Sample records for ats satellites

  1. Capture of Irregular Satellites at Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, D; Deienno, R


    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early Solar System instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred (Nesvorny, Vokrouhlicky & Morbidelli 2007, AJ 133; hereafter NVM07). NVM07 already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary d...

  2. Polar Operational Environmental Satellites: Looking at Earth (United States)

    Aleman, Roberto M.


    A broad overview of the Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) Project is presented at a very high level. A general description of the scientific instruments on the Television Infrared Observational Satellite (TIROS) spacecraft is presented with emphasis put on their mission and the products derived from the data. Actual pictures produced from POES instruments data are shown to help the audience relate our work to their everyday life, as affected by the weather systems.

  3. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)


    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10{sup –8}. This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  4. Developing Geostationary Satellite Imaging at Lowell Observatory (United States)

    van Belle, G.


    Lowell Observatory operates the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI), and owns & operates the Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT). This unique & necessary combination of facilities positions Lowell to develop a robust program of observing geostationary, GPS-plane, and other high-altitude (&1000mi) satellites. NPOI is a six-beam long-baseline optical interferometer, located in Flagstaff, Arizona; the facility is supported by a partnership between Lowell Observatory, the US Naval Observatory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. NPOI operates year-round in the visible with baselines between 8 and 100 meters (up to 432m is available), conducting programs of astronomical research and imaging technology development. NPOI is the only such facility as yet to directly observe geostationary satellites, enabling milliarcsecond resolution of these objects. To enhance this capability towards true imaging of geosats, an ongoing program of facility upgrades will be outlined. These upgrades include AO-assisted 1.0-m apertures feeding each beam line, and new near-infrared instrumentation on the back end. The large apertures will enable `at-will' observations of objects brighter than mK = 8:3 in the near-IR, corresponding to brighter than mV = 11:3 in the visible. At its core, the system is enabled by a `wavelength-baseline bootstrapping' approach discussed herein. A complementary pilot imaging study of visible speckle and aperture masked imaging at Lowell's 4.3-m DCT, for constraining the low-spatial frequency imaging information, is also outlined.

  5. Comparison of INMARSAT and ATS3 satellite communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    There exists a need to provide communication through a satellite- based network which allows a user to communicate from a remote site to a fixed site. This discussion provides a comparison, both technical and financial, between the existing ATS3 satellite system and the commercial INMARSAT system. This comparison identified the limitations of each system to provide various types of communication.

  6. Measurement of Satellite Bunches at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jeff, A; Boccardi, A; Bozyigit, S; Bravin, E; Lefevre, T; Rabiller, A; Roncarolo, F; Welsch, C P; Fisher, A S


    The RF gymnastics involved in the delivery of proton and lead ion bunches to the LHC can result in satellite bunches of varying intensity occupying the nominally empty RF buckets. Quantification of these satellites is crucial for bunch-by-bunch luminosity normalization as well as for machine protection. We present an overview of the longitudinal density monitor (LDM) which is the principal instrument for the measurement of satellite bunches in the LHC. The LDM uses single photon counting of synchrotron light. The very high energies reached in the LHC, combined with a dedicated undulator for diagnostics, allow synchrotron light measurements to be made with both protons and heavy ions. The arrival times of photons are collected over a few million turns, with the resulting histogram corrected for the effects of the detector’s deadtime and afterpulsing in order to reconstruct the longitudinal profile of the entire LHC ring. The LDM has achieved a dynamic range in excess of 105 and a time resolution of 90 ps. Ex...

  7. Chaos at Uranus Spreads Dust Across the Regular Satellites (United States)

    Tamayo, Dan; Burns, J. A.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hamilton, D. P.


    The short collision timescales between the Uranian irregular satellites argue for the past generation of vast quantities of dust at the outer reaches of Uranus’ Hill sphere (Bottke et al. 2010). Uranus’ extreme obliquity (98 degrees) renders the orbits of large objects unstable to eccentricity perturbations in the radial range a ≈ 60 - 75 Rp. (Tremaine et al. 2009). We study the effect on dust by investigating how the instability is modified by radiation pressure. We find that dust particles generated at the orbits of the irregular satellites move inward as radiation forces cause their orbits to decay (Burns et al. 1979). When they reach the unstable region, grain orbits undergo chaotic large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations that bring their pericenters inside the orbits of the regular satellites. We argue that the impact probabilities and expected spatial distribution across the satellite surfaces might explain the observed hemispherical color asymmetries common to the outer four regular satellites.

  8. Permanent GNSS Observations at Agh-Ust Satellite Observatory (United States)

    Kudrys, Jacek


    GPS satellite observations at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering AGH-UST are conducted since the early 90s of the last century. In 2001, efforts have been made on getting permanently functioning GPS station. At present, observatory is EPN operational center for two GNSS stations KRAW and KRA1. Moreover, KRA1 station is one of fundamental control points in polish horizontal network. The article gives the history and scope of the research carried out in the satellite observatory AGH-UST during the period 2001 - 2015.

  9. VIIRS Nightfire: Satellite Pyrometry at Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly E. Baugh


    Full Text Available The Nightfire algorithm detects and characterizes sub-pixel hot sources using multispectral data collected globally, each night, by the Suomi National Polar Partnership (NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS. The spectral bands utilized span visible, near-infrared (NIR, short-wave infrared (SWIR, and mid-wave infrared (MWIR. The primary detection band is in the SWIR, centered at 1.6 μm. Without solar input, the SWIR spectral band records sensor noise, punctuated by high radiant emissions associated with gas flares, biomass burning, volcanoes, and industrial sites such as steel mills. Planck curve fitting of the hot source radiances yields temperature (K and emission scaling factor (ESF. Additional calculations are done to estimate source size (m2, radiant heat intensity (W/m2, and radiant heat (MW. Use of the sensor noise limited M7, M8, and M10 spectral bands at night reduce scene background effects, which are widely reported for fire algorithms based on MWIR and long-wave infrared. High atmospheric transmissivity in the M10 spectral band reduces atmospheric effects on temperature and radiant heat retrievals. Nightfire retrieved temperature estimates for sub-pixel hot sources ranging from 600 to 6,000 K. An intercomparison study of biomass burning in Sumatra from June 2013 found Nightfire radiant heat (MW to be highly correlated to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS Fire Radiative Power (MW.

  10. Quenching of Satellite Galaxies at the Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zinger, Elad; Kravtsov, Andrey V; Nagai, Daisuke


    We find, using cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters, that the hot X-ray emitting intra-cluster medium (ICM) enclosed within the outer accretion shock extends out to $R_{\\rm shock}\\sim(2 - 3) R_{\\rm vir}$, where $R_{\\rm vir}$ is the standard virial radius of the halo. Using a simple analytic model for satellite galaxies in the cluster, we evaluate the effect of ram-pressure stripping on the gas in the inner discs and in the haloes at different distances from the cluster centre. We find that significant removal of star-forming disc gas occurs only at $r \\lesssim 0.5 R_{\\rm vir}$, while gas removal from the satellite halo is also efficient between $R_{\\rm vir}$ and $R_{\\rm shock}$. This leads to quenching of star formation by starvation over $2-3\\,{\\rm Gyr}$, prior to the satellite entry to the inner cluster halo. This can explain the presence of quenched galaxies, preferentially discs, at the outskirts of galaxy clusters, and the delayed quenching of satellites compared to central galaxies.

  11. Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hemmers, O. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others


    Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He{sup +}nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al.

  12. Satellite-Derived Extinction at A Desert Site (United States)

    Walker, P. L.; Blomshield, F. S.


    We have been conducting research aimed at enabling determination of desert optical environments from meteorological and satellite observations. To this end we have been making Rotating Shadowband Radiometer measurements, collecting aerosol size distributions, visibility and meteorological data continuously for the past 2 years in the Indian Wells Valley of the Mojave Desert of California. These data present an opportunity to validate satellite retrieval of atmospheric optical depth. Specifically, MISR-derived optical depths are compared to those derived from Shadowband measurements. A crude measure of extinction can be made by dividing the optical depth by the height of the mixing layer. The validity of this procedure is determined by comparison with extinction directly measured by nephelometers and calculated from measured aerosol size distributions.

  13. Tether de-orbiting of satellites at end of mission (United States)

    Sanmartin, Juan R.; Sánchez-Torres, Antonio


    The accumulation of space debris around the Earth has become critical for Space security. The BETs project, financed by the European Commission through its FP7-Space program, is focusing on preventing generation of new debris by de-orbiting satellites at end of mission. The de-orbiting system considered, involving an electrodynamic bare tape-tether, uses no propellant and no power supply, while generating power for on-board use during de-orbiting. As an example, preliminary results are here presented on a specific orbit/satellite case: 1300 km altitude and 65 degrees inclination, and 500 kg mass. Design tether dimensions are 8 km length, 1.5 cm width, and 0.05 mm thickness; subsystem masses are limited to twice tether mass. Simple calculations, using orbit-averaging, solar mid-cycle phase, and ionospheric and geomagnetic field models, yield 2.6 months time for de-orbiting down to 200 km, with a probability of about 1 percent of debris cutting the tape. References: Sanmartin, J.R., Lorenzini, E.C., and Martinez-Sanchez, M., Electrodynamic Tether Applications and Constraints, J. Space. Rockets 47, 442-456, 2010. Sanmartin, J.R. et al., A universal system to de-orbit satellites at end of life, Journal of Space Technology and Science, to appear.

  14. Satellite lines at the ionization threshold in charge transfer systems (United States)

    Wardermann, W.; von Niessen, W.


    This article deals with the possibility of low-energy ionizations of reduced intensity for larger organic molecules. Possible mechanisms which may lead to this phenomenon are outlined and the necessary structural features are discussed. The lowest ionization energies of some organic unsaturated nitro and nitroso compounds are calculated by the ADC(3) ab initio many-body Green's function method. The π-electron system consists either of fused five- and six-membered rings or of two fused five-membered rings with a variable number of heteroatoms. Some of the molecules contain exocylic double bonds and some are substituted with the donor groups -NH 2, -OH and -NHOH. The strongest many-body effects are found for the nitroso compounds, where in one case the spectral line at the ionization threshold has lost more than 40% of its intensity to satellites. We study the many-body effects at or close to the ionization threshold for these compounds. A particular mechanism which involves the screening of localized valence holes by charge transfer excitations appears to be capable of influencing the profile and intensities of the ionization spectrum already at the ionization threshold. The effect leads to strongly reduced relative intensities of the bands and may cause the appearance of satellite bands nearly at the ionization threshold. The spectral changes in the outermost valence region are discussed by using a simple model calculation in terms of ground-state electronic properties of the molecules.

  15. Satellite ocean remote sensing at NOAA/NESDIS (United States)

    Bayler, Eric J.


    Satellite oceanography within the Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration"s (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) focuses on observation retrievals and applications to address the NOAA missions of environmental assessment, prediction, and stewardship. Satellite oceanography within NOAA/NESDIS is an end-to-end process, addressing user requirements, sensor design support, observation retrieval research and development, calibration, applications and product research and development, the transition of research to operations, continuing product validation, and operational user support. The breadth of scientific investigation encompasses three functional areas: satellite ocean sensors, ocean dynamics/data assimilation, and marine ecosystems/climate. A cross-cutting science team from these functional areas has been established for each core subject: sea-surface temperature, sea-surface height, sea-surface roughness, ocean color, ocean surface winds, and sea ice. These science teams pursue the science and issues end to end within the core subject, with the primary objective being the transition of research to operations. Data fusion opportunities between science teams are also pursued. Each science team area addresses the common themes of calibration/validation, data assimilation, climate, and operational oceanography. Experimental and operational products, as well as user support, are provided to the user community via the NOAA OceanWatch/CoastWatch program.

  16. A deeper look at the color of Saturnian irregular satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Grav, T


    We have performed broadband color photometry of the twelve brightest irregular satellites of Saturn with the goal of understanding their surface composition, as well as their physical relationship. We find that the satellites have a wide variety of different surface colors, from the negative spectral slopes of the two retrograde satellites S IX Phoebe (S'=-2.5+/-0.4 %/100nm) and S XXV Mundilfari (S'=-5.0+/-1.9 %/100nm) to the fairly red slope of S XXII Ijiraq (S'=19.5+/-0.9 %/100nm). We further find that there exist a correlation between dynamical families and spectral slope, with the prograde clusters, the Gallic and Inuit, showing tight clustering in colors among most of their members. The retrograde objects are dynamically and physically more dispersed, but some internal structure is apparent.

  17. Design and observations of satellite laser ranging system for daylight tracking at Shanghai Observatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨福民; 肖炽昆; 陈婉珍; 张忠萍; 谭德同; 龚向东; 陈菊平; 黄力; 章建华


    The first satellite laser ranging system for daylight tracking in China was set up at Shanghai Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Both false alarm probability due to strong background noises and detection probability of the laser returns with single photon level from satellite in daylight for our system are analysed. The system design and performance characteristics of subsystems, adopted techniques and satellite ranging observations are given.

  18. Eclipses and Occultations of Galilean Satellites Observed at Yunnan Observatory in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Yu Peng; Beno(i)t Noyelles


    We describe and analyze observations of mutual events of Galilean satellites made at the Yunnan Observatory in February 2003 from CCD imaging for the first time in China.Astrometric positions were deduced from these photometric observations by modelling the relative motion and the photometry of the involved satellites during each event.

  19. Satellite Quenching and Galactic Conformity at 0.3 < z < 2.5

    CERN Document Server

    Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Papovich, Casey; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Labbé, Ivo; Spitler, Lee R; Straatman, Caroline; Tran, Kim-Vy; Allen, Rebecca; Behroozi, Peter S; Cowley, Michael; Dekel, Avishai; Glazebrook, Karl; Hartley, William G; Kelson, Daniel D; Koo, David C; Lee, Seong-Kook; Lu, Yu; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Persson, Eric; Primack, Joel R; Tilvi, Vithal; Tomczak, Adam R; van Dokkum, Pieter


    We measure the evolution of the quiescent fraction and quenching efficiency of satellites around star-forming and quiescent central galaxies with stellar mass $\\log(M_{\\mathrm{cen}}/M_{\\odot})>10.5$ at $0.39.3$. Satellites for both star-forming and quiescent central galaxies have higher quiescent fractions compared to field galaxies matched in stellar mass at all redshifts. We also observe "galactic conformity": satellites around quiescent centrals are more likely to be quenched compared to the satellites around star-forming centrals. In our sample, this conformity signal is significant at $\\gtrsim3\\sigma$ for $0.6at $0.3satellite quenching) has been present for a significant fraction of the age of the universe. The satellite quenching efficiency increases with increasing stellar mass of the central, but does not appear to depend on the stellar mass of the satellite to the mass limit ...

  20. Satellite and Ground Based Thermal Observation of the 2014 Effusive Eruption at Stromboli Volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Zakšek


    Full Text Available As specifically designed platforms are still unavailable at this point in time, lava flows are usually monitored remotely with the use of meteorological satellites. Generally, meteorological satellites have a low spatial resolution, which leads to uncertain results. This paper presents the first long term satellite monitoring of active lava flows on Stromboli volcano (August–November 2014 at high spatial resolution (160 m and relatively high temporal resolution (~3 days. These data were retrieved by the small satellite Technology Experiment Carrier-1 (TET-1, which was developed and built by the German Aerospace Center (DLR. The satellite instrument is dedicated to high temperature event monitoring. The satellite observations were accompanied by field observations conducted by thermal cameras. These provided short time lava flow dynamics and validation for satellite data. TET-1 retrieved 27 datasets over Stromboli during its effusive activity. Using the radiant density approach, TET-1 data were used to calibrate the MODVOLC data and estimate the time averaged lava discharge rate. With a mean output rate of 0.87 m3/s during the three-month-long eruption, we estimate the total erupted volume to be 7.4 × 106 m3.

  1. Theory of experimental location of ionospheric inhomogeneities at medium latitudes by satellite radioholography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovoi, A.P.; Sinelnikov, V.M.


    A theory is developed for a quasiholographic experiment which uses a differential-phase signal derived from radio signals transmitted at two coherent frequencies to obtain information on ionospheric inhomogeneities in a plane connecting the ground station and a part of the satellite orbit. The method makes it possible to determine the size and location of small-scale inhomogeneities with a radius of 100-500 m from ground-based measurements of spaced satellite signals transmitted at sufficiently high coherent frequencies.

  2. Optimal link budget to maximize data receiving from remote sensing satellite at different ground stations (United States)

    Godse, Vinay V.; Rukmini, B.


    Earth observation satellite plays a significant role for global situation awareness. The earth observation satellite uses imaging payloads in RF and IR bands, which carry huge amount of data, needs to be transferred during visibility of satellite over the ground station. Location of ground station plays a very important role in communication with LEO satellites, as orbital speed of LEO satellite is much higher than earth rotation speed. It will be accessible for particular equatorial ground station for a very short duration. In this paper we want to maximize data receiving by optimizing link budget and receiving data at higher elevation links. Data receiving at multiple ground stations is preferred to counter less pass duration due to higher elevation links. Our approach is to calculate link budget for remote sensing satellite with a fixed power input and varying different minimum elevation angles to obtain maximum data. The minimum pass duration should be above 3 minutes for effective communication. We are proposing to start process of command handling as soon as satellite is visible to particular ground station with low elevation angle up to 5 degree and start receiving data at higher elevation angles to receive data with higher speed. Cartosat-2B LEO earth observation satellite is taken for the case study. Cartosat-2B will complete around 14 passes over equator in a day, out of which only 4-5 passes will be useful for near equator ground stations. Our aim is to receive data at higher elevation angles at higher speed and increase amount of data download, criteria being minimum pass duration of 3 minutes, which has been set for selecting minimum elevation angle.

  3. Constraining local UV field geometry at reionization using Milky Way satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubert D.


    Full Text Available We present a new semi-analytical model of the population of satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, aimed at estimating the effect of the geometry of reionization at galaxy scale on the properties of the satellites. In this model reionization can be either: (A externally-driven and uniform, or (B internally-driven, by the most massive progenitor of the Milky Way. In the latter scenario the propagation of the ionisation front and photon dilution introduce a delay in the photo-evaporation of the outer satellites’ gas with respect to the inner satellites. As a consequence, outer satellites experience a longer period of star formation than those in the inner halo. We use simple models to account for star formation, the propagation of the ionisation front, photo-evaporation and observational biases. Both scenarios yield a model satellite population that matches the observed luminosity function and mass-to-light ratios. However, the predicted population for scenario (B is significantly more extended spatially than for scenario (A, by about 0.3 dex in distance, resulting in a much better match to the observations. The survival of the signature left by the local UV field during reionization on the radial distribution of satellites makes it a promising tool for studying the reionization epoch at galaxy scale in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies resolved in stars with forthcoming large surveys.

  4. Satellite and terrestrial narrow-band propagation measurements at 2.05 GHz (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arv; Vogel, Wolf


    A series of satellite and terrestrial propagation measurements were conducted on 15 and 16 Dec. 1994 in the vicinity of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, California, in support of the VOA/JPL DBS-Radio Program. The reason for including terrestrial measurements was the possible use of terrestrial boosters to improve reception in some satellite digital audio broadcasting system service areas. The signal sources used were the NASA TDRS satellite located at 171 degrees West and a terrestrial transmitter located on a high point on JPL property. Both signals were unmodulated carriers near 2.05 GHz, spaced a few kHz apart so that both could be received simultaneously by a single receiver. An unmodulated signal was used in order to maximize the dynamic range of the signal strength measurement. A range of greater than 35 dB was achieved with the satellite signal, and over 50 dB was achieved with the terrestrial signal measurements. Three test courses were used to conduct the measurements: (1) a 33 km round trip drive from JPL through Pasadena was used to remeasure the propagation of the satellite signal over the path previously used in DBS-Radio experiments in mid 1994. A shortened portion of this test course, approximately 20 km, was used to measure the satellite and terrestrial signals simultaneously; (2) a 9 km round trip drive through JPL property, going behind buildings and other obstacles, was used to measure the satellite and terrestrial signals simultaneously; and (3) a path through one of the buildings at JPL, hand carrying the receiver, was also used to measure the satellite and terrestrial signals simultaneously.

  5. Gravitational detection of a low-mass dark satellite at cosmological distance

    CERN Document Server

    Vegetti, S; McKean, J P; Auger, M W; Fassnacht, C D; Koopmans, L V E


    The mass-function of dwarf satellite galaxies that are observed around Local Group galaxies substantially differs from simulations based on cold dark matter: the simulations predict many more dwarf galaxies than are seen. The Local Group, however, may be anomalous in this regard. A massive dark satellite in an early-type lens galaxy at z = 0.222 was recently found using a new method based on gravitational lensing, suggesting that the mass fraction contained in substructure could be higher than is predicted from simulations. The lack of very low mass detections, however, prohibited any constraint on their mass function. Here we report the presence of a 1.9 +/- 0.1 x 10^8 M_sun dark satellite in the Einstein-ring system JVAS B1938+666 at z = 0.881, where M_sun denotes solar mass. This satellite galaxy has a mass similar to the Sagittarius galaxy, which is a satellite of the Milky Way. We determine the logarithmic slope of the mass function for substructure beyond the local Universe to be alpha = 1.1^+0.6_-0.4, ...

  6. Does an NSAID a Day Keep Satellite Cells at Bay?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail L


    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed among athletes worldwide, despite growing evidence for a negative influence on the adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise, at least in young healthy individuals. This review focuses on the potential of NSAIDs to alter the activ......Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed among athletes worldwide, despite growing evidence for a negative influence on the adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise, at least in young healthy individuals. This review focuses on the potential of NSAIDs to alter...... in the response of muscle under conditions where cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin activity are blocked through NSAID ingestion or infusion. Discrepancies in the literature regarding the response of young and old individuals are addressed, where it appears that the elderly may benefit from NSAID ingestion...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swastik Sahoo


    Full Text Available A major application of satellite is broadcasting and in India this is done at Ku band. But with the increase of demand of number of channels Ku band is getting saturated. So, to satisfy this requirement an approach is to go to higher frequency band, i.e. Ka band. As India is allocated with seven fixed GEO locations, so the purpose is to calculate what is the suitable satellite position for India at Ka band, what is the best EIRP available at that position and what will be the smallest ground antenna diameter and satellite antenna diameter at Ka band. Broadcasting is done at 20GHz Ka band downlink frequency. At this frequency, as the signal will face lots of impairments during propagation, so the attenuation caused by variety of factors are discussed here. To overcome the attenuation maximum EIRP is given. The link equation is taken as a reference to calculate quality of the signal, G/T ratio and EIRP of the satellite. The extreme west region of India is being taken as earth station and after some brief calculations all the results are discussed. Out of seven allocated GEO locations, 74⁰E gives best output in terms of minimum loss & small antenna diameters.

  8. Satellite laser ranging experiment with sub-centimeter single-shot ranging precision at Shanghai Observatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Fumin(杨福民); CHEN; Wanzhen(陈婉珍); ZHANG; Zhongping(张忠萍); CHEN; Juping(陈菊平); HU; Jingfu(扈荆夫); LI; Xin(李鑫); I.; Prochazka; K.; Hamal


    The Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, incollaboration with the Czech Technical University, carried out the experiment of satellite laser ranging with sub-centimeter precision in Shanghai in August 2001. A pico-second event timer was used for the measurement of the time interval between the transmitted and returned laser pulses for Lageos 1, 2, Starlette, Stella, Topex/Poseiden and ERS-2 in coordination with the existing laser transmitting and receiving system at the Shanghai Observatory. The analysis of the measurement showed that the single-shot ranging precision with these satellites is 7-8 mm. In order to compare ranging precision, the existing ranging system has tracked simultaneously these satellites and obtained the ranging precision of 12-15 mm. It means that the ranging precision with the new system is 80% better thanthe existing system. The systematic biases with the existing system have also been checked in the experiment.

  9. ATM Quality of Service Parameters at 45 Mbps Using a Satellite Emulator: Laboratory Measurements (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Bobinsky, Eric A.


    Results of 45-Mbps DS3 intermediate-frequency loopback measurements of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) quality of service parameters (cell error ratio and cell loss ratio) are presented. These tests, which were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of satellite-ATM interoperability research, represent initial efforts to quantify the minimum parameters for stringent ATM applications, such as MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 video transmission. Portions of these results were originally presented to the International Telecommunications Union's ITU-R Working Party 4B in February 1996 in support of their Draft Preliminary Recommendation on the Transmission of ATM Traffic via Satellite.

  10. Easy-to-Build Satellite Beacon Receiver for Propagation Experimentation at Millimeter Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Machado


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and development of a digital satellite beacon receiver for propagation experimentation. Satellite beacons are frequently available for pointing large antennas, but such signals can be used for measuring rain attenuation and other phenomena as, for example, tropospheric scintillation. A fairly inexpensive beacon receiver has been built using off-the-shelf parts. This instrument is not at all bulky making it suitable for easy transportation. This article analyzes the receiver specifications, describes in detail its structure and presents some operational test results.

  11. Derivation of the radiation budget at ground level from satellite measurements (United States)

    Raschke, E.


    Determination of the Earth radiaton budget and progress in measurement of the budget components and in the treatment of imaging data from satellites are described. Methods for calculating the radiation budget in a general circulation model, radiative transfer characteristics of clouds, computation of solar radiation at ground level using meteorological data and development of a 10-channel radiometer are discussed.

  12. Precise orbit determination for quad-constellation satellites at Wuhan University: strategy, result validation, and comparison (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Xu, Xiaolong; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan


    This contribution summarizes the strategy used by Wuhan University (WHU) to determine precise orbit and clock products for Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). In particular, the satellite attitude, phase center corrections, solar radiation pressure model developed and used for BDS satellites are addressed. In addition, this contribution analyzes the orbit and clock quality of the quad-constellation products from MGEX Analysis Centers (ACs) for a common time period of 1 year (2014). With IGS final GPS and GLONASS products as the reference, Multi-GNSS products of WHU (indicated by WUM) show the best agreement among these products from all MGEX ACs in both accuracy and stability. 3D Day Boundary Discontinuities (DBDs) range from 8 to 27 cm for Galileo-IOV satellites among all ACs' products, whereas WUM ones are the largest (about 26.2 cm). Among three types of BDS satellites, MEOs show the smallest DBDs from 10 to 27 cm, whereas the DBDs for all ACs products are at decimeter to meter level for GEOs and one to three decimeter for IGSOs, respectively. As to the satellite laser ranging (SLR) validation for Galileo-IOV satellites, the accuracy evaluated by SLR residuals is at the one decimeter level with the well-known systematic bias of about -5 cm for all ACs. For BDS satellites, the accuracy could reach decimeter level, one decimeter level, and centimeter level for GEOs, IGSOs, and MEOs, respectively. However, there is a noticeable bias in GEO SLR residuals. In addition, systematic errors dependent on orbit angle related to mismodeled solar radiation pressure (SRP) are present for BDS GEOs and IGSOs. The results of Multi-GNSS combined kinematic PPP demonstrate that the best accuracy of position and fastest convergence speed have been achieved using WUM products, particularly in the Up direction. Furthermore, the accuracy of static BDS only PPP degrades when the BDS IGSO and MEO satellites switches to orbit-normal orientation

  13. Interference at the Single Photon Level Along Satellite-Ground Channels (United States)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Dequal, Daniele; Tomasin, Marco; Vedovato, Francesco; Schiavon, Matteo; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo


    Quantum interference arising from the superposition of states is striking evidence of the validity of quantum mechanics, confirmed in many experiments and also exploited in applications. However, as for any scientific theory, quantum mechanics is valid within the limits in which it has been experimentally verified. In order to extend such limits, it is necessary to observe quantum interference in unexplored conditions such as moving terminals at large distances in space. Here, we experimentally demonstrate single photon interference at a ground station due to the coherent superposition of two temporal modes reflected by a rapidly moving satellite a thousand kilometers away. The relative speed of the satellite induces a varying modulation in the interference pattern. The measurement of the satellite distance in real time by laser ranging allows us to precisely predict the instantaneous value of the interference phase. We then observed the interference patterns with a visibility up to 67% with three different satellites and with a path length up to 5000 km. Our results attest to the viability of photon temporal modes for fundamental tests of physics and quantum communication in space.

  14. Satellite traces, range spread-F occurrence, and gravity wave propagation at the southern anomaly crest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, M.A. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Tucuman (Argentina). CIASUR, Facultad Regional Tucuman; Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (Argentina). Lab. de Ionosfera; Pezzopane, M.; Zuccheretti, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Ezquer, R.G. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Tucuman (Argentina). CIASUR, Facultad Regional Tucuman; Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (Argentina). Lab. de Ionosfera; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Range spread-F (RSF) and occurrence of ''satellite'' traces prior to RSF onset were studied at the southern peak of the ionospheric equatorial anomaly (EA). Ionograms recorded in September 2007 at the new ionospheric station of Tucuman, Argentina (26.9 S, 294.6 E, dip latitude 15.5 S), by the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder (AIS) developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), were considered. Satellite traces (STs) are confirmed to be a necessary precursor to the appearance of an RSF trace on the ionograms. Moreover, an analysis of isoheight contours of electron density seems to suggest a relationship between RSF occurrence and gravity wave (GW) propagation. (orig.)

  15. UNOSAT at CERN – 15 years of satellite imagery support to the humanitarian and development community

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Abstract: UNOSAT is part of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and has been hosted at CERN since 2001. This partnership allows UNOSAT to benefit from CERN's IT infrastructure whenever the situation requires, allowing the UN to be at the forefront of satellite-analysis technology. Specialists in geographic information systems (GIS) and in the analysis of satellite data, supported by IT engineers and policy experts, ensure a dedicated service to the international humanitarian and development communities 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The presentation will give an overview of the variety of activities carried out by UNOSAT over the last 15 years including support to humanitarian assistance and protection of cultural heritage, sustainable water management in Chad and training & capacity development in East Africa and Asia. The talk will be followed at 12:00 by the inauguration of the UNOSAT exhibition, in front of the Users' office. Speaker: Einar Bjor...

  16. Design of a 10-Gb/s satellite downlink at millimeter-wave frequencies (United States)

    Ridgway, Richard W.; Nippa, David W.; Yen, Stephen; Barnum, Thomas J.


    System requirements, including carrier frequency, transmitted power and antenna gain are presented for a 10 Gb/s satellite downlink operating at millimeter-wave frequencies. Telecommunications-grade optical components and a high-speed photodiode are used to generate and modulate millimeter-wave carrier frequencies between 90 GHz and 100 GHz at data rates in excess of 10 Gb/s. Experimental results are presented that determine the minimum received power level needed for error-free wireless data transmission. Commercially available W-band power amplifiers are shown to increase the transmitted power level and extend the error-free propagation distance to distances of 10 km. Experimental results and documented atmospheric attenuation values for clouds, fog and rain are used to estimate link budgets for a wireless downlink located on a low-earth-orbiting satellite operating at an altitude of 350 km.

  17. Auroral displays near the 'foot' of the field line of the ATS-5 satellite (United States)

    Akasofu, S.-I.; Deforest, S.; Mcilwain, C.


    Summary of an extensive correlative study of ATS-5 particle and magnetic field data with all-sky photographs from Great Whale River which is near the 'foot' of the field lines passing through the ATS-5 satellite. In particular, an effort is made to identify specific particle features with specific auroral displays during substorms, such as a westward traveling surge, poleward expansive motion, and drifting patches. It is found that, in early evening hours, the first encounter of ATS-5 with hot plasma is associated with the equatorward shift of the diffuse aurora, but not necessarily with westward traveling surges (even when the satellite is embedded in the plasma sheet). In the midnight sector, an injection corresponds very well to the initial brightening of an auroral arc. Specific features of morning sector auroras are difficult to correlate with specific particle features.

  18. Proceedings of the Symposium of the COSPAR Satellite Beacon Group on the Geophysical Use of Satellite Beacon Observations Held at Boston University on 1- 4 June 1976 (United States)


    the value of To. and t at the previous step. mLiz0 m EUNO+ONN ISPEON.TR F IATMSPHRE -I, IEUATONS TOTOiO ZTO PLSMi,,o. ~~O Wi.. AND, ,~ MODELO N , N...sophisti- cated calculations. The main features AiplieFiore Componentar th() Modelo in Figure 8 are the following: (a) the XSlow FioreC o n initial rapid...satellite 695 I.- ’I1 I VG.K. Hartmann 1969 Explorer 22 (con’d)J. Atinos . Terr. Phys. 31, (cont’d)663-669 Y.V. Somayajula 1976 Satellite radio beacon Tuhi

  19. Applications Technology Satellite ATS-6 experiment checkout and continuing spacecraft evaluation report (United States)

    Moore, W.; Prensky, W. (Editor)


    The activities of the ATS-6 spacecraft are reviewed. The following subsystems and experiments are summarized: (1) radio beacon experiments; (2) spacecraft attitude precision pointing and slewing adaptive control experiment; (3) satellite instruction television experiment; (4) thermal control subsystem; (5) spacecraft propulsion subsystem; (6) telemetry and control subsystem; (7) millimeter wave experiment; and (8) communications subsystem. The results of performance evaluation of its subsystems and experiments are presented.

  20. Challenging Conventional Wisdom: Building an Adult-Centered Degree Completion Program at a Traditional University's Satellite Campus (United States)

    Parkinson Norton, Susan; Pickus, Keith


    This essay will discuss the creation of adult-learner degree programs at Wichita State University's satellite campuses with a particular focus on how such programs complement the mission of a traditional urban-serving research institution. It will assess the decision-making process that led to the transformation of satellite campuses into…

  1. Satellite-based monitoring of particulate matter pollution at very high resolution: the HOTBAR method (United States)

    Wilson, Robin; Milton, Edward; Nield, Joanna


    Particulate matter air pollution is a major health risk, and is responsible for millions of premature deaths each year. Concentrations tend to be highest in urban areas - particularly in the mega-cities of rapidly industrialising countries, where there are limited ground monitoring networks. Satellite-based monitoring has been used for many years to assess regional-scale trends in air quality, but currently available satellite products produce data at 1-10km resolution: too coarse to discern the small-scale patterns of sources and sinks seen in urban areas. Higher-resolution satellite products are required to provide accurate assessments of particulate matter concentrations in these areas, and to allow analysis of localised air quality effects on health. The Haze Optimized Transform-based Aerosol Retrieval (HOTBAR) method is a novel method which provides estimates of PM2.5 concentrations from high-resolution (approximately 30m) satellite imagery. This method is designed to work over a wide range of land covers and performs well over the complex land-cover mosaic found in urban areas. It requires only standard visible and near-infrared data, making it applicable to a range of data from sensors such as Landsat, SPOT and Sentinel-2. The method is based upon an extension of the Haze Optimized Transform (HOT), which was originally designed for assessing areas of thick haze in satellite imagery. This was done by calculating a 'haziness' value for each pixel in an image as the distance from a 'Clear Line' in feature space, defined by the high correlation between visible bands. Here, we adapt the HOT method and use it to estimate Aerosol Optical Thickness (a measure of the column-integrated haziness of the atmosphere) instead, from which PM2.5 concentrations can then be estimated. Significant extensions to the original HOT method include Monte Carlo estimation of the 'Clear Line', object-based correction for land cover, and estimation of AOT from the haziness values

  2. ATS-6 - A satellite for human needs. [Health, Education, Telecommunications Experiment (United States)

    Whalen, A. A.; Johnston, W. A., Jr.


    On May 30, 1974, NASA launched the ATS-6 experimental communications satellite into a geosynchronous orbit at a station centered over the United States. The 1400 kg satellite was designed to be body-stabilized with a 3-axis control system capable of precision offset pointing. It deployed a 9.1 meter (30 foot) parabolic reflector antenna with a transponder that covered a frequency range from VHF through C-band. The high RF gains obtained with the antenna were to be used for many dramatic communications experiments, one of which was the Health/Education Telecommunications Experiment (HET), a demonstration of direct broadcast of color television to low cost terminals in remote regions of the United States. More than 120 terminals with 3-meter antennas were deployed in Alaska, Washington, the Rocky Mountains, and Appalachia to provide educational and health services to selected community centers. After 11 months of nearly continuous service, the performance of both the satellite and the experiment have exceeded all expectations.

  3. Dawn Mission’s Search for satellites at Ceres: Upper limits on size of orbital objects (United States)

    McFadden, Lucy-Ann A.; Skillman, David R.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Carsenty, Uri; Schroeder, Stefan E.; Li, Jian-Yang Y.; Rayman, Marc D.


    Hundreds of asteroids have small secondary satellites or are double, or even multiple body systems; yet dwarf planet Ceres doesn’t and isn’t. Ground-based and space-based telescopic searches have placed upper limits on the size of any secondary bodies gravitationally bound to Ceres of 1-2 km (Gehrels et al 1987, Bieryla et al. 2011). The Dawn project’s satellite working group designed and conducted a search during approach to Ceres and during high orbit concentrating its search close to Ceres’ limb where previous searches could not reach. Over 2000 images for both science and optical navigation were searched. In addition, a dedicated satellite search was conducted during two commanded off-nadir pointings. The acquired images extend 5.5° x 5.5° on either side of Ceres, at a range of ~ 145,000 km and solar phase angle at Ceres of 18°. No moving objects associated with Ceres were detected. The search extended down to Ceres’ limb (previous searches went to 500 km above the limb) and extended the upper limit for the non-detection to 30 +/- 6 and 45 +/-9 meter radius for effective exposure times of 114s and 19s respectively. An additional small search was conducted using the spacecraft's star tracker from which no objects were found. The Dawn mission’s search reduced the previous detection limit from Hubble Space Telescope images by two orders of magnitude. Why some asteroids have satellites and others don’t is a matter for dynamical speculation.

  4. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  5. Indonesia coverage simulation of SAR satellite at near-equatorial orbit (United States)

    Septanto, Harry; Utama, Satriya; Heru Triharjanto, Robertus; Suhermanto


    Properties of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) that able to penetrate the cloud and does not depend on the sunlight are a number of advantages when utilized for monitoring tropical region like the IMC (Indonesian Maritime Continent). Moreover, since having areas along equatorial belt, the IMC is at a shortcoming from perspective of highly inclined LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite. It would result shorter and infrequent pass times when compared with a near-equatorial LEO satellite whose low inclination. This paper reports on the investigation of a near-equatorial LEO SAR satellite coverage property through simulations. The simulations is run in nine scenarios of orbit parameter that consist of combinations of attitude {500 km, 600 km, 700 km} and inclination {80, 90, 100}. The target area is defined as 50 km x 50 km around Jakarta. Meanwhile, the SAR sensor simulation is run with swath width of 40 km, incidence angle around 250-290 and Stripmap mode. Minimum, Maximum and Mean Access Revisit of the target for each scenarios are resulted.

  6. Using satellites to investigate the sensitivity of longwave downward radiation to water vapor at high elevations (United States)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Miller, James R.; Landry, Chris


    Many studies suggest that high-elevation regions may be among the most sensitive to future climate change. However, in situ observations in these often remote locations are too sparse to determine the feedbacks responsible for enhanced warming rates. One of these feedbacks is associated with the sensitivity of longwave downward radiation (LDR) to changes in water vapor, with the sensitivity being particularly large in many high-elevation regions where the average water vapor is often low. We show that satellite retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) can be used to expand the current ground-based observational database and that the monthly averaged clear-sky satellite estimates of humidity and LDR are in good agreement with the well-instrumented Center for Snow and Avalanche Studies ground-based site in the southwestern Colorado Rocky Mountains. The relationship between MODIS-retrieved precipitable water vapor and surface specific humidity across the contiguous United States was found to be similar to that previously found for the Alps. More important, we show that satellites capture the nonlinear relationship between LDR and water vapor and confirm that LDR is especially sensitive to changes in water vapor at high elevations in several midlatitude mountain ranges. Because the global population depends on adequate fresh water, much of which has its source in high mountains, it is critically important to understand how climate will change there. We demonstrate that satellites can be used to investigate these feedbacks in high-elevation regions where the coverage of surface-based observations is insufficient to do so.

  7. Saturn's icy satellites investigated by Cassini-VIMS. II. Results at the end of nominal mission (United States)

    Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Clark, R.N.; Cuzzi, J.N.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Nicholson, P.D.; McCord, T.B.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Tosi, F.; Nelson, R.M.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.


    We report the detailed analysis of the spectrophotometric properties of Saturn's icy satellites as derived by full-disk observations obtained by visual and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) experiment aboard Cassini. In this paper, we have extended the coverage until the end of the Cassini's nominal mission (June 1st 2008), while a previous paper (Filacchione, G., and 28 colleagues [2007]. Icarus 186, 259-290, hereby referred to as Paper I) reported the preliminary results of this study. During the four years of nominal mission, VIMS has observed the entire population of Saturn's icy satellites allowing us to make a comparative analysis of the VIS-NIR spectral properties of the major satellites (Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Hyperion, Iapetus) and irregular moons (Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, Epimetheus, Telesto, Calypso, Phoebe). The results we discuss here are derived from the entire dataset available at June 2008 which consists of 1417 full-disk observations acquired from a variety of distances and inclinations from the equatorial plane, with different phase angles and hemispheric coverage. The most important spectrophotometric indicators (as defined in Paper I: I/F continua at 0.55 ??m, 1.822 ??m and 3.547 ??m, visible spectral slopes, water and carbon dioxide bands depths and positions) are calculated for each observation in order to investigate the disk-integrated composition of the satellites, the distribution of water ice respect to "contaminants" abundances and typical regolith grain properties. These quantities vary from the almost pure water ice surfaces of Enceladus and Calypso to the organic and carbon dioxide rich Hyperion, Iapetus and Phoebe. Janus visible colors are intermediate between these two classes having a slightly positive spectral slope. These results could help to decipher the origins and evolutionary history of the minor moons of the Saturn's system. We introduce a polar representation of the spectrophotometric

  8. DVB-RCS return link radio resource management for broadband satellite systems using fade mitigation techniques at ka band



    Current Broadband Satellite systems supporting DVB-RCS at Ku band have static physical layer in order not to complicate their implementation. However at Ka band frequencies and above an adaptive physical layer wherein the physical layer parameters are dynamically modified on a per user basis is necessary to counteract atmospheric attenuation. Satellite Radio Resource Management (RRM) at the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer has become an important issue given the emphasis placed on Quality...

  9. GUI-Based Document Access via SATCOMMS: Online Electronic Document Retrieval at the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization EUTELSAT. (United States)

    Burton, Adrian P.


    Discusses accessing online electronic documents at the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (EUTELSAT). Highlights include off-site paper document storage, the document management system, benefits, the EUTELSAT Standard IBM Access software, implementation, the development process, and future enhancements. (AEF)

  10. Near-Real-Time, Global Radar Data at the Alaska Satellite Facility DAAC from NASA's SMAP Satellite (United States)

    Arko, S. A.; Allen, A. R.; Dixon, I. R.


    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is supporting NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) satellite mission, which launches in January 2015. SMAP will measure global soil moisture and its freeze-thaw state every 3 days using an L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and radiometer. ASF, along with the National Snow and Ice Data Center DAAC and NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS), is identifying and developing tools and technologies to facilitate use of global, near-real-time data by the SMAP user community. ASF will host the SMAP Level 1 radar data and make them available for download through ASF's data discovery interface, Vertex, and the ASF Application Programming Interface. Vertex allows a user to search, visualize and download SAR data, browse images and relevant metadata, and will offer the complete SMAP L1 radar archive to the public. The entire SMAP archive consisting of level 1-4 data can be accessed via Reverb, the NASA EOSDIS metadata and service discovery tool. In anticipation of the SMAP launch and data release, ASF has developed and released a new website ( and a suite of web resources, including interactive media, technical information, a product guide, related publications, and tools for working with the HDF5 data format. The ASF SMAP team is exploring OPeNDAP and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Webification technologies for enhancing in-browser data visualization and analysis. These technologies, and tools developed with them, represent opportunities for exposing this valuable dataset to areas with limited bandwidth or understanding of radar data. This presentation will highlight the enabling technologies and techniques ASF is employing to bring these data to new scientific and applications users and respond to ever-changing user needs.

  11. Fade measurements at L-band and UHF in mountainous terrain for land mobile satellite systems (United States)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius


    Fading results related to land mobile satellite communications at L-band (1502 MHz) and UHF (870 MHz) are described. These results were derived from an experiment performed in a series of canyon passes in the Boulder, Colorado region of the US. The experimental configuration involved a helicopter as the source platform, which maintained a relatively fixed geometry with a mobile van containing the receiver and data-acquisition system. An unobstructed line of sight between the radiating sources and the receiving van was, for the most part, also maintained. In this configuration, the dominant mechanism causing signal fading (or enhancement) is a result of multipath. The resulting fade distributions demonstrated that at the 1 percent and 5 percent levels, 5.5- and 2.6-dB fades were on the average exceeded at L-band and 4.8- and 2.4-dB at UHF, respectively, for a path elevation angle of 45 deg. The canyon results as compared with previous roadside-tree-shadowing results demonstrate that the deciding factor dictating fade margin for future land mobile satellite systems is tree shadowing rather than fades caused by multipath.

  12. Surveillance of waste disposal activity at sea using satellite ocean color imagers: GOCI and MODIS (United States)

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Yang, Dong Beom; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Yang, Sung Ryull; Chung, Hee Woon; Kim, Chang Joon; Kim, Young-Il; Chung, Chang Soo; Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Park, Young-Je; Moon, Jeong-Eon


    Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua observations of the variation in ocean color at the sea surface were utilized to monitor the impact of nutrient-rich sewage sludge disposal in the oligotrophic area of the Yellow Sea. MODIS revealed that algal blooms persisted in the spring annually at the dump site in the Yellow Sea since year 2000 to the present. A number of implications of using products of the satellite ocean color imagers were exploited here based on the measurements in the Yellow Sea. GOCI observes almost every hour during the daylight period, every day since June 2011. Therefore, GOCI provides a powerful tool to monitor waste disposal at sea in real time. Tracking of disposal activity from a large tanker was possible hour by hour from the GOCI timeseries images compared to MODIS. Smaller changes in the color of the ocean surface can be easily observed, as GOCI resolves images at smaller scales in space and time in comparison to polar orbiting satellites, e.g., MODIS. GOCI may be widely used to monitor various marine activities in the sea, including waste disposal activity from ships.

  13. Using Light-at-Night (LAN) Satellite Data for Identifying Clusters of Economic Activities in Europe (United States)

    Rybnikova, N. A.; Portnov, B. A.


    Enterprises organized in clusters are often efficient in stimulating urban development, productivity and profit outflows. Identifying clusters of economic activities (EAs) thus becomes an important step in devising regional development policies, aimed at facilitating regional economic development. However, a major problem with cluster identification stems from limited reporting of specific EAs by individual countries and administrative entities. Even Eurostat, which maintains most advances regional databases, provides data for less than 50% of all regional subdivisions of the 3rd tier of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS3). Such poor reporting impedes identification of EA clusters and economic forces behind them. In this study, we test a possibility that missing data on geographic concentrations of EAs can be reconstructed using Light-at-Night (LAN) satellite measurements, and that such reconstructed data can then be used for the identification of EA clusters. As we hypothesize, LAN, captured by satellite sensors, is characterized by different intensity, depending on its source - production facilities, services, etc., - and this information can be used for EA identification. The study was carried out in three stages. First, using nighttime satellite images, we determined what types of EAs can be identified, with a sufficient degree of accuracy, by LAN they emit. Second, we calculated multivariate statistical models, linking EAs concentrations with LAN intensities and several locational and development attributes of NUTS3 regions in Europe. Next, using the obtained statistical models, we restored missing data on EAs across NUTS3 regions in Europe and identified clusters of EAs, using spatial analysis tools.

  14. Determination of global Earth outgoing radiation at high temporal resolution using a theoretical constellation of satellites (United States)

    Gristey, Jake J.; Chiu, J. Christine; Gurney, Robert J.; Han, Shin-Chan; Morcrette, Cyril J.


    New, viable, and sustainable observation strategies from a constellation of satellites have attracted great attention across many scientific communities. Yet the potential for monitoring global Earth outgoing radiation using such a strategy has not been explored. To evaluate the potential of such a constellation concept and to investigate the configuration requirement for measuring radiation at a time resolution sufficient to resolve the diurnal cycle for weather and climate studies, we have developed a new recovery method and conducted a series of simulation experiments. Using idealized wide field-of-view broadband radiometers as an example, we find that a baseline constellation of 36 satellites can monitor global Earth outgoing radiation reliably to a spatial resolution of 1000 km at an hourly time scale. The error in recovered daily global mean irradiance is 0.16 W m-2 and -0.13 W m-2, and the estimated uncertainty in recovered hourly global mean irradiance from this day is 0.45 W m-2 and 0.15 W m-2, in the shortwave and longwave spectral regions, respectively. Sensitivity tests show that addressing instrument-related issues that lead to systematic measurement error remains of central importance to achieving similar accuracies in reality. The presented error statistics therefore likely represent the lower bounds of what could currently be achieved with the constellation approach, but this study demonstrates the promise of an unprecedented sampling capability for better observing the Earth's radiation budget.

  15. Appearance learning for 3D pose detection of a satellite at close-range (United States)

    Oumer, Nassir W.; Kriegel, Simon; Ali, Haider; Reinartz, Peter


    In this paper we present a learning-based 3D detection of a highly challenging specular object exposed to a direct sunlight at very close-range. An object detection is one of the most important areas of image processing, and can also be used for initialization of local visual tracking methods. While the object detection in 3D space is generally a difficult problem, it poses more difficulties when the object is specular and exposed to the direct sunlight as in a space environment. Our solution to a such problem relies on an appearance learning of a real satellite mock-up based on a vector quantization and the vocabulary tree. Our method, implemented on a standard computer (CPU), exploits a full perspective projection model and provides near real-time 3D pose detection of a satellite for close-range approach and manipulation. The time consuming part of the training (feature description, building the vocabulary tree and indexing, depth buffering and back-projection) are performed offline, while a fast image retrieval and 3D-2D registration are performed on-line. In contrast, the state of the art image-based 3D pose detection methods are slower on CPU or assume a weak perspective camera projection model. In our case the dimension of the satellite is larger than the distance to the camera, hence the assumption of the weak perspective model does not hold. To evaluate the proposed method, the appearance of a full scale mock-up of the rear part of the TerraSAR-X satellite is trained under various illumination and camera views. The training images are captured with a camera mounted on six degrees of freedom robot, which enables to position the camera in a desired view, sampled over a sphere. The views that are not within the workspace of the robot are interpolated using image-based rendering. Moreover, we generate ground truth poses to verify the accuracy of the detection algorithm. The achieved results are robust and accurate even under noise due to specular reflection

  16. Calculation of the SEP Flux at 1 au and Comparison with Multi-Satellite Observations (United States)

    Ya-bing, Wang; Yu-qing, Zheng; Bin, Gu; Liu-guan, Ding; Gui-ming, Le; Jian-yong, Lü


    The SEP (Solar Energetic Particles) flux at 1au is an important index of space weather. Based on the parameterized Green function of the two-step SEP transport equation, we have simulated the SEP event on 2012 September 28, and calculated for the first time the SEP flux profiles observed by the GOES and STEREO double satellites for the same event. At the positions of GOES and STEREO-A, the calculated SEP peak value Imax and the time to reach the peak value tmax are well consistent with the observations. However, at the position of STEREO-B, there is a certain difference between our calculation and the observation, due to a large angular distance between the observed position and the SEP source, as well as the effect of unknown solar activities on the backside of the Sun.

  17. Process Based Prediction of Flow Distribution at Ungauged Himalayan Catchments using Satellite Data (United States)

    Muller, M. F.; Thompson, S. E.


    In-line hydropower (IHP), whereby micro hydropower turbines are integrated in gravity fed rural water supply systems, is a promising yet underutilized infrastructure synergy in rural mountainous areas of developing countries. In Nepal, although institutional and economic considerations are critical, the available local hydropower potential - in particular the flow availability to drive turbines - is the key feasibility criterion. Yet flow projections in remote areas remain a significant challenge largely due to difficult access and data scarcity. We recently showed that satellite data could be successfully adjusted to generate parameters describing the frequency and intensity of daily rainfall. The flow predictions needed for hydropower siting relate primarily to a frequency domain description, specifically the fluw duration curves, which are closely controlled by these rainfall parameters. This project combines bias-corrected satellite rainfall parameters with remotely sensed stationary watershed data to predict the flow duration curves at ungauged Himalayan watersheds. In particular, we compare the performance of several approaches with different levels of process representation, applied to sparsely gauged, snow-fed and topographically complex catchments with highly seasonal rainfall.

  18. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N


    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  19. Electromagnetic structures at auroral latitudes from luterkosmos-bolgariya-1300 satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinin, E.M.; Bankov, N.; Izraelevich, P.L.; Nikolaeva, N.S.; Podgornyi, I.M.; Todorieva, L.


    Strong electromagnetic disturbances in the auroral region at altitudes of about 900 km, which were recorded by the Interkosmos-Bolgariya-1300 satellite, are analyzed. An attempt is undertaken to determine general regularities in their structures. A specific class of events in which the disturbances of the electric and magnetic fields have the same form are distinguished. The events are a result of the propagation of oblique Alfven waves with lambda /sub z/ about 3.10 /sub s/ km, lambda /sub x/ less than or equal to 10 km, and f about 1 Hz. The lack of an apparent correlation between the mutually perpendicular components of the electric and magnetic fields is due to a significant phase shift between the disturbances of the electric and magnetic fields, which indicates the interference of the waves incident and reflected at the ionosphere.

  20. Night sky brightness at sites from DMSP-OLS satellite measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Cinzano, P


    We apply the sky brightness modelling technique introduced and developed by Roy Garstang to high-resolution DMSP-OLS satellite measurements of upward artificial light flux and to GTOPO30 digital elevation data in order to predict the brightness distribution of the night sky at a given site in the primary astronomical photometric bands for a range of atmospheric aerosol contents. This method, based on global data and accounting for elevation, Earth curvature and mountain screening, allows the evaluation of sky glow conditions over the entire sky for any site in the World, to evaluate its evolution, to disentangle the contribution of individual sources in the surrounding territory, and to identify main contributing sources. Sky brightness, naked eye stellar visibility and telescope limiting magnitude are produced as 3-dimensional arrays whose axes are the position on the sky and the atmospheric clarity. We compared our results to available measurements.

  1. Satellite Altimetry-Based Sea Level at Global and Regional Scales (United States)

    Ablain, M.; Legeais, J. F.; Prandi, P.; Marcos, M.; Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Dieng, H. B.; Benveniste, J.; Cazenave, A.


    Since the beginning of the 1990s, sea level is routinely measured using high-precision satellite altimetry. Over the past 25 years, several groups worldwide involved in processing the satellite altimetry data regularly provide updates of sea level time series at global and regional scales. Here we present an ongoing effort supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative Programme for improving the altimetry-based sea level products. Two main objectives characterize this enterprise: (1) to make use of ESA missions (ERS-1 and 2 and Envisat) in addition to the so-called `reference' missions like TOPEX/Poseidon and the Jason series in the computation of the sea level time series, and (2) to improve all processing steps in order to meet the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) accuracy requirements defined for a set of 50 Essential Climate Variables, sea level being one of them. We show that improved geophysical corrections, dedicated processing algorithms, reduction of instrumental bias and drifts, and careful linkage between missions led to improved sea level products. Regarding the long-term trend, the new global mean sea level record accuracy now approaches the GCOS requirements (of 0.3 mm/year). Regional trend uncertainty has been reduced by a factor of 2, but orbital and wet tropospheric corrections errors still prevent fully reaching the GCOS accuracy requirement. Similarly at the interannual time scale, the global mean sea level still displays 2-4 mm errors that are not yet fully understood. The recent launch of new altimetry missions (Sentinel-3, Jason-3) and the inclusion of data from currently flying missions (e.g., CryoSat, SARAL/AltiKa) may provide further improvements to this important climate record.

  2. Modelling LAI at a regional scale with ISBA-A-gs: comparison with satellite-derived LAI over southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brut


    Full Text Available A CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France is used to simulate photosynthesis and Leaf Area Index (LAI in southwestern France for a 3-year period (2001–2003. A domain of about 170 000 km2 is covered at a spatial resolution of 8 km. The capability of ISBA-A-gs to reproduce the seasonal and the interannual variability of LAI at a regional scale, is assessed with satellite-derived LAI products. One originates from the CYCLOPES programme using SPOT/VEGETATION data, and two products are based on MODIS data. The comparison reveals discrepancies between the satellite LAI estimates and between satellite and simulated LAI values, both in their intensity and in the timing of the leaf onset. The model simulates higher LAI values for the C3 crops than the satellite observations, which may be due to a saturation effect within the satellite signal or to uncertainties in model parameters. The simulated leaf onset presents a significant delay for C3 crops and mountainous grasslands. In-situ observations at a mid-altitude grassland site show that the generic temperature response of photosynthesis used in the model is not appropriate for plants adapted to the cold climatic conditions of the mountainous areas. This study demonstrates the potential of LAI remote sensing products for identifying and locating models' shortcomings at a regional scale.

  3. Modelling LAI at a regional scale with ISBA-A-gs: comparison with satellite-derived LAI over southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brut


    Full Text Available A CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France is used to simulate photosynthesis and Leaf Area Index (LAI in southwestern France for a 3-year period (2001–2003. A domain of about 170 000 km2 is covered at a spatial resolution of 8 km. The capability of ISBA-A-gs to reproduce the seasonal and the inter-annual variability of LAI at a regional scale, is assessed with two satellite-derived LAI products. One originates from the CYCLOPES programme using SPOT/VEGETATION data, and the second is based on MODIS data. The comparison reveals discrepancies between the two satellite LAI estimates and between satellite and simulated LAI values, both in their intensity and in the timing of the leaf onset. The model simulates higher LAI values for the C3 crops and coniferous trees than the satellite observations, which may be due to a saturation effect within the satellite signal. The simulated leaf onset presents a significant delay for mountainous grasslands. In-situ observations at a mid-altitude grassland site show that the generic temperature response of photosynthesis used in the model is not appropriate for plants adapted to the cold climatic conditions of the mountainous areas. This study demonstrates the potential of LAI remote sensing products for identifying and locating models' shortcomings at a regional scale.

  4. Using very high resolution satellite images to identify coastal zone dynamics at North Western Black Sea (United States)

    Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Zoran, Maria


    The availability of updated information about the extension and characteristics of land cover is a crucial issue in the perspective of a correct landscape planning and management of marine coastal zones. Satellite remote sensing data can provide accurate information about land coverage at different scales and the recent availability of very high resolution images definitely improved the precision of coastal zone spatio-temporal changes. The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, and climatic change effects. Use of satellite images is of great help for coastal zone monitoring and environmental impact assessment. Synergetic use of in situ measurements with multisensors satellite data could provide a complex assessment of spatio-temporal changes. In this study was developed a method for extracting coastal zone features information as well as landcover dynamics from IKONOS, very high resolution images for North-Western Black Sea marine coastal zone. The main objective was obtaining reliable data about the spatio-temporal coastal zone changes in two study areas located in Constanta urban area and Danube Delta area. We used an object-oriented approach based on preliminary segmentation and classification of the resulting object. First of all, segmentation parameters were tested and selected comparing segmented polygons with

  5. A comparative study of spherical and flat-Earth geopotential modeling at satellite elevations (United States)

    Parrott, M. H.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.


    Flat-Earth modeling is a desirable alternative to the complex spherical-Earth modeling process. These methods were compared using 2 1/2 dimensional flat-earth and spherical modeling to compute gravity and scalar magnetic anomalies along profiles perpendicular to the strike of variably dimensioned rectangular prisms at altitudes of 150, 300, and 450 km. Comparison was achieved with percent error computations (spherical-flat/spherical) at critical anomaly points. At the peak gravity anomaly value, errors are less than + or - 5% for all prisms. At 1/2 and 1/10 of the peak, errors are generally less than 10% and 40% respectively, increasing to these values with longer and wider prisms at higher altitudes. For magnetics, the errors at critical anomaly points are less than -10% for all prisms, attaining these magnitudes with longer and wider prisms at higher altitudes. In general, in both gravity and magnetic modeling, errors increase greatly for prisms wider than 500 km, although gravity modeling is more sensitive than magnetic modeling to spherical-Earth effects. Preliminary modeling of both satellite gravity and magnetic anomalies using flat-Earth assumptions is justified considering the errors caused by uncertainties in isolating anomalies.

  6. The distribution of satellites around massive galaxies at 1 < z < 3 in ZFOURGE/CANDELS: Dependence on star formation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Papovich, Casey; Quadri, Ryan F.; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Mehrtens, Nicola [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Spitler, Lee R.; Cowley, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Glazebrook, Karl; Nanayakkara, Themiya [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Labbé, Ivo; Straatman, Caroline M. S. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Allen, Rebecca [Australian Astronomical Observatories, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Davé, Romeel [University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hartley, W. G. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Koo, David C. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lu, Yu, E-mail: [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); and others


    We study the statistical distribution of satellites around star-forming and quiescent central galaxies at 1 < z < 3 using imaging from the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey and the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. The deep near-IR data select satellites down to log (M/M {sub ☉}) > 9 at z < 3. The radial satellite distribution around centrals is consistent with a projected Navarro-Frenk-White profile. Massive quiescent centrals, log (M/M {sub ☉}) > 10.78, have ∼2 times the number of satellites compared to star-forming centrals with a significance of 2.7σ even after accounting for differences in the centrals' stellar-mass distributions. We find no statistical difference in the satellite distributions of intermediate-mass quiescent and star-forming centrals, 10.48 < log (M/M {sub ☉}) < 10.78. Compared to the Guo et al. semi-analytic model, the excess number of satellites indicates that quiescent centrals have halo masses 0.3 dex larger than star-forming centrals, even when the stellar-mass distributions are fixed. We use a simple toy model that relates halo mass and quenching, which roughly reproduces the observed quenched fractions and the differences in halo mass between star-forming and quenched galaxies only if galaxies have a quenching probability that increases with halo mass from ∼0 for log (M{sub h} /M {sub ☉}) ∼ 11 to ∼1 for log (M{sub h} /M {sub ☉}) ∼ 13.5. A single halo-mass quenching threshold is unable to reproduce the quiescent fraction and satellite distribution of centrals. Therefore, while halo quenching may be an important mechanism, it is unlikely to be the only factor driving quenching. It remains unclear why a high fraction of centrals remain star-forming even in relatively massive halos.

  7. Galaxy Evolution at High Redshift: Obscured Star Formation, GRB Rates, Cosmic Reionization, and Missing Satellites (United States)

    Lapi, A.; Mancuso, C.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L.


    We provide a holistic view of galaxy evolution at high redshifts z ≳ 4, which incorporates the constraints from various astrophysical/cosmological probes, including the estimate of the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density from UV/IR surveys and long gamma-ray burst (GRBs) rates, the cosmic reionization history following the latest Planck measurements, and the missing satellites issue. We achieve this goal in a model-independent way by exploiting the SFR functions derived by Mancuso et al. on the basis of an educated extrapolation of the latest UV/far-IR data from HST/Herschel, and already tested against a number of independent observables. Our SFR functions integrated down to a UV magnitude limit MUV ≲ ‑13 (or SFR limit around 10‑2 M⊙ yr‑1) produce a cosmic SFR density in excellent agreement with recent determinations from IR surveys and, taking into account a metallicity ceiling Z ≲ Z⊙/2, with the estimates from long GRB rates. They also yield a cosmic reionization history consistent with that implied by the recent measurements of the Planck mission of the electron scattering optical depth τes ≈ 0.058 remarkably, this result is obtained under a conceivable assumption regarding the average value fesc ≈ 0.1 of the escape fraction for ionizing photons. We demonstrate via the abundance-matching technique that the above constraints concurrently imply galaxy formation becoming inefficient within dark matter halos of mass below a few 108 M⊙ pleasingly, such a limit is also required so as not to run into the missing satellites issue. Finally, we predict a downturn of the Galaxy luminosity function faintward of MUV ≲ ‑12, and stress that its detailed shape, to be plausibly probed in the near future by the JWST, will be extremely informative on the astrophysics of galaxy formation in small halos, or even on the microscopic nature of the dark matter.

  8. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J


    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  9. FODA/IBEA satellite access scheme for MIXED traffic at variable bit and coding rates system description


    Celandroni, Nedo; Ferro, Erina; Mihal, Vlado; Potort?, Francesco


    This report describes the FODA system working at variable coding and bit rates (FODA/IBEA-TDMA) FODA/IBEA is the natural evolution of the FODA-TDMA satellite access scheme working at 2 Mbit/s fixed rate with data 1/2 coded or uncoded. FODA-TDMA was used in the European SATINE-II experiment [8]. We remind here that the term FODA/IBEA system is comprehensive of the FODA/IBEA-TDMA (1) satellite access scheme and of the hardware prototype realised by the Marconi R.C. (U.K.). Both of them come fro...

  10. Issues in Data Fusion for Satellite Aerosol Measurements for Applications with GIOVANNI System at NASA GES DISC (United States)

    Gopalan, Arun; Zubko, Viktor; Leptoukh, Gregory G.


    We look at issues, barriers and approaches for Data Fusion of satellite aerosol data as available from the GES DISC GIOVANNI Web Service. Daily Global Maps of AOT from a single satellite sensor alone contain gaps that arise due to various sources (sun glint regions, clouds, orbital swath gaps at low latitudes, bright underlying surfaces etc.). The goal is to develop a fast, accurate and efficient method to improve the spatial coverage of the Daily AOT data to facilitate comparisons with Global Models. Data Fusion may be supplemented by Optimal Interpolation (OI) as needed.

  11. Frigatebird behaviour at the ocean-atmosphere interface: integrating animal behaviour with multi-satellite data. (United States)

    De Monte, Silvia; Cotté, Cedric; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Lévy, Marina; Le Corre, Matthieu; Weimerskirch, Henri


    Marine top predators such as seabirds are useful indicators of the integrated response of the marine ecosystem to environmental variability at different scales. Large-scale physical gradients constrain seabird habitat. Birds however respond behaviourally to physical heterogeneity at much smaller scales. Here, we use, for the first time, three-dimensional GPS tracking of a seabird, the great frigatebird (Fregata minor), in the Mozambique Channel. These data, which provide at the same time high-resolution vertical and horizontal positions, allow us to relate the behaviour of frigatebirds to the physical environment at the (sub-)mesoscale (10-100 km, days-weeks). Behavioural patterns are classified based on the birds' vertical displacement (e.g. fast/slow ascents and descents), and are overlaid on maps of physical properties of the ocean-atmosphere interface, obtained by a nonlinear analysis of multi-satellite data. We find that frigatebirds modify their behaviours concurrently to transport and thermal fronts. Our results suggest that the birds' co-occurrence with these structures is a consequence of their search not only for food (preferentially searched over thermal fronts) but also for upward vertical wind. This is also supported by their relationship with mesoscale patterns of wind divergence. Our multi-disciplinary method can be applied to forthcoming high-resolution animal tracking data, and aims to provide a mechanistic understanding of animals' habitat choice and of marine ecosystem responses to environmental change.

  12. Satellite monitoring at high spatial resolution of water bodies used for irrigation purposes (United States)

    Baup, F.; Flanquart, S.; Marais-Sicre, C.; Fieuzal, R.


    In a changing climate context, with an increase of the need for food, it becomes increasingly important to improve our knowledge for monitoring agricultural surfaces by satellite for a better food management and to reduce the waste of natural resources (water storages and shortages, irrigation management, increase of soil and water salinity, soil erosion, threats on biodiversity). The main objective of this study is to evaluate the potentialities of multi-spectral and multi-resolution satellites for monitoring the temporal evolution of water bodies surfaces (mainly used for irrigation purposes). This analysis is based on the use of a series of images acquired between the years 2003 and 2011. The year 2010 is considered as a reference, with 110 acquisitions performed during the MCM'10 campaign (Multispectral Crop Monitoring 2010, Those images are provided by 8 satellites (optical, thermal and RADAR) such as ALOS, TERRASAR-X, RADARSAT-2, FORMOSAT-2, SPOT-2, SPOT-4, SPOT-5, LANDSAT-5. The studied area is situated in the South-West of Toulouse in France; in a region governed by a temperate climate. The irrigated cultures represent almost 12% of the cultivated surface in 2009. The method consists in estimating the water bodies surfaces by using a generic approach suitable for all images, whatever the wavelength (optical, infrared, RADAR). The supervised parallelepiped classification allows discriminating four types of surfaces coverage: forests, water expanses, crops and bare soils. All RADAR images are filtered (Gamma) to reduce speckle effects and false detections of water bodies. In the context if the "South-West" project of the CESBIO laboratory, two spatial coverages are analyzed: SPOT 4 (4800km2) and FORMOSAT 2 (576km2). At these scales, 154 and 38 water bodies are identify. They respectively represent 4.85 km2 (0.10% of the image cover) and 2.06 km2 (0.36% of the image cover). Statistical analyses show that 8% of lakes

  13. Satellite Imagery Measures of the Astronomically Aligned Megaliths at Nabta Playa (United States)

    Brophy, T. G.; Rosen, P. A.


    Astronomically aligned megalithic structures described in field reports (Wendorf, F. and Malville, J.M., The Megalith Alignments, pp.489-502 in Holocene Settlement of the Egyptian Sahara, Vol.I, 2001.) are identified in newly acquired georectified 60 cm panchromatic satellite imagery of Nabta Playa, southern Egypt. The satellite images allow refinement, often significant, of the reported locations of the megaliths. The report that the primary megalithic alignment was constructed to point to the bright star Sirius, circa 4,820 BC, is reconsidered in light of the satellite data, new field data, radiocarbon, lithostratigraphic and geochronologic data, and the playa sedimentation history. Other possible archaeoastronomical interpretations are considered for that alignment, including the three stars of Orion's Belt circa 6,270 BC that are also implicated in the small Nabta Playa `calendar circle'. Other new features apparent in the satellite imagery are also considered.

  14. Energetic electron enhancements below the radiation belt and X-ray contamination at low-orbiting satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Suvorova, Alla V; Huang, Chien-Ming


    The work concerns a problem of electron-induced contaminant at relatively low latitudes to high-energy astrophysical measurements on board the low-orbiting satellites. We show the results of a statistical analysis of the energetic electron enhancements in energy range 30-300 keV observed by a fleet of NOAA/POES low-orbiting satellites over the time period from 1999 to 2012. We demonstrate geographical distributions of great and moderate long-lasting enhancements caused by different type of the solar wind drivers.

  15. Hydrological Modelling using Satellite-Based Crop Coefficients: A Comparison of Methods at the Basin Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes E. Hunink


    Full Text Available The parameterization of crop coefficients (kc is critical for determining a water balance. We used satellite-based and literature-based methods to derive kc values for a distributed hydrologic model. We evaluated the impact of different kc parametrization methods on the water balance and simulated hydrologic response at the basin and sub-basin scale. The hydrological model SPHY was calibrated and validated for a period of 15 years for the upper Segura basin (~2500 km2 in Spain, which is characterized by a wide range of terrain, soil, and ecosystem conditions. The model was then applied, using six kc parameterization methods, to determine their spatial and temporal impacts on actual evapotranspiration, streamflow, and soil moisture. The parameterization methods used include: (i Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI observations from MODIS; (ii seasonally-averaged NDVI patterns, cell-based and landuse-based; and (iii literature-based tabular values per land use type. The analysis shows that the influence of different kc parametrization methods on basin-level streamflow is relatively small and constant throughout the year, but it has a bigger effect on seasonal evapotranspiration and soil moisture. In the autumn especially, deviations can go up to about 15% of monthly streamflow. At smaller, sub-basin scale, deviations from the NDVI-based reference run can be more than 30%. Overall, the study shows that modeling of future hydrological changes can be improved by using remote sensing information for the parameterization of crop coefficients.

  16. A. A. Michelson's Jovian Galilean-Satellite Interferometer at Lick Observatory in 1891 (United States)

    Osterbrock, D. E.


    Albert A. Michelson, America's first Nobel laureate in physics, measured the angular diameter of the red supergiant star Betelgeuse in 1920 with Francis G. Pease, using the 100-inch Mount Wilson reflector as the basis of his stellar interferometer. But he had first published the concept in 1890 and tested it on celestial objects with a telescope at Lick Observatory in 1891. He used its 12-inch refractor to measure the angular diameters of the four Galilean satellites of Jupiter, assisted at the telescope by W. W. Campbell, then a young astronomer who had just joined the Lick staff. Edward S. Holden, the Lick director, had invited Michelson to come to Mount Hamilton and use its telescopes as a guest observer. Michelson had first tried and proved his method on artificial circular disks in his laboratory at Clark University, Worcester, Mass., using a 2-inch "glass." Then in 1889 and 1890 he hoped to test it at Harvard College Observatory, but apparently the telescope or the atmospheric conditions did not work out. At Lick he did achieve success, and his measured angular diameters were nearer to the true values we know from close-up space measurements of today than those of any of the top visual observers of the time. Correspondence in the Lick Archives shows that Michelson intended to come back there to use its big 36-inch refractor to improve the measurements, but he never did so. Selections from Michelson's published papers and photographs of him, the telescope, and the instrument will be posted.

  17. Accuracy analysis of continuous deformation monitoring using BeiDou Navigation Satellite System at middle and high latitudes in China (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Xi, Ruijie; Chen, Hua; Xiao, Yugang


    As BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been operational in the whole Asia-Pacific region, it means a new GNSS system with a different satellite orbit structure will become available for deformation monitoring in the future. Conversely, GNSS deformation monitoring data are always processed with a regular interval to form displacement time series for deformation analysis, where the interval can neither be too long from the time perspective nor too short from the precision of determined displacements angle. In this paper, two experimental platforms were designed, with one being at mid-latitude and another at higher latitude in China. BDS data processing software was also developed for investigating the accuracy of continuous deformation monitoring using current in-orbit BDS satellites. Data over 20 days at both platforms were obtained and were processed every 2, 4 and 6 h to generate 3 displacement time series for comparison. The results show that with the current in-orbit BDS satellites, in the mid-latitude area it is easy to achieve accuracy of 1 mm in horizontal component and 2-3 mm in vertical component; the accuracy could be further improved to approximately 1 mm in both horizontal and vertical directions when combined BDS/GPS measurements are employed. At higher latitude, however, the results are not as good as expected due to poor satellite geometry, even the 6 h solutions could only achieve accuracy of 4-6 and 6-10 mm in horizontal and vertical components, respectively, which implies that it may not be applicable to very high-precision deformation monitoring at high latitude using the current BDS. With the integration of BDS and GPS observations, however, in 4-h session, the accuracy can achieve 2 mm in horizontal component and 4 mm in vertical component, which would be an optimal choice for high-accuracy structural deformation monitoring at high latitude.

  18. Larmor electric field observed at the Earth's magnetopause by Polar satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, D., E-mail:; Gonzalez, W. D.; Silveira, M. V. D. [National Institute for Space Research - INPE, São José dos Campos, São Paulo (Brazil); Mozer, F. S. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Cardoso, F. R. [School of Engineering - EEL, University of São Paulo, Lorena, São Paulo (Brazil)


    We present, for the first time, observational evidence of a kinetic electric field near the X-line associated with asymmetric reconnection at the Earth's dayside magnetopause using Polar observations. On March 29, 2003, Polar satellite detected an asymmetric collisionless reconnection event. This event shows a unipolar Hall electric field signature and a simple deviation from the guide field during the magnetopause crossing, with the absence of an ion plasma jet outflow indicating that the magnetopause crossing was near the X-line. As expected from particle-in-cell simulations by Malakit et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 135001 (2013)), an earthward pointing normal electric field appears in the magnetospheric side of the ion diffusion region. The electric field satisfies two necessary conditions for the existence of the finite ion Larmor radius effect: (1) the ion Larmor radius (r{sub g2}) is larger than the distance between the stagnation point and the edge of the ion diffusion region in the strong magnetic field side (δ{sub S2}) and (2) the spatial extent of the kinetic electric field (δ{sub EL}) is of the order of the ion Larmor radius. Furthermore, it is shown that the peak value of the Larmor electric field is comparable to the predicted value. The observation of the Larmor electric field can be valuable in other analyses to show that the crossing occurred near the X-line.

  19. Studying bio-thermal effects at and around MSW dumps using Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS. (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz


    Estimating negative impacts of MSW dumps on its surrounding environment is the key requirement for any remedial measures. This study has been undertaken to map bio-thermal effects of MSW dumping at and around dumping facilities (non-engineered) using satellite imagery for Faisalabad, Pakistan. Thirty images of Landsat 8 have been selected after validation for the accuracy of their observational details from April 2013 to October 2015. Land Surface Temperature (LST), NDVI, SAVI and MSAVI have been derived from these images through Digital Image Processing (DIP) and have been subjected to spatio-temporal analysis in GIS environment. MSW dump has been found with average temperature elevation of 4.3K and 2.78K from nearby agriculture land and urban settlement respectively. Vegetation health has been used as the bio-indicator of MSW effects and is implemented through NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI. Spatial analyses have been used to mark boundary of bio-thermally affected zone around dumped MSW and measure 700m. Seasonal fluctuations of elevated temperatures and boundary of the bio-thermally affected zones have also been discussed. Based on the direct relation found between vegetation vigor and the level of deterioration within the bio-thermally affected region, use of crops with heavy vigor is recommended to study MSW hazard influence using bio-indicators of vegetation health.

  20. Mapping of CO2 at High Spatiotemporal Resolution using Satellite Observations: Global distributions from OCO-2 (United States)

    Hammerling, Dorit M.; Michalak, Anna M.; Kawa, S. Randolph


    Satellite observations of CO2 offer new opportunities to improve our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Using such observations to infer global maps of atmospheric CO2 and their associated uncertainties can provide key information about the distribution and dynamic behavior of CO2, through comparison to atmospheric CO2 distributions predicted from biospheric, oceanic, or fossil fuel flux emissions estimates coupled with atmospheric transport models. Ideally, these maps should be at temporal resolutions that are short enough to represent and capture the synoptic dynamics of atmospheric CO2. This study presents a geostatistical method that accomplishes this goal. The method can extract information about the spatial covariance structure of the CO2 field from the available CO2 retrievals, yields full coverage (Level 3) maps at high spatial resolutions, and provides estimates of the uncertainties associated with these maps. The method does not require information about CO2 fluxes or atmospheric transport, such that the Level 3 maps are informed entirely by available retrievals. The approach is assessed by investigating its performance using synthetic OCO-2 data generated from the PCTM/ GEOS-4/CASA-GFED model, for time periods ranging from 1 to 16 days and a target spatial resolution of 1deg latitude x 1.25deg longitude. Results show that global CO2 fields from OCO-2 observations can be predicted well at surprisingly high temporal resolutions. Even one-day Level 3 maps reproduce the large-scale features of the atmospheric CO2 distribution, and yield realistic uncertainty bounds. Temporal resolutions of two to four days result in the best performance for a wide range of investigated scenarios, providing maps at an order of magnitude higher temporal resolution relative to the monthly or seasonal Level 3 maps typically reported in the literature.

  1. Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Reisinger

    Full Text Available Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1 the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2 the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3 the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4 the mid- (1 month and long- (24 month term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags. Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%, but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%. The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD. Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66% and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%. Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes

  2. Optical Algorithms at Satellite Wavelengths for Total Suspended Matter in Tropical Coastal Waters (United States)

    Ouillon, Sylvain; Douillet, Pascal; Petrenko, Anne; Neveux, Jacques; Dupouy, Cécile; Froidefond, Jean-Marie; Andréfouët, Serge; Muñoz-Caravaca, Alain


    Is it possible to derive accurately Total Suspended Matter concentration or its proxy, turbidity, from remote sensing data in tropical coastal lagoon waters? To investigate this question, hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance, turbidity and chlorophyll pigment concentration were measured in three coral reef lagoons. The three sites enabled us to get data over very diverse environments: oligotrophic and sediment-poor waters in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia, eutrophic waters in the Cienfuegos Bay (Cuba), and sediment-rich waters in the Laucala Bay (Fiji). In this paper, optical algorithms for turbidity are presented per site based on 113 stations in New Caledonia, 24 stations in Cuba and 56 stations in Fiji. Empirical algorithms are tested at satellite wavebands useful to coastal applications. Global algorithms are also derived for the merged data set (193 stations). The performances of global and local regression algorithms are compared. The best one-band algorithms on all the measurements are obtained at 681 nm using either a polynomial or a power model. The best two-band algorithms are obtained with R412/R620, R443/R670 and R510/R681. Two three-band algorithms based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412 and Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs510 also give fair regression statistics. Finally, we propose a global algorithm based on one or three bands: turbidity is first calculated from Rrs681 and then, if turbidity range and for the three sites sampled (mean bias: 3.6 %, rms: 35%, mean quadratic error: 1.4 FTU). This shows that defining global empirical turbidity algorithms in tropical coastal waters is at reach. PMID:27879929

  3. Obesity-induced sperm DNA methylation changes at satellite repeats are reprogrammed in rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A Youngson


    Full Text Available There is now strong evidence that the paternal contribution to offspring phenotype at fertilisation is more than just DNA. However, the identity and mechanisms of this nongenetic inheritance are poorly understood. One of the more important questions in this research area is: do changes in sperm DNA methylation have phenotypic consequences for offspring? We have previously reported that offspring of obese male rats have altered glucose metabolism compared with controls and that this effect was inherited through nongenetic means. Here, we describe investigations into sperm DNA methylation in a new cohort using the same protocol. Male rats on a high-fat diet were 30% heavier than control-fed males at the time of mating (16-19 weeks old, n = 14/14. A small (0.25% increase in total 5-methyl-2Ͳ-deoxycytidine was detected in obese rat spermatozoa by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Examination of the repetitive fraction of the genome with methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-Seq and pyrosequencing revealed that retrotransposon DNA methylation states in spermatozoa were not affected by obesity, but methylation at satellite repeats throughout the genome was increased. However, examination of muscle, liver, and spermatozoa from male 27-week-old offspring from obese and control fathers (both groups from n = 8 fathers revealed that normal DNA methylation levels were restored during offspring development. Furthermore, no changes were found in three genomic imprints in obese rat spermatozoa. Our findings have implications for transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming. They suggest that postfertilization mechanisms exist for normalising some environmentally-induced DNA methylation changes in sperm cells.

  4. Optical Algorithms at Satellite Wavelengths for Total Suspended Matter in Tropical Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Muñoz-Caravaca


    Full Text Available Is it possible to derive accurately Total Suspended Matter concentration or its proxy, turbidity, from remote sensing data in tropical coastal lagoon waters? To investigate this question, hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance, turbidity and chlorophyll pigment concentration were measured in three coral reef lagoons. The three sites enabled us to get data over very diverse environments: oligotrophic and sediment-poor waters in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia, eutrophic waters in the Cienfuegos Bay (Cuba, and sediment-rich waters in the Laucala Bay (Fiji. In this paper, optical algorithms for turbidity are presented per site based on 113 stations in New Caledonia, 24 stations in Cuba and 56 stations in Fiji. Empirical algorithms are tested at satellite wavebands useful to coastal applications. Global algorithms are also derived for the merged data set (193 stations. The performances of global and local regression algorithms are compared. The best one-band algorithms on all the measurements are obtained at 681 nm using either a polynomial or a power model. The best two-band algorithms are obtained with R412/R620, R443/R670 and R510/R681. Two three-band algorithms based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412 and Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs510 also give fair regression statistics. Finally, we propose a global algorithm based on one or three bands: turbidity is first calculated from Rrs681 and then, if < 1 FTU, it is recalculated using an algorithm based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412. On our data set, this algorithm is suitable for the 0.2-25 FTU turbidity range and for the three sites sampled (mean bias: 3.6 %, rms: 35%, mean quadratic error: 1.4 FTU. This shows that defining global empirical turbidity algorithms in tropical coastal waters is at reach.

  5. Correlation Between the "seeing FWHM" of Satellite Optical Observations and Meteorological Data at the OWL-Net Station, Mongolia (United States)

    Bae, Young-Ho; Jo, Jung Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Young-Sik; Park, Sun-Youp; Moon, Hong Kyu; Choi, Young-Jun; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Roh, Dong-Goo; Choi, Jin; Park, Maru; Cho, Sungki; Kim, Myung-Jin; Choi, Eun-Jung; Park, Jang-Hyun


    The correlation between meteorological data collected at the optical wide-field patrol network (OWL-Net) Station No. 1 and the seeing of satellite optical observation data was analyzed. Meteorological data and satellite optical observation data from June 2014 to November 2015 were analyzed. The analyzed meteorological data were the outdoor air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and cloud index data, and the analyzed satellite optical observation data were the seeing full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) data. The annual meteorological pattern for Mongolia was analyzed by collecting meteorological data over four seasons, with data collection beginning after the installation and initial set-up of the OWL-Net Station No. 1 in Mongolia. A comparison of the meteorological data and the seeing of the satellite optical observation data showed that the seeing degrades as the wind strength increases and as the cloud cover decreases. This finding is explained by the bias effect, which is caused by the fact that the number of images taken on the less cloudy days was relatively small. The seeing FWHM showed no clear correlation with either temperature or relative humidity.

  6. The microwave noise environment at a geostationary satellite caused by the brightness of the earth (United States)

    Smith, E. K.; Njoku, E. G.


    The microwave antenna temperature due to the earth in the satellite antenna beam has been computed for a series of longitudes for a satellite in geostationary orbit and for frequencies of 1 to 50 GHz. An earth-coverage beam is assumed for simplicity, but the technique is applicable to arbitrary beam shapes. Detailed calculations have been performed to account for varying land-ocean fractions within the field of view. Emission characteristics of the earth's atmosphere and surface are used with an accurate radiation transfer program to compute observed brightness temperatures. The value of 290 K commonly used for antenna temperature in satellite communication noise calculations is overly conservative, with more realistic values lying in the 60 to 240 K range.

  7. Covariance Between Arctic Sea Ice and Clouds Within Atmospheric State Regimes at the Satellite Footprint Level (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C.; Kato, Seiji; Xu, Kuan-Man; Cai, Ming


    Understanding the cloud response to sea ice change is necessary for modeling Arctic climate. Previous work has primarily addressed this problem from the interannual variability perspective. This paper provides a refined perspective of sea ice-cloud relationship in the Arctic using a satellite footprint-level quantification of the covariance between sea ice and Arctic low cloud properties from NASA A-Train active remote sensing data. The covariances between Arctic low cloud properties and sea ice concentration are quantified by first partitioning each footprint into four atmospheric regimes defined using thresholds of lower tropospheric stability and mid-tropospheric vertical velocity. Significant regional variability in the cloud properties is found within the atmospheric regimes indicating that the regimes do not completely account for the influence of meteorology. Regional anomalies are used to account for the remaining meteorological influence on clouds. After accounting for meteorological regime and regional influences, a statistically significant but weak covariance between cloud properties and sea ice is found in each season for at least one atmospheric regime. Smaller average cloud fraction and liquid water are found within footprints with more sea ice. The largest-magnitude cloud-sea ice covariance occurs between 500m and 1.2 km when the lower tropospheric stability is between 16 and 24 K. The covariance between low cloud properties and sea ice is found to be largest in fall and is accompanied by significant changes in boundary layer temperature structure where larger average near-surface static stability is found at larger sea ice concentrations.

  8. Overview of Cassini radio science at Saturn, Titan, and the icy satellites (United States)

    Kliore, A. J.; Ambrosini, R.; Armstrong, J. W.; Flasar, F. M.; French, R. G.; Iess, L.; Marouf, E. A..; Nagy, A. F.; Rappaport, N. J.; Tortora, P.; Jpl/Dsn Radio Science Support Team

    The Cassini spacecraft which has been in orbit about Saturn for over two years is the first Radio Science platform to provide three downlink frequencies In addition to the X-band telemetry link 3 56 cm w l two other frequencies S-band 13 04 cm and Ka-band 0 94 cm are available This plus the high SNR 50 dBHz at X-band afforded by the 4 m diameter s c high gain antenna in combination with the excellent low noise receivers of the DSN as well as overall system stabilities of 1 part in 10 13 when referenced to the on-board ultra-stable oscillator USO in one-way operation and 1 part inx 10 15 for a two-way link make Cassini an unprecedented instrument of radio science The orbital tour phase of the mission has the following main radio science objectives a determination of the masses and gravity fields of Saturn s icy satellites Titan and Saturn through two-way tracking during fly-bys To date the masses of Phoebe Iapetus Dione Enceladus Rhea and Titan have been measured and will be reported here b Measurement of the structure and other properties of Saturn s rings through three-band occultation Seven near-diametric occultations at a high ring opening angle have been completed and the results will be presented here c Measurement of the vertical structure of the atmosphere and ionosphere of Saturn The same series of occultations have provided nearly equatorial observations of the atmosphere structure and the ionosphere and the results will be described here d Measurement of the vertical structure of

  9. A satellite view of the direct effect of aerosols on solar radiation at global scale (United States)

    Hatzianastassiou, Nikolaos; Papadimas, Christos D.; Matsoukas, Christos; Fotiadi, Aggeliki; Benas, Nikolaos; Vardavas, Ilias


    006 (C006) MODIS-Aqua monthly dataset and covers world desert areas that were not covered previously. The missing aerosol information is completed by the Global Aerosol Data Set (GADS). The RTM required input data are supplemented by other than aerosol data in which cloud optical data are key ones. For this information, namely cloud optical depth, as well as for other cloud properties like cloud cover we rely on the well established International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) dataset, which ensures information for different cloud types, low, middle and high, all over the globe. The RTM runs under aerosol present and absent conditions enable the computation of aerosol DREs at the Earth's surface, as well as at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and within the atmosphere. The spatial and temporal coverage and resolution of the study is constrained by the availability of all model input data, and the DREs are obtained on a monthly mean basis and at 2.5 by 2.5 degrees latitude-longitude resolution for the period 2000-2009. The DRE spatial and temporal, seasonal and inter-annual, variation is examined over the globe, with emphasis on specific world regions of aerosol interest, like deserts or areas of anthropogenic or biomass burning activity. The contribution of aerosols to the regional and global solar radiation budget and its spatio-temporal distribution and associated tendencies are also assessed.

  10. Lithospheric bending at subduction zones based on depth soundings and satellite gravity (United States)

    Levitt, Daniel A.; Sandwell, David T.


    A global study of trench flexure was performed by simultaneously modeling 117 bathymetric profiles (original depth soundings) and satellite-derived gravity profiles. A thin, elastic plate flexure model was fit to each bathymetry/gravity profile by minimization of the L(sub 1) norm. The six model parameters were regional depth, regional gravity, trench axis location, flexural wavelength, flexural amplitude, and lithospheric density. A regional tilt parameter was not required after correcting for age-related trend using a new high-resolution age map. Estimates of the density parameter confirm that most outer rises are uncompensated. We find that flexural wavelength is not an accurate estimate of plate thickness because of the high curvatures observed at a majority of trenches. As in previous studies, we find that the gravity data favor a longer-wavelength flexure than the bathymetry data. A joint topography-gravity modeling scheme and fit criteria are used to limit acceptable parameter values to models for which topography and gravity yield consistent results. Even after the elastic thicknesses are converted to mechanical thicknesses using the yield strength envelope model, residual scatter obscures the systematic increase of mechanical thickness with age; perhaps this reflects the combination of uncertainties inherent in estimating flexural wavelength, such as extreme inelastic bending and accumulated thermoelastic stress. The bending moment needed to support the trench and outer rise topography increases by a factor of 10 as lithospheric age increases from 20 to 150 Ma; this reflects the increase in saturation bending moment that the lithosphere can maintain. Using a stiff, dry-olivine rheology, we find that the lithosphere of the GDH1 thermal model (Stein and Stein, 1992) is too hot and thin to maintain the observed bending moments. Moreover, the regional depth seaward of the oldest trenches (approximately 150 Ma) exceeds the GDH1 model depths by about 400 m.

  11. River discharge estimation at daily resolution from satellite altimetry over an entire river basin (United States)

    Tourian, M. J.; Schwatke, C.; Sneeuw, N.


    One of the main challenges of hydrological modeling is the poor spatiotemporal coverage of in situ discharge databases which have steadily been declining over the past few decades. It has been demonstrated that water heights over rivers from satellite altimetry can sensibly be used to deal with the growing lack of in situ discharge data. However, the altimetric discharge is often estimated from a single virtual station suffering from coarse temporal resolution, sometimes with data outages, poor modeling and inconsistent sampling. In this study, we propose a method to estimate daily river discharge using altimetric time series of an entire river basin including its tributaries. Here, we implement a linear dynamic model to (1) provide a scheme for data assimilation of multiple altimetric discharge along a river; (2) estimate daily discharge; (3) deal with data outages, and (4) smooth the estimated discharge. The model consists of a stochastic process model that benefits from the cyclostationary behavior of discharge. Our process model comprises the covariance and cross-covariance information of river discharge at different gauges. Combined with altimetric discharge time series, we solve the linear dynamic system using the Kalman filter and smoother providing unbiased discharge with minimum variance. We evaluate our method over the Niger basin, where we generate altimetric discharge using water level time series derived from missions ENVISAT, SARAL/AltiKa, and Jason-2. Validation against in situ discharge shows that our method provides daily river discharge with an average correlation of 0.95, relative RMS error of 12%, relative bias of 10% and NSE coefficient of 0.7. Using a modified NSE-metric, that assesses the non-cyclostationary behavior, we show that our estimated discharge outperforms available legacy mean daily discharge.

  12. Gravitational detection of a low-mass dark satellite galaxy at cosmological distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegetti, S.; Lagattuta, D. J.; McKean, J. P.; Auger, M. W.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.


    The mass function of dwarf satellite galaxies that are observed around Local Group galaxies differs substantially from simulations based on cold dark matter: the simulations predict many more dwarf galaxies than are seen. The Local Group, however, may be anomalous in this regard. A massive dark sate

  13. Gravitational detection of a low-mass dark satellite galaxy at cosmological distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegetti, S.; Lagattuta, D. J.; McKean, J. P.; Auger, M. W.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.


    The mass function of dwarf satellite galaxies that are observed around Local Group galaxies differs substantially from simulations(1-5) based on cold dark matter: the simulations predict many more dwarf galaxies than are seen. The Local Group, however, may be anomalous in this regard(6,7). A massive

  14. Perspectives &advanced projects for small satellite missions at Carlo Gavazzi Space (United States)

    Morea, G.; Sabatini, P.


    This paper presents the Planned and on-going programs in Carlo Gavazzi Space (CGS) for the next five years. Thanks to the success of the first MITA platform mission, CGS has acquired a consolidated experience in Satellite System Design and of Prime Contractor in Satellite programmes. After four years from launch of first MITA platform from Plesetsk (CSI) several mission concept and satellite program have started and are under developing. The common elements to these program is the low mission cost and short development plan. The first ASI Scientific Small Mission using the MITA platform, AGILE is a Gamma Ray detector aimed to identify Gamma Ray Bursts. The Payload has been developed with the contribution of a large group of Italian Research Centres and Institutes, Carlo Gavazzi Space is also responsible for the overall mission as leader of an Italian Consortium. In the frame of ASI's Earth Observation Programmes, Carlo Gavazzi Space has also successfully concluded the Phase B/C of the HypSEO (HyperSpectral Earth Observer) mission. The Desertsat satellite, devoted to the study of the sand dunes movements and to the assessment of the desertification process, is a joint collaboration with ASI and Egypt. Desertsat is equipped with an Multispectral imager. PALAMEDE, whose peculiar characteristics are two: the first is to use components and technologies not space qualified and therefore by far cheaper than those normally used for space systems, the second is that it is entirely realised by the students of Politecnico.

  15. Satellite Imagery Measures of the Astronomically Aligned Megalithis at Nabta Playa. (United States)

    Brophy, T.; Rosen, P.

    The Nabta Playa megalithic complex consists of two types of features: first are the large stones, many of them shaped, placed on or in the sediments of an ancient seasonal lake bed that is now hyper-ariad, second are large sculpted bedrocks features underneath the sediments and associated with the surface megaliths (Wendorf et al. 1992). The astronomically aligned surface megalithic structures described in field reports (Wendorf and Malville, 2001) are identified in recent georectified 60cm panchromatic satellite imagery of Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt. The satellite images allow refinement, often significant of the reported locations of the megaliths (Malville et al 1998, and Wendorf and Malville 2001). The report that a primary megalithic alignment was constructed to point to the bright star Sirius, circa 4820BC, is reconsidered in light of the satellite data, new field, data, radiocarbon, lithostratigraphic and geochronological data, and the playa sedimentation history. Other possible archaeoastronomical interpretations are considered for that alignment, including the three star asterism (of Alnitak, Alniham and Mintaka) circa 6270BC that is also implicated in the small Nebta Playa "calendar circle". Signatures of other possible features apparent in the satellite imagery and a recent field study are also considered. Only a small number of the subsurface bedrock sculptures have been excavated. We recommend the use of ground penetrating imaging methods to illuminate the known but not yet excavated subsurface features. The problem of determining the astronomical intent of the builders of the megalithic structures is approached by considering the complex of features as a whole.

  16. Applications technology satellite F&G /ATS F&G/ mobile terminal. (United States)

    Greenbaum, L. A.; Baker, J. L.


    The mobile terminal is a flexible, easily transportable system. The terminal design incorporates a combination of unique and proven hardware to provide maximum utility consistent with reliability. The flexibility built into the system will make it possible to satisfy the requirements of the applications technology satellite program concerned with the conduction of various spacecraft technology experiments. The terminal includes two parabolic antennas.

  17. Antarctic outlet glacier mass change resolved at basin scale from satellite gravity gradiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, J.; Fuchs, M.; Ivins, E.; Van der Wal, W.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Visser, P.N.A.M.; Horwath, M.


    The orbit and instrumental measurement of the Gravity Field and Steady State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission offer the highest ever resolution capabilities for mapping Earth's gravity field from space. However, past analysis predicted that GOCE would not detect changes in ice she

  18. High-kinetic-energy photoemission spectroscopy of Ni at 1s : 6-eV satellite at 4 eV (United States)

    Karis, O.; Svensson, S.; Rusz, J.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Gorgoi, M.; Schäfers, F.; Braun, W.; Eberhardt, W.; Mårtensson, N.


    Electron correlations are responsible for many profound phenomena in solid-state physics. A classical example is the 6-eV satellite in the photoelectron spectrum of Ni. Until now the satellite structure has only been investigated at the L shell and more shallow levels. Here we report a high-kinetic-energy photoemission spectroscopy (HIKE) investigation of Ni metal. We present 1s and 2p photoelectron spectra, obtained using excitation energies up to 12.6 keV. Our investigation demonstrates that the energy position of the satellite relative to the main line is different for the 1s and the 2p levels. In combination with electronic structure calculations, we show that this energy shift is attributed to unique differences in the core-valence coupling for the K and L2,3 shells in 3d transition metals, resulting in different screening of the core holes.

  19. The Canadian Arctic ACE/OSIRIS Validation Project at PEARL: Validating Satellite Observations Over the High Arctic (United States)

    Walker, Kaley A.; Strong, Kimberly; Fogal, Pierre F.; Drummond, James R.


    Ground-based measurements provide critical data for the validation of satellite retrievals of atmospheric trace gases and for the assessment of long-term stability of these measurements. As of February 2016, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission has been making measurements of the Earth's atmosphere for nearly twelve years and Canada's Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite has been operating for fourteen years. As ACE and OSIRIS operations have extended beyond their planned two-year missions, there is an ongoing need to validate the trace gas data profiles from the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) and OSIRIS. In particular, validation comparisons are needed during Arctic springtime to understand better the measurements of species involved in stratospheric ozone chemistry. To this end, thirteen Canadian Arctic ACE/OSIRIS Validation Campaigns have been conducted during the spring period (February - April in 2004 - 2016) at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80N, 86W). For the past decade, these campaigns have been undertaken in collaboration with the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). The spring period coincides with the most chemically active time of year in the Arctic, as well as a significant number of satellite overpasses. A suite of as many as 12 ground-based instruments, as well as frequent balloon-borne ozonesonde and radiosonde launches, have been used in each campaign. These instruments include: a ground-based version of the ACE-FTS (PARIS - Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer), a terrestrial version of the ACE-MAESTRO, a SunPhotoSpectrometer, two CANDAC zenith-viewing UV-visible grating spectrometers, a Bomem DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer

  20. Developments in Nano-Satellite Structural Subsystem Design at NASA-GSFC (United States)

    Rossoni, Peter; Panetta, Peter V.


    The NASA-GSFC Nano-satellite Technology Development Program will enable flying constellations of tens to hundreds of nano-satellites for future NASA Space and Earth Science missions. Advanced technology components must be developed to make these future spacecraft compact, lightweight, low-power, low-cost, and survivable to a radiation environment over a two-year mission lifetime. This paper describes the efforts underway to develop lightweight, low cost, and multi-functional structures, serviceable designs, and robust mechanisms. As designs shrink, the integration of various subsystems becomes a vital necessity. This paper also addresses structurally integrated electrical power, attitude control, and thermal systems. These innovations bring associated fabrication, integration, and test challenges. Candidate structural materials and processes are examined and the merits of each are discussed. Design and fabrication processes include flat stock composite construction, cast aluminum-beryllium alloy, and an injection molded fiber-reinforced plastic. A viable constellation deployment scenario is described as well as a Phase-A Nano-satellite Pathfinder study.

  1. Lightning-Generated Whistler Waves Observed by Probes On The Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System Satellite at Low Latitudes (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Pfaff, R. F.; Jacobson, A. R.; Willcockson, W. L.; Rowland, D. E.


    Direct evidence is presented for a causal relationship between lightning and strong electric field transients inside equatorial ionospheric density depletions. In fact, these whistler mode plasma waves may be the dominant electric field signal within such depletions. Optical lightning data from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite and global lightning location information from the World Wide Lightning Location Network are presented as independent verification that these electric field transients are caused by lightning. The electric field instrument on C/NOFS routinely measures lightning ]related electric field wave packets or sferics, associated with simultaneous measurements of optical flashes at all altitudes encountered by the satellite (401.867 km). Lightning ]generated whistler waves have abundant access to the topside ionosphere, even close to the magnetic equator.

  2. Precipitation Analysis at Fine Time Scales Using Multiple Satellites: Real-time and Research Products and Applications (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Curtis, Scott; Pierce, Harold


    Quasi-global precipitation analyses at fine time scales (3-hr) are described. TRMM observations (radar and passive microwave) are used to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I (and other satellites instruments, including AMSR and AMSU) and geosynchronous IR observations. The individual data sets are then merged using a priority order based on quality to form the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA). Raingauge information is used to help constrain the satellite-based estimates over land. The TRMM standard research product (Version 6 3B-42 of the TRMM products) will be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998-present) in 2004. The real-time version of this merged product has been produced over the past two years and is available on the U.S. TRMM web site ( at 0.25" latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 5O"N-5O0S. Validation of daily totals indicates good results, with limitations noted in mid-latitude winter over land and regions of shallow, orographic precipitation. Various applications of these estimates are described, including: 1) detecting potential floods in near real-time; 2) analyzing Indian Ocean precipitation variations related to the initiation of El Nino; 3) determining characteristics of the African monsoon; and 4) analysis of diurnal variations.

  3. Precipitation Analysis at Fine Time Scales using TRMM and Other Satellites: Real-time and Research Products and Applications (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Curtis, Scott; Pierce, Harold; Gu, Guo-Jon


    Quasi-global precipitation analyses at fine time scales (3-hr) are described. TRMM observations (radar and passive microwave) are used to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I (and other satellites instruments, including AMSR and AMSU) and geosynchronous IR observations. The individual data sets are then merged using a priority order based on quality to form the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA). Raingauge information is used to help constrain the satellite-based estimates over land. The TRMM standard research product (Version 6 3B-42 of the TRMM products) will be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998-present) by the end of 2004. The real-time version of this merged product has been produced over the past two years and is available on the U.S. TRMM web site ( at 0.25" latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 5O0N-50"S. Validation of daily totals indicates good results, with limitations noted in mid-latitude winter over land and regions of shallow, orographic precipitation. Various applications of these estimates are described, includmg: 1) detecting potential floods in near real-time; 2) analyzing Indian Ocean precipitation variations related to the initiation of El Nino; 3) determining characteristics of the African monsoon; and 4) analysis of diurnal variations.

  4. Icy satellites of Saturn: disk-integrated observations of the brightness opposition surge at low phase angles (United States)

    Kulyk, I.; Jockers, K.


    The surfaces of most atmosphereless bodies exhibit two interesting optical phenomena at small phase angles, namely a strong brightness increase and negative values of the degree of linear polarization. Of particular interest is the appearance a nonlinear growth of the surface brightness and a second narrow minimum of polarization at phase angles less than 1-3°. These features of brightness and polarization in the narrow phase angle range near opposition are called the photometric and polarimetric opposition effects. These phenomena have attracted increased attention from the perspective of theories of light scattering in random media and their application to the determination of properties of the upper optically active regolith layers on the atmosphereless bodies. However, up to now photometric and especially polarimetric observations conducted at small phase angles are rare. In order to enlarge the amount of available observational data we have conducted photopolarimetric observations of the major icy Saturnian satellites. The observations were performed at the 2m-telescope of the Bulgarian National Observatory with the Two-Channel Focal Reducer of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences built at the Max-Planck-Institute for Solar System Science. This instrument incorporates a two-channel imaging polarimeter which can be used in coronagraph setup. The light of Saturn and its rings is almost fully absorbed by a black glass and its diffraction pattern is eliminated by a Lyot stop. The photopolarimeter records intensity and degree of polarization of the satellites in two colors simultaneously. In this study, we present the first results of the disk-integrated photometry of Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Rhea in the red (center wavelength 694 nm, FWHM 79 nm) and near-infrared (center wavelength 888.5 nm, FWHM 29 nm, methane absorption band) spectral bands at phase angles between 5.6° and 0.01°. The resulting magnitudes can be represented as a sum of two terms, one

  5. Coherence and phase structure of compressional ULF waves at low-Earth-orbit observed by the Swarm satellites (United States)

    Heilig, Balázs; Sutcliffe, Peter R.


    Different types of ultra low frequency (ULF waves), such as dayside compressional Pc3-Pc4 waves, Pc2 and Pc1 waves, Pc3-Pc4 field line resonances, night side and day side Pi2s, etc. have been successfully identified in the topside ionosphere. ULF observations in this region can help us to understand the wave structure in the magnetosphere, wave propagation, and also the effects of the ionosphere (transmission, reflection, mode conversion). Because of the fast orbiting of the LEO satellites Fourier analysis is not applicable, special techniques (wavelet analysis, maximum entropy method) are needed to resolve ULF signals, as well as to discriminate between spatial and wave structures. In this paper we present results of a study of Pc3 compressional waves observed at low-Earth-orbit (LEO) by the Swarm satellites. The particular emphasis has been to investigate the distribution of wave coherence and phase difference as functions of magnetic latitude and local time. This is the first time that a study of this nature has been carried out using magnetic field data from multiple LEO satellites. We believe that our study provides the first observational evidence to support the prediction by the inductive thin ionosphere model that incident Alfvén mode waves are partially converted into compressional mode waves by the ionosphere.

  6. Towards Improved Satellite-In Situ Oceanographic Data Interoperability and Associated Value Added Services at the Podaac (United States)

    Tsontos, V. M.; Huang, T.; Holt, B.


    The earth science enterprise increasingly relies on the integration and synthesis of multivariate datasets from diverse observational platforms. NASA's ocean salinity missions, that include Aquarius/SAC-D and the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) field campaign, illustrate the value of integrated observations in support of studies on ocean circulation, the water cycle, and climate. However, the inherent heterogeneity of resulting data and the disparate, distributed systems that serve them complicates their effective utilization for both earth science research and applications. Key technical interoperability challenges include adherence to metadata and data format standards that are particularly acute for in-situ data and the lack of a unified metadata model facilitating archival and integration of both satellite and oceanographic field datasets. Here we report on efforts at the PO.DAAC, NASA's physical oceanographic data center, to extend our data management and distribution support capabilities for field campaign datasets such as those from SPURS. We also discuss value-added services, based on the integration of satellite and in-situ datasets, which are under development with a particular focus on DOMS. The distributed oceanographic matchup service (DOMS) implements a portable technical infrastructure and associated web services that will be broadly accessible via the PO.DAAC for the dynamic collocation of satellite and in-situ data, hosted by distributed data providers, in support of mission cal/val, science and operational applications.

  7. The role of high-resolution geomagnetic field models for investigating ionospheric currents at low Earth orbit satellites (United States)

    Stolle, Claudia; Michaelis, Ingo; Rauberg, Jan


    Low Earth orbiting geomagnetic satellite missions, such as the Swarm satellite mission, are the only means to monitor and investigate ionospheric currents on a global scale and to make in situ measurements of F region currents. High-precision geomagnetic satellite missions are also able to detect ionospheric currents during quiet-time geomagnetic conditions that only have few nanotesla amplitudes in the magnetic field. An efficient method to isolate the ionospheric signals from satellite magnetic field measurements has been the use of residuals between the observations and predictions from empirical geomagnetic models for other geomagnetic sources, such as the core and lithospheric field or signals from the quiet-time magnetospheric currents. This study aims at highlighting the importance of high-resolution magnetic field models that are able to predict the lithospheric field and that consider the quiet-time magnetosphere for reliably isolating signatures from ionospheric currents during geomagnetically quiet times. The effects on the detection of ionospheric currents arising from neglecting the lithospheric and magnetospheric sources are discussed on the example of four Swarm orbits during very quiet times. The respective orbits show a broad range of typical scenarios, such as strong and weak ionospheric signal (during day- and nighttime, respectively) superimposed over strong and weak lithospheric signals. If predictions from the lithosphere or magnetosphere are not properly considered, the amplitude of the ionospheric currents, such as the midlatitude Sq currents or the equatorial electrojet (EEJ), is modulated by 10-15 % in the examples shown. An analysis from several orbits above the African sector, where the lithospheric field is significant, showed that the peak value of the signatures of the EEJ is in error by 5 % in average when lithospheric contributions are not considered, which is in the range of uncertainties of present empirical models of the EEJ.

  8. Analysis of Standards Efficiency in Digital Television Via Satellite at Ku and Ka Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landeros-Ayala Salvador


    Full Text Available In this paper, an analysis on the main technical features of digital television standards for satellite transmission is carried out. Based on simulations and link budgets, the standard with the best operational performance is defined, based on simulations and link budget analysis, as well as a comparative efficiency analysis is conducted for the Ku and Ka bands for both transparent and regenerative transponders in terms of power, bandwidth, information rate and link margin, including clear sky, uplink rain, downlink rain and rain in both.

  9. Evaluating Ultraviolet Radiation Exposures Determined from TOMS Satellite Data at Sites of Amphibian Declines in Central and South America (United States)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)


    Many amphibian species have experienced substantial population declines, or have disappeared altogether, during the last several decades at a number of amphibian census sites in Central and South America. This study addresses the use of satellite-derived trends in solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-320 nm) radiation exposures at these sites over the last two decades, and is intended to demonstrate a role for satellite observations in determining whether UV-B radiation is a contributing factor in amphibian declines. UV-B radiation levels at the Earth's surface were derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data, typically acquired daily since 1979. These data were used to calculate the daily erythemal (sunburning) UV-B, or UV-B(sub ery), exposures at the latitude, longitude, and elevation of each of 20 census sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) dose, as well as the maximum values, have been increasing in both Central and South America, with higher levels received at the Central American sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) exposures increased significantly from 1979-1998 at all 11 Central American sites examined (r(exp 2) = 0.60 - 0.79; Pexposure levels (>= 6750 J/sq m*d) to the annual UV-B(sub ery) total has increased from approx. 5% to approx. 15% in Central America over the 19 year period, but actual daily exposures for each species are unknown. Synergy among UV-B radiation and other factors, especially those associated with alterations of water chemistry (e.g., acidification) in aqueous habitats is discussed. These findings justify further research concerning whether UV-B(sub ery) radiation plays a role in amphibian population declines and extinctions.

  10. Saturn’s icy satellites investigated by Cassini-VIMS. II. Results at the end of nominal mission (United States)

    Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Clark, R. N.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Nicholson, P. D.; McCord, T. B.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Tosi, F.; Nelson, R. M.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.


    We report the detailed analysis of the spectrophotometric properties of Saturn's icy satellites as derived by full-disk observations obtained by visual and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) experiment aboard Cassini. In this paper, we have extended the coverage until the end of the Cassini's nominal mission (June 1st 2008), while a previous paper ( Filacchione, G., and 28 colleagues [2007]. Icarus 186, 259-290, hereby referred to as Paper I) reported the preliminary results of this study. During the four years of nominal mission, VIMS has observed the entire population of Saturn's icy satellites allowing us to make a comparative analysis of the VIS-NIR spectral properties of the major satellites (Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Hyperion, Iapetus) and irregular moons (Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, Epimetheus, Telesto, Calypso, Phoebe). The results we discuss here are derived from the entire dataset available at June 2008 which consists of 1417 full-disk observations acquired from a variety of distances and inclinations from the equatorial plane, with different phase angles and hemispheric coverage. The most important spectrophotometric indicators (as defined in Paper I: I/ F continua at 0.55 μm, 1.822 μm and 3.547 μm, visible spectral slopes, water and carbon dioxide bands depths and positions) are calculated for each observation in order to investigate the disk-integrated composition of the satellites, the distribution of water ice respect to "contaminants" abundances and typical regolith grain properties. These quantities vary from the almost pure water ice surfaces of Enceladus and Calypso to the organic and carbon dioxide rich Hyperion, Iapetus and Phoebe. Janus visible colors are intermediate between these two classes having a slightly positive spectral slope. These results could help to decipher the origins and evolutionary history of the minor moons of the Saturn's system. We introduce a polar representation of the spectrophotometric


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China on Sept. 27, 2004 launched a scientific satellite atop a Long March 2D carrier rocket from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Gansu province. 10 minutes after the launch, the satellite entered a preset orbit and is running sound at the orbit. It is the 20th recoverable satellite for scientific and technological

  12. Detailed modeling of sloshing in satellites tank at low Bond numbers (United States)

    Lepilliez, Mathieu; Tanguy, Sebastien; Interface Team


    Consumption of ergols is a critical issue regarding the whole lifetime of a satellite. During maneuvers in mission phases, the Helium bubble used to pressurize the tank can move freely inside, thus generating movement of the center of mass, and sloshing which can disrupt the control of the satellite. In this study we present numerical results obtained from CFD computation, using an Immersed Interface Method to model the tank with a level-set approach for both liquid-gas interface and solid-fluid interface. A parametric study is proposed to observe the influence of the Bond number on resulting forces and torques generated on the tank. One can observe different steps during the maneuvers under microgravity: the first part is dominated by accelerations and volume forces, which flatten the bubble on the hydrophilic tank wall. When the forcing stops, the bubble bounces back, generating sloshing by moving under the influence of inertia and capillary effects. Finally viscous effects damp the sloshing by dissipating the kinetic energy of the bubble. Those results are compared to actual in-flight data for different typical maneuvers on forces and torques, allowing us to characterize the period and damping of the sloshing. CNES/ Airbus Defence & Space funding.

  13. Satellite imaging coral reef resilience at regional scale. A case-study from Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Rowlands, Gwilym; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Metsamaa, Liisa; Bruckner, Andrew; Renaud, Philip


    We propose a framework for spatially estimating a proxy for coral reef resilience using remote sensing. Data spanning large areas of coral reef habitat were obtained using the commercial QuickBird satellite, and freely available imagery (NASA, Google Earth). Principles of coral reef ecology, field observation, and remote observations, were combined to devise mapped indices. These capture important and accessible components of coral reef resilience. Indices are divided between factors known to stress corals, and factors incorporating properties of the reef landscape that resist stress or promote coral growth. The first-basis for a remote sensed resilience index (RSRI), an estimate of expected reef resilience, is proposed. Developed for the Red Sea, the framework of our analysis is flexible and with minimal adaptation, could be extended to other reef regions. We aim to stimulate discussion as to use of remote sensing to do more than simply deliver habitat maps of coral reefs.

  14. A comparison of cloud layers from ground and satellite active remote sensing at the Southern Great Plains ARM site (United States)

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Xia, Xiang'ao; Chen, Hongbin


    Using the data collected over the Southern Great Plains ARM site from 2006 to 2010, the surface Active Remote Sensing of Cloud (ARSCL) and CloudSat-CALIPSO satellite (CC) retrievals of total cloud and six specified cloud types [low, mid-low (ML), high-mid-low (HML), mid, high-mid (HM) and high] were compared in terms of cloud fraction (CF), cloud-base height (CBH), cloud-top height (CTH) and cloud thickness (CT), on different temporal scales, to identify their respective advantages and limitations. Good agreement between the two methods was exhibited in the total CF. However, large discrepancies were found between the cloud distributions of the two methods at a high (240-m) vertical grid spacing. Compared to the satellites, ARSCL retrievals detected more boundary layer clouds, while they underestimated high clouds. In terms of the six specific cloud types, more low- and mid-level clouds but less HML- and high-level clouds were detected by ARSCL than by CC. In contrast, the ARSCL retrievals of ML- and HM-level clouds agreed more closely with the estimations from the CC product. Lower CBHs tended to be reported by the surface data for low-, ML- and HML-level clouds; however, higher CTHs were often recorded by the satellite product for HML-, HM- and high-level clouds. The mean CTs for low- and ML-level cloud were similar between the two products; however, the mean CTs for HML-, mid-, HM- and high-level clouds from ARSCL were smaller than those from CC.

  15. Space base laser torque applied on LEO satellites of various geometries at satellite’s closest approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Khalifa


    Full Text Available In light of using laser power in space applications, the motivation of this paper is to use a space based solar pumped laser to produce a torque on LEO satellites of various shapes. It is assumed that there is a space station that fires laser beam toward the satellite so the beam spreading due to diffraction is considered to be the dominant effect on the laser beam propagation. The laser torque is calculated at the point of closest approach between the space station and some sun synchronous low Earth orbit cubesats. The numerical application shows that space based laser torque has a significant contribution on the LEO cubesats. It has a maximum value in the order of 10−8 Nm which is comparable with the residual magnetic moment. However, it has a minimum value in the order 10−11 Nm which is comparable with the aerodynamic and gravity gradient torque. Consequently, space based laser torque can be used as an active attitude control system.

  16. Whistler-triggered VLF noise bursts observed on the DE-1 satellite and simultaneously at Antarctic ground stations (United States)

    Smith, A. J.; Carpenter, D. L.; Inan, U. S.


    Simultaneous observations of whistler-triggered very low-frequency noise bursts on the ground at Anarctic stations, Halley and Siple, and on the high-altitude satellite DE-1 are reported. Results of a case study from June 25, 1982 in which the satellite data were recorded near 25 deg south magnetic latitude and the L = 4.7 magnetic shell, are presented. Analysis indicates that the chorus bursts that are triggered in whistler ducts travel downwards in the ducts to low altitudes in the ionosphere, and that propagation to DE-1 is by upward reflection into a nonducted mode. A means of estimating the propagation characteristics of the wave bursts is provided by comparisons of nonducted signals from the Siple transmitter and discrete periodic emissions. The ducted-nonducted mode conversion process is a mechanism for the large-scale spreading into the magnetosphere of coherent whistler-mode wave energy which is generated, amplified, or triggered in small localized ducts. The DE-1 data show that a strong interaction exists between whistler-triggered noise bursts and prevailing hiss levels.

  17. Oceanic primary production 2. Estimation at global scale from satellite (coastal zone color scanner) chlorophyll (United States)

    Antoine, David; André, Jean-Michel; Morel, André

    A fast method has been proposed [Antoine and Morel, this issue] to compute the oceanic primary production from the upper ocean chlorophyll-like pigment concentration, as it can be routinely detected by a spaceborne ocean color sensor. This method is applied here to the monthly global maps of the photosynthetic pigments that were derived from the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) data archive [Feldman et al., 1989]. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) field is computed from the astronomical constant and by using an atmospheric model, thereafter combined with averaged cloud information, derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). The aim is to assess the seasonal evolution, as well as the spatial distribution of the photosynthetic carbon fixation within the world ocean and for a ``climatological year,'' to the extent that both the chlorophyll information and the cloud coverage statistics actually are averages obtained over several years. The computed global annual production actually ranges between 36.5 and 45.6 Gt C yr-1 according to the assumption which is made (0.8 or 1) about the ratio of active-to-total pigments (recall that chlorophyll and pheopigments are not radiometrically resolved by CZCS). The relative contributions to the global productivity of the various oceans and zonal belts are examined. By considering the hypotheses needed in such computations, the nature of the data used as inputs, and the results of the sensitivity studies, the global numbers have to be cautiously considered. Improving the reliability of the primary production estimates implies (1) new global data sets allowing a higher temporal resolution and a better coverage, (2) progress in the knowledge of physiological responses of phytoplankton and therefore refinements of the time and space dependent parameterizations of these responses.

  18. Experimental investigation and planetary implications of the stability of clathrate hydrates in aqueous solution at icy satellite conditions (United States)

    Dunham, M.; Choukroun, M.; Barmatz, M.; Hodyss, R. P.; Smythe, W. D.


    Clathrate hydrates consist of hydrogen-bonded water molecules forming cages in which gas molecules are trapped individually. They are among the favored volatile reservoirs in solar system bodies, and are expected to play an important role in many processes: accretion of volatiles in planetesimals, outgassing on Titan, Enceladus, and comets. Their insulating thermal properties and high mechanical strength also bear important implications for understanding the evolution of icy satellites like Europa. However, the conditions allowing for their formation and/or their dissociation and the release of volatiles to the atmosphere (Titan) or the plumes (Enceladus) are still poorly understood. This is mainly because of a lack of knowledge on the stability of mixed clathrate hydrates in presence of anti-freeze agents such as ammonia. We have developed a high-pressure cryogenic calorimeter to address this deficiency in the literature. This liquid nitrogen - cooled Setaram BT2.15 calorimeter is located at the JPL Ice Physics Laboratory. The temperature range achievable with this instrument is 77-473 K. This calorimeter uses Calvet elements (3D arrays of thermocouples) to measure the heat flow required to follow a predefined heating rate within a sample and a reference cell with a resolution of 0.1 μW. A gas handling system has been designed and fabricated in house to reach pressures up to 100 bars, corresponding to several km depth in icy satellites. The thermodynamic properties of CO2 and CH4 clathrates with ammonia are under investigation, and the results will be used to constrain a statistical thermodynamic model of clathrates for applications to planetary environments. Preliminary results will be shown at the meeting. This work has been conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. Support from the Minnesota Space Grant Consortium, the NASA Outer Planets Research program, and government sponsorship are gratefully

  19. An interhemispheric comparison of GPS phase scintillation with auroral emission observed at the South Pole and from the DMSP satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prikryl


    Full Text Available The global positioning system (GPS phase scintillation caused by high-latitude ionospheric irregularities during an intense high-speed stream (HSS of the solar wind from April 29 to May 5, 2011, was observed using arrays of GPS ionospheric scintillation and total electron content monitors in the Arctic and Antarctica. The one-minute phase-scintillation index derived from the data sampled at 50 Hz was complemented by a proxy index (delta phase rate obtained from 1-Hz GPS data. The scintillation occurrence coincided with the aurora borealis and aurora australis observed by an all-sky imager at the South Pole, and by special sensor ultraviolet scanning imagers on board satellites of the Defense Meteorological Satellites Program. The South Pole (SP station is approximately conjugate with two Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network stations on Baffin Island, Canada, which provided the opportunity to study magnetic conjugacy of scintillation with support of riometers and magnetometers. The GPS ionospheric pierce points were mapped at their actual or conjugate locations, along with the auroral emission over the South Pole, assuming an altitude of 120 km. As the aurora brightened and/or drifted across the field of view of the all-sky imager, sequences of scintillation events were observed that indicated conjugate auroras as a locator of simultaneous or delayed bipolar scintillation events. In spite of the greater scintillation intensity in the auroral oval, where phase scintillation sometimes exceeded 1 radian during the auroral break-up and substorms, the percentage occurrence of moderate scintillation was highest in the cusp. Interhemispheric comparisons of bipolar scintillation maps show that the scintillation occurrence is significantly higher in the southern cusp and polar cap.

  20. Remote Sensing of Clouds using Satellites, Lidars, CLF/XLF and IR Cameras at the Pierre Auger Observatory (United States)

    Chirinos, J.


    Clouds in the field of view of the fluorescence detectors affect the detection of the extensive air showers. Several remote sensing techniques are used to detect night-time clouds over the 3000 km2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Four lidars at the fluorescence detector sites are performing different patterns of scans of the surrounding sky detecting clouds. Two laser facilities (CLF and XLF) are shooting into the sky delivering cloud cover above them every 15 minutes. Four IR cameras detect the presence of clouds within the FOV of the fluorescence detectors every 5 minutes. A method using GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites identifies night-time clouds twice per hour with a spatial resolution of 2.4 km by 5.5 km over the Observatory. We upload all this information into several databases to be used for the reconstruction of cosmic ray events and to find exotic events.

  1. Remote Sensing of Clouds using Satellites, Lidars, CLF/XLF and IR Cameras at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirinos J.


    Full Text Available Clouds in the field of view of the fluorescence detectors affect the detection of the extensive air showers. Several remote sensing techniques are used to detect night-time clouds over the 3000 km2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Four lidars at the fluorescence detector sites are performing different patterns of scans of the surrounding sky detecting clouds. Two laser facilities (CLF and XLF are shooting into the sky delivering cloud cover above them every 15 minutes. Four IR cameras detect the presence of clouds within the FOV of the fluorescence detectors every 5 minutes. A method using GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites identifies night-time clouds twice per hour with a spatial resolution of 2.4 km by 5.5 km over the Observatory. We upload all this information into several databases to be used for the reconstruction of cosmic ray events and to find exotic events.

  2. Studies on aerosol properties during ICARB–2006 campaign period at Hyderabad, India using ground-based measurements and satellite data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V S Badarinath; Shailesh Kumar Kharol


    Continuous and campaign-based aerosol field measurements are essential in understanding fundamental atmospheric aerosol processes and for evaluating their effect on global climate, environment and human life. Synchronous measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Black Carbon (BC) aerosol mass concentration and aerosol particle size distribution were carried out during the campaign period at tropical urban regions of Hyderabad, India. Daily satellite datasets of DMSP-OLS were processed for night-time forest fires over the Indian region in order to understand the additional sources (forest fires) of aerosol. The higher values in black carbon aerosol mass concentration and aerosol optical depth correlated well with forest fires occurring over the region. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) variations showed absorbing aerosols over the region and correlated with ground measurements.

  3. Mobile satellite system fade statistics for shadowing and multipath from roadside trees at UHF and L-band (United States)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.


    Field tests related to planned mobile satellite systems were performed, and results that add to the existing database of propagation measurements at L-band (1.5 GHz) are described. They are considered particularly useful in that propagation effects were studied systematically, with repeated and controlled runs pertaining to different path elevation angles, road types, and path geometries defining shadowing and line-of-sight modes. In addition, simultaneous L-band and UHF measurements were performed for the purpose of establishing scaling factors applicable to previous UHF (870 MHz) results. The control of the experimental parameters was made possible by using a helicopter as the source platform and a mobile van to house the receiver.

  4. An allotment planning concept and related computer software for planning the fixed satellite service at the 1988 space WARC (United States)

    Miller, Edward F.; Heyward, Ann O.; Ponchak, Denise S.; Spence, Rodney L.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Zuzek, John E.


    Described is a two-phase approach to allotment planning suitable for use in establishing the fixed satellite service at the 1988 Space World Administrative Radio Conference (ORB-88). The two phases are (1) the identification of predetermined geostationary arc segments common togroups of administrations, and (2) the use of a synthesis program to identify example scenarios of space station placements. The planning approach is described in detail and is related to the objectives of the confernece. Computer software has been developed to implement the concepts, and a complete discussion on the logic and rationale for identifying predetermined arc segments is given. Example scenarios are evaluated to give guidance in the selection of the technical characteristics of space communications systems to be planned. The allotment planning concept described guarantees in practice equitable access to the geostationary orbit, provides flexibility in implementation, and reduces the need for coordination among administrations.

  5. An enhancement of the electron density at the lower ionosphere in response to Elves observed by FORMOSAT-2 satellite (United States)

    Hsu, M.; Hsu, R.; Chang, S.; Su, H.; Chen, M.; Liu, J. G.


    The Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) experiment on the FORMOSAT-2 satellite has recently reported that elves are the most dominant type of transient luminous events (TLEs). In this study, we first present the ionospheric electron density observations above these ISUAL elves from the radio occultation experiment of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC. Results show that several enhancements of the integrated electron content (IEC) at lower ionosphere cased by elves are most significant statistically, each producing different ionospheric responses with altitudes. The study can provide an additional evidence for understanding the mechanism of the lower ionospheric enhancements cased by elves. Additionally, these elves observations are further compared with other ionospheric observations and previous models.

  6. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses. (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter


    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  7. Propagation Measurement on Earth-Sky Signal Effects for High Speed Train Satellite Channel in Tropical Region at Ku-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajeed H. J. Al-Jumaily


    Full Text Available Recent advances in satellite communication technologies in the tropical regions have led to significant increase in the demand for services and applications that require high channel quality for mobile satellite terminals. Determination and quantification of these requirements are important to optimize service quality, particularly in the Malaysian region. Moreover, the tests on current satellite propagation models were carried out at temperate regions whose environmental characteristics are much different from those in Malaysia. This difference renders these propagation models inapplicable and irrelevant to tropical regions in general. This paper presents the link characteristics observations and performance analysis with propagation measurements done in tropical region to provide an accurate database regarding rain and power arches supply (PAs attenuations in the tropics for mobile scenarios. Hence, an extension for improving the performance assessment and analysis of satellite/transmission has been achieved. The Malaysia propagation measurement for mobile scenario (Malaysia-PMMS enables first-hand coarse estimation and attenuation analysis, because the attenuation resulting from rain and PAs becomes easily amenable for measurement. Parallel to that, the measured attenuation has been compared with that of the simulated output at noise floor level. The underlying analytical tool is validated by measurements specific at tropical region, for dynamic model of mobile satellite links operating at higher than 10 GHz.

  8. Retrieval and satellite intercomparison of O3 measurements from ground-based FTIR Spectrometer at Equatorial Station: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Clarmann


    Full Text Available Since May 2009, high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR solar absorption spectra have been recorded at Addis Ababa (9.01° N latitude, 38.76° E longitude, 2443 m altitude above sea level, Ethiopia. The vertical profiles and total column amounts of ozone (O3 are deduced from the spectra by using the retrieval code PROFFIT (V9.5 and regularly determined instrumental line shape (ILS. A detailed error analysis of the O3 retrieval is performed. Averaging kernels of the target gas shows that the major contribution to the retrieved information comes from the measurement. The degrees of freedom for signals is found to be 2.1 on average for the retrieval of O3 from the observed FTIR spectra. The ozone Volume Mixing Ratio (VMR profiles and column amounts retrieved from FTIR spectra are compared with the coincident satellite observations of Microwave Limb Sounding (MLS, Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS, Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, Atmospheric Infrared Sounding (AIRS and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2 instruments. The mean relative differences in ozone profiles of FTIR from MLS and MIPAS are generally lower than 15% within the altitude range of 27 to 36 km, whereas difference from TES is lower than 1%. Comparisons of measurements of column amounts from the satellite and the ground-based FTIR show very good agreement as exhibited by relative differences within +0.2% to +2.8% for FTIR versus MLS and GOME-2; and −0.9 to −9.0% for FTIR versus OMI, TES and AIRS. The corresponding standard deviations are within 2.0 to 2.8% for FTIR versus MLS and GOME-2 comparisons whereas that of FTIR versus OMI, TES and AIRS are within 3.5 to 7.3%. Thus, the retrieved O3 VMR and column amounts from a tropical site, Addis Ababa, is found to exhibit very good agreement with all coincident satellite observations over an approximate 3-yr period.

  9. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon


    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  10. Cookie-cutter halos: the remarkable constancy of the stellar mass function of satellite galaxies at 0.2

    CERN Document Server

    Tal, Tomer; Muzzin, Adam; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefanon, Mauro


    We present an observational study of the stellar mass function of satellite galaxies around central galaxies at 0.2satellite stellar mass distributions in four bins of central galaxy mass in three redshift ranges. Our results show that the stellar mass function of satellite galaxies increases with central galaxy mass, and that the distribution of satellite masses at fixed central mass is at most weakly dependent on redshift. We conclude that the average mass distribution of galaxies in groups is remarkably universal even out to z=1.2 and that it can be uniquely characterized by the group central galaxy mass. This further suggests that as central galaxies grow in stellar mass, they do so in tandem with the mass growth of their satellites. Finally, we classify all galaxies as either star forming or quiescent, and derive the mass functions of each subpopulation separately. We find that the mass distribution of both star for...

  11. Short-term prediction of rain attenuation level and volatility in Earth-to-Satellite links at EHF band (United States)

    de Montera, L.; Mallet, C.; Barthès, L.; Golé, P.


    This paper shows how nonlinear models originally developed in the finance field can be used to predict rain attenuation level and volatility in Earth-to-Satellite links operating at the Extremely High Frequencies band (EHF, 20 50 GHz). A common approach to solving this problem is to consider that the prediction error corresponds only to scintillations, whose variance is assumed to be constant. Nevertheless, this assumption does not seem to be realistic because of the heteroscedasticity of error time series: the variance of the prediction error is found to be time-varying and has to be modeled. Since rain attenuation time series behave similarly to certain stocks or foreign exchange rates, a switching ARIMA/GARCH model was implemented. The originality of this model is that not only the attenuation level, but also the error conditional distribution are predicted. It allows an accurate upper-bound of the future attenuation to be estimated in real time that minimizes the cost of Fade Mitigation Techniques (FMT) and therefore enables the communication system to reach a high percentage of availability. The performance of the switching ARIMA/GARCH model was estimated using a measurement database of the Olympus satellite 20/30 GHz beacons and this model is shown to outperform significantly other existing models. The model also includes frequency scaling from the downlink frequency to the uplink frequency. The attenuation effects (gases, clouds and rain) are first separated with a neural network and then scaled using specific scaling factors. As to the resulting uplink prediction error, the error contribution of the frequency scaling step is shown to be larger than that of the downlink prediction, indicating that further study should focus on improving the accuracy of the scaling factor.

  12. Short-term prediction of rain attenuation level and volatility in Earth-to-Satellite links at EHF band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Montera


    Full Text Available This paper shows how nonlinear models originally developed in the finance field can be used to predict rain attenuation level and volatility in Earth-to-Satellite links operating at the Extremely High Frequencies band (EHF, 20–50 GHz. A common approach to solving this problem is to consider that the prediction error corresponds only to scintillations, whose variance is assumed to be constant. Nevertheless, this assumption does not seem to be realistic because of the heteroscedasticity of error time series: the variance of the prediction error is found to be time-varying and has to be modeled. Since rain attenuation time series behave similarly to certain stocks or foreign exchange rates, a switching ARIMA/GARCH model was implemented. The originality of this model is that not only the attenuation level, but also the error conditional distribution are predicted. It allows an accurate upper-bound of the future attenuation to be estimated in real time that minimizes the cost of Fade Mitigation Techniques (FMT and therefore enables the communication system to reach a high percentage of availability. The performance of the switching ARIMA/GARCH model was estimated using a measurement database of the Olympus satellite 20/30 GHz beacons and this model is shown to outperform significantly other existing models.

    The model also includes frequency scaling from the downlink frequency to the uplink frequency. The attenuation effects (gases, clouds and rain are first separated with a neural network and then scaled using specific scaling factors. As to the resulting uplink prediction error, the error contribution of the frequency scaling step is shown to be larger than that of the downlink prediction, indicating that further study should focus on improving the accuracy of the scaling factor.

  13. Effect of Bias Correction of Satellite-Rainfall Estimates on Runoff Simulations at the Source of the Upper Blue Nile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Habib


    Full Text Available Results of numerous evaluation studies indicated that satellite-rainfall products are contaminated with significant systematic and random errors. Therefore, such products may require refinement and correction before being used for hydrologic applications. In the present study, we explore a rainfall-runoff modeling application using the Climate Prediction Center-MORPHing (CMORPH satellite rainfall product. The study area is the Gilgel Abbay catchment situated at the source basin of the Upper Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia, Eastern Africa. Rain gauge networks in such area are typically sparse. We examine different bias correction schemes applied locally to the CMORPH product. These schemes vary in the degree to which spatial and temporal variability in the CMORPH bias fields are accounted for. Three schemes are tested: space and time-invariant, time-variant and spatially invariant, and space and time variant. Bias-corrected CMORPH products were used to calibrate and drive the Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV rainfall-runoff model. Applying the space and time-fixed bias correction scheme resulted in slight improvement of the CMORPH-driven runoff simulations, but in some instances caused deterioration. Accounting for temporal variation in the bias reduced the rainfall bias by up to 50%. Additional improvements were observed when both the spatial and temporal variability in the bias was accounted for. The rainfall bias was found to have a pronounced effect on model calibration. The calibrated model parameters changed significantly when using rainfall input from gauges alone, uncorrected, and bias-corrected CMORPH estimates. Changes of up to 81% were obtained for model parameters controlling the stream flow volume.

  14. Hoar crystal development and disappearance at Dome C, Antarctica: observation by near-infrared photography and passive microwave satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Champollion


    Full Text Available Hoar crystals episodically cover the snow surface in Antarctica and affect the roughness and reflective properties of the air–snow interface. However, little is known about their evolution and the processes responsible for their development and disappearance despite a probable influence on the surface mass balance and energy budget. To investigate hoar evolution, we use continuous observations of the surface by in situ near-infrared photography and by passive microwave remote sensing at Dome C in Antarctica. From the photography data, we retrieved a daily indicator of the presence/absence of hoar crystals using a texture analysis algorithm. The analysis of this 2 yr long time series shows that Dome C surface is covered almost half of the time by hoar. The development of hoar crystals takes a few days and seems to occur whatever the meteorological conditions. In contrast, the disappearance of hoar is rapid (a few hours and coincident with either strong winds or with moderate winds associated with a change in wind direction from southwest (the prevailing direction to southeast. From the microwave satellite data, we computed the polarisation ratio (i.e. horizontal over vertical polarised brightness temperatures, an indicator known to be sensitive to hoar in Greenland. Photography data and microwave polarisation ratio are correlated, i.e. high values of polarisation ratio which theoretically correspond to low snow density values near the surface are associated with the presence of hoar crystals in the photography data. Satellite data over nearly ten years (2002–2011 confirm that a strong decrease of the polarisation ratio (i.e. signature of hoar disappearance is associated with an increase of wind speed or a change in wind direction from the prevailing direction. The photography data provides, in addition, evidence of interactions between hoar and snowfall. Further adding the combined influence of wind speed and wind direction results in a

  15. Satellites of spiral galaxies (United States)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Smith, Rodney; Frenk, Carlos; White, Simon D. M.


    We present a survey of satellites around a homogeneous set of late-type spirals with luminosity similar to that of the Milky Way. On average, we find fewer than 1.5 satellites per primary, but we argue that we can treat the survey as an ensemble and so derive the properties of the halo of a 'typical' isolated spiral. The projected density profile of the ensemble falls off approximately as 1/r. Within 50 kpc the azimuthal distribution of satellites shows some evidence for the 'Holmberg effect', an excess near the minor axis of the primary; however, at larger projected distances, the distribution appears isotropic. There is a weak but significant correlation between the size of a satellite and its distance from its primary, as expected if satellites are tidally truncated. Neither Hubble type nor spectral characteristics correlate with apparent separation. The ensemble of satellites appears to be rotating at about 30 km/s in the same direction as the galactic disk. Satellites on prograde orbits tend to be brighter than those on retrograde orbits. The typical velocity difference between a satellite and its primary shows no clear dependence either on apparent separation, or on the rotation speed of the primary. Thus our survey demonstrates that isolated spiral galaxies have massive halos that extend to many optical radii.

  16. Satellite Communication to Research Vessels at Sea: High-Seas ROADNet (United States)


    management of this facility to be shared among all of the ships. Under normal operations, channels will be at least 96 kbps from ship-to-shore and share...Marcos Middle School in San Diego and Ms. Viviana Zamorano is a middle school science teacher at Escuela America in Arica, Chile. Debra and Viviana

  17. Can key vegetation parameters be retrieved at the large-scale using LAI satellite products and a generic modelling approach ? (United States)

    Dewaele, Helene; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Carrer, Dominique; Laanaia, Nabil


    In the context of climate change, the need to assess and predict the impact of droughts on vegetation and water resources increases. The generic approaches permitting the modelling of continental surfaces at large-scale has progressed in recent decades towards land surface models able to couple cycles of water, energy and carbon. A major source of uncertainty in these generic models is the maximum available water content of the soil (MaxAWC) usable by plants which is constrained by the rooting depth parameter and unobservable at the large-scale. In this study, vegetation products derived from the SPOT/VEGETATION satellite data available since 1999 are used to optimize the model rooting depth over rainfed croplands and permanent grasslands at 1 km x 1 km resolution. The inter-annual variability of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) is simulated over France using the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere, CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) generic land surface model and a two-layer force-restore (FR-2L) soil profile scheme. The leaf nitrogen concentration directly impacts the modelled value of the maximum annual LAI. In a first step this parameter is estimated for the last 15 years by using an iterative procedure that matches the maximum values of LAI modelled by ISBA-A-gs to the highest satellite-derived LAI values. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is used as a cost function to be minimized. In a second step, the model rooting depth is optimized in order to reproduce the inter-annual variability resulting from the drought impact on the vegetation. The evaluation of the retrieved soil rooting depth is achieved using the French agricultural statistics of Agreste. Retrieved leaf nitrogen concentrations are compared with values from previous studies. The preliminary results show a good potential of this approach to estimate these two vegetation parameters (leaf nitrogen concentration, MaxAWC) at the large-scale over grassland areas. Besides, a marked impact of the

  18. Using Participatory and Service Design to Identify Emerging Needs and Perceptions of Library Services among Science and Engineering Researchers Based at a Satellite Campus (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan


    This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…

  19. Simulation of at-sensor radiance over land for proposed thermal channels of Imager payload onboard INSAT-3D satellite using MODTRAN model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M R Pandya; D B Shah; H J Trivedi; S Panigrahy


    INSAT-3D is the new generation Indian satellite designed for improved Earth observations through two payloads – Imager and Sounder. Study was conducted with an aim of simulating satellite level signal over land in the infrared channels of the Imager payload using a radiative transfer model MODTRAN. Satellite level at-sensor radiance corresponding to all four infrared channels of INSAT-3D Imager payload is obtained using MODTRAN and sensitivity of at-sensor radiance was inferred as a function of input parameters namely, surface temperature, emissivity, view angle and atmospheric water vapour, which is helpful in understanding the signal simulation scheme needed for retrieving a very critical parameter namely, land surface temperature.

  20. Radiative transfer theory at satellite-borne SSM/I channels and remote sensing data analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Vector radiative transfer (VRT) at the SSM/I channels (from 19 to 85 GHz) for multilayer of dis crete scatterers as a model of snowpack/vegetation canopy is developed. Using the physical optics approximation, the scattering, extinction coefficients and phase function of VRT equation for vegetation canopy are derived The dense medium VRT is applied to the snow-layer. Numerical solutions of two coupled VRT equations simulate scattering and emission signature from snowpack/vegetation canopy at SSM/I channels. Numerical results are applied to simulation and analysis of the SSM/I observations over China’s northeast forest and pasture areas in Naqu, Tibet

  1. Study of wind speed attenuation at Kavaratti Island using land-based, offshore, and satellite measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Rivankar, P.; Balakrishnan Nair, T.M.B.

    -borne sensors (QuikSCAT scatterometer and TMI microwave imager) during an 8-year period (2000-2007). It is found that round the year monthly-mean wind speed measurements from the Port Control Tower (PCT) located within the coconut palm farm at the Kavaratti...

  2. Galaxy Environment in the 3D-HST Fields: Witnessing the Onset of Satellite Quenching at z ∼ 1–2 (United States)

    Fossati, M.; Wilman, D. J.; Mendel, J. T.; Saglia, R. P.; Galametz, A.; Beifiori, A.; Bender, R.; Chan, J. C. C.; Fabricius, M.; Bandara, K.; Brammer, G. B.; Davies, R.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Hartley, W.; Kulkarni, S. K.; Lang, P.; Momcheva, I. G.; Nelson, E. J.; Skelton, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki, K.; Übler, H.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Wisnioski, E.; Whitaker, K. E.; Wuyts, E.; Wuyts, S.


    We make publicly available a catalog of calibrated environmental measures for galaxies in the five 3D-Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/CANDELS deep fields. Leveraging the spectroscopic and grism redshifts from the 3D-HST survey, multiwavelength photometry from CANDELS, and wider field public data for edge corrections, we derive densities in fixed apertures to characterize the environment of galaxies brighter than {{JH}}140satellite galaxy. The same procedure is applied to a z = 0 sample selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We compute the fraction of passive central and satellite galaxies as a function of stellar and halo mass, and redshift, and then derive the fraction of galaxies that were quenched by environment specific processes. Using the mock sample, we estimate that the timescale for satellite quenching is {t}{quench}∼ 2{--}5 {Gyr}; it is longer at lower stellar mass or lower redshift, but remarkably independent of halo mass. This indicates that, in the range of environments commonly found within the 3D-HST sample ({M}h≲ {10}14 {M}ȯ ), satellites are quenched by exhaustion of their gas reservoir in the absence of cosmological accretion. We find that the quenching times can be separated into a delay phase, during which satellite galaxies behave similarly to centrals at fixed stellar mass, and a phase where the star formation rate drops rapidly ({τ }f∼ 0.4{--}0.6 Gyr), as shown previously at z = 0. We conclude that this scenario requires satellite galaxies to retain a large reservoir of multi-phase gas upon accretion, even at high redshift, and that this gas sustains star formation for the long quenching times observed.

  3. Changes in satellite-derived impervious surface area at US historical climatology network stations (United States)

    Gallo, Kevin; Xian, George


    The difference between 30 m gridded impervious surface area (ISA) between 2001 and 2011 was evaluated within 100 and 1000 m radii of the locations of climate stations that comprise the US Historical Climatology Network. The amount of area associated with observed increases in ISA above specific thresholds was documented for the climate stations. Over 32% of the USHCN stations exhibited an increase in ISA of ⩾20% between 2001 and 2011 for at least 1% of the grid cells within a 100 m radius of the station. However, as the required area associated with ISA change was increased from ⩾1% to ⩾10%, the number of stations that were observed with a ⩾20% increase in ISA between 2001 and 2011 decreased to 113 (9% of stations). When the 1000 m radius associated with each station was examined, over 52% (over 600) of the stations exhibited an increase in ISA of ⩾20% within at least 1% of the grid cells within that radius. However, as the required area associated with ISA change was increased to ⩾10% the number of stations that were observed with a ⩾20% increase in ISA between 2001 and 2011 decreased to 35 (less than 3% of the stations). The gridded ISA data provides an opportunity to characterize the environment around climate stations with a consistently measured indicator of a surface feature. Periodic evaluations of changes in the ISA near the USHCN and other networks of stations are recommended to assure the local environment around the stations has not significantly changed such that observations at the stations may be impacted.

  4. Evidence for a change in the dominant satellite galaxy quenching mechanism at z=1

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, Michael L; Mok, Angus; Muzzin, Adam; van der Burg, Remco F J; Bower, Richard G; Finoguenov, Alexis; Hoekstra, Henk; Lidman, Chris; Mulchaey, John S; Noble, Allison; Parker, Laura C; Tanaka, Masayuki; Wilman, David J; Webb, Tracy; Wilson, Gillian; Yee, Howard K C


    We present an analysis of galaxies in groups and clusters at $0.810^{10.3}M_\\odot$, we find $f_{\\rm convert}\\sim 0.4$ in the groups and $\\sim 0.6$ in the clusters, similar to comparable measurements at $z=0$. This means the time between first accretion into a more massive halo and final star formation quenching is $t_p\\sim 2$ Gyr. This is substantially longer than the estimated time required for a galaxy's star formation rate to become zero once it starts to decline, suggesting there is a long delay time during which little differential evolution occurs. In contrast with local observations we find evidence that this delay timescale may depend on stellar mass, with $t_p$ approaching $t_{\\rm Hubble}$ for $M_{\\rm star}\\sim 10^{9.5}M_\\odot$. The result suggests that the delay time must not only be much shorter than it is today, but may also depend on stellar mass in a way that is not consistent with a simple evolution in proportion to the dynamical time. Instead, we find the data are well-matched by a model in wh...

  5. Operational High Resolution Land Cover Map Production at the Country Scale Using Satellite Image Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Inglada


    Full Text Available A detailed and accurate knowledge of land cover is crucial for many scientific and operational applications, and as such, it has been identified as an Essential Climate Variable. This accurate knowledge needs frequent updates. This paper presents a methodology for the fully automatic production of land cover maps at country scale using high resolution optical image time series which is based on supervised classification and uses existing databases as reference data for training and validation. The originality of the approach resides in the use of all available image data, a simple pre-processing step leading to a homogeneous set of acquisition dates over the whole area and the use of a supervised classifier which is robust to errors in the reference data. The produced maps have a kappa coefficient of 0.86 with 17 land cover classes. The processing is efficient, allowing a fast delivery of the maps after the acquisition of the image data, does not need expensive field surveys for model calibration and validation, nor human operators for decision making, and uses open and freely available imagery. The land cover maps are provided with a confidence map which gives information at the pixel level about the expected quality of the result.

  6. Poverty assessment using DMSP/OLS night-time light satellite imagery at a provincial scale in China (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Cheng, Hui; Zhang, Li


    All countries around the world and many international bodies, including the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), have to eliminate rural poverty. Estimation of regional poverty level is a key issue for making strategies to eradicate poverty. Most of previous studies on regional poverty evaluations are based on statistics collected typically in administrative units. This paper has discussed the deficiencies of traditional studies, and attempted to research regional poverty evaluation issues using 3-year DMSP/OLS night-time light satellite imagery. In this study, we adopted 17 socio-economic indexes to establish an integrated poverty index (IPI) using principal component analysis (PCA), which was proven to provide a good descriptor of poverty levels in 31 regions at a provincial scale in China. We also explored the relationship between DMSP/OLS night-time average light index and the poverty index using regression analysis in SPSS and a good positive linear correlation was modelled, with R2 equal to 0.854. We then looked at provincial poverty problems in China based on this correlation. The research results indicated that the DMSP/OLS night-time light data can assist analysing provincial poverty evaluation issues.

  7. Efficient satellite quenching at z~1 from the GEEC2 spectroscopic survey of galaxy groups

    CERN Document Server

    Mok, Angus; McGee, Sean L; Wilman, David J; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Giodini, Stefania; Bower, Richard G; Connelly, Jennifer L; Hou, Annie; Mulchaey, John S; Parker, Laura C


    We present deep GMOS-S spectroscopy for 11 galaxy groups at 0.866%) for eight of the eleven groups. Using an optical-NIR colour-colour diagram, the galaxies in the sample were separated with a dust insensitive method into three categories: passive (red), star-forming (blue), and intermediate (green). The strongest environmental dependence is observed in the fraction of passive galaxies, which make up only ~20 per cent of the field in the mass range 10^{10.3}

  8. Prognostic factors of melanoma patients with satellite or in-transit metastasis at the time of stage III diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weide

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prognosis of patients with loco-regional skin metastases has not been analyzed in detail and the presence or absence of concurrent lymph node metastasis represents the only established prognostic factor thus far. Most studies were limited to patients already presenting with skin lesions at the time of initial diagnosis. We aimed to analyze the impact of a broad penal of prognostic factors in patients with skin metastases at the time of first metastatic spread, including patients with synchronous lesions already present at the time of initial diagnosis, stage I/II patients with loco-regional recurrence and patients initially presenting with skin metastasis but unknown primary melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated disease-specific survival of 380 patients treated at our department between 1996 and 2010 using Kaplan Meier survival probabilities and Cox-proportional hazard analysis. RESULTS: Five-year survival probability was 60.1% for patients with skin metastases only and 36.3% for those with synchronous nodal metastases. The number of involved nodes and a tumor thickness of at least 3 mm had independent negative impact on prognosis. A strong relationship was identified between the risk of death and the number of involved nodes. Neither ulceration nor the timing of the first occurrence of metastases as either in stage I/II patients, at the time of excision of the primary melanoma or initially in patients with unknown primary tumor, had additional effects on survival. CONCLUSION: Lymph node involvement was confirmed as the most important prognostic factor for melanoma patients with loco-regional skin metastasis including those with unknown primary tumor and stage I/II patients with skin recurrence. Consideration of the tumor thickness and of the number of involved lymph nodes instead of the exclusive differentiation into presence vs. absence of nodal disease may allow a more accurate prediction of prognosis for patients with

  9. Small Satellite Transporter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  10. Using Satellite Classes to Optimise Access to and Participation in First-Year Business Management: A Case at an Open and Distance-Learning University in South Africa (United States)

    Swanepoel, Elana; De Beer, Andreas; Muller, Helene


    We investigated the effect of satellite classes as a component of blended learning, to enhance student performance of the Business Management I and Management I students at an open and distance-learning university. We discuss the evolution of distance education, the interactivities promoted by open and distance learning and the concept of blended…

  11. Satellite Aerodynamics and Density Determination from Satellite Dynamic Response (United States)

    Karr, G. R.


    The aerodynamic drag and lift properties of a satellite are first expressed as a function of two parameters associated with gas-surface interaction at the satellite surface. The dynamic response of the satellite as it passes through the atmosphere is then expressed as a function of the two gas-surface interaction parameters, the atmospheric density, the satellite velocity, and the satellite orientation to the high speed flow. By proper correlation of the observed dynamic response with the changing angle of attack of the satellite, it is found that the two unknown gas-surface interaction parameters can be determined. Once the gas-surface interaction parameters are known, the aerodynamic properties of the satellite at all angles of attack are also determined.

  12. Formation of diverse ring-satellite systems around Centaurs through tidal disruption at close encounters with giant planet

    CERN Document Server

    Hyodo, Ryuki; Genda, Hidenori; Ohtsuki, Keiji


    Centaurs are minor planets orbiting between Jupiter and Neptune that have or had crossing orbits with one or more giant planets. Recent observations and reinterpretation of previous observations have revealed the existence of ring systems around 10199 Chariklo and 2060 Chiron. However, the origin of the ring systems around such a minor planet is still an open question. Here, we propose that the tidal disruption of a differentiated object that experiences a close encounter with a giant planet could naturally form diverse ring-satellite systems around the Centaurs. During the close encounter, the icy mantle of the passing object is preferentially ripped off by the planet's tidal force and the debris is distributed mostly within the Roche limit of the largest remnant body. Assuming the existence of $20-50$wt% silicate core below the icy mantle, a disk of particles is formed when the objects pass within $0.4-0.8$ of the planet's Roche limit with the relative velocity at infinity $3-6$km s$^{-1}$ and 8h initial sp...

  13. Satellite monitoring of dramatic changes at Hawai'i's only alpine lake: Lake Waiau on Mauna Kea volcano (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Kauahikaua, James P.


    Lake Waiau is a small, typically 100-meter-long lake, located near the summit of Mauna Kea volcano, on the Island of Hawaiʻi. It is Hawaiʻi’s only alpine lake and is considered sacred in Hawaiian cultural tradition. Over the past few years, the lake has diminished in size, and, by October 2013, surface water had almost completely disappeared from the lake. In this study, we use high-resolution satellite images and aerial photographs to document recent changes at the lake. Based on our reconstructions covering the past 200 years, the historical lake surface area has typically ranged from 5,000 to 7,000 square meters, but in 2010 a dramatic plunge in lake area ensued. The lake area rebounded significantly in early 2014, following heavy winter storms. This near disappearance of the lake, judging from analysis of visitor photographs and field reports, appears to be highly unusual, if not unprecedented, in the historical record. The unusually low water levels in the lake are consistent with a recent severe drought in Hawaiʻi.

  14. MIPAS database: new HNO3 line parameters at 7.6 μm validated with MIPAS satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Perrin


    Full Text Available Improved line positions and intensities have been generated for the 7.6 μm spectral region of nitric acid. They were obtained relying on a recent reinvestigation of the nitric acid band system at 7.6 μm and comparisons of HNO3 volume mixing ratio profiles retrieved from the "Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding" (MIPAS limb emission radiances in the 11 and 7.6 μm domains. This has led to an improved database called "MIPAS-2015". Comparisons with available laboratory information (individual line intensities, integrated absorption cross sections, and absorption cross sections show that MIPAS-2015 provides an improved description of the 7.6 μm region of nitric acid. This study should help to improve HNO3 satellite retrievals by allowing measurements to be performed simultaneously in the 11 and 7.6 μm micro-windows. In particular, it should be useful to analyze existing MIPAS and IASI spectra as well as spectra to be recorded by the forthcoming "Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer – New Generation" (IASI-NG instrument.

  15. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia


    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade....... The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites....

  16. Beginnings of Satellite Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić


    Full Text Available The first satellite navigation system called the Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS or TRANSIT was planned in the USA in 1958. It consisted of 5-6 artificial Earth satellites, was set in motion for the USA military in 1964, and in 1967 for civilian purposes. The frequency shift of received radio waves emitted from the satellite and caused by the Doppler effect was measured. The TRANSIT satellite speed of approaching or moving away was derived from that; the TRANSIT satellites emmited also their own coordinates. Then the ship's position was determined by an intersection of three hyperboloids, which were determined from differences of distances in three time intervals. Maintenance of this navigation system was stopped in 1996, but it is still being used in the USA Navy for exploring the ionosphere. Furthermore, results of Doppler measurements in international projects at the Hvar Observatory from 1982 and 1983. This was the first time in Croatia and the former country that the coordinates of the Hvar Observatory were determined in the unique world coordinate system WGS'72. The paper ends with a brief representation of the Tsiklon Doppler navigation system produced in the former Soviet Union, and there is a list of some of numerous produced and designed satellite navigation systems.Ključne riječi

  17. Snow and Ice Products from the Aqua, Terra, and ICESat Satellites at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (United States)

    Meier, W. N.; Marquis, M.; Kaminski, M.; Armstrong, R.; Brodzik, M.


    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at the University of Colorado, Boulder - one of eight NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) - archives and distributes several products from sensors on the suite of NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. These include the sun-synchronous polar-orbiting Aqua (launched 4 May 2002) and Terra (launched 18 December 1999) platforms and the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) (launched 12 January 2003). The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) is a multi-channel passive microwave radiometer on Aqua ( AMSR-E Level 3 snow products are produced in EASE-Grid format for both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere and are available as daily, 5-day, and monthly fields. Daily AMSR-E Level 3 sea ice products are produced on a polar stereographic projection at gridded spatial resolutions of 6.25 km, 12.5 km and 25 km. Since April 2004, these products have been available for public distribution from NSIDC. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua is a 36-channel visible/infrared sensor that produces a consistent long-term time series of fully-automated, quality-controlled data. Level 2 swath products are available for both snow cover and sea ice. Daily and 8-day Level 3 gridded snow cover products are available with estimates of snow extent and albedo at 500m resolution, along with daily Level 3 gridded sea ice products with estimates for sea ice extent and ice surface temperature at 1 km resolution. These products are currently available from NSIDC ( The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the sole instrument on ICESat. The standard GLAS Level 2 ice sheet altimetry product contains the ice sheet elevation and elevation distribution calculated from algorithms fine-tuned for ice sheet returns. The standard GLAS Level 2 sea ice altimetry product contains the sea ice freeboard and sea ice

  18. Scientific Satellites (United States)


    launched by NASA. sondes ). Radio telemetry was, however, a logical extrapolation of wire telemetry, invented by the Dutchman, Olland, in 1877, for...24 ----- Spin-balance test for IMP B with dummy solar paddles. Re- balance after installation of flight paddles. Sept. 25 ----- RF Systems and...where the satellite is mated to a dummy final stage and balanced statically and dynamically before flight. 8-6. Characteristics of Major Satellite

  19. Satellite (Natural) (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  20. A Simple Statistical Model to Estimate Incident Solar Radiation at the Surface from NOAA AVHRR Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Ashrafunnahar Hena


    Full Text Available Processing of meteorological satellite image data provides a wealth of information useful in earth surface and environmental applications. Particularly, it is important for the estimation of different parameters of surface energy budget. In this work, a method has been developed to estimation of hourly incoming solar radiation on the surface of Bangladesh using NOAA-AVHRR satellite digital images. The model is based on the statistical regressions between the ground truth and satellite estimated values. Hundreds of full resolution images (1.1 km for two months of the year have been processed using ERDAS IMAGINE software. Ground solar global irradiation for one place has been estimated for two months through this application. The efficiency of this method for calculating surface insolation has been checked by estimating the relative deviation between the estimated Irradiation and measured Irradiation. The method can be used for calculation of hourly irradiation over areas in a tropical environment.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China placed 2 scientific experiment satellites into preset orbits atop a LM-4B launch vehicle on Sept. 9, 2004. A LM-4B blasted off at 7:14 am from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in Shanxi Province. Sources from the Xi'an Satellite Monitor and Control Center said that one satellite,

  2. China Launches First Ever Nano-satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    China successfully launched two scientific satellites, including a nano-satellite for the first time, heralding a breakthrough in space technology. A LM-2C rocket carrying Nano-Satellite I (NS-1), which weighs just 25kg and an Experiment Satellite I, weighing 204kg blasted off at 11:59 p.m. on April 18,

  3. Shift control method for the local time at descending node based on sun-synchronous orbit satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yong'an; Feng Zuren; Sun Linyan; Tan Wei


    This article analyzes the shift factors of the descending node local time for sun-synchronous satellites and proposes a shift control method to keep the local time shift within an allowance range. It is found that the satellite orbit design and the orbit injection deviation are the causes for the initial shift velocity, whereas the atmospheric drag and the sun gravitational perturbation produce the shift acceleration. To deal with these shift factors, a shift control method is put forward, through such methods as orbit variation design, orbit altitude, and inclination keeping control. The simulation experiment and practical application have proved the effectiveness of this control method.

  4. Backscattering and vegetation water content response of paddy crop at C-band using RISAT-1 satellite data (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Prasad, Rajendra; Choudhary, Arti; Gupta, Dileep Kumar; Narayan Mishra, Varun; Srivastava, Prashant K.


    The study about the temporal behaviour of vegetation water content (VWC) is essential for monitoring the growth of a crop to improve agricultural production. In agriculture, VWC could possibly provide information that can be used to infer water stress for irrigation decisions, vegetation health conditions, aid in yield estimation and assessment of drought conditions (Penuelas et al., 1993). The VWC is an important parameter for soil moisture retrieval in microwave remote sensing (Srivastava et al., 2014). In the present study, the backscattering and VWC response of paddy crop has been investigated using medium resolution (MRS) radar imaging satellite-1 (RISAT-1) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in Varanasi, India. The VWC of paddy crop was measured at its five different growth stages started from 15 July 2013 to 23 October 2013 from the transplanting to maturity stage during Kharif season. The whole life of paddy crop was divided into three different major growth stages like vegetative stage, reproductive stage and ripening stage. During vegetative stage, the backscattering coefficients were found increasing behaviour until the leaves became large and dense due to major contribution of stems and the interaction between the stems and water underneath the paddy crop. During reproductive stage, the backscattering coefficients were found to increase slowly due to random scattering by vertical leaves. The increase in the size of leaves cause to cover most of the spaces between plants resulted to quench the contributions from the stems and the water underneath. At the maturity stage, the backscattering showed its decreasing behaviour. The VWC of paddy crop was found increasing up to vegetative to reproductive stages (28 September 2013) and then started decreasing during the ripening (maturity) stage. Similar behaviour was obtained between backscattering coefficients and VWC that showed an increasing trend from vegetative to reproductive stage and then lowering down at

  5. Do clouds save the great barrier reef? satellite imagery elucidates the cloud-SST relationship at the local scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah M Leahy

    Full Text Available Evidence of global climate change and rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs is now well documented in the scientific literature. With corals already living close to their thermal maxima, increases in SSTs are of great concern for the survival of coral reefs. Cloud feedback processes may have the potential to constrain SSTs, serving to enforce an "ocean thermostat" and promoting the survival of coral reefs. In this study, it was hypothesized that cloud cover can affect summer SSTs in the tropics. Detailed direct and lagged relationships between cloud cover and SST across the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR shelf were investigated using data from satellite imagery and in situ temperature and light loggers during two relatively hot summers (2005 and 2006 and two relatively cool summers (2007 and 2008. Across all study summers and shelf positions, SSTs exhibited distinct drops during periods of high cloud cover, and conversely, SST increases during periods of low cloud cover, with a three-day temporal lag between a change in cloud cover and a subsequent change in SST. Cloud cover alone was responsible for up to 32.1% of the variation in SSTs three days later. The relationship was strongest in both El Niño (2005 and La Niña (2008 study summers and at the inner-shelf position in those summers. SST effects on subsequent cloud cover were weaker and more variable among study summers, with rising SSTs explaining up to 21.6% of the increase in cloud cover three days later. This work quantifies the often observed cloud cooling effect on coral reefs. It highlights the importance of incorporating local-scale processes into bleaching forecasting models, and encourages the use of remote sensing imagery to value-add to coral bleaching field studies and to more accurately predict risks to coral reefs.

  6. Integration of satellite imagery and forest inventory in mapping dominant and associated species at a regional scale. (United States)

    Zhang, Yangjian; He, Hong S; Dijak, William D; Yang, Jian; Shifley, Stephen R; Palik, Brian J


    To achieve the overall objective of restoring natural environment and sustainable resource usability, each forest management practice effect needs to be predicted using a simulation model. Previous simulation efforts were typically confined to public land. Comprehensive forest management practices entail incorporating interactions between public and private land. To make inclusion of private land into management planning feasible at the regional scale, this study uses a new method of combining Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data with remotely sensed forest group data to retrieve detailed species composition and age information for the Missouri Ozark Highlands. Remote sensed forest group and land form data inferred from topography were integrated to produce distinct combinations (ecotypes). Forest types and size classes were assigned to ecotypes based on their proportions in the FIA data. Then tree species and tree age determined from FIA subplots stratified by forest type and size class were assigned to pixels for the entire study area. The resulting species composition map can improve simulation model performance in that it has spatially explicit and continuous information of dominant and associated species, and tree ages that are unavailable from either satellite imagery or forest inventory data. In addition, the resulting species map revealed that public land and private land in Ozark Highlands differ in species composition and stand size. Shortleaf pine is a co-dominant species in public land, whereas it becomes a minor species in private land. Public forest is older than private forest. Both public and private forests have deviated from historical forest condition in terms of species composition. Based on possible reasons causing the deviation discussed in this study, corresponding management avenues that can assist in restoring natural environment were recommended.

  7. Satellite mapping of surface biophysical parameters at the biome scale over the North American grasslands a case study (United States)

    Wylie, B.K.; Meyer, D.J.; Tieszen, L.L.; Mannel, S.


    Quantification of biophysical parameters is needed by terrestrial process modeling and other applications. A study testing the role of multispectral data for monitoring biophysical parameters was conducted over a network of grassland field sites in the Great Plains of North America. Grassland biophysical parameters [leaf area index (LAI), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR), and biomass] and their relationships with ground radiometer normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were established in this study (r2=.66-.85) from data collected across the central and northern Great Plains in 1995. These spectral/biophysical relationships were compared to 1996 field data from the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in northeastern Oklahoma and showed no consistent biases, with most regression estimates falling within the respective 95% confidence intervals. Biophysical parameters were estimated for 21 "ground pixels" (grids) at the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in 1996, representing three grazing/burning treatments. Each grid was 30 ?? 30 m in size and was systematically sampled with ground radiometer readings. The radiometric measurements were then converted to biophysical parameters and spatially interpolated using geostatistical kriging. Grid-based biophysical parameters were monitored through the growing season and regressed against Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) NDVI (r2=.92-.94). These regression equations were used to estimate biophysical parameters for grassland TM pixels over the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in 1996. This method maintained consistent regression development and prediction scales and attempted to minimize scaling problems associated with mixed land cover pixels. A method for scaling Landsat biophysical parameters to coarser resolution satellite data sets (1 km2) was also investigated. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Do clouds save the great barrier reef? satellite imagery elucidates the cloud-SST relationship at the local scale. (United States)

    Leahy, Susannah M; Kingsford, Michael J; Steinberg, Craig R


    Evidence of global climate change and rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is now well documented in the scientific literature. With corals already living close to their thermal maxima, increases in SSTs are of great concern for the survival of coral reefs. Cloud feedback processes may have the potential to constrain SSTs, serving to enforce an "ocean thermostat" and promoting the survival of coral reefs. In this study, it was hypothesized that cloud cover can affect summer SSTs in the tropics. Detailed direct and lagged relationships between cloud cover and SST across the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR) shelf were investigated using data from satellite imagery and in situ temperature and light loggers during two relatively hot summers (2005 and 2006) and two relatively cool summers (2007 and 2008). Across all study summers and shelf positions, SSTs exhibited distinct drops during periods of high cloud cover, and conversely, SST increases during periods of low cloud cover, with a three-day temporal lag between a change in cloud cover and a subsequent change in SST. Cloud cover alone was responsible for up to 32.1% of the variation in SSTs three days later. The relationship was strongest in both El Niño (2005) and La Niña (2008) study summers and at the inner-shelf position in those summers. SST effects on subsequent cloud cover were weaker and more variable among study summers, with rising SSTs explaining up to 21.6% of the increase in cloud cover three days later. This work quantifies the often observed cloud cooling effect on coral reefs. It highlights the importance of incorporating local-scale processes into bleaching forecasting models, and encourages the use of remote sensing imagery to value-add to coral bleaching field studies and to more accurately predict risks to coral reefs.

  9. Design and testing of the navigation model for three axis stabilized earth oriented satellites applied to the ATS-6 satellite image data base (United States)

    Kuhlow, W. W.; Chatters, G. C.


    An earth edge methodology has been developed to account for the relative attitude changes between successive ATS-6 images which allows reasonable high quality wind sets to be produced. The method consists of measuring the displacements of the right and left infrared earth edges between successive ATS-6 images as a function of scan line; from these measurements the attitude changes can be deduced and used to correct the apparent cloud displacement measurements. The wind data sets generated from ATS-6 using the earth-edge methodology were compared with those derived from the SMS-1 images (and model) covering the same time period. Quantitative comparisons for low level trade cumuli were made at interpolated uniformly spaced grid points and for selected individual comparison clouds. Selected individual comparison clouds, the root-mean-square differences for the U and V components were 1.0 and 1.2 meters per second with a maximum wind direction difference of 15 deg.

  10. Remote Sensing by Satellite for Environmental Education: A Survey and a Proposal for Teaching at Upper Secondary and University Level. (United States)

    Bosler, Ulrich

    Knowledge of the environment has grown to such an extent that information technology (IT) is essential to make sense of the available data. An example of this is remote sensing by satellite. In recent years this field has grown in importance and remote sensing is used for a range of uses including the automatic survey of wheat yields in North…

  11. GPS and Satellite InSAR Observations of Landslide Activity at the Sinking Canyon in South Central Idaho (United States)

    Aly, M. H.; Glenn, N. F.; Thackray, G. D.


    Multiple rotational, transitional, and lateral spread landslides have occurred in south central Idaho where basalt lava flows overly unconsolidated lake and fluvial sediments at the Sinking Canyon. The canyon is about 0.1 km deep and 0.25-1 km wide along a 4-km segment of the Salmon Falls Creek (SFC). Local topography and hydrological conditions are most likely the major triggering factors that have initiated landslides by increasing the gravitational stresses and weakening the canyon wall materials. Landslide activity has created natural dams of SFC, which in turn has resulted in forming large lakes with a potential flooding hazard to life and property downstream. In this study, we use campaign Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of 2003-2004 and Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric (InSAR) data acquired during 1992-2007 by the European radar satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2) to identify, monitor, and analyze recent landslide activity at SFC. Results show that three main landslides have been active during the period of observation: the Salmon Falls landslide (SFL) that has been first reported in 1999, the historical 1937 landslide, and a third unnamed landslide to the north of the 1937 slide. InSAR measurements indicate that the SFL has been active during the period of our earliest interferogram (1992-1993) whereas the slide head has detached and has moved away from the eastern canyon wall about 3 cm. Over the years, the SFL body and toe have been pushed westward repetitively at rates of about 3-7 cm/yr. The toe is confined by the western canyon wall and thus is pushed upward in some years causing slight uplift (2-3 cm). Our field observations reveal many transverse and radial cracks associated with the deformation pattern caused by recurring motions. The historic 1937 slide is the largest mass wasting and is the least active landslide in the study area. The unnamed slide shows episodic activity with varying rates (0-4 cm/yr) of line-of-sight motions. This


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China on Sept.25 recovered its 19th recoverable sci-tech experimental satellite 27 days after the satellite orbited in space. The satellite, which was launched on Aug.29 from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Gansu Province, northwest China, touched the ground at 7:55 a.m.on Sept.25. The satellite, atop a Long March 2C carrier rocket, is mainly for

  13. Analysis of the nature of excessive cosmic radiation in the area of the Brazilian magnetic anomaly at altitudes 250-500km, from Kosmos-225 satellite data (United States)

    Raychenko, L. V.


    Results are presented from a study of the region of anomalous cosmic radiation in the area of the Brazilian magnetic anomaly at the altitudes 250-500 km, using data measurements taken on the Kosmos-225 satellite (14-29 June 1968). The existence of a stable intensity anomaly discovered in the experiments on the second and third Soviet spacecraft-satellites is confirmed. The total vector of the geomagnetic field at different altitudes was compared with isoline maps. An altitude profile of the South Atlantic anomaly of radiation intensity was obtained, using data from the same instrument. The nature of the anomalies in cosmic radiation intensity over the regions of negative magnetic anomalies is discussed.

  14. Non-algal particles spatial-temporal distribution at global scale: a first estimation from satellite data (United States)

    Bellacicco, Marco; Volpe, Gianluca; Colella, Simone; Pitarch, Jaime; Brando, Vittorio; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia


    Phytoplankton, heterotrophic bacteria and viruses contribute to the definition of the trophic regime of the oceans. While phytoplankton has been extensively studied from space, satellite studies of the autochthonous non-algal particles (NAP, i.e. bacteria and viruses) are relatively recent. Dedicated studies of the NAP distribution and dynamics can help to improve the understanding of marine ecosystem change, globally. Using the 18 years of Glob-Colour monthly satellite data, from the satellite particulate backscattering coefficient (bbp) the NAP global climatology was derived. High NAP values were found in productive regions like polar seas, the North Atlantic and the equatorial Pacific, as well as shelf regions affected by upwelling currents. In contrast, oligotrophic areas like the sub-tropical gyres displayed low NAP values. The annual and seasonal distribution as well as the temporal evolution will be discussed. In the future, improved understanding of the phytoplankton dynamics and physiology will benefit from accurate NAP calculations for different regions and seasons in relation to climate change studies.

  15. MAX-DOAS measurements and satellite validation of tropospheric NO2 and SO2 vertical column densities at a rural site of North China (United States)

    Jin, Junli; Ma, Jianzhong; Lin, Weili; Zhao, Huarong; Shaiganfar, Reza; Beirle, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas


    North China (NC), namely Huabei in Chinese, is one of the most severely polluted regions in China, and the air pollution issues in this region have received a worldwide attention. We performed ground-based Multi Axis Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements at Gucheng, (39°08‧N, 115°40‧E), a rural site of North China about 110 km southwest of Beijing, from September 2008 to September 2010. The tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) of NO2 and SO2 were retrieved using the so-called geometric approximation. The results show that the tropospheric NO2 and SO2 VCDs over NC have nearly the same seasonal variation pattern, with the maximum in winter and minimum in summer, while their diurnal variations are different. We also compared the tropospheric NO2 and SO2 VCDs from our MAX-DOAS measurements with several products of corresponding OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) satellite observations. While in summer good agreement is found, the satellite observations systematically underestimate the tropospheric NO2 in winter over the polluted rural area of NC, probably mostly due to the so called aerosol shielding effect. In contrast, for SO2 no such clear conclusion can be drawn, probably owing to the larger uncertainties from MAX-DOAS and in particular satellite retrievals. This indicates that improvements of the retrieval algorithm for MAX-DOAS and off-line corrections of satellite measurements for the tropospheric SO2 VCDs should be given more emphasis in the future.

  16. Validation of three satellite-derived databases of surface solar radiation using measurements performed at 42 stations in Brazil (United States)

    Thomas, Claire; Wey, Etienne; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien


    The SoDa website ( is populated with numerous solar-related Web services. Among them, three satellite-derived irradiation databases can be manually or automatically accessed to retrieve radiation values within the geographical coverage of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite: the two most advanced versions of the HelioClim-3 database (versions 4 and 5, respectively HC3v4 and HC3v5), and the CAMS radiation service. So far, these databases have been validated against measurements of several stations in Europe and North Africa only. As the quality of such databases depends on the geographical regions and the climates, this paper extends this validation campaign and proposes an extensive comparison on Brazil and global irradiation received on a horizontal surface. Eleven stations from the Brazilian Institute of Space Research (INPE) network offer 1 min observations, and thirty-one stations from the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET) network offer hourly observations. The satellite-derived estimates have been compared to the corresponding observations on hourly, daily and monthly basis. The bias relative to the mean of the measurements for HC3v5 is mostly comprised between 1 and 3 %, and that for HC3v4 between 2 and 5 %. These are very satisfactory results and they demonstrate that HC3v5, and to a lesser extent HC3v4, may be used in studies of long-term changes in SSI in Brazil. The situation is not so good with CAMS radiation service for which the relative bias is mostly comprised between 5 and 10 %. For hourly irradiation, the relative RMSE ranges from 15 to 33 %. The correlation coefficient is very large for all stations and the three databases, with an average of 0.96. The three databases reproduce well the hour from hour changes in SSI. The errors show a tendency to increase with the viewing angle of the MSG satellite. They are greater in tropical areas where the relative humidity in the atmosphere is important. It is concluded

  17. Galaxy environment in the 3D-HST fields. Witnessing the onset of satellite quenching at z ~ 1-2

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, M; Mendel, J T; Saglia, R P; Galametz, A; Beifiori, A; Bender, R; Chan, J C C; Fabricius, M; Bandara, K; Brammer, G B; Davies, R; Schreiber, N M Förster; Genzel, R; Hartley, W; Kulkarni, S K; Lang, P; Momcheva, I G; Nelson, E J; Skelton, R; Tacconi, L J; Tadaki, K; Übler, H; van Dokkum, P G; Wisnioski, E; Whitaker, K E; Wuyts, E; Wuyts, S


    We make publicly available a catalog of calibrated environmental measures for galaxies in the five 3D-HST/CANDELS deep fields. Leveraging the spectroscopic and grism redshifts from the 3D-HST survey, multi wavelength photometry from CANDELS, and wider field public data for edge corrections, we derive densities in fixed apertures to characterize the environment of galaxies brighter than $JH_{140} < 24$ mag in the redshift range $0.5satellite galaxy. The same procedure is applied to a $z=0$ sample selected from SDSS. We compute the fraction of passive central and satellite galaxies as a function of stellar and halo mass, and redshift, and then derive the fraction of galaxies that were quenched by environment specific processes. Using the mock sample, w...

  18. Mapping Above-Ground Biomass of Winter Oilseed Rape Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Data at Parcel Scale under Waterlogging Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Han


    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is one of the three most important oil crops in China, and is regarded as a drought-tolerant oilseed crop. However, it is commonly sensitive to waterlogging, which usually refers to an adverse environment that limits crop development. Moreover, crop growth and soil irrigation can be monitored at a regional level using remote sensing data. High spatial resolution optical satellite sensors are very useful to capture and resist unfavorable field conditions at the sub-field scale. In this study, four different optical sensors, i.e., Pleiades-1A, Worldview-2, Worldview-3, and SPOT-6, were used to estimate the dry above-ground biomass (AGB of oilseed rape and track the seasonal growth dynamics. In addition, three different soil water content field experiments were carried out at different oilseed rape growth stages from November 2014 to May 2015 in Northern Zhejiang province, China. As a significant indicator of crop productivity, AGB was measured during the seasonal growth stages of the oilseed rape at the experimental plots. Several representative vegetation indices (VIs obtained from multiple satellite sensors were compared with the simultaneously-collected oilseed rape AGB. Results showed that the estimation model using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI with a power regression model performed best through the seasonal growth dynamics, with the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.77, the smallest root mean square error (RMSE = 104.64 g/m2, and the relative RMSE (rRMSE = 21%. It is concluded that the use of selected VIs and high spatial multiple satellite data can significantly estimate AGB during the winter oilseed rape growth stages, and can be applied to map the variability of winter oilseed rape at the sub-field level under different waterlogging conditions, which is very promising in the application of agricultural irrigation and precision agriculture.

  19. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas


    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three......-axis magnetometer, three piezoelectric gyros, and four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. The operation of the spacecraft is fully autonomous. The data flow between the transducers and the onboard computer placed physically outside the satellite is provided by a radio link. The purpose...

  20. Declassified intelligence satellite photographs (United States)



    Recently declassified photographs from spy satellites are an important addition to the record of the Earth?s land surface held by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). More than 800,000 high-resolution photos taken between 1959 through 1972 were made available by Executive Order of the President. The collection is held at the USGS EROS Data Center, near Sioux Falls, S. Dak., and are offered for public sale. For some purposes in earth science studies, these photos extend the record of changes in the land surface another decade back in time from the advent of the Landsat earth-observing satellite program.

  1. Broadcast satellite service: The international dimension (United States)

    Samara, Noah


    The dawn of the 1990's has witnessed the birth of a new satellite service - satellite sound broadcasting. This new service is characterized by digital transmission at data rates up to 256 kb/s from satellites in geostationary orbit to small, low-cost, mobile and portable receivers. The satellite sound broadcasting service is a logical step beyond navigation satellite service, such as that provided by the GPS Navstar system. The mass market appeal of satellite sound broadcasting in the area of lightsat technology and low-cost digital radios has greatly facilitated the financing of this type of space service.

  2. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  3. Use of multispectral satellite imagery and hyperspectral endmember libraries for urban land cover mapping at the metropolitan scale (United States)

    Priem, Frederik; Okujeni, Akpona; van der Linden, Sebastian; Canters, Frank


    The value of characteristic reflectance features for mapping urban materials has been demonstrated in many experiments with airborne imaging spectrometry. Analysis of larger areas requires satellite-based multispectral imagery, which typically lacks the spatial and spectral detail of airborne data. Consequently the need arises to develop mapping methods that exploit the complementary strengths of both data sources. In this paper a workflow for sub-pixel quantification of Vegetation-Impervious-Soil urban land cover is presented, using medium resolution multispectral satellite imagery, hyperspectral endmember libraries and Support Vector Regression. A Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager surface reflectance image covering the greater metropolitan area of Brussels is selected for mapping. Two spectral libraries developed for the cities of Brussels and Berlin based on airborne hyperspectral APEX and HyMap data are used. First the combined endmember library is resampled to match the spectral response of the Landsat sensor. The library is then optimized to avoid spectral redundancy and confusion. Subsequently the spectra of the endmember library are synthetically mixed to produce training data for unmixing. Mapping is carried out using Support Vector Regression models trained with spectra selected through stratified sampling of the mixed library. Validation on building block level (mean size = 46.8 Landsat pixels) yields an overall good fit between reference data and estimation with Mean Absolute Errors of 0.06, 0.06 and 0.08 for vegetation, impervious and soil respectively. Findings of this work may contribute to the use of universal spectral libraries for regional scale land cover fraction mapping using regression approaches.

  4. Biophysical indicators based on satellite images in an irrigated area at the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil (United States)

    Leivas, Janice F.; Teixeira, Antônio Heriberto C.; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; Ronquim, Carlos Cesar; Ribeiro da Silva Reis, João. Batista


    The Jaíba Irrigated Perimeter is a large irrigated agriculture area, located in the region Forest Jaíba between the São Francisco and Verde Grande rivers, in the Brazilian semi-arid region. In 2014, irrigators this the region face losses in the interruption of new plantings in irrigated areas due to water scarcity. The objective of this study is combine the model to estimate the Monteith BIO with the SAFER algorithm in the case of obtaining ET, to analyze the dynamics of natural vegetation and irrigated crops in water scarcity period. For application of the model are necessary data from meteorological stations and satellite images. Were used 23 satellite images of MODIS with spatial resolution of 250m and temporal 16 days, of 2014 year. For analyze the results, we used central pivots irrigation mask of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. In areas with irrigated agriculture with central pivot, the mean values of BIO over the year 2014 were 88.96 kg.ha-1.d-1. The highest values occurred between April 23 and May 8, with BIO 139 kg.ha-1.d-1. For areas with natural vegetation, the average BIO was 88.34 kg.ha-1.d-1 with lower values in September. Estimates of ET varied with the lowest values of ET observed in natural vegetation 1.91+/-1.22 mm.d-1 and the highest values in irrigated area is observed 3.51+/-0.97 mm.d-1. Results of this study can assist in monitoring of river basins, contributing to the management irrigated agriculture, with the trend of scarcity of water resources and increasing conflicts for the water use.

  5. A multievent study of broadband electrons observed by the DMSP satellites and their relation to red aurora observed at midlatitude stations (United States)

    Shiokawa, K.; Meng, C.-I.; Reeves, G. D.; Rich, F. J.; Yumoto, K.


    Broadband electrons during magnetic storms are characterized by an unusually intense flux of precipitating electrons in the broadband energy range from 30 eV to 30 keV near the equatorward edge of the auroral oval (47°-66° magnetic latitude). Broadband electrons were first reported by Shiokawa et al. [1996]. In this paper, we report a multievent study of broadband electrons, using particle data obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites during 23 magnetic storms from January 1989 through May 1992. Twelve broadband electron events are identified. Most of them are observed in the night sector, but some are observed in the morning sector. Particle data for successive polar passes of the DMSP multisatellites are used to show that broadband electrons generally last for less than 30 min and that for some events, they precipitate over a wide range of local times simultaneously. On the basis of a quantitative calculation of optical emissions from electrons in the neutral atmosphere, we conclude that broadband electrons are a possible cause of red auroras observed at midlatitude ground stations. We suggest that broadband electrons are associated with certain substorms during the main phase of magnetic storms. This conjecture comes from observations of H component positive bays and Pi 2 pulsations observed at low-latitude magnetic stations and from magnetic field variations observed at geosynchronous satellites. We conclude that the magnetospheric source of broadband electrons lies within the inner part of the plasma sheet. This conclusion is based on the facts that broadband electrons appear in latitudes where plasma sheet particles were observed before the event and that broadband electrons are observed poleward of the subauroral ion drifts, a position that corresponds to the inner edge of the injected particle layer during storms. High-energy particle data obtained at geosynchronous satellites show that both strong magnetopause

  6. Dome growth, collapse, and valley fill at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 2013: Contributions from satellite radar measurements of topographic change (United States)

    Arnold, D. W. D.; Biggs, J.; Wadge, G.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Odbert, H. M.; Poland, Michael P.


    Frequent high-resolution measurements of topography at active volcanoes can provide important information for assessing the distribution and rate of emplacement of volcanic deposits and their influence on hazard. At dome-building volcanoes, monitoring techniques such as LiDAR and photogrammetry often provide a limited view of the area affected by the eruption. Here, we show the ability of satellite radar observations to image the lava dome and pyroclastic density current deposits that resulted from 15 years of eruptive activity at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 2010. We present the first geodetic measurements of the complete subaerial deposition field on Montserrat, including the lava dome. Synthetic aperture radar observations from the Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) and TanDEM-X mission are used to map the distribution and magnitude of elevation changes. We estimate a net dense-rock equivalent volume increase of 108 ± 15M m3 of the lava dome and 300 ± 220M m3 of talus and subaerial pyroclastic density current deposits. We also show variations in deposit distribution during different phases of the eruption, with greatest on-land deposition to the south and west, from 1995 to 2005, and the thickest deposits to the west and north after 2005. We conclude by assessing the potential of using radar-derived topographic measurements as a tool for monitoring and hazard assessment during eruptions at dome-building volcanoes.

  7. China Launches Two Natural Disaster Monitoring Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ China launched two satellites, HJ-1A and HJ-1B, to monitor the environment and natural disasters at 11:25am on September 6 (Beijing time) from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in Shanxi Province. The two satellites are expected to improve the country's ability in the rapid monitoring of environmental changes and reducing calamities.

  8. First China-Europe Satellite Successfully Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    On December 30, 2003 China successfully launched TC-1,the first of two scientific satellites known as Double Star, The mission,the first time that European instruments were integrated with Chinese satellites,was carried out by a Long March 2C/SM rocket at 3:06 am from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in Sichuan province.

  9. From Satellites to Rings: The Diversity of the Saturnian System Ices in the VIS-NIR at the End of Cassini-VIMS Nominal Mission (United States)

    Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, F.; Tosi, F.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R. N.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M. M.; McCord, T. B.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.


    After four years of nominal mission, VIMS has observed the whole population of Saturnian icy objects allowing a comparative analysis of the VIS-NIR spectral properties of the regular satellites (Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Hyperion, Iapetus, Phoebe), minor moons (Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, Epimetheus, Telesto, Calypso) and main rings (A, B, C and Cassini division). The results we present are derived from the whole dataset available at june 2008 which consists of about 1500 full-disk observations of the moons as well as several radial mosaics of the ring system. The most important spectrophotometric indicators (I/F continua, VIS spectral slopes, water and carbon dioxide IR bands strengths and positions) are calculated for each observation in order to identify the disk-integrated compositional units of the satellites, the distribution of water ice respect to "contaminants” abundances and typical regolith grain properties for both satellites and rings. These quantities are varying between the almost pure water ice surfaces of Enceladus and Calypso to the organic and carbon dioxide rich Hyperion, Iapetus and Phoebe. Some significant differences are detected in the VIS colors of co-orbital moons Epimetheus and Janus, with the first very red and therefore similar to Hyperion while the last is more "neutral” these results could help to decipher the origins and evolutional story of these two moons. The water ice band strengths of the A-B rings are the most intense of the Saturnian system denoting a minimal presence of "contaminants” which can be estimated thanks to the 350-520 nm spectral slope. Finally we compare these spectral parameters with some TNOs and outer solar system objects (1995UG5, 90377-Sedna, 1996TO66, Pholus, Triton, Charon, Oberon, Titania) to search for possible analogies. This research was possible thanks to the support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI).

  10. Direct Broadcast Satellite: Radio Program (United States)

    Hollansworth, James E.


    NASA is committed to providing technology development that leads to the introduction of new commercial applications for communications satellites. The Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Program is a joint effort between The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and The United States Information Agency/Voice of America (USIA/VOA) directed at this objective. The purpose of this program is to define the service and develop the technology for a direct-to-listener satellite sound broadcasting system. The DBS-R Program, as structured by NASA and VOA, is now a three-phase program designed to help the U.S. commercial communications satellite and receiver industry bring about this new communications service. Major efforts are being directed towards frequency planning hardware and service development, service demonstration, and experimentation with new satellite and receiver technology.

  11. Sky alert! when satellites fail

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Les


    How much do we depend on space satellites? Defense, travel, agriculture, weather forecasting, mobile phones and broadband, commerce...the list seems endless. But what would our live be like if the unimaginable happened and, by accident or design, those space assets disappeared? Sky Alert! explores what our world would be like, looking in turn at areas where the loss could have catastrophic effects. The book - demonstrates our dependence on space technology and satellites; - outlines the effect on our economy, defense, and daily lives if satellites and orbiting spacecraft were destroyed; - illustrates the danger of dead satellites, spent rocket stages, and space debris colliding with a functioning satellites; - demonstrates the threat of dramatically increased radiation levels associated with geomagnetic storms; - introduces space as a potential area of conflict between nations.

  12. The precipitation products generation chain for the EUMETSAT Hydrological Satellite Application Facility at C.N.M.C.A. (United States)

    Biron, Daniele; Melfi, Davide; Zauli, Francesco


    The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility in support to Hydrology (H-SAF) focuses on development of new geophysical products on precipitation, soil moisture and snow parameters and the utilisation of these parameters in hydrological models, NWP models and water management. The development phase of the H-SAF started in September 2005 under the leadership of Italian Meteorological Service. The "Centro Nazionale di Meteorologia e Climatologia Aeronautica (C.N.M.C.A.)", the Italian National Weather Centre, that physically hosts the generation chain of precipitation products, carried on activities to reach the final target: development of algorithms, validation of results, implementation of operative procedure to supply the service and to monitor the service performances. The paper shows the architectural status of the H-SAF precipitation group and stress the component of operations. It is shown the full correspondence with the EUMETSAT approved H-SAF documents, in particular the Algorithm Theoretical Design Document (ATDD), where products characteristics are referenced. Are also reported the first results, produced during the first H-SAF Workshop, held in Rome in October 2007, of validation activities performed on version 1 products, and last results of products distribution to beta-users in preparation of distributing version 2.

  13. Diurnal variation of stratospheric and lower mesospheric HOCl, ClO and HO2 at the equator: comparison of 1-D model calculations with measurements by satellite instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khosravi


    Full Text Available The diurnal variation of HOCl and the related species ClO, HO2 and HCl measured by satellites has been compared with the results of a one-dimensional photochemical model. The study compares the data from various limb-viewing instruments with model simulations from the middle stratosphere to the lower mesosphere. Data from three sub-millimetre instruments and two infrared spectrometers are used, namely from the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR on board Odin, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on board Aura, the Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES on the International Space Station, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on board ENVISAT, and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS on board SCISAT. Inter-comparison of the measurements from instruments on sun-synchronous satellites (SMR, MLS, MIPAS and measurements from solar occultation instruments (ACE-FTS is challenging since the measurements correspond to different solar zenith angles (or local times. However, using a model which covers all solar zenith angles and data from the SMILES instrument which measured at all local times over a period of several months provides the possibility to verify the model and to indirectly compare the diurnally variable species. The satellite data were averaged for latitudes of 20° S to 20° N for the SMILES observation period from November 2009 to April 2010 and were compared at three altitudes: 35, 45 and 55 km. Besides presenting the SMILES data, the study also shows a first comparison of the latest MLS data (version 3.3 of HOCl, ClO, and HO2 with other satellite observations, as well as a first evaluation of HO2 observations made by Odin/SMR. The MISU-1D model has been carefully initialised and run for conditions and locations of the observations. The diurnal cycle features for the species investigated here are generally well reproduced by the model. The satellite

  14. Satellite-based remote sensing of running water habitats at large riverscape scales: Tools to analyze habitat heterogeneity for river ecosystem management (United States)

    Hugue, F.; Lapointe, M.; Eaton, B. C.; Lepoutre, A.


    We illustrate an approach to quantify patterns in hydraulic habitat composition and local heterogeneity applicable at low cost over very large river extents, with selectable reach window scales. Ongoing developments in remote sensing and geographical information science massively improve efficiencies in analyzing earth surface features. With the development of new satellite sensors and drone platforms and with the lowered cost of high resolution multispectral imagery, fluvial geomorphology is experiencing a revolution in mapping streams at high resolution. Exploiting the power of aerial or satellite imagery is particularly useful in a riverscape research framework (Fausch et al., 2002), where high resolution sampling of fluvial features and very large coverage extents are needed. This study presents a satellite remote sensing method that requires very limited field calibration data to estimate over various scales ranging from 1 m to many tens or river kilometers (i) spatial composition metrics for key hydraulic mesohabitat types and (ii) reach-scale wetted habitat heterogeneity indices such as the hydromorphological index of diversity (HMID). When the purpose is hydraulic habitat characterization applied over long river networks, the proposed method (although less accurate) is much less computationally expensive and less data demanding than two dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Here, we illustrate the tools based on a Worldview 2 satellite image of the Kiamika River, near Mont Laurier, Quebec, Canada, specifically over a 17-km river reach below the Kiamika dam. In the first step, a high resolution water depth (D) map is produced from a spectral band ratio (calculated from the multispectral image), calibrated with limited field measurements. Next, based only on known river discharge and estimated cross section depths at time of image capture, empirical-based pseudo-2D hydraulic rules are used to rapidly generate a two-dimensional map of flow velocity

  15. Are rotating planes of satellite galaxies ubiquitous?

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, John I; Bullock, James S; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael


    We compare the dynamics of satellite galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to simple models in order to test the hypothesis that a large fraction of satellites co-rotate in coherent planes. We confirm the previously-reported excess of co-rotating satellite pairs located near diametric opposition with respect to the host, but show that this signal is unlikely to be due to rotating discs (or planes) of satellites. In particular, no overabundance of co-rotating satellites pairs is observed within $\\sim 20^{\\circ}-50^{\\circ}$ of direct opposition, as would be expected for planar distributions inclined relative to the line-of-sight. Instead, the excess co-rotation for satellite pairs within $\\sim 10^{\\circ}$ of opposition is consistent with random noise associated with undersampling of an underlying isotropic velocity distribution. We conclude that at most $10\\%$ of the hosts in our sample harbor co-rotating satellite planes (as traced by the luminous satellite population).

  16. Cibola flight experiment satellite (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart


    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  17. Comparison of the space radiation environment at Foton M3 satellite altitudes and on aircraft altitudes for minimum of solar activity (United States)

    Ploc, Ondrej; Dachev, Tsvetan; Spurny, Frantisek; Tomov, Borislav; Dimitrov, Plamen; Matviichuk, Yury; Bankov, Nikolay

    The space radiation environments at Foton M3 and aircraft altitudes were measured by using of practically equal silicon detector based on a deposited energy spectrometers in the fall of 2007. The aircraft measurements were performed on commercial flights of CSA airlines, while the Foton M3 measurements were inside of the ESA Biopan 6 experiment. Foton M3 orbit was close to circular between 260 and 289 km altitude and about 63° inclination. The relatively high inclination and small shielding of the detector (0.81 g/cm2 ) allow us to observe doses by electrons in the outer radiation belt as high as 2.3 mGy/hour. The comparison of the total GCR deposited doses for the Foton M3 time interval, which coincides with the absolute cycle 23 minimum of the solar activity is about 15% higher than the measured during the Foton M2 satellite doses in 2005. Comparisons of the latitudinal profiles for ISS in 2001, Foton 2 and 3 satellites and aircrafts show that the ratio of doses is as 1:2:3. Aircraft measurements are characterised through average values of exposure during frequent, statistically well based measurements on the routes Prague - New York. Dose absorbed in Si-detector per flight on these routes was about 8% higher in 2007 than in 2005. Different comparisons with the existing models for the radiation environment on aircraft and spacecraft altitudes are presented in the paper also and discussed.

  18. Development of a Model for Estimation of Acacia Senegal Tree Biomass Using Allometry and Aster Satellite Imagery at Ennuhud, West Kordofan State, Sudan (United States)

    Elamin, Hatim; Elnour Adam, Hassan; Csaplovics, Elmar

    The current paper deals with the development of a biomass model for Acacia senegal trees by applying allometric equations for ground data combined with ASTER satellite data sets. The current study is conducted around Ennuhud area which is located in Ennuhud locality in West Kordofan State, Sudan. Primary data are obtained by application of random sampling around Ennuhud town where Acacia senegal tree species is abundant. Ten sample units are taken. Each unit contains five sample plots (15x15 m), one in the centre and the others in the four directions 100 m away from the centre forming a total of 50 sample plots. The tree coordinates, diameter/diameters (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm), height and crown diameters will be recorded. Sensor data were acquired from ASTER remote sensing satellite (29.03.2007 & 26.01.2011) and integrated with the in-situ data. The expected findings allow for the calculation of the mean diameter of trees. The tree above ground biomass (TAGB), tree below ground biomass (TBGB) and the tree total biomass (TTB) of Acacia senegal are computed consequently. Remotely sensed data are integrated with the ground data for creating the data base for calculating the correlation of the relationship between the two methods of data collection. The application of allometric equations is useful as a non-destructive method for biomass estimation by the application of remote sensing is recommended for biomass modelling over large areas. Keywords: Biomass model, Acacia senegal tree, remote sensing, Ennuhud, North Kordofan

  19. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An integrated environment for rapid design studies of small satellite missions will be developed. This environment will be designed to streamline processes at the...

  20. Understanding Droughts and their Agricultural Impact in North America at the Basin Scale through the Development of Satellite Based Drought Indicators (United States)

    Munoz Hernandez, A.; Lawford, R. G.


    Drought is a major constraint severely affecting numerous agricultural regions in North America. Decision makers need timely information on the existence of a drought as well as its intensity, frequency, likely duration, and economic and social effects in order to implement adaptation strategies and minimize its impacts. Countries like Mexico and Canada face a challenge associated with the lack of consistent and reliable in-situ data that allows the computation of drought indicators at resolutions that effectively supports decision makers at the watershed scale. This study focuses on (1) the development of near-real time drought indicators at high resolution utilizing various satellite data for use in improving adaptation plans and mitigation actions at the basin level; (2) the quantification of the relationships between current and historical droughts and their agricultural impacts by evaluating thresholds for drought impacts; and (3) the assessment of the effects of existing water policies, economic subsidies, and infrastructure that affect the vulnerability of a particular region to the economic impacts of a drought. A pilot study area located in Northwest Mexico and known as the Rio Yaqui Basin was selected for this study in order to make comparisons between the satellite based indicators derived from currently available satellite products to provide an assessment of the quality of the products generated. The Rio Yaqui Basin, also referred to as the "bread basket" of Mexico, is situated in an arid to semi-arid region where highly sophisticated irrigation systems have been implemented to support extensive agriculture. Although for many years the irrigation systems acted as a safety net for the farmers, recent droughts have significantly impacted agricultural output, affected thousands of people, and increase the dependence on groundwater. The drought indices generated are used in conjunction with a decision-support model to provide information on drought impacts

  1. The 2002 rock/ice avalanche at Kolka/Karmadon, Russian Caucasus: assessment of extraordinary avalanche formation and mobility, and application of QuickBird satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huggel


    Full Text Available A massive rock/ice avalanche of about 100x106m3 volume took place on the northern slope of the Kazbek massif, North Ossetia, Russian Caucasus, on 20 September 2002. The avalanche started as a slope failure, that almost completely entrained Kolka glacier, traveled down the Genaldon valley for 20km, was stopped at the entrance of the Karmadon gorge, and was finally succeeded by a distal mudflow which continued for another 15km. The event caused the death of ca. 140 people and massive destruction. Several aspects of the event are extraordinary, i.e. the large ice volume involved, the extreme initial acceleration, the high flow velocity, the long travel distance and particularly the erosion of a valley-type glacier, a process not known so far. The analysis of these aspects is essential for process understanding and worldwide glacial hazard assessments. This study is therefore concerned with the analysis of processes and the evaluation of the most likely interpretations. The analysis is based on QuickBird satellite images, field observations, and ice-, flow- and thermo-mechanical considerations. QuickBird is currently the best available satellite sensor in terms of ground resolution (0.6 m and opens new perspectives for assessment of natural hazards. Evaluation of the potential of QuickBird images for assessment of high-mountain hazards shows the feasibility for detailed avalanche mapping and analysis of flow dynamics, far beyond the capabilities of conventional satellite remote sensing. It is shown that the avalanche was characterized by two different flows. The first one was comparable to a hyperconcentrated flow and was immediately followed by a flow with a much lower concentration of water involving massive volumes of ice. The high mobility of the avalanche is likely related to fluidization effects at the base of the moving ice/debris mass with high pore pressures and a continuous supply of water due to frictional melting of ice. The paper

  2. On the stratospheric aerosol budget at Northern mid-latitudes from 21 years of ground-based lidar and satellite observations (United States)

    Khaykin, Sergey; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Hauchecorne, Alain; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Jumelet, Julien; Keckhut, Philippe


    The paper presents a new high-quality 21-year series of continuous stratospheric aerosol observations at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP, 44° N, 6° E) in Southern France using two powerful and well-maintained lidar systems. In contrast to previous studies making use of the observations by aerosol-dedicated lidars operating within the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), we exploit the backscatter measurements from the off-line 355 nm channel of stratospheric ozone lidar (LiO3S) and low-gain 532 nm channel of stratospheric temperature lidar (LTA). The presented series of stratospheric aerosol backscatter and extinction at 532 nm, spanning from January 1994 through 2016, include on average 10-11 lidar acquisitions per month after careful quality screening. The OHP lidar observations are compared with global space-borne measurements of zonal-mean stratospheric extinction by SAGE II, GOMOS, OSIRIS and CALIOP instruments, altogether covering the time span of OHP lidar data sets. Both ground-based and satellite monthly-mean stratospheric Aerosol Optical Depth between 17 and 30 km altitude (sAOD1730km) series are in good cross-agreement with discrepancies well below the measurement errors, thereby ensuring the quality and coherency of all data sets exploited for our study. The global satellite observations are then used to identify the drivers of stratospheric aerosol variability observed locally by the OHP lidars. The 21-year aerosol series reflect two essential periods in the global volcanic activity over the past two decades. The first one, a long volcanically-quiescent period of low aerosol burden (0.002Vernier et al. (2011), takes place mainly during the southern tropics convective season, which together with the timescale of poleward transport is compatible with the observed seasonality of aerosol in the mid-latitude stratosphere.

  3. women Contrlbute to Satellite Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    IN the early morning of August 14, 1992, at the Xichang satellite launching center, China Central Television Station was about to do a live, worldwide broadcast on the launching of an Australian communications satellite made by the United States. With the order of the commander, "Ignition," people could watch the white rocket rise, pierce the blue sky and race toward the space with a long flaming tail trailing behind it.

  4. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas


    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three...... of the laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...

  5. Satellite data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Bormin


    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  6. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Raastad, Truls


    -damaging exercise', primarily eccentric exercise. We review the evidence for the notion that the degree of muscle damage is related to the magnitude of the cytokine response. In the third and final section, we look at the satellite cell response to a single bout of eccentric exercise, as well as the role...... variation in individual responses to a given exercise should, however be expected. The link between cytokine and satellite cell responses and exercise-induced muscle damage is not so clear The systemic cytokine response may be linked more closely to the metabolic demands of exercise rather than muscle...... damage. With the exception of IL-6, the sources of systemic cytokines following exercise remain unclear The satellite cell response to severe muscle damage is related to regeneration, whereas the biological significance of satellite cell proliferation after mild damage or non-damaging exercise remains...

  7. Applications of Communications Satellites in Higher Education. (United States)

    Morgan, Robert P.

    Early experiments with the ATS-1 and ATS-3 satellites utilized one way and two way audio for a variety of university purposes, and several different television modes were employed in the ATS-6 satellite. Among the higher education activities on ATS-6 were inservice teacher education and the facilitation of regionalized medical education. A college…

  8. Heart Monitoring By Satellite (United States)


    The ambulance antenna shown is a specially designed system that allows satellite-relayed two-way communications between a moving emergency vehicle and a hospital emergency room. It is a key component of a demonstration program aimed at showing how emergency medical service can be provided to people in remote rural areas. Satellite communication permits immediate, hospital- guided treatment of heart attacks or other emergencies by ambulance personnel, saving vital time when the scene of the emergency is remote from the hospital. If widely adopted, the system could save tens of thousands of lives annually in the U.S. alone, medical experts say. The problem in conventional communication with rural areas is the fact that radio signals travel in line of sight. They may be blocked by tall buildings, hills and mountains, or even by the curvature of the Earth, so signal range is sharply limited. Microwave relay towers could solve the problem, but a complete network of repeater towers would be extremely expensive. The satellite provides an obstruction-free relay station in space.

  9. Tethered satellite design (United States)

    Manarini, G.


    The capability of the satellite to perform a variety of space operations to be accomplished from the shuttle is reviewed considering use of the satellite with man-in-loop and closed loop modes and deployment (toward or away from Earth, up to 100 km), stationkeeping, retrieval and control of the satellite. Scientific payloads are to be used to perform experiments and scientific investigation for applications such as magnetometry, electrodynamics, atmospheric science, chemical release, communications, plasmaphysics, dynamic environment, and power and thrust generation. The TSS-S will be reused for at least 3 missions after reconfiguration and refurbishment by changing the peculiar mission items such as thermal control, fixed boom for experiments, aerodynamic tail for yaw attitude control, external skin, experiments, and any other feature. The TSS-S is to be composed of three modules in order to allow independent integration of a single module and to facilitate the refurbishment and reconfiguration between flights. The three modules are service, auxiliary propulsion, and payload modules.

  10. Minority University System Engineering: A Small Satellite Design Experience Held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory During the Summer of 1996 (United States)

    Ordaz, Miguel Angel


    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), North Carolina A&T and California State University of Los Angeles participated during the summer of 1996 in a prototype program known as Minority University Systems Engineering (MUSE). The program consisted of a ten week internship at JPL for students and professors of the three universities. The purpose of MUSE as set forth in the MUSE program review August 5, 1996 was for the participants to gain experience in the following areas: 1) Gain experience in a multi-disciplinary project; 2) Gain experience working in a culturally diverse atmosphere; 3) Provide field experience for students to reinforce book learning; and 4) Streamline the design process in two areas: make it more financially feasible; and make it faster.

  11. The Phase Space and Stellar Populations of Cluster Galaxies at z ~ 1: Simultaneous Constraints on the Location and Timescale of Satellite Quenching (United States)

    Muzzin, Adam; van der Burg, R. F. J.; McGee, Sean L.; Balogh, Michael; Franx, Marijn; Hoekstra, Henk; Hudson, Michael J.; Noble, Allison; Taranu, Dan S.; Webb, Tracy; Wilson, Gillian; Yee, H. K. C.


    We investigate the velocity versus position phase space of z ~ 1 cluster galaxies using a set of 424 spectroscopic redshifts in nine clusters drawn from the GCLASS survey. Dividing the galaxy population into three categories, that is, quiescent, star-forming, and poststarburst, we find that these populations have distinct distributions in phase space. Most striking are the poststarburst galaxies, which are commonly found at small clustercentric radii with high clustercentric velocities, and appear to trace a coherent "ring" in phase space. Using several zoom simulations of clusters, we show that the coherent distribution of the poststarbursts can be reasonably well reproduced using a simple quenching scenario. Specifically, the phase space is best reproduced if these galaxies are quenched with a rapid timescale (0.1 0.5 Gyr) or by quenching galaxies at larger radii (R ~ R 200). We compare this quenching timescale to the timescale implied by the stellar populations of the poststarburst galaxies and find that the poststarburst spectra are well-fit by a rapid quenching (τ Q = 0.4+0.3-0.4 Gyr) of a typical star-forming galaxy. The similarity between the quenching timescales derived from these independent indicators is a strong consistency check of the quenching model. Given that the model implies satellite quenching is rapid and occurs well within R 200, this would suggest that ram-pressure stripping of either the hot or cold gas component of galaxies are the most plausible candidates for the physical mechanism. The high cold gas consumption rates at z ~ 1 make it difficult to determine whether hot or cold gas stripping is dominant; however, measurements of the redshift evolution of the satellite quenching timescale and location may be capable of distinguishing between the two. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on

  12. Xichang Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Xichang Satellite Launch Center(XSLC) is mainly for geosynchronous orbit launches. The main purpose of XSLC is to launch spacecraft, such as broadcasting,communications and meteorological satellites, into geo-stationary orbit.Most of the commercial satellite launches of Long March vehicles have been from Xichang Satellite Launch Center. With 20 years' development,XSLC can launch 5 kinds of launch vehicles and send satellites into geostationary orbit and polar orbit. In the future, moon exploration satellites will also be launched from XSLC.

  13. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio


    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  14. Date of Snowmelt at High Latitudes as Determined from Visible Satellite Data and Relationship with the Arctic Oscillation (United States)

    Foster, James; Robinson, Dave; Estilow, Tom; Hall, Dorothy


    Spring snow cover across Arctic lands has, on average, retreated approximately five days earlier since the late 1980s compared to the previous twenty years. However, it appears that since about 1990, the date the snowline first retreats north during the spring has remained nearly unchanged--in the last twenty years, the date of snow disappearance has not been occurring noticeably earlier. Snowmelt changes observed in the 1980s was step-like in nature, unlike a more continuous downward trend seen in Arctic sea ice extent. At latitude 70 deg N, several latitudinal segments (of 10 degrees) show significant (negative) trends. However, only two latitudinal segments at 60 deg N show significant trends, one positive and one negative. These variations appear to be related to variations in the Arctic Oscillation (AO). Additional observations and modeling investigations are needed to better explain past and present spring melt characteristics and peculiarities.

  15. Urban Surface Temperature Time Series Estimation at the Local Scale by Spatial-Spectral Unmixing of Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Mitraka


    Full Text Available The study of urban climate requires frequent and accurate monitoring of land surface temperature (LST, at the local scale. Since currently, no space-borne sensor provides frequent thermal infrared imagery at high spatial resolution, the scientific community has focused on synergistic methods for retrieving LST that can be suitable for urban studies. Synergistic methods that combine the spatial structure of visible and near-infrared observations with the more frequent, but low-resolution surface temperature patterns derived by thermal infrared imagery provide excellent means for obtaining frequent LST estimates at the local scale in cities. In this study, a new approach based on spatial-spectral unmixing techniques was developed for improving the spatial resolution of thermal infrared observations and the subsequent LST estimation. The method was applied to an urban area in Crete, Greece, for the time period of one year. The results were evaluated against independent high-resolution LST datasets and found to be very promising, with RMSE less than 2 K in all cases. The developed approach has therefore a high potential to be operationally used in the near future, exploiting the Copernicus Sentinel (2 and 3 observations, to provide high spatio-temporal resolution LST estimates in cities.

  16. The phase space and stellar populations of cluster galaxies at z ∼ 1: simultaneous constraints on the location and timescale of satellite quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzzin, Adam; Van der Burg, R. F. J.; McGee, Sean L.; Balogh, Michael; Franx, Marijn; Hoekstra, Henk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Hudson, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Noble, Allison; Taranu, Dan S.; Yee, H. K. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Webb, Tracy [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montréal, QC (Canada); Wilson, Gillian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)


    We investigate the velocity versus position phase space of z ∼ 1 cluster galaxies using a set of 424 spectroscopic redshifts in nine clusters drawn from the GCLASS survey. Dividing the galaxy population into three categories, that is, quiescent, star-forming, and poststarburst, we find that these populations have distinct distributions in phase space. Most striking are the poststarburst galaxies, which are commonly found at small clustercentric radii with high clustercentric velocities, and appear to trace a coherent 'ring' in phase space. Using several zoom simulations of clusters, we show that the coherent distribution of the poststarbursts can be reasonably well reproduced using a simple quenching scenario. Specifically, the phase space is best reproduced if these galaxies are quenched with a rapid timescale (0.1 <τ {sub Q} < 0.5 Gyr) after they make their first passage of R ∼ 0.5 R {sub 200}, a process that takes a total time of ∼1 Gyr after first infall. The poststarburst phase space is not well reproduced using long quenching timescales (τ {sub Q} > 0.5 Gyr) or by quenching galaxies at larger radii (R ∼ R {sub 200}). We compare this quenching timescale to the timescale implied by the stellar populations of the poststarburst galaxies and find that the poststarburst spectra are well-fit by a rapid quenching (τ {sub Q} = 0.4{sub −0.4}{sup +0.3} Gyr) of a typical star-forming galaxy. The similarity between the quenching timescales derived from these independent indicators is a strong consistency check of the quenching model. Given that the model implies satellite quenching is rapid and occurs well within R {sub 200}, this would suggest that ram-pressure stripping of either the hot or cold gas component of galaxies are the most plausible candidates for the physical mechanism. The high cold gas consumption rates at z ∼ 1 make it difficult to determine whether hot or cold gas stripping is dominant; however, measurements of the redshift

  17. Satellite Instrument Calibration for Measuring Global Climate Change. Report of a Workshop at the University of Maryland Inn and Conference Center, College Park, MD. , November 12-14, 2002 (United States)

    Ohring, G.; Wielicki, B.; Spencer, R.; Emery, B.; Datla, R.


    Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. To address these problems and recommend directions for improvements in satellite instrument calibration some 75 scientists, including researchers who develop and analyze long-term data sets from satellites, experts in the field of satellite instrument calibration, and physicists working on state of the art calibration sources and standards met November 12 - 14, 2002 and discussed the issues. The workshop defined the absolute accuracies and long-term stabilities of global climate data sets that are needed to detect expected trends, translated these data set accuracies and stabilities to required satellite instrument accuracies and stabilities, and evaluated the ability of current observing systems to meet these requirements. The workshop's recommendations include a set of basic axioms or overarching principles that must guide high quality climate observations in general, and a roadmap for improving satellite instrument characterization, calibration, inter-calibration, and associated activities to meet the challenge of measuring global climate change. It is also recommended that a follow-up workshop be conducted to discuss implementation of the roadmap developed at this workshop.

  18. Modification of ITU-R Rain Fade Slope Prediction Model Based on Satellite Data Measured at High Elevation Angle



    Rain fade slope is one of fade dynamics behaviour used by system engineers to design fade mitigation techniques (FMT) for space-earth microwave links. Recent measurements found that fade slope prediction model proposed by ITU-R is unable to predict fade slope distribution accurately in tropical regions. Rain fade measurement was conducted  in Kuala Lumpur (3.3° N, 101.7° E) where located in heavy rain zone by receiving signal at 10.982 GHz (Ku-band) from MEASAT3 (91.5° E) on ...

  19. Satellite virtual atomic clock with pseudorange difference function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Satellite atomic clocks are the basis of GPS for the control of time and frequency of navigation signals. In the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS), a satellite navigation system without the satellite atomic clocks onboard is successfully developed. Thus, the method of time synchronization based on satellite atomic clocks in GPS is not suitable. Satellite virtual atomic clocks are used to implement satellite navigation. With the satellite virtual atomic clocks, the time at which the signals are transmitted from the ground can be delayed into the time that the signals are transmitted from the satellites and the pseudorange measuring can be fulfilled as in GPS. Satellite virtual atomic clocks can implement the navigation, make a pseudorange difference, remove the ephemeris error, and improve the accuracy of navigation positioning. They not only provide a navigation system without satellite clocks, but also a navigation system with pseudorange difference.

  20. Spatial and kinematic alignments between central and satellite halos

    CERN Document Server

    Faltenbacher, A; Li, Cheng; Mao, Shude; Mo, H J; Pasquali, Anna; Bosch, Frank C van den


    Based on a cosmological N-body simulation we analyze spatial and kinematic alignments of satellite halos within six times the virial radius of group size host halos (Rvir). We measure three different types of spatial alignment: halo alignment between the orientation of the group central substructure (GCS) and the distribution of its satellites, radial alignment between the orientation of a satellite and the direction towards its GCS, and direct alignment between the orientation of the GCS and that of its satellites. In analogy we use the directions of satellite velocities and probe three further types of alignment: the radial velocity alignment between the satellite velocity and connecting line between satellite and GCS, the halo velocity alignment between the orientation of the GCS and satellite velocities and the auto velocity alignment between the satellites orientations and their velocities. We find that satellites are preferentially located along the major axis of the GCS. Within at least 6 Rvir (the ran...

  1. HYFLUX: Satellite Exploration of Natural Hydrocarbon Seeps and Discovery of a Methane Hydrate Mound at GC600 (United States)

    Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; MacDonald, I. R.; Shedd, W.; Zimmer, B.


    Analysis of natural hydrocarbon seeps is important to improve our understanding of methane flux from deeper sediments to the water column. In order to quantify natural hydrocarbon seep formations in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, a set of 686 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images was analyzed using the Texture Classifying Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA), which processes SAR data to delineate oil slicks. This analysis resulted in a characterization of 396 natural seep sites distributed in the northern GOM. Within these sites, a maximum of 1248 individual vents where identified. Oil reaching the sea-surface is deflected from its source during transit through the water column. This presentation describes a method for estimating locations of active oil vents based on repeated slick detection in SAR. One of the most active seep formations was detected in MMS lease block GC600. A total of 82 SAR scenes (collected by RADARSAT-1 from 1995 to 2007) was processed covering this region. Using TCNNA the area covered by each slick was computed and Oil Slicks Origins (OSO) were selected as single points within detected oil slicks. At this site, oil slick signatures had lengths up to 74 km and up to 27 km^2 of area. Using SAR and TCNNA, four active vents were identified in this seep formation. The geostatistical mean centroid among all detections indicated a location along a ridge-line at ~1200m. Sea truth observations with an ROV, confirmed that the estimated location of vents had a maximum offset of ~30 m from their actual locations on the seafloor. At the largest vent, a 3-m high, 12-m long mound of oil-saturated gas hydrate was observed. The outcrop contained thousands of ice worms and numerous semi-rigid chimneys from where oily bubbles were escaping in a continuous stream. Three additional vents were found along the ridge; these had lower apparent flow, but were also plugged with gas hydrate mounds. These results support use of SAR data for precise delineation of active seep

  2. Modification of ITU-R Rain Fade Slope Prediction Model Based on Satellite Data Measured at High Elevation Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Dao


    Full Text Available Rain fade slope is one of fade dynamics behaviour used by system engineers to design fade mitigation techniques (FMT for space-earth microwave links. Recent measurements found that fade slope prediction model proposed by ITU-R is unable to predict fade slope distribution accurately in tropical regions. Rain fade measurement was conducted  in Kuala Lumpur (3.3° N, 101.7° E where located in heavy rain zone by receiving signal at 10.982 GHz (Ku-band from MEASAT3 (91.5° E on 77.4° elevation angle. The measurement has been carried out for one year period. Fade slope S parameter on ITU-R prediction model has been investigated. New parameter is proposed for the fade slope prediction modeling based on measured data at high elevation angle, Ku-band. ABSTRAK: Cerun hujan pudar adalah salah satu dinamik tingkah laku pudar yang digunakan oleh jurutera sistem untuk mereka bentuk teknik-teknik pengurangan pudar (FMT bagi link gelombang mikro ruang bumi. Ukuran baru-baru ini mendapati bahawa cerun pudar ramalan model yang dicadangkan oleh ITU-R tidak mampu untuk meramalkan pengagihan cerun pudar tepat di kawasan tropika. Pengukuran  hujan pudar telah dijalankan di Kuala Lumpur (3.3° N, 101.7° E yang terletak di kawasan hujan lebat dengan menerima isyarat pada 10,982 GHz (Ku-band dari MEASAT3 (91.5° E pada sudut ketinggian 77.4°. Pengukuran telah dijalankan untuk tempoh satu tahun. Parameter cerun pudar S pada model ramalan ITU-R telah disiasat. Parameter baru adalah dicadangkan untuk pemodelan cerun pudar ramalan berdasarkan data yang diukur pada sudut paras ketinggian, Ku-band.KEYWORDS: fade slope; ITU-R; fade mitigation techniques; sampling time interval

  3. Satellite Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms at the University of Miami Center for Oceans and Human Health (United States)

    Minnett, P. J.; Carvalho, G.; Baringer, W.; Banzon, V.


    As part of the NSF-NIEHS Center for Oceans and Human Health at the University of Miami, research is being conducted into the remote sensing of ocean color signatures associated with the occurrence of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Data from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are down-linked at the University of Miami's Center for Southeastern Tropical Advanced Remote Sensing (CSTARS) and processed in near-real time to produce mapped fields of water leaving radiance in the ocean color bands, derived quantities including inherent optical properties (IOPs) of seawater, chlorophyll concentration, and sea-surface temperature. Images of these fields are available in near-real time on a web-server. The server also provides access to the data files themselves. One of the applications currently being researched using these data is the identification of HABs over the Central West Florida Shelf where blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis have a nearly annual occurance. Since chlorophyll concentration alone cannot be used as a unique variable to determine algal taxonomy, other spectral features or optical properties must be brought into play to discriminate among different phytoplankton types. A published technique developed for SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) to detect K. brevis (based on high concentration of chlorophyll and low particulate backscatter) was transitioned to measurements of Terra MODIS and replicated the results. These were confirmed by comparisons with in situ measurements. This technique is currently being applied to a multi-year time series of remote measurements from the Aqua MODIS and tested against ship-based data.

  4. At-sea distribution of satellite-tracked grey-faced petrels, Pterodroma macroptera gouldi, captured on the Ruamaahua (Aldermen) Islands, New Zealand (United States)

    MacLeod, Catriona; Adams, Josh; Lyver, Phil


    We used satellite telemetry to determine the at-sea distribution of 32 adult (non-breeders and failed breeders) Grey-faced Petrels, Pterodroma macroptera gouldi, during July-October in 2006 and 2007. Adults captured at breeding colonies on the Ruamaahua (Aldermen) Islands ranged across the southwestern Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea between 20-49°S and 142°E and 1300 W Petrels were located almost exclusively over offshore waters> 1000 m depth. The extent oftheir distributions was similar across years, but petrels ranged farther south and west in 2006. Individuals displayed a high degree ofspatial overlap (48-620/0 among individuals) and area use revealed three general "hotspots" within their overall range: waters near the Ruamaahua Islands; the central Tasman Sea; and the area surrounding the Chatham Rise. In July-August 2006, most petrels congregated over the Tasman Sea, but for the same period in 2007 were predominantly associated with Chatham Rise. The home ranges of petrels tended to overlap disproportionately more than expected with the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone and less than expected with High Seas, relative to the area available in each zone, in July-August 2006. Accordingly, multiple nations are responsible for determining potential impacts resulting from fisheries bycatch and potential resource competition with Grey-faced Petrels.

  5. From a single encapsulated detector to the spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite: predicting the peak-to-total ratio at high gamma-energies

    CERN Document Server

    Kshetri, Ritesh


    In two recent papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P04008; ibid., P07006), a probabilistic formalism was introduced to predict the response of encapsulated type composite germanium detectors like the SPI (spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite). Predictions for the peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios are given at 1.3 MeV for the addback mode of operation. The application of the formalism to clover germanium detector is discussed in two separate papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P07008; ibid., P08015). Using the basic approach developed in those papers, for the first time we present a procedure for calculating the peak-to-total ratio of the cluster detector for gamma-energies up to 8 MeV. Results are shown for both bare and suppressed detectors as well as for the single crystal and addback modes of operation. We have considered the experimental data of (i) peak-to-total ratio at 1.3 MeV, and (ii) single detector efficiency and addback factor for other energies up to 8 MeV. Using this data, an approximate metho...

  6. Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico (United States)

    López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto


    Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

  7. The 2007-8 volcanic eruption on Jebel at Tair island (Red Sea) observed by satellite radar and optical images

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin


    We use high-resolution optical images and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data to study the September 2007-January 2008 Jebel at Tair eruption. Comparison of pre- and post-eruption optical images reveals several fresh ground fissures, a new scoria cone near the summit, and that 5.9 ± 0.1 km2 of new lava covered about half of the island. Decorrelation in the InSAR images indicates that lava flowed both to the western and to the northeastern part of the island after the start of the eruption, while later lavas were mainly deposited near the summit and onto the north flank of the volcano. From the InSAR data, we also estimate that the average thickness of the lava flows is 3.8 m, resulting in a bulk volume of around 2.2 × 107 m3. We observe no volcano-wide pre- or post-eruption uplift, which suggests that the magma source may be deep. The co-eruption interferograms, on the other hand, reveal local and rather complex deformation. We use these observations to constrain a tensile dislocation model that represents the dike intrusion that fed the eruption. The model results show that the orientation of the dike is perpendicular to the Red Sea rift, implying that the local stresses within the volcanic edifice are decoupled from the regional stress field. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  9. Satellite Tags- Hawaii EEZ (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  10. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang


    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  11. Satellite-Delivered Learning. (United States)

    Arnall, Gail C.


    Discusses the application of satellite information delivery to training. Describes a new trend, horizontal programming. Also discusses vertical programming and in-house production of training materials. Lists vendors of satellite-based training. (CH)

  12. The Galilean Satellites (United States)


    This composite includes the four largest moons of Jupiter which are known as the Galilean satellites. The Galilean satellites were first seen by the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei in 1610. Shown from left to right in order of increasing distance from Jupiter, Io is closest, followed by Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.The order of these satellites from the planet Jupiter helps to explain some of the visible differences among the moons. Io is subject to the strongest tidal stresses from the massive planet. These stresses generate internal heating which is released at the surface and makes Io the most volcanically active body in our solar system. Europa appears to be strongly differentiated with a rock/iron core, an ice layer at its surface, and the potential for local or global zones of water between these layers. Tectonic resurfacing brightens terrain on the less active and partially differentiated moon Ganymede. Callisto, furthest from Jupiter, appears heavily cratered at low resolutions and shows no evidence of internal activity.North is to the top of this composite picture in which these satellites have all been scaled to a common factor of 10 kilometers (6 miles) per picture element.The Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft acquired the Io and Ganymede images in June 1996, the Europa images in September 1996, and the Callisto images in November 1997.Launched in October 1989, the spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission

  13. Limb and gravity-darkening coefficients for the TESS satellite at several metallicities, surface gravities, and microturbulent velocities (United States)

    Claret, A.


    Aims: We present new gravity and limb-darkening coefficients for a wide range of effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, and microturbulent velocities. These coefficients can be used in many different fields of stellar physics as synthetic light curves of eclipsing binaries and planetary transits, stellar diameters, line profiles in rotating stars, and others. Methods: The limb-darkening coefficients were computed specifically for the photometric system of the space mission tess and were performed by adopting the least-square method. In addition, the linear and bi-parametric coefficients, by adopting the flux conservation method, are also available. On the other hand, to take into account the effects of tidal and rotational distortions, we computed the passband gravity-darkening coefficients y(λ) using a general differential equation in which we consider the effects of convection and of the partial derivative (∂lnI(λ) /∂lng)Teff. Results: To generate the limb-darkening coefficients we adopt two stellar atmosphere models: atlas (plane-parallel) and phoenix (spherical, quasi-spherical, and r-method). The specific intensity distribution was fitted using five approaches: linear, quadratic, square root, logarithmic, and a more general one with four terms. These grids cover together 19 metallicities ranging from 10-5 up to 10+1 solar abundances, 0 ≤ log g ≤ 6.0 and 1500 K ≤Teff ≤ 50 000 K. The calculations of the gravity-darkening coefficients were performed for all plane-parallel ATLAS models. Tables 2-29 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  14. Retrieval of near-surface sulfur dioxide (SO2 concentrations at a global scale using IASI satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bauduin


    Full Text Available SO2 from volcanic eruptions is now operationally monitored from space in both ultraviolet (UV and thermal infrared (TIR spectral range, but anthropogenic SO2 has almost solely been measured from UV sounders. Indeed, TIR instruments are well-known to have a poor sensitivity to the boundary layer (PBL, due to generally low thermal contrast (TC between the ground and the air above it. Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI to measure near-surface SO2 locally, for specific atmospheric conditions. In this work, we develop a retrieval method allowing the inference of SO2 near-surface concentrations from IASI measurements at a global scale. This method consists of two steps. Both are based on the computation of radiance indexes representing the strength of the SO2 ν3 band in IASI spectra. The first step allows retrieving the peak altitude of SO2 and selecting near-surface SO2. In the second step, 0–4 km columns of SO2 are inferred using a look-up table (LUT approach. Using this new retrieval method, we obtain the first global distribution of near-surface SO2 from IASI-A, and identify the dominant anthropogenic hotspot sources and volcanic degassing. The 7-year daily time evolution of SO2 columns above two industrial source areas (Beijing in China and Sar Cheshmeh in Iran is investigated and correlated to the seasonal variations of the parameters that drive the IASI sensitivity to the PBL composition. Apart from TC, we show that humidity is the most important parameter which determines IR sensitivity to near-surface SO2. As IASI provides twice daily global measurements, the differences between the retrieved columns for the morning and evening orbits are investigated. This paper finally presents a first intercomparison of the measured 0–4 km columns with an independent iterative retrieval method and with observations of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI.

  15. SaVi: satellite constellation visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Lloyd


    SaVi, a program for visualizing satellite orbits, movement, and coverage, is maintained at the University of Surrey. This tool has been used for research in academic papers, and by industry companies designing and intending to deploy satellite constellations. It has also proven useful for demonstrating aspects of satellite constellations and their geometry, coverage and movement for educational and teaching purposes. SaVi is introduced and described briefly here.

  16. Interpretation of satellite airglow observations during the March 22, 1979, magnetic storm, using the coupled ionosphere-thermosphere model developed at University College, London (United States)

    Parish, H. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Chakrabarti, S.


    The University of California, Berkeley, extreme ultraviolet spectrometer aboard the U.S. Air Force STP 78-1 satellite measured emission features in the Earth's dayglow due to neutral and ionized species in the atmosphere, in the 35 to 140-nm range. The spectrometer was operating between March 1979 and March 1980, including the period of the magnetic storm on March 22, 1979. Some of these measurements are interpreted using the predictions of the three-dimensional time-dependent coupled ionosphere-thermosphere model developed at University College, London. The observations show a reduction in the atomic oxygen 130.4-nm airglow emission at high northern latitudes following the storm. Model simulations show that this reduction in 130.4-nm emission is associated with an increase in the O2/O ratio. Analysis of model results using electron transport and radiative transport codes show that the brightness of 130.4-nm emission at high latitudes due to resonantly scattered sunlight is approximately twice that due to photoelectron impact excitation. However, the observed decrease in the brightness at high northern latitudes is mainly due to a change in the photoelectron impact source, which contributes approximately 75% of the total, as well as its multiple scattering component; for the photoelectron impact source at 70 deg latitude and 200 km altitude, the reduction in multiple scattering is 1.5 times greater than the reduction in the initial excitation. The reduction in the airglow emission is visible only in the norther n hemisphere because the south pole was not sunlit over the storm period. The comparison of model results with observations suggests that 130.4-nm emission may be useful as a tracer for global changes in the concentration of atomic energy.

  17. TC-2 Satellite Delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On April 18, 2005, TC-2, the second satellite of Double Star Program (DSP), which was jointly developed by CNSA and ESA, was approved to be delivered to the user after the on-board test and trial operation. The satellite is working well and the performance can meet the user's need. The satellite has collected large amount of valuable scientific data

  18. Geodetic Secor Satellite (United States)


    simple, and had low-power lem. 17 14. Satellite Orientation . The satellite was designed to maintain a constant relationship between the antenna...the same satellite orientation . Further considerations were Th oscillations, however, when higher orbital ranges (500-2500 nautical miles) -, 3 a

  19. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are three major space launch bases in China, the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center,the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center and the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. All the three launch centers are located in sparsely populated areas where the terrain is even and the field of vision is broad. Security, transport conditions and the influence of the axial rotation

  20. The Phase Space and Stellar Populations of Cluster Galaxies at z ~ 1: Simultaneous Constraints on the Location and Timescale of Satellite Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Muzzin, Adam; McGee, Sean L; Balogh, Michael; Franx, Marijn; Hoekstra, Henk; Hudson, Michael J; Noble, Allison; Taranu, Dan; Webb, Tracy; Wilson, Gillian; Yee, H K C


    We investigate the velocity vs. position phase space of z ~ 1 cluster galaxies using a set of 424 spectroscopic redshifts in 9 clusters drawn from the GCLASS survey. Dividing the galaxy population into three categories: quiescent, star-forming, and poststarburst, we find that these populations have distinct distributions in phase space. Most striking are the poststarburst galaxies, which are commonly found at small clustercentric radii with high clustercentric velocities, and appear to trace a coherent ``ring" in phase space. Using several zoom simulations of clusters we show that the coherent distribution of the poststarbursts can be reasonably well-reproduced using a simple quenching scenario. Specifically, the phase space is best reproduced if satellite quenching occurs on a rapid timescale (0.1 < tau_{Q} < 0.5 Gyr) after galaxies make their first passage of R ~ 0.5R_{200}, a process that takes a total time of ~ 1 Gyr after first infall. We compare this quenching timescale to the timescale implied by...

  1. Functional significance of a hepta nucleotide motif present at the junction of Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA multimers in helper-virus dependent replication. (United States)

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Choi, Soon Ho; Rao, A L N


    Satellite RNAs (satRNA) associated with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) have been shown to generate multimers during replication. We have discovered that multimers of a CMV satRNA generated in the absence of its helper virus (HV) are characterized by the addition of a hepta nucleotide motif (HNM) at the monomer junctions. Here, we evaluated the functional significance of HNM in HV-dependent replication by ectopically expressing wild type and mutant forms of satRNA multimers in planta either in (+) or (-)-strand polarity. Comparative replication profiles revealed that (-)-strand multimers with complementary HNM (cHNM) are the preferred initial templates for HV-dependent replication than (-)-strand monomers and multimers lacking the cHNM. Further mutational analyses of the HNM accentuate that preservation of the sequence and native length of HNM is obligatory for efficient replication of satRNA. A model implicating the significance of HNM in HV-dependent production of monomeric and multimeric forms of satRNA is presented.

  2. Shadow imaging of geosynchronous satellites (United States)

    Douglas, Dennis Michael

    Geosynchronous (GEO) satellites are essential for modern communication networks. If communication to a GEO satellite is lost and a malfunction occurs upon orbit insertion such as a solar panel not deploying there is no direct way to observe it from Earth. Due to the GEO orbit distance of ~36,000 km from Earth's surface, the Rayleigh criteria dictates that a 14 m telescope is required to conventionally image a satellite with spatial resolution down to 1 m using visible light. Furthermore, a telescope larger than 30 m is required under ideal conditions to obtain spatial resolution down to 0.4 m. This dissertation evaluates a method for obtaining high spatial resolution images of GEO satellites from an Earth based system by measuring the irradiance distribution on the ground resulting from the occultation of the satellite passing in front of a star. The representative size of a GEO satellite combined with the orbital distance results in the ground shadow being consistent with a Fresnel diffraction pattern when observed at visible wavelengths. A measurement of the ground shadow irradiance is used as an amplitude constraint in a Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm that produces a reconstruction of the satellite's 2D transmission function which is analogous to a reverse contrast image of the satellite. The advantage of shadow imaging is that a terrestrial based redundant set of linearly distributed inexpensive small telescopes, each coupled to high speed detectors, is a more effective resolved imaging system for GEO satellites than a very large telescope under ideal conditions. Modeling and simulation efforts indicate sub-meter spatial resolution can be readily achieved using collection apertures of less than 1 meter in diameter. A mathematical basis is established for the treatment of the physical phenomena involved in the shadow imaging process. This includes the source star brightness and angular extent, and the diffraction of starlight from the satellite

  3. Toward a High-Resolution Monitoring of Continental Surface Water Extent and Dynamics, at Global Scale: from GIEMS (Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellites) to SWOT (Surface Water Ocean Topography) (United States)

    Prigent, Catherine; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Aires, Filipe; Papa, Fabrice


    Up to now, high-resolution mapping of surface water extent from satellites has only been available for a few regions, over limited time periods. The extension of the temporal and spatial coverage was difficult, due to the limitation of the remote sensing technique [e.g., the interaction of the radiation with vegetation or cloud for visible observations or the temporal sampling with the synthetic aperture radar (SAR)]. The advantages and the limitations of the various satellite techniques are reviewed. The need to have a global and consistent estimate of the water surfaces over long time periods triggered the development of a multi-satellite methodology to obtain consistent surface water all over the globe, regardless of the environments. The Global Inundation Extent from Multi-satellites (GIEMS) combines the complementary strengths of satellite observations from the visible to the microwave, to produce a low-resolution monthly dataset (0.25^circ × 0.25^circ) of surface water extent and dynamics. Downscaling algorithms are now developed and applied to GIEMS, using high-spatial-resolution information from visible, near-infrared, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite images, or from digital elevation models. Preliminary products are available down to 500-m spatial resolution. This work bridges the gaps and prepares for the future NASA/CNES Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission to be launched in 2020. SWOT will delineate surface water extent estimates and their water storage with an unprecedented spatial resolution and accuracy, thanks to a SAR in an interferometry mode. When available, the SWOT data will be adopted to downscale GIEMS, to produce a long time series of water surfaces at global scale, consistent with the SWOT observations.

  4. Secular motion around synchronously orbiting planetary satellites. (United States)

    Lara, Martin; San-Juan, Juan F; Ferrer, Sebastián


    We investigate the secular motion of a spacecraft around the natural satellite of a planet. The satellite rotates synchronously with its mean motion around the planet. Our model takes into account the gravitational potential of the satellite up to the second order, and the third-body perturbation in Hill's approximation. Close to the satellite, the ratio of rotation rate of the satellite to mean motion of the orbiter is small. When considering this ratio as a small parameter, the Coriolis effect is a first-order perturbation, while the third-body tidal attraction, the ellipticity effect, and the oblateness perturbation remain at higher orders. Then, we apply perturbation theory and find that a third-order approach is enough to show the influence of the satellite's ellipticity in the pericenter dynamics. Finally, we discuss the averaged system in the three-dimensional parametric space, and provide a global description of the flow.

  5. Lopsided Collections of Satellite Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    You might think that small satellite galaxies would be distributed evenly around their larger galactic hosts but local evidence suggests otherwise. Are satellite distributions lopsided throughout the universe?Satellites in the Local GroupThe distribution of the satellite galaxies orbiting Andromeda, our neighboring galaxy, is puzzling: 21 out of 27 ( 80%) of its satellites are on the side of Andromeda closest to us. In a similar fashion, 4 of the 11 brightest Milky Way satellites are stacked on the side closest to Andromeda.It seems to be the case, then, that satellites around our pair of galaxies preferentially occupy the space between the two galaxies. But is this behavior specific to the Local Group? Or is it commonplace throughout the universe? In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Noam Libeskind (Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, Germany) set out to answer this question.Properties of the galaxies included in the authors sample. Left: redshifts for galaxy pairs. Right: Number of satellite galaxies around hosts. [Adapted from Libeskind et al. 2016]Asymmetry at LargeLibeskind and collaborators tested whether this behavior is common by searching through Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations for galaxy pairs that are similar to the Milky Way/Andromeda pair. The resulting sample consists of 12,210 pairs of galaxies, which have 46,043 potential satellites among them. The team then performed statistical tests on these observations to quantify the anisotropic distribution of the satellites around the host galaxies.Libeskind and collaborators find that roughly 8% more galaxies are seen within a 15 angle facing the other galaxy of a pair than would be expected in a uniform distribution. The odds that this asymmetric behavior is randomly produced, they show, are lower than 1 in 10 million indicating that the lopsidedness of satellites around galaxies in pairs is a real effect and occurs beyond just the Local Group.Caution for ModelingProbability that

  6. The power relay satellite (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    The availability and use of renewable energy sources compatible with reducing risks to the global environment are key to sustainable development. Large-scale, renewable energy resources at undeveloped or underutilized sites are potentially available on several continents. The Power Relay Satellite (PRS) concept has the potential to access these remote energy resources by coupling primary electricity generation from terrestrial transmission lines. A global PRS network can be envisioned to provide a high degree of flexibility for supplying energy demands worldwide with wireless power transmitted from sites on Earth to geosynchronous orbit and then reflected to receivers interfacing with terrestrial power transmision networks. Past developments in wireless power transmission (WPT) are reviewed and recent successful results are noted. The origins of the PRS concept, and a possible configuration are discussed, principles of WPT at microwave frequencies, functional requirements, and system design contraints are outlined, and space transportation concepts presented. PRS assessments including applicable technologies, economic projections, and societal issues are highlighted. It is concluded that the PRS provides a promising option to access renewable resources at great distances from major markets, and represents an important stage in the future development in the future of solar power satellites.

  7. Integration of mobile satellite and cellular systems (United States)

    Drucker, Elliott H.; Estabrook, Polly; Pinck, Deborah; Ekroot, Laura


    By integrating the ground based infrastructure component of a mobile satellite system with the infrastructure systems of terrestrial 800 MHz cellular service providers, a seamless network of universal coverage can be established. Users equipped for both cellular and satellite service can take advantage of a number of features made possible by such integration, including seamless handoff and universal roaming. To provide maximum benefit at lowest posible cost, the means by which these systems are integrated must be carefully considered. Mobile satellite hub stations must be configured to efficiently interface with cellular Mobile Telephone Switching Offices (MTSO's), and cost effective mobile units that provide both cellular and satellite capability must be developed.

  8. Stream Gauges and Satellite Measurements (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.


    Satellite measurements should not be viewed as a replacement for stream gauges. However, occasionally it is suggested that because satellite-based measurements can provide river discharge, a motivation for satellite approaches is an increasing lack of stream gauges. This is an argument for more stream gauges, but not necessarily for satellite measurements. Rather, in-situ and spaceborne methods of estimating discharge are complementary. Stream gauges provide frequent measurements at one point in the river reach whereas satellites have the potential to measure throughout all reaches but at orbital repeat intervals of days to weeks. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is an opportunity to further develop these complements. The motivation for SWOT, and indeed for any satellite based method of estimating discharge, should not be as a replacement for stream gauges. Scientific and application uses should motivate the measurements. For example, understanding floods with their dynamic water surfaces are best sampled from remote platforms that provide water surface elevations throughout the floodwave. As another example, today’s water and energy balance models are giving outputs at increasing spatial resolution and are making use of water surface elevations throughout the modeled basin. These models require a similar resolution in the calibrating and validating observations. We should also be aware of practical limitations. In addition to providing spatially distributed hydrodynamic measurements on rivers, SWOT will be able to measure storage changes in the estimated 30 million lakes in the world that are larger than a hectare. Knowing the storage changes in these lakes is especially important in certain regions such as the Arctic but gauging even a small fraction of these is impractical. Another motivator for satellite methods is that even in the presence of stream gauges, discharge data is not always well shared throughout all countries

  9. On the perturbations on satellites probing General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Sargsyan, S; Mirzoyan, S


    Non-gravitational Yarkovsky-Rubincam effect for LAGEOS and LAGEOS 2 satellites used to probe General Relativity has been revealed by means of the Kolmogorov analysis of their perturbations. We present the method and its efficiency at modeling of generated systems with properties expected at the satellite laser ranging measurements and then at satellite residual data analysis.

  10. Spatial and luminosity distributions of galactic satellites (United States)

    Guo, Quan; Cole, Shaun; Eke, Vincent; Frenk, Carlos; Helly, John


    We investigate the luminosity functions and projected number density profiles of galactic satellites around isolated primaries of different luminosity. We measure these quantities for model satellites placed into the Millennium and Millennium II dark matter simulations by the GALFORM semi-analytic galaxy formation model for different bins of primary galaxy magnitude and we investigate their dependence on satellite luminosity. We compare our model predictions to the data of Guo et al. from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 (SDSS DR8). First, we use a mock light-cone catalogue to verify that the method we used to count satellites in the SDSS DR8 is unbiased. We find that the radial distributions of model satellites can be fitted by a Navarro-Frenk-White profile similar to those around comparable primary galaxies in the SDSS DR8, with only slight differences at low luminosities and small projected radii. However, when splitting the satellites by colour, the model and SDSS satellite systems no longer resemble one another, with many red model satellites in contrast to the dominant blue fraction at similar luminosity in the SDSS. The few model blue satellites are also significantly less centrally concentrated in the halo of their stacked primary than their SDSS counterparts. We discuss how these discrepancies may reflect inadequacies in the treatment of the processes that determine the star formation histories of small galaxies in the model.

  11. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung


    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  12. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin


    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  13. Myogenic-specific ablation of Fgfr1 impairs FGF2-mediated proliferation of satellite cells at the myofiber niche but does not abolish the capacity for muscle regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipora eYablonka-Reuveni


    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs are Pax7+ myogenic stem cells that reside between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber. In mature muscles, SCs are typically quiescent, but can be activated in response to muscle injury. Depending on the magnitude of tissue trauma, SCs may divide minimally to repair subtle damage within individual myofibers or produce a larger progeny pool that forms new myofibers in cases of overt muscle injury. SC transition through proliferation, differentiation and renewal is governed by the molecular blueprint of the cells as well as by the extracellular milieu at the SC niche. In particular, the role of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF family in regulating SCs during growth and aging is well recognized. Of the several FGFs shown to affect SCs, FGF1, FGF2 and FGF6 proteins have been documented in adult skeletal muscle. These prototypic paracrine FGFs transmit their mitogenic effect through the FGFRs, which are transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors. Using the mouse model, we show here that of the four FGFRs, only Fgfr1 and Fgfr4 are expressed at relatively high levels in quiescent SCs and their proliferating progeny. To further investigate the role of FGFR1 in adult myogenesis, we have employed a genetic (Cre/loxP approach for myogenic-specific (MyoDCre-driven ablation of Fgfr1. Neither muscle histology nor muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin-induced injury were overtly affected in Fgfr1-ablated mice. This suggests that FGFR1 is not obligatory for SC performance in this acute muscle trauma model, where compensatory growth factor/cytokine regulatory cascades may exist. However, the SC mitogenic response to FGF2 is drastically repressed in isolated myofibers prepared from Fgfr1-ablated mice. Collectively, our study indicates that FGFR1 is important for FGF-mediated proliferation of SCs and its mitogenic role is not compensated by FGFR4 that is also highly expressed in SCs.

  14. Application of the Strong Scatter Theory to the Interpretation of Ionospheric Scintillation Measurements along Geostationary Satellite Links at VHF and L-band (United States)

    Carrano, C. S.; Groves, K. M.; Basu, S.; Mackenzie, E.; Sheehan, R. E.


    In a previous work, we demonstrated that ionospheric turbulence parameters may be inferred from amplitude scintillations well into in the strong scatter regime [Carrano et al., International Journal of Geophysics, 2012]. This technique, called Iterative Parameter Estimation (IPE), uses the strong scatter theory and numerical inversion to estimate the parameters of an ionospheric phase screen (turbulent intensity, phase spectral index, and irregularity zonal drift) consistent with the observed scintillations. The optimal screen parameters are determined such that the theoretical intensity spectrum on the ground best matches the measured intensity spectrum in a least squares sense. We use this technique to interpret scintillation measurements collected during a campaign at Ascension Island (7.96°S, 14.41°W) in March 2000, led by Santimay Basu and his collaborators from Air Force Research Laboratory. Geostationary satellites broadcasting radio signals at VHF and L-band were monitored along nearly co-linear links, enabling a multi-frequency analysis of scintillations with the same propagation geometry. The VHF data were acquired using antennas spaced in the magnetic east-west direction, which enabled direct measurement of the zonal irregularity drift. We show that IPE analysis of the VHF and L-Band scintillations, which exhibited very different statistics due to the wide frequency separation, yields similar estimates of the phase screen parameters that specify the disturbed ionospheric medium. This agreement provides confidence in our phase screen parameter estimates. It also suggests a technique for extrapolating scintillation measurements to frequencies other than those observed that is valid in the case of strong scatter. We find that IPE estimates of the zonal irregularity drift, made using scintillation observations along single space-to-ground link, are consistent with those measured independently using the spaced antenna technique. This encouraging result

  15. Satellite Tracking Astrometric Network (STAN) (United States)

    Vecchiato, Alberto; Gai, Mario


    The possibility of precise orbit tracking and determination of different types of satellites has been explored for at least some 25 years (Arimoto et al., 1990). Proposals in this sense made use mainly of astrometric observations, but multiple tracking techniques combining transfer and laser ranging was also suggested (Guo et al., 2009; Montojo et al., 2011), with different requirements and performances ranging from $\\sim100$~m to tenths of meters.In this work we explore the possible improvements and a novel implementation of a technique relying on large angle, high precision astrometry from ground for the determination of satellite orbits. The concept is based on combined observation of geostationary satellites and other near-Earth space objects from two or more telescopes, applying the triangulation principle over widely separated regions of the sky. An accuracy of a few $10^{-2}$~m can be attained with 1-meter-class telescopes and a field of vied of some arcminutes.We discuss the feasibility of the technique, some of the implementation aspects, and the limitations imposed by atmospheric turbulence. The potential benefits for satellite orbit control and navigation systems are presented, depending on the number and position of the contributing telescopes.We also discuss the possibility that, by reversing the roles of stars and satellites, the same kind of observations can be used for verification and maintenance of astrometric catalogs.

  16. MEMOS - Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (United States)

    Ott, T.; Barabash, S.; von Schéele, F.; Clacey, E.; Pokrupa, N.


    The Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) in cooperation with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) has conducted first studies on a Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (MEMOS). The MEMOS microsatellite (mass ELT) Proximity-1 transceiver will autonomously communicate with the parent satellite at inter-satellite ranges 2 kbit/s. The transceiver also implements a coherent transponding mode for orbit determination through two-way Doppler ranging between the parent satellite and MEMOS. In addition ELT is compatible with a future Martian communication and navigation network pursued by NASA, which could be taken advantage of in the future for relaying data or performing ranging via other satellites part of the network. A system design driver for inter-satellite communication at Mars is the high demand of power. This leads to a disk-shape and thus easy to accommodate spacecraft configuration of MEMOS comprising a single sun-pointing solar array favourable in terms of power and spin stability. Multi-junction solar cells, which currently have an efficiency of ~29% under laboratory conditions are a key factor to keep MEMOS solar array area of ~1.15 m2 small compared to the worst case system power requirements of ~105 W. During eclipse periods high-efficient Li-ion batteries (6 x 20 Wh) will ensure power supply. The spacecraft and payload design will incorporate new technology developments such as autonomous navigation, MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS, Micro- Opto-ElectroMechanical Systems MOEMS and new materials to achieve low mass at high performance. Thereby it will profit from Swedish developments and heritage in small- / microsatellites like Astrid-2, SMART-1 or the upcoming rendezvous and formation flying demonstration mission PRISMA.

  17. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend


    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies m...

  18. Three ZY-2 Satellites Forming A Constellation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    China successfully put its earth resource satellite, the third of ZY-2, into the orbit aboard a LM-4B launch vehicle that blasted off at 11:10 am on Nov. 6, 2004 from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in Shanxi Province.

  19. Small satellites and their regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S


    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  20. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) (United States)

    Olmstead, Dean A.; Schertler, Ronald J.

    The benefits that will be offered by the NASA-sponsored communication spacecraft ACTS which is scheduled for launch in 1992 are described together with examples of demonstrations on proposed data, video, and voice applications supported by the advanced ACTS technologies. Compared to existing satellite service, the ACTS will provide lower cost, better service, greater convenience, and improved service reliability of telecommunications to customers around the world. In addition, the pioneering ACTS technology will provide many capabilities qualitatively different from those of current satellite systems, such as on-demand assignment, frequency reuse, and the flexible targeting of spot beams directly to the very-small-aperture terminals at customer premises.

  1. Vocoders in mobile satellite communications (United States)

    Kriedte, W.; Canavesio, F.; dal Degan, N.; Pirani, G.; Rusina, F.; Usai, P.

    Owing to the power constraints that characterize onboard transmission sections, low-bit-rate coders seem suitable for speech communications inside mobile satellite systems. Vocoders that operate at rates below 4.8 kbit/s could therefore be a desirable solution for this application, providing also the redundancy that must be added to cope with the channel error rate. After reviewing the mobile-satellite-systems aspects, the paper outlines the features of two different types of vocoders that are likely to be employed, and the relevant methods of assessing their performances. Finally, some results from computer simulations of the speech transmission systems are reported.

  2. [Landscape pattern changes at village scale using high resolution satellite images: A case study in low-slope hilly area of Dali City, Northwestern Yunnan Province]. (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-yue; Peng, Jian; Liu, Yan-xu; Zhang, Tian


    Human activity is the main driving force of the change of land cover and landscape patterns. However, there are few studies focusing on the mechanism of human-induced change of land cover and landscape patterns at village scale. In this study, taking low-slope hilly area of Dali City, Northwestern Yunnan Province as a case study area, high resolution satellite images were introduced to find out the rules of land cover and landscape pattern changes, i.e. GeoEye-1 of 2009 and World- View-3 of 2014. The object-oriented and human-computer-interaction approaches were applied to interpret the images using ArcGIS 10.2 and ENVI 5.2. The results showed that, the main land cover types in the study area were forest land, paddy field and dry land in 2009, with forest, bulldozed unbuilt ground and paddy field in 2014, accounting for 82.8% and 70.9% of the total area, respectively. The land cover transition showed that, during 2009-2014, the main land cover change flows were from forest land, paddy field and dry land, to bulldozed unbuilt ground and construction land. Furthermore, the area of bulldozed but unbuilt land had increased to be 531.57 hm² in 2014, which mainly came from forest land (42.8%), dry land (21.7%), and paddy field (14.2%). Landscape pattern change was characterized as the increase of patch quantity and density, the decrease of mean patch size, the complication of patch shape, the fragmentation of landscape patches, and the diversification of landscape patterns.

  3. Orbits of Massive Satellite Galaxies: I. A Close Look at the Large Magellanic Cloud and a New Orbital History for M33

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Ekta; Sohn, Tony


    The Milky Way (MW) and M31 both harbor massive satellite galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and M33, which may comprise up to 10 per cent of their host's total mass. Massive satellites can change the orbital barycentre of the host-satellite system by tens of kiloparsecs and are cosmologically expected to harbor dwarf satellite galaxies of their own. Assessing the impact of these effects depends crucially on the orbital histories of the LMC and M33. Here, we revisit the dynamics of the MW-LMC system and present the first detailed analysis of the M31-M33 system utilizing high precision proper motions and statistics from the dark matter-only Illustris cosmological simulation. With the latest Hubble Space Telescope proper motion measurements of M31, we reliably constrain M33's interaction history with its host. In particular, like the LMC, M33 is either on its first passage (t_{inf} =2x10^12 Msun), it is on a long period orbit of about 6 Gyr. Cosmological analogs of the LMC and M33 identified in Illustris...

  4. Reinventing the Solar Power Satellite (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.


    The selling price of electrical power varies with time. The economic viability of space solar power is maximum if the power can be sold at peak power rates, instead of baseline rate. Price and demand of electricity was examined from spot-market data from four example markets: New England, New York City, suburban New York, and California. The data was averaged to show the average price and demand for power as a function of time of day and time of year. Demand varies roughly by a factor of two between the early-morning minimum demand, and the afternoon maximum; both the amount of peak power, and the location of the peak, depends significantly on the location and the weather. The demand curves were compared to the availability curves for solar energy and for tracking and non-tracking satellite solar power systems in order to compare the market value of terrestrial and solar electrical power. In part 2, new designs for a space solar power (SSP) system were analyzed to provide electrical power to Earth for economically competitive rates. The approach was to look at innovative power architectures to more practical approaches to space solar power. A significant barrier is the initial investment required before the first power is returned. Three new concepts for solar power satellites were invented and analyzed: a solar power satellite in the Earth-Sun L2 point, a geosynchronous no-moving parts solar power satellite, and a nontracking geosynchronous solar power satellite with integral phased array. The integral-array satellite had several advantages, including an initial investment cost approximately eight times lower than the conventional design.

  5. Orbits of massive satellite galaxies - I. A close look at the Large Magellanic Cloud and a new orbital history for M33 (United States)

    Patel, Ekta; Besla, Gurtina; Sohn, Sangmo Tony


    The Milky Way (MW) and M31 both harbour massive satellite galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and M33, which may comprise up to 10 per cent of their host's total mass. Massive satellites can change the orbital barycentre of the host-satellite system by tens of kiloparsec and are cosmologically expected to harbour dwarf satellite galaxies of their own. Assessing the impact of these effects crucially depends on the orbital histories of the LMC and M33. Here, we revisit the dynamics of the MW-LMC system and present the first detailed analysis of the M31-M33 system utilizing high-precision proper motions and statistics from the dark-matter-only Illustris cosmological simulation. With the latest Hubble Space Telescope proper motion measurements of M31, we reliably constrain M33's interaction history with its host. In particular, like the LMC, M33 is either on its first passage (tinf picture and provide further insight about their host masses. We conclude that, cosmologically, massive satellites such as the LMC and M33 are likely completing their first orbits about their hosts. We also find that the orbital energies of such analogues prefer an MW halo mass ˜1.5 × 1012 M⊙ and an M31 halo mass ≥1.5 × 1012 M⊙. Despite conventional wisdom, we conclude it is highly improbable that M33 made a close (<100 kpc) approach to M31 recently (tperi < 3 Gyr ago). Such orbits are rare (<1 per cent) within the 4σ error space allowed by observations. This conclusion cannot be explained by perturbative effects through four-body encounters amongst the MW, M31, M33, and the LMC. This surprising result implies that we must search for a new explanation for M33's strongly warped gas and stellar discs.

  6. Development, Validation, and Potential Enhancements to the Second-Generation Operational Aerosol Product at the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (United States)

    Stowe, Larry L.; Ignatov, Alexander M.; Singh, Ramdas R.


    A revised (phase 2) single-channel algorithm for aerosol optical thickness, tau(sup A)(sub SAT), retrieval over oceans from radiances in channel 1 (0.63 microns) of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) has been implemented at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service for the NOAA 14 satellite launched December 30, 1994. It is based on careful validation of its operational predecessor (phase 1 algorithm), implemented for NOAA 14 in 1989. Both algorithms scale the upward satellite radiances in cloud-free conditions to aerosol optical thickness using an updated radiative transfer model of the ocean and atmosphere. Application of the phase 2 algorithm to three matchup Sun-photometer and satellite data sets, one with NOAA 9 in 1988 and two with NOAA 11 in 1989 and 1991, respectively, show systematic error is less than 10%, with a random error of sigma(sub tau) approx. equal 0.04. First results of tau(sup A)(sub SAT) retrievals from NOAA 14 using the phase 2 algorithm, and from checking its internal consistency, are presented. The potential two-channel (phase 3) algorithm for the retrieval of an aerosol size parameter, such as the Junge size distribution exponent, by adding either channel 2 (0.83 microns) from the current AVHRR instrument, or a 1.6-microns channel to be available on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission and the NOAA-KLM satellites by 1997 is under investigation. The possibility of using this additional information in the retrieval of a more accurate estimate of aerosol optical thickness is being explored.

  7. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  8. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff


    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  9. Mobile satellite communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cochetti, Roger


    With a Preface by noted satellite scientist Dr. Ahmad Ghais, the Second Edition reflects the expanded user base for this technology by updating information on historic, current, and planned commercial and military satellite systems and by expanding sections that explain the technology for non-technical professionals.   The book begins with an introduction to satellite communications and goes on to provide an overview of the technologies involved in mobile satellite communications, providing basic introductions to RF Issues, power Issues, link issues and system issues. It describes

  10. Astronomy from satellite clusters (United States)

    Stachnik, R.; Labeyrie, A.


    Attention is called to the accumulating evidence that giant space telescopes, comprising a number of separate mirrors on independent satellites, are a realistic prospect for providing research tools of extraordinary power. The ESA-sponsored group and its counterpart in the US have reached remarkably similar conclusions regarding the basic configuration of extremely large synthetic-aperture devices. Both share the basic view that a cluster of spacecraft is preferable to a single monolithic structure. The emphasis of the US group has been on a mission that sweeps across as many sources as possible in the minimum time; it is referred to as SAMSI (Spacecraft Array for Michelson Spatial Interferometry). The European group has placed more emphasis on obtaining two-dimensional images. Their system is referred to as TRIO because, at least initially, it involves three independent systems. Detailed descriptions are given of the two systems.

  11. The SPOT satellite (United States)

    Fouquet, J.-P.


    The background, objectives and data products of the French SPOT remote sensing satellite system are presented. The system, which was developed starting in 1978 with the subsequent participation of Sweden and Belgium, is based on a standard multimission platform with associated ground control station and a mission-specific payload, which includes two High-Resolution Visible range instruments allowing the acquisition of stereoscopic views from different orbits. Mission objectives include the definition of future remote sensing systems, the compilation of a cartographic and resources data base, the study of species discrimination and production forecasting based on frequent access and off-nadir viewing, the compilation of a stereoscopic data base, and platform and instrument qualification, for possible applications in cartography, geology and agriculture. Standard data products will be available at three levels of preprocessing: radiometric correction only, precision processing for vertical viewing, and cartographic quality processing.

  12. Observations for Sharp Changes of Ionospheric Ion Concentration and Electromagnetic Field Measurements at Altitude 900 km on Equatorial Latitudes by INTERKOSMOS - Bulgaria-1300 Satellite Data (United States)

    Gdalevich, G. L.; Bankov, N.; Chapkanov, S.; Todorieva, L.

    Three-axis stabilization of the satellite orientation ensured success for convenient measurements both of electric and magnetic field vectors. X axis was directed along the satellite orbital velocity vector. Z axis was directed upwards, perpendicular to the Earth's surface. Fast flows of electrons and ions were measured in the directions along both +z and -z axes and also perpendicular to z axis. Ionospheric ion concentration meters registered sharp changes of the plasma density. Taking into account the totality meter set data we can conclude that the physical phenomena observed in these measurements are caused by damping both of electrostatic oscillations and plasma vortices. Also it is shown that large-scale irregularity rise and disintegration into small-scale irregular structures can be connected with magnetospheric and ionospheric sources.

  13. 14 CFR 142.17 - Satellite training centers. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite training centers. 142.17 Section...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.17 Satellite training centers. (a... training program at a satellite training center if— (1) The facilities, equipment, personnel, and...

  14. Satellite communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, BG


    The book is very clear and comprehensive. The scope of the book is very large: almost all aspects of current satellite communication systems are studied. Hence, the book keeps its promise in that it provides a quick start for someone who is new to the satellite communications business.

  15. Communication satellite technology trends (United States)

    Cuccia, Louis


    A chronology of space-Earth interconnectivity is presented. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system, Land Mobile Satellite, space-Earth antennas, impact of antenna size on coverage, intersatellite links are outlined. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts only.

  16. Global Ocean Surveillance With Electronic Intelligence Based Satellite System (United States)

    Venkatramanan, Haritha


    The objective of this proposal is to design our own ELINT based satellite system to detect and locate the target by using satellite Trilateration Principle. The target position can be found by measuring the radio signals arrived at three satellites using Time Difference of Arrival(TDOA) technique. To locate a target it is necessary to determine the satellite position. The satellite motion and its position is obtained by using Simplified General Perturbation Model(SGP4) in MATLAB. This SGP4 accepts satellite Two Line Element(TLE) data and returns the position in the form of state vectors. These state vectors are then converted into observable parameters and then propagated in space. This calculations can be done for satellite constellation and non - visibility periods can be calculated. Satellite Trilateration consists of three satellites flying in formation with each other. The satellite constellation design consists of three satellites with an inclination of 61.3° maintained at equal distances between each other. The design is performed using MATLAB and simulated to obtain the necessary results. The target's position can be obtained using the three satellites ECEF Coordinate system and its position and velocity can be calculated in terms of Latitude and Longitude. The target's motion is simulated to obtain the Speed and Direction of Travel.

  17. Satellite orbital conjunction reports assessing threatening encounters in space (SOCRATES) (United States)

    Kelso, T. S.; Alfano, S.


    While many satellite operators are aware of the possibility of a collision between their satellite and another object in earth orbit, most seem unaware of the frequency of near misses occurring each day. Until recently, no service existed to advise satellite operators of an impending conjunction of a satellite payload with another satellite, putting the responsibility for determining these occurrences squarely on the satellite operator's shoulders. This problem has been further confounded by the lack of a timely, comprehensive data set of satellite orbital element sets and computationally efficient tools to provide predictions using industry-standard software. As a result, hundreds of conjunctions within 1 km occur each week, with little or no intervention, putting billions of dollars of space hardware at risk, along with their associated missions. As a service to the satellite operator community, the Center for Space Standards & Innovation (CSSI) offers SOCRATES-Satellite Orbital Conjunction Reports Assessing Threatening Encounters in Space. Twice each day, CSSI runs a list of all satellite payloads on orbit against a list of all objects on orbit using the catalog of all unclassified NORAD two-line element sets to look for conjunctions over the next seven days. The runs are made using STK/CAT-Satellite Tool Kit's Conjunction Analysis Tools-together with the NORAD SGP4 propagator in STK. This paper will discuss how SOCRATES works and how it can help satellite operators avoid undesired close approaches through advanced mission planning.

  18. Evaluating NOx Emissions Using Satellite Observations (United States)

    Frost, G. J.; Kim, S.; Brioude, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, M.; Heckel, A.; Hilboll, A.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Gleason, J. F.; Boersma, K. F.; Hsie, E.; Lee, S.; Angevine, W. M.; Granier, C.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.


    Atmospheric NO2 columns retrieved from satellites can provide a useful top-down assessment of bottom-up NOx emissions inventories. We present three case studies of an approach to evaluate NOx emissions at a sector level by comparing satellite retrievals to regional chemical-transport model calculations of NO2 columns. In the first example, the atmospheric impact of implementing NOx controls at eastern US power plants is demonstrated. In the second study, we use NOx monitors at western US power plants to calibrate our satellite-model comparisons. We then apply our approach to evaluate bottom-up estimates of NOx emissions from western US cities. In the third example, we validate our satellite-model approach using in-situ aircraft measurements and assess NOx emissions from power plants, cities, industrial facilities, and ports in eastern Texas. We conclude with some general insights on the usefulness of this approach and suggestions for future areas of research.

  19. Technical developments in international satellite business services (United States)

    Tan, P. P.

    At the conception of International Satellite Business Services (ISBS), it was a primary objective to provide flexibility for accommodating a variety of service requirements which might be established by mutual agreement between users. The design guidelines are to ensure that the space segment is efficiently utilized, while other satellite services are protected from interference. Other considerations are related to an acceptable earth segment cost, maximum connectivity in worldwide services, the capability of growth and a reasonably smooth transition into future systems, and the maintenance of high performance objectives. Attention is given to a system overview, the characteristics of satellites for ISBS, and technological developments with some application possibilities for ISBS.

  20. Upgraded Radiometer Improves Observation of Meteorological Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ A new meteorological satellite, Fengyun-2C,was successfully launched at 9:20 am on Oct. 19 in Xichang Satellite Launch Center in China's southwest province of Sichuan. The Fengyun-2 (or FY-2,meaning "winds and clouds" in Chinese) is a geostationary meteorological satellite series of China.China started its FY-2 development program in 1980 and has sent two experimental models of FY-2 series in 1997 and 2000 respectively. The FY2-C is China's first professional one in the series.

  1. Proceedings of the Mobile Satellite Conference (United States)

    Rafferty, William


    A satellite-based mobile communications system provides voice and data communications to mobile users over a vast geographic area. The technical and service characteristics of mobile satellite systems (MSSs) are presented and form an in-depth view of the current MSS status at the system and subsystem levels. Major emphasis is placed on developments, current and future, in the following critical MSS technology areas: vehicle antennas, networking, modulation and coding, speech compression, channel characterization, space segment technology and MSS experiments. Also, the mobile satellite communications needs of government agencies are addressed, as is the MSS potential to fulfill them.

  2. Simultaneous single epoch satellite clock modelling in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (United States)

    Thongtan, Thayathip

    In order to obtain high quality positions from navigation satellites, range errors have to be identified and either modelled or estimated. This thesis focuses on satellite clock errors, which are needed to be known because satellite clocks are not perfectly synchronised with navigation system time. A new approach, invented at UCL, for the simultaneous estimation, in a single epoch, of all satellite clock offsets within a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) from range data collected at a large number of globally distributed ground stations is presented. The method was originally tested using only data from a limited number of GPS satellites and ground stations. In this work a total of 50 globally distributed stations and the whole GPS constellation are used in order to investigate more fully the capabilities of the method, in terms of both accuracy and reliability. A number of different estimation models have been tested. These include those with different weighting schemes, those with and without tropospheric bias parameters and those that include assumptions regarding prior knowledge of satellite orbits. In all cases conclusions have been drawn based on formal error propagation theory. Accuracy has been assessed largely through the sizes of the predicted satellite clock standard deviations and, in the case of simultaneously estimating satellite positions, their error ellipsoids. Both internal and external reliability have been assessed as these are important contributors to integrity, something that is essential for many practical applications. It has been found that the accuracy and reliability of satellite clock offsets are functions of the number of known ground station clocks and distance from them, quality of orbits and quality of range measurement. Also the introduction of tropospheric zenith delay parameters into the model reduces both accuracy and reliability by amounts depending on satellite elevation angles. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. Biological satellite Kosmos-936 (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.


    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  4. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio


    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  5. Trends In Satellite Communication (United States)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.


    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  6. Normalization and calibration of geostationary satellite radiances for the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (United States)

    Desormeaux, Yves; Rossow, William B.; Brest, Christopher L.; Campbell, G. G.


    Procedures are described for normalizing the radiometric calibration of image radiances obtained from geostationary weather satellites that contributed data to the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The key step is comparison of coincident and collocated measurements made by each satellite and the concurrent AVHRR on the 'afternoon' NOAA polar-orbiting weather satellite at the same viewing geometry. The results of this comparison allow transfer of the AVHRR absolute calibration, which has been established over the whole series, to the radiometers on the geostationary satellites. Results are given for Meteosat-2, 3, and 4, for GOES-5, 6, and 7, for GMS-2, 3, and 4 and for Insat-1B. The relative stability of the calibrations of these radiance data is estimated to be within +/- 3 percent; the uncertainty of the absolute calibrations is estimated to be less than 10 percent. The remaining uncertainties are at least two times smaller than for the original radiance data.

  7. Small Satellite Reaction Wheel Optimization


    Michaelis, Ted


    The very "smallness" of small satellites mandates mass minimization. This paper addresses minimization of overall reaction wheel mass, including the incremental mass of the power subsystem needed to support the reaction wheel. The results are applicable to a wide range of wheel sizes and are suitable for optimization at the configuration level. For an average momentum and torque operating point, the minimization process yields wheel radius and angular velocity, as well as, the masses associat...

  8. Hybrid Maritime Satellite Communication Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Thomas Gunst

    Hybrid antennas for a maritime satellite communication terminal with simultaneous operation at L- and Ka-band have been investigated. The frequency bands of interest are 1; 525:0 1; 660:5 MHz (RX+TX, RHCP), 19:7 20:2 (RX, LHCP) and 29:5 30:0 GHz (TX, RHCP), which are all part of the Inmarsat BGAN...

  9. Color Survey of the Irregular Planetary Satellites (United States)

    Graykowski, Ariel; Jewitt, David


    Irregular satellites are characterized by their larger orbital distance from their planet, their high eccentricity and their high inclination, all indicating that they were captured. However, the mechanism of capture and the location of origin of the satellites remain unknown. We are conducting a photometric survey of the irregular satellites of the giant planets using the LRIS instrument on the 10-meter telescope at the Keck Observatory in Hawaii. The measured colors will be compared to other planetary bodies in search for similarities and differences that may reflect upon the origin of the satellites. For example, if irregular satellites were captured from the Kuiper Belt then some should contain the ultrared material that is common in the trans-Neptunian and Centaur populations. If the irregular satellites of Jupiter were captured from the same source population as the Jovian Trojans, then it is natural to expect that the surface properties of satellites and Trojans should be the same. We will present initial results of this work.

  10. DFH-3 Satellite Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The DFH-3 satellite platform is designed and developed by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). It is a medium capability communications satellite platform. The platform adopts threeaxis attitude stabilization control system, having solar array output power of 1.7kW by the end of its design lifetime of 8 years. Its mass is 2100kg with payload capacity of 220kg.

  11. Planetary satellites - an update (United States)

    Beatty, J. K.


    General features of all known planetary satellites in the system are provided, and attention is focused on prominent features of several of the bodies. Titan has an atmosphere 1.5 times earth's at sea level, a well a a large body of liquid which may be ethane, CH4, and disolved N2. Uranus has at least five moons, whose masses have recently been recalculated and determined to be consistent with predictions of outer solar system composition. Io's violent volcanic activity is a demonstration of the conversion of total energy (from Jupiter) to heat, i.e., interior melting and consequent volcanoes. Plumes of SO2 have been seen and feature temperatures of up to 650 K. Enceladus has a craterless, cracked surface, indicating the presence of interior ice and occasional breakthroughs from tidal heating. Hyperion has a chaotic rotation, and Iapetus has one light and one dark side, possibly from periodic collisions with debris clouds blasted off the surface of the outer moon Phoebe.

  12. Monitoring auroral electrojets with satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Moretto, T.


    satellites. The method is simple enough to be implemented for real-time monitoring, especially since it does not require the full vector field measurement. We demonstrate the method on 5 years of Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) data and show how the monitoring depends on the local time...... of the satellite orbit and how it varies with local time and season in both hemispheres. Statistically, the strongest currents are observed in the predawn and predusk local time quadrants at latitudes that depend on the general magnetic activity level. We also show how the satellite-derived parameters relate......, this does not significantly affect the utility of the method for space weather applications even for satellites at substantially higher altitudes. The results for several individual magnetic storm periods demonstrate that large variability can exist in both the latitude and intensity of the currents during...

  13. Global satellite composites - 20 years of evolution (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard A.; Lazzara, Matthew A.; Robaidek, Jerrold O.; Santek, David A.; Knuth, Shelley L.


    For two decades, the University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) and the Antarctic Meteorological Research Center (AMRC) have been creating global, regional and hemispheric satellite composites. These composites have proven useful in research, operational forecasting, commercial applications and educational outreach. Using the Man computer Interactive Data System (McIDAS) software developed at SSEC, infrared window composites were created by combining Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), and polar orbiting data from the SSEC Data Center and polar data acquired at McMurdo and Palmer stations, Antarctica. Increased computer processing speed has allowed for more advanced algorithms to address the decision making process for co-located pixels. The algorithms have evolved from a simplistic maximum brightness temperature to those that account for distance from the sub-satellite point, parallax displacement, pixel time and resolution. The composites are the state-of-the-art means for merging/mosaicking satellite imagery.

  14. Satellite ATM Networks: Architectures and Guidelines Developed (United States)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.; Yegendu, Ferit


    An important element of satellite-supported asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networking will involve support for the routing and rerouting of active connections. Work published under the auspices of the Telecommunications Industry Association (, describes basic architectures and routing protocol issues for satellite ATM (SATATM) networks. The architectures and issues identified will serve as a basis for further development of technical specifications for these SATATM networks. Three ATM network architectures for bent pipe satellites and three ATM network architectures for satellites with onboard ATM switches were developed. The architectures differ from one another in terms of required level of mobility, supported data rates, supported terrestrial interfaces, and onboard processing and switching requirements. The documentation addresses low-, middle-, and geosynchronous-Earth-orbit satellite configurations. The satellite environment may require real-time routing to support the mobility of end devices and nodes of the ATM network itself. This requires the network to be able to reroute active circuits in real time. In addition to supporting mobility, rerouting can also be used to (1) optimize network routing, (2) respond to changing quality-of-service requirements, and (3) provide a fault tolerance mechanism. Traffic management and control functions are necessary in ATM to ensure that the quality-of-service requirements associated with each connection are not violated and also to provide flow and congestion control functions. Functions related to traffic management were identified and described. Most of these traffic management functions will be supported by on-ground ATM switches, but in a hybrid terrestrial-satellite ATM network, some of the traffic management functions may have to be supported by the onboard satellite ATM switch. Future work is planned to examine the tradeoffs of placing traffic management functions onboard a satellite as

  15. Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems (United States)

    Okpanachi, George

    Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’,

  16. Robust Satellite Communications Under Hostile Interference (United States)


    Gaussian Noise BER Bit Error Rate BLER Block Error Rate BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying CODEC Coder and Decoder CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check dB...Satellite Communication SNR Signal to Noise Ratio STK Systems Took Kit TDRS Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Toff Idle Time of a Transmitter Ton...Received Signal-to- Noise Ratio at the Jammer ...................................................... 15  3.2.2  SNR Threshold for Repeating the Signal

  17. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of the dynamic characteristics of rain fading channel for satellite-to-Earth links at Ka-band (United States)

    Yao, Hongchao; Wang, Huali


    Modeling of rain fading channel dynamics is essential to the real-time prediction of link availability for Ka-band satellite communication system under rain attenuation impairment, and can validate fade mitigation techniques (FMT) such as adaptive transmission and diversity. The mechanism of dynamic rain attenuation model based on time-series generator is firstly concerned in this paper. We further provide a scheme and implementation of real-time simulator for dynamic rain fading channels based on Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation method and general Field Programmable Logic Array (FPGA) device. Finally, the impact of adaptive modulation fade countermeasures (AMFC) in the different state of rain attenuation is evaluated with simulation results.

  18. Land mobile satellite transmission measurements at 869 MHz. A comparison of error probabilities for various message block durations and fade margins as a function of vegetation shadowing (United States)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.


    In order to give vehicles travelling in rural areas of the U.S. access to the telephone network, a Land Mobile Satellite System is being planned. Previously presented data by the author were analyzed for the probability that the received signal level dropped below a threshold during short time blocks of various signal durations and the conditional probability that such an event would reoccur after a given delay. If it assumed that a fade threshold crossing of even 1 msec would produce an error in the transmission, then the derived quantities can be considered error probabilities. Extensive tables and graphs are presented with the results from the analysis. They can be used to devise communication strategies which will provide improved link availability in the presence of vegetation shadowing.

  19. Satellite Communications for ATM (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.


    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  20. Gravimetric geodesy and sea surface topography studies by means of satellite-to-satellite tracking and satellite altimetry (United States)

    Siry, J. W.


    A satellite-to-satellite tracking experiment is planned between ATS-F and GEOS-C with a range accuracy of 2-meters and a range rate accuracy of 0.035 centimeters per second for a 10-second integration time. This experiment is planned for 1974. It is anticipated that it will improve the spatial resolution of the satellite geoid by half an order of magnitude to about 6 degrees. Longer integration times should also permit a modest increase in the acceleration resolution. Satellite altimeter data will also be obtained by means of GEOS-C. An overall accuracy of 5-meters in altitude is the goal. The altimeter, per se, is expected to have an instrumental precision of about 2 meters, and an additional capability to observe with a precision of about 0.2 meters for limited periods.

  1. Satellite medical centers project (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arvind


    World class health care for common man at low affordable cost: anywhere, anytime The project envisages to set up a national network of satellite Medical centers. Each SMC would be manned by doctors, nurses and technicians, six doctors, six nurses, six technicians would be required to provide 24 hour cover, each SMC would operate 24 hours x 7 days. It would be equipped with the Digital telemedicine devices for capturing clinical patient information and investigations in the form of voice, images and data and create an audiovisual text file - a virtual Digital patient. Through the broad band connectivity the virtual patient can be sent to the central hub, manned by specialists, specialists from several specialists sitting together can view the virtual patient and provide a specialized opinion, they can see the virtual patient, see the examination on line through video conference or even PCs, talk to the patient and the doctor at the SMC and controlle capturing of information during examination and investigations of the patient at the SMC - thus creating a virtual Digital consultant at the SMC. Central hub shall be connected to the doctors and consultants in remote locations or tertiary care hospitals any where in the world, thus creating a virtual hub the hierarchical system shall provide upgradation of knowledge to thedoctors in central hub and smc and thus continued medical education and benefit the patient thru the world class treatment in the smc located at his door step. SMC shall be set up by franchisee who shall get safe business opportunity with high returns, patients shall get Low cost user friendly worldclass health care anywhere anytime, Doctors can get better meaningful selfemplyment with better earnings, flexibility of working time and place. SMC shall provide a wide variety of services from primary care to world class Global consultation for difficult patients.

  2. Experimental Satellite 2 Successfully Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Small satellite Experimental Satellite 2 (SY-2) was launched by LM-2C launch vehicle from Xichang Satellite Launch Center on Nov. 18, 2004. Later the satellite entered the preset sun-synchronous orbit, which is 700 kilometers above the earth. The launch was the eighthmission this year by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC), which aims to test the technology of the satellite, conduct survey and monitoring of the land and resources and geographical environment on a trial basis.

  3. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen


    @@ China's meteorological satellite program consists of five systems,namely the satellite system,the launch vehicle system,the launch center system,TT&C and the ground application system.The satellite system consists of FengYun (FY) polar orbiting series and FY geostationary series,which are launched by LM launch vehicles from Taiyan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) and Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) respectively.

  4. Configurable software for satellite graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartzman, P D


    An important goal in interactive computer graphics is to provide users with both quick system responses for basic graphics functions and enough computing power for complex calculations. One solution is to have a distributed graphics system in which a minicomputer and a powerful large computer share the work. The most versatile type of distributed system is an intelligent satellite system in which the minicomputer is programmable by the application user and can do most of the work while the large remote machine is used for difficult computations. At New York University, the hardware was configured from available equipment. The level of system intelligence resulted almost completely from software development. Unlike previous work with intelligent satellites, the resulting system had system control centered in the satellite. It also had the ability to reconfigure software during realtime operation. The design of the system was done at a very high level using set theoretic language. The specification clearly illustrated processor boundaries and interfaces. The high-level specification also produced a compact, machine-independent virtual graphics data structure for picture representation. The software was written in a systems implementation language; thus, only one set of programs was needed for both machines. A user can program both machines in a single language. Tests of the system with an application program indicate that is has very high potential. A major result of this work is the demonstration that a gigantic investment in new hardware is not necessary for computing facilities interested in graphics.

  5. The Principle of Navigation Constellation Composed of SIGSO Communication Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Hai-Fu; Ai, Guo-Xiang; Shi, Hu-Li


    The Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS), a navigation system based on GEO communication satellites, was developed in 2002 by astronomers at Chinese Academy of Sciences. Extensive positioning experiments of CAPS have been performed since 2005. On the basis of CAPS, this paper studies the principle of navigation constellation composed of Slightly Inclined Geostationary Orbit (SIGSO) communication satellites. SIGSO satellites are derived from end-of-life Geostationary Orbit (GEO) satellites under inclined orbit operation. Considering the abundant frequency resources of SIGSO satellites, multi-frequency observations could be conducted to enhance the precision of pseudorange measurements and ameliorate the positioning performence. The constellation composed of two GEO satellites and four SIGSO satellites with inclination of 5 degrees can provide the most territory of China with 24-hour maximum PDOP less than 42. With synthetic utilization of the truncated precise (TP) code and physical augmentation factor in fo...

  6. Autonomous satellite constellation orbit determination using the star sensor and inter-satellite links data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A method of autonomous orbit determination for a satellite constellation using a star sensor combined with inter satellite links(ISLs) is studied.Two types of simulated observation data,Three-Satellite Constellation ISLs and background stellar observations by a CCD star sensor,are first produced.Based on these data,an observation equation is built for the constellation joint autonomous orbit determination,in which the simulations are run.The accuracy of this method with different orbital determination models are analyzed and compared with regard to the effect of potential measurement errors.The results show that autonomous satellite constellation orbit determination using star sensor measurement and ISLs data is feasible.Finally,this paper arrives at several conclusions which contribute to extending this method to a more general satellite constellation.

  7. Improvement of orbit determination accuracy for Beidou Navigation Satellite System with Two-way Satellite Time Frequency Transfer (United States)

    Tang, Chengpan; Hu, Xiaogong; Zhou, Shanshi; Guo, Rui; He, Feng; Liu, Li; Zhu, Lingfeng; Li, Xiaojie; Wu, Shan; Zhao, Gang; Yu, Yang; Cao, Yueling


    The Beidou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) manages to estimate simultaneously the orbits and clock offsets of navigation satellites, using code and carrier phase measurements of a regional network within China. The satellite clock offsets are also directly measured with Two-way Satellite Time Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT). Satellite laser ranging (SLR) residuals and comparisons with the precise ephemeris indicate that the radial error of GEO satellites is much larger than that of IGSO and MEO satellites and that the BDS orbit accuracy is worse than GPS. In order to improve the orbit determination accuracy for BDS, a new orbit determination strategy is proposed, in which the satellite clock measurements from TWSTFT are fixed as known values, and only the orbits of the satellites are solved. However, a constant systematic error at the nanosecond level can be found in the clock measurements, which is obtained and then corrected by differencing the clock measurements and the clock estimates from orbit determination. The effectiveness of the new strategy is verified by a GPS regional network orbit determination experiment. With the IGS final clock products fixed, the orbit determination and prediction accuracy for GPS satellites improve by more than 50% and the 12-h prediction User Range Error (URE) is better than 0.12 m. By processing a 25-day of measurement from the BDS regional network, an optimal strategy for the satellite-clock-fixed orbit determination is identified. User Equivalent Ranging Error is reduced by 27.6% for GEO satellites, but no apparent reduction is found for IGSO/MEO satellites. The SLR residuals exhibit reductions by 59% and 32% for IGSO satellites but no reductions for GEO and MEO satellites.

  8. Future large broadband switched satellite communications networks (United States)

    Staelin, D. H.; Harvey, R. R.


    Critical technical, market, and policy issues relevant to future large broadband switched satellite networks are summarized. Our market projections for the period 1980 to 2000 are compared. Clusters of switched satellites, in lieu of large platforms, etc., are shown to have significant advantages. Analysis of an optimum terrestrial network architecture suggests the proper densities of ground stations and that link reliabilities 99.99% may entail less than a 10% cost premium for diversity protection at 20/30 GHz. These analyses suggest that system costs increase as the 0.6 power of traffic. Cost estimates for nominal 20/30 GHz satellite and ground facilities suggest optimum system configurations might employ satellites with 285 beams, multiple TDMA bands each carrying 256 Mbps, and 16 ft ground station antennas. A nominal development program is outlined.

  9. Improved ephemerides of the Galilean satellites (United States)

    Lieske, J. H.


    Over 4800 earth-based observations of Jupiter's Galilean satellites have been analyzed in order to develop improved ephemerides of the satellites for the Voyager mission, using the new theory of motion of the Galilean satellites. Included are over 1700 eclipses of the satellites by Jupiter spanning the interval 1878-1974, 85 mutual events (eclipses and occultations) observed in 1973, and over 2900 exposures on photographic plates from 1967-1978. The resulting ephemerides (labeled E-2) were employed for the Voyager I encounter and are in error by less than 200 km at the time of Jupiter close approach. A very small (0.066 deg) amplitude of the Laplacian free libration is indicated by the data.

  10. Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Icy Satellite Analogs (United States)

    Javeed, Aurya; Barmatz, Martin; Zhong, Fang; Choukroun, Mathieu


    With regard to planetary science, NASA aspires to: "Advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system, the potential for life elsewhere, and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space". In pursuit of such an end, the Galileo and Cassini missions garnered spectral data of icy satellite surfaces implicative of the satellites' structure and material composition. The potential for geophysical modeling afforded by this information, coupled with the plausibility of life on icy satellites, has pushed Jupiter's Europa along with Saturn's Enceladus and Titan toward the fore of NASA's planetary focus. Understanding the evolution of, and the present processes at work on, the aforementioned satellites falls squarely in-line with NASA's cited goal.

  11. L-shell bifurcation of electron outer belt at the recovery phase of geomagnetic storm as observed by STEP-F and SphinX instruments onboard the CORONAS-Photon satellite (United States)

    Dudnik, Oleksiy; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Podgorski, Piotr


    Radiation belts and sporadically arising volumes comprising enhanced charged particle fluxes in the Earth's magnetosphere are typically studied by space-borne telescopes, semiconductor, scintillation, gaseous and other types of detectors. Ambient and internal electron bremsstrahlung in hard X-ray arises as a result of interaction of precipitating particles with the atmosphere (balloon experiments) and with the satellite's housings and instrument boxes (orbital experiments). Theses emissions provide a number of new information on the physics of radiation belts. The energies of primary electrons and their spectra responsible for measured X-ray emissions remain usually unknown. Combined measurements of particle fluxes, and their bremsstrahlung by individual satellite instruments placed next to each other provide insight to respective processes. The satellite telescope of electrons and protons STEP-F and the solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX were placed in close proximity to each other aboard CORONAS-Photon, the low, circular and highly inclined orbit satellite. Based on joint analysis of the data we detected new features in the high energy particle distributions of the Earth's magnetosphere during deep minimum of solar activity [1-3]. In this research the bifurcation of Van Allen outer electron radiation belt during the weak geomagnetic storm and during passage of interplanetary shock are discussed. Outer belt bifurcation and growth of electron fluxes in a wide energy range were recorded by both instruments during the recovery phase of May 8, 2009 substorm. STEP-F recorded also barely perceptible outer belt splitting on August 5, 2009, after arrival of interplanetary shock to the Earth's magnetosphere bowshock. The STEP-F and SphinX data are compared with the space weather indexes, and with relativistic electron fluxes observed at geostationary orbit. We discuss possible mechanism of the phenomena consisting in the splitting of drift shells because of Earth


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G.Vasantha Kumar


    Full Text Available This paper discusses in-house designed and developed scale-down DVB-RCS hub along with the performance of the realized hub. This development is intended to support the Satellite Based e-Learning initiative in India. The scale-down DVB-RCS HUB is implemented around a single PC with other subsystems making it very cost effective and unique of its kind. This realization will drastically reduce the total cost of Satellite based Education Networks as very low cost commercially available Satellite Interactive Terminals (SITs complying to open standard could be used at remote locations. The system is successfully tested to work with a commercial SIT using a GEO satellite EDUSAT which is especially dedicated for satellite based e-Learning. The internal detail of the DVB-RCS Forward and Return Link Organization and how it manages the Satellite Interactive Terminals access to the satellite channel using MF-TDMA approach has been described.

  13. Satellite data assimilation in global forecast system in India (United States)

    Basu, Swati


    Satellite data is very important for model initialization and verification. A large number of satellite observations are currently assimilated into the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF). Apart from Global meteorological observations from GTS, near-real time satellite observations are received at NCMRWF from other operational centres like ISRO, NOAA/NESDIS, EUMETCAST, etc. Recently India has become member of Asia-Pacific Regional ATOVS Retransmission Service (APRARS) for faster access to high resolution global satellite data useful for high resolution regional models. Indian HRPT at Chennai covers the APRARS data gap region over South East Asia. A robust data monitoring system has been implemented at NCMRWF to assess the quantity and quality of the data as well as the satellite sensor strength, before getting assimilated in the models. Validation of new satellite observations, especially from Indian satellites are being carried out against insitu observations and similar space borne platforms. After establishing the quality of the data, Observation System Experiments (OSEs) are being conducted to study their impact in the assimilation and forecast systems. OSEs have been carried out with the Oceansat-2 scatterometer winds and radiance data from Megha-Tropiques SAPHIR sensor. Daily rainfall analysis dataset is being generated by merging satellite estimates and in-situ observations. ASCAT soil wetness measurements from METOP satellite is being assimilated into the global model. Land surface parameters (LuLc and albedo) retrieved from Indian satellites are being explored for its possible usage in the global and regional models. OLR from Indian satellites are used for validating model outputs. This paper reviews the efforts made at NCMRWF in (i) assimilating the data from Indian/International satellites and (ii) generating useful products from the satellite data.

  14. Engineering Test Satellite VI (ETS-VI) (United States)

    Horii, M.; Funakawa, K.


    The Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI) is being developed as the third Japanese three-axis stabilized engineering test satellite to establish the 2-ton geostationary operational satellite bus system and to demonstrate the high performance satellite communication technology for future operational satellites. The satellite is expected to be stationed at 154 deg east latitude. It will be launched from the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan by a type H-II launch vehicle. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the prelaunch compatibility test, data interface verification testing, and launch rehersals. The DSN primary support period is from launch through the final AEF plus 1 hour. Contingency support is from final AEF plus 1 hour until launch plus 1 month. The coverage will consist of all the 26-m antennas as prime and the 34-m antennas at Madrid and Canberra as backup. Maximum support will consist of two 8-hour tracks per station for a 7-day period, plus the contingency support, if required. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  15. The reionization of galactic satellite populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocvirk, P.; Gillet, N.; Aubert, D.; Chardin, J. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Knebe, A.; Yepes, G. [Grupo de Astrofísica, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Modulo C-8, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco E-280049 (Spain); Libeskind, N.; Gottlöber, S. [Leibniz-Institute für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Hoffman, Y. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)


    We use high-resolution simulations of the formation of the local group, post-processed by a radiative transfer code for UV photons, to investigate the reionization of the satellite populations of an isolated Milky Way-M31 galaxy pair in a variety of scenarios. We use an improved version of ATON which includes a simple recipe for radiative feedback. In our baseline models, reionization is initiated by low-mass, radiatively regulated halos at high redshift, until more massive halos appear, which then dominate and complete the reionization process. We investigate the relation between reionization history and present-day positions of the satellite population. We find that the average reionization redshift (z {sub r}) of satellites is higher near galaxy centers (MW and M31). This is due to the inside out reionization patterns imprinted by massive halos within the progenitor during the epoch of reionization, which end up forming the center of the galaxy. Due to incomplete dynamical mixing during galaxy assembly, these early patterns survive to present day, resulting in a clear radial gradient in the average satellite reionization redshift, up to the virial radius of MW and M31 and beyond. In the lowest emissivity scenario, the outer satellites are reionized about 180 Myr later than the inner satellites. This delay decreases with increasing source model emissivity, or in the case of external reionization by Virgo or M31, because reionization occurs faster overall and becomes spatially quasi-uniform at the highest emissivity.

  16. Applications of two-way satellite time and frequency transfer in the BeiDou navigation satellite system (United States)

    Zhou, ShanShi; Hu, XiaoGong; Liu, Li; Guo, Rui; Zhu, LingFeng; Chang, ZhiQiao; Tang, ChengPan; Gong, XiuQiang; Li, Ran; Yu, Yang


    A two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) device equipped in the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) can calculate clock error between satellite and ground master clock. TWSTFT is a real-time method with high accuracy because most system errors such as orbital error, station position error, and tropospheric and ionospheric delay error can be eliminated by calculating the two-way pseudorange difference. Another method, the multi-satellite precision orbit determination (MPOD) method, can be applied to estimate satellite clock errors. By comparison with MPOD clock estimations, this paper discusses the applications of the BDS TWSTFT clock observations in satellite clock measurement, satellite clock prediction, navigation system time monitor, and satellite clock performance assessment in orbit. The results show that with TWSTFT clock observations, the accuracy of satellite clock prediction is higher than MPOD. Five continuous weeks of comparisons with three international GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers (ACs) show that the reference time difference between BeiDou time (BDT) and golbal positoning system (GPS) time (GPST) realized IGS ACs is in the tens of nanoseconds. Applying the TWSTFT clock error observations may obtain more accurate satellite clock performance evaluation in the 104 s interval because the accuracy of the MPOD clock estimation is not sufficiently high. By comparing the BDS and GPS satellite clock performance, we found that the BDS clock stability at the 103 s interval is approximately 10-12, which is similar to the GPS IIR.

  17. Preliminary Location Accuracy Assessments of 3rd Satellite of TH-1



    The TH-1 satellite is the first stereo mapping transmission satellite in China, and the primary mission goal of the satellite is for topographic mapping at 1:50 000 scale and high-accuracy location without Ground Control Points (GCPs). 1st, 2nd satellites of TH-1 were launched on August 24, 2010, May 6, 2012, and 3rd satellite was launched on October 26, 2015. Now, three satellites of TH-1 are well operating on its orbit. After evaluation, the location accuracy of 1st satellite without GCPs i...

  18. Geostationary satellites collocation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hengnian


    Geostationary Satellites Collocation aims to find solutions for deploying a safe and reliable collocation control. Focusing on the orbital perturbation analysis, the mathematical foundations for orbit and control of the geostationary satellite are summarized. The mathematical and physical principle of orbital maneuver and collocation strategies for multi geostationary satellites sharing with the same dead band is also stressed. Moreover, the book presents some applications using the above algorithms and mathematical models to help readers master the corrective method for planning station keeping maneuvers. Engineers and scientists in the fields of aerospace technology and space science can benefit from this book. Hengnian Li is the Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, China.

  19. ESA's satellite communications programme (United States)

    Bartholome, P.


    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  20. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M


    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  1. AVS on satellite (United States)

    Zhao, Haiwu; Wang, Guozhong; Hou, Gang


    AVS is a new digital audio-video coding standard established by China. AVS will be used in digital TV broadcasting and next general optical disk. AVS adopted many digital audio-video coding techniques developed by Chinese company and universities in recent years, it has very low complexity compared to H.264, and AVS will charge very low royalty fee through one-step license including all AVS tools. So AVS is a good and competitive candidate for Chinese DTV and next generation optical disk. In addition, Chinese government has published a plan for satellite TV signal directly to home(DTH) and a telecommunication satellite named as SINO 2 will be launched in 2006. AVS will be also one of the best hopeful candidates of audio-video coding standard on satellite signal transmission.

  2. Collision Avoidance: Coordination of Predicted Conjunctions between NASA Satellites and Satellites of other Countries (United States)

    Kelly, A.; Watson, W.


    This paper describes one of the challenges facing the flight operations teams of the International Earth Observing constellation satellites at the 705 km orbit, including NASAs satellites. The NASA Earth Science Mission Operations (ESMO) Project has been dealing with predicted conjunctions (close approach) between operational/non-operational space objects and the satellites in the International Earth observing constellations for several years. Constellation satellites include: NASAs Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra, Aqua, and Aura, CloudSat, the joint NASA/CNES CALIPSO mission, Earth Observing 1 (EO-1), the Japan Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission-Water 1 (GCOM-W1) mission, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat 7 and Landsat 8, and until 2013, Argentinas SAC-C mission and the CNES PARASOL mission. The NASA Conjunction Analysis and Risk Assessment (CARA) team provides daily reports to the ESMO Project regarding any high interest close approach events (HIEs) involving the constellation satellites. The daily CARA reports provide risk assessment results that help the operations teams to determine if there is a need to perform a risk mitigation action. If the conjuncting space object is an operational satellite that is capable of maneuvering, the affected satellite team needs to coordinate their action plan with the owner operator of the conjuncting satellite. It is absolutely critical for the two teams to communicate as soon as possible. The goal is to minimize the collision risk; this can happen if both satellite operators do not coordinate their maneuver plans. The constellation teams have established guidelines for coordinating HIEs. This coordination process has worked successfully for several years for satellites that are operated by other organizations in the United States and by NASAs international partners, all with whom NASA has a cooperative agreement. However, the situation is different for HIEs with

  3. Controversies over the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma: a report from the satellite workshop at the 4th international symposium of brain tumor pathology, Nagoya Congress Center, May 23, 2012. (United States)

    Komori, Takashi; Hirose, Takanori; Shibuya, Makoto; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Shinya; Sasaki, Atsushi


    With the goal of discussing how the neuropathology community should resolve the controversy over the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma, this Satellite Workshop reflects the collaboration between two invited keynote speakers: Dr. Johan M. Kros of the Erasmus Medical Center and Dr. Kenneth D. Aldape of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and the Organizing Committee of the Japanese Society of Brain Tumor Pathology. In the first half of the workshop, the keynote speakers reviewed the current status of the pathology and genetics of oligodendroglioma. In the second half, six debatable cases that exemplify the current controversies over the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma were presented. The consensus diagnoses in these six cases, which have been reviewed by members of the Society, were opened to discussion and comments by the speakers. These cases highlight unresolved issues in the WHO 2007 classification of oligodendrogliomas, particularly the discordance between morphology and genetics. To achieve synchronization between phenotypes and genotypes, the neuropathology diagnosis should focus on the classic features of oligodendrogliomas that are highly correlated with the genetic background.

  4. Molecular and evolutionary characteristics of the fraction of human alpha satellite DNA associated with CENP-A at the centromeres of chromosomes 1, 5, 19, and 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roizès Gérard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mode of evolution of the highly homogeneous Higher-Order-Repeat-containing alpha satellite arrays is still subject to discussion. This is also true of the CENP-A associated repeats where the centromere is formed. Results In this paper, we show that the molecular mechanisms by which these arrays evolve are identical in multiple chromosomes: i accumulation of crossovers that homogenise and expand the arrays into different domains and subdomains that are mostly unshared between homologues and ii sporadic mutations and conversion events that simultaneously differentiate them from one another. Individual arrays are affected by these mechanisms to different extents that presumably increase with time. Repeats associated with CENP-A, where the centromere is formed, are subjected to the same evolutionary mechanisms, but constitute minor subsets that exhibit subtle sequence differences from those of the bulk repeats. While the DNA sequence per se is not essential for centromere localisation along an array, it appears that certain sequences can be selected against. On chromosomes 1 and 19, which are more affected by the above evolutionary mechanisms than are chromosomes 21 and 5, CENP-A associated repeats were also recovered from a second homogeneous array present on each chromosome. This could be a way for chromosomes to sustain mitosis and meiosis when the normal centromere locus is ineluctably undermined by the above mechanisms. Conclusion We discuss, in light of these observations, possible scenarios for the normal evolutionary fates of human centromeric regions.

  5. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry


    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  6. Trends in NASA communication satellites. (United States)

    Sivo, J. N.; Robbins, W. H.; Stretchberry, D. M.


    Discussion of the potential applications of satellite communications technology in meeting the national needs in education, health care, culture, and data transfer techniques. Experiments with the NASA ATS 1, 3 and 5 spacecraft, which are conducted in an attempt to satisfy such needs, are reviewed. The future needs are also considered, covering the requirements of multiple region coverage, communications between regions, large numbers of ground terminals, multichannel capability and high quality TV pictures. The ATS F and CTS spacecraft are expected to be available in the near future to expand experiments in this field.

  7. Short-term GNSS satellite clock stability (United States)

    Griggs, E.; Kursinski, E. R.; Akos, D.


    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) clock stability is characterized via the modified Allan deviation using active hydrogen masers as the receiver frequency reference. The high stability of the maser reference allows the GNSS clock contribution to the GNSS carrier phase variance to be determined quite accurately. Satellite clock stability for four different GNSS constellations are presented, highlighting the similarities and differences between the constellations as well as satellite blocks and clock types. Impact on high-rate applications, such as GNSS radio occultation (RO), is assessed through the calculation of the maximum carrier phase error due to clock instability. White phase noise appears to dominate at subsecond time scales. However, while we derived the theoretical contribution of white phase modulation to the modified Allan deviation, our analysis of the GNSS satellite clocks was limited to 1-200 s time scales because of inconsistencies between the subsecond results from the commercial and software-defined receivers. The rubidium frequency standards on board the Global Positioning System (GPS) Block IIF, BeiDou, and Galileo satellites show improved stability results in comparison to previous GPS blocks for time scales relevant to RO. The Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) satellites are the least stable of the GNSS constellations in the short term and will need high-rate corrections to produce RO results comparable to those from the other GNSS constellations.

  8. Satellite orbit determination and gravity field recovery from satellite-to-satellite tracking (United States)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Leenman, H.


    Studies on satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) with POPSAT (a geodetic satellite concept) and a ERS-class (Earth observation) satellite, a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) gravity mission, and precise gravity field determination methods and mission requirements are reported. The first two studies primarily address the application of SST between the high altitude POPSAT and an ERS-class or GRM (Geopotential Research Mission) satellite to the orbit determination of the latter two satellites. Activities focussed on the determination of the tracking coverage of the lower altitude satellite by ground based tracking systems and by POPSAT, orbit determination error analysis and the determination of the surface forces acting on GRM. The third study surveys principles of SST, uncertainties of existing drag models, effects of direct luni-solar attraction and tides on orbit and the gravity gradient observable. Detailed ARISTOTELES (which replaced POPSAT) orbit determination error analyses were performed for various ground based tracking networks.

  9. Jupiter small satellite montage (United States)


    A montage of images of the small inner moons of Jupiter from the camera onboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft shows the best views obtained of these moons during Galileo's 11th orbit around the giant planet in November 1997. At that point, Galileo was completing its first two years in Jupiter orbit--known as the Galileo 'prime mission'--and was about to embark on a successful two-year extension, called the Galileo Europa Mission. The top two images show the moon Thebe. Thebe rotates by approximately 50 degrees between the time these two images were taken, so that the same prominent impact crater is seen in both views; this crater, which has been given the provisional name Zethus, is near the point on Thebe that faces permanently away from Jupiter. The next two images show the moon Amalthea; they were taken with the Sun directly behind the observer, an alignment that emphasizes patterns of intrinsically bright or dark surface material. The third image from the top is a view of Amalthea's leading side, the side of the moon that 'leads' as Amalthea moves in its orbit around Jupiter. This image looks 'noisy' because it was obtained serendipitously during an observation of the Jovian satellite Io (Amalthea and Io shared the same camera frame but the image was exposed for bright Io rather than for the much darker Amalthea). The fourth image from the top emphasizes prominent 'spots' of relatively bright material that are located near the point on Amalthea that faces permanently away from Jupiter. The bottom image is a view of the tiny moon Metis. In all the images, north is approximately up, and the moons are shown in their correct relative sizes. The images are, from top to bottom: Thebe taken on November 7, 1997 at a range of 504,000 kilometers (about 313,000 miles); Thebe on November 7, 1997 at a range of 548,000 kilometers (about 340,000 miles); Amalthea on November 6, 1997 at a range of about 650,000 kilometers (about 404,000 miles); Amalthea on November 7, 1997 at a

  10. A Space Based Solar Power Satellite System (United States)

    Engel, J. M.; Polling, D.; Ustamujic, F.; Yaldiz, R.; et al.


    (SPoTS) supplying other satellites with energy. SPoTS is due to be commercially viable and operative in 2020. of Technology designed the SPoTS during a full-time design period of six weeks as a third year final project. The team, organized according to the principles of systems engineering, first conducted a literature study on space wireless energy transfer to select the most suitable candidates for use on the SPoTS. After that, several different system concepts have been generated and evaluated, the most promising concept being worked out in greater detail. km altitude. Each SPoTS satellite has a 50m diameter inflatable solar collector that focuses all received sunlight. Then, the received sunlight is further redirected by means of four pointing mirrors toward four individual customer satellites. A market-analysis study showed, that providing power to geo-stationary communication satellites during their eclipse would be most beneficial. At arrival at geo-stationary orbit, the focused beam has expended to such an extent that its density equals one solar flux. This means that customer satellites can continue to use their regular solar arrays during their eclipse for power generation, resulting in a satellite battery mass reduction. the customer satellites in geo-stationary orbit, the transmitted energy beams needs to be pointed with very high accuracy. Computations showed that for this degree of accuracy, sensors are needed, which are not mainstream nowadays. Therefore further research must be conducted in this area in order to make these high-accuracy-pointing systems commercially attractive for use on the SPoTS satellites around 2020. Total 20-year system lifetime cost for 18 SPoT satellites are estimated at approximately USD 6 billion [FY2001]. In order to compete with traditional battery-based satellite power systems or possible ground based wireless power transfer systems the price per kWh for the customer must be significantly lower than the present one

  11. Land mobile satellite propagation measurements in Japan using ETS-V satellite (United States)

    Obara, Noriaki; Tanaka, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi; Wakana, Hiromitsu


    Propagation characteristics of land mobile satellite communications channels have been investigated actively in recent years. Information of propagation characteristics associated with multipath fading and shadowing is required to design commercial land mobile satellite communications systems, including protocol and error correction method. CRL (Communications Research Laboratory) has carried out propagation measurements using the Engineering Test Satellite-V (ETS-V) at L band (1.5 GHz) through main roads in Japan by a medium gain antenna with an autotracking capability. This paper presents the propagation statistics obtained in this campaign.

  12. An Overview Of Operational Satellites Built By China:Communications Satellites (Part 2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong He


    @@ INNOVATIVE GENERATION: THE DFH-4 PLATFORM AND SATELLITES The DFH-4 platform is the third generation of China-built large geostationary satellite platform with large output power,payload capacity and long service lifetime.Its overall performance ranks with other international advanced satellite platforms.This platform can be used for many services such as high capacity broadcast communication,direct TV broadcasting,digital audio broadcasting and broadband multimedia,which are badly needed for national economic construction and markets both at home and abroad.The platform also has effective technologies that can ensure the security of information transmission.

  13. Ocean surveillance satellites (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  14. Man-made Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    If you watch the sky about an hour after the sun goes down, you may see some “moving stars”. But they're not real stars. They're manmade satellites (卫星). And the biggest of all is the International Space Station (ISS国际空间站).

  15. Simultaneous assimilation of satellite and eddy covariance data for improving terrestrial water and carbon simulations at a semi-arid woodland site in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kato


    Full Text Available Terrestrial productivity in semi-arid woodlands is strongly susceptible to changes in precipitation, and semi-arid woodlands constitute an important element of the global water and carbon cycles. Here, we use the Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS to investigate the mechanisms controlling ecological and hydrogical activities for a semi-arid savanna woodland site in Maun, Botswana. Twenty-four eco-hydrological process parameters of a terrestrial ecosystem model are optimized against two data streams either separately or simultaneously: daily averaged latent heat flux (LHF derived from eddy covariance measurement, and decadal fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR derived from Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS.

    Assimilation of both LHF and FAPAR for the years 2000 and 2001 leads to improved agreement between measured and simulated quantities not only for LHF and FAPAR, but also for photosynthetic CO2 uptake. The closest agreement is found for each observed data stream when only the same data stream is assimilated. The mean uncertainty reduction (relative to the prior over all parameters is 16.1% for the simultaneous assimilation of LHF and FAPAR, 9.2% for assimilating LHF only, and 7.8% for assimilating FAPAR only. Furthermore, the set of parameters with the highest uncertainty reduction is similar between assimilating only FAPAR or only LHF. The highest uncertainty reduction is found for a parameter describing maximum plant-available soil moisture for all three cases. This indicates that not only LHF but also satellite-derived FAPAR data can be used to constrain and indirectly observe hydrological quantities.

  16. Simultaneous assimilation of satellite and eddy covariance data for improving terrestrial water and carbon simulations at a semi-arid woodland site in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kato


    Full Text Available Terrestrial productivity in semi-arid woodlands is strongly susceptible to changes in precipitation, and semi-arid woodlands constitute an important element of the global water and carbon cycles. Here, we use the Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS to investigate the key parameters controlling ecological and hydrological activities for a semi-arid savanna woodland site in Maun, Botswana. Twenty-four eco-hydrological process parameters of a terrestrial ecosystem model are optimized against two data streams separately and simultaneously: daily averaged latent heat flux (LHF derived from eddy covariance measurements, and decadal fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR derived from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS.

    Assimilation of both data streams LHF and FAPAR for the years 2000 and 2001 leads to improved agreement between measured and simulated quantities not only for LHF and FAPAR, but also for photosynthetic CO2 uptake. The mean uncertainty reduction (relative to the prior over all parameters is 14.9% for the simultaneous assimilation of LHF and FAPAR, 8.5% for assimilating LHF only, and 6.1% for assimilating FAPAR only. The set of parameters with the highest uncertainty reduction is similar between assimilating only FAPAR or only LHF. The highest uncertainty reduction for all three cases is found for a parameter quantifying maximum plant-available soil moisture. This indicates that not only LHF but also satellite-derived FAPAR data can be used to constrain and indirectly observe hydrological quantities.

  17. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  18. DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd. is a hi-tech enterprise founded and sponsored by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC) and one of CASC subsidiaries,China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). The company is mainly engaged in the research and development of small satellites and micro-satellites, Osystem designs and product development for satellite application projects as well as the international exchanges and cooperation.

  19. Wind Statistics Offshore based on Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Mouche, Alexis; Badger, Merete


    Ocean wind maps from satellites are routinely processed both at Risø DTU and CLS based on the European Space Agency Envisat ASAR data. At Risø the a priori wind direction is taken from the atmospheric model NOGAPS (Navel Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System) provided by the U.S. Navy......’s Master Environmental Library. At CLS the a priori wind direction is taken from the ECMWF (European Centre of Medium-range Weather Forecasting). It is also possible to use other sources of wind direction e.g. the satellite-based ASCAT wind directions as demonstrated by CLS. The wind direction has to known...

  20. Videoconferencing via satellite. Opening Congress to the people: Technical report (United States)

    Wood, F. B.; Coates, V. T.; Chartrand, R. L.; Ericson, R. F.


    The feasibility of using satellite videoconferencing as a mechanism for informed dialogue between Congressmen and constituents to strengthen the legislative process was evaluated. Satellite videoconferencing was defined as a two-way interactive television with the TV signals transmitted by satellite. With videoconferencing, one or more Congressmen in Washington, D. C. can see, hear and talk with groups of citizens at distant locations around the country. Simultaneously, the citizens can see, hear and talk with the Congressmen.

  1. Critical inclinations in satellite theory (United States)

    Deprit, A.


    The main problem of satellite theory is described in polar coordinates by a Hamiltonian function. It is proposed to find a solution of the Hamiltonian function with the following properties: (1) the reference orbit is Keplerian; (2) no restriction is imposed on the eccentricity; in particular, it is exempt of singularities - real or apparent - for small eccentricities; and (3) no restriction is imposed on the inclination; in particular, it is exempt of singularities - real or apparent - for small inclinations; also it is valid even in the neighborhood of inclinations at which the perigee is stationary.

  2. Satellite-Based EMI Detection, Identification, and Mitigation (United States)

    Stottler, R.; Bowman, C.


    Commanding, controlling, and maintaining the health of satellites requires a clear operating spectrum for communications. Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) from other satellites can interfere with these communications. Determining which satellite is at fault improves space situational awareness and can be used to avoid the problem in the future. The Rfi detection And Prediction Tool, Optimizing Resources (RAPTOR) monitors the satellite communication antenna signals to detect EMI (also called RFI for Radio Frequency Interference) using a neural network trained on past cases of both normal communications and EMI events. RAPTOR maintains a database of satellites that have violated the reserved spectrum in the past. When satellite-based EMI is detected, RAPTOR first checks this list to determine if any are angularly close to the satellite being communicated with. Additionally, RAPTOR checks the Space Catalog to see if any of its active satellites are angularly close. RAPTOR also consults on-line databases to determine if the described operating frequencies of the satellites match the detected EMI and recommends candidates to be added to the known offenders database, accordingly. Based on detected EMI and predicted orbits and frequencies, RAPTOR automatically reschedules satellite communications to avoid current and future satellite-based EMI. It also includes an intuitive display for a global network of satellite communications antennas and their statuses including the status of their EM spectrum. RAPTOR has been prototyped and tested with real data (amplitudes versus frequency over time) for both satellite communication signals and is currently undergoing full-scale development. This paper describes the RAPTOR technologies and results of testing.

  3. Telelibrary: Library Services via Satellite. (United States)

    Liu, Rosa


    Investigates the provision of library services via satellite, explains briefly the operation and advantages of communication satellites, and discusses the various telecommunications equipment and services which, when coupled with satellite transmission, will enhance library activities. Demand trend projections for telecommunications services…

  4. Mobile satellite service for Canada (United States)

    Sward, David


    The Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system and a special program designed to provide interim mobile satellite services (IMSS) during the construction phase of MSAT are described. A mobile satellite system is a key element in extending voice and and data telecommunications to all Canadians.

  5. Seamless Handovers in Cobra Teardrop Satellite Arrays (United States)

    Draim, John E.; Cefola, Paul J.; Ernandes, Kenneth J.


    Satellite systems provide the most efficient and possibly the only means of achieving two-way global communications with mobile systems (ships, aircraft, and vehicular traffic). To date, such systems have used only circular orbits, either GEO or LEO. Medium altitude elliptical constellations, on the other hand, can provide an efficient and affordable alternative to these architectures. Users also benefit from their very high average and minimum elevation angles, resulting in minimum signal attenuation. Cobra Teardrop is unique in that it employs time synchronized 8-h left- and right-leaning elliptical orbits giving mid-latitude observers the illusion of viewing a single satellite continuously orbiting almost directly overhead! In reality, observers see six different satellites per day, for 4 h each (while in their active duty cycles). By design, Teardrop satellites are physically in very close proximity at the handover points. This favorable geometry can be utilized to achieve a seamless handover from one satellite to the other (not requiring any electronic buffering). Handover is accomplished at the precise instant that the total path lengths from the transmitting station through both satellites to the receiving station are exactly equal. In these improved Cobra Teardrop arrays, an order of magnitude increase in global communications capacity (equivalent GEO slots) can be realized over earlier Basic Cobra systems. For decades into the future, these new orbital systems could satisfy a widely expanding range of commercial, government, and military high data rate communication requirements. These would include, but not be limited to, satellite cellular, air traffic control, meteorological, and combat net radio systems. With these arrays, a much larger number of system operators could be supported, without mutual electronic interference, than would ever be possible with circular orbits.

  6. 5th China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Jiao, Wenhai; Wu, Haitao; Lu, Mingquan


    China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2014 Proceedings presents selected research papers from CSNC2014, held on 21-23 May in Nanjing, China. The theme of CSNC2014 is 'BDS Application: Innovation, Integration and Sharing'. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 9 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2014, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.  SUN Jiadong is the Chief Designer of the Compass/ BDS, and the Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS); JIAO Wenhai is a researcher at China Satellite Navigation Office; WU Haitao is a professor at Navigation Headquarters, CAS; LU Mingquan is a professor at Department of Electronic Engineering of Tsinghua University.

  7. Role of neutral wind and storm time electric fields inferred from the storm time ionization distribution at low latitudes: in-situ measurements by Indian satellite SROSS-C2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Subrahmanyam


    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a renewal of interest in the study of the effects of solar weather events on the ionization redistribution and irregularity generation. The observed changes at low and equatorial latitudes are rather complex and are noted to be a function of location, the time of the storm onset and its intensity, and various other characteristics of the geomagnetic storms triggered by solar weather events. At these latitudes, the effects of geomagnetic storms are basically due to (a direct penetration of the magnetospheric electric fields to low latitudes, (b development of disturbance dynamo, (c changes in atmospheric neutral winds at ionospheric level and (d changes in neutral composition triggered by the storm time atmospheric heating.

    In the present study an attempt is made to further understand some of the observed storm time effects in terms of storm time changes in zonal electric fields and meridional neutral winds. For this purpose, observations made by the Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA payload on board the Indian satellite SROSS-C2 are examined for four prominent geomagnetic storm events that occurred during the high solar activity period of 1997-2000. Available simultaneous observations, from the GPS satellite network, are also used. The daytime passes of SROSS-C2 have been selected to examine the redistribution of ionization in the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA region. In general, EIA is observed to be weakened 12-24 h after the main phase onset (MPO of the storm. The storm time behaviour inferred by SROSS-C2 and the GPS satellite network during the geomagnetic storm of 13 November 1998, for which simultaneous observations are available, is found to be consistent. Storm time changes in the delay of received GPS signals are noted to be ~1-3 m, which is a significant component of the total delay observed on a quiet day.

    An attempt is made to identify and

  8. A new method for determination of satellite orbits by transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ZhiGang; YANG XuHai; AI GuoXiang; SI HuLi; QIAO RongChuan; FENG ChuGang


    The original idea of a new method for determination of satellite orbits by transfer is from Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT).The original method is called "determination of satellite orbit by transfer".The method is not only for determination of satellite orbit but also for the time transfer with high accuracy and precision.The advantage is that the accuracy and the precision for determination of satellite orbit are very high and the new method is favorable for various applications.The combination of various signals disseminated and received forms various modes of satellite orbit determinations.If receivers at stations receive the own station-disseminated signals via a satellite transponder,it forms an orbit determination mode called "receiving the own station-disseminated signals mode".If receivers at all stations receive the signals disseminated from the master station via satellite transponders,it forms an orbit determination mode called "receiving the master station-disseminated signals mode".If all of receivers at stations receive all stations-disseminated signals via satellite transponders,it forms an orbit determination mode called "receiving all stations-disseminated signals mode".Also there are other combinations of signals for satellite orbit determination.For different orbit determination modes with different signal combinations,their rigorous formulae of processing are hereby presented in this paper.The accurate and the precise satellite orbit determination for both of the modes,"receiving the own station-disseminated signals mode" and "receiving the master station-disseminated signals mode" is attempted.It shows that the accuracy and precision for both of modes are nearly the same,the ranging accuracy is better than 1 cm,and the observation residuals of satellite orbit determination are better than 9 cm in the observation duration of 1 day.

  9. A new method for determination of satellite orbits by transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The original idea of a new method for determination of satellite orbits by transfer is from Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT). The original method is called "determination of satellite orbit by transfer". The method is not only for determination of satellite orbit but also for the time transfer with high accuracy and precision. The advantage is that the accuracy and the precision for determination of satellite orbit are very high and the new method is favorable for various applications. The combination of various signals disseminated and received forms various modes of satellite orbit determinations. If receivers at stations receive the own station-disseminated signals via a satellite transponder, it forms an orbit determination mode called "receiving the own station-disseminated signals mode". If receivers at all stations receive the signals disseminated from the master station via satellite transponders, it forms an orbit determination mode called "receiving the master station-disseminated signals mode". If all of receivers at stations receive all stations-disseminated signals via satellite transponders, it forms an orbit determination mode called "receiving all stations-disseminated signals mode". Also there are other combinations of signals for satellite orbit determination. For dif- ferent orbit determination modes with different signal combinations, their rigorous formulae of proc- essing are hereby presented in this paper. The accurate and the precise satellite orbit determination for both of the modes, "receiving the own station-disseminated signals mode" and "receiving the master station-disseminated signals mode" is attempted. It shows that the accuracy and precision for both of modes are nearly the same, the ranging accuracy is better than 1 cm, and the observation residuals of satellite orbit determination are better than 9 cm in the observation duration of 1 day.

  10. Plan of advanced satellite communications experiment using ETS-VI (United States)

    Shiomi, Tadashi


    Communications Research Laboratory (CRL, Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, Japan) has been engaged in development of three advanced satellite communication payloads aiming at experiments by Japan's 2-ton class Engineering Test Satellite VI (ETS-VI) which is to be launched in H-II rocket by NASDA in August 1992. CRL's three experimental systems are: (1) S-band inter-satellite communications; (2) millimeter-wave inter-satellite and personal-satellite communications; and (3) optical inter-satellite communications. CRL develops experimental optical communication system with telescope of 75 mm diameter which has gimbal mirror beam pointing/tracking mechanism. The onboard system has fundamental optical communication functions with laser diode transmitter of wavelength 0.83 micron, laser beam point-ahead mechanism, receiver of wavelength 0.51 micron, modulation/demodulation subsystem, and so on.

  11. The Spatial Distribution of Galactic Satellites in the LCDM Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jie; Cooper, Andrew P


    We investigate the spatial distribution of galactic satellites in high resolution simulations of structure formation in the LCDM model: the Aquarius dark matter simulations of individual halos and the Millennium II simulation of a large cosmological volume. To relate the simulations to observations of the Milky Way we use two alternative models to populate dark halos with "visible" galaxies: a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and an abundance matching technique. We find that the radial density profile of massive satellites roughly follows that of the dark matter halo (unlike the distribution of dark matter subhalos). Furthermore, our two galaxy formation models give results consistent with the observed profile of the 11 classical satellites of the Milky Way. Our simulations predict that larger, fainter samples of satellites should still retain this profile at least up to samples of 100 satellites. The angular distribution of the classical satellites of the Milky Way is known to be highly anisotropic. D...

  12. Thematic mapping from satellite imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Denègre, J


    Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre

  13. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo


    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  14. Satellite B-ISDN traffic analysis (United States)

    Shyy, Dong-Jye; Inukai, Thomas


    The impact of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) traffic on the advanced satellite broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) with onboard processing is reported. Simulation models were built to analyze the cell transfer performance through the statistical multiplexer at the earth station and the fast packet switch at the satellite. The effectiveness of ground ATM cell preprocessing was established, as well as the performance of several schemes for improving the down-link beam utilization when the space segment employs a fast packet switch.

  15. Space Solar Power Satellite Systems, Modern Small Satellites, and Space Rectenna (United States)

    Bergsrud, Corey Alexis Marvin

    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) systems is the concept of placing large satellite into geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) to harvest and convert massive amounts of solar energy into microwave energy, and to transmit the microwaves to a rectifying antenna (rectenna) array on Earth. The rectenna array captures and converts the microwave power into usable power that is injected into the terrestrial electric grid for use. This work approached the microwave power beam as an additional source of power (with solar) for lower orbiting satellites. Assuming the concept of retrodirectivity, a GEO-SSPS antenna array system tracks and delivers microwave power to lower orbiting satellites. The lower orbiting satellites are equipped with a stacked photovoltaic (PV)/rectenna array hybrid power generation unit (HPGU) in order to harvest solar and/or microwave energy for on-board use during orbit. The area, and mass of the PV array part of the HPGU was reduced at about 32% beginning-of-life power in order to achieve the spacecraft power requirements. The HPGU proved to offer a mass decrease in the PGU, and an increase in mission life due to longer living component life of the rectenna array. Moreover, greater mission flexibility is achieved through a track and power delivery concept. To validate the potential advantages offered by a HPGU, a mission concept was presented that utilizes modern small satellites as technology demonstrators. During launch, a smaller power receiving "daughter" satellite sits inside a larger power transmitting "mother" satellite. Once separated from the launch vehicle the daughter satellite is ejected away from the mother satellite, and each satellite deploys its respective power transmitting or power receiving hardware's for experimentation. The concept of close proximity mission operations between the satellites is considered. To validate the technology of the space rectenna array part of the HPGU, six milestones were completed in the design. The first

  16. Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs (United States)



    Declassified photographs from U.S. intelligence satellites provide an important worldwide addition to the public record of the Earth's land surface. This imagery was released to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in accordance with Executive Order 12951 on February 23, 1995. The NARA has the original declassified film and a viewing copy. The USGS has another copy of the film to complement the Landsat archive. The declassified collection involves more than 990,000 photographs taken from 1959 through 1980 and was released on two separate occasions: February 1995 (Declass 1) and September 2002 (Declass 2). The USGS copy is maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Both the NARA and EROS provide public access to this unique collection that extends the record of land-surface change back another decade from the advent of the Landsat program that began satellite operations in 1972.

  17. Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues (United States)


    earthquake and tsunami in the Indian Ocean and Hurricane Katrina in 2005, when the NGA provided graphics for “relief efforts that depicted the locations of...that show the damage resulting from an earthquake , fire, flood, hurricane, oil spill, or volcanic eruption.8 Bush Administration Policies...Satellite information has continued to have important civil applications in such disparate areas as the movement of glaciers in Yakutat Bay in Alaska

  18. Communications satellites - The experimental years (United States)

    Edelson, B. I.


    Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

  19. A satellite anemometer (United States)

    Hanson, W. B.; Heelis, R. A.


    This report describes the design, development, and testing of components of a satellite anemometer, an instrument for measuring neutral winds in the upper atmosphere from a satellite platform. The device, which uses four nearly identical pressure sensors, measures the angle of arrival of the bulk neutral flow in the satellite frame of reference. It could also be used in a feedback loop to control spacecraft attitude with respect to the ram velocity direction. We have now developed miniaturized ionization pressure gauges that will work well from the slip flow region near 115 km up to the base of the exosphere, which covers the entire altitude range currently being considered for Tether. Laboratory tests have demonstrated a very linear response to changes in ram angle out to +/- 20 deg. (transverse wind component of 2.7 km s(exp -1)) from the ram, and a monotonic response to out beyond 45 deg. Pitch (vertical wind) and yaw (horizontal wind) can be sampled simultaneously and meaningfully up to 10 Hz. Angular sensitivity of 30 arc seconds (approximately 1 ms(exp -1) is readily attainable, but absolute accuracy for winds will be approximately 1 deg (130 m/s) unless independent attitude knowledge is available. The critical elements of the design have all been tested in the laboratory.

  20. Binary Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Evslin, Jarah


    Suggestions have appeared in the literature that the following five pairs of Milky Way and Andromeda satellite galaxies are gravitationally bound: Draco and Ursa Minor, Leo IV and V, Andromeda I and III, NGC 147 and 185, and the Magellanic clouds. Under the assumption that a given pair is gravitationally bound, the Virial theorem provides an estimate of its total mass and so its instantaneous tidal radius. For all of these pairs except for the Magellanic clouds the resulting total mass is 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than that within the half light radius. Furthermore in the case of each pair except for Leo IV and Leo V, the estimated tidal radius is inferior to the separation between the two satellites. Therefore all or almost all of these systems are not gravitationally bound. We note several possible explanations for the proximities and similar radial velocities of the satellites in each pair, for example they may have condensed from the same infalling structure or they may be bound by a nongravitatio...

  1. Advantages of Hybrid Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Bilajbegović


    Full Text Available In a decision-making situation, what kind of GPS equipment to purchase, one always has a dilemma, tobuy hybrid (GPS+GLONASS or only GPS receivers? In the case of completeness of the GLONASS satellite system, this dilemma probably would not have existed. The answer to this dilemma is given in the present paper, but for the constellation of the GLONASS satellites in summer 2006 (14 satellites operational. Due to the short operational period of these satellites (for example GLONASS-M, 5 years, and not launching new ones, at this moment (February 25, 2007, only 10 satellites are operational. For the sake of research and giving answers to these questions, about 252 RTK measurements have been done using (GPS and GNSS receivers, on points with different obstructions of horizon. Besides that, initialisation time has been investigated for both systems from about 480 measurements, using rover's antenna with metal cover, during a time interval of 0.5, 2 and 5 seconds. Moreover, accuracy, firmware declared accuracy and redundancy of GPS and GNSS RTK measurements have been investigating.  

  2. Quasi-satellite dynamics in formation flight

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkola, Seppo


    The quasi-satellite (QS) phenomenon makes two celestial bodies to fly near each other (Mikkola et al. 2006) and that effect can be used also to make artificial satellites move in tandem. We consider formation flight of two or three satellites in low eccentricity near Earth orbits. With the help of weak ion thrusters it is possible to accomplish tandem flight. With ion thrusters it is also possible to mimic many kinds of mutual force laws between the satellites. We found that both a constant repulsive force or an attractive force that decreases with the distance are able to preserve the formation in which the eccentricities cause the actual relative motion and the weak thrusters keep the mean longitude difference small. Initial values are important for the formation flight but very exact adjustment of orbital elements is not important. Simplicity is one of our goals in this study and this result is achieved at least in the way that, when constant force thrusters are used, the satellites only need to detect the...

  3. The Spatial Distribution of Satellite Galaxies Selected from Redshift Space

    CERN Document Server

    Agustsson, Ingolfur


    We investigate the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies that were obtained from a mock redshift survey of the first Millennium Run simulation. The satellites were identified using typical redshift space criteria and, hence, the sample includes both genuine satellites and a large number of interlopers. As expected from previous work, the 3D locations of the satellites are well-fitted by a combination of a Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) density profile and a power law. At fixed stellar mass, the NFW scale parameter, r_s, for the satellite distribution of red hosts exceeds that for the satellite distribution of blue hosts. In both cases the dependence of r_s on host stellar mass is well-fitted by a power law. For the satellites of red hosts, r_s^{red} \\propto (M_\\ast / M_sun)^{0.71 \\pm 0.05} while for the satellites of blue hosts, r_s^{blue} \\propto (M_\\ast / M_sun)^{0.48 \\pm 0.07}. For hosts with stellar masses greater than 4.0E+10 M_sun, the satellite distribution around blue hosts is much more concent...

  4. The Nuclear Detonation Detection System on the GPS satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higbie, P.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Blocker, N.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This article begins with a historical perspective of satellite usage in monitoring nuclear detonations. Current capabilities of the 24 GPS satellites in detecting the light, gamma rays, x-rays and neutrons from a nuclear explosion are described. In particular, an optical radiometer developed at Sandia National Laboratories is characterized. Operational information and calibration procedures are emphasized.

  5. Improving TCP Performance over Mobile Satellite Channels: The ACKPrime Approach (United States)

    Scott, Keith; Czetty, Stephen


    Various issues associated with "Improving TCP Performance over Mobile Satellite Channels: The ACKPrime Approach" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) TCP over mobile satellite links; 2) ways of breaking the control loop at the groundstation; 3) ACK implementation; and 4) ACK performance.

  6. Satellite eye for Galathea 3. Annual report 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Sørensen, Peter Brøgger; Pedersen, Leif Toudal;

    with a short text was published each week at the homepage . During 2007 the Satellite Eye team jointly with Nature & science prepared an educational film ‘Satellite Eye – Galathea 3 fra rummet’. This work is funded by The Danish Ministry of Education, Tips- og Lottopuljen. The film...

  7. Analysis of raw AIS spectrum recordings from a LEO satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter


    The AAUSAT3 satellite is a 1U cubesat, which has been developed by students at Aalborg University, Denmark in collaboration with the Danish Maritime Authority. The satellite was launched in February 2013 on a mission to monitor ships from space using their AIS broadcast signals as an indication...

  8. NORSEWInD satellite wind climatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, Alexis

    is to provide new offshore wind climatology map for the entire area of interest based on satellite remote sensing. This has been based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from Envisat ASAR using 9000 scenes re-processed with ECMWF wind direction and CMOD-IFR. The number of overlapping samples range from 450....... QuikSCAT ocean wind vector observations have been analysed for the same four parameters and ASCAT for mean wind speed. All satellite data has been compared to in-situ observations available in the Norsewind project. SSM/I passive microwave wind speed data from 24 years observed around 6 times per day...... are used to estimate trends in offshore winds and interestingly a shift in the seasonal pattern is notice. All satellite-based wind products are valid at 10 m, thus it is desirable to lift winds to higher levels for wind energy products. A method has been suggested to lift winds from 10 m to hub...

  9. Vehicle antenna development for mobile satellite applications (United States)

    Woo, K.


    The paper summarizes results of a vehicle antenna program at JPL in support of a developing U.S. mobile satellite services (MSS) designed to provide telephone and data services for the continental United States. Two classes of circularly polarized vehicle antennas have been considered for the MSS: medium-gain, satellite-tracking antennas with 10-12-dBic gain; and low-gain, azimuthally omnidirectional antennas with 3-5-dBic gain. The design and performance of these antennas are described, and the two antennas are shown to have peculiar advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Offshore winds mapped from satellite remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay


    the uncertainty on the model results on the offshore wind resource, it is necessary to compare model results with observations. Observations from ground-based wind lidar and satellite remote sensing are the two main technologies that can provide new types of offshore wind data at relatively low cost....... The advantages of microwave satellite remote sensing are 1) horizontal spatial coverage, 2) long data archives and 3) high spatial detail both in the coastal zone and of far-field wind farm wake. Passive microwave ocean wind speed data are available since 1987 with up to 6 observations per day with near...

  11. Satellite Laser Ranging and General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, L


    In this work some aspects of the detection of certain general relativistic effects in the weak gravitational field of the Earth via laser-ranged data to some existing or proposed geodetic satellites are examined. The focus is on the Lense-Thirring drag of the orbit of a test body, the gravitomagnetic clock effect and the gravitoelectric perigee shift. The impact of some sources of systematic errors is investigated. An experiment whose goal is the measurement of the PPN parameters beta and gamma in the terrestrial field with LAGEOS satellites at a level of 10^(-3)is presented. A modified version of the proposed LARES mission is examined.

  12. Efficient enhancing scheme for TCP performance over satellite-based internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lina; Gu Xuemai


    Satellite link characteristics drastically degrade transport control protocol (TCP) performance. An efficient performance enhancing scheme is proposed. The improvement of TCP performance over satellite-based Intemet is accomplished by protocol transition gateways at each end ora satellite link. The protocol which runs over a satellite link executes the receiver-driven flow control and acknowledgements- and timeouts-based error control strategies. The validity of this TCP performance enhancing scheme is verified by a series of simulation experiments. Results show that the proposed scheme can efficiently enhance the TCP performance over satellite-based Intemet and ensure that the available bandwidth resources of the satellite link are fully utilized.

  13. Quantifying offshore wind resources from satellite wind maps: Study area the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Christiansen, Merete B.;


    Offshore wind resources are quantified from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and satellite scatterometer observations at local and regional scale respectively at the Horns Rev site in Denmark. The method for wind resource estimation from satellite observations interfaces with the wind atl...

  14. Small Satellite Passive Magnetic Attitude Control (United States)

    Gerhardt, David T.

    Passive Magnetic Attitude Control (PMAC) is capable of aligning a satellite within 5 degrees of the local magnetic field at low resource cost, making it ideal for a small satellite. However, simulation attempts to date have not been able to predict the attitude dynamics at a level sufficient for mission design. Also, some satellites have suffered from degraded performance due to an incomplete understanding of PMAC system design. This dissertation alleviates these issues by discussing the design, inputs, and validation of PMAC systems for small satellites. Design rules for a PMAC system are defined using the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat as an example. A Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter (MEKF) is defined for the attitude determination of a PMAC satellite without a rate gyro. After on-orbit calibration of the off-the-shelf magnetometer and photodiodes and an on-orbit fit to the satellite magnetic moment, the MEKF regularly achieves a three sigma attitude uncertainty of 4 degrees or less. CSSWE is found to settle to the magnetic field in seven days, verifying its attitude design requirement. A Helmholtz cage is constructed and used to characterize the CSSWE bar magnet and hysteresis rods both individually and in the flight configuration. Fitted parameters which govern the magnetic material behavior are used as input to a PMAC dynamics simulation. All components of this simulation are described and defined. Simulation-based dynamics analysis shows that certain initial conditions result in abnormally decreased settling times; these cases may be identified by their dynamic response. The simulation output is compared to the MEKF output; the true dynamics are well modeled and the predicted settling time is found to possess a 20 percent error, a significant improvement over prior simulation.

  15. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.


    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Transmitter microdischarges in communications and broadcast Satellites (United States)

    Briskman, Robert D.; Kaliski, Michael A. R.


    Most commercial communications and broadcast satellites operating at microwave radio frequencies use traveling wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs) as high power transmitters. Since TWTAs work at high voltages, it is not uncommon to experience micro-discharges, especially early in life. This observation led to the introduction of an autonomous restart function in the companion high voltage power supply (the electronic power conditioner or EPC) of the TWTA as a safety feature. A microdischarge with enough energy above a threshold would lead to a momentary removal of high voltages, followed by an automatic restart, which is usually sufficient to allow the microdischarge event to clear with minimal loss of RF transmission. In most cases the energy involved in the microdischarge is low enough that the removal of high voltages is not required and the event may go undetected. However, an unusual signature was first noted in early 1997 on a Ku-band satellite transmitter, where the characteristics of the microdischarge event were such that the control anode voltage dropped below nominal and typically recovered over a 20 min period. Such microdischarge events became known as the "20 min Effect" which has since been observed over subsequent years on other Ku-band TWTAs, as well as on Ka-band and S-band satellite TWTA transmitters in numerous satellites. This paper summarizes the in-orbit data on such microdischarges as well as the believed cause. In addition, the paper includes results from three S-band TWTAs which have operated on life test for many years. Due to ease of their monitoring instrumentation as contrast to monitoring microdischarges on orbiting operational satellites via telemetry, new data have been accumulated on this effect. The data substantiate the previous findings that microdischarges do not significantly affect satellite operation or their transmissions nor diminish the TWTAs performance, including long lifetime.

  17. Effect of Ionosphere on Geostationary Communication Satellite Signals (United States)

    Erdem, Esra; Arikan, Feza; Gulgonul, Senol


    Geostationary orbit (GEO) communications satellites allow radio, television, and telephone transmissions to be sent live anywhere in the world. They are extremely important in daily life and also for military applications. Since, satellite communication is an expensive technology addressing crowd of people, it is critical to improve the performance of this technology. GEO satellites are at 35,786 kilometres from Earth's surface situated directly over the equator. A satellite in a geostationary orbit (GEO) appears to stand still in the sky, in a fixed position with respect to an observer on the earth, because the satellite's orbital period is the same as the rotation rate of the Earth. The advantage of this orbit is that ground antennas can be fixed to point towards to satellite without their having to track the satellite's motion. Radio frequency ranges used in satellite communications are C, X, Ku, Ka and even EHG and V-band. Satellite signals are disturbed by atmospheric effects on the path between the satellite and the receiver antenna. These effects are mostly rain, cloud and gaseous attenuation. It is expected that ionosphere has a minor effect on the satellite signals when the ionosphere is quiet. But there are anomalies and perturbations on the structure of ionosphere with respect to geomagnetic field and solar activity and these conditions may cause further affects on the satellite signals. In this study IONOLAB-RAY algorithm is adopted to examine the effect of ionosphere on satellite signals. IONOLAB-RAY is developed to calculate propagation path and characteristics of high frequency signals. The algorithm does not have any frequency limitation and models the plasmasphere up to 20,200 km altitude, so that propagation between a GEO satellite and antenna on Earth can be simulated. The algorithm models inhomogeneous, anisotropic and time dependent structure of the ionosphere with a 3-D spherical grid geometry and calculates physical parameters of the

  18. Steller sea lion satellite telemetry data used to determine at-sea distribution in the western-central Aleutian Islands, 2000-2013 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset was used for an analysis of the at-sea distribution of Steller sea lions in the western-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska. This analysis was prepared to...

  19. Economics of satellite communications systems (United States)

    Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    arrives at a schedule of costs and payments for all the items and the years in which they will be incurred. The second category of costing problems is one of financing or engineering economics. All the costs are first "present valued" to some reference period using rates of return appropriate to the particular situation. One finally arrives at sets of annual costs which can be used as the basis for setting lease costs or revenue requirements and tariffs. The correspondence between methods using discounted rates of return and capital recovery formulae on one hand and those using various depreciation schedules, such as is typical of regulated industries on the other hand, is discussed. The remainder of the paper is devoted to discussing the relationship between critical parameters, such as replacement schedules, design lifetime, satellite power and Earth station antenna size, and the overall costs. It is shown that optima for these parameters may exist and can be calculated. In particular, the optimization of satellite replacement schedules to minimize the present value of total investment over a very long period is presented, along with simplified versions of the theory suitable for system planning. The choice of EIRP is also discussed and a procedure for choosing the value that minimizes the costs is shown.

  20. Molecular biology of fuselloviruses and their satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contursi, Patrizia; Fusco, Salvatore; Cannio, Raffaele


    Fuselloviruses, also known as Sulfolobus Spindle-shaped viruses (SSVs), are "lemon"- or "spindle"-shaped double-stranded DNA viruses. Among them, SSV1, SSV2 and the satellite viruses pSSVx and pSSVi have been investigated at the structural, genetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical level...

  1. A decentralized design philosophy for satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard


    For the last decade development and construction of student cubesat satellites has played an important part in the engineering Master Program within Electrical Engineering and Information Technology at Aalborg University, Denmark. As a result three cubesats AAU CUBESAT, AAUSAT-II and AAUSAT3 has...

  2. Extrapolating Satellite Winds to Turbine Operating Heights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.;


    Ocean wind retrievals from satellite sensors are typically performed for the standard level of 10 m. This restricts their full exploitation for wind energy planning, which requires wind information at much higher levels where wind turbines operate. A new method is presented for the vertical extra...

  3. Integrated Satellite-HAP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; De Sanctis, Mauro; De Luise, Aldo


    for an efficient hybrid terrestrial-satellite communication system. Two integrated HAP-satellite scenarios are presented, in which the HAP is used to overcome some of the shortcomings of satellite- based communications. Moreover, it is shown that the integration of HAPs with satellite systems can be used......Thus far, high-altitude platform (HAP)-based systems have been mainly conceived as an alternative to satellites for complementing the terrestrial network. This article aims to show that HAP should no longer be seen as a competitor technology by investors of satellites, but as a key element...... to provide more efficient fleet-management and traffic-control services and more powerful data-relay systems....

  4. Induction studies with satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils


    The natural variations of the Earth's magnetic field of periods spanning from milliseconds to decades can be used to infer the conductivity-depth profile of the Earth's interior. Satellites provide a good spatial coverage of magnetic measurements, and forthcoming missions will probably allow....... This paper reviews and discusses the possibilities for induction studies using high-precision magnetic measurements from low-altitude satellites. The different methods and various transfer functions are presented, with special emphasis on the differences in analysing data from ground stations and from...... satellites. The results of several induction studies with scalar satellite data (from the POGO satellites) and with vector data (from the Magsat mission) demonstrate the ability to probe the Earth's conductivity from space. However, compared to the results obtained with ground data the satellite results...

  5. A Framework for Assessing Soil Moisture Deficit and Crop Water Stress at Multiple Space and Time Scales Under Climate Change Scenarios Using Model Platform, Satellite Remote Sensing, and Decision Support System

    KAUST Repository

    Mohanty, Binayak P.


    Better understanding of water cycle at different space–time scales would be a key for sustainable water resources, agricultural production, and ecosystems health in the twenty-first century. Efficient agricultural water management is necessary for sustainability of the growing global population. This warrants better predictive tools for aridity (based on precipitation, temperature, land use, and land cover), root zone (~top 1 m) soil moisture deficit, and crop water stress at farm, county, state, region, and national level, where decisions are made to allocate and manage the water resources. It will provide useful strategies for not only efficient water use but also for reducing potential risk of crop failure due to agricultural drought. Leveraging heavily on ongoing multiscale hydrologic modeling, data assimilation, soil moisture dynamics, and inverse model development research activities, and ongoing Land Data Assimilation (LDAS) and National Climate Assessment (NCA) indexing efforts we are developing a drought assessment framework. The drought assessment platform includes: (1) developing disaggregation methods for extracting various field-scale (1-km or less) climate indicators from the (SMOS, VIIRS, SMAP, AMSR-2) satellite / LDAS-based soil moisture in conjunction with a multimodel simulation–optimization approach using ensemble of Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer, SVAT (Noah, CLM, VIC, Mosaic in LIS) models; (2) predicting farm/field-scale long-term root zone soil moisture status under various land management and climate scenarios for the past decades in hindcast mode and for the next decades in forecast mode across the USA using effective land surface parameters and meteorological input from Global Circulation Model (GCM) outputs; (3) assessing the potential risk of agricultural drought at different space–time scales across the USA based on predicted root zone soil moisture; and (4) evaluating various water management and cropping practices (e

  6. Radio broadcasting via satellite (United States)

    Helm, Neil R.; Pritchard, Wilbur L.


    Market areas offering potential for future narrowband broadcast satellites are examined, including international public diplomacy, government- and advertising-supported, and business-application usages. Technical issues such as frequency allocation, spacecraft types, transmission parameters, and radio receiver characteristics are outlined. Service and system requirements, advertising revenue, and business communications services are among the economic issues discussed. The institutional framework required to provide an operational radio broadcast service is studied, and new initiatives in direct broadcast audio radio systems, encompassing studies, tests, in-orbit demonstrations of, and proposals for national and international commercial broadcast services are considered.

  7. Understanding satellite navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Rajat


    This book explains the basic principles of satellite navigation technology with the bare minimum of mathematics and without complex equations. It helps you to conceptualize the underlying theory from first principles, building up your knowledge gradually using practical demonstrations and worked examples. A full range of MATLAB simulations is used to visualize concepts and solve problems, allowing you to see what happens to signals and systems with different configurations. Implementation and applications are discussed, along with some special topics such as Kalman Filter and Ionosphere. W

  8. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue


    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  9. HETE Satellite Power Subsystem



    The HETE (High-Energy Transient Experiment) satellite a joint project between MIT's Center for Space Research and AeroAstro. is a high-energy gamma-ray burst/X-Ray/UV observatory platform. HETE will be launched into a 550 km circular orbit with an inclination of 37.7°, and has a design lifetime of 18 months. This paper presents a description of the spacecraft's power subsystem, which collects, regulates, and distributes power to the experiment payload modules and to the various spacecraft sub...

  10. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael


    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication sa...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  11. A figure of merit for competing communications satellite designs (United States)

    Lovell, R. R.; Fordyce, S. W.


    Trends in launch schedules, weights, power, and space segment costs per transponder year for Intelsats and North American domsats (domestic communications satellites) are discussed. The Intelsat system currently services 25,000 point to point telephone links at any one moment, and a $3 billion order has been placed for Intelsat VIs, which feature 36,000 telephone circuits each. The Intelsat VI spacecraft will weigh 1670 kg in orbit, a continuance of the trend to heavier satellites, while the domsats will stay at 650 kg due to launch vehicle limitations. Direct television broadcast satellites are being designed for receive only (R/O) earth stations, with each satellite capable of servicing 50,000 individual ground stations. Competition is growing for C and Ku band satellite transponders for DBS, with costs $350,000 each. No standardized design has yet emerged.

  12. The Italian contribution to the CSES satellite (United States)

    Conti, Livio


    We present the Italian contribution to the CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) mission. The CSES satellite aims at investigating electromagnetic field, plasma and particles in the near-Earth environment in order to study in particular seismic precursors, particles fluxes (from Van Allen belts, cosmic rays, solar wind, etc.), anthropogenic electromagnetic pollution and more in general the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling mechanisms that can affect the climate changes. The launch of CSES - the first of a series of several satellite missions - is scheduled by the end of 2016. The CSES satellite has been financed by the CNSA (China National Space Agency) and developed by CEA (China Earthquake Administration) together with several Chinese research institutes and private companies such as the DFH (that has developed the CAST2000 satellite platform). Italy participates to the CSES satellite mission with the LIMADOU project funded by ASI (Italian Space Agency) in collaboration with the Universities of Roma Tor Vergata, Uninettuno, Trento, Bologna and Perugia, as well as the INFN (Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics), INGV (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) and INAF-IAPS (Italian National Institute of Astrophysics and Planetology). Many analyses have shown that satellite observations of electromagnetic fields, plasma parameters and particle fluxes in low Earth orbit may be useful in order to study the existence of electromagnetic emissions associated with the occurrence of earthquakes of medium and high magnitude. Although the earthquakes forecasting is not possible today, it is certainly a major challenge - and perhaps even a duty - for science in the near future. The claims that the reported anomalies (of electromagnetic, plasma and particle parameters) are seismic precursors are still intensely debated and analyses for confirming claimed correlations are still lacking. In fact, ionospheric currents, plasma

  13. Satellite Communications: The Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ranjit Singh


    Full Text Available India has launched as many as 73 Indian satellites as of today since its first attempt in 1975. Besides serving traditional markets of telephony and broadcasting, satellites are on the frontiers of advanced applications as telemedicine, distance learning, environment monitoring, remote sensing, and so on. Satellite systems are optimized for services such as Internet access, virtual private networks and personal access. Costs have been coming down in recent years to the point where satellite broadband is becoming competitive. This article is an attempt to view this important topic from Indian perspective. India’s Project GAGAN, GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation is discussed.

  14. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros


    Although the first satellite observations of the Earth’s magnetic field were already taken more than 50 years ago, continuous geomagnetic measurements from space are only available since 1999. The unprecedented time-space coverage of this recent data set opened revolutionary new possibilities...... for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...... exploration of Earth’s magnetic field with satellites....

  15. Trends in mobile satellite communication (United States)

    Johannsen, Klaus G.; Bowles, Mike W.; Milliken, Samuel; Cherrette, Alan R.; Busche, Gregory C.


    Ever since the U.S. Federal Communication Commission opened the discussion on spectrum usage for personal handheld communication, the community of satellite manufacturers has been searching for an economically viable and technically feasible satellite mobile communication system. Hughes Aircraft Company and others have joined in providing proposals for such systems, ranging from low to medium to geosynchronous orbits. These proposals make it clear that the trend in mobile satellite communication is toward more sophisticated satellites with a large number of spot beams and onboard processing, providing worldwide interconnectivity. Recent Hughes studies indicate that from a cost standpoint the geosynchronous satellite (GEOS) is most economical, followed by the medium earth orbit satellite (MEOS) and then by the low earth orbit satellite (LEOS). From a system performance standpoint, this evaluation may be in reverse order, depending on how the public will react to speech delay and collision. This paper discusses the trends and various mobile satellite constellations in satellite communication under investigation. It considers the effect of orbital altitude and modulation/multiple access on the link and spacecraft design.

  16. 76 FR 31252 - Fixed and Mobile Services in the Mobile Satellite Service Bands at 1525-1559 MHz and 1626.5-1660... (United States)


    ... the MSS L-band spectrum to GPS receivers in the adjacent 1559-1610 MHz band and to identify measures... to preventing harmful interference to GPS and we will look closely at additional measures that may be... partnerships that will speed the development and deployment of wireless broadband to rural and other...

  17. Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs (United States)



    Declassified photographs from U.S. intelligence satellites provide an important worldwide addition to the public record of the Earth’s land surface. This imagery was released to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in accordance with Executive Order 12951 on February 23, 1995. The NARA has the original declassified film and a viewing copy. The USGS has another copy of the film to complement the Landsat archive.The declassified collection involves more than 990,000 photographs taken from 1959 through 1980 and was released on two separate occasions: February 1995 (Declass 1) and September 2002 (Declass 2). The USGS copy is maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Both the NARA and EROS provide public access to this unique collection that extends the record of land-surface change back another decade from the advent of the Landsat program that began satellite operations in 1972.

  18. An enhanced algorithm to estimate BDS satellite's differential code biases (United States)

    Shi, Chuang; Fan, Lei; Li, Min; Liu, Zhizhao; Gu, Shengfeng; Zhong, Shiming; Song, Weiwei


    This paper proposes an enhanced algorithm to estimate the differential code biases (DCB) on three frequencies of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) satellites. By forming ionospheric observables derived from uncombined precise point positioning and geometry-free linear combination of phase-smoothed range, satellite DCBs are determined together with ionospheric delay that is modeled at each individual station. Specifically, the DCB and ionospheric delay are estimated in a weighted least-squares estimator by considering the precision of ionospheric observables, and a misclosure constraint for different types of satellite DCBs is introduced. This algorithm was tested by GNSS data collected in November and December 2013 from 29 stations of Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations. Results show that the proposed algorithm is able to precisely estimate BDS satellite DCBs, where the mean value of day-to-day scattering is about 0.19 ns and the RMS of the difference with respect to MGEX DCB products is about 0.24 ns. In order to make comparison, an existing algorithm based on IGG: Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, China (IGGDCB), is also used to process the same dataset. Results show that, the DCB difference between results from the enhanced algorithm and the DCB products from Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) and MGEX is reduced in average by 46 % for GPS satellites and 14 % for BDS satellites, when compared with DCB difference between the results of IGGDCB algorithm and the DCB products from CODE and MGEX. In addition, we find the day-to-day scattering of BDS IGSO satellites is obviously lower than that of GEO and MEO satellites, and a significant bias exists in daily DCB values of GEO satellites comparing with MGEX DCB product. This proposed algorithm also provides a new approach to estimate the satellite DCBs of multiple GNSS systems.

  19. Assessment of Modeled Received Sound Pressure Levels and Movements of Satellite-Tagged Odontocetes Exposed to Mid-Frequency Active Sonar at the Pacific Missile Range Facility: February 2011 Through February 2013 (United States)


    Brandon L. Southall3 1Cascadia Research Collective, 218 ½ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501 2Marine Mammal Scientific and Veterinary Support...location data from satellite tags and available acoustic recordings and selected a subset of data for which there was sufficient overlap. The MFAS...location data from satellite- tagged individuals and modeling to estimate received levels from acoustic recordings from the PMRF hydrophones is a viable and

  20. Resonance in Satellite's Motion Under Air Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhardwaj


    Full Text Available This article studies the attitude motion of a satellite in a circular orbit under the influence of central body of mass M and its moon of mass m, whose orbit is assumed to be circular and coplanar with the orbit of the satellite. The body is assumed to be tri-axial body with principal moments of inertia A < B < C at its centre of mass, C is the moment of inertia about the spin axis which is perpendicular to the orbital plane. These principal axes are taken as the co-ordinate axes x, y, z; the z axis being perpendicular to the orbital plane. We have studied the rotational motion of satellite in the circular orbit under the influence of aerodynamic torque. Using BKM method, it is observed that the amplitude of the oscillation remains constant upto the second order of approximation. The main and the parametric resonance have been shown to exist and have been studied by BKM method. The analysis regarding the stability of the stationary planar oscillation of a satellite near the resonance frequency shows that the discontinuity occurs in the amplitude of the oscillation at a frequency of the external periodic force which is less than the frequency of the natural oscillation.

  1. Irregular satellite capture during planetary resonance passage (United States)

    Ćuk, Matija; Gladman, Brett J.


    The passage of Jupiter and Saturn through mutual 1:2 mean-motion resonance has recently been put forward as explanation for their relatively high eccentricities [Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R., Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F., 2005. Nature 435, 459-461] and the origin of Jupiter's Trojans [Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F., Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R., 2005. Nature 435, 462-465]. Additional constraints on this event based on other small-body populations would be highly desirable. Since some outer satellite orbits are known to be strongly affected by the near-resonance of Jupiter and Saturn ("the Great Inequality"; Ćuk, M., Burns, J.A., 2004b. Astron. J. 128, 2518-2541), the irregular satellites are natural candidates for such a connection. In order to explore this scenario, we have integrated 9200 test particles around both Jupiter and Saturn while they went through a resonance-crossing event similar to that described by Tsiganis et al. [Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R., Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F., 2005. Nature 435, 459-461]. The test particles were positioned on a grid in semimajor axes and inclinations, while their initial pericenters were put at just 0.01 AU from their parent planets. The goal of the experiment was to find out if short-lived bodies, spiraling into the planet due to gas drag (or alternatively on orbits crossing those of the regular satellites), could have their pericenters raised by the resonant perturbations. We found that about 3% of the particles had their pericenters raised above 0.03 AU (i.e. beyond Iapetus) at Saturn, but the same happened for only 0.1% of the particles at Jupiter. The distribution of surviving particles at Saturn has strong similarities to that of the known irregular satellites. If saturnian irregular satellites had their origin during the 1:2 resonance crossing, they present an excellent probe into the early Solar System's evolution. We also explore the applicability of this mechanism for Uranus, and find that only some of the uranian

  2. 77 FR 60333 - Verification of Statements of Account Submitted by Cable Operators and Satellite Carriers (United States)


    ... Satellite Carriers AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... satellite carriers. DATES: Reply comments on the proposed rule published at 77 FR 35643, June 14, 2012, must... of Account and royalty fees that cable operators and satellite carriers deposit with the...

  3. 76 FR 14297 - The Establishment of Policies and Service Rules for the Broadcasting-Satellite Service (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 The Establishment of Policies and Service Rules for the Broadcasting-Satellite... Broadcasting-Satellite Service (BSS). Specifically, we decline to adopt Telesat's proposal that the Federal... INFORMATION CONTACT: Andrea Kelly, Satellite Division, International Bureau, at 202-418-7877 or via e-mail...

  4. A Time and Space-based Dynamic IP Routing in Broadband Satellite Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The topology architecture, characteristics and routing technologies of broadband satellite networks are studied in this paper. The authors propose the routing scheme of satellite networks and design a time and space-based distributed routing algorithm whose complexity is O(1). Simulation results aiming at satellite mobility show that the new algorithm can determine the minimum propagation delay paths effectively.

  5. A Model To Address Design Constraints of Training Delivered via Satellite. Study Number Eight. (United States)

    Montler, Joseph; Geroy, Gary D.

    This document: summarizes how some companies are addressing the design constraints involved in using satellite technology to deliver training, presents a model aimed at examining cost effectiveness of the satellite option, and includes a guide to designing instructional materials for delivery by satellite. A survey of 39 organizations, 12…

  6. An Assessment of New Satellite Data Products for the Development of a Long-Term Global Solar Resource at 10-100 km (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Minnis, Patrick; Perez, Richard; Sengupta, Manajit; Knapp, Kenneth; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Schlemmer, James; Scarino, Benjamin; Zhang, Taiping; Cox, Stephen J.


    A project representing an effort to reprocess the NASA based solar resource data sets is reviewed. The effort represented a collaboration between NASA, NOAA, NREL and the SUNY-Albany and aimed to deliver a 10 km resolution, 3-hourly data set spanning from 1983 through near-present. Part of the project was to transition project capability to NREL for annual processing to extend data set. Due to delays in the key input project called ISCCP, we evaluate only Beta versions of this data set and also introduce the potential use of another NASA Langley based cloud data set for the CERES project. The CERES project uses these cloud properties to compute global top-of-atmosphere and surface fluxes at the 1x1 degree resolution. Here, we also briefly discuss these data sets in potential usage for solar resource benchmarking.

  7. Chuangxin-1-02 And Shiyan Satellite 3 Launched Atop A LM-2D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ A LM-2D launch vehicle blasted off from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center (JSLC) at 08:15 (Beijing time) on November 5, sending Chuangxin-l-02 and Shiyan Satellite 3 into space. According to the data released by the Xi'an Satellite Control Center (XSCC), Chuangxin-1-02 separated from the launch vehicle 856 seconds after the takeoff, and Shiyan Satellite 3 separated from the rocket 63 seconds thereafter.

  8. State of the Earth’s cryosphere at the beginning of the 21st century : glaciers, global snow cover, floating ice, and permafrost and periglacial environments: Chapter A in Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.


    This chapter is the tenth in a series of 11 book-length chapters, collectively referred to as “this volume,” in the series U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World. In the other 10 chapters, each of which concerns a specific glacierized region of Earth, the authors used remotely sensed images, primarily from the Landsat 1, 2, and 3 series of spacecraft, in order to analyze that glacierized region and to monitor changes in its glaciers. Landsat images, acquired primarily during the period 1972 through 1981, were used by an international team of glaciologists and other scientists to study the various glacierized regions and (or) to discuss related glaciological topics. In each glacierized region, the present distribution of glaciers within its geographic area is compared, wherever possible, with historical information about their past areal extent. The atlas provides an accurate regional inventory of the areal extent of glacier ice on our planet during the 1970s as part of an expanding international scientific effort to measure global environmental change on the Earth’s surface. However, this chapter differs from the other 10 in its discussion of observed changes in all four elements of the Earth’s cryosphere (glaciers, snow cover, floating ice, and permafrost) in the context of documented changes in all components of the Earth System. Human impact on the planet at the beginning of the 21st century is pervasive. The focus of Chapter A is on changes in the cryosphere and the importance of long-term monitoring by a variety of sensors carried on Earth-orbiting satellites or by a ground-based network of observatories in the case of permafrost. The chapter consists of five parts. The first part provides an introduction to the Earth System, including the interrelationships of the geosphere (cryosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere), the biosphere, climate processes, biogeochemical cycles, and the

  9. CEOS Visualization Environment (COVE) Tool for Intercalibration of Satellite Instruments (United States)

    Kessler, Paul D.; Killough, Brian D.; Gowda, Sanjay; Williams, Brian R.; Chander, Gyanesh; Qu, Min


    Increasingly, data from multiple instruments are used to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. Intercalibration, comparison, and coordination of satellite instrument coverage areas is a critical effort of space agencies and of international and domestic organizations. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Visualization Environment (COVE) is a suite of browser-based applications that leverage Google Earth to display past, present, and future satellite instrument coverage areas and coincident calibration opportunities. This forecasting and ground coverage analysis and visualization capability greatly benefits the remote sensing calibration community in preparation for multisatellite ground calibration campaigns or individual satellite calibration studies. COVE has been developed for use by a broad international community to improve the efficiency and efficacy of such calibration efforts. This paper provides a brief overview of the COVE tool, its validation, accuracies and limitations with emphasis on the applicability of this visualization tool for supporting ground field campaigns and intercalibration of satellite instruments.

  10. The role of technology in influencing future civil communications satellites (United States)

    Bagwell, James W.; Mahle, Christoph E.


    Technology, both as an enabler and as a driver of new and improved communication satellites, is discussed. A brief look at the beginnings and evolution of satellite communications is given to reveal the continuing influence of technology over the past 25 years. An assessment of the current state of the art which serves as a benchmark representing how far technology has come and as a basis for comparison for future possibilities is presented. A short tutorial on communications satellite basics is presented, followed by an assessment of technologies used for satellite antennas and signal amplification and routing. A discussion of future service requirements follows, and emerging technologies are identified along with possible improved communications capabilities that can result from them. The outlook for the role of technology for future communication satellites is summarized.

  11. Vibration and acoustic testing of TOPEX/Poseidon satellite (United States)

    Boatman, Dave; Scharton, Terry; Hershfeld, Donald; Larkin, Paul


    The satellite was subjected to a 1.5G swept sine vibration test and a 146 dB overall level acoustic test, in accordance with Ariane launch vehicle requirements, at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Extensive pretest analysis of the sine test was conducted to plan the input notching and to justify vibration testing the satellite only in the longitudinal axis. A unique measurement system was utilized to determine the six components of interface force between the shaker and the satellite in the sine vibration test. The satellite was heavily instrumented in both the sine vibration and acoustic test in order to insure that the launch loads were enveloped with appropriate margin and that satellite responses did not exceed the compatibilities of the structure and equipment. The test specification, objectives, instrumentation, and test results are described herein.

  12. Preliminary results on the comparison between satellite derived ground temperature and in-situ measurement of soil CO2 flux and soil temperature at Solfatara of Pozzuoli (Naples, Italy) (United States)

    Cardellini, Carlo; Silvestri, Malvina; Chiodini, Giovanni; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria


    In this work we want to analyze the comparison between the ground temperature acquired with in-situ campaigns and the ground temperature obtained by processing remote sensing data with particular attention to ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data. Moreover we have studied the possible correlation between the CO2 measurements and the ground temperature. Test site area has been the Solfatara volcano, situated to the west of Naples, Italy. The Solfatara crater has a persistent volcanic-hydrothermal activity as demonstrate by ground deformation, seismicity and variations of the chemical-physical characteristics of the fluids emitted from fumaroles. Solfatara crater is characterized by a large soil diffuse degassing structure (Solfatara DDS, abot 0.8 km2), from where a CO2 flux in the order of 1000-1500 t/d is released by the soil. Solfatara DDS is also characterized by anomalous soil temperature. The correspondence between high CO2 fluxes and soil temperature has been interpreted as the results of the condensation of CO2-rich steam, rising from the hydrothermal system, in the uppermost part of the soil (Chiodini et al., 2001; 2005). The energy dissipated daily by the degassing at Solfatara DDS is the main source of energy release in the entire Campi Flegrei caldera in the current period (Chiodini et al., 2001; 2005). Concerning the satellite data, to monitor the thermal state of volcanic areas it is necessary to use TIR sensors with high spatial resolution in order to obtain detailed information on the areas where there are significant changes. Thanks to ASTER thermal infrared (TIR, 5 bands, 90 m spatial resolution) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum we have obtained the temperature ground map on the volcano area. For this study we have considered the ASTER's night observations that show well defined episodes of increasing thermal emission of crater thanks to a more uniform background temperature. CO2 fluxes and soil

  13. Estimation of annual heat flux balance at the sea surface from sst (NOAA-satellite and ships drift data off southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimine Ikeda


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to study the possibility of estimating the heat flux balance at the sea surface from GOSSTCOMP (Global Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Computation developed by NOAA/NESS, USA, and sea surface current data based from ships drift information obtained from Pilot Charts, published by the Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação (DHN, Brazilian Navy. The annual mean value of the heat flux balance at the sea surface off southeast Brazil for 1977, is estimated from data on the balance between the heat transported by the currents and that transported by eddy diffusion for each volume defined as 2º x 2º (Lat. x Long. square with a constant depth equivalent to an oceanic mixed layer, 100 m thick. Results show several oceanic areas where there are net flows of heat from atmosphere towards the sea surface. In front of Rio de Janeiro the heat flow was downward and up to 70 ly day-1 and is probably related to the upwellirug phenomenon normally occurring in that area. Another coastal area between Lat. 25ºS to 28ºS indicated an downward flow up to 50 ly day-1; and for an area south of Lat. 27ºS, Long. 040ºW - 048ºW an downward flow up to 200 ly day-1, where the transfer was probably due to the cold water of a nortward flux from the Falkland (Malvinas Current. Results also show several oceanic areas where net flows of heat (of about -100 ly day-1 were toward the atmosphere. In the oceanic areas Lat. 19ºS - 23ºS and Lat. 24ºS - 30ºS, the flows were probably due to the warm water of a southward flux of the Brazil Current. The resulting fluxes from the warm waters of the Brazil Current when compared with those from warm waters of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio, indicate that the Gulf Stream carries about 3.3 times and the Kuroshio 1.7 times more heat than the Brazil Current. These values agree with those of data available on the heat fluxes of the above mentioned Currents calculated by different methods (Budyko, 1974.

  14. 不同高度范围月球卫星轨道受摄分析%Effects of Perturbations on Lunar Satellite Orbits at Different Altitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晶琅; 袁建平; 陈记争


    Aim. Lunar missions need comprehensive knowledge of the perturbation effects of: (1) deviation of moon from being spherical, (2) Earth, (3) sun; the introduction of the full paper points out that, since, to our knowledge, only fragmentary information exists in the open literature[2,3] , this paper intends to provide the comprehensive knowledge needed. We explain our research results in sections 1 and 2. Section 1 studies the magnitudes of changes in lunar non-spherical perturbation, earth perturbation and sun perturbation at different altitudes. Section 2 analyzes the effects of the three perturbations on the changes in orbital elements and perilune altitudes; it also simulares their effects on orbital elements at different altitudes; the simulation results, given in Figs. 2 through 5 and Tables 2 and 3, and their analysis show preliminarily that: ( 1 ) the higher the altitudes of lunar orbits, the greater are the changes in eccentricity, semi-major axis and perilune altitude caused by neglecting the earth perturbation, while the effects of lunar non-spherical perturbation decrease; (2) when the altitude is above 5300 kin, the effect of sun perturbation can not be ignored.%目前月球探测任务具有多样性,需要采用不同高度的月球卫星轨道,因此研究摄动力对不同高度月球卫星轨道的影响具有重要意义.文章首先分析了月球非球形摄动、地球引力摄动和太阳引力摄动三种摄动力大小随高度的变化规律.在此基础上,仿真计算了这三种摄动对不同高度月球卫星轨道的影响,得到了轨道要素和近月点高度在不同轨道高度范围内随这三种摄动力的变化规律.最后在近月点高度为百米级精度的条件下,给出了不同高度范围需要考虑的摄动力,为新型月球任务轨道设计和轨道控制提供参考.

  15. Broad search for trajectories from Earth to Callisto-Ganymede-JOI double-satellite-aided capture at Jupiter from 2020 to 2060 (United States)

    Lynam, Alfred E.


    Employing multiple gravity-assist flybys of Jupiter's Galilean moons can save a substantial amount of \\varDelta V when capturing into orbit about Jupiter. Using Callisto and Ganymede, the most massive and distant of the Galilean moons, as gravity-assist bodies reduces the Jupiter orbit insertion \\varDelta V cost, while allowing the spacecraft to remain above the worst of Jupiter's radiation belts. A phase-angle approach is used to find initial guesses for a Lambert targeter to find patched-conic Callisto-Ganymede transfers. A B-plane targeter using grid search methodology is used to backward target Earth to find launch conditions. Twenty-nine distinct patched-conic trajectories were found from Earth to Callisto-Ganymede-JOI capture throughout the search space from 2020-2060. Five promising trajectories were found that launch from Earth between July 11, 2023 and July 20, 2023, and arrive at Jupiter between February and September 2026. These trajectories were numerically integrated using GMAT and, in the author's opinion, are excellent candidates for use on NASA's planned Europa Clipper mission.

  16. The Next Landsat Satellite: The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (United States)

    Rons, James R.; Dwyer, John L.; Barsi, Julia A.


    The Landsat program is one of the longest running satellite programs for Earth observations from space. The program was initiated by the launch of Landsat 1 in 1972. Since then a series of six more Landsat satellites were launched and at least one of those satellites has been in operations at all times to continuously collect images of the global land surface. The Department of Interior (DOI) U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) preserves data collected by all of the Landsat satellites at their Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This 40-year data archive provides an unmatched record of the Earth's land surface that has undergone dramatic changes in recent decades due to the increasing pressure of a growing population and advancing technologies. EROS provides the ability for anyone to search the archive and order digital Landsat images over the internet for free. The Landsat data are a public resource for observing, characterizing, monitoring, trending, and predicting land use change over time providing an invaluable tool for those addressing the profound consequences of those changes to society. The most recent launch of a Landsat satellite occurred in 1999 when Landsat 7 was placed in orbit. While Landsat 7 remains in operation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the DOI/ USGS are building its successor satellite system currently called the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). NASA has the lead for building and launching the satellite that will carry two Earth-viewing instruments, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). The OLI will take images that measure the amount of sunlight reflected by the land surface at nine wavelengths of light with three of those wavelengths beyond the range of human vision. T1RS will collect coincident images that measure light emitted by the land surface as a function of surface temperature at two longer wavelengths well beyond the

  17. Local gravity disturbance estimation from multiple-high-single-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (United States)

    Jekeli, Christopher


    The idea of satellite-to-satellite tracking in the high-low mode has received renewed attention in light of the uncertain future of NASA's proposed low-low mission, Geopotential Research Mission (GRM). The principal disadvantage with a high-low system is the increased time interval required to obtain global coverage since the intersatellite visibility is often obscured by Earth. The U.S. Air Force has begun to investigate high-low satellite-to-satellite tracking between the Global Positioning System (GPS) of satellites (high component) and NASA's Space Transportation System (STS), the shuttle (low component). Because the GPS satellites form, or will form, a constellation enabling continuous three-dimensional tracking of a low-altitude orbiter, there will be no data gaps due to lack of intervisibility. Furthermore, all three components of the gravitation vector are estimable at altitude, a given grid of which gives a stronger estimate of gravity on Earth's surface than a similar grid of line-of-sight gravitation components. The proposed Air Force mission is STAGE (Shuttle-GPS Tracking for Anomalous Gravitation Estimation) and is designed for local gravity field determinations since the shuttle will likely not achieve polar orbits. The motivation for STAGE was the feasibility to obtain reasonable accuracies with absolutely minimal cost. Instead of simulating drag-free orbits, STAGE uses direct measurements of the nongravitational forces obtained by an inertial package onboard the shuttle. The sort of accuracies that would be achievable from STAGE vis-a-vis other satellite tracking missions such as GRM and European Space Agency's POPSAT-GRM are analyzed.

  18. Ground-based FTIR and MAX-DOAS observations of formaldehyde at Réunion Island and comparisons with satellite and model data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vigouroux


    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO columns have been retrieved from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR campaign measurements in 2004 and 2007 and from UV-Visible MAX-DOAS measurements in 2004–2005 at the NDACC site of Réunion Island (21° S, 55° E. The FTIR and MAX-DOAS daily mean formaldehyde total columns are intercompared in their common measurement period, from August to October 2004. The ground-based data are also compared to correlative SCIAMACHY data. The comparisons account for the vertical sensitivity differences of the data sets, by including their respective averaging kernels. Complete error budgets are also presented.

    The FTIR and MAX-DOAS daily mean total columns agree very well: no significant bias is observed and the standard deviation of the comparisons is only 8%. Both FTIR and MAX-DOAS HCHO total columns are in good agreement with SCIAMACHY values in the 2004–2005 period, with standard deviations of 21% and 31%, respectively. The same seasonal cycle is observed by the different instruments, with a minimum in austral winter and a maximum in February–March.

    The FTIR and MAX-DOAS data are confronted with HCHO columns calculated by a global CTM, the IMAGES model. The model underestimates the HCHO columns by 23–29% in comparison with FTIR, and by 15% in comparison with DOAS. This bias might have multiple causes, including an underestimation of OH concentrations in the model (as indicated by a sensitivity study using prescribed OH fields and/or an underestimated contribution of large-scale transport of HCHO precursors from Madagascar. The latter hypothesis is comforted by the large observed day-to-day variability of HCHO columns, and by the observation that the peak values of FTIR columns can often be associated with free tropospheric transport patterns from source regions over Madagascar to Réunion Island, according to simulations performed with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART.

  19. Advanced satellite communication system (United States)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen


    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  20. Preface: BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/GNSS+: Recent progress and new applications (United States)

    Jin, Shuanggen


    Nowadays, the new China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been developed well. At the end of 2016, over 23 BDS satellites were launched, including five geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellites, five inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) satellites and nine medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites. The current BDS service covers China and most Asia-Pacific regions with accuracy of better than 10 m in positioning, 0.2 m/s in velocity and 50 ns in timing. The BDS with global coverage will be completely established by 2020 with five GEO satellites and 30 MEO satellites. The main function of BDS is the positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) as well as short message communications. Together with the United States' GPS, Russia's GLONASS and the European Union's Galileo system as well as other regional augmentation systems, more new applications of multi-Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) will be exploited and realized in the next decades.

  1. 国内外卫星用液体远地点发动机发展综述%Development of liquid apogee engine for satellite at home and abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红玲; 姜文龙; 刘昌国


    综述了国内外卫星用液体远地点发动机的发展情况,阐述了国外几种典型远地点发动机和国内三代490 N发动机的主要技术特点和技术指标,对比分析了其产品性能并介绍了其产品的考核应用情况。自上世纪90年代以来,国内外在卫星用液体远地点发动机的研制中喷注器性能不断提高,推力室均采用了新型抗高温氧化材料,主要以铼/铱材料和C/SiC复合材料为主,最终实现了发动机真空比冲性能的不断提高。先进的液体远地点发动机采用高性能喷注器和新型抗高温氧化材料,其比冲性能指标已高达323 s以上。%The technology characteristics and development trend of liquid apogee engines for satellites at home and abroad are summarized in this paper.The performance specification and the application of the typical engines abroad and the 490 N engines of three generations made in China are introduced.Since 1990s,the performance of the injectors in liquid apogee engines for satellites has been increasingly improved,and all the thrusters have adopted new type high-temperature oxidation resistant materials such as iridium/rhenium and C/SiC composite materials.Benefiting from the modified injectors and new materials,the performance of the liquid apogee engine has been significantly improved,and its specific impulse is up to 323 s.

  2. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  3. North and northeast Greenland ice discharge from satellite radar interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rignot, E.J.; Gogineni, S.P.; Krabill, W.B.;


    Ice discharge from north and northeast Greenland calculated from satellite radar interferometry data of 14 outlet glaciers is 3.5 times that estimated from iceberg production. The satellite estimates, obtained at the grounding line of the outlet glaciers, differ from those obtained at the glacier...... front, because basal melting is extensive at the underside of the floating glacier sections. The results suggest that the north and northeast parts of the Greenland ice sheet may be thinning and contributing positively to sea-level rise.......Ice discharge from north and northeast Greenland calculated from satellite radar interferometry data of 14 outlet glaciers is 3.5 times that estimated from iceberg production. The satellite estimates, obtained at the grounding line of the outlet glaciers, differ from those obtained at the glacier...

  4. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, receiver development (United States)

    Vaisnys, A.; Bell, D.; Gevargiz, J.; Golshan, Nasser


    The status of the ongoing Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Receiver Development Task being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) is reported. This work is sponsored by the Voice of America/U.S. Information Agency through an agreement with NASA. The objective of this task is to develop, build, test, and demonstrate a prototype receiver that is compatible with reception of digital audio programs broadcast via satellites. The receiver is being designed to operate under a range of reception conditions, including fixed, portable, and mobile, as well as over a sufficiently wide range of bit rates to accommodate broadcasting systems with different cost/audio quality objectives. While the requirements on the receiver are complex, the eventual goal of the design effort is to make the design compatible with low cost production as a consumer product. One solution may be a basic low cost core design suitable for a majority of reception conditions, with optional enhancements for reception in especially difficult environments. Some of the receiver design parameters were established through analysis, laboratory tests, and a prototype satellite experiment accomplished in late 1991. Many of the necessary design trades will be made during the current simulation effort, while a few of the key design options will be incorporated into the prototype for evaluation during the planned satellite field trials.

  5. Modular approach for satellite communication ground terminals (United States)

    Gould, G. R.


    The trend in satellite communications is toward completely digital, time division multiple access (TDMA) systems with uplink and downlink data rates dictated by the type of service offered. Trunking terminals will operate in the 550 MBPS (megabit per second) region uplink and downlink, whereas customer premise service (CPS) terminals will operate in the 25 to 10 MBPS region uplink and in the 200 MBPS region downlink. Additional criteria for the ground terminals will be to maintain clock sychronization with the system and burst time integrity to within a matter of nanoseconds, to process required order-fire information, to provide adaptive data scrambing, and to compensate for variations in the user input output data rates, and for changes in range in the satellite communications links resulting from satellite perturbations in orbit. To achieve the required adaptability of a ground terminal to the above mentioned variables, programmable building blocks can be developed that will meet all of these requirements. To maintain system synchronization, i.e., all bursted data arriving at the satellite within assigned TDMA windows, ground terminal transmit data rates and burst timing must be maintained within tight tolerances. With a programmable synchronizer as the heart of the terminal timing generation, variable data rates and burst timing tolerances are achievable. In essence, the unit inputs microprocessor generated timing words and outputs discrete timing pulses.

  6. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, receiver development (United States)

    Vaisnys, A.; Bell, D.; Gevargiz, J.; Golshan, Nasser

    The status of the ongoing Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Receiver Development Task being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) is reported. This work is sponsored by the Voice of America/U.S. Information Agency through an agreement with NASA. The objective of this task is to develop, build, test, and demonstrate a prototype receiver that is compatible with reception of digital audio programs broadcast via satellites. The receiver is being designed to operate under a range of reception conditions, including fixed, portable, and mobile, as well as over a sufficiently wide range of bit rates to accommodate broadcasting systems with different cost/audio quality objectives. While the requirements on the receiver are complex, the eventual goal of the design effort is to make the design compatible with low cost production as a consumer product. One solution may be a basic low cost core design suitable for a majority of reception conditions, with optional enhancements for reception in especially difficult environments. Some of the receiver design parameters were established through analysis, laboratory tests, and a prototype satellite experiment accomplished in late 1991. Many of the necessary design trades will be made during the current simulation effort, while a few of the key design options will be incorporated into the prototype for evaluation during the planned satellite field trials.

  7. Hydrocarbons on Saturn's satellites Iapetus and Phoebe (United States)

    Cruikshank, D.P.; Wegryn, E.; Dalle, Ore C.M.; Brown, R.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Pendleton, Y.J.; Owen, T.C.; Filacchione, G.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Capaccioni, F.; Jaumann, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Baines, K.H.; Sotin, C.; Bellucci, G.; Combes, M.; Langevin, Y.; Sicardy, B.; Matson, D.L.; Formisano, V.; Drossart, P.; Mennella, V.


    Material of low geometric albedo (pV ??? 0.1) is found on many objects in the outer Solar System, but its distribution in the saturnian satellite system is of special interest because of its juxtaposition with high-albedo ice. In the absence of clear, diagnostic spectral features, the composition of this low-albedo (or "dark") material is generally inferred to be carbon-rich, but the form(s) of the carbon is unknown. Near-infrared spectra of the low-albedo hemisphere of Saturn's satellite Iapetus were obtained with the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at the fly-by of that satellite of 31 December 2004, yielding a maximum spatial resolution on the satellite's surface of ???65 km. The spectral region 3-3.6 ??m reveals a broad absorption band, centered at 3.29 ??m, and concentrated in a region comprising about 15% of the low-albedo surface area. This is identified as the C{single bond}H stretching mode vibration in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Two weaker bands attributed to {single bond}CH2{single bond} stretching modes in aliphatic hydrocarbons are found in association with the aromatic band. The bands most likely arise from aromatic and aliphatic units in complex macromolecular carbonaceous material with a kerogen- or coal-like structure, similar to that in carbonaceous meteorites. VIMS spectra of Phoebe, encountered by Cassini on 11 June 2004, also show the aromatic hydrocarbon band, although somewhat weaker than on Iapetus. The origin of the PAH molecular material on these two satellites is unknown, but PAHs are found in carbonaceous meteorites, cometary dust particles, circumstellar dust, and interstellar dust. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa


    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  9. Near threshold studies of photoelectron satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, P.A.


    Photoelectron spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation have been used to study correlation effects in the rare gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Two kinds of time-of-flight electron analyzers were employed to examine photoionization very close to threshold and at higher kinetic energies. Partial cross sections and angular distributions have been measured for a number of photoelectron satellites. The shake-off probability has been determined at some inner-shell resonances. 121 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Theory of satellite geodesy applications of satellites to geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaula, William M


    The main purpose of this classic text is to demonstrate how Newtonian gravitational theory and Euclidean geometry can be used and developed in the earth's environment. The second is to collect and explain some of the mathematical techniques developed for measuring the earth by satellite.Book chapters include discussions of the earth's gravitational field, with special emphasis on spherical harmonies and the potential of the ellipsoid; matrices and orbital geometry; elliptic motion, linear perturbations, resonance, and other aspects of satellite orbit dynamics; the geometry of satellite obser

  11. Design considerations for solar power satellites (United States)

    Arndt, G. D.; Leopold, L.


    This report summarizes the performance characteristics of a conceptual solar power satellite (SPS) system with emphasis on the microwave power transmission system. The latest tradeoff studies on photovoltaic and thermal systems for converting solar energy into electricity at the satellite are reviewed. The microwave system, consisting of dc-RF amplifiers, a 1-km phased array, and a ground antenna/rectifier scheme is capable of delivering 5 GW of power to the commercial grid. The transmission efficiencies of smaller system sizes (down to 1 GW) are compared with that of the nominal 5 GW system. At present the frequency region of interest is the IMS (industrial, medical, and scientific) band at 2450 plus or minus 50 MHz. Economic and technical tradeoffs as a function of the microwave operating frequency are considered. Candidate dc-RF power converter tubes, including medium-power amplitrons, high-power klystrons, and low-power solid state amplifiers, are examined.

  12. Microdischarge plasma thrusters for small satellite propulsion (United States)

    Raja, Laxminarayan


    Small satellites weighing less than 100 kg are gaining importance in the defense and commercial satellite community owing to advantages of low costs to build and operate, simplicity of design, rapid integration and testing, formation flying, and multi-vehicle operations. The principal challenge in the design and development of small satellite subsystems is the severe mass, volume, and power constraints posed by the overall size of the satellite. The propulsion system in particular is hard to down scale and as such poses a major stumbling block for small satellite technology. Microdischarge-based miniaturized plasma thrusters are potentially a novel solution to this problem. In its most basic form a microdischarge plasma thruster is a simple extension of a cold gas micronozzle propulsion device, where a direct or alternating current microdischarge is used to preheat the gas stream to improve to specific impulse of the device. We study a prototypical thruster device using a detailed, self-consistent coupled plasma and fluid flow computational model. The model describes the microdischarge power deposition, plasma dynamics, gas-phase chemical kinetics, coupling of the plasma phenomena with high-speed flow, and overall propulsion system performance. Unique computational challenges associated with microdischarge modeling in the presence of high-speed flows are addressed. Compared to a cold gas micronozzle, a significant increase in specific impulse (50 to 100 %) is obtained from the power deposition in the diverging supersonic section of the thruster nozzle. The microdischarge remains mostly confined inside the micronozzle and operates in an abnormal glow discharge regime. Gas heating, primarily due to ion Joule heating, is found to have a strong influence on the overall discharge behavior. The study provides a validation of the concept as simple and effective approach to realizing a relatively high-specific impulse thruster device at small geometric scales.

  13. Satellite-based terrestrial production efficiency modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obersteiner Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Production efficiency models (PEMs are based on the theory of light use efficiency (LUE which states that a relatively constant relationship exists between photosynthetic carbon uptake and radiation receipt at the canopy level. Challenges remain however in the application of the PEM methodology to global net primary productivity (NPP monitoring. The objectives of this review are as follows: 1 to describe the general functioning of six PEMs (CASA; GLO-PEM; TURC; C-Fix; MOD17; and BEAMS identified in the literature; 2 to review each model to determine potential improvements to the general PEM methodology; 3 to review the related literature on satellite-based gross primary productivity (GPP and NPP modeling for additional possibilities for improvement; and 4 based on this review, propose items for coordinated research. This review noted a number of possibilities for improvement to the general PEM architecture - ranging from LUE to meteorological and satellite-based inputs. Current PEMs tend to treat the globe similarly in terms of physiological and meteorological factors, often ignoring unique regional aspects. Each of the existing PEMs has developed unique methods to estimate NPP and the combination of the most successful of these could lead to improvements. It may be beneficial to develop regional PEMs that can be combined under a global framework. The results of this review suggest the creation of a hybrid PEM could bring about a significant enhancement to the PEM methodology and thus terrestrial carbon flux modeling. Key items topping the PEM research agenda identified in this review include the following: LUE should not be assumed constant, but should vary by plant functional type (PFT or photosynthetic pathway; evidence is mounting that PEMs should consider incorporating diffuse radiation; continue to pursue relationships between satellite-derived variables and LUE, GPP and autotrophic respiration (Ra; there is an urgent need for

  14. Overview of intercalibration of satellite instruments (United States)

    Chander, G.; Hewison, T.J.; Fox, N.; Wu, X.; Xiong, X.; Blackwell, W.J.


    Inter-calibration of satellite instruments is critical for detection and quantification of changes in the Earth’s environment, weather forecasting, understanding climate processes, and monitoring climate and land cover change. These applications use data from many satellites; for the data to be inter-operable, the instruments must be cross-calibrated. To meet the stringent needs of such applications requires that instruments provide reliable, accurate, and consistent measurements over time. Robust techniques are required to ensure that observations from different instruments can be normalized to a common scale that the community agrees on. The long-term reliability of this process needs to be sustained in accordance with established reference standards and best practices. Furthermore, establishing physical meaning to the information through robust Système International d'unités (SI) traceable Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) is essential to fully understand the parameters under observation. The processes of calibration, correction, stability monitoring, and quality assurance need to be underpinned and evidenced by comparison with “peer instruments” and, ideally, highly calibrated in-orbit reference instruments. Inter-calibration between instruments is a central pillar of the Cal/Val strategies of many national and international satellite remote sensing organizations. Inter-calibration techniques as outlined in this paper not only provide a practical means of identifying and correcting relative biases in radiometric calibration between instruments but also enable potential data gaps between measurement records in a critical time series to be bridged. Use of a robust set of internationally agreed upon and coordinated inter-calibration techniques will lead to significant improvement in the consistency between satellite instruments and facilitate accurate monitoring of the Earth’s climate at uncertainty levels needed to detect and attribute the mechanisms

  15. Earth rotation parameters from satellite techniques (United States)

    Thaller, Daniela; Beutler, Gerhard; Jäggi, Adrian; Meindl, Michael; Dach, Rolf; Sosnica, Krzysztof; Baumann, Christian


    It has been demonstrated since several years that satellite techniques are capable of determining Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) with a daily or even sub-daily resolution. Especially Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) with their huge amount of observations can determine time series of polar motion (PM) and length of day (LOD) rather well. But also SLR with its spherical satellites whose orbital motions are easy to model and that allow long orbital arc lengths can deliver valuable contributions to Earth rotation. We analyze GNSS solutions (using GPS and GLONASS) and SLR solutions (using LAGEOS) regarding their potential of estimating polar motion and LOD with daily and subdaily temporal resolution. A steadily improving modeling applied in the analysis of space-geodetic data aims at improved time series of geodetic parameters, e.g., the ERPs. The Earth's gravity field and especially its temporal variations are one point of interest for an improved modeling for satellite techniques. For modeling the short-periodic gravity field variations induced by mass variations in the atmosphere and the oceans the GRACE science team provides the Atmosphere and Ocean Dealiasing (AOD) products. They contain 6-hourly gravity fields of the atmosphere and the oceans. We apply these corrections in the analysis of satellite-geodetic data and show the impact on the estimated ERPs. It is well known that the degree-2 coefficients of the Earth's gravity field are correlated with polar motion and LOD. We show to what extent temporal variations in the degree-2 coefficients are influencing the ERP estimates.

  16. Communication Satellite Payload Special Check out Equipment (SCOE) for Satellite Testing (United States)

    Subhani, Noman


    This paper presents Payload Special Check out Equipment (SCOE) for the test and measurement of communication satellite Payload at subsystem and system level. The main emphasis of this paper is to demonstrate the principle test equipment, instruments and the payload test matrix for an automatic test control. Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE)/ Special Check out Equipment (SCOE) requirements, functions and architecture for C-band and Ku-band payloads are presented in details along with their interface with satellite during different phases of satellite testing. It provides test setup, in a single rack cabinet that can easily be moved from payload assembly and integration environment to thermal vacuum chamber all the way to launch site (for pre-launch test and verification).

  17. Multi-mission Satellite Management (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.


    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  18. Guidance and Control System for a Satellite Constellation (United States)

    Bryson, Jonathan Lamar; Cox, James; Mays, Paul Richard; Neidhoefer, James Christian; Ephrain, Richard


    A distributed guidance and control algorithm was developed for a constellation of satellites. The system repositions satellites as required, regulates satellites to desired orbits, and prevents collisions. 1. Optimal methods are used to compute nominal transfers from orbit to orbit. 2. Satellites are regulated to maintain the desired orbits once the transfers are complete. 3. A simulator is used to predict potential collisions or near-misses. 4. Each satellite computes perturbations to its controls so as to increase any unacceptable distances of nearest approach to other objects. a. The avoidance problem is recast in a distributed and locally-linear form to arrive at a tractable solution. b. Plant matrix values are approximated via simulation at each time step. c. The Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method is used to compute perturbations to the controls that will result in increased miss distances. 5. Once all danger is passed, the satellites return to their original orbits, all the while avoiding each other as above. 6. The delta-Vs are reasonable. The controller begins maneuvers as soon as practical to minimize delta-V. 7. Despite the inclusion of trajectory simulations within the control loop, the algorithm is sufficiently fast for available satellite computer hardware. 8. The required measurement accuracies are within the capabilities of modern inertial measurement devices and modern positioning devices.

  19. Experience and Methodology gained from 4 years of Student Satellite Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten; Bhanderi, Dan


    The AAU Cubesat student satellite project at Aalborg University was initiated in September 2001 and led to the launch of the satellite on the 30th of June 2003 with a “Rockot” rocket from Plesetsk in Russia. The satellite survived three months in orbit and based on the experiences gained the next...... student satellite project was commenced called AAUSAT II which is due for launch early 2006. This paper presents the experiences gained and lessons learned from the work with student satellite projects at Aalborg University as well as the methodology used to manage these projects. First an introduction...... to the concept of student satellite projects is given and the two student satellite projects are introduced. Then an introduction and description of the Problem Based Learning concept used at Aalborg University is given and advantages of applying it to these projects are discussed. The benets of student...

  20. Satellite Relative Motion Control for MIT’s SPHERES Program (United States)


    firing combinations of its twelve cold gas thrusters [2]. These thrusters either fire at a specific value or they do not fire at all. This on-off...Satellite Relative Motion Control for MIT’s SPHERES Program THESIS Samuel P. Barbaro, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/ GA /ENY/12-M02 DEPARTMENT OF THE...United States. AFIT/ GA /ENY/12-M02 Satellite Relative Motion Control for MIT’s SPHERES Program THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of

  1. Satellite communications principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Calcutt, David


    Satellites are increasingly used for global communications, as well as for radio and television transmissions. With the growth of mobile communications, and of digital technology, the use of satellite systems is set to expand substantially and already all students of electronics or communications engineering must study the subject.This book steers a middle path between offering a basic understanding of the process of communication by satellite and the methodology used; and the extensive mathematical analysis normally adopted in similar texts. It presents the basic concepts, using as mu

  2. ISDN - The case for satellites (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.; McDougal, Patrick J.


    The Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) holds much promise for both suppliers and users of telecommunications in the near future. This article examines the role of satellites in this new ISDN environment and emphasizes several advantages of satellites in the ongoing evolution to an all-digital world. In specific, the role of Intelsat, the global satellite system, is discussed with emphasis on Intelsat's digital services which today can offer all the characteristics and standards of ISDN in a flexible, cost-efficient manner.

  3. The french educational satellite arsene (United States)

    Danvel, M.; Escudier, B.

    ARSENE (Ariane, Radio-amateur, Satellite pour l'ENseignement de l'Espace) is a telecommunications satellite for Amateur Space Service. Its main feature is that more than 100 students from French engineering schools and universities have been working since 1979 for definition phase and satellite development. The highest IAF awards has been obtained by "ARSENE students" in Tokyo (1980) and Rome (1981). The French space agency, CNES and French aerospace industries are supporting the program. The European Space Agency offered to place ARSENE in orbit on the first Ariane mark IV launch late 1985.

  4. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) (United States)

    Gedney, Richard T.; Schertler, Ronald J.


    The NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was conceived to help maintain U.S. leadership in the world's communications-satellite market. This experimental satellite is expected to be launched by NASA in 1992 and to furnish the technology necessary for establishing very small aperture terminal digital networks which provide on-demand full-mesh connectivity, and 1.544-MBPS services with only a single hop. Utilizing on-board switching and processing, each individual voice or data circuit can be separately routed to any location in the network. This paper provides an overview of the ACTS and discusses the value of the technology for future communications systems.

  5. Thermal rocketing and the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.A.


    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. LAGEOS is the most accurately tracked satellite in orbit. It is a totally passive, dense spherical satellite covered with 426 cube corner reflectors. Besides its great utility in measuring the Earth`s length of day and polar wobble, this satellite can be used to measure, for the first time, the general relativistic frame-dragging effect. Of the five dominant error sources in such an experiment, the largest one involves surface interaction of thermal forces (thermal rocketing) and its influence on the orbital nodal precession. The project objective was to enhance an already available theoretical model (computer code) developed at Los Alamos based on new optical-spin data obtained at the University of Maryland. The project objective was met and the enhanced code will serve as the new spin-dynamics model for future LAGEOS satellite missions.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope satellite (United States)

    Mitchell, R. E.


    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Min; Zhang Chuanwu; Huang Shunji


    The change of the equivalent baseline and interferometric phase of cluster SAR satellites is analyzed when the constellation circles around the Earth and the satellites rotate around the center at the same time. The letter provides assessment of baseline error and phase error which influence the precision of height measurement in the across-track interferometric mode. The mathematical model of cluster satellite movement is built, simulation analyses and the curve of height error are presented. The simulation results show that height measurement error can be compensated by the formulae derived in this letter, therefore, the Digital Elevation Models (DEM's) are recovered accurately.

  8. Study on Service Level Management in Integrated Satellite Information Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Rui-qiang; ZHAO Jian-li; WANG Guang-xing


    Integrated Satellite Information Network (ISIN) includes those nodes in space and those on ground. It is the way to realize the fusion of satellite communication and traditional network technology. A satellite network management system based on Multiplex Network Management Protocol (MNMP) has accomplished traditional management, such as configuration, performance and fault management. An architecture of Service Level Management (SLM) in ISIN is proposed, and a service topology management and Service Level Agreement (SLA) are deeply researched. At last, service security and fault management are briefly discussed, and a simulation system is accomplished.

  9. Orientation and resonance locks for satellites in the elliptic orbit. (United States)

    Liu, H.-S.


    In order to achieve the maximum strength of higher resonance locks for satellites in the elliptic orbit, the condition of satellite orientation during the process of deployment is established. It is shown that for maximum strength locks the axis of the minimum moment of inertia of satellites should point toward the attracting body at plus or minus (5/8) pi and 0 values of the true anomaly f. This condition of deployment is applicable to all cases of resonance rotation regardless of the value of lock number k and orbit eccentricity e.

  10. Using satellite data in map design and production (United States)

    Hutchinson, John A.


    Satellite image maps have been produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since shortly after the launch of the first Landsat satellite in 1972. Over the years, the use of image data to design and produce maps has developed from a manual and photographic process to one that incorporates geographic information systems, desktop publishing, and digital prepress techniques. At the same time, the content of most image-based maps produced by the USGS has shifted from raw image data to land cover or other information layers derived from satellite imagery, often portrayed in combination with shaded relief.

  11. Chang'e-1 Satellite Completed Its Preset Objectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ying


    @@ By October 23, Chang'e-1 satellite with a one-year design lifetime has been operating in lunar orbit for one year, completed more than 4000 orbits, covering the entire moon 12 times. The satellite's platform works normally at present and all systems and equipment onboard work in their main mode. The satellite has obtained a large quantity of scientific data and achieved the preset objectives of precise orbit maneuver, successful moon orbiting, effective exploration and oneyear lifetime. The Chang'e-1 mission is a complete success.

  12. Excitation of inclinations in ring-satellite systems (United States)

    Borderies, N.; Goldreich, P.; Tremaine, S.


    Resonant gravitational interactions between a ring and a satellite produce secular variations of their orbital inclinations. Interactions at vertical resonances, analogous to Lindblad resonances but involving inclinations instead of eccentricities, excite inclinations. There is no inclination analog of the corotation resonance. An equatorial ring changes the inclination of a nearby satellite in qualitatively the same way that a satellite in an equatorial orbit changes the inclination of a nearby ring. Viscous dissipation in a ring leads to an equilibrium value of its inclination. These results provide a basis for discussing the origins of the inclinations of planetary rings.

  13. Sensor Calibration in Support for NOAA's Satellite Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Sensor calibration, including its definition, purpose, traceability options, methodology, complexity, and importance, is examined in this paper in the context of supporting NOAA's satellite mission. Common understanding of sensor calibration is essential for the effective communication among sensor vendors,calibration scientists, satellite operators, program managers, and remote sensing data users, who must cooperate to ensure that a nation's strategic investment in a sophisticated operational environmental satellite system serves the nation's interest and enhances the human lives around the world. Examples of calibration activities at NOAA/NESDIS/ORA are selected to further illustrate these concepts and to demonstrate the lessons learned from the past experience.

  14. The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) mission (United States)

    Neugebauer, G.; Habing, H. J.; Van Duinen, R.; Aumann, H. H.; Beichman, C. A.; Baud, B.; Beintema, D. A.; Boggess, N.; Clegg, P. E.; De Jong, T.


    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) consists of a spacecraft and a liquid helium cryostat that contains a cooled IR telescope. The telescope's focal plane assembly is cooled to less than 3 K, and contains 62 IR detectors in the survey array which are arranged so that every source crossing the field of view can be seen by at least two detectors in each of four wavelength bands. The satellite was launched into a 900 km-altitude near-polar orbit, and its cryogenic helium supply was exhausted on November 22, 1983. By mission's end, 72 percent of the sky had been observed with three or more hours-confirming scans, and 95 percent with two or more hours-confirming scans. About 2000 stars detected at 12 and 25 microns early in the mission, and identified in the SAO (1966) catalog, have a positional uncertainty ellipse whose axes are 45 x 9 arcsec for an hours-confirmed source.

  15. Statistical Design Model (SDM) of satellite thermal control subsystem (United States)

    Mirshams, Mehran; Zabihian, Ehsan; Aarabi Chamalishahi, Mahdi


    Satellites thermal control, is a satellite subsystem that its main task is keeping the satellite components at its own survival and activity temperatures. Ability of satellite thermal control plays a key role in satisfying satellite's operational requirements and designing this subsystem is a part of satellite design. In the other hand due to the lack of information provided by companies and designers still doesn't have a specific design process while it is one of the fundamental subsystems. The aim of this paper, is to identify and extract statistical design models of spacecraft thermal control subsystem by using SDM design method. This method analyses statistical data with a particular procedure. To implement SDM method, a complete database is required. Therefore, we first collect spacecraft data and create a database, and then we extract statistical graphs using Microsoft Excel, from which we further extract mathematical models. Inputs parameters of the method are mass, mission, and life time of the satellite. For this purpose at first thermal control subsystem has been introduced and hardware using in the this subsystem and its variants has been investigated. In the next part different statistical models has been mentioned and a brief compare will be between them. Finally, this paper particular statistical model is extracted from collected statistical data. Process of testing the accuracy and verifying the method use a case study. Which by the comparisons between the specifications of thermal control subsystem of a fabricated satellite and the analyses results, the methodology in this paper was proved to be effective. Key Words: Thermal control subsystem design, Statistical design model (SDM), Satellite conceptual design, Thermal hardware

  16. CTS United States experiments - A progress report. [Communications Technology Satellite for high power broadcasting (United States)

    Robbins, W. H.; Donoughe, P. L.


    The Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) is a high-power broadcast satellite launched by NASA on January 17, 1976. CTS is the first satellite to operate at a frequency of 12 gigahertz and incorporates technology making possible new satellite telecommunications services. CTS is a cooperative program of the United States and Canada. This paper presents the results of the United States experimental activity to date. Wide segments of the population are involved in the Experiments Program, including the scientific community, other government agencies, industry, and the education and health entities. The experiments are associated with both technological objectives and the demonstration of new community and social services via satellite.

  17. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advatech Pacific proposes to develop a Virtual Satellite Integration Environment (VSIE) for the NASA Ames Mission Design Center. The VSIE introduces into NASA...

  18. Commercial satellite broadcasting for Europe (United States)

    Forrest, J. R.


    A review is presented of the current television broadcasting situation in European countries, which involves a varied mix of terrestrial VHF or UHF systems and cable networks. A small market has emerged in Europe for receivers using the low-power telecommunications satellite transmission between the program providers and cable network companies. This is expected to change with the launch of medium-power pan-European telecommunication satellites (e.g. ASTRA, EUTELSAT II), which are now directly addressing the market of home reception. DBS (direct broadcast satellite) in the UK, using the D-MAC transmission standard, will offer three additional television channels, data broadcasting services, and a planned evolution to compatible forms of wide-screen, high-definition television. Comments are given on receiver and conditional access system standardization. Some views are expressed on satellite broadcasting as part of an overall broadcasting framework for the future.

  19. Biogeography based Satellite Image Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Panchal, V K; Kaur, Navdeep; Kundra, Harish


    Biogeography is the study of the geographical distribution of biological organisms. The mindset of the engineer is that we can learn from nature. Biogeography Based Optimization is a burgeoning nature inspired technique to find the optimal solution of the problem. Satellite image classification is an important task because it is the only way we can know about the land cover map of inaccessible areas. Though satellite images have been classified in past by using various techniques, the researchers are always finding alternative strategies for satellite image classification so that they may be prepared to select the most appropriate technique for the feature extraction task in hand. This paper is focused on classification of the satellite image of a particular land cover using the theory of Biogeography based Optimization. The original BBO algorithm does not have the inbuilt property of clustering which is required during image classification. Hence modifications have been proposed to the original algorithm and...

  20. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean. (United States)

    Sankar, Hollis C.


    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  1. Geography with the environmental satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Gastellu Etchegorry


    Full Text Available Coarse spatial resolution, high temporal frequency data from the earth polar orbiting (NOAA. HACMM, Nimbus, etc. satellites and from the geostationary (GOES. Meteosat, and GMS satellites are presented to demonstrate their utility for monitoring terrestrial and atmospheric processes. The main characteristics of these ,satellites and of the instruments on board are reviewed. In order to be useful for environmental assessments. the remotely sensed data must be processed (atmospheric and geometric corrections, etc.. The NOAA Center provides a wide range of already processed data. such as meteorological. oceanic, hydrologic and vegetation products; o rough description of these preprocessed data is given in this article. Finally, some examples of applicotions in Southeast Asia and especially in Indonesia, are described, i.e.: agroecosystem, drought and oceanic monitoring. The paper concludes that coarse resolution, high temporal frequency ,satellite data are very valuable for environmental studies. the emphasis being laid on the improve. ment of the crop and drought assessment programmes.

  2. Eppur si muove: Positional and kinematic correlations of satellite pairs in the low Z universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ibata, Rodrigo A; Lewis, Geraint F; Ibata, Neil G; Martin, Nicolas


    We have recently shown (Ibata et al. 2014) that pairs of satellite galaxies located diametrically opposite each other around their host possess predominantly anti-correlated velocities. This is consistent with a scenario in which $\\sim 50$% of satellite galaxies belong to kinematically-coherent rotating planar structures, similar to those detected around the giant galaxies of the Local Group. Here we extend this analysis, examining the incidence of satellites of giant galaxies drawn from an SDSS photometric redshift catalog. We find that there is a $\\sim 17$% overabundance ($> 3 \\sigma$ significance) of candidate satellites at positions diametrically opposite a spectroscopically confirmed satellite. We show that cosmological simulations do not possess this property when the contamination is included, and that there are in fact, after subtracting contamination, 2 to 3 times more satellites diametrically opposed to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite than at $90\\deg$ from it. We also examine the correlation...

  3. Structural High-resolution Satellite Image Indexing


    Xia, Gui-Song; YANG, WEN; Delon, Julie; Gousseau, Yann; Sun, Hong; Maître, Henri


    International audience; Satellite images with high spatial resolution raise many challenging issues in image understanding and pattern recognition. First, they allow measurement of small objects maybe up to 0.5 m, and both texture and geometrical structures emerge simultaneously. Second, objects in the same type of scenes might appear at different scales and orientations. Consequently, image indexing methods should combine the structure and texture information of images and comply with some i...

  4. Satellite galaxies around present-day massive ellipticals

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, Pablo; Mármol-Queraltó, Esther


    Using the spectroscopic and photometric catalogues of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7), we have explored the satellite distribution around $\\sim$1000 massive (M$_\\star$$\\gtrsim$2$\\times$10$^{11}$M$_\\odot$) visually classified elliptical galaxies down to a satellite mass ratio of 1:400 (i.e. 5$\\times$$10^{8}$$\\lesssim$M$_{sat}$$\\lesssim$2$\\times$10$^{11}$M$_\\odot$). Our host galaxies were selected to be representative of a mass complete sample. The satellites of these galaxies were searched within a projected radial distance of 100 kpc to their hosts. We have found that only 17-23% of the massive ellipticals has at least a satellite down to a mass ratio 1:10. This number increases to 40-52% if we explore satellites down to 1:100 and is $>$55-70% if we go further down to 1:400. The average projected radial distance of the satellites to their hosts is $\\sim$59 kpc (which can be decreased down to 49-51 kpc if we account for incompleteness effects). The number of satellites per galaxy host only increases ve...

  5. Optimal design of the satellite constellation arrangement reconfiguration process (United States)

    Fakoor, Mahdi; Bakhtiari, Majid; Soleymani, Mahshid


    In this article, a novel approach is introduced for the satellite constellation reconfiguration based on Lambert's theorem. Some critical problems are raised in reconfiguration phase, such as overall fuel cost minimization, collision avoidance between the satellites on the final orbital pattern, and necessary maneuvers for the satellites in order to be deployed in the desired position on the target constellation. To implement the reconfiguration phase of the satellite constellation arrangement at minimal cost, the hybrid Invasive Weed Optimization/Particle Swarm Optimization (IWO/PSO) algorithm is used to design sub-optimal transfer orbits for the satellites existing in the constellation. Also, the dynamic model of the problem will be modeled in such a way that, optimal assignment of the satellites to the initial and target orbits and optimal orbital transfer are combined in one step. Finally, we claim that our presented idea i.e. coupled non-simultaneous flight of satellites from the initial orbital pattern will lead to minimal cost. The obtained results show that by employing the presented method, the cost of reconfiguration process is reduced obviously.

  6. A comparative study of satellite and ground-based phenology. (United States)

    Studer, S; Stöckli, R; Appenzeller, C; Vidale, P L


    Long time series of ground-based plant phenology, as well as more than two decades of satellite-derived phenological metrics, are currently available to assess the impacts of climate variability and trends on terrestrial vegetation. Traditional plant phenology provides very accurate information on individual plant species, but with limited spatial coverage. Satellite phenology allows monitoring of terrestrial vegetation on a global scale and provides an integrative view at the landscape level. Linking the strengths of both methodologies has high potential value for climate impact studies. We compared a multispecies index from ground-observed spring phases with two types (maximum slope and threshold approach) of satellite-derived start-of-season (SOS) metrics. We focus on Switzerland from 1982 to 2001 and show that temporal and spatial variability of the multispecies index correspond well with the satellite-derived metrics. All phenological metrics correlate with temperature anomalies as expected. The slope approach proved to deviate strongly from the temporal development of the ground observations as well as from the threshold-defined SOS satellite measure. The slope spring indicator is considered to indicate a different stage in vegetation development and is therefore less suited as a SOS parameter for comparative studies in relation to ground-observed phenology. Satellite-derived metrics are, however, very susceptible to snow cover, and it is suggested that this snow cover should be better accounted for by the use of newer satellite sensors.

  7. A Survey of Satellite Galaxies around NGC 4258

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Meghin; Yoachim, Peter


    We conduct a survey of satellite galaxies around the nearby spiral NGC 4258 by combining spectroscopic observations from the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope with SDSS spectra. New spectroscopy is obtained for 15 galaxies. Of the 47 observed objects, we categorize 8 of them as probable satellites, 8 as possible satellites, and 17 as unlikely to be satellites. We do not speculate on the membership of the remaining 14 galaxies due to a lack of velocity and distance information. Radially integrating our best fit NFW profile for NGC 4258 yields a total mass of 1.8e12 Msun within 200 kpc. We find that the angular distribution of the satellites appears to be random, and not preferentially aligned with the disk of NGC 4258. In addition, many of the probable satellite galaxies have blue u-r colors and appear to be star-forming irregulars in SDSS images; this stands in contrast to the low number of blue satellites in the Milky Way and M31 systems at comparable distances.

  8. Radio interferometry and satellite tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Kawase, Seiichiro


    Worldwide growth of space communications has caused a rapid increase in the number of satellites operating in geostationary orbits, causing overcrowded orbits. This practical resource is designed to help professionals overcome this problem. This timely book provides a solid understanding of the use of radio interferometers for tracking and monitoring satellites in overcrowded environments. Practitioners learn the fundamentals of radio interferometer hardware, including antennas, receiving equipment, signal processing and phase detection, and measurement accuracies. This in-depth volume describ

  9. Evaluation of Antarctic polar stratospheric clouds data obtained by ground based lidars (at Dome C, McMurdo and Dumont D'Urville) and the satellite based CALIOP lidar system versus a subset of CCMVAL-2 chemistry-climate models. (United States)

    Snels, Marcel; Fierli, Federico; de Muro, Mauro; Cagnazzo, Chiara; Cairo, Francesco; Di Liberto, Luca


    Polar stratospheric clouds play an important role in the ozone depletion process in polar regions and are thus strongly linked to climate changes. Long term observations are needed to monitor the presence of PSCs and to compare to climate models. The last decades PSCs in Antarctica have been observed by using the CALIOP lidar system on the CALIPSO satellite and by ground based lidars at Dumont D'Urville, McMurdo, Casey, and since 2014 at Dome C. We evaluate the Antarctic PSC observational databases of CALIPSO and the ground-based lidars of NDACC (Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes) located in McMurdo and Dumont D'Urville and Dome C stations and provide a process-oriented evaluation of PSC in a subset of CCMVAL-2 chemistry-climate models. Lidar observatories have a decadal coverage, albeit with discontinuities, spanning from 1992 to today hence offering a unique database. A clear issue is the representativeness of ground-based long-term data series of the Antarctic stratosphere conditions that may limit their value in climatological studies and model evaluation. The comparison with the CALIPSO observations with a global coverage is, hence, a key issue. In turn, models can have a biased representation of the stratospheric conditions and of the PSC microphysics leading to large discrepancies in PSC occurrence and composition. Point-to-point comparison is difficult due to sparseness of the database and to intrinsic differences in spatial distribution between models and observations. However, a statistical analysis of PSC observations shows a satisfactory agreement between ground-based and satellite borne-lidar. The differences may be attributed to averaging processes for data with a bad signal to noise ratio, which tends to smear out the values of the optical parameters. Data from some Chemistry Climate models (CCMs) having provided PSC surface areas on daily basis have been evaluated using the same diagnostic type that may be derived CALIPSO (i

  10. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.


    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  11. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks (United States)

    Cao, Jinhua

    Satellite networks and transmissions find their application in fields of computer communications, telephone communications, television broadcasting, transportation, space situational awareness systems and so on. This thesis mainly focuses on two networking issues affecting satellite networking: network congestion control and network routing optimization. Congestion, which leads to long queueing delays, packet losses or both, is a networking problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers. The goal of congestion control mechanisms is to ensure high bandwidth utilization while avoiding network congestion by regulating the rate at which traffic sources inject packets into a network. In this thesis, we propose a stable congestion controller using data-driven, safe switching control theory to improve the dynamic performance of satellite Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management (TCP/AQM) networks. First, the stable region of the Proportional-Integral (PI) parameters for a nominal model is explored. Then, a PI controller, whose parameters are adaptively tuned by switching among members of a given candidate set, using observed plant data, is presented and compared with some classical AQM policy examples, such as Random Early Detection (RED) and fixed PI control. A new cost detectable switching law with an interval cost function switching algorithm, which improves the performance and also saves the computational cost, is developed and compared with a law commonly used in the switching control literature. Finite-gain stability of the system is proved. A fuzzy logic PI controller is incorporated as a special candidate to achieve good performance at all nominal points with the available set of candidate controllers. Simulations are presented to validate the theory. An effocient routing algorithm plays a key role in optimizing network resources. In this thesis, we briefly analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks, review the Cross Entropy (CE

  12. Satellite Attitude from a Raven Class Telescope (United States)


    Cache MATLAB was used as an interface to the jSim libraries, including orbit propagation, Earth Track determination, and satellite orientation methods...collection opportunities of the satellite. The combined software tool calculates the satellite orientation required to image the asset location... satellite orientation estimations, with only the photometric signatures with strong features being correctly estimated. The strong features that

  13. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, space-segment/receiver tradeoffs (United States)

    Golshan, Nasser


    The balance between receiver complexity and the required satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) for Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) service is addressed. In general the required receiver complexity and cost can be reduced at the expense of higher space-segment cost by allowing a higher satellite EIRP. The tradeoff outcome is sensitive to the total number of anticipated receivers in a given service area, the number of audio programs, and the required audio quality. An understanding of optimum choice of satellite EIRP for DBS-R under various service requirements is a critical issue at this time when International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) is soliciting input in preparation for the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) planning conference for the service.

  14. Fast Development Of China's Small Satellite Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hongjin


    @@ China Spacesat Co., Ltd of China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) recently said, along with the successful launch of HJ-1A/B for the environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting small satellite constellation and after years of efforts, small satellite development technology has achieved fruitful results, and the development status has been greatly improved.China's small satellite technology has realized a great-leap-forward in development from a single satellite model to series model, from the satellite program to space industry. China has explored a development road for China's small satellite industrialization, and a modern small satellite development base has resulted.

  15. Laser experiments in light cloudiness with the geostationary satellite ARTEMIS (United States)

    Kuzkov, V.; Kuzkov, S.; Sodnik, Z.


    The geostationary satellite ARTEMIS was launched in July 2001. The satellite is equipped with a laser communication terminal, which was used for the world's first inter-satellite laser communication link between ARTEMIS and the low earth orbit satellite SPOT-4. Ground-to-space laser communication experiments were also conducted under various atmospheric conditions involving ESA's optical ground station. With a rapidly increasing volume of information transferred by geostationary satellites, there is a rising demand for high-speed data links between ground stations and satellites. For ground-to-space laser communications there are a number of important design parameters that need to be addressed, among them, the influence of atmospheric turbulence in different atmospheric conditions and link geometries. The Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine developed a precise computer tracking system for its 0.7 m AZT-2 telescope and a compact laser communication package LACES (Laser Atmosphere and Communication experiments with Satellites) for laser communication experiments with geostationary satellites. The specially developed software allows computerized tracking of the satellites using their orbital data. A number of laser experiments between MAO and ARTEMIS were conducted in partial cloudiness with some amount of laser light observed through clouds. Such conditions caused high break-up (splitting) of images from the laser beacon of ARTEMIS. One possible explanation is Raman scattering of photons on molecules of a water vapor in the atmosphere. Raman scattering causes a shift in a wavelength of the photons.In addition, a different value for the refraction index appears in the direction of the meridian for the wavelength-shifted photons. This is similar to the anomalous atmospheric refraction that appears at low angular altitudes above the horizon. We have also estimated the atmospheric attenuation and the influence of atmospheric turbulence on observed results

  16. Satellite augmentation of cellular type mobile radio telephone systems (United States)

    Anderson, Roy E.

    NASA's ATS-6 satellite relayed voice bandwidth communications between five trucks and the trucking company dispatchers as the trucks traveled throughout the north-eastern quarter of the contiguous United States. The experiment, conducted over a seven month period, demonstrated that propagation characteristics are much different for the satellite-mobile links than for terrestrial-mobile links. A properly designed satellite system can provide high quality, reliable voice and data communications except where the vehicle-satellite path is shadowed by a structure or terrain feature. Mobile equipment in the experiment was adapted from commercial mobile radios. The vehicle antennas were 75 cm tall, 2 cm diam. Another experiment proved the feasibility of vehicle position surveillance using active two-way tone-code ranging through ATS-6 to provide one line of position and passive one-way ranging by measuring the time-of-arrival of a signal from an independent satellite. A position fix was printed out at an earth station 1 sec after it sent the interrogation signal to the distant vehicle, a towboat on the Mississippi River. The line of position from ATS-6 was accurate to 0.1 nautical mile using a voice bandwidth ranging signal. The line of position from the NOAA GOES satellite was accurate to 2 miles, using 100 Hz signal bandwidth. If the signal from the independent satellite had the same bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio as ATS-6, the fixes would have been accurate to about 0.1 nautical mile. A concept study concluded that satellites might be a cost effective augmentation of terrestrial cellular type mobile radio telephone systems. The satellites would serve thinly populated areas where terrestrial systems are not cost effective. In the United States, the satellites would serve about 90% of the land area where 20% of the population resides. A multibeam satellite with many channels in each beam would be compatible with the urban terrestrial systems and together they would

  17. Determining the Cost Effectiveness of Nano-Satellites (United States)


    Control Network, which has eight Remote Tracking Stations around the globe to communicate with satellites ( Hodges and Woll 2008). The resulting raw...Logan, Utah: AIAA/USU, 2014. Hodges , Len, and Ron Woll. “Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) Support For Operational Responsive Space (ORS...Warfare Systems Command, 2010. Stacy, Nick . “6U Radar Altimeter Concept.” Paper presented at 6U Cubesat Low Cost Space Missions Workshop. Canberra

  18. Evaluation of satellite derived spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering, 12-14, Dec. 2007, at NITK, Surathkal 116 EVALUATION OF SATELLITE DERIVED SPECTRAL DIFFUSE ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS T.Suresh, Madhubala Talaulikar, Elgar Desa, Antonio Mascaranhas, S.G. Prabhu Matondkar... evaluated the satellite-derived values using the Root mean Squared Error (RMSE), mean of the absolute percentage difference (apd) (Lee, 2005), mean percent deviation (MPD) and coefficient of determination (r 2 ). The RMSE and apd provide information about...

  19. Fifth generation lithospheric magnetic field model from CHAMP satellite measurements


    Maus, S.; Hermann Lühr; Martin Rother; Hemant, K.; Balasis, G.; Patricia Ritter; Claudia Stolle


    Six years of low-orbit CHAMP satellite magnetic measurements have provided an exceptionally high-quality data resource for lithospheric magnetic field modeling and interpretation. Here we describe the fifth-generation satellite-only magnetic field model MF5. The model extends to spherical harmonic degree 100. As a result of careful data selection, extensive corrections, filtering, and line leveling, the model has low noise levels, even if evaluated at the Earth's surface. The model is particu...

  20. Mobile communications by satellite in Europe - Overview of ESA activities (United States)

    Rogard, R.; Jongejans, A.; Bartholome, P.

    ESA is conducting studies aimed at the definition of a Land Mobile Satellite System for digital communications within the Western European region, in view of recent market studies indicating the existence of substantial demand for the provision of mobile communications services by satellite. Attention is presently given to the 'Prodat' low-rate system and its ARQ-coding scheme, Prodat's CDMA return link (noting interference protection and spectrum use efficiency criteria) and the aims of Prodat performance trials.

  1. Satellite's Motion under the Effect of Magnetic Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhardwaj


    Full Text Available Non-integrability of planar oscillation of a satellite in an elliptic orbit under the influence of magnetic torque has been studied. The amplitude of the oscillation remains constant upto the second order of approximation. The analysis regarding the stability of the stationary planar oscillation of a satellite near the resonance frequency shows that discontinuity occurs in the amplitude of the oscillation at a frequency of the external periodic force which is less than the frequency of the natural oscillation.

  2. A review of satellite communication and propagation experiments for frequencies above 10 GHz (United States)

    Setty, P. N. R.; Goessl, H.; Hounam, D.


    Satellite experiments aimed at improving communications in the higher frequency bands, especially above 10 GHz, are described. The basic types of transmission and measurement methods in these experiments are discussed, including beacon transmission, transmission from the ground with measurement on the ground.The satellite experiments considered include: ATS-5 millimeter wave propagation experiments; ATS-6 experiments at 13, 18, 20 and 30 GHz; Comstar experiments at 19 and 28 GHz; experiments with the CTS, ETS-II, SIRIO, CS, BSE, and OTS satellites. The payload parameters of the satellites are shown, and functional block diagrams for the ground terminals are presented.

  3. Hydrocarbons on the Icy Satellites of Saturn (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.


    The Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on the Cassini Spacecraft has obtained spectral reflectance maps of the satellites of Saturn in the wavelength region 0.4-5.1 micrometers since its insertion into Saturn orbit in late 2004. We have detected the spectral signature of the C-H stretching molecular mode of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in the low albedo material covering parts of several of Saturn's satellites, notably Iapetus and Phoebe (Cruikshank et al. 2008). The distribution of this material is complex, and in the case of Iapetus we are seeking to determine if it is related to the native grey-colored materials left as lag deposits upon evaporation of the ices, or represents in-fall from an external source, notably the newly discovered large dust ring originating at Phoebe. This report covers our latest exploration of the nature and source of this organic material.

  4. The Communications Technology Satellite /CTS/ Program (United States)

    Evans, W. M.; Davies, N. G.; Hawersaat, W. H.


    The purposes of the joint Canadian-U.S. Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) Program are (1) to conduct satellite communication systems experiments using the 12- and 14-GHz bands and low-cost transportable ground terminals, (2) to develop and flight test a power amplifier tube having a greater than 50% efficiency with a saturated power output of 200 W at 12 GHz, (3) to develop and flight test a lightweight extendible solar array with an initial power output greater than 1 kW, and (4) to develop and flight test a 3-axis stabilization system to maintain accurate antenna boresight positioning on a spacecraft with flexible appendages. Brief descriptions of these experiments and of the ground facilities are provided.

  5. A direct broadcast satellite-audio experiment (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Abbe, Brian; Motamedi, Masoud


    System studies have been carried out over the past three years at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on digital audio broadcasting (DAB) via satellite. The thrust of the work to date has been on designing power and bandwidth efficient systems capable of providing reliable service to fixed, mobile, and portable radios. It is very difficult to predict performance in an environment which produces random periods of signal blockage, such as encountered in mobile reception where a vehicle can quickly move from one type of terrain to another. For this reason, some signal blockage mitigation techniques were built into an experimental DAB system and a satellite experiment was conducted to obtain both qualitative and quantitative measures of performance in a range of reception environments. This paper presents results from the experiment and some conclusions on the effectiveness of these blockage mitigation techniques.

  6. Preliminary Results of the Ground/Orbiter Lasercomm Demonstration Experiment between Table Mountain and teh ETS-V1 Satellite (United States)

    Wilson, K. E.; Lesh, J. R.; Araki, K.; Arimoto, Y.


    The Ground/Orbiter Lasercomm Demonstration (GOLD) is an optical communications demonstration between the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite (ETS-V1) and an optical ground transmitting and receiving station at the Table Mountain FAcility in Wrightwood California. Laser transmissions to the satellite are performed approximately four hours every third night when the satellite is at apogee above Table Mountain.

  7. Spectrometric Characterization of Active Geosynchronous Satellites (United States)

    Bedard, D.; Monin, D.; Scott, R.; Wade, G.


    Spectrometric characterization of artificial space objects for the purposes of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has demonstrated great potential since this technique was first reported at this conference over a decade ago. Yet, much scientific work remains to be done before this tool can be used reliably in an operational context. For example, a detailed study of the impacts of a dynamic illumination-object-sensor geometry during individual spectrometric observations has yet to be described. A thorough understanding of this last problem is considered critical if reflectance spectroscopy will be used to characterize active low Earth orbiting spacecraft, in which the Sun-object-sensor geometry varies considerably over the course of a few seconds, or to study space debris that have uncontrolled and varying attitude. It is with the above questions in mind that two observation campaigns were conducted. The first consisted in using small-aperture telescopes to obtain multi-color photometric light curves of active geosynchronous satellites over a wide range of phase angles. The second observation campaign was conducted at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) using the 1.8-metre Plaskett telescope and its Cassegrain spectrograph. The objective of this experiment was to gather time-resolved spectrometric measurements of active geosynchronous satellites as a function of phase angle. This class of satellites was selected because their attitude is controlled and can be estimated to a high level of confidence. This paper presents the two observation campaigns and provides a summary of the key results of this experiment.

  8. Probabilistic Precipitation Estimation with a Satellite Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Y. Krakauer


    Full Text Available Satellite-based precipitation products have been shown to represent precipitation well over Nepal at monthly resolution, compared to ground-based stations. Here, we extend our analysis to the daily and subdaily timescales, which are relevant for mapping the hazards caused by storms as well as drought. We compared the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B42RT product with individual stations and with the gridded APHRODITE product to evaluate its ability to retrieve different precipitation intensities. We find that 3B42RT, which is freely available in near real time, has reasonable correspondence with ground-based precipitation products on a daily timescale; rank correlation coefficients approach 0.6, almost as high as the retrospectively calibrated TMPA 3B42 product. We also find that higher-quality ground and satellite precipitation observations improve the correspondence between the two on the daily timescale, suggesting opportunities for improvement in satellite-based monitoring technology. Correlation of 3B42RT and 3B42 with station observations is lower on subdaily timescales, although the mean diurnal cycle of precipitation is roughly correct. We develop a probabilistic precipitation monitoring methodology that uses previous observations (climatology as well as 3B42RT as input to generate daily precipitation accumulation probability distributions at each 0.25° x 0.25° grid cell in Nepal and surrounding areas. We quantify the information gain associated with using 3B42RT in the probabilistic model instead of relying only on climatology and show that the quantitative precipitation estimates produced by this model are well calibrated compared to APHRODITE.

  9. Satellite detection, long-range transport, and air quality impacts of volcanic sulfur dioxide from the 2014-2015 flood lava eruption at Bárðarbunga (Iceland) (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; Leadbetter, Susan; Theys, Nicolas; Carboni, Elisa; Claire, Witham; John, Stevenson; Cathryn, Birch; Thordarson, Thorvaldur


    The 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga-Veiðivötn fissure eruption at Holuhraun produced about 1.5 km3 of lava, making it the largest eruption in Iceland in more than 200 years. Over the course of the eruption, daily volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions exceeded daily SO2 emissions from all anthropogenic sources in Europe in 2010 by at least a factor of 3. We present surface air quality observations from across Northern Europe together with satellite remote sensing data and model simulations of volcanic SO2 for September 2014. We show that volcanic SO2 was transported in the lowermost troposphere over long distances and detected by air quality monitoring stations up to 2750 km away from the source. Using retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), we calculate an average daily SO2 mass burden of 99 ± 49 kilotons (kt) of SO2 from OMI and 61 ± 18 kt of SO2 from IASI for September 2014. This volcanic burden is at least a factor of 2 greater than the average SO2 mass burden between 2007 and 2009 due to anthropogenic emissions from the whole of Europe. Combining the observational data with model simulations using the United Kingdom Met Office's Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment model, we are able to constrain SO2 emission rates to up to 120 kilotons per day (kt/d) during early September 2014, followed by a decrease to 20-60 kt/d between 6 and 22 September 2014, followed by a renewed increase to 60-120 kt/d until the end of September 2014. Based on these fluxes, we estimate that the eruption emitted a total of 2.0 ± 0.6 Tg of SO2 during September 2014, in good agreement with ground-based remote sensing and petrological estimates. Although the volcanic air pollution episodes were transient and lava-dominated volcanic eruptions are sporadic events, the observations suggest that (i) during an eruption, volcanic SO2 measurements should be assimilated for near real-time air quality

  10. Satellite Applications for K-12 Geoscience Education (United States)

    Mooney, M.; Ackerman, S.; Lettvin, E.; Emerson, N.; Whittaker, T. M.


    This presentation will highlight interactive on-line curriculum developed at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. CIMSS has been on the forefront of educational software design for over two decades, routinely integrating on-line activities into courses on satellite remote sensing. In 2006, CIMSS began collaborating with education experts and researchers from the University of Washington to create an NSF-funded distance learning course for science teachers called Satellite Applications for Geoscience Education. This course includes numerous web-based learning activities, including a distance education tool called VISITview which allows instructors to connect with multiple students simultaneously to conduct a lesson. Developed at CIMSS to facilitate training of National Weather Service forecasters economically and remotely, VISITview is especially effective for groups of people discussing and analyzing maps or images interactively from many locations. Along with an on-line chat function, VISITview participants can use a speaker phone or a networked voice-enabled application to create a learning environment similar to a traditional classroom. VISITview will be used in two capacities: first, instructors will convey topics of current relevance in geoscience disciplines via VISITview. Second, the content experts will participate in "virtual visits" to the classrooms of the educators who take the course for full credit. This will enable scientists to interact with both teachers and students to answer questions and discuss exciting or inspiring examples that link satellite data to their areas of research. As long as a school has Internet access, an LCD projector and a speakerphone, VISITview sessions can be shared with an entire classroom. The geoscientists who developed material for the course and conducting VISITview lectures include a geologist from the University of Wisconsin-Richland, an

  11. Weather Satellite Enterprise Information Chain (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Cochran, S.


    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Contributing the afternoon orbit & ground system (GS) to replace current NOAA POES Satellites, its sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic & climatological data. The JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of C3 and IDP segments, is developed by Raytheon. It now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transferring data between ground facilities, processing them into environmental products for NOAA weather centers, and expanding to support JPSS-1 in 2017. As a multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3, data processing, and product delivery for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD and international missions.The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: Command and control and mission management for the S-NPP mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite mission in 2017 Data acquisition for S-NPP, the JAXA's Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the DoD Data routing over a global fiber network for S-NPP, JPSS-1, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, NASA EOS missions, MetOp for EUMETSAT and the National Science Foundation Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS plays a key role in facilitating the movement and value-added enhancement of data all the way from satellite-based sensor data to delivery to the consumers who generate forecasts and produce watches and warnings. This presentation will discuss the information flow from sensors, through data routing and processing, and finally to product delivery. It will highlight how advances in architecture developed through lessons learned from S-NPP and implemented for JPSS-1 will increase data availability and reduce latency for end user applications.

  12. Building Technological Capability within Satellite Programs in Developing Countries (United States)

    Wood, Danielle Renee

    capability building assessment shows that most trainee engineers gradually progressed from no experience with satellites through theoretical training to supervised experience; a minority achieved independent experience. At the organizational level, the emerging space organizations achieved high levels of autonomy in project definition and satellite operation, but they were dependent on foreign firms for satellite design, manufacture, test and launch. The case studies can be summarized by three archetypal projects defined as "Politically Pushed," "Structured," and "Risk Taking." Countries in the case studies tended to start in a Politically Pushed mode, and then moved into either Structured or Risk Taking mode. Decision makers in emerging satellite programs can use the results of this dissertation to consider the broad set of architectural options for capability building. Future work will continue to probe how specific architectural decisions impact capability building outcomes in satellite projects and other technologies. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, -

  13. The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Ricker, George R; Vanderspek, Roland; Latham, David W; Bakos, Gaspar A; Bean, Jacob L; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K; Brown, Timothy M; Buchhave, Lars; Butler, Nathaniel R; Butler, R Paul; Chaplin, William J; Charbonneau, David; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Clampin, Mark; Deming, Drake; Doty, John; De Lee, Nathan; Dressing, Courtney; Dunham, E W; Endl, Michael; Fressin, Francois; Ge, Jian; Henning, Thomas; Holman, Matthew J; Howard, Andrew W; Ida, Shigeru; Jenkins, Jon; Jernigan, Garrett; Johnson, John Asher; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kjeldsen, Hans; Laughlin, Gregory; Levine, Alan M; Lin, Douglas; Lissauer, Jack J; MacQueen, Phillip; Marcy, Geoffrey; McCullough, P R; Morton, Timothy D; Narita, Norio; Paegert, Martin; Palle, Enric; Pepe, Francesco; Pepper, Joshua; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rinehart, S A; Sasselov, Dimitar; Sato, Bun'ei; Seager, Sara; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Stassun, Keivan G; Sullivan, Peter; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Torres, Guillermo; Udry, Stephane; Villasenor, Joel


    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will search for planets transiting bright and nearby stars. TESS has been selected by NASA for launch in 2017 as an Astrophysics Explorer mission. The spacecraft will be placed into a highly elliptical 13.7-day orbit around the Earth. During its two-year mission, TESS will employ four wide-field optical CCD cameras to monitor at least 200,000 main-sequence dwarf stars with I<13 for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. Each star will be observed for an interval ranging from one month to one year, depending mainly on the star's ecliptic latitude. The longest observing intervals will be for stars near the ecliptic poles, which are the optimal locations for follow-up observations with the James Webb Space Telescope. Brightness measurements of preselected target stars will be recorded every 2 min, and full frame images will be recorded every 30 min. TESS stars will be 10-100 times brighter than those surveyed by the pioneering Kepler missio...

  14. Star Formation in Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gutíerrez, C M; Funes, J G; Ribeiro, M B


    We present narrow-band observations of the H$\\alpha$ emission in a sample of 31 satellite orbiting isolated giant spiral galaxies. The sample studied spans the range $-19at least another Hubble time. Four of the o...

  15. Satellite remote sensing of ultraviolet irradiance on the ocean surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Teng; PAN Delu; BAI Yan; LI Gang; HE Xianqiang; CHEN Chen-Tung Arthur; GAO Kunshan; LIU Dong; LEI Hui


    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a significant influence on marine biological processes and primary productivity;however, the existing ocean color satellite sensors seldom contain UV bands. A look-up table of wavelength-integrated UV irradiance (280–400 nm) on the sea surface is established using the coupled ocean atmosphere radiative transfer (COART) model. On the basis of the look-up table, the distributions of the UV irradiance at middle and low latitudes are inversed by using the satellite-derived atmospheric products from the Aqua satellite, including aerosol optical thickness at 550 nm, ozone content, liquid water path, and the total precipitable water. The validation results show that the mean relative difference of the 10 d rolling averaged UV irradiance between the satellite retrieval and field observations is 8.20% at the time of satellite passing and 13.95% for the daily dose of UV. The monthly-averaged UV irradiance and daily dose of UV retrieved by satellite data show a good correlation with thein situ data, with mean relative differences of 6.87% and 8.43%, respectively. The sensitivity analysis of satellite inputs is conducted. The liquid water path representing the condition of cloud has the highest effect on the retrieval of the UV irradiance, while ozone and aerosol have relatively lesser effect. The influence of the total precipitable water is not significant. On the basis of the satellite-derived UV irradiance on the sea surface, a preliminary simple estimation of ultraviolet radiation’s effects on the global marine primary productivity is presented, and the results reveal that ultraviolet radiation has a non-negligible effect on the estimation of the marine primary productivity.

  16. Relativistic Time Transfer for Inter-Satellite Links (United States)

    Xie, Yi


    Inter-Satellite links (ISLs) will be an important technique for a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) in the future. Based on the principles of general relativity, the time transfer in an ISL is modeled and the algorithm for onboard computation is described. It is found, in general, satellites with circular orbits and identical semi-major axes can benefit inter-satellite time transfer by canceling out terms associated with the transformations between the proper times and the Geocentric Coordinate Time. For a GPS-like GNSS, the Shapiro delay is as large as 0.1 nano-second when the ISL passes at the limb of the Earth. However, in more realistic cases, this value will decrease to about 50 pico-second.

  17. Precision Viticulture from Multitemporal, Multispectral Very High Resolution Satellite Data (United States)

    Kandylakis, Z.; Karantzalos, K.


    In order to exploit efficiently very high resolution satellite multispectral data for precision agriculture applications, validated methodologies should be established which link the observed reflectance spectra with certain crop/plant/fruit biophysical and biochemical quality parameters. To this end, based on concurrent satellite and field campaigns during the veraison period, satellite and in-situ data were collected, along with several grape samples, at specific locations during the harvesting period. These data were collected for a period of three years in two viticultural areas in Northern Greece. After the required data pre-processing, canopy reflectance observations, through the combination of several vegetation indices were correlated with the quantitative results from the grape/must analysis of grape sampling. Results appear quite promising, indicating that certain key quality parameters (like brix levels, total phenolic content, brix to total acidity, anthocyanin levels) which describe the oenological potential, phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics can be efficiently estimated from the satellite data.

  18. Satellite Galaxies and Fossil Groups in the Millennium Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sales, L V; Lambas, D G; White, S D M; Croton, D J


    We use a semianalytic galaxy catalogue constructed from the Millennium Simulation to study the satellites of isolated galaxies in the LCDM cosmogony. This sample (~80,000$ bright primaries, surrounded by ~178,000 satellites) allows the characterization, with minimal statistical uncertainty, of the dynamical properties of satellite/primary galaxy systems in a LCDM universe. We find that, overall, the satellite population traces the dark matter rather well: its spatial distribution and kinematics may be approximated by an NFW profile with a mildly anisotropic velocity distribution. Their spatial distribution is also mildly anisotropic, with a well-defined ``anti-Holmberg'' effect that reflects the misalignment between the major axis and angular momentum of the host halo. The isolation criteria for our primaries picks not only galaxies in sparse environments, but also a number of primaries at the centre of ''fossil'' groups. We find that the abundance and luminosity function of these unusual systems are in reaso...

  19. Overconsumption, outflows and the quenching of satellite galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McGee, Sean L; Balogh, Michael L


    The baryon cycle of galaxies is a dynamic process involving the intake, consumption and ejection of vast quantities of gas. In contrast, the conventional picture of satellite galaxies has them methodically turning a large gas reservoir into stars until this reservoir is forcibly removed due to external ram pressure. This picture needs revision. Our modern understanding of the baryon cycle suggests that in some regimes the simple interruption of the fresh gas supply may quench satellite galaxies long before stripping events occur, a process we call overconsumption. We compile measurements from the literature of observed satellite quenching times at a range of redshifts to determine if satellites are principally quenched through orbit-based gas stripping events -- either direct stripping of the disk (ram pressure stripping) or the extended gas halo (strangulation) -- or from internally-driven star formation outflows via overconsumption. The observed timescales show significant deviation from the evolution expec...

  20. Tidal Models In A New Era of Satellite Gravimetry (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Rowlings, David D.; Edbert, G. D.; Chao, Benjamin F. (Technical Monitor)


    The high precision gravity measurements to be made by recently launched (and recently approved) satellites place new demands on models of Earth, atmospheric, and oceanic tides. The latter is the most problematic. The ocean tides induce variations in the Earth's geoid by amounts that far exceed the new satellite sensitivities, and tidal models must be used to correct for this. Two methods are used here to determine the standard errors in current ocean tide models. At long wavelengths these errors exceed the sensitivity of the GRACE mission. Tidal errors will not prevent the new satellite missions from improving our knowledge of the geopotential by orders of magnitude, but the errors may well contaminate GRACE estimates of temporal variations in gravity. Solar tides are especially problematic because of their long alias periods. The satellite data may be used to improve tidal models once a sufficiently long time series is obtained. Improvements in the long-wavelength components of lunar tides are especially promising.