the transport and control of generated negative ion beam, there is the large problem of spatial charge effect. This time, the verifying test on this problem was carried out, therefore, its contents and results are reported. The equipment which was developed this time was delivered to the Institute for Materials Research. Its specifications are shown. The whole constitution, negative ion source, and beam transport system are described. Beam generation test and spatial charge effect test are reported. The test stand was made, and in the verifying test, the maximum beams of 4 mA in Cu and 3 mA in Ni were able to be generated and transported. The effect of the countermeasures to spatial charge effect was confirmed. (K.I.)

  8. Emittance Measurements from a Laser Driven Electron Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, D

    2003-01-01

    The Gun Test Facility (GTF) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center was constructed to develop an appropriate electron beam suitable for driving a short wavelength free electron laser (FEL) such as the proposed Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). For operation at a wavelength of 1.5 (angstrom), the LCLS requires an electron injector that can produce an electron beam with approximately 1 pi mm-mrad normalized rms emittance with at least 1 nC of charge in a 10 ps or shorter bunch. The GTF consists of a photocathode rf gun, emittance-compensation solenoid, 3 m linear accelerator (linac), drive laser, and diagnostics to measure the beam. The rf gun is a symmetrized 1.6 cell, s-band high gradient, room temperature, photocathode structure. Simulations show that this gun when driven by a temporally and spatially shaped drive laser, appropriately focused with the solenoid, and further accelerated in linac can produce a beam that meets the LCLS requirements. This thesis describes the initial characterization of the ...

  9. First coupled CH power cavity for the FAIR proton injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodhage, Robert; Vinzenz, Wolfgang [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Almomani, Ali; Ratzinger, Ulrich [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Uni Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    For the research program with cooled antiprotons at FAIR a dedicated 70 MeV, 70 mA proton injector is required. The main acceleration of this room temperature linac will be provided by six CH cavities operated at 325 MHz. Each cavity will be powered by a 2.5 MW Klystron. For the second acceleration unit from 11.5 MeV to 24.2 MeV a 1:2 scaled model has been built. Low level RF measurements have been performed to determine the main parameters and to prove the concept of coupled CH cavities. In 2012, the assembly and tuning of the first power prototype was finished. Until then, the cavity was tested with a preliminary aluminum drift tube structure, which was used for precise frequency and field tuning. In 2013 the final drift tube structure has been welded inside the main tanks and the preparation for copper plating has taken place. This paper reports on the main tuning and commissioning steps towards that novel type of DTL, and it shows the latest results measured on a fully operational and copper plated CH proton cavity.

  10. First coupled CH power cavity for the FAIR proton injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodhage, Robert; Ratzinger, Ulrich [IAP, Frankfurt University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Vinzenz, Wolfgang; Clemente, Gianluigi [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    For the research program with cooled antiprotons at FAIR a dedicated 70 MeV, 70 mA proton injector is required. The main acceleration of this room temperature linac will be provided by six CH cavities operated at 325 MHz. Each cavity will be powered by a 2.5 MW Klystron. For the second acceleration unit from 11.5 MeV to 24.2 MeV a 1:2 scaled model has been built. Low level RF measurements have been performed to determine the main parameters and to prove the concept of coupled CH cavities. In Summer 2012, the assembly and tuning of the first power prototype was finished. Until then, the cavity was tested with a preliminary aluminum drift tube structure, which was used for precise frequency and field tuning. Before Spring 2013 the final drift tube structure will be welded inside the main tanks and the preparation for copper plating will take place. This paper reports on the main tuning and commissioning steps towards that novel type of DTL and it shows the latest results measured on a fully operational CH proton cavity.

  11. Formation and Acceleration Physics on Plasma Injector 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with conical accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, with power input of the same topology as the RACE device. The goal of PI-1 research is to produce a self-confined compact toroid with high-flux (200 mWb), high-density (3x10^16 cm-3) and moderate initial temperature (100 eV) to be used as the target plasma in a MTF reactor. PI-1 is 5 meters long and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration stage is 4 m long and tapers to an outer diameter of 40 cm. The capacitor banks store 0.5 MJ for formation and 1.13 MJ for acceleration. Power is delivered via 62 independently controlled switch modules. Several geometries for formation bias field, inner electrodes and target chamber have been tested, and trends in accelerator efficiency and target lifetime have been observed. Thomson scattering and ion Doppler spectroscopy show significant heating (>100 eV) as the CT is compressed in the conical accelerator. B-dot probes show magnetic field structure consistent with Grad-Shafranov models and MHD simulations, and CT axial length depends strongly on the lambda profile.

  12. Condition monitoring for a neutral beam injector cryopumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, N., E-mail: n.wright@lboro.ac.uk [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Dixon, R., E-mail: r.dixon@lboro.ac.uk [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Verhoeven, R., E-mail: roel.verhoeven@ccfe.ac.uk [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The development of a cryopumping condition monitoring scheme is presented. ► A residual generation scheme is used to detect two faults. ► Kalman filtering is used to generate the residuals. ► A filtering and voting arrangement is used to evaluate the residuals. ► A non-linear simulation model is used to verify the scheme. -- Abstract: For neutral beam injection systems, the maintenance of a vacuum inside the injector box is essential for normal operation. Cryogenic pumping systems are often used to create and maintain this vacuum. Cryogenic pumping systems have been deployed on the neutral beam heating systems supporting the Joint European Torus. With these as a target application, the development of a condition monitoring scheme is presented. The scheme uses a residual generation approach. A bank of Kalman filters is used to estimate measured process variables. A residual evaluator is used to map residual signals onto a set of faults. Two example faults are simulated to demonstrate the response of the scheme. This paper contributes to the wider fusion development programme by demonstrating how a contemporary condition monitoring technique can be applied to a fusion support system, in order to improve its availability.

  13. More-Accurate Model of Flows in Rocket Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosangadi, Ashvin; Chenoweth, James; Brinckman, Kevin; Dash, Sanford

    2011-01-01

    An improved computational model for simulating flows in liquid-propellant injectors in rocket engines has been developed. Models like this one are needed for predicting fluxes of heat in, and performances of, the engines. An important part of predicting performance is predicting fluctuations of temperature, fluctuations of concentrations of chemical species, and effects of turbulence on diffusion of heat and chemical species. Customarily, diffusion effects are represented by parameters known in the art as the Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. Prior formulations include ad hoc assumptions of constant values of these parameters, but these assumptions and, hence, the formulations, are inaccurate for complex flows. In the improved model, these parameters are neither constant nor specified in advance: instead, they are variables obtained as part of the solution. Consequently, this model represents the effects of turbulence on diffusion of heat and chemical species more accurately than prior formulations do, and may enable more-accurate prediction of mixing and flows of heat in rocket-engine combustion chambers. The model has been implemented within CRUNCH CFD, a proprietary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer program, and has been tested within that program. The model could also be implemented within other CFD programs.

  14. Design report on PF injector linac upgrade for KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Isamu; Anami, Shozo; Enomoto, Atsushi; Fukuda, Shigeki; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Nakahara, Kazuo [eds.

    1966-03-01

    The purpose of the B Factory project is to verify the physical problem `Is there difference in the physical laws of particle world and anti-particle world?` The outline of the KEK B Factory project (KEKB) is explained. The condition of injection corresponding to the KEKB, the increase of the energy of the PF injector and the augmentation of positron beam intensity for the KEKB, the guideline for, the most important problems of and the schedule of energy augmentation are described. Buildings and utilities, various problems related to large current electron beam acceleration, the generation of positrons, the examination of acceleration method, beam transport system, acceleration unit, vacuum system, high frequency source, the high frequency phase control between beam and acceleration high frequency wave, electron beam injection system, trigger system, beam monitors, the precision alignment of acceleration tube, electromagnets and beam monitors, the extension of control system, rise and adjustment, and radiation safety and the application related to radiation are described. Efforts are exerted for the development of klystron, the capability of high frequency power compression system, and the withstanding to pressure of acceleration tube. (K.I.)

  15. Main Injector Lcw (low Conductivity Water) Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Seino, K C

    2001-01-01

    There are six service buildings uniformly spaced along the perimeter of MI (Main Injector). A total of 18 LCW pumps were installed around the MI ring with 3 pumps per building. Approximately 8,000 GPM of LCW is required to cool magnets, bus and power supplies in the MI enclosure and service buildings. In each service building, a PLC control system controls pumps and valves, and it monitors pressures, flow, resistivities and temperatures. The PLC hardware system consists of a Gateway module and a variety of I/O modules, which are made by Sixnet of Clifton Park, NY. The control system communicates with other buildings including MCR (Main Control Room) via an Ethernet link and front-end computers. For more details of the MI LCW control system, refer to [1] and [2]. One of the key elements of the PLC software is called ISaGRAF workbench, which was created by CJ International of Seyssins, France. The workbench provides a comprehensive control-programming environment, where control programs can be written in five d...

  16. Interpretation of Core Length in Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...ASE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Cleveland, OH, 29 July 2014. PA#14365 14. ABSTRACT Shear coaxial injectors are so named because they rely on...DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Clearance #  Interpretation of Core Length in Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from

  17. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory.

  18. Validation of High-Fidelity CFD Simulations for Rocket Injector Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, P. Kevin; Menon, Suresh; Merkle, Charles L.; Oefelein, Joseph C.; Yang, Vigor

    2008-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has the potential to improve the historical rocket injector design process by evaluating the sensitivity of performance and injector-driven thermal environments to the details of the injector geometry and key operational parameters. Methodical verification and validation efforts on a range of coaxial injector elements have shown the current production CFD capability must be improved in order to quantitatively impact the injector design process. This paper documents the status of a focused effort to compare and understand the predictive capabilities and computational requirements of a range of CFD methodologies on a set of single element injector model problems. The steady Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (URANS) and three different approaches using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique were used to simulate the initial model problem, a single element coaxial injector using gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. While one high-fidelity LES result matches the experimental combustion chamber wall heat flux very well, there is no monotonic convergence to the data with increasing computational tool fidelity. Systematic evaluation of key flow field regions such as the flame zone, the head end recirculation zone and the downstream near wall zone has shed significant, though as of yet incomplete, light on the complex, underlying causes for the performance level of each technique. 1 Aerospace Engineer and Combustion CFD Team Leader, MS ER42, NASA MSFC, AL 35812, Senior Member, AIAA. 2 Professor and Director, Computational Combustion Laboratory, School of Aerospace Engineering, 270 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332, Associate Fellow, AIAA. 3 Reilly Professor of Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907, Fellow, AIAA. 4 Principal Member of Technical Staff, Combustion Research Facility, 7011 East Avenue, MS9051, Livermore, CA 94550, Associate

  19. Investigation of the Effect of Pilot Burner on Lean Blow Out Performance of A Staged Injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jinhu; ZHANG Kaiyu; LIU Cunxi; RUAN Changlong; LIU Fuqiang; XU Gang

    2014-01-01

    The staged injector has exhibited great potential to achieve low emissions and is becoming the preferable choice of many civil airplanes.Moreover,it is promising to employ this injector design in military engine,which requires most of the combustion air enters the combustor through injector to reduce smoke emission.However,lean staged injector is prone to combustion instability and extinction in low load operation,so techniques for broadening its stable operation ranges are crucial for its application in real engine.In this work,the LBO performance of a staged injector is assessed and analyzed on a single sector test section.The experiment was done in atmospheric environment with optical access.Kerosene-PLIF technique was used to visualize the spray distribution and common camera was used to record the flame patterns.Emphasis is put on the influence of pilot burner on LBO performance.The fuel to air ratios at LBO of six injectors with different pilot swirler vane angle were evaluated and the obtained LBO data was converted into data at idle condition.Results show that the increase of pilot swirler vane angle could promote the air assisted atomization,which in turn improves the LBO performance slightly.Flame patterns typical in the process of LBO are analyzed and attempts are made to find out the main factors which govern the extinction process with the assistance of spray distribution and numerical flow field results.It can be learned that the flame patterns are mainly influenced by structure of the flow field just behind the pilot burner when the fuel mass flow rate is high; with the reduction of fuel,atomization quality become more and more important and is the main contributing factor of LBO.In the end of the paper,conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made for the optimization of the present staged injector.

  20. Fully Automated Portable Comprehensive 2-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwon; Zhou, Menglian; Zhu, Hongbo; Nidetz, Robert; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fan, Xudong

    2016-10-06

    We developed a fully automated portable 2-dimensional (2-D) gas chromatography (GC x GC) device, which had a dimension of 60 cm × 50 cm × 10 cm and weight less than 5 kg. The device incorporated a micropreconcentrator/injector, commercial columns, micro-Deans switches, microthermal injectors, microphotoionization detectors, data acquisition cards, and power supplies, as well as computer control and user interface. It employed multiple channels (4 channels) in the second dimension ((2)D) to increase the (2)D separation time (up to 32 s) and hence (2)D peak capacity. In addition, a nondestructive flow-through vapor detector was installed at the end of the (1)D column to monitor the eluent from (1)D and assist in reconstructing (1)D elution peaks. With the information obtained jointly from the (1)D and (2)D detectors, (1)D elution peaks could be reconstructed with significantly improved (1)D resolution. In this Article, we first discuss the details of the system operating principle and the algorithm to reconstruct (1)D elution peaks, followed by the description and characterization of each component. Finally, 2-D separation of 50 analytes, including alkane (C6-C12), alkene, alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, cycloalkane, and aromatic hydrocarbon, in 14 min is demonstrated, showing the peak capacity of 430-530 and the peak capacity production of 40-80/min.

  1. Hamiltonian Dynamics of Preferential Attachment

    CERN Document Server

    Zuev, Konstantin; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment, known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton's equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in preferential attachment. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by preferential attachment is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree d...

  2. Attachment Processes in Eating Disorder and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Detke, Holland; Kobak, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between attachment strategies and symptom reporting among college women (N=61). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered and interview transcripts were rated with the Attachment Interview Q-Sort. Findings support the hypothesis that secondary or defensive attachment strategies predispose individuals toward…

  3. Automating checks of plan check automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Tarek; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2014-07-08

    While a few physicists have designed new plan check automation solutions for their clinics, fewer, if any, managed to adapt existing solutions. As complex and varied as the systems they check, these programs must gain the full confidence of those who would run them on countless patient plans. The present automation effort, planCheck, therefore focuses on versatility and ease of implementation and verification. To demonstrate this, we apply planCheck to proton gantry, stereotactic proton gantry, stereotactic proton fixed beam (STAR), and IMRT treatments.

  4. Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier and Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Saveliev, Alexei

    2011-12-31

    This project is a multistage effort with the final goal to develop a practical and reliable nonintrusive gasifier injector monitor to assess burner wear and need for replacement. The project team included the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Gas Technology Institute (GTI), North Carolina State University, and ConocoPhillips. This report presents the results of the sensor development and testing initially at GTI combustion laboratory with natural gas flames, then at the Canada Energy Technology Center (CANMET), Canada in the atmospheric coal combustor as well as in the pilot scale pressurized entrained flow gasifier, and finally the sensor capabilities were demonstrated at the Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) Gasifier and the Wabash River Repowering plant located in West Terre Haute, IN. The initial tests demonstrated that GTI gasifier sensor technology was capable of detecting shape and rich/lean properties of natural gas air/oxygen enriched air flames. The following testing at the Vertical Combustor Research Facility (VCRF) was a logical transition step from the atmospheric natural gas flames to pressurized coal gasification environment. The results of testing with atmospheric coal flames showed that light emitted by excited OH* and CH* radicals in coal/air flames can be detected and quantified. The maximum emission intensities of OH*, CH*, and black body (char combustion) occur at different axial positions along the flame length. Therefore, the excitation rates of CH* and OH* are distinct at different stages of coal combustion and can be utilized to identify and characterize processes which occur during coal combustion such as devolatilization, char heating and burning. To accomplish the goals set for Tasks 4 and 5, GTI utilized the CANMET Pressurized Entrained Flow Gasifier (PEFG). The testing parameters of the PEFG were selected to simulate optimum gasifier operation as well as gasifier conditions normally resulting from improper operation or

  5. Automation in Warehouse Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and support

  6. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  7. More Benefits of Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Malcolm

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that measured the benefits of an automated catalog and automated circulation system from the library user's point of view in terms of the value of time saved. Topics discussed include patterns of use, access time, availability of information, search behaviors, and the effectiveness of the measures used. (seven references)…

  8. A high resolution AMS-injector for the Pelletron in Lund

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Bellborg; S Bazhal; M Faarinen; K Håkansson; C-E Magnusson; P Persson; G Skog; K Stenström

    2002-12-01

    A high resolution injector system has recently been installed at the Lund 3 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. The new injector, designed mainly for 26Al ions, will increase the experimental potential of the Lund AMS facility considerably. High quality energy- and mass-resolution is obtained by using a 90° spherical electrostatic analyzer followed by a 90° magnetic analyzer. The injector is equipped with a high intensity sputtering source with a spherical ionizer. A new analytical technique for acceptance calculations as well as PC-based computational methods have been used in the design of the ion optical system of the new injector. Compared to our old injector system which has a magnetic analyzer with a bending angle of only 15°, the new system has a more than ten times better resolution. The beam optics of the new system is also better designed to match the accelerator acceptance. In this way the ion transmission from the ion source to the detector, for different ions of interest in our AMS programme, has been increased.

  9. Casting Apparatus Including A Gas Driven Molten Metal Injector And Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, David R. (Westlake, OH); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA); Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Arnaud, Guy (Morin Heights, CA); Bigler, Nicolas (Riviere-Beaudette, CA)

    2003-06-17

    The filtering molten metal injector system includes a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and at least one molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the casting mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The molten metal injector projects into the holder furnace. The molten metal injector includes a cylinder defining a piston cavity housing a reciprocating piston for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace to the mold cavity. The cylinder and piston are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder or the piston includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity when the holder furnace contains molten metal. A conduit connects the piston cavity to the mold cavity. A molten metal filter is located in the conduit for filtering the molten metal passing through the conduit during the reciprocating movement of the piston. The molten metal intake may be a valve connected to the cylinder, a gap formed between the piston and an open end of the cylinder, an aperture defined in the sidewall of the cylinder, or a ball check valve incorporated into the piston. A second molten metal filter preferably covers the molten metal intake to the injector.

  10. An Experimental Study of Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Marine Diesel Engine with Fuel Injector Malfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper shows the results of the laboratory study on the relation between chosen malfunctions of a fuel injector and composition of exhaust gas from the marine engine. The object of research is a marine 3-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel engine with an intercooler system. The engine was loaded with a generator and supercharged. The generator was electrically connected to the water resistance. The engine operated with a load between 50 kW and 250 kW at a constant speed. The engine load and speed, parameters of the turbocharger, systems of cooling, fuelling, lubricating and air exchange, were measured. Fuel injection and combustion pressures in all cylinders of the engine were also recorded. Exhaust gas composition was recorded by using a electrochemical gas analyzer. Air pressure, temperature and humidity were also recorded. Emission characteristics of the engine were calculated according to ISO 8178 standard regulations. During the study the engine operated at the technical condition recognized as „working properly” and with simulated fuel injector malfunctions. Simulation of malfunctions consisted in the increasing and decreasing of fuel injector static opening pressure, decalibration of fuel injector holes and clogging 2 neighboring of 9 fuel injector holes on one of 3 engine cylinders.

  11. The transverse and longitudinal beam characteristics of the PHIN photo-injector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Mete, Ö; Dabrowski, A; Divall, M; Döbert, S; Egger, D; Elsener, K; Fedosseev, V; Lefèvre, T; Petrarca, M

    2010-01-01

    A new photo-injector, capable to deliver a long pulse train with a high charge per bunch for CTF3, has been designed and installed by a collaboration between LAL, CCLRC and CERN within the framework of the second Joint Research Activity PHIN of the European CARE program. The demonstration of the high charge and the stability along the pulse train are the important goals for CTF3 and the CLIC drive beam. The nominal beam for CTF3 has an average current of 3.5 A, a 1.5 GHz bunch repetation frequency and a pulse length of 1.27 μs (1908 bunches). The existing CTF3 injector consists of a thermionic gun and a subharmonic bunching system. The PHIN photo-injector is being tested in a dedicated test-stand at CERN to replace the existing CTF3 injector that is producing unwanted satellite bunches during the bunching process. A phase-coding scheme is planned to be implemented to the PHIN laser system providing the required beam temporal structure by CTF3. RF photo-injectors are high-brightness, low-emittance electron so...

  12. BXERL photo-injector based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sheng-Guang; HUANG Tong-Ming; XU Jin-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The Beijing X-ray Energy Recovery Linac(BXERL)test facility is proposed in Institute of High Physics(IHEP).In this proposal,the main linac requires the injector to provide an electron beam with 5 MeV energy and 10 mA average current.An injector based on DC gun technology is the first candidate electron source for BXERL.However,the field emission in the DC gun cavity makes it much more difficult to increase the high voltage to more than 500 kV.Another technology based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun is proposed as the backup injector for this test facility.We have designed this RF gun with 2D SUPERFISH code and 3D MICROWAVE STUDIO code.In this paper,we present the optimized design of the gun cavity,the gun RF parameters and the set-up of the whole injector system.The detailed beam dynamics have been done and the simulation results show that the injector can generate electron bunches with RMS normalizedemittance 1.0 πmm.mrad,bunch length 0.77 mm,beam energy 5.0 MeV and energy spread 0.60%.

  13. Injection Performance of a Gas-Solid Injector Based on the Particle Trajectory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daolong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas-solid injectors are widely used feeding equipment in pneumatic conveying systems. The performance of a gas-solid injector has a significant influence on the type of application it can be employed for. To determine the key factors influencing the injection performance and address clogging problems in a gas-solid injector during a pneumatic conveying process, the particle trajectory model has been utilised as a means to perform simulations. In the particle trajectory model, the gas phase is treated as a continuous medium and the particle phase is treated as a dispersed phase. In this work, numerical and experimental studies were conducted for different nozzle positions in a gas-solid injector. A gas-solid injector test-bed was constructed based on the results of the simulations. The results show that the nozzle position is the key factor that affects the injection performance. The number of extrusive particles first increases and then decreases with the change in the nozzle position from left to right. Additionally, there is an optimum nozzle position that maximises the injection mass and minimises the number of particles remaining in the hopper. Based on the results of this work, the injection performance can be significantly increased and the clogging issues are effectively eliminated.

  14. Coaxial Injectors for Liquid Oxygen/Methane (LOX/CH4) Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Sandra; Osborne, Robin; Protz, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Since late 2005, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing and demonstrating technology for liquid oxygen and methane (LOX/CH4) engine designs. Efforts were undertaken to help advance technology that might benefit NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. The propellant combination has gained interest as a potential option for the ascent stage main propulsion system on the Altair lunar lander vehicle. The propellants are also attractive for eventual Mars missions in future development activities. MSFC s efforts focus on evaluating the performance potential of both liquid and gaseous methane for specific injector designs. Previous JANNAF papers reported the performance observed for LOX and methane with an impinging injector. More recent efforts have focused on testing coaxial injector designs. Hot-fire testing performed at MSFC with thrust levels close to 5000 lbf demonstrated high performance with coaxial injectors of different element densities and various fuel film cooling levels. Test data provided results on performance, chamber wall compatibility, and heat flux profiles for different injectors. A variety of igniters were also demonstrated, including a torch igniter and a microwave (or plasma) igniter.

  15. Design of a post linac for an energy upgrade of a heavy-ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Y., E-mail: y_iwata@nirs.go.jp; Noda, K.

    2014-07-15

    A post linac is being designed for an energy upgrade of a heavy-ion injector. This post linac is to be installed downstream of the formerly developed compact injector, consisting of an Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion-Source (ECRIS), the Radio-Frequency-Quadrupole (RFQ) linac and the Alternating-Phase-Focused Interdigital H-mode Drift-Tube-Linac (APF IH-DTL). It is aimed to increase the output energy of a heavy-ion injector. Carbon ions are initially accelerated with the compact injector to 4 MeV/u, and further accelerated with the post linac up to 8 MeV/u. The three linacs have the same operating frequency of 200 MHz. For beam focusing of the post linac, the APF method is used. Iterative simulations of beam dynamics were performed to determine the optimum array of synchronous phases in each gap. The results of the simulations provided that the calculated efficiency of beam transmission through the post linac is as high as 98.4%. The total length of this APF post linac is estimated to be approximately 3 m. A design overview of the injector system including the post linac is presented.

  16. Design of a post linac for an energy upgrade of a heavy-ion injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Y.; Noda, K.

    2014-07-01

    A post linac is being designed for an energy upgrade of a heavy-ion injector. This post linac is to be installed downstream of the formerly developed compact injector, consisting of an Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion-Source (ECRIS), the Radio-Frequency-Quadrupole (RFQ) linac and the Alternating-Phase-Focused Interdigital H-mode Drift-Tube-Linac (APF IH-DTL). It is aimed to increase the output energy of a heavy-ion injector. Carbon ions are initially accelerated with the compact injector to 4 MeV/u, and further accelerated with the post linac up to 8 MeV/u. The three linacs have the same operating frequency of 200 MHz. For beam focusing of the post linac, the APF method is used. Iterative simulations of beam dynamics were performed to determine the optimum array of synchronous phases in each gap. The results of the simulations provided that the calculated efficiency of beam transmission through the post linac is as high as 98.4%. The total length of this APF post linac is estimated to be approximately 3 m. A design overview of the injector system including the post linac is presented.

  17. Numerical Study of Flow Characteristics in a Solid Particle Incinerator for Various Design Parameters of Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin Woo; Kim, Su Ho; Sohn, Chae Hoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The flow characteristics in a solid particle incinerator are investigated numerically for high burning rate of wastes. The studied incinerator employs both a swirl flow used in the furnace of power plants and a design concept applied to a rocket combustor. As the first step, the non-reactive flow field is analyzed in the incinerator with primary and secondary injectors through which solid fuel and air are injected. The deflection angle of a primary injector, inclination angle of a secondary injector, and gap between the two types of injectors are selected as design parameters. The swirl number is adopted for evaluating the degree of swirl flow and estimated over wide ranges of three parameters. The swirl number increases with deflection angle, but it is affected little by inclination angle. Recirculation zones are formed near the injectors, and their size affects the swirl number. The swirl number decreases with the zonal size of recirculation. From the numerical results, the design points can be found with strong swirl flow.

  18. Thruster Injector Faceplate Testing in Support of the Aerojet Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazah, M. M.; Cramer, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    To satisfy RBCC rocket thruster requirements of high performance and a minimum amount of free hydrogen at plume boundary, a new impinging injector element using gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen as the propellants has been designed. Analysis has shown that this injector design has potential to provide a high specific impulse (Isp) while minimizing the amount of free hydrogen that is available to be burned with incoming secondary flow. Past studies and test programs have shown that gas/gas-impinging elements typically result in high injector face temperatures due to combustion occurring close to the face. Since this design is new, there is no hot fire experience with this element. Objectives of this test program were to gain experience and hot fire test data on this new rocket thruster element design and injector faceplate pattern. Twenty-two hot fire tests were run with maximum mixture ratio (MR) and chamber pressure (Pc) obtained at 7.25 and 1,822 psia, respectively. Post-test scanning microscope (SEM) images show only slight faceplate erosion during testing. This injector element design performed well and can be operated at design conditions: (1) Pc of 2,000 psia and MR of 7.0 and (2) Pc of 1,000 psia and MR of 5.0.

  19. Evaluation of friction heating in cavitating high pressure Diesel injector nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, R.; Koukouvinis, P.; Strotos, G.; McDavid, R.; Wang, Lifeng; Li, Jason; Marengo, M.; Gavaises, M.

    2015-12-01

    Variation of fuel properties occurring during extreme fuel pressurisation in Diesel fuel injectors relative to those under atmospheric pressure and room temperature conditions may affect significantly fuel delivery, fuel injection temperature, injector durability and thus engine performance. Indicative results of flow simulations during the full injection event of a Diesel injector are presented. In addition to the Navier-Stokes equations, the enthalpy conservation equation is considered for predicting the fuel temperature. Cavitation is simulated using an Eulerian-Lagrangian cavitation model fully coupled with the flow equations. Compressible bubble dynamics based on the R-P equation also consider thermal effects. Variable fuel properties function of the local pressure and temperature are taken from literature and correspond to a reference so-called summer Diesel fuel. Fuel pressurisation up to 3000bar pressure is considered while various wall temperature boundary conditions are tested in order to compare their effect relative to those of the fuel heating caused during the depressurisation of the fuel as it passes through the injection orifices. The results indicate formation of strong temperature gradients inside the fuel injector while heating resulting from the extreme friction may result to local temperatures above the fuel's boiling point. Predictions indicate bulk fuel temperature increase of more than 100°C during the opening phase of the needle valve. Overall, it is concluded that such effects are significant for the injector performance and should be considered in relevant simulation tools.

  20. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, Victor; Genin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also: Provides the first comprehensive treatment of phys...

  1. Advances in inspection automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  2. Automation in immunohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-07-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  3. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  4. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  5. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  6. Northrop Grumman TR202 LOX/GH2 Deep Throttling Pintle Injector Performance, Stability, and Heat Transfer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianese, S. G.; Gromski, J. M.; Weinstock, V. D.; Majamaki, A. N.; Litchford, R. J.; Foote, J. P.; Wall, T. R.

    2010-01-01

    Engineers from Northrop Grumman and NASA MSFC are teaming to develop deep throttling technologies for future crewed lunar descent engines for NASA s Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) program. A complete TR202 conceptual engine design has been completed. Pintle injector technology development is the current project focus because injector operation relates to many of the overall engine technology challenges, and injector characteristics contribute significantly to combustion chamber and overall cycle design. In order to maximize injector and engine capability provided to lunar mission and vehicle designers, it is important to understand injector performance, stability, and heat transfer characteristics across a large throttle range and over a range of mixture ratios. The mixing and vaporization effectiveness of an injector can be characterized by C* efficiency and energy release efficiency (ERE). Heat transfer characteristics of the injector can be studied using calorimetry chamber hardware. The primary objectives of this test program were: a) Achieve >98 C*% efficiency at high throttle settings (.75% power). b) Avoid low frequency and high frequency instability over a 10:1 throttle range with a high performing injector. c) Measure heat flow to combustion chamber walls, and determine if there is enough heat flow to close a deep throttling expander engine cycle balance, while maintaining reasonable combustion chamber wall temperatures. The TR202 test-bed pintle injector was designed and built for flexibility and operability on the test stand, with a DOE testing approach. Heavy-weight hardware was used for structural margin, though flow passages were flight-like. Throttling of the LOX flow area was achieved by the use of shims that controlled how far the pintle injector LOX slots protruded into the combustion chamber. TR202 test-bed pintle injector testing was conducted at NASA MSFC s test stand 116 and NASA MSFC combustion chamber calorimetry

  7. Bar overdentures utilizing the Locator attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A L; Kurtzman, G M

    2001-01-01

    Implant-retained overdentures are a restorative option for both the fully and partially edentulous arches. A new attachment, the Locator, which features a reduced interarch requirement and the advantage of built-in guide planes providing precise insertion, is described. The Locator is an advancement in attachment technology, with an improved design combined from the best features of a ball attachment, an ERA attachment, and a cap attachment.

  8. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  9. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult a

  10. Usability of devices for self-injection: results of a formative study on a new disposable pen injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jakob Lange,1 Philipp Richard,1 Nick Bradley21Ypsomed AG, Burgdorf, Switzerland; 2Bergo, Glasgow, United KingdomAbstract: This article presents a late-stage formative usability study of a pen-injector platform device. Such devices are used for the subcutaneous delivery of biopharmaceuticals, primarily for self-administration by the patient. The study was conducted with a broad user population, defined to represent user characteristics across a range of indications. The goals of the study were to confirm that the pen could be used without recurring patterns of use errors leading to hazardous situations, to evaluate the comprehension of the instructions for use (IFU, and to determine if training is necessary. In the study, a total of 36 participants in six groups (health care providers, caregivers, adolescents, diabetics with retinopathy, diabetics with neuropathy, and patients with arthritis each read the IFU, prepared the device, and performed two simulated injections into an injection pad. Any use errors, near misses, or deviations from the IFU procedure were recorded. The overall success rate (injection completed by the participant without need for assistance was 94% for the first and 100% for the second injection. Ninety-two percent of the participants reported that they felt confident using the device, 100% found the IFU helpful, and 75% found the device positively comfortable to use. Overall, a total average of 3.35 deviations and errors per user and injection were recorded (there were no near misses. Subtracting the errors without any potential for negative consequences for the injection or the user (trivial deviations, as well as those related to attaching and removing the pen needle (independent of the design of the pen itself, led to an average of 1.31 potentially relevant deviations per user and injection. It was concluded that the pen injector together with the IFU could be safely and efficiently used by all user groups without any

  11. Design and construction of a pre-injector for the Iranian Light Source Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sadeghipanah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Every synchrotron accelerator requires a pre-injector for primary injection of the electrons into the booster ring. The Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF pre-injector is a 150 MeV S-band linear accelerator with a thermionic cathode RF gun. The design of the pre-injector lattice and its beam dynamics calculation results together with the design of RF gun, alpha magnet, quadrupole magnets and linear accelerator structures are described in this article. The measurement results of the RF gun prototype fabricated in Iran demonstrate a dimension error less than 20 μm and a surface roughness of less than 0.8 μm

  12. CARE-JRA2* Activities on Photo-Injectors and CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    Rinolfi, Louis

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the CARE project, there is a Joint Research Activity (JRA2) called PHIN (PHoto-INjectors). The main objective of this JRA is to perform Research and Development on charge-production by interaction of a laser pulse with material within RF fields and improve or extend existing infrastructures. Another activity of PHIN is the coordination of the activities of various Institutes concerning photo-injectors. A brief review of the work of the eight European laboratories involved in PHIN is presented. One of these R&D topics is the construction of a photo-injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3). In this context the status of CTF3 and its main goals - the demonstration of the feasibility of the key issues of the CLIC two-beam acceleration scheme - is also presented.

  13. Design and evaluation of high performance rocket engine injectors for use with hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of using a heavy hydrocarbon fuel as a rocket propellant is reported herein. A method of predicting performance of a heavy hydrocarbon in terms of vaporization effectiveness is described and compared to other fuels and to experimental test results. The work was done at a chamber pressure of 4137 KN/sq M (600 psia) with RP-1, JP-10, and liquefied natural gas as fuels, and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Combustion length effects were explored over a range of 21.6 cm (8 1/2 in.) to 55.9 cm (22 in.). Four injector types were tested, each over a range of mixture ratios. Further configuration modifications were obtained by 'reaming' each injector several times to provide test data over a range of injector pressure drop.

  14. System for supporting a bundled tube fuel injector within a combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Westmoreland, III, James Harold; Flanagan, James Scott

    2016-06-21

    A combustor includes an end cover having an outer side and an inner side, an outer barrel having a forward end that is adjacent to the inner side of the end cover and an aft end that is axially spaced from the forward end. An inner barrel is at least partially disposed concentrically within the outer barrel and is fixedly connected to the outer barrel. A fluid conduit extends downstream from the end cover. A first bundled tube fuel injector segment is disposed concentrically within the inner barrel. The bundled tube fuel injector segment includes a fuel plenum that is in fluid communication with the fluid conduit and a plurality of parallel tubes that extend axially through the fuel plenum. The bundled tube fuel injector segment is fixedly connected to the inner barrel.

  15. Design and evaluation of high performance rocket engine injectors for use with hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using a heavy hydrocarbon fuel as a rocket propellant is examined. A method of predicting performance of a heavy hydrocarbon in terms of vaporization effectiveness is described and compared to other fuels and to experimental test results. Experiments were done at a chamber pressure of 4137 KN/sq M (600 psia) with RP-1, JP-10, and liquefied natural gas as fuels, and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Combustion length effects were explored over a range of 21.6 cm (8 1/2 in) to 55.9 cm (22 in). Four injector types were tested, each over a range of mixture ratios. Further configuration modifications were obtained by reaming each injector several times to provide test data over a range of injector pressure drop.

  16. High Power Electron Beam Injectors for 100 kW Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Alan; Bluem, Hans; Christina, Vincent; Cole, Michael; Rathke, John; Schultheiss, Tom; Colestock, Patrick; Kelley, J.P.; Kurennoy, Sergey; Nguyen, Dung; Russell, S.; Schrage, Dale; Wood, R.L.; Young, L.M.; Campisi, Isidoro; Daly, Edward; Douglas, David; Neil, George; Preble, Joseph; Rimmer, Robert; Rode, Claus; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Whitlatch, Timothy; Wiseman, Mark

    2003-05-01

    A key technology issue on the path to high-power FEL operation is the demonstration of reliable, highbrightness, high-power injector operation. We describe two ongoing programs to produce 100 mA injectors as drivers for 100 kW free-electron lasers. In one approach, in collaboration with the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, we are fabricating a 750 MHz superconducting RF cryomodule that will be integrated with a room-temperature DC photocathode gun [1] and tested at the Laboratory. In the other approach, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, a high-current 700 MHz, normal-conducting, RF photoinjector [2,3] is being designed and will undergo thermal management testing at the Laboratory. We describe the design, the projected performance and the status of both injectors.

  17. High-power beam injectors for 100 KW free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, A. M. (Alan M.); Wood R. L. (Richard L.); Bluem, H.; Young, L. M. (Lloyd M.); Wiseman, M. (Mark); Schultheiss, T. (Thomas); Schrage, D. L. (Dale L.); Russell, S. J. (Steven J.); Rode, C. H.; Rimmer, R. (Robert); Nguyen, D. C. (Dinh C.); Kelley, J. P. (John Patrick); Kurennoy, S. (Sergey); wood, r

    2003-01-01

    A key technology issue on the path to high-power FEL operation is the demonstration of reliable, high-brightness, high-power injector operation. We describe two ongoing programs to produce 100 mA injectors as drivers for 100 kW free-electron lasers. In one approach, in collaboration with the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, we are fabricating a 750 MHz superconducting RF cryomodule that will be integrated with a room-temperature DC photocathode gun and tested at the Laboratory. In the other approach, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, a high-current 700 MHz, normal-conducting, RF photoinjector is being designed and will undergo thermal management testing at the Laboratory. We describe the design, the projected performance and the status of both injectors.

  18. Operation and commissioning of IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) LIPAc injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Y., E-mail: okumura.yoshikazu@jaea.go.jp, E-mail: rjgobin@cea.fr; Knaster, J.; Ayala, J.-M.; Marqueta, A.; Perez, M.; Pruneri, G.; Scantamburlo, F. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Obuchi-Omotedate, 039-3212 Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Gobin, R., E-mail: okumura.yoshikazu@jaea.go.jp, E-mail: rjgobin@cea.fr; Bolzon, B.; Chauvin, N.; Chel, S.; Harrault, F.; Senée, F.; Valette, M. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France); Heidinger, R.; Cara, P.; Gex, D.; Phillips, G. [F4E, Fusion for Energy, BFD Department, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ichimiya, R.; Ihara, A. [JAEA, Division of Rokkasho BA Project, Obuchi-Omotedate, 039-3212 Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); and others

    2016-02-15

    The objective of linear IFMIF prototype accelerator is to demonstrate 125 mA/CW deuterium ion beam acceleration up to 9 MeV. The injector has been developed in CEA Saclay and already demonstrated 140 mA/100 keV deuterium beam [R. Gobin et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02A918 (2014)]. The injector was disassembled and delivered to the International Fusion Energy Research Center in Rokkasho, Japan. After reassembling the injector, commissioning has started in 2014. Up to now, 100 keV/120 mA/CW hydrogen and 100 keV/90 mA/CW deuterium ion beams have been produced stably from a 10 mm diameter extraction aperture with a low beam emittance of 0.21 π mm mrad (rms, normalized). Neutron production by D-D reaction up to 2.4 × 10{sup 9} n/s has been observed in the deuterium operation.

  19. Status of PRIMA, the test facility for ITER neutral beam injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonato, P.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Chitarin, G.; Luchetta, A.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Serianni, G.; Toigo, V.; Zaccaria, P.; ITER International Team

    2013-02-01

    The ITER project requires additional heating by two neutral beam injectors, each accelerating to 1MV a 40A beam of negative deuterons, delivering to the plasma about 17MW up to one hour. As these requirements have never been experimentally met, it was decided to build a test facility, PRIMA (Padova Research on ITER Megavolt Accelerator), in Italy, including a full-size negative ion source, SPIDER, and a prototype of the whole ITER injector, MITICA, aiming to develop the heating injectors to be installed in ITER. The Japan and the India Domestic Agencies participate in the PRIMA enterprise; European laboratories, such as KIT-Karlsruhe, IPP-Garching, CCFE-Culham, CEA-Cadarache and others are also cooperating. In the paper the main requirements are discussed and the design of the main components and systems are described.

  20. Benchmark Wall Heat Flux Data for a GO2/GH2 Single Element Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sibtosh; Santoro, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is becoming an important component of injector design in the rocket industry. Injector designers who use CFD in the design process need to understand the accuracy level of the particular code being used for certain aspects of the design. This paper presents a recent effort to acquire benchmark quality data to be used for CFD code validation. Detailed chamber wall temperature and heat flux data was acquired for a gaseous oxygen, gaseous hydrogen single element shear coaxial injector in a 1.5 inch diameter copper heat sink chamber at Penn State University. The data was taken using both coaxial and water cooled heat flux gauges. Tests were run using hot gases generated from both fuel and oxidizer preburners. Tests were conducted over a chamber pressure range of 300 to 750 psia. Data analysis and uncertainty information will also be presented.

  1. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Crua, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a three dimensional laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently f...

  2. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  3. CFD Analysis of Mixing Characteristics of Several Fuel Injectors at Hypervelocity Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Drummond, J. Philip; Baurle, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    CFD analysis is presented of the mixing characteristics and performance of three fuel injectors at hypervelocity flow conditions. The calculations were carried out using the VULCAN-CFD solver and Reynolds-Averaged Simulations (RAS). The high Mach number flow conditions match those proposed for the planned experiments conducted as a part of the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project (EIMP) at the NASA Langley Research Center. The EIMP aims to investigate scramjet fuel injection and mixing physics, improve the understanding of underlying physical processes, and develop enhancement strategies and functional relationships relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than eight. Because of the high Mach number flow considered, the injectors consist of a fuel placement device, a strut; and a fluidic vortical mixer, a ramp. These devices accomplish the necessary task of distributing and mixing fuel into the supersonic cross-flow albeit via different strategies. Both of these devices were previously studied at lower flight Mach numbers where they exhibited promising performance in terms of mixing efficiency and total pressure recovery. For comparison, a flush-wall injector is also included. This type of injector generally represents the simplest method of introducing fuel into a scramjet combustor, however, at high flight Mach number conditions, the dynamic pressure needed to induce sufficient fuel penetration may be difficult to achieve along with other requirements such as achieving desired levels of fuel-to-air mixing at the required equivalence ratio. The three injectors represent the baseline configurations planned for the experiments. The current work discusses the mixing flow field behavior and differences among the three fuel injectors, mixing performance as described by the mixing efficiency and the total pressure recovery, and performance considerations based on the thrust potential.

  4. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  5. Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth A.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2010-05-01

    Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

  6. An Rf-gun-driven recirculated linac as injector and FEL driver.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, A.; Biedron, S.; Eriksson, M.; Freund, H.; Werin, S.

    1999-08-23

    A new pre-injector for the MAX-Laboratory is under design and construction. A thermionic rf gun, designed to operate at medium currents with low back bombardment power, is under construction. The gun will, via a magnetic compressor and energy filter, feed a recirculated linac consisting of two SLED-equipped structures giving 125 MeV each. The first will be delivered in 1999. The system is aimed as a pre-injector for the existing storage rings at MAX-Lab, but will also open up possibilities for a SASE FEL in the UV reaching above 100 MW below 100 run.

  7. Injector Beam Dynamics for a High-Repetition Rate 4th-Generation Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, C. F.; Corlett, J.; Emma, P.; Filippetto, D.; Penn, G.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Steier, C.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.

    2013-05-20

    We report on the beam dynamics studies and optimization methods for a high repetition rate (1 MHz) photoinjector based on a VHF normal conducting electron source. The simultaneous goals of beamcompression and reservation of 6-dimensional beam brightness have to be achieved in the injector, in order to accommodate a linac driven FEL light source. For this, a parallel, multiobjective optimization algorithm is used. We discuss the relative merits of different injector design points, as well as the constraints imposed on the beam dynamics by technical considerations such as the high repetition rate.

  8. Spray cone angle and air core diameter of hollow cone swirl rocket injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hussein Abdul Hamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Fuel injector for liquid rocket is a very critical component since that small difference in its design can dramatically affect the combustion efficiency. The primary function of the injector is to break the fuel up into very small droplets. The smaller droplets are necessary for fast quiet ignition and to establish a flame front close to the injector head, thus shorter combustion chamber is possible to be utilized. This paper presents an experimetal investigation of a mono-propellant hollow cone swirl injector. Several injectors with different configuration were investigated under cold flow test, where water is used as simulation fluid. This investigation reveals that higher injection pressure leads to higher spray cone angle. The effect of injection pressure on spray cone angle is more prominent for injector with least number of tangential ports. Furthermore, it was found that injector with the most number of tangential ports and with the smallest tangential port diameter produces the widest resulting spray. Experimental data also tells that the diameter of an air core that forms inside the swirl chamber is largest for the injector with smallest tangential port diameter and least number of tangential ports.ABSTRAK : Injektor bahan api bagi roket cecair merupakan satu komponen yang amat kritikal memandangkan perbezaan kecil dalam reka bentuknya akan secara langsung mempengaruhi kecekapan pembakaran. Fungsi utama injektor adalah untuk memecahkan bahan api kepada titisan yang amat kecil. Titisan kecil penting untuk pembakaran pantas secara senyap dan untuk mewujudkan satu nyalaan di hadapan, berhampiran dengan kepala injektor, maka kebuk pembakaran yang lebih pendek berkemungkinan dapat digunakan. Kertas kerja ini mebentangkan satu penyelidikan eksperimental sebuah injektor ekabahan dorong geronggang kon pusar. Beberapa injektor dengan konfigurasi berbeza telah dikaji di bawah ujian aliran sejuk, di mana air digunakan sebagai bendalir

  9. Dry Coal Feed System and Multi-Element Injector Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Sprouse; Fred Widman; Alan Darby

    2006-08-30

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept that uses rocket engine technology to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to current state-of-the-art systems. One key feature of the PWR concept is the use of an ultra-dense phase feed system to provide dry coal to the multi-element injector. This report describes the layout, test procedures, instrumentation and data acquisition requirements for an ultradense phase multi-element injector and feed system to be operated at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC).

  10. Design of a Novel Gaseous Hydrogen-Oxygen Rocket Injector Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    An overview of activities supporting the design of a gaseous hydrogen-oxygen rocket injector element is presented in viewgraph form. The purpose of the research was to find a viable design for a rocket gas-gas injector that mixes fuel and oxidizer thoroughly and quickly. Computational fluid dynamics analyses were used with reacting flow to evaluate design options for mixing, temperature distribution, and combustion efficiency. A design was found that is an improvement over designs derived from liquid systems and is far better than traditional shear-coax.

  11. Using CFD as a Rocket Injector Design Tool: Recent Progress at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kevin; West, Jeff; Williams, Robert; Lin, Jeff; Canabal, Francisco; Rocker, marvin; Robles, Bryan; Garcia, Robert; Chenoweth, James

    2005-01-01

    New programs are forcing American propulsion system designers into unfamiliar territory. For instance, industry s answer to the cost and reliability goals set out by the Next Generation Launch Technology Program are engine concepts based on the Oxygen- Rich Staged Combustion Cycle. Historical injector design tools are not well suited for this new task. The empirical correlations do not apply directly to the injector concepts associated with the ORSC cycle. These legacy tools focus primarily on performance with environment evaluation a secondary objective. Additionally, the environmental capability of these tools is usually one-dimensional while the actual environments are at least two- and often three-dimensional. CFD has the potential to calculate performance and multi-dimensional environments but its use in the injector design process has been retarded by long solution turnaround times and insufficient demonstrated accuracy. This paper has documented the parallel paths of program support and technology development currently employed at Marshall Space Flight Center in an effort to move CFD to the forefront of injector design. MSFC has established a long-term goal for use of CFD for combustion devices design. The work on injector design is the heart of that vision and the Combustion Devices CFD Simulation Capability Roadmap that focuses the vision. The SRL concept, combining solution fidelity, robustness and accuracy, has been established as a quantitative gauge of current and desired capability. Three examples of current injector analysis for program support have been presented and discussed. These examples are used to establish the current capability at MSFC for these problems. Shortcomings identified from this experience are being used as inputs to the Roadmap process. The SRL evaluation identified lack of demonstrated solution accuracy as a major issue. Accordingly, the MSFC view of code validation and current MSFC-funded validation efforts were discussed in

  12. An injector design model for predicting rocket engine performance and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoon, D. F.; Kors, D. L.; Gordon, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    A model is formulated for estimating the performance and chamber heat transfer in rocket injectors/chambers operating with gaseous H2-O2 propellants. The model quantifies the combustion performance and chamber heat flux for variables such as chamber length, element type, element area ratio, impingement angle, thrust/element, mixture ratio, moment ratio, element spacing, and physical size. Design equations are given and curves are plotted for evaluation of combustion performance in injectors comprised of F-O-F triplet, premix, coaxial and swirl coaxial element types. Curve plots and equations are also included for estimation of the chamber wall heat fluxes generated by these element types.

  13. Installation status of the electron beam profiler for the Fermilab Main Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Thurman-Keup, R; Fitzgerald, J; Lundberg, C; Prieto, P; Roberts, M; Zagel, J; Blokland, W

    2015-01-01

    The planned neutrino program at Fermilab requires large proton beam intensities in excess of 2 MW. Measuring the transverse profiles of these high intensity beams is challenging and often depends on non-invasive techniques. One such technique involves measuring the deflection of a probe beam of electrons with a trajectory perpendicular to the proton beam. A device such as this is already in use at the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL and the installation of a similar device is underway in the Main Injector at Fermilab. The present installation status of the electron beam profiler for the Main Injector will be discussed together with some simulations and test stand results.

  14. A preliminary study of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the RAON injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, I. S.; Kim, Y.; Choi, S. J.; Heo, J. I.; Jin, H. C.; Park, B. S.

    2016-09-01

    We have built and tested an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator of Newness (RAON) injector. Fully superconducting magnets were developed for the ECR ion source. First, an oxygen plasma was ignited, and a preliminary highly-charged oxygen beam was extracted. Next, a 100 μA beam current of oxygen 5+ was extracted when a 1 kW microwave power was injected using a 28 GHz gyrotron. Finally, an off-site test facility was proposed to test the components of the injector by using heavy-ion beams generated by the ECR ion source.

  15. Installation Status of the Electron Beam Profiler for the Fermilab Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Alvarez, M.; Fitzgerald, J.; Lundberg, C.; Prieto, P.; Roberts, M.; Zagel, J.; Blokland, W.

    2015-11-06

    The planned neutrino program at Fermilab requires large proton beam intensities in excess of 2 MW. Measuring the transverse profiles of these high intensity beams is challenging and often depends on non-invasive techniques. One such technique involves measuring the deflection of a probe beam of electrons with a trajectory perpendicular to the proton beam. A device such as this is already in use at the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL and the installation of a similar device is underway in the Main Injector at Fermilab. The present installation status of the electron beam profiler for the Main Injector will be discussed together with some simulations and test stand results.

  16. Design and testing of the 2 MV heavy ion injector for the Fusion Energy Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, W.; Benjegerdes, R.; Reginato, L.; Stoker, J.; Hipple, R.; Peters, C.; Pruyn, J.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S.

    1995-04-01

    The Fusion Energy Research Group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed and tested a pulsed 2 MV injector that produces a driver size beam of potassium ions. This paper describes the engineering aspects of this development which were generated in a closely coupled effort with the physics staff. Details of the ion source and beam transport physics are covered in another paper at this conference. This paper discusses the design details of the pulse generator, the ion source, the extractor, the diode column, and the electrostatic quadrupole column. Included will be the test results and operating experience of the complete injector.

  17. The Long-Term Beam Losses in the CERN Injector Chain

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067411; Bartosik, Hannes; Benedetto, Elena; Damerau, Heiko; Forte, Vincenzo; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Goddard, Brennan; Hancock, Steven; Hanke, Klaus; Huschauer, Alexander; Kowalska, Magdalena; Mcateer, Meghan Jill; Metral, Elias; Mikulec, Bettina; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Rumolo, Giovanni; Sterbini, Guido; Wasef, Raymond; Arduini, Gianluigi; Meddahi, Malika; Chapochnikova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    For the production of the LHC type beams, but also for the high intensity ones, the budget allocated to losses in the CERN injector chain is maintained as tight as possi- ble, in particular to keep as low as possible the activation of the different machine elements. Various beam dynamics effects, like for example beam interaction with betatronic resonances, beam instabilities, but also reduced efficiency of the RF capture processes or RF noise, can produce losses even on a very long time scale. The main different mecha- nisms producing long term losses observed in the CERN injectors, and their cure or mitigation, will be revised.

  18. Power supply system for KSTAR neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, W., E-mail: franciscocho@nfri.re.kr; Bae, Y.S.; Han, W.S.; Jeong, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Park, H.T.; Yang, H.L.; Oh, Y.K.; Kwak, J.G.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The power supply system in KSTAR NBI consists of DC power supplies for ion source. • For operation NBI, DC High Voltage based on the low voltage transformer with chopper. • The surge absorber near the ion source limit the energy deposited to accelerator grid. - Abstract: The power supply system in KSTAR neutral beam injector consists of low voltage and high current DC power supplies for plasma generator of ion source and high voltage and high current DC power supply for accelerator grid system. The arc discharge is initiated by an arc power supply supplying the arc voltage between the chamber wall and 12 filaments which are heated by individual filament power supply. The negative output of arc power supply is common to each positive output of 12 filament power supplies. To interrupt the arc discharging for the fault condition of the arc current unbalance, DCCT current monitor is placed at the positive output cable of the filament power supply. The plasma grid (G1) power supply has the maximum capability of 120 kV/70 A which consists of low voltage regulator with IGBT-switched chopper array system for the voltage control in unit of 600 V and the high voltage rectified transformers to supply DC voltage of 20 kV, 30 kV, and 50 kV. The output voltage of the G1 power supply is also connected to the input of the voltage divider system which supplies the gradient voltage to the gradient grid (G2) in the range of 80–90% of G1 voltage by changing tap of winding resistors in unit of 1%. The charged G1 voltage is turned on and off by the high voltage switch (HVS) system consisting of MOSFET fast semiconductor switches which can immediately be opened less than 1 μs when the ion source grid breakdown occurs. The decelerating grid (G3) power supply is inverter system using capacitor-charge power supply to supply maximum −5 kV/5 A. The important component in power supply system is the surge absorber near the ion source to limit the arc energy deposited to

  19. Effect of Injector Geometry on Atomization of a Liquid-Liquid Double Swirl Coaxial Injector Using Non-invasive Laser, Optical and X-ray Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, C. R.; Meyer, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    The spray characteristics of a liquid-liquid double swirl coaxial injector were studied using non-invasive optical, laser, and X-ray diagnostics. A parametric study of injector exit geometry demonstrated that spray breakup time, breakup type and sheet stability could be controlled with exit geometry. Phase Doppler interferometry was used to characterize droplet statistics and non-dimensional droplet parameters over a range of inlet conditions and for various fluids allowing for a study on the role of specific fluid properties in atomization. Further, X-ray radiography allowed for investigation of sheet thickness and breakup length to be quantified for different recess exit diameters and inlet pressures. Finally, computed tomography scans revealed that the spray cone was distinctively non-uniform and comprised of several pockets of increased mass flux.

  20. Attachable rock bolters for roadheaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weibezahn, K. [Wirth Maschinen- und Bohrgeraete-Fabrik GmbH, Erkelenz (Germany); West, M. [Deilmann-Haniel Mining Systems GmbH (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Roadheaders are used in mining and tunnelling in medium hard rock formations. The excavated space is made safe either by NATM-technology or a steel support system. The application of a rock bolting system up to now was restricted to formations that can cope with at least some support lag. A new system was developed in close cooperation between WIRTH Maschinen- und Bohrgeraetefabrik GmbH and deilmann-haniel mining systems gmbh that allows to carry out rock bolting with two drill rigs whicht are attached to the cutting boom of the roadheader even in front of the cutter head directly after cutting. Alternatively a robot may be attached to above named system that enables remotely controlled shot-creting close to the face.

  1. Development of a novel high volume band compression injector for the analysis of complex samples like toxaphene pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Gouteux, Bruno; Bertrand, Michel J

    2009-01-16

    A new type of injector has been developed for gas chromatographic analysis. The injector has high volume and band compression (HVBC) capabilities useful for the analysis of complex samples. The injector consists essentially of a packed liner operated at room temperature while a narrow heated zone is used to axially scan the liner selectively desorbing the compounds of interest. The scanning speed, distance and temperature of the zone are precisely controlled. The liner is connected to an interface which can vent the solvent or any undesirable compounds, and transfer the analytes to an analytical column for separation and quantification. The injector is designed to be compatible with injection volumes from 1 to more than 250microL. At a low sample volume of 1microL, the injector has competitive performances compared to those of the "on-column" and "split/splitless" injectors for the fatty acid methyl esters and toxaphene compounds tested. For higher volumes, the system produces a linear response according to the injected volume. In this explorative study, the maximum volume injected seems to be limited by the saturation of the chromatographic system instead of being defined by the design of the injector. The HVBC injector can also be used to conduct "in situ" pretreatment of the sample before its transfer to the analytical column. For instance, a toxaphene sample was successively fractionated, using the HVBC injector, in six sub-fractions characterized by simpler chromatograms than the chromatogram of the original mixture. Finally, the ability of the HVBC injector to "freeze" the separation in time allowing the analyst to complete the analysis at a later time is also discussed.

  2. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  3. I-94 Automation FAQs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — In order to increase efficiency, reduce operating costs and streamline the admissions process, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has automated Form I-94 at air and...

  4. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  5. Hydrometeorological Automated Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of Hydrologic Development of the National Weather Service operates HADS, the Hydrometeorological Automated Data System. This data set contains the last 48...

  6. Automating the Media Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Mary A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need to develop more efficient information retrieval skills by the use of new technology. Lists four stages used in automating the media center. Describes North Carolina's pilot programs. Proposes benefits and looks at the media center's future. (MVL)

  7. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vongbunyong, Supachai

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  8. Fundamental Study of a Single Point Lean Direct Injector. Part I: Effect of Air Swirler Angle and Injector Tip Location on Spray Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tacina, Kathleen M.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Lean direct injection (LDI) is a combustion concept to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for next generation aircraft gas turbine engines. These newer engines have cycles that increase fuel efficiency through increased operating pressures, which increase combustor inlet temperatures. NOx formation rates increase with higher temperatures; the LDI strategy avoids high temperature by staying fuel lean and away from stoichiometric burning. Thus, LDI relies on rapid and uniform fuel/air mixing. To understand this mixing process, a series of fundamental experiments are underway in the Combustion and Dynamics Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. This first set of experiments examines cold flow (non-combusting) mixing using air and water. Using laser diagnostics, the effects of air swirler angle and injector tip location on the spray distribution, recirculation zone, and droplet size distribution are examined. Of the three swirler angles examined, 60 degrees is determined to have the most even spray distribution. The injector tip location primarily shifts the flow without changing the structure, unless the flow includes a recirculation zone. When a recirculation zone is present, minimum axial velocity decreases as the injector tip moves downstream towards the venturi exit; also the droplets become more uniform in size and angular distribution.

  9. ACCOUNTING AUTOMATIONS RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    Муравський, В. В.; Хома, Н. Г.

    2015-01-01

    Accountant accepts active voice in organization of the automated account in the conditions of the informative systems introduction in enterprise activity. Effective accounting automation needs identification and warning of organizational risks. Authors researched, classified and generalized the risks of introduction of the informative accounting systems. The ways of liquidation of the organizational risks sources andminimization of their consequences are gives. The method of the effective con...

  10. Instant Sikuli test automation

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to follow style using the Starter guide approach.This book is aimed at automation and testing professionals who want to use Sikuli to automate GUI. Some Python programming experience is assumed.

  11. Automated security management

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shaer, Ehab; Xie, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this contributed volume, leading international researchers explore configuration modeling and checking, vulnerability and risk assessment, configuration analysis, and diagnostics and discovery. The authors equip readers to understand automated security management systems and techniques that increase overall network assurability and usability. These constantly changing networks defend against cyber attacks by integrating hundreds of security devices such as firewalls, IPSec gateways, IDS/IPS, authentication servers, authorization/RBAC servers, and crypto systems. Automated Security Managemen

  12. Automation of Diagrammatic Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Jamnik, Mateja; Bundy, Alan; Green, Ian

    1997-01-01

    Theorems in automated theorem proving are usually proved by logical formal proofs. However, there is a subset of problems which humans can prove in a different way by the use of geometric operations on diagrams, so called diagrammatic proofs. Insight is more clearly perceived in these than in the corresponding algebraic proofs: they capture an intuitive notion of truthfulness that humans find easy to see and understand. We are identifying and automating this diagrammatic reasoning on mathemat...

  13. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  14. Marketing automation supporting sales

    OpenAIRE

    Sandell, Niko

    2016-01-01

    The past couple of decades has been a time of major changes in marketing. Digitalization has become a permanent part of marketing and at the same time enabled efficient collection of data. Personalization and customization of content are playing a crucial role in marketing when new customers are acquired. This has also created a need for automation to facilitate the distribution of targeted content. As a result of successful marketing automation more information of the customers is gathered ...

  15. Adult attachment processes: individual and couple perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, K

    1997-09-01

    This paper overviews a new approach to understanding the range of difficulties experienced in close attachment relationships in adulthood. Drawing on the work of Bowlby, four prototypic adult attachment patterns are defined in terms of the intersection of two underlying dimensions, the positivity of the person's self-image and the positivity of the person's image of others (Bartholomew, 1990; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). The distinct interpersonal difficulties associated with each attachment pattern are described. Findings are presented indicating that individual differences in attachment have implications for the quality of adults' romantic relationships, and that attachment theory may be helpful in understanding violent spousal relationships. Five current issues in the study of adult attachment are addressed: the stability of attachment patterns, the associations between attachment and general personality factors, the relative merits of categorical and prototype assessments of attachment, the identification of multiple attachments in adulthood, and the specificity of adult attachment patterns. It is suggested that the four-category model of adult attachment is especially sensitive to the range and complexity of attachment-related difficulties experienced in adulthood.

  16. Emanuel Miller Lecture: Attachment Insecurity, Disinhibited Attachment, and Attachment Disorders--Where Do Research Findings Leave the Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite the evidence on anomalous attachment patterns, there has been a tendency to interpret most of these as reflecting differences in security/insecurity. Methods: Empirical research findings are reviewed in relation to attachment/insecurity as evident in both infancy and later childhood, disorganised attachment, inhibited…

  17. Elements of EAF automation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Dragna, E. C.

    2017-01-01

    Our article presents elements of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) automation. So, we present and analyze detailed two automation schemes: the scheme of electrical EAF automation system; the scheme of thermic EAF automation system. The application results of these scheme of automation consists in: the sensitive reduction of specific consummation of electrical energy of Electric Arc Furnace, increasing the productivity of Electric Arc Furnace, increase the quality of the developed steel, increasing the durability of the building elements of Electric Arc Furnace.

  18. Attaching Chuck Keys to Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V.

    1984-01-01

    Chuck keys attached to portable machine tools by retracting lanyards. Lanyard held taut by recoil caddy attached to tool base. Chuck key available for use when needed and safely secured during operation of tool.

  19. Conceptual Design Report: Fermilab Upgrade: Main Injector - Technical Components and Civil Construction, January, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1989-01-12

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of a new 150 GeV accelerator, designated the Main Injector, which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Collider. The construction of this accelerator will simultaneously result in significant enhancements to the Fermilab fixed target program.

  20. COMPACT PROTON INJECTOR AND FIRST ACCELERATOR SYSTEM TEST FOR COMPACT PROTON DIELECTRIC WALL CANCER THERAPY ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y; Guethlein, G; Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Watson, J; Weir, J; Pearson, D

    2009-04-23

    A compact proton accelerator for cancer treatment is being developed by using the high-gradient dielectric insulator wall (DWA) technology [1-4]. We are testing all the essential DWA components, including a compact proton source, on the First Article System Test (FAST). The configuration and progress on the injector and FAST will be presented.

  1. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenkl, Michael; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek, Michal

    2016-03-01

    The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  2. Development And Characterization Of A Liner-On-Target Injector For Staged Z-Pinch Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Conti, F.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Narkis, J.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2016-10-01

    We present the design and optimization of a liner-on-target injector for Staged Z-pinch experiments. The injector is composed of an annular high atomic number (e.g. Ar, Kr) gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers the ionized deuterium target. The liner nozzle injector has been carefully studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to produce a highly collimated 1 cm radius gas profile that satisfies the theoretical requirement for best performance on the 1 MA Zebra current driver. The CFD simulations produce density profiles as a function of the nozzle shape and gas. These profiles are initialized in the MHD MACH2 code to find the optimal liner density for a stable, uniform implosion. We use a simple Snowplow model to study the plasma sheath acceleration in a coaxial plasma gun to help us properly design the target injector. We have performed line-integrated density measurements using a CW He-Ne laser to characterize the liner gas and the plasma gun density as a function of time. The measurements are compared with models and calculations and benchmarked accordingly. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  3. Performance of a compact injector for heavy-ion medical accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Y.; Yamada, S.; Murakami, T.; Fujimoto, T.; Fujisawa, T.; Ogawa, H.; Miyahara, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Hojo, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Muramatsu, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Mitsumoto, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ueda, T.

    2007-03-01

    A compact injector, designed for a heavy-ion medical accelerator complex, was constructed. It consists of an Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion-Source (ECRIS) and two linacs, which are a Radio-Frequency-Quadrupole linac and an Interdigital H-mode Drift-Tube-Linac (IH-DTL) having the same operating frequency of 200 MHz. For beam focusing of the IH-DTL, the method of Alternating-Phase-Focusing (APF) was employed. The compact injector can accelerate heavy ions having a charge-to-mass ratio of {q}/{m}={1}/{3} up to 4.0 MeV/u. Use of the APF IH-DTL and operating frequency of 200 MHz allowed us to design compact linacs; the total length of the two linacs is less than 6 m. Beam-acceleration tests of the compact injector system were performed. The measured intensity of accelerated C4+12 beams with the compact injector was 380 eμA. Beam transmission of the APF IH-DTL was estimated to be as high as 96%, which is comparable to the value calculated by a simulation code. Transverse phase-space and energy distributions of accelerated beams were measured and compared with those calculated by the simulation code, and we found that they were agreed well with each other.

  4. Flow visualization of a rocket injector spray using gelled propellant simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James M.; Rapp, Douglas C.; Roncace, James

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted at NASA-Lewis to compare the atomization characteristics of gelled and nongelled propellant simulants. A gelled propellant simulant composed of water, sodium hydroxide, and an acrylic acid polymer resin (as the gelling agent) was used to simulate the viscosity of an aluminum/PR-1 metallized fuel gel. Water was used as a comparison fluid to isolate the rheological effects of the water-gel and to simulate nongelled RP-1. The water-gel was injected through the central orifice of a triplet injector element and the central post of a coaxial injector element. Nitrogen gas flowed through the outer orifices of the triplet injector element and through the annulus of the coaxial injector element and atomized the gelled and nongelled liquids. Photographs of the water-gel spray patterns at different operating conditions were compared with images obtained using water and nitrogen. A laser light was used for illumination of the sprays. The results of the testing showed that the water sprays produced a finer and more uniform atomization than the water-gel sprays. Rheological analysis of the water-gel showed poor atomization caused by high viscosity of water-gel delaying the transition to turbulence.

  5. Verification on spray simulation of a pintle injector for liquid rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min; Yu, Kijeong; Radhakrishnan, Kanmaniraja; Shin, Bongchul; Koo, Jaye

    2016-02-01

    The pintle injector used for a liquid rocket engine is a newly re-attracted injection system famous for its wide throttle ability with high efficiency. The pintle injector has many variations with complex inner structures due to its moving parts. In order to study the rotating flow near the injector tip, which was observed from the cold flow experiment using water and air, a numerical simulation was adopted and a verification of the numerical model was later conducted. For the verification process, three types of experimental data including velocity distributions of gas flows, spray angles and liquid distribution were all compared using simulated results. The numerical simulation was performed using a commercial simulation program with the Eulerian multiphase model and axisymmetric two dimensional grids. The maximum and minimum velocities of gas were within the acceptable range of agreement, however, the spray angles experienced up to 25% error when the momentum ratios were increased. The spray density distributions were quantitatively measured and had good agreement. As a result of this study, it was concluded that the simulation method was properly constructed to study specific flow characteristics of the pintle injector despite having the limitations of two dimensional and coarse grids.

  6. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenkl Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  7. Interior flow and near-nozzle spray development in a marine-engine diesel fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, J.; Simmank, P.; Matlok, S.; Mayer, S.; Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2016-04-01

    A consolidated effort at optically characterising flow patterns, in-nozzle cavitation, and near-nozzle jet structure of a marine diesel fuel injector is presented. A combination of several optical techniques was employed to fully transparent injector models, compound metal-glass and full metal injectors. They were all based on a common real-scale dual nozzle hole geometry for a marine two-stroke diesel engine. In a stationary flow rig, flow velocities in the sac-volume and nozzle holes were measured using PIV, and in-nozzle cavitation visualized using high-resolution shadowgraphs. The effect of varying cavitation number was studied and results compared to CFD predictions. In-nozzle cavitation and near-nozzle jet structure during transient operation were visualized simultaneously, using high-speed imaging in an atmospheric pressure spray rig. Near-nozzle spray formation was investigated using ballistic imaging. Finally, the injector geometry was tested on a full-scale marine diesel engine, where the dynamics of near-nozzle jet development was visualized using high-speed shadowgraphy. The range of studies focused on a single common geometry allows a comprehensive survey of phenomena ranging from first inception of cavitation under well-controlled flow conditions to fuel jet structure at real engine conditions.

  8. Electron Gun and Injector Designs for State-of-the-Art FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Blüm, H P; Christina, V; Cole, M D; Falletta, M; Holmes, D; Peterson, E; Rathke, J; Schultheiss, T; Todd, A M M; Wong, R

    2005-01-01

    Reliable, high-brightness, high-power injector operation is a critical technology issue for energy recovery linac drivers of high-power free electron lasers (FEL). Advanced Energy Systems is involved in three ongoing injector programs that target up to 0.5 Ampere current levels at emittance values consistent with the requirements of the FEL. One is a DC photocathode gun and superconducting RF (SRF) booster cryomodule. A 748.5 MHz injector of this type is being assembled and will be tested up to 100 mA at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) beginning in 2007. The second approach being explored is a high-current normal-conducting RF photoinjector. A 700 MHz gun, presently under fabrication, will undergo thermal test in 2006 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Finally, a half-cell 703.75 MHz SRF gun is presently being designed and will be tested to 0.5 Ampere at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 2007. The status and projected performance for each of these injector projects is pr...

  9. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy

  10. Loneliness and Attachment Patterns in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Diana Taylor; Baum, Steven K.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between loneliness and patterns of attachment in 47 college students. Results revealed a moderate to strong relationship between feeling lonely and early disrupted attachment, consistent with the notion that underlying attachment disorders may affect psychological development and social behavior. (JAC)

  11. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups sho

  12. Cesarean Births and Attachment Behaviors of Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Apgar scores are 7 or greater at both 1 and 5...status, indications for cesarean delivery, anesthesis, and infant’s gestational age, birth weight, and apgar scores . Prior to meeting the father, the...delivery and attachment score ; highest school grade completed and attachment score ; and age and child care experience of the father and attachment score

  13. Secondary Attachments and Adolescent Self Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Price, Carolyn; Greene, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    In a study examining attachments to celebrity figures, 79 male and female fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders and college sophomores described themselves and their favorite celebrities. It was found that such attachments are equally important to males and females, and that gender and age affect the nature of the attachment. (DM)

  14. Easy Attachment Of Panels To A Truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Mark; Gralewski, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual antenna dish, solar collector, or similar structure consists of hexagonal panels supported by truss erected in field. Truss built in increments to maintain access to panel-attachment nodes. Each panel brought toward truss at angle and attached to two nodes. Panel rotated into attachment at third node.

  15. Reactive Attachment Disorder: Recommendations for School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susanna H.

    1997-01-01

    Using a case study, explores a unique counseling relationship. Examines how the quality of parent-child attachment and care of a child during the formative preschool years affects interpersonal relationship skills and school adjustment. Discusses reactive attachment disorders, the pervasiveness of attachment disorders, and recommendations for…

  16. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  17. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precision attachment. 872.3165 Section 872.3165...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3165 Precision attachment. (a) Identification. A precision attachment or preformed bar is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75...

  18. Reactive attachment disorder--a theoretical model beyond attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Helen; Marwick, Helen; Arthur, Julie; McLaughlin, Alexis

    2006-09-01

    Despite its importance in public health, reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is an under-researched and little used clinical category. Abnormalities of social relatedness have long been documented in children who have been abused, neglected or institutionalised, but there have been more recent efforts to define these behaviours within the psychiatric nosology. There has been an implicit assumption that the central deficit in RAD is in the attachment system, but this has caused controversy and may have blocked research. We propose that RAD is better construed within the framework of intersubjectivity, which has a central role in the development of core brain and social functions and may also have had an important role in the evolution of a key human characteristic-complex social functioning. This broader framework may potentially explain apparently diverse symptoms such as indiscriminate friendliness and negative or unpredictable reunion responses. Finally, we suggest that a change of name may be useful in progressing the field, but accept that this may be difficult until there is better agreement in the clinical and scientific communities about the core features and aetiology of this disorder.

  19. Synergistic effects of iontophoresis and jet injector pretreatment on the in-vitro skin permeation of diclofenac and angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugibayashi, K; Kagino, M; Numajiri, S; Inoue, N; Kobayashi, D; Kimura, M; Yamaguchi, M; Morimoto, Y

    2000-10-01

    A non-needle syringe (jet injector) was utilized to increase skin permeation of drugs by iontophoresis. Briefly, physiological saline was initially flushed by the injector to make a pore in the stratum corneum of excised hairless rat skin, and the iontophoretic skin permeation of two model compounds, sodium diclofenac and angiotensin II, was followed using a 2-chamber diffusion cell. Constant voltage and constant current iontophoresis treatments were evaluated. Pretreatment using the jet injector alone resulted in about 13- and 22-fold increases in the steady-state flux of diclofenac and angiotensin II, respectively, through the skin, compared with non-treated controls. Jet injector pretreatment with constant voltage iontophoresis further enhanced skin permeation of diclofenac and angiotensin II, and the enhancement was also greater than that by constant voltage iontophoresis alone. Thus, a synergistic effect was observed. The ratio of enhancement was greater compared with the control. Jet injector pretreatment with constant current iontophoresis, however, did not always yield higher skin permeation of the drugs than injector pretreatment alone, although the lag time was shortened. The difference in the enhancement between the constant voltage- and constant current iontophoresis can be explained by the electric current through the excised skin. Constant current iontophoresis after a short period of constant voltage iontophoresis with multiple jet injector pretreatments may be the best way to increase drug permeability while preventing severe skin damage.

  20. Cold Flow Testing for Liquid Propellant Rocket Injector Scaling and Throttling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Jeremy R.; Moser, Marlow D.; Hulka, James; Jones, Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Scaling and throttling of combustion devices are important capabilities to demonstrate in development of liquid rocket engines for NASA's Space Exploration Mission. Scaling provides the ability to design new injectors and injection elements with predictable performance on the basis of test experience with existing injectors and elements, and could be a key aspect of future development programs. Throttling is the reduction of thrust with fixed designs and is a critical requirement in lunar and other planetary landing missions. A task in the Constellation University Institutes Program (CUIP) has been designed to evaluate spray characteristics when liquid propellant rocket engine injectors are scaled and throttled. The specific objectives of the present study are to characterize injection and primary atomization using cold flow simulations of the reacting sprays. These simulations can provide relevant information because the injection and primary atomization are believed to be the spray processes least affected by the propellant reaction. Cold flow studies also provide acceptable test conditions for a university environment. Three geometric scales - 1/4- scale, 1/2-scale, and full-scale - of two different injector element types - swirl coaxial and shear coaxial - will be designed, fabricated, and tested. A literature review is currently being conducted to revisit and compile the previous scaling documentation. Because it is simple to perform, throttling will also be examined in the present work by measuring primary atomization characteristics as the mass flow rate and pressure drop of the six injector element concepts are reduced, with corresponding changes in chamber backpressure. Simulants will include water and gaseous nitrogen, and an optically accessible chamber will be used for visual and laser-based diagnostics. The chamber will include curtain flow capability to repress recirculation, and additional gas injection to provide independent control of the

  1. Materials Testing and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Wayne D.; Zweigoron, Ronald B.

    1980-07-01

    The advent of automation in materials testing has been in large part responsible for recent radical changes in the materials testing field: Tests virtually impossible to perform without a computer have become more straightforward to conduct. In addition, standardized tests may be performed with enhanced efficiency and repeatability. A typical automated system is described in terms of its primary subsystems — an analog station, a digital computer, and a processor interface. The processor interface links the analog functions with the digital computer; it includes data acquisition, command function generation, and test control functions. Features of automated testing are described with emphasis on calculated variable control, control of a variable that is computed by the processor and cannot be read directly from a transducer. Three calculated variable tests are described: a yield surface probe test, a thermomechanical fatigue test, and a constant-stress-intensity range crack-growth test. Future developments are discussed.

  2. Automation of Taxiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Bursík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the possibility of automation of taxiing, which is the part of a flight, which, under adverse weather conditions, greatly reduces the operational usability of an airport, and is the only part of a flight that has not been affected by automation, yet. Taxiing is currently handled manually by the pilot, who controls the airplane based on information from visual perception. The article primarily deals with possible ways of obtaining navigational information, and its automatic transfer to the controls. Analyzed wand assessed were currently available technologies such as computer vision, Light Detection and Ranging and Global Navigation Satellite System, which are useful for navigation and their general implementation into an airplane was designed. Obstacles to the implementation were identified, too. The result is a proposed combination of systems along with their installation into airplane’s systems so that it is possible to use the automated taxiing.

  3. Automating the CMS DAQ

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Behrens, Ulf; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; Nunez Barranco Fernandez, Carlos; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Ozga, Wojciech Andrzej; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Spataru, Andrei Cristian; Stieger, Benjamin Bastian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Veverka, Jan; Wakefield, Christopher Colin; Zejdl, Petr

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90\\% and to even improve it to 95\\% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  4. Automating the CMS DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  5. Altering user' acceptance of automation through prior automation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekier, Marek; Molesworth, Brett R C

    2016-08-22

    Air navigation service providers worldwide see increased use of automation as one solution to overcome the capacity constraints imbedded in the present air traffic management (ATM) system. However, increased use of automation within any system is dependent on user acceptance. The present research sought to determine if the point at which an individual is no longer willing to accept or cooperate with automation can be manipulated. Forty participants underwent training on a computer-based air traffic control programme, followed by two ATM exercises (order counterbalanced), one with and one without the aid of automation. Results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation ('tipping point') decreased; suggesting it is indeed possible to alter automation acceptance. Practitioner Summary: This paper investigates whether the point at which a user of automation rejects automation (i.e. 'tipping point') is constant or can be manipulated. The results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation decreased; suggesting it is possible to alter automation acceptance.

  6. Overview of the design of the ITER heating neutral beam injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, R. S.; Boilson, D.; Blatchford, P.; Dalla Palma, M.; Chitarin, G.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Geli, F.; Dremel, M.; Graceffa, J.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Shah, D.; Singh, M.; Urbani, M.; Zaccaria, P.

    2017-02-01

    The heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) of ITER are designed to deliver 16.7 MW of 1 MeV D0 or 0.87 MeV H0 to the ITER plasma for up to 3600 s. They will be the most powerful neutral beam (NB) injectors ever, delivering higher energy NBs to the plasma in a tokamak for longer than any previous systems have done. The design of the HNBs is based on the acceleration and neutralisation of negative ions as the efficiency of conversion of accelerated positive ions is so low at the required energy that a realistic design is not possible, whereas the neutralisation of H‑ and D‑ remains acceptable (≈56%). The design of a long pulse negative ion based injector is inherently more complicated than that of short pulse positive ion based injectors because: • negative ions are harder to create so that they can be extracted and accelerated from the ion source; • electrons can be co-extracted from the ion source along with the negative ions, and their acceleration must be minimised to maintain an acceptable overall accelerator efficiency; • negative ions are easily lost by collisions with the background gas in the accelerator; • electrons created in the extractor and accelerator can impinge on the extraction and acceleration grids, leading to high power loads on the grids; • positive ions are created in the accelerator by ionisation of the background gas by the accelerated negative ions and the positive ions are back-accelerated into the ion source creating a massive power load to the ion source; • electrons that are co-accelerated with the negative ions can exit the accelerator and deposit power on various downstream beamline components. The design of the ITER HNBs is further complicated because ITER is a nuclear installation which will generate very large fluxes of neutrons and gamma rays. Consequently all the injector components have to survive in that harsh environment. Additionally the beamline components and the NB cell, where the beams are housed, will be

  7. Reference Physics Design for 1 GeV Injector Linac and Accumulator Ring for Indian Spallation Neutron Source

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Amalendu; Patidar, Chirag Bhai; Pal, Mukesh Kumar; Kulkarni, Nita; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Jana, Prasanta Kumar; Gaur, Rahul; Prakash, Ram; Dhingra, Rinky; Singh, Urmila; Kumar, Vinit

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the ongoing plan project titled 'R&D activities for high energy proton linac based spallation neutron source', the work on physics design of various subsystems of the injector linac and accumulator ring has been taken up. For the 1 GeV H- injector linac, physics design studies of individual systems have been completed, and the end to end beam dynamics simulation studies have been performed to ensure that the stringent beam dynamics criteria are satisfied for the optimized lattice. Physics design studies to optimize the linear lattice of the accumulator ring have also been completed. The design studies for the beam transport lines from the injector linac to the accumulator ring, and from the accumulator ring to target are currently in progress. This report describes the physics design of various systems of the injector linac and the accumulator ring.

  8. Microcontroller for automation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The description of a microcontroller currently being developed for automation application was given. It is basically an 8-bit microcomputer with a 40K byte random access memory/read only memory, and can control a maximum of 12 devices through standard 15-line interface ports.

  9. Automated Composite Column Wrapping

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The Automated Composite Column Wrapping is performed by a patented machine known as Robo-Wrapper. Currently there are three versions of the machine available for bridge retrofit work depending on the size of the columns being wrapped. Composite column retrofit jacket systems can be structurally just as effective as conventional steel jacketing in improving the seismic response characteristics of substandard reinforced concrete columns.

  10. Automated Web Applications Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan CĂPRIŢĂ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unit tests are a vital part of several software development practicesand processes such as Test-First Programming, Extreme Programming andTest-Driven Development. This article shortly presents the software quality andtesting concepts as well as an introduction to an automated unit testingframework for PHP web based applications.

  11. Automated Student Model Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  12. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  13. ERGONOMICS AND PROCESS AUTOMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Muñoz, Rolando; Docente de la FII - UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the role that ergonomics in automation of processes, and the importance for Industrial Engineering.  El artículo nos muestra el papel que tiene la ergonomía en la automatización de los procesos, y la importancia para la Ingeniería Industrial.

  14. Mechatronic Design Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun

    successfully design analogue filters, vibration absorbers, micro-electro-mechanical systems, and vehicle suspension systems, all in an automatic or semi-automatic way. It also investigates the very important issue of co-designing plant-structures and dynamic controllers in automated design of Mechatronic...

  15. Protokoller til Home Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk

    2008-01-01

    computer, der kan skifte mellem foruddefinerede indstillinger. Nogle gange kan computeren fjernstyres over internettet, så man kan se hjemmets status fra en computer eller måske endda fra en mobiltelefon. Mens nævnte anvendelser er klassiske indenfor home automation, er yderligere funktionalitet dukket op...

  16. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  17. Pressure Model for the Vacuum System for the Electron Gun and Injector for LCLS Final Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, L S; Eriksson, L

    2006-04-28

    The vacuum system of the injector for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has been analyzed and configured by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The vacuum system layout and detailed analyses for the injector are presented in this final design report. The vacuum system was analyzed and optimized using a coupled gas load balance model of sub-volumes of the components to be evacuated.

  18. Automating spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Fred T.

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses the architecture of software utilized in spectroscopic measurements. As optical coatings become more sophisticated, there is mounting need to automate data acquisition (DAQ) from spectrophotometers. Such need is exacerbated when 100% inspection is required, ancillary devices are utilized, cost reduction is crucial, or security is vital. While instrument manufacturers normally provide point-and-click DAQ software, an application programming interface (API) may be missing. In such cases automation is impossible or expensive. An API is typically provided in libraries (*.dll, *.ocx) which may be embedded in user-developed applications. Users can thereby implement DAQ automation in several Windows languages. Another possibility, developed by FTG as an alternative to instrument manufacturers' software, is the ActiveX application (*.exe). ActiveX, a component of many Windows applications, provides means for programming and interoperability. This architecture permits a point-and-click program to act as automation client and server. Excel, for example, can control and be controlled by DAQ applications. Most importantly, ActiveX permits ancillary devices such as barcode readers and XY-stages to be easily and economically integrated into scanning procedures. Since an ActiveX application has its own user-interface, it can be independently tested. The ActiveX application then runs (visibly or invisibly) under DAQ software control. Automation capabilities are accessed via a built-in spectro-BASIC language with industry-standard (VBA-compatible) syntax. Supplementing ActiveX, spectro-BASIC also includes auxiliary serial port commands for interfacing programmable logic controllers (PLC). A typical application is automatic filter handling.

  19. Attachment theory: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.

  20. Wear simulation effects on overdenture stud attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate wear effects on overdenture resilient attachments. Six commercially available attachments were investigated: ERA orange and white (EO and EW), Locator pink, white and blue (LRP, LRW and LRB) and OP anchor (OP). Five specimens were used for wear simulation while other two specimens served as controls. Fifteen thousands insertion-removal cycles were simulated. Dimensional changes and surface characteristics were evaluated using light microscopy and SEM, respectively. Sudden decrease of retentive force was characteristic for EO and EW attachments. Retentive force of Locator attachments fluctuated throughout the wear simulation period. Dimensional changes and surface wear was more expressed on plastic cores than on plastic rings of attachment males. Based on SEM analysis, some of the specimens obtained smoother surface after wear simulation. Mechanism of retention loss of resilient overdenture attachments can be only partially explained by dimensional changes and surface alterations.

  1. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  2. Automated one-loop calculations with GOSAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, Gavin [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Greiner, Nicolas [Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Heinrich, Gudrun; Reiter, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Luisoni, Gionata [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Ossola, Giovanni [New York City Univ., NY (United States). New York City College of Technology; New York City Univ., NY (United States). The Graduate School and University Center; Tramontano, Francesco [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    We present the program package GoSam which is designed for the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes in renormalisable quantum field theories. The amplitudes, which are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams, can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop QCD and/or electroweak corrections to Standard Model processes and offers the flexibility to link model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also implemented. We demonstrate the flexibility of the program by presenting examples of processes with up to six external legs attached to the loop. (orig.)

  3. Transient states analysis of CI engine injectors with the use of optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, M.; Pielecha, I.; Wisłocki, K.

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of research was to define real injection time delay against the time of electrical control signal for piezoelectric and electromagnetic diesel fuel injectors. The second objective of this work was the evaluation of influence of typical injection parameters on this delay. The analysis was focused on the occurrence of appropriate control signals recorded with the use of fast-varying data acquisition system and compared with the data recorded by high speed camera. The tests were conducted in constant volume chamber for different injector types used in combustion engines with direct injection of diesel fuel. The tests were performed under variable conditions: different fuel pressure, air back-pressure and injection duration time.

  4. An Innovative Organic Rankine Cycle wtih Gas-liquid Injector for Pressurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hua-yun; XU Zhi-ming

    2016-01-01

    The organic Rankine cycle ( ORC ) is an effective way to recycle low temperature exhaust heat but pump for the ORC has several disadvantages such as great difficulty in manufacturing , easily-invited cavitations , low efficiency and high cost .Gas-liquid two-phase injector is a device without moving parts , in which steam is used to drive cold liquid from a pressure lower than the primary steam to a pressure higher than the primary steam.In this paper , the mechanical circulation pump was replaced with a gas-liquid injector .The effect of the evaporate temperature for the system was studied with the organic fluid R 123.While this novel ORC can not only improves the energy utilization , but also be suitable for some occasions without power .

  5. Spin Tracking of Polarized Protons in the Main Injector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, M. [Fermilab; Lorenzon, W. [Michigan U.; Aldred, C. [Michigan U.

    2016-07-01

    The Main Injector (MI) at Fermilab currently produces high-intensity beams of protons at energies of 120 GeV for a variety of physics experiments. Acceleration of polarized protons in the MI would provide opportunities for a rich spin physics program at Fermilab. To achieve polarized proton beams in the Fermilab accelerator complex, shown in Fig.1.1, detailed spin tracking simulations with realistic parameters based on the existing facility are required. This report presents studies at the MI using a single 4-twist Si-berian snake to determine the depolarizing spin resonances for the relevant synchrotrons. Results will be presented first for a perfect MI lattice, followed by a lattice that includes the real MI imperfections, such as the measured magnet field errors and quadrupole misalignments. The tolerances of each of these factors in maintaining polariza-tion in the Main Injector will be discussed.

  6. The injector of the storage ring ANKA; Der Injektor der Speicherringanlage ANKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einfeld, D.; Pont, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). FGS

    2000-07-01

    The injector of the ANKA storage ring should create a beam of electrons and accelerate them to 500 MeV ready to be injected into the storage ring. This is accomplished with a combination of a microtron and a booster synchrotron, which we call the injector system of ANKA. The microtron delivers a pulse of 1 {mu}sec length with a current of 10 mA. The energy of the electrons when leaving the microtron is 53 MeV. The injection transfer line transports this beam to the booster synchrotron where the electron beam is accelerated to 500 MeV. At 500 MeV another transfer line, the so called extraction transfer line transports the beam to the storage ring. The repetition rate is 1 Hz. (orig.)

  7. RF Design of the TW Buncher for the CLIC Drive Beam Injector (2nd report)

    CERN Document Server

    Shaker, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    CLIC is based on the two beams concept that one beam (drive beam) produces the required RF power to accelerate another beam (main beam). The drive beam is produced and accelerated up to 50MeV inside the CLIC drive beam injector. The drive beam injector main components are a thermionic electron gun, three sub-harmonic bunchers, a pre-buncher, a TW buncher, 13 accelerating structures and one magnetic chicane. This document is the second report of the RF structure design of the TW buncher. This design is based on the beam dynamic design done by Shahin Sanaye Hajari due to requirements mentioned in CLIC CDR. A disk-loaded tapered structure is chosen for the TW buncher. The axial electric field increases strongly based on the beam dynamic requirements. This second report includes the study of HOM effects, retuning the cells, study of dimensional tolerances and the heat dissipation on the surface.

  8. Overview of the negative ion based neutral beam injectors for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunke, B., E-mail: email@none.edu; Boilson, D.; Chareyre, J.; Choi, C.-H.; Decamps, H.; El-Ouazzani, A.; Geli, F.; Graceffa, J.; Hemsworth, R.; Kushwah, M.; Roux, K.; Shah, D.; Singh, M.; Svensson, L.; Urbani, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2016-02-15

    The ITER baseline foresees 2 Heating Neutral Beams (HNB’s) based on 1 MeV 40 A D{sup −} negative ion accelerators, each capable of delivering 16.7 MW of deuterium atoms to the DT plasma, with an optional 3rd HNB injector foreseen as a possible upgrade. In addition, a dedicated diagnostic neutral beam will be injecting ≈22 A of H{sup 0} at 100 keV as the probe beam for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. The integration of the injectors into the ITER plant is nearly finished necessitating only refinements. A large number of components have passed the final design stage, manufacturing has started, and the essential test beds—for the prototype route chosen—will soon be ready to start.

  9. Development of Multi-pulse Compact Toroid Injector System for C-2U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allfrey, I.; Garate, E.; Morehouse, M.; Roche, T.; Gota, H.; Valentine, T.; Waggoner, W.; Putvinski, S.; Cordero, M.; Asai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, J.; the TAE Team

    2015-11-01

    The C-2U experiment aims at sustaining a dynamically formed field reversed configuration (FRC) for 5 + ms via injection of 10 +MW of neutral beams. One of the systems currently used to refuel the C-2U plasma is a single pulse compact toroid injector (CTI). The CTI is a magnetized co-axial plasma gun, which generates a spheromak-like plasma that is injected into the core of the advanced beam-driven FRC of C-2U. In order to refuel the recent long-lived plasmas in C-2U, a multi-pulse CTI system, whose modular design allows for expandable burst numbers, is being designed. Details of the pulsed power systems used to energize the single pulse and the upgraded multi-pulse CTI will be discussed. Results of injector performance carried out on a dedicated test stand as well as some refueling data on C-2U will also be presented.

  10. Overview of the negative ion based neutral beam injectors for ITER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunke, B; Boilson, D; Chareyre, J; Choi, C-H; Decamps, H; El-Ouazzani, A; Geli, F; Graceffa, J; Hemsworth, R; Kushwah, M; Roux, K; Shah, D; Singh, M; Svensson, L; Urbani, M

    2016-02-01

    The ITER baseline foresees 2 Heating Neutral Beams (HNB's) based on 1 MeV 40 A D(-) negative ion accelerators, each capable of delivering 16.7 MW of deuterium atoms to the DT plasma, with an optional 3rd HNB injector foreseen as a possible upgrade. In addition, a dedicated diagnostic neutral beam will be injecting ≈22 A of H(0) at 100 keV as the probe beam for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. The integration of the injectors into the ITER plant is nearly finished necessitating only refinements. A large number of components have passed the final design stage, manufacturing has started, and the essential test beds-for the prototype route chosen-will soon be ready to start.

  11. Radiation levels at CERN's injectors and their impact on electronic equipment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)649218; Brugger, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Electronic devices operating in hostile radiation environments, such as those found close to high-energy particle accelerators, can suffer from different types of radiation induced failures. At CERN, the mixed particle and energy radiation fields present at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its injector chain can give rise to both stochastic and cumulative effects causing radiation induced failures of exposed electronics and materials, thus directly impacting components and system lifetimes, as well as maintenance requirements. With its original focus on the LHC, the Radiation to Electronics (R2E) project has been successfully implementing mitigation actions in order to avoid accelerator downtime due to radiation induced failures on active electronics. In a next step, the emphasis is put on CERN's injector chain, collecting the respective available information about radiation levels, the definition of additional monitoring requirements and a critical analysis of present and future equipment installations. T...

  12. Mechanical engineering of a 75-keV proton injector for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hodgkins, D.J.; Meyer, E.A.; Schneider, J.D.; Sherman, J.D.; Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Zaugg, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    A dc injector capable of 75-keV, 110-mA proton beam operation is under development for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project at Los Alamos. The injector uses a dc microwave proton source which has demonstrated 98% beam availability while operating at design parameters. A high-voltage isolation transformer is avoided by locating all ion source power supplies and controls at ground potential. The low-energy beam transport system (LEBT) uses two solenoid focusing and two steering magnets for beam matching and centroid control at the RFQ matchpoint. This paper will discuss proton source microwave window design, H{sub 2} gas flow control, vacuum considerations, LEBT design, and an iris for beam current control.

  13. Optimizing the CEBAF Injector for Beam Operation with a Higher Voltage Electron Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Hannon, F E; Kazimi, R

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the DC gun technology used at CEBAF have allowed an increase in operational voltage from 100kV to 130kV. In the near future this will be extended further to 200kV with the purchase of a new power supply. The injector components and layout at this time have been designed specifically for 100kV operation. It is anticipated that with an increase in gun voltage and optimization of the layout and components for 200kV operation, that the electron bunch length and beam brightness can be improved upon. This paper explores some upgrade possibilities for a 200kV gun CEBAF injector through beam dynamic simulations.

  14. Environmental Pollution Assessment of Different Diesel Injector Location Of Direct-Injection Diesel Engines: Theoretical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyad S.M. Abu-Nameh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An Analytical investigation on the effect of injector location of a four-stroke DI diesel engine on its pollutants’ emissions was carried out under different injector locations ranging from central to peripheral at different engine speeds ranging from 1000 rpm to 3000 rpm. The simulation results clearly indicated the advantages and disadvantages of the central location over the peripheral one. It revealed that near central location gave less carbon dioxide, smoke level and particulate matter on one hand, and higher levels of NOx, cylinder temperature and pressure (hence increased the mechanical and thermal stresses on the other hand. Further, near central location resulted in more rapid rate of burning and less duration of combustion and rapid rate of NOx formation per crank angle.

  15. The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam loss control

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bruce C; Capista, David; Chou, Weiren; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton K; Seiya, Kiyomi; Wu, Guan Hong; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2013-01-01

    From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at ~400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

  16. Simulation of injector dynamics during steady inductive helicity injection current drive in the HIT-SI experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, C., E-mail: hansec@uw.edu [PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Marklin, G. [PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Victor, B. [HIT-SI Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Akcay, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Jarboe, T. [HIT-SI Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    We present simulations of inductive helicity injection in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection (HIT-SI) device that treats the entire plasma volume in a single dynamic MHD model. A new fully 3D numerical tool, the PSI-center TETrahedral mesh code, was developed that provides the geometric flexibility required for this investigation. Implementation of a zero-β Hall MHD model using PSI-TET will be presented including formulation of a new self-consistent magnetic boundary condition for the wall of the HIT-SI device. Results from simulations of HIT-SI are presented focusing on injector dynamics that are investigated numerically for the first time. Asymmetries in the plasma loading between the two helicity injectors and progression of field reversal in each injector are observed. Analysis indicates cross-coupling between injectors through confinement volume structures. Injector impedance is found to scale with toroidal current at fixed density, consistent with experimental observation. Comparison to experimental data with an injector drive frequency of 14.5 kHz shows good agreement with magnetic diagnostics. Global mode structures from Bi-Orthogonal decomposition agree well with experimental data for the first four modes.

  17. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented from the stand point of pioneers in this field (John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from the standpoint of their successors (Everett Waters and Malcolm West. Compacted ness of the theory, possibilities for operationalization of its key concepts and its application to empirical studies of complex psychological issues that have never been scientifically explored, makes it a very prospective theory in view of possible integration of existing research findings and initiating new research and new practices in psychotherapy, social work and work in schools. The goal of this integral presentation of attachment theory is to highlight its benefits and possibilities for understanding and research complex field of human's psychosocial functioning.

  18. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  19. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neerja; Thakkur, Rahul K

    2013-10-01

    Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40° of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  20. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40΀ of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  1. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  2. Detecting Injector Deactivation Failure Modes in Diesel Engines Using Time and Order Domain Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    the engine with respect to the piston’s orientation. This is usally referenced to the piston’s Top Dead Center ( TDC ) location of 0 degrees. Top...duration (∆T) and the relative delay/offset from Top Dead Center ( TDC ) for each respective pulse profile event occurring during the record set. In...cylinder three injector misfire. This plot is predicated on the fact the algorithm has identified TDC of cylinder one. Once the cylinder one TDC is

  3. Ignition and Flameholding in a Supersonic Combustor by an Electrical Discharge Combined with a Fuel Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    measuring system, the schlieren system, UV/visible optical emission spectrometer, current and voltage sensors, Tunable Diode Laser Absorption... solenoid valves; 4 – plenum section; 5 – honeycomb; 6 – nozzle; 7 – test section; 8 – optical access windows; 9 – plasma-injector modules; 10 – high...schlieren system uses a high-power pulsed diode laser (pulse duration texp=100 ns) and a framing camera (frame rate up to 1000 frames per second

  4. A simplified computational fluid-dynamic approach to the oxidizer injector design in hybrid rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Giuseppe D.; Malgieri, Paolo; Carmicino, Carmine; Savino, Raffaele

    2016-12-01

    Fuel regression rate in hybrid rockets is non-negligibly affected by the oxidizer injection pattern. In this paper a simplified computational approach developed in an attempt to optimize the oxidizer injector design is discussed. Numerical simulations of the thermo-fluid-dynamic field in a hybrid rocket are carried out, with a commercial solver, to investigate into several injection configurations with the aim of increasing the fuel regression rate and minimizing the consumption unevenness, but still favoring the establishment of flow recirculation at the motor head end, which is generated with an axial nozzle injector and has been demonstrated to promote combustion stability, and both larger efficiency and regression rate. All the computations have been performed on the configuration of a lab-scale hybrid rocket motor available at the propulsion laboratory of the University of Naples with typical operating conditions. After a preliminary comparison between the two baseline limiting cases of an axial subsonic nozzle injector and a uniform injection through the prechamber, a parametric analysis has been carried out by varying the oxidizer jet flow divergence angle, as well as the grain port diameter and the oxidizer mass flux to study the effect of the flow divergence on heat transfer distribution over the fuel surface. Some experimental firing test data are presented, and, under the hypothesis that fuel regression rate and surface heat flux are proportional, the measured fuel consumption axial profiles are compared with the predicted surface heat flux showing fairly good agreement, which allowed validating the employed design approach. Finally an optimized injector design is proposed.

  5. Organophosphate antidote auto-injectors vs. traditional administration: a time motion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Terri; Clements, Bruce W; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Evans, R Gregory

    2009-08-01

    Organophosphates may be used as weapons in chemical attacks on civilian or military populations. Antidotes are available to counter the effects of organophosphates, but they must be administered shortly after exposure. Timing required to administer organophosphate antidotes using traditional equipment vs. auto-injectors has not been studied. This study is intended to quantify and compare the time required to administer organophosphate antidotes using traditional equipment vs. auto-injectors in different treatment conditions. The study was a randomized, un-blinded design. There were 62 participants assigned to one of three groups: Mark I, ATNAA (antidote treatment nerve agent auto-injector), and traditional needle/syringe; however, the results from only 56 participants could be analyzed. Injection trials were videotaped. Subjects also completed a 14-item survey containing demographic questions, perceived ease of injection, receipt of prior training, and preferred training format for organophosphate treatment. Injection time differentials were compared using one-way analysis of variance; post hoc evaluation was performed using the Scheffe test with Bonferroni correction. Fifty-six subjects completed this study. The ATNAA required less time to administer than the Mark I or traditional needle/syringe devices (p antidote treatment. An ATNAA auto-injector can be administered in less than half the time it takes to administer a single injection using a needle and syringe or two injections using a Mark I. Mark I can be administered in approximately the same amount of time it takes to administer a single injection using a needle and syringe. The difference between injection time for the ATNAA and needle and syringe would have been even larger if two injections were given with the needle and syringe. The wearing or absence of personal protective equipment does not affect injection time.

  6. Combustion and Performance Analyses of Coaxial Element Injectors with Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulka, J. R.; Jones, G. W.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid rocket engines using oxygen and methane propellants are being considered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for in-space vehicles. This propellant combination has not been previously used in a flight-qualified engine system, so limited test data and analysis results are available at this stage of early development. NASA has funded several hardware-oriented activities with oxygen and methane propellants over the past several years with the Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, under the Exploration Technology Development Program. As part of this effort, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted combustion, performance, and combustion stability analyses of several of the configurations. This paper summarizes the analyses of combustion and performance as a follow-up to a paper published in the 2008 JANNAF/LPS meeting. Combustion stability analyses are presented in a separate paper. The current paper includes test and analysis results of coaxial element injectors using liquid oxygen and liquid methane or gaseous methane propellants. Several thrust chamber configurations have been modeled, including thrust chambers with multi-element swirl coax element injectors tested at the NASA MSFC, and a uni-element chamber with shear and swirl coax injectors tested at The Pennsylvania State University. Configurations were modeled with two one-dimensional liquid rocket combustion analysis codes, the Rocket Combustor Interaction Design and Analysis (ROCCID), and the Coaxial Injector Combustion Model (CICM). Significant effort was applied to show how these codes can be used to model combustion and performance with oxygen/methane propellants a priori, and what anchoring or calibrating features need to be applied or developed in the future. This paper describes the test hardware configurations, presents the results of all the analyses, and compares the results from the two analytical methods

  7. The use of x-ray radiography for measuring mass distributions of Rocket Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    with the implementation of a different data acquisition system. Wetting of the injector outlet and occasional pendant droplets limited how near to...considered unfavorable because it extends the combustion zone as larger droplets take longer to evaporate , mix and combust than smaller droplets ...measurements provide information related to the mass flux and droplet velocity while time-resolved measurements have the ability to provide droplet size

  8. Narrowband beam loading compensation in the Fermilab Main Injector accelerating cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph E. Dey; John S. Reid and James Steimel

    2001-07-12

    A narrowband beam loading compensation system was installed for the Main Injector Accelerating Cavities. This feedback operates solely on the fundamental resonant mode of the cavity. This paper describes modifications to the high level Radio Frequency system required to make the system operational. These modifications decreased the effect of steady-state beam loading by a factor of 10 and improved the reliability of paraphasing for coalescing.

  9. CFD Simulation of Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors. Part 1. Simulations of the RCM-1 Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    and caloric equations of state were developed for describing hydrogen, RP- 1, and oxygen propellants over the range of pressures and temperatures...513 I I I0 12 3 4 5 6 7 ,0 513 516 512 522 525 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 U (M/ec) Density (kglm9 ) TKE [ 2/ secO ) Figure 8. Flow Properties at the Injector

  10. Optimization of a GO2/GH2 Swirl Coaxial Injector Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, P. Kevin; Shyy, Wei; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar

    1999-01-01

    An injector optimization methodology, method i, is used to investigate optimal design points for a gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) swirl coaxial injector element. The element is optimized in terms of design variables such as fuel pressure drop, DELTA P(sub f), oxidizer pressure drop, DELTA P(sub 0) combustor length, L(sub comb), and full cone swirl angle, theta, for a given mixture ratio and chamber pressure. Dependent variables such as energy release efficiency, ERE, wall heat flux, Q(sub w) injector heat flux, Q(sub inj), relative combustor weight, W(sub rel), and relative injector cost, C(sub rel), are calculated and then correlated with the design variables. An empirical design methodology is used to generate these responses for 180 combinations of input variables. Method i is then used to generate response surfaces for each dependent variable. Desirability functions based on dependent variable constraints are created and used to facilitate development of composite response surfaces representing some, or all, of the five dependent variables in terms of the input variables. Two examples illustrating the utility and flexibility of method i are discussed in detail. First, joint response surfaces are constructed by sequentially adding dependent variables. Optimum designs are identified after addition of each variable and the effect each variable has on the design is shown. This stepwise demonstration also highlights the importance of including variables such as weight and cost early in the design process. Secondly, using the composite response surface that includes all five dependent variables, unequal weights are assigned to emphasize certain variables relative to others. Here, method i is used to enable objective trade studies on design issues such as component life and thrust to weight ratio.

  11. Ignition Delay Properties of Alternative Fuels with Navy-Relevant Diesel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    and palm oil , vegetable oil , and animal fats [8]. Of 5 particular interest in the field of HRD production is microalgae [9]. Algae-based fuels are...PROPERTIES OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS WITH NAVY-RELEVANT DIESEL INJECTORS by Andrew J. Rydalch June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Christopher M. Brophy...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IGNITION DELAY PROPERTIES OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS WITH NAVY- RELEVANT DIESEL

  12. Computational Modeling Approaches for Studying Transverse Combustion Instability in a Multi-element Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Transverse Combustion Response," in AIAA JPC Conference, Denver, CO, AIAA Paper No. 2009-5490, 2009. [12] B. Pomeroy, J. Sisco, J. Eckstein and W...Anderson, "Characterization of Gas-Centered Swirl-Coaxial Injector Stability in a Subscale Multi-Element Combustor," in AIAA JPC Conference...Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Response at Full Scale Frequencies in a Subscale Combustor," in AIAA JPC Conference, Nashville, TN

  13. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Analysis of Shear-Coaxial Injector Flows With and Without Transverse Acoustic Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    Rev. Fluid Mech. 22, 473-537 [19] Huerre P. 2000. Open shear flow instabilities. In Perspectives in Fluid Dynamics , ed. G.K. Batchelor , H.K... fluid dynamics aspect from the reactive flow processes, and studying the coupling of non-reactive injector flow instabilities with external pressure...2] Dahm, W. J. A., Frieler, C.E., and Tryggvason, G. 1992 Vortex structure and dynamics in the near field of a coaxial jet. J. Fluid Mech. 241

  14. Alternating-Phase-Focused Linac with Interdigital H-Mode Structure for Medical Injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Fujisawa, Takashi; Furukawa, Takuji; Hojo, Satoru; Honma, T; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Kapin, Valery; Mitsumoto, Toshinori; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Takeshi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Noda, Koji; Ogawa, Hirotsugu; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Torikoshi, Masami; Tsutsui, Hiroshi; Yamada, Satoru; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    Tumor therapy using Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) has been performed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). With the successful clinical results over ten years, a project on developing compact accelerators has been started. To design these compact accelerators, a size of an injector as well as construction and operation costs plays an important role. To satisfy these requirements, we propose a compact injector consisting of a RFQ and Interdigital H-mode Drift-Tube-Linac (IH-DTL) having the resonant frequency of 200 MHz. The injector will accelerate carbon ion up to 4.0 AMeV. For the beam focusing of the IH-DTL, the method of Alternating-Phase-Focusing was employed. With the IH structure and rather high operating-frequency, the size of the cavities is compact; the radius is approximately 0.4 m, and the length of the RFQ and IH-DTL will be 2.5m and 3.5m respectively. The fabrication of the RFQ is in progress. For the IH-DTL, the full-scale model was fabricated. With the encourag...

  15. Beam tests on the 4-kA, 1. 5-MeV injector for FXR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.; Ravenscroft, D.; Scarpetti, R.; Vogtlin, G.

    1981-01-01

    The new flash x-ray machine (FXR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is scheduled for completion in late 1981. This is a 54 module, linear induction accelertor, designed to deliver 500 Roentgen at 1 m as bremsstrahlung from a 20 MeV, 4 kA, 60 ns pulsed electron beam. The 9 cm diameter, cold-cathode electron source generates a 15 kA emitted beam at 1.5 MeV, and collimation is being used to reduce the transmitted current to 3.5 kA, with an emittance of 70 mr-cm. The collimated beam diameter is 4 cm. Six ferrite-loaded cavities are used in tandem to energize the injector. The high voltage performance of the injector cavities and other pulsed-power conditioning elements was tested earlier in a series of 10/sup 5/ shots at 400 kV per cavity. An overview of the injector design and of the beam test results is given.

  16. Spray characteristics of high-pressure swirl injector fueled with alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xibin; CHEN Wansheng; GAO Jian; JIANG Deming; HUANG Zuohua

    2007-01-01

    The spray characteristics of methanol and ethanol with high-pressure swirl injector were explored experimentally and numerically.Experimental results show that the spray characteristics of methanol and ethanol had displayed the same trends as that of gasoline.Under the low back pressure ambient conditions,the spray behavior exhibited a hollow cone with wide spray angle and initial spray slug at the tip,while the spray presented a solid cone in the case of high back-pressure.Vortexes in the opposite direction existed in the rear part of the spray under low back-pressure ambient conditions while the vortexes formed in the middle part under high back-pressure ambient conditions.Experiments also showed that methanol had the largest cone angle,while ethanol and gasoline presented almost the same cone angle.Simulation results indicated that methanol and ethanol had a slightly larger Sauter mean diameter (SMD) than that of gasoline with swirl injector..The SMD profile of methanol coincided well with that of ethanol under low back-pressure ambient conditions,but displayed a slightly larger value under high back-pressure due to fuel evaporation.Numerical simulation could successfully demonstrate the spray charac teristics of high-pressure swirl injector for methanol and ethanol fuels.

  17. A study on low emittance injector and undulator for PAL-XFEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Hong; J.-H.Han; S.J.Park; Y.G.Jung; D.E.Kim; H.-S.Kang; J.Pflueger

    2015-01-01

    For the success of PAL-XFEL, two critical systems, namely a low emittance injector and a variable gap out-vacuum undulator, are under development. In order to realize the target emittance of the PAL-XFEL injector we carried out an optimization study of various parameters, such as the laser beam transverse profile, the laser pulse length, the laser phase,and the gun energy. The transverse emittance measured at the Injector Test Facility(ITF) is εx=0.48±0.01 mm mrad.An undulator prototype based on the EU-XFEL design and modified for PAL-XFEL was built and tested. A local-K pole tuning procedure was developed and tested. A significant reduction(90%) of the local-K fluctuation was observed. The requirement of undulator field reproducibility better than 2×10-4and the undulator gap setting accuracy below 1 μm were achieved for the prototype. The optical phase jitter after the pole height tuning at the tuning gap was calculated to be 2.6? rms, which satisfies the requirement of 5.0?.

  18. Conceptional Design of Heavy Ion Linac Injector for HIRFL-CSRm

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaohu; Xia, Jiawen; Yin, Xuejun; Yin, Dayu; Li, Xiaoni; Xie, Xiucui; Du, Heng; Li, zhongshan

    2013-01-01

    A room temperature heavy ion linac has been proposed as a new injector of CSRm (the main Cooler Storage Ring) at HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou), which is expected to improve the performance of HIRFL. The linac injector can supply heavy ion with maximum mass to charge ratio of 7 and injection kinetic energy of 7.272MeV/u for CSRm, and the pulsed beam intensity is 3emA with the duty factor of 3%. Compared with the present cyclotron injector SFC (Sector Focusing Cyclotron), the beam current from linac can be improved by 10-100 times. As the pre-accelerator of the linac, the 108.48MHz 4-rod RFQ accelerates ion beam from 4keV/u to 300keV/u, which achieves the transmission efficiency of 95.3% with 3.07m long vanes. The phase advance has been taken into account to analysis the error tolerance, and parametric resonance have been carefully avoided by adjusting the structure parameters. KONUS IH-DTLs, which follow the RFQ, accelerate the ions up to the energy of 7.272MeV/u and inject into HIRFL-CSRm. Th...

  19. Magnetic analysis of the magnetic field reduction system of the ITER neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Germán, E-mail: german.barrera@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ahedo, Begoña; Alonso, Javier; Ríos, Luis [CIEMAT, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Chareyre, Julien; El-Ouazzani, Anass [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Agarici, Gilbert [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 07/08, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    The neutral beam system for ITER consists of two heating and current drive neutral beam injectors (HNB) and a diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) injector. The proposed physical plant layout allows a possible third HNB injector to be installed later. For the correct operation of the beam, the ion source and the ion path until it is neutralized must operate under a very low magnetic field environment. To prevent the stray ITER field from penetrating inside those mentioned critical areas, a magnetic field reduction system (MFRS) will envelop the beam vessels and the high voltage transmission lines to ion source. This system comprises the passive magnetic shield (PMS), a box like assembly of thick low carbon steel plates, and the Active Correction and Compensation Coils (ACCC), a set of coils carrying a current which depends on the tokamak stray field. This paper describes the magnetic model and analysis results presented at the PMS and ACCC preliminary design review held in ITER organization in April 2013. The paper focuses on the magnetic model description and on the description of the analysis results. The iterative process for obtaining optimized currents in the coils is presented. The set of coils currents chosen among the many possible solutions, the magnetic field results in the interest regions and the fulfillment of the magnetic field requirements are described.

  20. Development of Efficient Real-Fluid Model in Simulating Liquid Rocket Injector Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gary; Farmer, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of propellant mixing near the injector have a profound effect on the liquid rocket engine performance. However, the flow features near the injector of liquid rocket engines are extremely complicated, for example supercritical-pressure spray, turbulent mixing, and chemical reactions are present. Previously, a homogeneous spray approach with a real-fluid property model was developed to account for the compressibility and evaporation effects such that thermodynamics properties of a mixture at a wide range of pressures and temperatures can be properly calculated, including liquid-phase, gas- phase, two-phase, and dense fluid regions. The developed homogeneous spray model demonstrated a good success in simulating uni- element shear coaxial injector spray combustion flows. However, the real-fluid model suffered a computational deficiency when applied to a pressure-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The deficiency is caused by the pressure and enthalpy being the independent variables in the solution procedure of a pressure-based code, whereas the real-fluid model utilizes density and temperature as independent variables. The objective of the present research work is to improve the computational efficiency of the real-fluid property model in computing thermal properties. The proposed approach is called an efficient real-fluid model, and the improvement of computational efficiency is achieved by using a combination of a liquid species and a gaseous species to represent a real-fluid species.

  1. Combustion stability characteristics of the model chamber with various configurations of triplet impinging-jet injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Chae Hoon [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seol, Woo Seok [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shibanov, Alexander A. [Research Institute of Chemical Machine Building, Sergiev Posad (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-15

    Combustion stability characteristics in actual full-scale combustion chamber of a rocket engine are investigated by experimental tests with the model (sub-scale) chamber. The present hot-fire tests adopt the combustion chamber with three configurations of triplet impinging-jet injectors such as F-O-O-F, F-O-F, and O-F-O configurations. Combustion stability boundaries are obtained and presented by the parameters of combustion-chamber pressure and mixture (oxidizer/fuel) ratio. From the experimental tests, two instability regions are observed and the pressure oscillations have the similar patterns irrespective of injector configuration. But, the O-F-O injector configuration shows broader upper-instability region than the other configurations. To verify the instability mechanism for the lower and upper instability regions, air-purge acoustic test is conducted and the photograph of the flames is taken. As a result, it is found that the pressure oscillations in the two regions can be characterized by the first impinging point of hydraulic jets and pre-blowout combustion, respectively.

  2. Study on Turbulent Behavior of Water Jet in Supersonic Steam Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuichi, Akira; Abe, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Akiko; Kawamoto, Yujiro; Iwaki, Chikako; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu; Ohmori, Shuichi

    One of the most interesting devices for light water reactor systems aimed at simplified system, improvement of safety and reliability is a supersonic steam injector. Supersonic steam injector is a passive jet pump without rotating machine and high efficient heat exchanger because of direct contact condensation between supersonic steam and a subcooled water jet. It is considered that flow behavior in the supersonic steam injector is related to complicated turbulent flow with large shear stress induced by velocity difference between steam and water and direct contact condensation. However, studies about turbulent flow under large shear stress with direct contact condensation are not enough. Especially, mechanisms of momentum and heat transfer are not clarified in detail. Objective of the present study is to investigate turbulent behaviors of a water jet and interface that play an important role in heat transfer and momentum transfer. Radial distribution of streamwise velocity and fluctuation of total pressure are measured by a pitot measurement. Visual measurement of the turbulent water jet is conducted by a high speed camera in order to identify location of unstable interface and its behavior. It is found that streamwise velocity increases as it approaches downstream of the mixing nozzle. Fluctuation of total pressure is large at water-steam mixture region. It is confirmed that waves propagated on the interface. And its velocity is obtained.

  3. State-of-the-Art Electron Guns and Injector Designs for Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M.M. Todd; A. Ambrosio; H. Bluem; V. Christina; M.D. Cole; M. Falletta; D. Holmes; E. Peterson; J. Rathke; T. Schultheiss; R. Wong; I. Ben-Zvi; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X.Y. Chang; H. Hahn; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; V. Litvinenko; G.T. McIntyre; T. Nicoletti; J. Rank; T. Rao; J. Scaduto; K.-C. Wu; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; S.V. Benson; E. Daly; D. Douglas; H.F.D. Dylla; L. W. Funk; C. Hernandez-Garcia; J. Hogan; P. Kneisel; J. Mammosser; G. Neil; H.L. Phillips; J.P. Preble; R.A. Rimmer; C.H. Rode; T. Siggins; T. Whitlach; M. Wiseman; I.E. Campisi; P. Colestock; J.P. Kelley; S.S. Kurennoy; D.C. Nguyen; W. Reass; D. Rees; S.J. Russell; D.L. Schrage; R.L. Wood; D. Janssen; J.W. Lewellen; J.S. Sekutowicz; L.M. Young

    2005-05-01

    A key technology issue of ERL devices for high-power free-electron laser (FEL) and 4th generation light sources is the demonstration of reliable, high-brightness, high-power injector operation. Ongoing programs that target up to 1 Ampere injector performance at emittance values consistent with the requirements of these applications are described. We consider that there are three possible approaches that could deliver the required performance. The first is a DC photocathode gun and superconducting RF (SRF) booster cryomodule. Such a 750 MHz device is being integrated and will be tested up to 100 mA at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility beginning in 2007. The second approach is a high-current normal-conducting RF photoinjector. A 700 MHz gun will undergo thermal test in 2006 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which, if successful, when equipped with a suitable cathode, would be capable of 1 Ampere operation. The last option is an SRF gun. A half-cell 703 MHz SRF gun capable of delivering 1.0 Ampere will be tested to 0.5 Ampere at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2006. The fabrication status, schedule and projected performance for each of these state-of-the-art injector programs will be presented.

  4. Coexistence in preferential attachment networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antunović, Tonći; Racz, Miklos Z

    2013-01-01

    Competition in markets is ubiquitous: cell-phone providers, computer manufacturers, and sport gear brands all vie for customers. Though several coexisting competitors are often observed in empirical data, many current theoretical models of competition on small-world networks predict a single winner taking over the majority of the network. We introduce a new model of product adoption that focuses on word-of-mouth recommendations to provide an explanation for this coexistence of competitors. The key property of our model is that customer choices evolve simultaneously with the network of customers. When a new node joins the network, it chooses neighbors according to preferential attachment, and then chooses its type based on the number of initial neighbors of each type. This can model a new cell-phone user choosing a cell-phone provider, a new student choosing a laptop, or a new athletic team member choosing a gear provider. We provide a detailed analysis of the new model; in particular, we determine the possibl...

  5. Biliprotein maturation: the chromophore attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, H; Zhao, K-H

    2008-04-01

    Biliproteins are a widespread group of brilliantly coloured photoreceptors characterized by linear tetrapyrrolic chromophores, bilins, which are covalently bound to the apoproteins via relatively stable thioether bonds. Covalent binding stabilizes the chromoproteins and is mandatory for phycobilisome assembly; and, it is also important in biliprotein applications such as fluorescence labelling. Covalent binding has, on the other hand, also considerably hindered biliprotein research because autocatalytic chromophore additions are rare, and information on enzymatic addition by lyases was limited to a single example, an EF-type lyase attaching phycocyanobilin to cysteine-alpha84 of C-phycocyanin. The discovery of new activities for the latter lyases, and of new types of lyases, have reinvigorated research activities in the subject. So far, work has mainly concentrated on cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins. Methodological advances in the process, however, as well as the finding of often large numbers of homologues, opens new possibilities for research on the subsequent assembly/disassembly of the phycobilisome in cyanobacteria and red algae, on the assembly and organization of the cryptophyte light-harvesting system, on applications in basic research such as protein folding, and on the use of phycobiliproteins for labelling.

  6. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  7. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  8. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  9. The automation of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ross D; Rowland, Jem; Oliver, Stephen G; Young, Michael; Aubrey, Wayne; Byrne, Emma; Liakata, Maria; Markham, Magdalena; Pir, Pinar; Soldatova, Larisa N; Sparkes, Andrew; Whelan, Kenneth E; Clare, Amanda

    2009-04-03

    The basis of science is the hypothetico-deductive method and the recording of experiments in sufficient detail to enable reproducibility. We report the development of Robot Scientist "Adam," which advances the automation of both. Adam has autonomously generated functional genomics hypotheses about the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and experimentally tested these hypotheses by using laboratory automation. We have confirmed Adam's conclusions through manual experiments. To describe Adam's research, we have developed an ontology and logical language. The resulting formalization involves over 10,000 different research units in a nested treelike structure, 10 levels deep, that relates the 6.6 million biomass measurements to their logical description. This formalization describes how a machine contributed to scientific knowledge.

  10. The Automated Medical Office

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a c...

  11. Automation of printing machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sušil, David

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the automation of the printing machine and comparing the two types of printing machines. The first chapter deals with the history of printing, typesettings, printing techniques and various kinds of bookbinding. The second chapter describes the difference between sheet-fed printing machines and offset printing machines, the difference between two representatives of rotary machines, technological process of the products on these machines, the description of the mac...

  12. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  13. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  14. Automation in biological crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw Stewart, Patrick; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given. PMID:24915074

  15. Anxiety, cortisol, and attachment predict plasma oxytocin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob; Wijers, Albertus A.; Tucker, Don M.

    2007-01-01

    Oxytocin and attachment seem to interact in suppressing subjective anxiety and physiological stress responses. In this study we investigated the relationships between individual differences in trait attachment scores, state and trait anxiety, plasma cortisol, and plasma oxytocin levels in healthy pr

  16. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  17. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted…

  18. Separation-individuation theory and attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Harold P

    2004-01-01

    Separation-individuation and attachment theories are compared and assessed in the context of psychoanalytic developmental theory and their application to clinical work. As introduced by Margaret Mahler and John Bowlby, respectively, both theories were initially regarded as diverging from traditional views. Separation-individuation theory, though it has had to be corrected in important respects, and attachment theory, despite certain limitations, have nonetheless enriched psychoanalytic thought. Without attachment an infant would die, and with severely insecure attachment is at greater risk for serious disorders. Development depends on continued attachment to a responsive and responsible caregiver. Continued attachment to the primary object was regarded by Mahler as as intrinsic to the process of separation-individuation. Attachment theory does not account for the essential development of separateness, and separation-individuation is important for the promotion of autonomy, independence, and identity. Salient historical and theoretical issues are addressed, including the renewed interest in attachment theory and the related decline of interest in separation-individuation theory.

  19. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  20. Attachment, emotion regulation and adult crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Laan, A.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attachment serves to facilitate the contact with and proximity to the primary caregiver, in that way contributing to a safe exploration of the environment. However, due to inconsistencies in the reaction of the caregiver or her/his absence, insecure attachment styles may develop. This chapter summar