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Sample records for atropine

  1. Atropine and Other Anticholinergic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    compromise near- who first analyzed the pharmacology and toxicol- vision in the case of accidental use. Military re- ogy of tabun obtained from captured...Lipp JA and Dola TJ (1978). Effect of atropine upon 290-293. the cerebrovascular system during soman-induced NakajimaT.Ohta S. Morita H etal. (1997...sarin: Clinical manifes- Wills JH (1963). Pharmacological antagonists of the tations and treatment of accidental poisoning by anticholinesterase agents

  2. Effectiveness study of atropine for progressive myopia in Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polling, J.R.; Kok, R.G.; Tideman, J.W.; Meskat, B.; Klaver, C.C.W.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeRandomized controlled trials have shown the efficacy of atropine for progressive myopia, and this treatment has become the preferred pattern for this condition in Taiwan. This study explores the effectiveness of atropine 0.5% treatment for progressive high myopia and adherence to therapy in a

  3. Suppression of torsades de pointes by atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H L; Wilde, A A; Peters, R J

    1998-01-01

    A 67 year old woman with a history of chronic atrial fibrillation presented with asthma cardiale. She took no medication and there was no family history of long QT syndrome. She was treated with furosemide, nitroprusside, acenocoumarol, and digoxin. Two days later excessively prolonged RR intervals, which were terminated by escape beats with a right bundle branch block morphology, suggested impending total AV block. There was also severe QT (0.48 s) and QTc (0.56) interval prolongation with bizarre inverted TU waves and multifocal premature ventricular complexes within the U waves. The patient experienced angina pectoris followed by episodes of torsades de pointes, which were interpreted as the result of bradycardia, and the bradycardia as the result of high grade AV block induced by increased vagal tone caused by ischaemia in the presence of digoxin intoxication (serum digoxin was 2.5 micrograms/l). Subsequent atropine infusion sped up the ventricular rate and shortened the QT (0.39) and QTc (0.51) intervals. Digoxin was replaced by metoprolol to control ventricular rate and angina pectoris. Within days, QT and QTc intervals became normal and the U waves disappeared. Neither torsades de pointes nor angina pectoris recurred. Based on a review of the literature, it is suggested that the electrophysiological mechanism of this effect is not only an increase of the heart rate, but also a direct action of muscarinic receptor antagonism on Purkinje cells and ventricular refractoriness.

  4. Can anisodamine be a potential substitute for high-dose atropine in cases of organophosphate poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Chen, Q-F; Ruan, H-L; Chen, K; Chen, B; Wen, J-M

    2014-11-01

    A case of organophosphate (OP) poisoning was admitted to the emergency room. The patient accepted treatment with pralidoxime (PAM), atropine, and supporting therapy. It was observed that even after 22 h after treatment, 960 mg of atropine was not enough for the patient to be atropinized. However, a 160-mg follow-up treatment of anisodamine was quite enough for atropinization after 4 h. As a case report, more studies are required before any definite conclusion can be reached regarding the use of anisodamine as a potential substitute for high-dose atropine in cases of OP poisoning.

  5. Comparison of exercise, dobutamine-atropine and dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography in detecting coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, Ivana; Ostojic, Miodrag; Beleslin, Branko; Djordjevic-Dikic, Ana; Stepanovic, Jelena; Nedeljkovic, Milan; Stojkovic, Sinisa; Stankovic, Goran; Saponjski, Jovica; Petrasinovic, Zorica; Giga, Vojislav; Mitrovic, Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Background Dipyridamole and dobutamine stress echocardiography testing are most widely utilized, but their sensitivity remained suboptimal in comparison to routine exercise stress echocardiography. The aim of our study is to compare, head-to-head, exercise, dobutamine and dipyridamole stress echocardiography tests, performed with state-of-the-art protocols in a large scale prospective group of patients. Methods Dipyridamole-atropine (Dipatro: 0.84 mg/kg over 10 min i.v. dipyridamole with addition of up to 1 mg of atropine), dobutamine-atropine (Dobatro: up to 40 mcg/kg/min i.v. dobutamine with addition of up to 1 mg of atropine) and exercise (Ex, Bruce) were performed in 166 pts. Of them, 117 pts without resting wall motion abnormalities were enrolled in study (91 male; mean age 54 ± 10 years; previous non-transmural myocardial infarction in 32 pts, angina pectoris in 69 pts and atypical chest pain in 16 pts). Tests were performed in random sequence, in 3 different days, within 5 day period under identical therapy. All patients underwent coronary angiography. Results Significant coronary artery disease (CAD; ≥50% diameter stenosis) was present in 69 pts (57 pts 1-vessel CAD, 12 multivessel CAD) and absent in 48 pts. Sensitivity (Sn) was 96%, 93% and 90%, whereas specificity (Sp) was 92%, 92% and 87% for Dobatro, Dipatro and Ex, respectively (p = ns). Concomitant beta blocker therapy did not influence peak rate-pressure product and Sn of Dobatro and Dipatro (p = ns). Conclusion When state-of-the-art protocols are used, dipyridamole and dobutamine stress echocardiography have comparable and high diagnostic accuracy, similar to maximal post-exercise treadmill stress echocardiography. PMID:16672046

  6. Comparison of exercise, dobutamine-atropine and dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography in detecting coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrasinovic Zorica

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dipyridamole and dobutamine stress echocardiography testing are most widely utilized, but their sensitivity remained suboptimal in comparison to routine exercise stress echocardiography. The aim of our study is to compare, head-to-head, exercise, dobutamine and dipyridamole stress echocardiography tests, performed with state-of-the-art protocols in a large scale prospective group of patients. Methods Dipyridamole-atropine (Dipatro: 0.84 mg/kg over 10 min i.v. dipyridamole with addition of up to 1 mg of atropine, dobutamine-atropine (Dobatro: up to 40 mcg/kg/min i.v. dobutamine with addition of up to 1 mg of atropine and exercise (Ex, Bruce were performed in 166 pts. Of them, 117 pts without resting wall motion abnormalities were enrolled in study (91 male; mean age 54 ± 10 years; previous non-transmural myocardial infarction in 32 pts, angina pectoris in 69 pts and atypical chest pain in 16 pts. Tests were performed in random sequence, in 3 different days, within 5 day period under identical therapy. All patients underwent coronary angiography. Results Significant coronary artery disease (CAD; ≥50% diameter stenosis was present in 69 pts (57 pts 1-vessel CAD, 12 multivessel CAD and absent in 48 pts. Sensitivity (Sn was 96%, 93% and 90%, whereas specificity (Sp was 92%, 92% and 87% for Dobatro, Dipatro and Ex, respectively (p = ns. Concomitant beta blocker therapy did not influence peak rate-pressure product and Sn of Dobatro and Dipatro (p = ns. Conclusion When state-of-the-art protocols are used, dipyridamole and dobutamine stress echocardiography have comparable and high diagnostic accuracy, similar to maximal post-exercise treadmill stress echocardiography.

  7. Acute methaemoglobinaemia initially treated as organophosphate poisoning leading to atropine toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kakhandki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of unknown compound poisoning is presented. It was initially treated as organophosphate poisoning with lack of response. A timely diagnosis of acute methaemoglobinaemia and iatrogenic atropine toxicity was made based on clinical evaluation. Treatment of methaemoglobinaemia using oral methylene blue and of atropine toxicity with supportive measures could save the patient.

  8. Split-dose atropine versus glycopyrrolate with neostigmine for reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, J; Jarnvig, I; Jørgensen, L N

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a split-dose of atropine sulphate versus a single dose of glycopyrrolate given with neostigmine for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade were studied in 55 patients undergoing gynaecological surgery. The patients were randomized to receive either a single dose...... of glycopyrrolate (7 micrograms.kg-1) or two doses of atropine (8 micrograms.kg-1 each), given with an interval of 1 min. There were no differences between the two methods with respect to percentage heart rate changes, salivation or arousal time. Four patients demonstrated cardiac arhythmias in the atropine group......, whereas none occurred in the glycopyrrolate group (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that a split-dose of atropine has similar chronotropic effects to a single dose of glycopyrrolate for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade. However, the finding of a higher incidence of cardiac...

  9. Anticonvulsants for Nerve Agent-Induced Seizures: The Influence of the Therapeutic Dose of Atropine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphorous nerve agents-induced cological Basis of Therapeutics, 10th ed. (Hardman JG, Limbird LE, and ( Gilman seizures and efficacy of atropine...us.army.mil Taylor P (2001) Anticholinesterase agents, in Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharrna-

  10. Acute atropine intoxication with psychiatric symptoms by herbal infusion of Pulmonaria officinalis (Lungwort

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    Enrique Baca-García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lungwort infusion is a preparation extracted from Pulmonaria officinalis which is occasionally used as a folk remedy for the common cold. The current report aims to describe acute atropine intoxications with delirium caused by Lungwort infusion in several members of the same family. Methods: Description of three case reports. Search of literature through Medline. Results: Three generations of a same family presented acute and moderately severe atropine intoxications after drinking an infusion prepared with Pulmonaria officinalis. Conclusions: Despite the lack of scientific evidence for its clinical use, medicinal plants continue being widely used. In spite of severe adverse effects reported, the general thought is that herbal remedies are harmless. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute atropine intoxications with psychiatric symptoms secondary to Pulmonaria officinalis in several members of a family. We suspect that the lungwort infusion may have been contaminated with some other substance with atropinic properties.

  11. Neonatal mydriasis due to effects of atropine used for maternal Tik-20 poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah A

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A neonate was born to a mother who had consumed an organophosphorus(OPC compound with suicidal intent. The mother was administered atropine and this caused mydriasis in the neonate without any other pharmacological effects. There was no evidence of placental dysfunction. There are no case reports of OPC consumed in pregnancy and its effect on neonates or of effects of massive doses of atropine in the mother and its effects on the fetus or the newborn.

  12. Preparation and Evaluation of Veterinary 0.1% Injectable Solution of Atropine Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F K Mohammad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the know-how of preparing a multiple injection form atropine sulphate solution. An injectable aqueous solution of atropine sulphate at a concentration of 0.1%. was prepared under aseptic conditions in dark glass bottles each containing 50 ml. The preparation was intended for animal use only. It contained 1g atropine sulphate, 9 g sodium chloride as a normal saline, benzyl alcohol 15 ml as a preservative and water for injection up to 1000 ml. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 4.2 (range 3.0-6.5. The preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate solution was clear colorless solution free from undesired particles. It complied with the requirements for injectable solutions. Further, the preparation was safe when used under laboratory conditions in chicks, rats and donkeys. It was also effective in preventing dichlorvos (an organophosphate insecticide-induced poisoning in chicks in a manner comparable to a commercial preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate. In conclusion, the know-how of a preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate solution is presented for veterinary use. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 145-149

  13. Stress echocardiography in warmblood horses: comparison of dobutamine/atropine with treadmill exercise as cardiac stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlen, Heidrun; Marnette, Silke; Rohn, Karl; Stadler, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combination of dobutamine and atropine causes cardiac stress equivalent to treadmill exercise. Therefore, electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed on 10 warmblood horses before, during, and after different cardiac stress tests. Stressors consisted of a standardized treadmill exercise and combined administration of dobutamine (7.5 microg/kg/min) and atropine (5 microg/kg). Maxima heart rates were achieved during the treadmill exercise (175 +/- 10 bpm). After exercise, a rapid decrease in heart rate was observed. Subsequently, a stress echocardiography for which a heart rate >100 bpm was required could only be performed within 1 minute after exercise. The mean heart rate during echocardiography was 136 +/- 8 bpm after exercise. The combination of dobutamine and atropine also resulted in a significant increase in heart rate, up to 141 +/- 20 bpm. Maxima heart rate was significantly higher during the treadmill exercise, but the decrease in heart rate was significantly slower after dobutamine and atropine administration. Over a period of 7.9 minutes, the mean heart rate was 123 +/- 8 bpm during dobutamine and atropine administration. Consequently, the combination of both drugs offered sufficient time for detailed examinations. Overall, echocardiographic examination identified a decrease in left ventricular (LV) dimensions, an increase in LV wall thickness, and a decrease in stroke volume after the treadmill exercise and during pharmacologic stress testing compared with baseline. Changes in echocardiographic variables generally were more pronounced during dobutamine and atropine administration. Similar to stress echocardiography in humans, in horses the combination of dobutamine and atropine is useful to produce an increase in heart rate comparable with what is achieved with exercise but without the need of increasing dobutamine dosage.

  14. The Effect of Atropine on Post-ECT Bradycardia in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

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    Hassan Farashbandi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is utilized for treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD. One of the major complications in using ECT is cardiovascular problems i.e., bradycardia. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of atropine on the pulse rate (PR of the patients under treatment with ECT. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with diagnosis of MDD who received atropine before ECT treatment (control group were compared with 30 patients with the same diagnosis without receiving atropine (experimental group under ECT treatment. Both groups received ECT under the same term and condition. The PR of the patients were recorded 7 times (twice before anesthesia and ECT and 5 fixed one min intervals immediately after receiving ECT; for 10 sessions of treatment with ECT (3 times a week. The results were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. The PR under 50 was the cut off point for differentiating the patients suffering from bradycardia and those without it. Results: Slight increment in PRs for experimental group (patient who did not receive atropine in contrast to control group were observed, but it did not reach a statistically significant level. The gender (male/female did not have different PR. The age of the patients and initial PR (regarded as co-variances did not show significant effect on PR for total sample. Conclusion: There seems to be not necessary to use atropine treatment for depressed patients receiving ECT.

  15. Construction and analytical application of ion-selective piezoelectric sensor for atropine sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Y; Lei, L; Li, W; He, D; Nie, L; Yao, S

    1999-11-01

    The method describes the use of a piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) as a substitute for ion-selective electrodes. The approach is feasible when the membrane materials are electrically non-conductive and membrane potential measurements are consequently not possible. An ion-selective piezoelectric sensor sensitive to atropine sulfate was constructed by coating a PVC membrane containing activant on one the side of a PQC. On the basis of selective adsorption of atropine ions across the modified film and the sensitive mass response of PQC, the method exhibits a sensitive, rapid response and is easy to operate without pretreatment of the sample. The logarithm of the frequency shift gave a linear relationship with the logarithm of atropine sulfate concentration in the 1.0 x 10(-8)-1.0 x 10(-3) M range with a detection limit of 5.0 x 10(-9) M at pH 7.0. Recoveries were from 98.7-102.2%. Two activants, atropine tetraphenylborate and atropine dipicrylaminate, were synthesized and investigated. Influencing factors were also examined and optimized. The results for real samples obtained by the proposed method agreed with those obtained by conventional methods.

  16. Dan Nang Xue blockade with Innovar and Atropine to prevent internal organpull response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Chuan Liu; Qi Sheng Liang; Yun Chun Zhang; Xue Wu Ling

    2000-01-01

    AIM To observe the effects of Innovar and Atropine on Visceral pull response.METHODS Patients were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was treated by DanNang Xue blockade with Innovar 4 mL and Atropine 0.5 mg (n = 40) and the control group was treated byabdominal vagus blockade with 10 mL of 10 g/L Lidocaine (n = 40). Dan Nang Xue was chosen for insertionof No 5 needle (5 cm in length) after local sterilization. The acupoint of Dan Nang Xue is located at theoutside of knee-jont and it is one-finger wider below Yanglingquan can be found. A sensitive point. Theneedle was inserted between tibia and fibulae, lifted, thrusted and twirled until the patient felt ache. Innovarand Atropine were injected on Dan Nang Xue and the acupoint was gently messaged.RESULTS Patients in the experimental group remained quiet during operation. Neither nausea or vomitingnor uncomfortable reaction was complained, 85% of the patients belonged to grade m. Acupunctureenhanced the peristalsis of gallbladder and biliary secretions. Atropine relieved muscular spasm andprevented vomiting. A low heart rate was noted in the control during abdominal survey and gallbladder pull(P<0.05).CONCLUSION Dan Nang Xue blockade with innovar and atropine can prevent visceral pull response.

  17. Atropine-sensitive, tetrodotoxin-resistant contraction induced by noradrenaline in isolated cat rectum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neya,Toshiaki

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of noradrenaline (NA on the isolated rectal circular muscle of the cats were studied in comparison with the effects on the internal anal sphincter (IAS. NA (10(-8-10(-7 g/ml caused tonic contraction in four of 15 strips of the rectum taken from 15 animals, and in all 15 strips of the IAS. Phenylephrine also induced rectal and IAS contraction. Rectal contraction induced by NA was resistant to phentolamine, yohimbine, propranolol, hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin, but blocked by atropine. IAS contraction induced by NA was resistant to propranolol, atropine, hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin, but blocked by phentolamine and yohimbine. It is suggested that an atropine-sensitive excitatory adrenergic mechanism other than the excitatory alpha-adrenergic mechanism exists in the rectal circular muscle.

  18. Comparative study of oral and intramuscular atropine sulphate as a premedicant in paediatric age group.

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    Chaudhari L

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of atropine sulphate in the paediatric age group as a premedicant orally in a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg body weight 70 minutes prior to surgery was found to be as effective as atropine sulphate given intramuscularly 35 minutes prior to surgery in a dosage of 0.01 mg/kg body weight. This avoids the unpleasant memory of needle prick; The duration of effect as studied in the normal healthy children not subjected to surgery was found to be 2 1/2-3 hours.

  19. Determination of atropine using Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as novel luminescent sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizi, Seyed Naser [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chaichi, Mohammad Javad, E-mail: jchaichi@yahoo.com [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakeri, Parmis [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bekhradnia, Ahmadreza [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method using water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of atropine in pharmaceutical formulation. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. It was found that ZnS quantum dots acted as enhancers of the weak CL emission produced upon oxidation of sulfite by Ce(IV) in acidic medium. Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots yielding a significant chemiluminescence enhancement of the Ce(IV)–SO{sub 3}{sup 2−}–ZnS QD system. Therefore, a new CL analysis system was developed for the determination of atropine. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative chemiluminescence intensity and the concentration of atropine in the range of 1×10{sup −9}–1×10{sup −6} M of atropine with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of 0.9992. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 2.54×10{sup −10} M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications. -- Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots could enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of cerium(IV)–sodium sulfite system. • ZnS quantum dots were used as the nanocatalyst. • Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots. • This work is introduced as a new method for the determination of atropine commercial drugs. • Detection limit of atropine was obtained 2.54×10{sup −10} mol L{sup −1}.

  20. Efficacy of atropine combined with paroxetine in vagus nerve excitatory panic disorder

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    Du N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Na Du, Xue-Li Sun Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Panic disorder is often associated with the autonomic nervous system pattern – sympathetic activation and parasympathetic (vagal withdrawal. However, we present one special case here to show a totally reversed pathogenesis – vagal activation occupying the leading role, which requires atropine to cure the patient’s symptoms. Through this report, it is reasonably proven that panic disorder may be a heterogeneous condition, whose mechanism might be the imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic tone. Keywords: panic disorder, vagal activation, bradycardia, atropine

  1. A Double-Blind Atropine Trial for Active Learning of Autonomic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jeffrey R.; Burr, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to…

  2. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang-tao

    2012-09-01

    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.

  3. Prophylactic administration of atropine attenuates the negative haemodynamic effects of propofol/remifentanil induction of anaesthesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poterman, Marieke; Scheeren, Thomas; van der Velde, M.I.; Struys, Michel; Kalmar, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Goal of Study:   Induction of anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil often induces unwanted bradycardia and hypotension. This raises the concern for preserving haemodynamic stability and adequate tissue oxygenation. We previously demonstrated that atropine significantly improves h

  4. Atropine increases the positive adrenergic effects of norepinephrine : A pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, A.F.; Weening, Mariska; Struys, Michel; Scheeren, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background and Goal of Study: Atropine is a competitive antagonist of cholinergic receptors and is widely used to blunt the increased vagal tone that is often caused by surgical manipulations. It increases heart rate(HR) with minimal effects on mean arterial pressure(MAP) and cardiac output(CO). Nor

  5. Permanent alterations in muscarinic receptors and pupil size produced by chronic atropinization in kittens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.L.; Redburn, D.A.; Harwerth, R.S.; Maguire, G.W.

    1984-02-01

    Chronic mydriasis was induced in six kittens (four monocular, two binocular) and two adult cats (both monocular) by the daily topical application of atropine. Both the kittens and the adult cats were atropinized for a 13-week period with the treatment regimen beginning at the time of eye opening for the kittens. Pupil size measurements, obtained 1 year after the atropinization were discontinued, revealed that, although the pupils of the adult cats were normal, the pupils of the kittens' treated eyes were consistently smaller than pupils in control eyes. The status of the muscarinic receptors in the kittens' irides was investigated using /sup 3/H-QNB binding assays. In comparison with iris muscle homogenates from the control eyes, those from the treated eyes demonstrated an eightfold increase in the number of receptor binding sites. The results indicate that pupil size can be altered permanently by chronic mydriasis initiated early in the life of a kitten and that the permanent change in pupil size may result, in part, from a type of permanent supersensitivity response in the muscle following chronic blockade of muscarinic transmission by atropine.

  6. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs

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    Koplovitz, I.; Menton, R.; Matthews, C.; Shutz, M.; Nalls, C.

    1995-12-31

    H1-6 (1-2-hydrnxyiminomethyl-1 pyridino-3-(4-carbameyl- 1--pyddino)-2- oxaprnpane dichioride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI-6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman.

  7. MRI findings in 6 cases of children by inadvertent ingestion of diphenoxylate-atropine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Lianxiang [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Lin Xiangtao, E-mail: yishui1982@126.com [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Cao Jinfeng [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Wang Xueyu [Division of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Wu Lebin [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Compound diphenoxylate (diphenoxylate-atropine) poisoning can cause toxic encephalopathy in children, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in this condition has not been reported. This study is to analyze brain MRI findings and to investigate the relations between MRI features and possible pathophysiological changes in children. Methods: Six children accidentally swallowed compound diphenoxylate, 4 males, 2 females, aged 20-46 months, average 33 months. Quantity of ingested diphenoxylate-atropine was from 6 to 30 tablets, each tablet contains diphenoxylate 2.5 mg and atropine 0.025 mg. These patients were referred to our hospital within 24 h after diphenoxylate-atropine ingestion, and underwent brain MRI scan within 24-72 h after emergency treatment. The characteristics of conventional MRI were analyzed. Results: These pediatric patients had various symptoms of opioid intoxication and atropine toxicity. Brain MRI showed abnormal low signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in bilateral in all cases; abnormal high signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR in 4 cases. Encephalomalacia was observed in 3 cases during follow-up. Conclusion: In the early stage of compound diphenoxylate poisoning in children, multiple extensive edema-necrosis and hemorrhagic-necrosis focus were observed in basic nucleus, pallium and cerebellum, these resulted in the corresponding brain dysfunction with encephalomalacia. MRI scan in the early stage in this condition may provide evidences of brain impairment, and is beneficial for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment.

  8. Mechanism of Cooperativity and Nonlinear Release Kinetics in Multivalent Dendrimer-Atropine Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Jhindan; Wong, Pamela T; Tang, Shengzhuang; Gam, Kristina; Coulter, Alexa; Baker, James R; Choi, Seok Ki

    2015-12-01

    Despite extensive studies on drug delivery using multivalent complexation systems, the biophysical basis for release kinetics remains poorly defined. The present study addresses this aspect involved in the complexation of a fifth generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer with atropine, an essential antidote used for treating organophosphate poisoning. First, we designed (1)H NMR titration studies for determining the molecular basis of the drug complexation with a glutarate-modified anionic dendrimer. These provide evidence pointing to a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions as the driving forces for dendrimer complexation with the alkaloid drug molecule. Second, using LC-MS/MS spectrometry, we determined the dissociation constants (KD) at steady state and also measured the drug release kinetics of atropine complexes with four negatively charged dendrimer types. Each of these dendrimers has a high payload capacity for up to ∼ 100 atropine molecules. However, the affinity of the atropine to the carrier was highly dependent on the drug to dendrimer ratio. Thus, a complex made at a lower loading ratio (≤ 0.1) displayed greater atropine affinity (KD ≈ μM) than other complexes prepared at higher ratios (>10), which showed only mM affinity. This negative cooperative variation in affinity is tightly associated with the nonlinear release kinetics observed for each complex in which drug release occurs more slowly at the later time phase at a lower loading ratio. In summary, the present study provides novel insights on the cooperativity as the mechanistic basis for nonlinear release kinetics observed in multivalent carrier systems.

  9. A comparison of the effects of atropine on real-feeding and sham-feeding of sucrose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, J W; Sclafani, A

    1988-02-01

    In Experiment 1 the influence of atropine methyl nitrate on the sham-feeding response of adult female rats to a sucrose solution was determined. Atropine (1 or 5 mg/kg) reliably suppressed the sham-intake of sucrose when the drug was administered 30 or 0 min prior to, or 17 min after the start of the feeding session. The suppressive effect was less, however, when the drug was administered 30 min before testing compared to the other two injection-test conditions. In Experiment 2 atropine failed to reliably decrease the real-feeding of a sucrose solution whether it was injected 30, 15, or 0 min prior to testing. These results were replicated in Experiment 3; atropine (0 min injection-test interval) reduced the sham-intake but not the real-intake of a sucrose solution. However, atropine decreased the rate of feeding under both real- and sham-feeding conditions. The fact that atropine reduced feeding rate but not meal size in the real-feeding condition was attributed to the drug's lack of effect on postingestive satiety. The present findings along with other recent results indicate that (1) the injection-test interval is a potentially important variable in studies involving atropine; (2) results obtained with sham-feeding animals do not always generalize to real-feeding animals; and (3) cholinergically-mediated cephalic responses are of questionable importance in the control of meal size.

  10. The effects of beta-blockers on dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography: early protocol versus standard protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitzel Luis H

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the effects of Beta-blockers during Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography (DSE comparing the hemodynamic benefits of an early administration of atropine in patients taking or not Beta-blockers. Methods One hundred and twenty-one patients were submitted to dobutamine stress echocardiography for the investigation of myocardial ischemia. The administration of atropine was randomized into two groups: A or B (early protocol when atropine was administered at 10 and 20 mcg/kg/min of dobutamine, respectively and C (standard protocol with atropine at 40 mcg/kg/min of dobutamine. Analysis of the effects of Beta-blockers was done regarding the behavior pattern of heart rate and blood pressure, test time, number of conclusive and inconclusive (negative sub-maximum test results, total doses of atropine and dobutamine, and general complications. Results Beta-blocked patients who received early atropine (Group A&B had a significantly lower double product (p = 0.008, a higher mean test time (p = 0.010 and required a higher dose of atropine (p = 0.0005 when compared to the patients in this group who were not Beta-blocked. The same findings occurred in the standard protocol (Group C, however the early administration of atropine reduced test time both in the presence and absence of this therapy (p = 0.0001. The patients with Beta-blockers in Group A&B had a lower rate of inconclusive tests (26% compared to those in Group C (40%. Complications were similar in both groups. Conclusion The chronotropic response during dobutamine stress echocardiography was significantly reduced with the use of Beta-blockers. The early administration of atropine optimized the hemodynamic response, reduced test time in patients with or without Beta-blockers and reduced the number of inconclusive tests in the early protocol.

  11. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplovitz, I; Menton, R; Matthews, C; Shutz, M; Nalls, C; Kelly, S

    1995-01-01

    HI-6 (1-2-hydroxyiminomethyl-1-pyridino-3-(4-carbamoyl-1-pyridino -2- oxapropane dichloride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman. It is concluded that 1) ATR has a large effect on the efficacy of HI-6 against OP poisoning, 2) the dose of ATR must be carefully selected in studies investigating the efficacy of HI-6 against OP poisoning, 3) the effective dose of ATR in the guinea pig is approximately 16 mg/kg, and 4) diazepam is a useful

  12. Effect of atropine-dobutamine stress test on left ventricular echocardiographic parameters in untrained warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandersen, Charlotte F; Detilleux, Johanne; de Moffarts, Brieuc; Van Loon, Gunther; Amory, Hélène

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of combined atropine low-dose dobutamine stress test on left ventricular parameters in adult warmblood horses, to establish a potential protocol for pharmacological stress echocardiography. Seven healthy untrained warmblood horses aged 9 to 22 years were used. Heart rate (HR) and left ventricular B- and M-mode dimensions were recorded at baseline and during stress testing with 35 microg/kg atropine IV followed by incremental dobutamine infusion of 2 to 6 microg/kg/min. HR increased significantly (P stress test induced significant changes in left ventricular echocardiographic parameters in adult warmblood horses. Additional research should evaluate the value of this stress test in horses suffering from cardiac disease.

  13. Evaluation of Atropine-Xylazine as a Sedative in Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twelve experimental trials were undertaken on clinically healthy male buffalo calves. Atropine was administered @ 0.04 mg/kg, IM and xylazine was administered @ 0.04 mg/kg, IM. Following atropine-xylazine administration, a decrease in spontaneous activity was seen in all the animals. Lowering of head was observed in three animals. Haemoglobin reduced significantly at 15 minute after xylazine administration. A significant reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP was also seen at 30 and 45 minute after xylazine administration. The pulse pressure increased significantly after 5 minute of xylazine administration. The central venous pressure (CVP increased significantly at 30 minute and 45 minute of xylazine administration.

  14. Investigation of Vision and Performance After Administration of Cholinergic Blocking Agents. III. Atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    P., Kemp, K. & Wetherell, A. Some effects of 2mg i.m. atropine and 5mg i.m. diazepam , separately and combined, on human performance. Proc. Brit...Impaired coordination 0 1 2 3 4 Tense 0 1 2 3 4 Restless 0 1 2 3 4 Depressed 0 1 2 3 4 Anxious 0 1 2 3 4 Fatigued 0 1 2 3 4 Unable to concentrate 0 1 2 3 4

  15. Intravenously administered oxotremorine and atropine, in doses known to affect pain threshold, affect the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban

    2002-01-01

    muscarinic agonists and antagonists modify nociceptive threshold by affecting intraspinal release of acetylcholine (ACh). Catheters were inserted into the femoral vein in rats maintained on isoflurane anaesthesia for administration of oxotremorine (10-300 microg/kg) and atropine (0.1, 10, 5000 microg....../kg). Spinal microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally at approximately the C2-C5 spinal level for sampling of acetylcholine and dialysis delivery of atropine (0.1, 1, 10 nM). Additionally, the tail-flick behaviour was tested on conscious rats injected intraperitoneally with saline, atropine (10, 100....... Intravenously administered atropine, in a dose that produced hyperalgesia (5000 microg/kg) in the tail-flick test, significantly decreased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. Our results suggest an association between pain threshold and acetylcholine release in spinal cord. It is also suggested...

  16. Interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on the binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yun, E-mail: hy9317536@126.com [Pharmaceutical College, Hebei Medical University, 361 Zhongshan East Road, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province 050017 (China); Cui Lijian [Traditional Chinese Medical College, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050091 (China); Wang Jianming; Huo Kun; Chen Chen; Zhan Wenhong; Wang Yongli [Pharmaceutical College, Hebei Medical University, 361 Zhongshan East Road, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province 050017 (China)

    2012-02-15

    The interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on binding constant, binding sites, and conformation were studied in an aqueous buffer solution (pH 7.40) by ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The study results show that aconitine quenched the endogenous fluorescence of BSA via a dynamic quenching procedure. Predominant intermolecular forces between aconitine and BSA were hydrophobic interactions, which stabilized the complex of aconitine-BSA. The distance between the donor and acceptor was 2.62 nm. The conformation of BSA was investigated by synchronous fluorescence techniques, indicating that the microenvironment around tryptophan (Trp) residues was changed. Furthermore, with the addition of atropine sulphate or glycyrrhizic acid, binding constant and the number of binding sites of aconitine to BSA were decreased, and the conformation had no change, which provide an important theoretical support for aconitine detoxification by atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of atropine or glycyrrhizic acid on aconitine-BSA binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aconitine quenched BSA fluorescence via dynamic quenching with r=2.62 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid decreased K{sub A} and n of aconitine-BSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Support for aconitine detoxification by atropine and glycyrrhizic acid.

  17. A comparative study of clonidine versus a combination of diazepam and atropine for premedication in orthopaedic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaurasia S

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty patients in the age group of 18-60 years of A.S.A. Grade I/II risk, scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgeries under general anaesthesia were studied for pre-medication with either oral clonidine or with combination of effects of diazepam & atropine. Patients in Group A (clonidine group received tablet clonidine 100 mcg (1 tablet if less than 50 kg in weight and 200 mcg if weighing more than 50 kg two hours before surgery. Patients in Group B (Diazepam-atropine group received one tablet of Diazepam (10 mg orally two hours before surgery and injection atropine-sulphate 0.01 mg/kg half an hour preoperatively by intramuscular route. In our study, the sedative and anti-sialogogue effects of clonidine were comparable to those of diazepam-atropine combination, which are commonly used premedicants. The anti-anxiety effect of clonidine was found to be better than that of diazepam-atropine combination. Clonidine also proved to be a better agent for the attenuation of pressor response to laryngoscopy and intubation. Thus, oral clonidine is a better premedicant compared to atropine-diazepam combination. Also, it is a more acceptable agent because of its oral route of administration.

  18. The use of carbamates, atropine, and 2-pyridine aldoxime methoiodide in the protection of Artemia salina against poisoning by carbophenothion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fortún, S; Barahona, V

    2001-09-01

    The acute toxicity of carbophenothion to three age classes of Artemia salina was evaluated. An increase in toxicity of carbophenothion was found following longer development of A. salina. The effect of pretreatment with the nonselective muscarinic antagonist atropine, the two reversible acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors physostigmine and pyridostigmine, and the cholinesterase-reactivating oxime 2-pyridine aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM) on carbophenothion-induced lethality in 24-h-old A. salina was also investigated. The lethal action of carbophenothion was completely prevented by pretreatment of A. salina with 2-PAM. Atropine and pyridostigmine afforded a maximal protection of approximately 87% and 72%, respectively, compared to control values. In contrast, physostigmine was ineffective. The inhibitory effects of combinations of 10(-5) M atropine with physostigmine, pyridostigmine, or 2-PAM were greater than those elicited by either drug alone, with the maximum protection afforded being 92.58%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. In the presence of 10(-7) M atropine, neither pyridostigmine nor 2-PAM provided additional inhibition of the lethality compared to that with either drug alone, whereas the protection afforded by 10(-7) M atropine plus physostigmine increased as the concentration of carbamate increased (up to 10(-3) M). Pretreatment with pyridostigmine or physostigmine plus 2-PAM (10(-6) M) slightly enhanced the maximal inhibition of carbophenothion lethality compared to that with either drug alone. It is suggested that the most active combined pretreatment studied here was physostigmine plus atropine.

  19. Comparison of two commonly practiced atropinization regimens in acute organophosphorus and carbamate poisoning, doubling doses vs. ad hoc: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P M S; Shahmy, S; Gawarammana, I; Dawson, A H

    2008-06-01

    There is a wide variation and lack of evidence in current recommendations for atropine dosing schedules leading to subsequent variation in clinical practice. Therefore, we sought to examine the safety and effectiveness of a titrated vs. ad hoc atropine treatment regimen in a cohort of patients with acute cholinesterase inhibitor pesticide poisoning. A prospective cohort study was conducted in three district secondary referral hospitals in Sri Lanka using a structured data collection form that collected details of clinical symptoms and outcomes of cholinesterase inhibitor pesticide poisoning, atropine doses, and signs of atropinization. We compared two hospitals that used a titrated dosing protocol based on a structured monitoring sheet for atropine infusion with another hospital using an ad hoc regime. During the study, 272 symptomatic patients with anticholinesterase poisoning requiring atropine were admitted to the three hospitals. Outcomes of death and ventilation were analyzed for all patients, 226 patients were prospectively assessed for atropine toxicity. At baseline, patients in the titrated dose cohort had clinical signs consistent with greater toxicity. This in part may be due to ingestion of more toxic organophosphates. They received less pralidoxime and atropine, and were less likely to develop features of atropine toxicity, such as delirium (1% vs. 17%), hallucinations (1% vs. 35%), or either (1% vs. 35%) and need for patient restraint (3% vs. 48%) compared with the ad hoc dose regime. After adjusting for the pesticides ingested, there was no difference in mortality and ventilatory rates between protocols. Ad hoc high dose atropine regimens are associated with more frequent atropine toxicity without any obvious improvement in patient outcome compared with doses titrated to clinical effect. Atropine doses should be titrated against response and toxicity. Further education and the use of a structured monitoring sheet may assist in more appropriate

  20. Scavenging of photogenerated oxidative species by antimuscarinic drugs: atropine and derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Susana; Guardianelli, Carina; Tuninetti, Jimena; Molina, Patricia; García, Norman A

    2002-01-01

    The quenching ability of photogenerated oxidative species by some antimuscarinic drugs generically named atropines (e.g. atropine [I] eucatropine [II], homatropine [III] and scopolamine [IV]) have been investigated employing stationary photolysis, polarographic detection of dissolved oxygen, stationary and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser flash photolysis. Using Rose Bengal as a dye sensitiser for singlet molecular oxygen, O(2)((1)Delta(g)), generation, compounds I-IV behave as moderate chemical plus physical quenchers of the oxidative species. Correlation between kinetic and electrochemical data indicates that the process is possibly driven by a charge-transfer interaction. The situation is somewhat more complicated employing the natural pigment riboflavin (Rf) as a sensitiser. Compounds I and II complex Rf ground state, diminishing the quenching ability towards singlet and triplet excited state of the pigment. On the other hand, compounds III and IV effectively quench Rf excited states, protecting the pigment against photodegradation. Under anaerobic conditions, semireduced Rf (Rf(.-)) is formed through quenching of excited triplet Rf. Nevertheless, although Rf(.-) is a well-known generator of the reactive species superoxide radical anion by reductive quenching in the presence of oxygen, the process of O(2)((1)Delta(g)) production prevails over superoxide radical generation, due to the relatively low rate constants for the quenching of triplet Rf by the atropines (in the order of 10(7) M(-1)s(-1) for compounds III and IV) in comparison to the rate constant for the quenching by ground state oxygen, approximately two orders of magnitude higher, yielding O(2)((1)Delta(g)). Compound I is the most promising O(2)((1)Delta(g)) physical scavenger, provided that it exhibits the higher value for the overall quenching rate constant and only 11% of the quenching process leads to its own chemical damage.

  1. Atropine and ODQ antagonize tetanic fade induced by L-arginine in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Cruciol-Souza

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO released from sodium nitrite induces tetanic fade in the cat neuromuscular preparations, the effect of L-arginine on tetanic fade and its origin induced by NO have not been studied in these preparations. Furthermore, atropine reduces tetanic fade induced by several cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs in these preparations, whose mechanism is suggested to be mediated by the interaction of acetylcholine with inhibitory presynaptic muscarinic receptors. The present study was conducted in cats to determine the effects of L-arginine alone or after pretreatment with atropine or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ on neuromuscular preparations indirectly stimulated at high frequency. Drugs were injected into the middle genicular artery. L-arginine (2 mg/kg and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 16 µg/kg induced tetanic fade. The Nw-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 2 mg/kg alone did not produce any effect, but reduced the tetanic fade induced by L-arginine. D-arginine (2 mg/kg did not induce changes in tetanic fade. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine or SNAP was reduced by previous injection of atropine (1.0 µg/kg or ODQ (15 µg/kg. ODQ alone did not change tetanic fade. The data suggest that the NO-synthase-GC pathway participates in the L-arginine-induced tetanic fade in cat neuromuscular preparations. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine probably depends on the action of NO at the presynaptic level. NO may stimulate guanylate cyclase increasing acetylcholine release and thereby stimulating presynaptic muscarinic receptors.

  2. Oxime and atropine failure to prevent intermediate syndrome development in acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intermediate syndrome (IMS was described a few decades ago, however, there is still a controversy regarding its exact etiology, risk factors, diagnostic parameters and required therapy. Considering that acute poisonings are treated in different types of medical institutions this serious complication of organophosphate insecticide (OPI poisoning is frequently overlooked. The aim of this paper was to present a case of IMS in organophosphate poisoning, which, we believe, provides additional data on the use of oxime or atropine. Case report. After a well-resolved cholinergic crisis, the patient developed clinical presentation of IMS within the first 72 h from deliberate malathion ingestion. The signs of IMS were weakness of proximal limb muscles and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves, followed by the weakness of respiratory muscles and serious respiratory insufficiency. Malathion and its active metabolite were confirmed by analytical procedure (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pralidoxime methylsulphate, adiministered as a continuous infusion until day 8 (total dose 38.4 g, and atropine until the day 10 (total dose 922 mg did not prevent the development of IMS, hence the mechanical ventilation that was stopped after 27 h had to be continued until the day 10. Conclusion. Continuous pralidoxime methylsulphate infusion with atropine did not prevent the development of IMS, most likely due to the delayed treatment and insufficient oxime dose but also because of chemical structure and lipophilicity of ingested OPI. A prolonged intensive care monitoring and respiratory care are the key management for the intermediate syndrome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 176018, No. 46009

  3. Atropine Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye examinations to dilate (open) the pupil, the black part of the eye through which you see. ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the ointment. Avoid ...

  4. Atropine-induced non-sustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardia: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Aydın

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 40 years old male with history of unexplained recurrent presyncope and palpitation episodes referred to cardiology department. Patient had no past medical history. Subsequently, electrophysiology study was performed to detect any underlying atrioventricular nodal disease or inducible tachyarrhythmias. During this period, 1.0 mg of atropine was injected intravenously to performed stimulation and patient suddenly developed polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that could not be terminated with overdrive pacing. Ventricular tachycardia was terminated spontaneously, two minutes later. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 449-451

  5. Atropine’s Effects upon the Heart and Its Systemic Output,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    efficiency in terms of oxygen utilization diminished from about 28% to 21%. At the same time as Gorlin and associates initially described the excess...studies of Gorlin and Scott’s groups represent the only attempts, to date, to define the metabolic cost to the heart due to atropine. Unfortunately, neither...toxicity and effectiveness in anticholines- terase therapy. J.A.M.A. 159:1181-1184, 1959. 121. GORLIN , R., M.H. SMITH, and H.P. FLETCHER. Studies on the

  6. Protective effect induced by atropine, carbamates, and 2-pyridine aldoxime methoiodide Artemia salina larvae exposed to fonofos and phosphamidon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Barahona, M; Sánchez-Fortún, Sebastián

    2007-01-01

    The acute toxicity of fonofos and phosphamidon on three age classes of Artemia salina was evaluated. An increase in toxicity of these organophosphorous (OP) insecticides was found following longer development of A. salina. The effects of pretreatment with the nonselective muscarinic antagonist atropine, the two reversible acetylcholinesterease inhibitors physostigmine and pyridostigmine, and the cholinesterase-reactivating oxime 2-pyridine aldoxime methoiodide (2-PAM), as individual and combined pretreatments, on OP-induced lethality in 24 h Artemia were also investigated. The lethal action of both OP insecticides was prevented by pretreatment of 24 h Artemia with atropine and 2-PAM, while physostigmine proved ineffective against intoxication with both OP insecticides and pyridostigmine exhibited a low synergic effect. In both cases, the inhibitory effects of combinations of atropine (10(-5)M) plus 2-PAM were greater than those elicited by either drug alone, with the maximum protection afforded being 100%. Combined pretreatment of atropine (10(-5)M) plus physostigmine practically abolished the lethal effects induced by both insecticides. Pretreatment with 2-PAM (10(-6)M) plus physostigmine afforded maximal protection of 100% and 76% on the lethality induced by fonofos and phosphamidon, respectively. The data obtained suggest that the combination of atropine plus 2-PAM or physostigmine and the combined pretreatment of 2-PAM plus physostigmine are effective in the prevention of the lethal effects induced by fonofos and phosphamidon in A. salina larvae.

  7. Involvement of GABA transporters in atropine-treated myopic retina as revealed by iTRAQ quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barathi, Veluchamy A; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Poidinger, Michael; Koh, Siew Kwan; Tian, Dechao; Ho, Candice; Iuvone, P Michael; Beuerman, Roger W; Zhou, Lei

    2014-11-07

    Atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, is known to inhibit myopia progression in several animal models and humans. However, the mode of action is not established yet. In this study, we compared quantitative iTRAQ proteomic analysis in the retinas collected from control and lens-induced myopic (LIM) mouse eyes treated with atropine. The myopic group received a (-15D) spectacle lens over the right eye on postnatal day 10 with or without atropine eye drops starting on postnatal day 24. Axial length was measured by optical low coherence interferometry (OLCI), AC-Master, and refraction was measured by automated infrared photorefractor at postnatal 24, 38, and 52 days. Retinal tissue samples were pooled from six eyes for each group. The experiments were repeated twice, and technical replicates were also performed for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. MetaCore was used to perform protein profiling for pathway analysis. We identified a total of 3882 unique proteins with retina proteome reported to date. Thirty proteins were found to be up-regulated (ratio for myopia/control > global mean ratio + 1 standard deviation), and 28 proteins were down-regulated (ratio for myopia/control retinas. Pathway analysis using MetaCore revealed regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the myopic eyes. Detailed analysis of the quantitative proteomics data showed that the levels of GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) were elevated in myopic retina and significantly reduced after atropine treatment. These results were further validated with immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. In conclusion, this study provides a comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis of atropine-treated mouse retina and suggests the involvement of GABAergic signaling in the antimyopic effects of atropine in mouse eyes. The GABAergic transmission in the neural retina plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of axial eye growth in mammals.

  8. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures.

  9. Leaching of zinc compound from rubber stoppers into the contents of automatic atropine injectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellin, R I; Kaminskis, A; Zvirblis, P; Sultan, W E; Shutz, M B; Matthews, R

    1985-07-01

    This report describes how a material within the cartridge of an automatic injector contaminated its contents. On prolonged storage, a formulation that contained atropine produced lethality in mice. The toxic material originated from zinc compounds that were present in the rubber stopper and plunger of the container and that subsequently leached into the formulation. The contents of cartridges that contained greater than or equal to 0.75 mg/mL of solubilized zinc were lethal to at least 20% of the mice tested; those that contained 0.42 mg/mL showed no lethality. The problem resulted from the physicochemical properties of the rubber, not the concentration of zinc used in the vulcanization process.

  10. Quantitative coronary angiography in the estimation of the functional significance of coronary stenosis: correlations with dobutamine-atropine stress test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.P. Baptista da Silva (José); M. Arnese (Mariarosaria); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); D.T.J. Keane (David); J. Escaned (Javier); C. di Mario (Carlo); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); H. Boersma (Eric)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of quantitative coronary angiography in the assessment of the functional significance of coronary stenosis as judged from the development of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities during dobutamine-atropine s

  11. NEUROMUSCULAR AND CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF NEOSTIGMINE AND METHYL-ATROPINE ADMINISTERED AT DIFFERENT DEGREES OF ROCURONIUM-INDUCED NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBROEK, L; PROOST, JH; WIERDA, JMKH; NJOO, MD; HENNIS, PJ

    1994-01-01

    The neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of neostigmine, 40 mug kg-1, and methyl-atropine, 7 mug kg-1, administered at different degrees of rocuronium-induced (600 mug kg-1) neuromuscular block were evaluated. In one group of patients spontaneous recovery was awaited (Group A; n = 20). Neostigmi

  12. Clinical analysis of acute organophosphate poisoning using atropine and penehyclidine hydrochloride atropine about 80 cases%急性有机磷中毒使用长托宁和阿托品临床80例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 王正康; 牟丽琴

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨在急性有机磷中毒时使用长托宁(盐酸戊乙奎醚)对阿托品剂量、时间使用的影响.方法 将我院自2003~2009年共收治80例急性有机磷中毒患者分为对照组和治疗组.治疗组为阿托品、碘解磷定加长托宁,对照组为常规使用使用阿托品、碘解磷定组,分析两组患者阿托品用量、维持时间及病死率.结果 长托宁可以使轻、中、重急性有机磷中毒患者减少阿托品用药总量,治疗组分别为15、76、101mg,对照组分别为43、83、840mg减少阿托品用药次数,治疗组分别为:15、23、30次,对照组分别为:20、35、94次,缩短阿托品化时间,治疗组分别为:1.5、3、5h,对照组分别为:3、5、8h,缩短治愈时间:治疗组分别为:3、4、5d,对照组分别为:4、5、6d,两组比较差异有统计学意义.结论 急性有机磷中毒配合使用长托宁,减少阿托品使用总量及维持时间,并且不易发生反跳,病死率降低,长托宁是一种比阿托品效果好、不良反应少的新型抗胆碱能药.%To explore in acute organophosphate poisoning "to use long temple, use of atropine doses. Methods From 2003 -2009 1995,23 cases of acute organophosphate poisoning 80 cases of patients in the control group and divided into treatment group, the treatment group for atropine and recent iodine, torre for extended for routine use of atropine in recent, iodine, analyzes two groups for group patients maintain time and atropine, mortality. Results Torre would make long mild, moderate, and severe acute organophosphale poisoning patients reduce total drug treatment group and atropine 15mg respectively, 76mg, l0lmg, respectively, in 43mg83mg, 840mg reduce atropine, drug treatment group is respectively: 15 times, 23 times, 30 times, respectively is; 20 times, 35, 94, shorten the time of atropine, the treatment group is respectively: 1.5h 5h and control, 3h, respectively, the 5h and 8h: 3h, shorten the time: treatment group cure

  13. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manganelli, Fiore; Sauro, Rosario; Di Lorenzo, Emilio; Rosato, Giuseppe [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Department of Cardiology and Heart Surgery, Avellino (Italy); Spadafora, Marco; Varrella, Paola; Peluso, Giuseppina [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Avellino (Italy); Daniele, Stefania [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); Cuocolo, Alberto [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, Naples (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR ({>=}85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  14. Use of atropine to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cohort study included children with esotropia and hypermetropia of ≥ +2.0 diopters (D. The deviation was measured at presentation, under atropine cycloplegia and 3 months after full refractive correction. Of 44 children with a mean age of 5.2 ± 2.4 years, 25 were males. Eighteen (41% had fully refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE, 10 (23% had partial accommodative esotropia (PAE, and 5 (11% had nonaccommodative esotropia (NAE. Eleven (25% had convergence excess (CE. Under cycloplegia, all with RAE and RAE with CE had orthotropia. There was no significant change in the deviation in the patients with NAE. The deviation under cycloplegia and that with full refractive correction in PAE and PAE with CE (with +3.0 D addition were not different. The intraclass correlation coefficient for deviation under cycloplegia and after full refractive correction (+3.0 D addition for CE was 0.89. It was concluded that ocular deviation under cycloplegia can help to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia.

  15. Sedation of children for auditory brainstem response using ketamine-midazolam-atropine combination - a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocskai, Tímea; Németh, Adrienne; Bogár, Lajos; Pytel, József

    2013-12-01

    Authors investigated sedation quality in children for auditory brainstem response testing. Two-hundred and seventy-six sedation procedures were retrospectively analyzed using recorded data focusing on efficacy of sedation and complications. Intramuscular ketamine-midazolam-atropine combination was administered on sedation preceded by narcotic suppository as pre-medication. On using the combination vital parameters remained within normal range, the complication rate was minimal. Pulse rate, arterial blood pressure and pulse oxymetry readings were stable, hypoventilation developed in 4, apnoea in none of the cases, post-sedation agitation occurred in 3 and nausea and/or vomiting in 2 cases. Repeated administration of narcotic agent was necessary in a single case only. Our practice is suitable for the sedation assisting hearing examinations in children. It has no influence on the auditory brainstem testing, the conditions necessary for the test can be met entirely with minimal side-effects. Our practice provides a more lasting sedation time in children during the examination hence there is no need for the repetition of the narcotics.

  16. Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) extract exhibits atropine-sensitive activity in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Satin; Long, Shannon R; Proteau, Philip J; Filtz, Theresa M

    2009-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) plant extract is used as a herbal alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was shown that hawthorn extract preparations caused negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay, independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of hawthorn extract to decrease the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis that hawthorn is acting via muscarinic receptors, the effect of hawthorn extract on atrial versus ventricular cardiomyocytes in culture was evaluated. As would be expected for activation of muscarinic receptors, hawthorn extract had a greater effect in atrial cells. Atrial and/or ventricular cardiomyocytes were then treated with hawthorn extract in the presence of atropine or himbacine. Changes in the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes revealed that both muscarinic antagonists significantly attenuated the negative chronotropic activity of hawthorn extract. Using quinuclidinyl benzilate, L-[benzylic-4,4'-(3)H] ([(3)H]-QNB) as a radioligand antagonist, the effect of a partially purified hawthorn extract fraction to inhibit muscarinic receptor binding was quantified. Hawthorn extract fraction 3 dose-dependently inhibited [(3)H]-QNB binding to mouse heart membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that decreased contraction frequency by hawthorn extracts in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes may be mediated via muscarinic receptor activation.

  17. Percutaneous exposure to the nerve agent VX: Efficacy of combined atropine, obidoxime and diazepam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Marloes J A; van der Schans, Marcel J; van Helden, Herman P M

    2010-10-06

    The nerve agent VX is most likely to enter the body via liquid contamination of the skin. After percutaneous exposure, the slow uptake into the blood, and its slow elimination result in toxic levels in plasma for a period of several hours. Consequently, this has implications for the development of toxic signs and for treatment onset. In the present study, clinical signs, toxicokinetics and effects on respiration, electroencephalogram and heart rate were investigated in hairless guinea pigs after percutaneous exposure to 500 microg/kg VX. We found that full inhibition of AChE and partial inhibition of BuChE in blood were accompanied by the onset of clinical signs, reflected by a decline in respiratory minute volume, bronchoconstriction and a decrease in heart rate. Furthermore, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a single dose of atropine, obidoxime and diazepam, administered at appearance of first clinical signs, versus that of repetitive dosing of these drugs on the reappearance of signs. A single shot treatment extended the period to detrimental physiological decline and death for several hours, whereas repetitive administration remained effective as long as treatment was continued. In conclusion, percutaneous VX poisoning showed to be effectively treatable when diagnosed on time and when continued over the entire period of time during which VX, in case of ineffective decontamination, penetrates the skin.

  18. Isolation of atropine and scopolamine from plant material using liquid-liquid extraction and EXtrelut(®) columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śramska, Paula; Maciejka, Artur; Topolewska, Anna; Stepnowski, Piotr; Haliński, Łukasz P

    2017-02-01

    Tropane alkaloids are toxic secondary metabolites produced by Solanaceae plants. Among them, plants from Datura genus produce significant amounts of scopolamine and hyoscyamine; the latter undergoes racemization to atropine during isolation. Because of their biological importance, toxic properties and commonly reported food and animal feed contamination by different Datura sp. organs, there is a constant need for reliable methods for the analysis of tropane alkaloids in many matrices. In the current study, three extraction and sample-clean up procedures for the determination of scopolamine and atropine in plant material were compared in terms of their effectiveness and repeatability. Standard liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and EXtrelut(®) NT 3 columns were used for the sample clean-up. Combined ultrasound-assisted extraction and 24h static extraction using ethyl acetate, followed by multiple LLE steps was found the most effective separation method among tested. However, absolute extraction recovery was relatively low and reached 45-67% for atropine and 52-73% for scopolamine, depending on the compound concentration. The same method was also the most effective one for the isolation of target compounds from Datura stramonium leaves. EXtrelut(®) columns, on the other hand, displayed relatively low effectiveness in isolating atropine and scopolamine from such a complex matrix and hence could not be recommended. The most effective method was also applied to the extraction of alkaloids from roots and stems of D. stramonium. Quantitative analyses were performed using validated method based on gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Based on the results, the importance of the proper selection of internal standards in the analysis of tropane alkaloids was stressed out.

  19. Analysis of Atropine test in 97 cases%阿托品试验97例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽红; 曲鹏

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To discuss the clinical value of atropine test on the suspected sick sinus syndrome (SSS) cases.[ Method] Atropine test was performed in 97 patients with suspected SSS who had sinus bradycardia. Transesophageal atrial pacing (TAP) in the positive ones was used to confirm the diagnosis of SSS. [ Results] Among the 97 cases,there were 78whose fastest heart rates were less than 90 beats per minute. Positive rate was 80.4%. And according to the TAP, it was indicated that there were totally 70 SSS sufferers in those 78 cases. The percentage of conformity was 89.7%. [ Conclusion]Atropine test is a simple method and it is better to choose the suspected SSS sufferers that have sinus bradycardia for atropine test so that to raise the percentage of diagnosis.%[目的]探讨对疑有病态窦房结综合征(sick sinus syndrome,SSS)患者行阿托品试验的临床价值.[方法]对97例疑有SSS的窦性心动过缓患者做阿托品试验,其中阳性者行食管心房调搏检查以进一步明确SSS之诊断.[结果]97例中78例最快心率<90次/min,阳性率80.4%;78例行食管心房调搏提示SSS 70例,符合率89.7%.[结论]阿托品试验方法简便,应用于疑有SSS的窦性心动过缓患者可提高对SSS的检出率.

  20. Comparative efficacy of diazepam and avizafone against sarin-induced neuropathology and respiratory failure in guinea pigs: influence of atropine dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taysse, L; Calvet, J-H; Buée, J; Christin, D; Delamanche, S; Breton, P

    2003-06-30

    This investigation compared the efficacy of diazepam and the water-soluble prodiazepam-avizafone-in sarin poisoning therapy. Guinea pigs, pretreated with pyridostigmine 0.1 mg/kg, were intoxicated with 4LD(50) of sarin (s.c. route) and 1 min after intoxication treated by intramuscular injection of atropine (3 or 33.8 mg/kg), pralidoxime (32 mg/kg) and either diazepam (2 mg/kg) or avizafone (3.5 mg/kg). EEG and pneumo-physiological parameters were simultaneously recorded. When atropine was administered at a dose of 3 mg/kg, seizures were observed in 87.5% of the cases; if an anticonvulsant was added (diazepam (2 mg/kg) or avizafone (3.5 mg/kg)), seizure was prevented but respiratory disorders were observed. At 33.8 mg/kg, atropine markedly increased the seizure threshold and prevented early respiratory distress induced by sarin. When diazepam was administered together with atropine, seizures were not observed but 62.5% of the animals displayed respiratory difficulties. These symptoms were not observed when using avizafone. The pharmacokinetic data showed marked variation of the plasma levels of atropine and diazepam in different antidote combination groups, where groups receiving diazepam exhibited the lowest concentration of atropine in plasma. Taken together, the results indicate that avizafone is suitable in therapy against sarin when an anticonvulsant is judged necessary.

  1. Atropine-resistant depolarization in the guinea-pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater, R A; Holman, M E; Taylor, G S

    1981-07-01

    1. Junction potentials were recorded from the circular muscle cells of the guinea-pig ileum following transmural stimulation in the presence of atropine at 30 degrees C.2. Single stimuli produced a transient hyperpolarization, the inhibitory junction potential (i.j.p.). At high stimulus strengths the i.j.p. was followed by a post-stimulus depolarization (PSD).3. During repetitive stimulation the magnitude of the hyperpolarization decreased; however, at the end of the stimulus period the PSD was enhanced and often reached threshold for the generation of action potentials. Thus, the size of the PSD was not directly related to the degree of the preceding hyperpolarization.4. Hyperpolarization of the circular muscle cells was produced by the application of anodal current using large external electrodes. Rapid cessation of the applied current produced a transient after-depolarization which was shorter in time course than the PSD following the i.j.p. If the applied anodal current was reduced slowly (at a rate which mimicked the decrease in the hyperpolarization during repetitive nerve stimulation) no after-depolarization was observed.5. Conditioning hyperpolarization of the circular muscle cells reduced the amplitude of the i.j.p. The i.j.p. was reversed at membrane potentials greater than approximately -90 mV.6. The PSD did not appear to be due to the extracellular accumulation of potassium ions following the i.j.p. since the PSD persisted even when the i.j.p. was reversed.7. The neurotoxin apamin reversibly abolished the i.j.p. and unmasked a transient excitatory junction potential (e.j.p.) with a variable latency (350-900 ms).

  2. Determination of Atropine Sulfate in Human Urines by Capillary Electrophoresis Using Chemical Modified Electrode as Electrochemiluminescence Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Ru(bpy3 2+-based electrochemiluminescence (ECL detection coupled with capillary electrophoresis (CE was developed for the determination of atropine sulfate on the basis of an Eu-PB modified platinum electrode as the working electrode. The analyte was injected to separation capillary of 50 cm length (25 μm i.d., 360 μm o.d. by electrokinetic injection for 10 s at 10 kV. Parameters related to the separation and detection were discussed and optimized. It was proved that 10 mM phosphate buffer at pH 8.0 could achieve the most favorable resolution, and the high sensitivity of detection was obtained by using the detection potential at 1.15 V and 5 mM Ru(bpy3 2+ in 80 mM phosphate buffer at pH 8.0 in the detection reservoir. Under the optimized conditions, the ECL peak area was in proportion to atropine sulfate concentration in the range from 0.08 to 20 μg⋅mL−1 with a detection limit of 50 ng⋅mL−1 (3σ. The relative standard derivations of migration time and peak area were 0.81 and 3.19%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of atropine sulfate in urine samples of patients with recoveries between 90.9 and 98.6%.

  3. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Saleh Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Acute poisoning with organophosphorus (OP pesticides is a common method of suicide and entails considerable mortality in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and outcomes of a protocol for treatment of OP poisoning that included titrated incremental atropine as loading dose and slow infusion for maintenance.  Methods:In this prospective descriptive case series, definitive OP poisoned patients were enrolled in an adult medicine unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2006 to April 2007. Clinical examinations were done as soon as the patient entered the ward. Patient’s demographics, comorbid conditions and the occurrence of specific clinical outcomes including death, need for assisted ventilation and clinical complications were recorded. The patients were treated according to the protocol. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled over the study period. The median age of the study population was 22.5 years. Most patients were men (67.8%. The most common clinical presentation was miosis (58.9%. In total, 11 patients died (19.6%. Intermediate syndrome developed in 12 patients (21.4% and 6 of them died. Assisted ventilation was required in 16 cases (28.5. Patients with diastolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mmHg and/or GCS ≤ 10 were significantly less likely to survive (P = 0.02, 0.006, respectively. Moreover, early respiratory failure (P < 0.001 and the need for assisted ventilation (P < 0.001 were significantly higher among deceased cases. The mortality rate in this study was similar to previous studies. The frequency of atropine toxicity in the present study (1.8% was considerably lower than conventional regimen used in previous studies. Conclusion:Using the new protocol, lower rate of atropine toxicity developed in victims. Hence, the new protocol appears to be safer and its effectiveness should be further evaluated in case control studies in Bangladesh.    How to cite this article: Ahmed AS

  4. Visual hallucinations on eye closure associated with atropine toxicity. A neurological analysis and comparison with other visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C M

    1991-02-01

    Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium.

  5. Atropine sulfate for treatment of bradycardia in a patient with morbid obesity: what may happen when you least expect it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Michele; Veronese, Stefano

    2015-01-29

    A 74-year-old morbidly obese man was scheduled for surgical repair of an incisional ventral hernia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl, and maintained with desflurane. A second dose of fentanyl 0.2 mg, given before starting surgery, resulted in sinus bradycardia and mild decrease of arterial blood pressure. Atropine sulfate 0.5 mg was administered. One minute later, the ECG rhythm on the monitor changed to third degree atrioventricular block with a ventricular response rate of 40 beats/min associated with marked hypotension. Isoproterenol 0.02 mg reverted the atrioventricular block to sinus rhythm. Cardiac enzymes and ECG ruled out acute myocardial ischaemia. The surgical procedure and the recovery from anaesthesia were uneventful. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the fifth postoperative day. For the treatment of bradycardia atropine sulfate should be adjusted at least to lean body weight in order to avoid paradoxical heart rate response in patients with obesity.

  6. Sodium cromoglycate and atropine block the fall in FEV1 but not the cough induced by hypotonic mist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, R W; Collier, J G

    1984-01-01

    In a group of patients with mild asthma the inhalation of mist derived from ultrasonically nebulised distilled water caused an increase in cough and a fall in FEV1. Double blind administration for five minutes of sodium cromoglycate (from an original solution containing 30 mg/ml) or atropine (2 mg/ml) by inhalation from a Minineb nebuliser, 30 minutes before the mist challenge, caused a significant reduction in the fall in FEV1 (p less than 0.05), but not in cough, by comparison with the protection afforded by placebo (saline). In a second study the fall in FEV1 caused by the inhalation of distilled water was not significantly different from that seen in response to hypotonic sodium chloride (1.7 g/l, 58 mmol/l), but both produced a significantly greater fall than did a similar mist containing sodium cromoglycate at an original concentration of 10 mg/ml (58 mmol/l). The results show that both atropine and sodium cromoglycate can block the fall in FEV1 due to mist and that protection by sodium cromoglycate is immediate. These results suggest that sodium cromoglycate blocks the nervous reflexes concerned in the response to mist, probably in the afferent limb of the reflex. PMID:6437001

  7. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K

    2014-01-01

    -plate, and the formalin tests. The effects of co-administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, and the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were also investigated. Oxotremorine and epibatidine induced a significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effect...... in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests, respectively. The effects of oxotremorine and epibatidine were blocked by atropine and mecamylamine, respectively. In all three nociceptive tests, naloxone in combination with oxotremorine or epibatidine enhanced the antinociceptive effects of the drugs....... The present study demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors produces antinociceptive effects in the naked-mole rat. The reversal effect of atropine and mecamylamine suggests that this effect is mediated by cholinergic receptors. As naloxone increases the antinociceptive effects...

  8. Effect of a mixture of pyridostigmine and atropine on forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and serum cholinesterase activity in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B F; Gefke, Kaj; Mosbech, H

    1985-01-01

    Pyridostigmine 0.143 mg kg-1 (maximum 10 mg) and atropine 0.0143 mg kg-1 (maximum 1 mg) were administered i.v. to six healthy male volunteers. Peripheral venous blood samples were drawn for measurement of serum cholinesterase activity. Maximum inhibition of the enzyme was found 5 min after...... injection with a decrease to 27 +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM) of the original activity. Forced expiratory volume in the first 1s (FEV1) was measured at fixed time intervals for 90 min. No decrease in FEV1 was observed; on the contrary, there was a small increase. We conclude that atropine effectively antagonizes...

  9. Preclinical study comparing the antidotal effect of clonidine with atropine for the treatment of acute malathion poisoning in the albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresha K. R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries 2–3 million people are acutely poisoned by organophosphorus (OP pesticides every year. There is a pressing need for new affordable antidotes and in this context clonidine which has central effect (α2 agonist has been evaluated in the albino rats presenting with signs or symptoms of acute malathion poisoning. And compared with atropine for the acte malathion poisoning in albino rats. Methods: This was a preclinical study conducted on albino rats of either sex weighing 100-150 grams were randomly divided into 4 groups (6/group. Malathion was given at the lethal dose of 54 mg/kg body weight (BW by gavage to each group. Group 1: normal saline intraperioneal (i.p. Group 2: Post treated with atropine 1.5 mg/kg BW (i.p. Group 3: Pre treated with clonidine 1mg/ kg BW (i.p, 10 minutes priore malathion. Group 4: Pre treated with clonidine and post treated with atropine. The above groups were observed for straub tail, muscle fasciculation, piloerection, lacrimation, defecation/ urination; salivation, tremors, gasping and convulsion and were recorded at time 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after poisoning. The latency of onset of tremors, loss of righting reflex and tremors were recorded. Results were presented as percentage occurrence and Mean ± SEM. Repeated measure one way ANOVA and Fisher’s Least Significant Difference post hoc test for comparison between groups. P-value of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical significance. Results: The central effects namely straubs tail and whole body tremors are significantly improved compared to control and atropine with clonidine group (p<0.05. However convulsion shows improve in atropine alone and atropine with clonidine groups. The overall survival time has significantly increased compared to control and atropine and atropine with clonidine (P<0.05.Clonidine has not shown any effect on survival time. Conclusions: Clonidine has some central protective effect in

  10. Low level nose-only exposure to the nerve agent soman: Toxicokinetics of soman stereoisomers and cholinesterase inhibition in atropinized guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, H.P.; Trap, H.C.; Spruit, H.E.T.; Wiel, H.J. van der; Langenberg, J.P.; Jong, L.P.A. de

    1998-01-01

    In order to initiate a quantitative basis for the toxicology of low level exposure to nerve agents, the toxicokinetics of soman stereoisomers during nose-only exposure for 5 h to 20 ppb (160 μg/m3) of C(±)P(±)- soman in air were studied in restrained, anesthetized, and atropinized guinea pigs. The c

  11. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhote, Franck, E-mail: franck.dhote@irba.fr [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Peinnequin, André [Département Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); and others

    2012-03-01

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is

  12. Identification of atropine- and P2X1 receptor antagonist-resistant, neurogenic contractions of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Charles; Tasker, Paul N; Gallacher, Gemma; Westfall, Timothy D

    2007-01-24

    Acetylcholine and ATP are excitatory cotransmitters in parasympathetic nerves. We used P2X1 receptor antagonists to further characterize the purinergic component of neurotransmission in isolated detrusor muscle of guinea pig urinary bladder. In the presence of atropine (1 microM) and prazosin (100 nM), pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS) (0.1-100 microM) and suramin (1-300 microM) inhibited contractions evoked by 4 Hz nerve stimulation in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 of 6.9 and 13.4 microM, respectively). Maximum inhibition was 50-60%, which was unaffected by coadministration of the ectonucleotidase inhibitor ARL67156 (6-N,N-diethyl-D-beta,gamma-dibromomethyleneATP) (100 microM). The remaining responses were abolished by tetrodotoxin (1 microM). PPADS and suramin also reduced contractions to exogenous ATP (300 microM) by 40-50%, but abolished those to the P2X1 agonist alpha,beta-methyleneATP (alpha,beta-meATP) (1 microM). The P2X1 antagonists reactive blue 2, NF279 (8,8'-[carbonylbis(imino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)] bis-1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid), MRS2159 (pyridoxal-alpha5-phosphate-6-phenylazo-4'-carboxylic acid) (100 microM), and NF449 [4,4',4,4-(carbonylbis(imino-5,1,3-benzenetriylbis(carbonylimino)))tetrakis-benzene-1,3-disulfonic acid] (3 microM) abolished contractions to alpha,beta-meATP (1 microM; n = 4-5), but only reduced contractions evoked by 4 Hz nerve stimulation by approximately 40-60% (n = 4-6) and ATP by 30-60% (n = 4-7). However, prolonged exposure to alpha,beta-meATP (50 microM) abolished contractions evoked by all three stimuli (n = 5-12). PPADS (100 microM) and suramin (300 microM) reduced the peak neurogenic contraction of the mouse urinary bladder to 30-40% of control. At the same concentrations, the P2X1 antagonists abolished the nonadrenergic, purinergic component of neurogenic contractions in the guinea pig vas deferens (n = 4-5). Thus, P2X1 receptor antagonists inhibit

  13. Vasoespasmo coronariano induzido pela ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina Coronary spasm induced by dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. Bogaz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos caso de mulher de 45 anos de idade, com antecedentes de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e tabagismo, submetida a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina para investigação de doença arterial coronariana. No pico do estresse, a paciente apresentou dor precordial súbita e de forte intensidade. O eletrocardiograma de doze derivações revelou elevação do segmento ST nas derivações DII, DIII, aVF, V5 e V6 e depressão do segmento ST nas derivações DI, aVL, V2 e V3. Pela monitoração das imagens ecocardiográficas foi observado aparecimento de discinesia do septo inferior e acinesia da parede inferior do ventrículo esquerdo. O exame foi interrompido imediatamente, a paciente foi medicada e evoluiu com melhora da dor precordial e das alterações de motilidade segmentar. A angiografia coronariana revelou lesões coronarianas irregulares com menos de 50% de obstrução do diâmetro luminal. Trata-se de um caso de vasoespasmo coronariano induzido por estimulação alfa-adrenérgica durante a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina.This is the report on a 45-year-old female, with a history of systemic arterial hypertension and cigarette smoking, submitted to dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography for the investigation of coronary artery disease. At stress peak, the patient reported sudden, highly intense precordial pain. The 12-lead electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevation in DII, DIII, aVF, V5 and V6, and depression in DI, aVL, V2 and V3. Echocardiographic imaging monitoring showed dyskinesia of inferior septum and akinesia of inferior wall. The test was interrupted immediately. The patient was medicated and improved her precordial pain condition as well as wall motion abnormalities. Coronary angiography showed irregular coronary lesions with <50% luminal diameter obstruction. It is a case of coronary spasm induced by alpha-adrenergic stimulation during dobutamine-atropine stress

  14. Stability study of a new antidote drug combination (Atropine-HI-6-Prodiazepam) for treatment of organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, P; Wiberg, K; Granelli, I; Carlsson Bratt, I; Blanchet, G

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical stability of a new antidote combination for the treatment of organophosphate poisoning. The antidote combination was packed (enclosed) in two plastic compartments separated by a barrier film. One of them contained a powder oxime cholinesterase reactivator (HI-6-monohydrate 1-[[[4-(aminocarbonyl)pyridinio]methoxy]methyl]-2-[(hydro xyimino)meth yl]-pyridinium dichloride). The other contained an anticholinergic (Atropine) and an anticonvulsant (Prodiazepam or Avizafone (L-lysyl-N-(2-benzoyl-4-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-glycinamide dihydrochloride) drug in a liquid mixture. The plastic compartments were mounted in an autoinjector device to study the dissolution of HI-6 by ejection of the solution. Drug analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results obtained after 6 months show that this new antidote combination is stable. The amount of each antidote is unchanged during the study. Some known degradation products can be detected in small amounts. The autoinjector mechanism used, gives a complete dissolution of HI-6 powder in the liquid mixture throughout the study.

  15. Double-blind comparison of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate with oral meperidine, diazepam, and atropine as preanesthetic medication in children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Dresner, M C; Davis, P J; Kretchman, E; Siewers, R D; Certo, N; Cook, D R

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) as preanesthetic medication was compared with oral meperidine, diazepam, and atropine (MDA) in 40 pediatric patients scheduled to undergo repair of congenital heart defects. In a double-blinded manner, patients received a fentanyl lollipop (20-25 micrograms/kg) and a placebo oral solution (0.4 ml/kg) (n = 20) or a placebo lollipop and an oral solution (0.4 ml/kg) of meperidine (1.5 mg/kg), diazepam (0.2 mg/kg), and atropine (0.02 mg/kg) (n = 20). The patient's vital signs, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), as well as activity and apprehension scores were evaluated and recorded at baseline and at 10-min intervals. The patient's emotional status at the time of parental separation and at induction of anesthesia were also assessed. Side effects and onset of action were observed. After OTFC, onset of sedation was significantly faster than with the oral solution of meperidine, diazepam, and atropine. In both groups there was no significant change in heart rate. Although systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate showed statistically significant decreases, these changes were not clinically significant. The child's emotional status at the time of separation from the parents and during induction was similar in both groups. Side effects with OTFC were more frequent: nose itching occurred in 65%, body itching in 10%, and vomiting in 30%. Two patients (10%) in the OTFC-treated group became hypoxemic (SpO2 less than 90) and required supplemental oxygen. In the group receiving oral meperidine, diazepam, and atropine, 10% had mild facial pruritus and 5% complained of a dry mouth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Cases of organophosphate poisoning treated with high-dose of atropine in an intensive care unit and the novel treatment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ali; Celik, Muhammet Murat; Karcioglu, Murat; Tuzcu, Kasim; Erden, Ersin Sukru; Zeren, Cem

    2014-06-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is a life-threatening condition, which is being responsible for the symptoms due to cholinergic effects. Clinical status and blood levels of cholinesterase are used its diagnosis. While atropine and pralidoxime (PAM) appear as essential medications, hemofiltration treatments and lipid solutions have been widely studied in recent years. In this study, the importance of high-dose atropine therapy and early intervention and novel treatment approaches are discussed. Records of a total of 25 patients treated for organophosphate poisoning in the intensive care unit (ICU) between April 2007 and December 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Of the 25 patients, 14 (56%) were male and 11 (44%) were female with a mean age of 34.8 ± 17.66 years (range: 14-77 years). The patients were most frequently admitted in June (n = 4) and July (n = 4) (16%). Of the 25 patients, 22 patients (88%) were poisoned by oral intake, two (8%) by inhalation, and one (4%) by dermal route. Of them, 20 patients (80%) took organophosphates intentionally for suicidal purposes, while five (20%) cases poisoned due to accidental exposure. The scores of Glasgow Coma Scale of nine patients (36%) were below 8 point upon admission to hospital. The highest dose of atropine given was 100 mg intravenously on admission and 100 mg/h/day during follow-up. The total dose given was 11.6 g/12 days. A total of 11 patients (44%) were on mechanical ventilation for a mean duration of 5.73 ± 4.83 days. The mean duration of ICU stay was 6.52 ± 4.80 days. Of all, 23 patients (92%) were discharged in good clinical condition and one patient (4%) was referred to another hospital. This study suggests that atropine can be administered until secretions disappear and intensive care should be exerted in follow-up of these patients. In addition, in case of necessity for high doses, sufficient amounts of atropine and PAM should be available in hospitals.

  17. LC-ESI MS/MS quantification of atropine and six other antimuscarinic tropane alkaloids in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Harald; Binder, Tobias; Höchstetter, Hans; Thiermann, Horst

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and validated a quantitative liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) procedure for the simultaneous determination of seven natural and semisynthetic tropane alkaloids in plasma: atropine (d-hyoscyamine/l-hyoscyamine), cocaine, homatropine, ipratropium, littorine, N-butylscopolamine, and scopolamine. Plasma and serum samples were precipitated for deproteinization (recovery 88-94%), followed by reversed-phase-based liquid chromatography prior to positive electrospray ionization for detection by multiple reaction monitoring using a linear ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer. All analytes were quantified using cocaine-d3 as an internal standard suitable and reliable for robust, precise (coefficient of variation 2-13%), and accurate (87-122%) measurement within a linear range of 3 orders of magnitude (0.05-50 ng/ml plasma). The method was exemplarily applied to stability studies in phosphate-buffered saline, human serum, and rabbit serum. Each alkaloid was incubated separately and samples were taken at distinct incubation time points. Supernatants of diverse alkaloids at corresponding time points were pooled and subjected to simultaneous LC-ESI MS/MS quantification. This combinatorial analysis design allowed us to analyze the stability of samples with a drastically reduced number of chromatographic runs. In the presence of rabbit serum, all tropane alkaloids tested were degraded significantly within minutes to hours, with the exception of the stable semisynthetic compounds ipratropium and N-butylscopolamine. In contrast, in the presence of equal concentrations of human serum, no degradation was observed for any of the compounds, with the exception of cocaine. Relevant enzymes involved in enzymatic degradation are discussed.

  18. Comparing the preventive effect of 2 percent Topical Lidocaine and Intravenous Atropine on oculocardiac reflex in Ophthalmological Surgeries under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sajedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study aimed to determine preventive effect of 2 percent topical xylocaine on oculocardiac reflex in ophthalmological surgeries except strabismus, including retinal detachment and vitrectomy with scleral buckling under general anesthesia. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out on 150 patients aged 18-90 years undergoing ophthalmological surgeries under general anesthesia. Samples randomly divided into the experimental group (received four drops of 2 percent topical xylocaine instilled in desired eye and control group (received 0.5 mg atropine sulfate injection. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure of patients and baseline heart rate were recorded. They were compared regarding the incidence of bradycardia, heart rate less than 60 beats/minute, hypotension and blood pressure less than 90 mm/Hg. Data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20 using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results: The difference between two groups was not statistically significant regarding demographic and basic variables. The incidence of bradycardia in both groups was respectively (90.7 percent vs. 17.3 percent, heart rate less than 60 beats/minute (40 percent vs. 13.3 percent, hypotension (76 percent vs. 32 percent and blood pressure less than 90 mmHg was (28 percent vs. 8 percent. Accordingly, the differences between both groups were statistically significant (P > 0.001. Conclusions: The preventive impact of topical xylocaine upon oculocardiac reflex in ophthalmological surgeries such as retinal detachment and vitrectomy with scleral buckling under general anesthesia was less effective than that of atropine injection. Therefore, to avoid this reflex in high-risk patients, injecting atropine would be safer.

  19. Identification of low and high frequency ranges for heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses using pharmacological autonomic blockade with atropine and propranolol in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Rosangela; Janczak, Andrew M; Marchant-Forde, Ruth M; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy N; Matthews, Donald L; Dowell, Carol A; Hogan, Daniel F; Freeman, Lynetta J; Lay, Donald C

    2011-05-03

    Understanding autonomic nervous system functioning, which mediates behavioral and physiological responses to stress, offers great potential for assessing farm animal stress and welfare. Evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), using time and frequency domain analyses may provide a sensitive and reliable measure of affective states and stress-mediated changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic tones. The aim of this research was to define low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power spectral ranges using pharmacological autonomic blockade, and to examine HRV and BPV parameter changes in response to atropine and propranolol in swine. Ten, 13-week old, barrows (n=6) and gilts (n=4) underwent surgery to place an intra-cardiac electrode and a blood pressure catheter attached to a biotelemetric transmitter; pigs had a 3-week recovery period prior to data collection. Each pig was subjected to administration of 4 intravenous (i.v.) drug treatments: a control treatment, 3 mL of saline, and 3 blockade treatments; 0.1 mg/kg of atropine, 1.0 mg/kg of propranolol, and .1 mg/kg of atropine together with 1.0 mg/kg of propranolol. All treatments were delivered by injection in the jugular vein with a minimum of 48 h between individual treatments. Behavior, ECG and blood pressure data were recorded continuously for a total of 1h, from 30 min pre-injection to 30 min post-injection. For data analyses, two 512-beat intervals were selected for each treatment while the pig was lying and inactive. The first interval was selected from the pre-injection period (baseline), and the second was selected between 10 and 30 min post-injection. Time and frequency domain (power spectral density) analyses were performed on each data interval. Subsequent, LF and HF bands from the power spectral densities were defined based on general linear and regression analyses. The HRV and BPV were computed with a covariate (baseline) factorial analysis of treatment by sex

  20. 阿托品化定量管理在有机磷中毒患者护理中的应用%Application of the Quantitative Management of Atropine in the Nursing Care for Organophosphate Poison-ing Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立; 赵芳芳; 郑佳佳; 胡敏; 张玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨阿托品量化的优质管理,降低有机磷中毒患者出现阿托品中毒现象的概率。方法通过对阿托品化量表的使用,比较量表使用前后对照组和实验组出现的阿托品中毒现象及有机磷中毒反跳的发生率。结果阿托品化量表使用管理后,救治过程中阿托品中毒现象及有机磷中毒反跳现象的发生率,与量表使用管理前比较差异显著( P<0.05)。结论量表的使用管理不仅增强护理人员对患者用药观察的准确度,更减少患者阿托品中毒及有机磷中毒反跳的现象发生。%Objective To explore high -quality quantitative management of atropine and to reduce the risk of atropine poisoning in organophosphate poisoning patients .Methods To compare the incidences of the atro-pine poisoning and the bounce organophosphorus poisoning between the experimental group and the control group before and after using the atropine scale .Results There is significant difference in the incidences of atropine poi-soning and bounce organophosphorus poisoning before and after the use of the scale (P<0.05).Conclusion The use of the scale can not only increase the accuracy of medication observation , but also reduce the adverse reaction of atropine poisoning and bounce organophosphorus poisoning .

  1. 阿托品不同给药方式治疗有机磷中毒的疗效分析%Comparison of Different Methods of Administering Atropine in the Treatment of Organophosphate Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志; 何伟峰; 邹海军

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨临床救治有机磷中毒的患者使用阿托品时采用不同给药方式的疗效差异.方法:将我院在2007年6月~2010年10月收治的101例急性有机磷中毒的患者随机分为三组,I组患者给予阿托品人工静脉推注;II组患者先给予阿托品人工静脉推注,患者达到阿托品化后采用微量泵给药;III组患者直接使用用微量泵给药,比较三组患者的疗效和并发症.结果:II组患者和III组患者的疗效优于I组患者,并发症低于I组患者,p<0.05;III组患者阿托品化时间最长,与I组和II组比较,p<0.05.结论:采用阿托品人工静脉推注,待患者阿托品化再给予微量泵给药,其疗效较好,不良反应少,患者阿托品化更稳定,值得在临床推广使用.%Objective:Clinical treatment of patients with organophosphate poisoning atropine administered in different ways when the difference in efficacy.Methods:In our hospital in June 2007~October 2010 treated 101 cases of acute organophosphate poisoning were randomly divided into three groups, I group were treated with intravenous injection of atropine and artificial; Ⅱ patients are atropine artificial intravenous injection, the patient achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration; Ⅲ patients directly with micro-pump delivery, three groups of patients compared the efficacy and complications.Results:Group Ⅱ and Ⅲ patients were more effective than group I patients, complications than group I patients, p <0.05; Ⅲ longest of atropine in patients with Group Ⅰ and Ⅱ group, p <0.05. Conclusion:The use of artificial intravenous injection of atropine, atropine and then be given to patients with micro-pump delivery, the better effect, adverse reactions, patients with atropine is more stable, it is in clinical use.

  2. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Steven L., E-mail: stevenmiller17@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki, E-mail: vanderjaska@usuhs.edu [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Figueiredo, Taiza H., E-mail: taiza.figueiredo.ctr@usuhs.edu [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Prager, Eric M., E-mail: eric.prager683@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Almeida-Suhett, Camila P., E-mail: camilapalmeida@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Apland, James P., E-mail: james.p.apland.civ@mail.mil [Neurotoxicology Branch, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD{sub 50} of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD{sub 50}), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD{sub 50} soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after

  3. Cysteamine-colon and cysteamine-duodenum lesions in rats. Attenuation by gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole, sulphasalazine and methylprednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevic, Z; Balen, I; Aralica, G; Gjurasin, M; Komericki, L; Perovic, D; Ziger, T; Anic, T; Prkacin, I; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Lovric-Bencic, M; Mikus, D; Staresinic, M; Aralica, J; DiBiaggio, N; Simec, Z; Turkovic, B; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Sebecic, B; Ivasovic, Z; Boban-Blagaic, A; Sjekavica, I

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we showed cysteamine-duodenal lesions without gastric acid, since they were induced also in gastrectomized rats, as in naive rats, and they were inhibited by the novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as well as standard antiulcer drugs (i.e. cimetidine, ranitidine, omeprazole, bromocriptine, atropine). Therefore, as an advantage of considering cysteamine as a directly acting cytotoxic agent and mentioned agents as direct cytoprotective agents, the present focus was on the ulcerogenic effect of cysteamine and protective effect of gastroduodenal antiulcer agents outside upper gastrointestinal tract (i.e. in colon). Intrarectal administration of the cysteamine (200 or 400 mg/kg b.w) produced severe colon lesions (i.e. transmural inflammation with serosal involvement) in rats (30 min-72 h-experimental period), apparently distinctive from smaller lesions after non-specific irritant enema [diluted HCl solution, pH 3.8 (adjusted to pH of cysteamine solution (pH 3.8)]. All of the tested antiulcer agents were applied simultaneously with cysteamine enema (8 cm from the anus, in a volume of the 1.0 ml/rat) intraperitoneally (i.p.), intragastrically (i.g.) or intrarectally (i.r.). Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w.), given in either regimen, previously shown to have, besides others, a particular beneficial activity just in the intestinal mucosa, inhibited these cysteamine colon lesions (assessed after 30 min, 60 min, 180 min, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h following cysteamine in a dose of either 200 or 400 mg/kg i.r.). Cysteamine-colon lesions were also attenuated by standard antiulcer agents (mg/kg b.w.), given i.p., i.g., or i.r., such as ranitidine (10), cimetidine (50), omeprazole (10), atropine (10), together with methylprednisolone (1), and sulphasalazine (50, i.r.), assessed 30 min following application of 200 mg of cysteamine. Finally, standard cysteamine duodenal lesions (assessed 24 h after a subcutaneous application of 400 mg/kg of cysteamine) were

  4. 浅析抢救有机磷中毒次生阿托品过量%Analysis of secondary consequences of atropine overdose in the rescue of organophosphate poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑凤云

    2015-01-01

    目的:为了更好地避免有机磷中毒抢救中因应用阿托品过量产生的次生后果.方法:筛查出236例有机磷中毒患者中,因抢救有机磷中毒使用阿托品过量(中毒)的 32 例临床资料.结果:30 例病人经调整阿托品用量及积极综合对症治疗后最终痊愈出院,两例既往有糖尿病的患者因合并肺部感染死于呼吸衰竭.结论:正确地应用阿托品是抢救成功的关键.%Objective: To avoid the secondary consequences of atropine overdose in the rescue of organophosphate poisoning. Methods: The clinical data of 32 case treated with atropine overdose was selected among 236 cases of organophosphate poisoning. Results: 30 cases of patients after adjusting the dosage of atropine and active comprehensive symptomatic treatment eventually recovered and discharged, while 2 cases with diabetes combined with pulmonary infection died of respiratory failure. Conclusion: The correct application of atropine is a key to the success of the rescue.

  5. 血液灌流对硫线磷和硫酸阿托品的吸附作用%Adsorption effect of Cadusafos and Atropine sulfate by hemoperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雁君; 金永久; 武文华; 张建萍; 张雪梅; 闫慧芳

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study on adsorption effect of cadusafos and atropine sulfate by hemoperfusion.Method Hemoperfusions were performed for sheep blood samples with cadusafos and atropineby through imitated extracorporeal closed circulating perfusion apparatus.Residual cadusafos was determined by gas chromatography and residual atropine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography.Result Dose of adsorption agent was 0.5,1.0 and 1.5 g,respectively.Two hours after hemoperfusion with membrane coated activated charcoal,clearance rate of cadusafos in 3 groups all exceeded 90%.and clearance rate of atropine sulfate was 61.9%,84.9%,88.9%,respectively.One and a half hours after hemoperfusion with HA230 absorption resin,clearance rate of eadusafos in 3 groups all exceeded 90%,and clearance rate of atropine sulfate was 88.0%,97.2%,98.4%,respectively.Three hours after hemoperfusion with membrane coated activated charcoal,The concentration ratio of cadusafos and atropine sulfate in blood promoted to 10.1 times,and the ratio was 6.7 times after hemoperfusion with HA230 absorption resin.Conclusion It suggested that cadusafos were mostly removed from blood after 1.5~2.0hours hemoperfusion with membrane activated charcoal or HA230 absorption resin.The concentration ratio of cadusafos and atropine sulfate in blood will increased after hemoperfusion.%目的 定量研究血液灌流对有机磷农药硫线磷和其解毒药阿托品的吸附作用.方法 模拟临床血液灌流装置,对含硫线磷和硫酸阿托品的血样进行灌流吸附,分别用毛细管气相色谱法和高效液相色谱法测定硫线磷和硫酸阿托品的残留量.结果 吸附剂用量为0.5、1.0和1.5 g,包膜活性炭在灌流2.0 h后硫线磷的清除率均能达到90%以上,硫酸阿托品的清除率依次为61.9%、84.9%和88.9%;HA230树脂在灌流1.5 h后硫线磷清除率都达到90%以上,硫酸阿托品的清除率也依次高达88.0%、97.2%和98.4%;包膜活性炭灌流3.0h后,硫

  6. 阿托品联合奥美拉唑在急性胃炎治疗中的应用效果观察%Observation on the Results of Atropine Plus Omeprazole in the Treatment of Acute Gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬曼

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the application of atropine combined with omeprazole in treating acute gastritis.Methods72 cases of acute gastritis were divided into two groups,the treatment group used atropine therapy plus omeprazole,control group used omeprazole alone,compared efficacy and drug safety.Results Treatment group’total effective rate was 94.4%,significantly higher than 77.8% in control group(P<0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions in the treatment group and the control group were statistically significant. Conclusion Omeprazole and atropine in the treatment of acute gastritis have significant,and can reduce adverse reactions in patients after treatment.%目的:探讨阿托品联合奥美拉唑在急性胃炎治疗中的应用效果。方法将72例急性胃炎患者分为两组,治疗组应用阿托品联合奥美拉唑治疗,对照组单纯应用奥美拉唑治疗,对比2组疗效以及用药安全性。结果治疗组治疗总有效率是94.4%,高于对照组的77.8%(P<0.05);治疗组、对照组的不良反应发生率组间对比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论阿托品联合奥美拉唑在急性胃炎治疗中的应用效果满意,且可减少患者用药后不良反应。

  7. Atropine, Stress and Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    substance use and abuse and for fitness (exercise stress test) exactly as in the first-year studies. b.2 Research design The research design was A1...Physiological Correlates. New York: Plenum Press, 705-718. 20. Callaway, E. (1984). Human information-processing: Some effects of methylphenidate , age and

  8. 磷化铝中毒抑制大鼠胆碱酯酶及阿托品和氯解磷啶的作用%Cholinesterase inhibition by aluminium phosphide poisoning in rats and effects of atropine and pralidoxime chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivani MHrRA; Sharda Shah PESHIN; Shyam Bala LALL

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the cholinesterase inhibition and effect of atropine and pralidoxime (PAM) treatment on the survival time in the rat model of aluminium phosphide (ALP) poisoning. METHODS: The rats were treated with AlP (10 mg/kg; 5.55×LD50; ig) and the survival time was noted. The effect of atropine (1 mg/kg, ip) and PAM (5 mg/kg, ip) was noted on the above. Atropine and PAM were administered 5 min after AlP. Plasma cholinesterase levels were measured spectrophotometrically in the control and AlP treated rats 30 min after administration. RESULTS: Treaanent with atropine and PAM increased the survival time by 2.5 fold (1.4 h ±0.3 h vs 3.4 h±2.5 h, P<0.01) in9 out of 15 animals and resulted in total survival of the 6 remaining animals. Plasma cholinesterase levels were inhibited by 47%, (438±74) U/L in AlP treated rats as compared tocontrol (840±90) U/L (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: This preliminary study concludes that AlP poisoning causes cholinesterase inhibition and responds to treatment with atropine and PAM.

  9. Effects of atropine and penehyclidine with different opportunity combination on severe acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning%阿托品与长托宁不同时机联合对重度急性有机磷农药中毒疗效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张随玉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of atropine,penehyclidine with different opportunity combination on severe acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning (AOPP).Methods Eighty-nine cases of severe AOPP patients were divided into two groups randomly:began joint group (43 cases) and atropinization combination group (46 cases).The began joint group immediately treated with atropine,penehyclidine at hospital admission.The atropinization combination group combined atropine with penehyclidine to maintain atropinization state after reaching atropinization with atropine.Dynamically observe the changes of CHE activity,recorded the number of poisoning rebound,atropine poisoning,intermediate syndrome,death and atropinization time,length of stay,the clinical efficacy of two groups were analyzed.Results Compared with the begain joint group,in the atropinization combination group the time of atropinization,CHE activity resumed to 50% and hospitalization was obviously shortened [atropinization time:(54.6-± 18.3) min to (65.3 ± 23.1) min (P < 0.01),CHE activity resumed 50% time (4.2 ±1.9)d to (5.3 ±2.6)d (P<0.05),hospital stays:(15.1 ±5.6)d to (18.2 ±6.8) d (P<0.05),poisoning rebound,atropine poisoning incidence was lower poisoning rebound:2.1% to 13.9%,atropine poisoning:4.3% to 18.6% (P < 0.05).IMS incidence,mortality have no significant difference average,(P > 0.05).Conclusions After quickly reached atropinization with atropine,small doses of penehyclidine and the joint use of atropine maintain atropinization state treatment of severe AOPP can reduce the incidence of complications,patients smoothly through dangerous period,reduce hospital stays and cut down medical costs.%目的 观察阿托品、长托宁在不同治疗时机联合对重度急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)疗效的影响.方法 将89例重度AOPP患者,随机分为开始联合组(43例)及阿托品化联合组(46例),开始联合组在入院后即行阿托品、长托宁联合治疗,

  10. 小茴香提取物对胃肠动力障碍小鼠胃肠运动的影响%Efects of fennel extracts on gastrointestinal movement of atropine-induced gastrointestinal motility disorder in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕光寿; 秦明; 毛峰峰; 张琰; 刘兴友; 贺建荣; 杨鹏; 刘曼玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察小茴香精油及水提物(去油)对阿托品致胃肠动力障碍小鼠胃肠运动的影响.方法 选择昆明种小鼠随机分为空白对照组、阿托品模型组、小茴香水提物组、小茴香精油组、莫沙必利组.空白对照组、阿托品模型组均给予0.2 ml/10 g生理盐水灌胃;小茴香水提物组给予去油小茴香水提物(含小茴香75 mg/ml)0.2 ml/10 g灌胃;小茴香精油组以300 mg/kg精油灌胃,莫沙必利组给莫沙必利混悬液(含莫沙必利15 mg/ml)灌胃.连续3 d,禁食18 h后,于第4天空白对照组腹腔注射生理盐水,其他组腹腔注射硫酸阿托品注射液,以葡聚糖蓝(BD)2000为标记物,观察胃排空率和肠推进率.结果 小茴香精油组、莫沙必利组、小茴香水提物组处理后小鼠的胃排空率分别为(91.97±4.42)%、(90.26±5.81)%、(80.01±6.27)%、(72.88±9.13)%;肠推进率分别为(53.32±7.49)%、(53.02±9.13)%、(44.16±7.68)%、(37.52±6.19)%.小茴香精油组、莫沙必利组、小茴香水提物组对阿托品所致胃肠动力障碍小鼠的胃排空(P值分别为0.004、0.001、0.004)和肠推进(P值分别0.003、0.025、0.015)均有拮抗作用;小茴香精油组促进胃排空作用(P值分别为0.000、0.002)、肠推进作用优于小茴香水提物组(P值分别为0.001、0.001).结论 小茴香提取物可拮抗小鼠的胃肠动力障碍,小茴香精油是主要活性成分.%Objective To observe the effects of fennel essential oil and water extracts (distilled oil is not included) on gastrointestinal motility disorder caused by atropine in mice.Methods Kunming mice were randomly divided into blank control group, model group atropine, water extracts group, fennel essential oil group, mosapride group. Blank control group and model group atropine were orally administered with normal saline of 0.2 ml/10 g. Water extracts group was orally administered with Water extracts (75 mg/ml) of 0.2 ml/10 g. Fennel essential oil group was orally

  11. 利多卡因联合阿托品治疗分娩时宫颈水肿102例研究%Lidocaine and Atropine in the Treatment of 102 Cases of Delivery of Cervical Edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何健华; 李玉香

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨利多卡因联合阿托品治疗分娩时宫颈水肿的效果。方法将2010年5月至2013年4月在我院进行阴道试产时发生宫颈水肿的初产妇102例纳入实验组,采用利多卡因联合阿托品宫颈多点注射。以同期采用传统静脉注射地西泮治疗者100例作为对照组。对比两组在宫口全开时间、转剖宫产率、新生儿Apgar评分等方面的差异性。结果与对照组对比,我们发现实验组宫口全开时间较短,转剖宫产率较低,组间差异经统计学分析后认为有意义(P<0.05)。对比两组新生儿Apgar评分发现,组间差异统计学分析后认为无意义(P>0.05)。结论采用利多卡因联合阿托品治疗分娩时宫颈水肿具有满意的疗效,有助于缩短产程时间,增加阴道试产成功率,今后可将其作为阴道试产时宫颈水肿治疗的有效方案进行推广应用。%Objective Investigate lidocaine and atropine in the treatment of intrapartum cervix edema effect. Methods Choose 102 cases as experimental group, using lidocaine and atropine cervical multi point injection. Choose 100 cases as control group, injection of diazepam. Compared two groups in the palace mouth open time, turn the cesarean section rate, neonatal Apgar score etc. Results Compared with control group, experimental group palace mouth open for a short time, turn the cesarean section rate is low, differences had significant(P0.05). Conclusion Lidocaine and atropine in the treatment of intrapartum cervix edema has satisfactory curative effect, help to shorten labor time, increase the success rate of vaginal delivery, can be applied effectively for treatment of vaginal cervical edema in the future.

  12. 强效睫状肌麻痹剂环戊通能否替代阿托品%Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许江涛

    2012-01-01

    For a long time,atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China,while internationally,cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic.In recent years,1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country.This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedoophthalmiaters.According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs,the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children.However,the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So,for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old,all esotropia children,Am children,and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry.In this article,we also discuss the medication dosage,medication method,possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.%阿托品眼膏长期以来都是中国儿童验光主流使用的睫状肌麻痹剂,而国际上则普遍使用环戊通滴眼液作为一线的睫状肌麻痹药物.近年来,国内引了进1%盐酸环戊通眼液,这种快速强效的睫状肌麻痹剂已被国内小儿眼科医师所关注.一系列国内外自身对照药物疗效研究证实,环戊通的睫状肌麻痹效果接近于阿托品,能广泛应用于中国儿童验光前的睫状肌麻痹.尽管如此,其药物疗效仍略逊于阿托品,故对于7岁以内的远视儿童、所有内斜视儿童、混合性散光儿童及短期内视力下降需要排除调节性近视的儿童,验光前仍应常规使用阿托品眼膏行睫状肌麻痹.本文同时对环戊通眼液的用药剂量、用药方法、可

  13. 弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效%Efficacy of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘真; 陈玮; 刘玉岭; 赵梅

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia. Methods One hundred and twenty children (240 eyes with ametropic amblyopia) were grouped randomly, and the improvement of visual acuity and visual function between the two methods were compared. Results The differences in binocularvision improvement and stereopsis visual acuity of the two methods were significant(t=2.24,P<0.05).Conclusions Low level laser combined with atropine therapy seems to be superio to traditional treatment in binocularvision improvement and recovery.%目的 观察弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效.方法 120例(240只弱视眼)患儿随机分为治疗组(弱激光联合阿托品疗法)和对照组(传统治疗),比较两种方法对视力的提升效果及双眼视功能的改善情况.结果 弱激光联合阿托品疗法使弱视眼视力进步有效率及立体视锐度与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(t=2.24,P<0.05).结论 弱激光联合阿托品疗法更有利于患儿视力提升、双眼视力恢复.

  14. Comparative study of penehyclidime hydrochloride and atropine in treatment of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning%盐酸戊乙奎醚与阿托品治疗急性有机磷农药中毒疗效比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳霞; 杨贤义; 肖敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy of penehyclidime hydrochloride and atropine in treatment of a-cute organophosphate pesticide poisoning. Methods Totally 76 patients within six hours of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were randomly divided into penehyclidime hydrochloride group (re = 38) and atropine group ( n = 38 ),they were all combined with pralidoxime chloride,different doses of penehyclidime hydrochloride and atropine were given according to difference degrees of severity which was ranged in terms of cholinesterase value. The clinical efficacy of two groups was compared. Results The penehyclidime hydrochloride group,the poisoning symptoms time,cuative time and CHE recovery time were compared with that of the atropine group,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0. 01) ; The incidence rate of adverse reactions significantly less than that of the atropine group ( P < 0. 01). Conclusion Penehyclidime hydrochloride in treatment of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning is safer and more effective than atropine.%目的 比较盐酸戊乙奎醚与阿托品治疗急性有机磷农药中毒的临床疗效.方法 76例6h内有机磷农药中毒者随机分成盐酸戊乙奎醚组(38例)和阿托品组(38例),均配伍用氯解磷定,分别按照胆碱酯酶数值划分的轻中重度程度,给予不同剂量的盐酸戊乙奎醚及阿托品,比较两组患者的临床疗效.结果 盐酸戊乙奎醚组的中毒症状消失时间、治愈时间、CHE恢复时间与阿托品组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);并且不良反应的发生率明显比阿托品组低(P<0.01).结论 盐酸戊乙奎醚治疗急性有机磷农药中毒疗效确切,不良反应少,优于阿托品.

  15. The Clinical Study on the Effect of Tropicamide and Atropine Ophthalmic Solution in Mydriatic Refractometry for Children%托吡卡胺与阿托品对儿童散瞳验光效果的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李战梅; 黄海; 周李

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effect of tropicamide and atropine ophthalmic solution in mydriatic refractometry for children.Methods:Totally 260 cases (520 eyes) of ametropia children from 4 to 14 years without other eye disease were received optometry after using the tropicamide eye drops and 1%atropine sulfate,The results of optometry were compared by paired T-test.Results:There existed statistically significant difference between the hyperopia and myopia in 4 to 7 years old group,hyperopia in 8 to 11 years old group.But there were no significant difference between the myopia in 8 to 11 years old group,myopia and hyperopia in 12 to 14 years old group.Conclusion:Aged 8 years and older children with myopia and hyperopia in aged 12 years and above children could receive optometry after using the tropicamide eye drops.%  目的:对比托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对儿童散瞳验光的效果。方法:用托吡卡胺眼液和1%硫酸阿托品眼膏先后分别对4~14岁260例(520只眼),无其它眼疾,眼位正常的屈光不正儿童散瞳后进行电脑验光,采用自身配对t检验对两种药物验光结果进行比较。结果:4~7岁组远视、近视和8~11岁组远视两种药物散瞳验光所得结果差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:托吡卡胺散瞳验光方法适用于眼位正常的8岁及以上近视儿童和12岁及以上远视儿童。

  16. Catalytic activity of ruthenium(III) on the oxidation of an anticholinergic drug-atropine sulfate monohydrate by copper(III) periodate complex in aqueous alkaline medium - decarboxylation and free radical mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byadagi, Kirthi S; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T; Chimatadar, Shivamurti A

    2013-01-01

    Atropine sulfate monohydrate (ASM) is an anticholinergic drug, having a wide spectrum of activity. Hence, the kinetics of oxidation of ASM by diperiodatocuperate (DPC) in the presence of micro (10-6) amounts of Ru(III) catalyst has been investigated spectrophotometrically in aqueous alkaline medium at I = 0.50 mol dm-3. The reaction between DPC and ASM exhibits 1:2 stoichiometry (ASM:DPC) i. e., one mole of ASM require two moles of DPC to give products. The main oxidation products were confirmed by spectral studies. The reaction is first order with respect to [DPC] and [Ru(III)], while the order with respect to [ASM] and [OH-] was less than unity. The rates decreased with increase in periodate concentration. The reaction rates revealed that Ru(III) catalyzed reaction was about seven-fold faster than the uncatalyzed reaction. The catalytic constant (KC) was also determined at different temperatures. A plausible mechanism is proposed. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism were calculated and the thermodynamic quantities were also determined. Kinetic experiments suggest that [Cu(H2IO6)(H2O)2] is the reactive Cu(III) species and [Ru(H2O)5OH]2+ is the reactive Ru(III) species.

  17. Development of "Laser Ablation Direct Analysis in Real Time Imaging" Mass Spectrometry: Application to Spatial Distribution Mapping of Metabolites Along the Biosynthetic Cascade Leading to Synthesis of Atropine and Scopolamine in Plant Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowble, Kristen L; Teramoto, Kanae; Cody, Robert B; Edwards, David; Guarrera, Donna; Musah, Rabi A

    2017-03-21

    Methods for the accomplishment of small-molecule imaging by mass spectrometry are challenged by the need for sample pretreatment steps, such as cryo-sectioning, dehydration, chemical fixation, or application of a matrix or solvent, that must be performed to obtain interpretable spatial distribution data. Furthermore, these steps along with requirements of the mass analyzer such as high vacuum, can severely limit the range of sample types that can be analyzed by this powerful method. Here, we report the development of a laser ablation-direct analysis in real time imaging mass spectrometry approach which couples a 213 nm Nd:YAG solid state UV laser to a direct analysis in a real time ion source and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This platform enables facile determination of the spatial distribution of small-molecules spanning a range of polarities in a diversity of sample types and requires no matrix, vacuum, solvent, or complicated sample pretreatment steps. It furnishes high-resolution data, can be performed under ambient conditions on samples in their native form, and results in little to no fragmentation of analytes. We demonstrate its application through determination of the spatial distribution of molecules involved in the biosynthetic cascade leading to formation of the clinically relevant alkaloids atropine and scopolamine in Datura leichhardtii seed tissue.

  18. Medical Research and Evaluation Facility (MREF) and studies supporting the medical chemical defense program. Determination of the minimum effective pyridostigmine pretreatment dose in monkeys challenged with 5 x LD50 Soman and treated with atropine/2-PAM. Final report, 22 October 1992-31 August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.T.; Menton, R.G.; Kiser, R.C.; Hayes, T.L.; Matthews, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    This task was conducted to determine the minimum dose of pyridostigmine (PYR), and the associated level of erythrocyte acetycholinesterase inhibition (AChE-I), that provides protection from 5 X 48-br GD LD50 of untreated monkeys. Monkeys were injected im with GD and treated with 0.4 mg atropine (ATR) free base and 25.7 mg pralidoxime (2-PAM) per kg BW.

  19. Suppression of torsades de pointes by atropine

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    A 67 year old woman with a history of chronic atrial fibrillation presented with asthma cardiale. She took no medication and there was no family history of long QT syndrome. She was treated with furosemide, nitroprusside, acenocoumarol, and digoxin. Two days later excessively prolonged RR intervals, which were terminated by escape beats with a right bundle branch block morphology, suggested impending total AV block. There was also severe QT (0.48 s) and QTc (0.56) interval prolongation with b...

  20. 基于荧光光谱的硫酸阿托品拮抗中乌头碱毒性的机制研究%Atropine sulfate against toxicity of mesaconitine by fluorescence spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔力剑; 王建明; 霍坤; 黄芸; 窦玉红; 王鑫国

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the bonding of mesaconitine (MA) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the effect of atropine sulfate (AS) on its interaction. Methods Ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectra were used. Results MA had strong fluorescence quenching effect on BSA via a dynamic quenching procedure. The apparent bonding constant (Kb) and the number of bonding sites (n) of MA and BSA were increased with temperature rising. The predominant intermolecular forces between MA and BSA were hydrophobic interactions, which could make the MA-BSA bonding stabilized and the combined distance was 4.44 nm. The negative value of free energy change was taken as an evidence for the spontaneity of MA-BSA bonding. The synchronous fluorescence spectra indicated that protein microenvironment was changed by MA. AS decreased Kb and n, and inhibited the conformation change of BSA. Conclusion AS could act competitively with MA in bonding to BSA and increase the content of free MA. AS could accelerate the metabolism for detoxification by reducing accumulation in body.%目的 研究模拟生理条件下中乌头碱(MA)与牛血清白蛋白(BSA)的键合作用,以及硫酸阿托品(AS)对其相互作用的影响.方法 主要采用荧光光谱法及紫外吸收光谱法进行研究.结果 MA对BSA有较强的荧光猝灭作用,猝灭机制为动态猝灭.MA与BSA表观结合常数(Kb)和结合位点数(n)均随着温度升高而增大,二者之间的相互作用力类型主要为疏水作用,结合距离为4.44 nm,该反应是自发进行的.同步荧光光谱图的信息表明MA对蛋白微环境有影响.AS使MA和BSA的Kb和n均减小:抑制MA对BSA构象的改变.结论 MA与BSA能发生相互作用,AS与MA间存在竞争作用,能够增加游离型MA浓度,通过减少MA在生物体内的积累,加快代谢,发挥解毒作用.

  1. Effects of co-administration of aminophylline and atropine on bradycardia treatment in patients undergoing ;cardiac valve replacement%氨茶碱与阿托品联合应用对心脏瓣膜置换术患者心动过缓的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明涛; 周锦; 陈克研; 张铁铮; 王长英

    2013-01-01

    #目的探讨氨茶碱和阿托品联合应用在心脏瓣膜置换术中对患者心动过缓的治疗作用。方法选取在心脏瓣膜置换术中,体外循环停止、复跳5 min后发生心动过缓(心率<50次/min )患者90例,按美国麻醉师协会标准分级( ASA)Ⅱ~Ⅲ级,随机分为三组:A组30例,首次静注阿托品0.5 mg,无效则每5 min追加阿托品1 mg;B组30例,首次静注阿托品1 mg,无效则每5 min追加阿托品1 mg;C组30例,首次联合静注阿托品0.5 mg和氨茶碱0.125 g,无效则以相同剂量静注追加。观察并记录三组患者术中心律失常和术后恶心、呕吐等不良反应的发生情况,比较药物的平均作用剂量,分析三组的治疗有效率。结果三组患者ASA分级、体重、心功能等一般情况差异不显著( P>0.05)。 C组治疗有效率(90.00%)明显高于A组(46.67%)和B组(53.33%)(χ2=14.10,P<0.05)。 C组阿托品平均作用剂量为(0.86±0.17)mg,低于A组(1.83±0.12)mg和B组(1.79±0.45)mg(q=6.91、7.62,P均<0.05)。 C组不良反应发生情况明显低于A组和B组(χ2=4.05,P<0.05)。结论氨茶碱和阿托品联合应用对心脏瓣膜置换手术患者心动过缓具有很好的治疗作用,可有效地提高治愈率,降低毒副反应,提高麻醉安全性。%Objective To investigate bradycardia treatment effects of co-administration of aminophylline and atropine in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).Methods When five minute after stopping CPB , ninety patients with cardiac valve replacement were randomly divided into three groups:Group A:30 patients were infused intravenously 0.5 mg atropine in the first place .Atropine 1 mg would be added every five minute if ineffective .Group B:30 patients were infused intravenously 1 mg atropine in the first place . Atropine 1 mg would be added every five minute if

  2. Sulfato de atropina nos parâmetros hemodinâmicos e hemogasométricos de cães anestesiados com clorpromazina, dexmedetomidina e isoflurano Hemodynamic and hemogasometric in the atropine administration in dogs anesthetized with chlorpromazine and dexmedetomidine and isoflurane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Niederauer Flôres

    2008-08-01

    , at least 7 days apart, in randomized blinded manner. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in mechanical ventilation. After instrumentation, the end-tidal isoflurane was maintained at 1,3%V throughout the study. After a 30 minutes stabilization period (M -15, baseline hemodynamic parameters and arterial blood gases were recorded and atropine (atropine group or 0.9% NaCl (saline group were administered. Fifteen minutes later, data were recorded again (M0 and a chlorpromazine- dexmedetomidine (Chlor-Dex combination was administered. Variables were measured for an additional 65 minutes after Chlor-Dex. A one-way ANOVA-Student-Newman-Keuls was used for comparisons within groups, while a paired t test was used for comparisons between groups (P£0,05. Heart rate was higher in atropine group after Chlor-Dex administration. Cardiac index (CI was reduced from baseline after Chlor-Dex in both treatments. Although mean CI values tended to be higher in atropine group, CI did not differ between groups. Chlor-Dex administration caused increased arterial blood pressure in dogs treated with atropine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP was significantly higher in the atropine group from 5 to 65 min after Chlor-Dex. The systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI increased from baseline in both groups after Chlor-Dex administration. No significant differences were observed for arterial blood gases. Atropine administration prior to Chlor-Dex resulted in increased arterial blood pressure. Bradycardia induced by the administration of these drugs was prevented by the anticholinergic given, however decrease in cardiac output was not prevented.

  3. 阿托品试验联合24 h动态心电图对窦性心动过缓患者猝死风险预测价值分析%Value of atropine test combining 24 h Holter in predicting risk of sudden death in patients with sinus bradyarrhythmia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖世南; 余朝阳; 王文军

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究阿托品试验联合24 h动态心电图对预测窦性心动过缓患者猝死风险的效果分析。方法选取2011年2月~2015年3月于解放军第一医院接收的窦性心动过缓患者64例,所有患者均未安装心脏永久性起搏器,行24 h动态心电图检查,延长1 h给予阿托品静脉推注,记录患者最高心率变化,通过与24 h动态心电图所示最慢时间段心率结果分析,评估窦性心动过缓患者猝死风险。结果所有受试的窦性心动过缓患者中,最低心率<45次/min有21例,40~60次/min 43例。在延长检查1 h并接受阿托品激发试验后,以最大心率>85次/min为阴性,共42例,<85次/min为阳性,共22例,评估所有患者的猝死风险并进行分组,死亡13例,占20.3%,各组病死率有明显差异(P<0.05)。结论阿托品试验联合24 h动态心电图对窦性心动过缓患者猝死风险有明显预测价值,在1 h激发试验过程中,如患者最大心率低于85次/min即视为猝死高风险患者,需格外警惕,可通过安装永久性起搏器以降低其猝死风险。%Objective To study the effect of atropine test combining 24 h ambulatory electrocardiograph monitoring (Holter) in predicting risk of sudden death in patients with sinus bradyarrhythmia.Methods The patients (n=64) were chosen from the Department of Heart and Kidney of Chinese PLA First Hospital from Feb. 2011 to Mar. 2015, and all of them was implanted permanent pacemakers. The patients were given 24 h Holter for observing cardiac impulse, and injected intravenously atropine in extended 1 h. The changes of maximum heart rate (HR) were recorded particularly. The risk of sudden death was analyzed and reviewed through the outcomes of HR in the slowest period showed by 24 h Holter.Results Among all patients, there were 21 with HR85/min (negative), and 22 with the maximum HR<85/min (positive), which were taken for reviewing the risk of sudden

  4. 24h Holter monitoring combined with atropine test in predicting the risk of sinus Bradycardia leading to sudden death%24h动态心电图结合阿托品试验预测窦性心动过缓患者猝死风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾昌水

    2011-01-01

    目的 对窦性心动过缓(SN)患者作24 h动态心电图(Holter)检查,结尾时连接作阿托品激发窦房结试验,分析窦房结功能以进行猝死风险预测.方法 选择近4年来因各种原因未能安装心脏永久性起博器之SN患者43例,控制心功能在Ⅱ级以内,剔除房性、交界性和室性传导阻滞、Brugada综合征、J波综合征者.经24 h Holter检查延长1 h,静脉推注阿托品1.5~2.0 mg,记录1 h内最大心率变化,结合Holter最慢时间段心率判断SN患者猝死可能.结果 在43例SN患者中,Holter反应出最低时间的心率<45次/min有11例;40~60次/min有32例.在Holter结尾1 h阿托品激发试验中,最大心率<85次/min阳性,>85次/min为阴性,识别出猝死的高危、中危、低危人群.在此3组患者中总死亡人数为9例,占43例SN患者病死率20%,组间存在着不同的病死率.结论 窦性心动过缓患者最慢心率60次/min以下,Holter连接阿托品激发窦房结功能试验,1 h最大心率<85次/min为高危患者,4年内发生猝死可能性为83.3%,需安装永久性起搏器,以预防猝死发生.%Objective To analyze the function of sinus node (SN) and to predict sudden death by combined using of 24h dynamic electrocardiography (Holter) and atropine testing. Methods 43 patients with sinus bradycardia and without implantation of permanent pacemaker were selected for study. The cardiac function of all patients were ≤NYHA Ⅱ, excluding supraventricular and ventricular block, Brugada syndrome and J wave syndrome cases. The 24h Holter examination was taken with extension of one more hour. 1.5-2.0 mg of atropine were intravenously injected. The maximum heart rate within 1 hour was recorded. Combining with the slowest heart rate in Holter examination to forecast the sudden death possibility of SN patients. Results According to the results of Holter testing, there were 11 patientsˊ heart rate <45 bpm, 32 patientsˊ heart rate between 40 and 60 bpm

  5. Alterações cardiovasculares de gatos submetidos à toracotomia intercostal, pré-medicados com associação de tramadol, butorfanol e atropina e anestesiados com propofol e halotano Cardiovascular changes in cats submitted to intercostal thoracotomy, premedication with association tramadol, butorphanol, atropine, anesthetised with propofol and halothane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Tabarelli Brondani

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A toracotomia é um procedimento cirúrgico que produz estímulo doloroso intenso. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito cardiovascular da associação tramadol, butorfanol e atropina na medicação pré-anestésica de gatos anestesiados com propofol e halotano. Doze animais, SRD, machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 2,7 ± 0,62kg receberam como medicação pré-anestésica (MPA, a associação de tramadol (2,0mg kg-1, butorfanol (0,4mg kg-1 e atropina (0,044mg kg-1, via intramuscular. Trinta minutos após MPA, a indução foi realizada com propofol (5,0mg kg-1 por via intravenosa. A manutenção anestésica foi obtida com halotano e oxigênio 100% sob ventilação artificial manual. Os gatos foram submetidos à toracotomia intercostal para implante de um segmento autólogo de pericárdio no diafragma. As variáveis avaliadas foram: freqüência cardíaca (bpm, saturação de oxigênio da hemoglobina (%, pressão arterial sistólica (mmHg e vaporização de halotano (%. As variáveis foram mensuradas 20 minutos após a MPA (TMPA, 10 minutos após indução e a cada 10 minutos até o final do procedimento cirúrgico (T10 a T100.Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente através de ANOVA e teste de Bonferroni (pIntercostal thoracotomy is a very painful procedure that deserves proper prevention and treatment. In this study we aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effect of the association of tramadol, butorphanol and atropine in the premedication of cats anesthetised with propofol and halothane. Twelve cats of mixed breed, female and male, with mean body weight of 2.7 ± 0.62kg were premedicated with 2.0mg kg-1 tramadol and 0.4mg kg-1 butorphanol and 0.044mg kg-1 atropine combined in the same syringe intramuscularly administered. After 30 minutes of premedication, anesthetic induction was obtained with 5.0mg kg-1 propofol intravenously. Anesthetic maintenance was done with halothane and 100% oxygen with manual artificial

  6. Comparison of glucagon and atropine in enhancing detection of myocardial ischemia during dobutamine stress echocardiography%胰高血糖素和阿托品在多巴酚丁胺负荷超声心动图中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良龙; 罗育坤; 孙旭东; 洪华山; 陈春光

    2000-01-01

    Objective To compare glueagon and atropine in enhancing detection of myocardial ischemia during dobutamine stress echocardiography(DSE).Methods Dobutamine stress testing(DST)was performed in 11 pigs with 1.0 mg was added at the peak dose of dobutamine for combined pharmacological stress testing(DGST/DAST),respectively.Myocardial perfusion,regional lactate production and coronary venous pH,wall thickening,heart rate,and.systolic blood pressure were measured at each experimental stage.Results β-blockade significantlv inhibited ischemic responses during DSE,the effects of β-blockade on myocardial perfusion,metabolism and contraction were almost completely reversed by glucagon and partially by atropine.Conclusions DGST is superior to DAST in reversing β-blockade effects and enhances DSE in the detection of myocardial ischemia.%目的 探讨多巴酚丁胺负荷超声心动图(DSE)中β受体阻滞剂对心肌缺血的抑制作用,比较胰高血糖素和阿托品在逆转p受体阻滞剂效应及增强心肌缺血检测能力中的作用.方法 实验动物猪11只,结扎其左前降支造成冠脉狭窄模型.在此模型上行基础多巴酚丁胺负荷试验(DST),静滴Esmolol50μg/(kg·min)后重复DST汀,并在DST达到峰剂量时静脉推注胰高血糖素或阿托品各1.0mg分别与多巴酚丁胺进行联合负荷试验(DGST和DAB-F).观察三个实验阶段心肌灌流、代谢、收缩功能及血流动力学变化.结果 β受体阻滞剂明显抑制DST过程中的心肌缺血反应,DST几乎完全、DAST部分逆转β受体阻滞剂对心肌灌流、代谢、收缩和血流动力学的影响.结论 DGST逆转β受体阻滞剂对心肌缺血的抑制作用优于DAST,作为一种新的联合药物试验方法可增加DSE检测心肌缺血的敏感性.

  7. 参仙升脉口服液联合阿托品治疗心动过缓性心律失常疗效观察%Effect observation of Senxianshengmai oral liquid oral liquid and atropine in treatment of bradycardia arrhythmias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy and value of Integrative treatment of arrhythmia.Methods Totally 58 patients were randomly divided into treatment groups of patients bradyarrhythmia and the control group, control group given western medicine treatment of 29 cases of oral atropine 0.3mg,3 times/day treatment.Besed on atropine the treatment group of 29 cases were added Senxianshengmai oral liquid 20mi orally,2 times/day.2 weeks.Results The treatment group obvious effective 7cases,effective in 17 cases,5 cases ineffective,the total effective rate was 92.6% ;Control group 3 cases were markedly,effective in 13 cases,ineffective in 13 cases,55% of the total effective rate.Difference between the two groups was significant ( P < 0.01 ); Surface ECG and 24 - hour ambulatory ECG,the treatment group and control group,the total effective rate was 90% and 41% ,the total number of 24 - hour heart rate were( 89420 ± 4800)time and (63250 ± 3700)times, the difference was significant ( P <0.01 ).Conclusions Integrative Medicine bradycardia effective than western medicine.Some patients can be free from pacemaker and is worthy of promotion.%目的 观察中西医结合疗法治疗缓慢性心律失常的疗效及应用价值.方法 随机将58例缓慢心律失常患者分为治疗组及对照组,对照绀29例给予西医治疗,口服阿托品0.3mg,3次/d治疗.治疗组29例在采用阿托品治疗基础上加用参仙升脉口服液,每次20ml口服,2次/d.疗程2周.结果 治疗组显效7例,有效17例,无效5例,总有效率92.6%;对照组显效3例.有效13例,无效13例,总有效55%.两组差别有统计学意义(P<0.01);体表心电图和24h动态心电图,治疗组和对照组总有效率分别为90%和41%,24h心率总数分别是(89 420±4 800)次和(63 250±3 700)次,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 中西医结合治疗缓慢性心律失常的疗效优于纯西药治疗.可使部分患者免于安装起搏器,值得临床推广.

  8. Rapid Simultaneous Determination of Atropine, Anisodamine and Scopolamine in Huashanshen Dripping Pill by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry%HPLC-MS/MS法同时测定华山参滴丸中阿托品、山莨菪碱和东莨菪碱的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯媛媛; 李若洁; 彭佳敏; 王利强

    2010-01-01

    华山参滴丸是含有托烷类生物碱的中药制剂,主要用于治疗哮喘,具有很好的临床疗效,但缺乏较有效的定量方法控制其质量.建立了一种快速、简单、准确的HPLC-MS/MS法同时测定华山参滴丸中阿托品、山莨菪碱和东莨菪碱的含量.首先采用超声的方法对滴丸进行提取来制备样品溶液,然后采用C18色谱柱对样品进行分离.流动相为20 mmol/L醋酸铵水溶液:甲醇(70:30);流速为0.3 mL/min.质谱检测器采用电喷雾正离子模式的多重反应监测方式进行测定,整个分析时间仅耗时1.5 rain.阿托品和山莨菪碱在250~4 000 ng/mL范围内、东莨菪碱在62.5~1 000 ng/mL范围内均呈良好的线性关系(r2>0.999).三种成分的日内和日间精密度均小于3.0;平均回收率均大于98%.此方法快速、可靠、重现性好,适用于华山参滴丸的日常质量控制.%Huashanshen dripping pill,traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)preparation containing tropane alkaloids,is used for the anti-asthmatic treatment and has good clinical efficacy.But there is not an effective quantification method to assess the quality of Huashanshen dripping pill.In this study,a rapid,simple and accurate HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of atropine,anisodamine and scopolamine in Huashanshen dripping pill.After a simple extraction with sonication used for sample preparation,chromatographic separation was performed on a short C18 column with mobile phase of a mixture of 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate in water and methanol(70:30)at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min.The mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source(ESI)was operated in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring(MRM).The whole analytical run time was only 1.5 min and the calibration graphs exhibited a linear concentration range of 250~4 000 ng/mL for atropine and anisodamine and 62.5~1 000 ng/mL for scopolamine with correlation coefficients of

  9. 阿托品、荷包牡丹碱对家鸽(Columba livia)顶盖Ⅱa-f亚层与Ⅲ层神经元间突触传递的影响%Effects of atropine and bicuculline on synapse transmission between sublayer Ⅱa-f and layer Ⅲ in optic tectum in pigeons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余小平; 王彬

    2000-01-01

    目的:探讨阿托品(Atropine,ATR)、荷包牡丹碱(Bicuculline,BIC)对家鸽顶盖Ⅱa-f亚层与Ⅲ层神经元间突触传递的影响.方法:在孵育离体顶盖脑片标本上,采用脉冲方波电刺激Ⅱa-f亚层,利用玻璃微电极胞外记录技术记录Ⅲ层神经元放电频率.结果:Ⅲ层神经元对电刺激Ⅱa-f亚层有反应的28个单位中,13个单位(占46.4%)表现为增频,15个单位(占53.6%)表现为减频.表现为增频的13个Ⅲ层神经元中10个单位(占76.9%)的增频效应可被ATR部分或完全逆转,另3个单位的阻断效果不明显;15个被Ⅱa-f亚层刺激传入减频的Ⅲ层神经元,其中11个单位(占73.3%)的减频作用可被BIC阻断,另4个单位则不产生阻遏作用.上述药物的作用具有可逆性和重复性.结论:乙酰胆碱(Acetylcholine,ACh)可能参与了家鸽顶盖Ⅱa-f亚层与Ⅲ层神经元间兴奋性突触传递,而γ-氨基丁酸(Gamma-aminobutyric,GABA)则参与其抑制性突触传递.

  10. 食管心房调搏联合阿托品负荷实验在窦房结、房室结病变诊断中的临床应用价值%Clinical application value of transesophageal atrial pacing combined with atropine load experiment in the diagnosis of the lesions of sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛红宇; 李志军; 王其琼; 许明; 艾斯娅; 班新全; 李惠荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application value of transesophageal atrial pacing (TEAP) combined with atropine load experiment in the diagnosis of the lesions of sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node.Methods One hundred and forty-four cases selected from the outpatient and hospitalized patients in the People's Hospital of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture from September 2009 to December 2012,who with dizziness, syncope and other clinical symptoms and electrocardiogram showe.TEAP combined with atropine load experiment were given to these patients.Results (1) The authors detected in all patients,83 cases (57.6%) were positive, among which, 48 cases (57.8%) male, 35 cases (42.2%) female.(2) The authors detected 57 cases(39.6%) non-increased vagus nerve tension cases in 83 positive cases,among which 33 cases (57.9%) male, 24 cases (42.1%) female;Among which 29 cases (20.1%) were sinoatrial node hypofunction, and 16 cases(55.2%) male;8 cases(5.6%) were atrioventricular node hypofunction,and 4 cases(50%) male;14 cases(9.7%) were double node hypofunction, and 10 cases (71.4%) male;6 cases (4.2%) were tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome, and 3 cases (50%) male;among which, a long interval of greater than 3 seconds appeared when we stimulate one 84 years old man with S1S1 stimulate way, immediately pressed protective pacemaker until his own sinus rhythm was restored, as a safety precaution, stoped further examination and classified him as sick sinus group.Conclusion Detect the common causes of slow sinus and atrioventricular block,such as the sinoatrial node dysfunction, atrioventricular node dysfunction, double node dysfunction and increased vagus nerve tension through TEAP combined with atropine load experiment.Consider that this methods have the best diagnostic value in decreasing its rate of false positivity,and should be used as a necessary check before implantation of pacemaker in such patients, suitable used in clinical, especially

  11. 全身麻醉前长托宁联合阿托品与长托宁单用对老年患者术后谵妄的影响%Clinical therapeutic effect analysis of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Injection uniting atropine and Penehyclidine Hydrochlo-ride Injection on elderly postoperative delirium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜向春; 杨丽莹

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较麻醉前联合应用长托宁和阿托品与单用长托宁对老年患者术后谵妄的影响。方法选择该院外科行腹部手术全身麻醉老年患者128例,按随机数字表法分为联合组、长托宁1组、长托宁2组和对照组四组,每组32例。术前30 min:长托宁1组使用长托宁0.01 mg/kg肌内注射,长托宁2组使用长托宁0.005 mg/kg肌内注射,对照组使用生理盐水肌内注射,联合组使用长托宁0.005 mg/kg和阿托品0.005 mg/kg肌内注射,麻醉方法均采用全身麻醉。于术前1 d和术后1、2、7 d采用护理谵妄筛查量表(Nu-DESC-SCV)进行谵妄评估,于术前1 d及术后72 h采用简易智力状态量表(MMSE)进行认知功能测定,并进行对比分析。结果与对照组比较,长托宁1组MMSE评分均显著下降,Nu-DESC-SCV评分均显著提高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),联合组和长托宁两组与对照组比较,MMSE评分及Nu-DESC-SCV评分下降不显著,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),联合组谵妄发生率均明显高于长托宁1组、长托宁2组及对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论长托宁联合阿托品能增加老年患者术后谵妄,临床须谨慎使用。%Objective To compare diffrent clinical therapeutic effect of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Injection uniting a-tropine and Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Injection on postoperative delirium of the elderly. Methods Selected 128 elderly ab-dominal surgery patients under general anesthesia and randomly divided them into uniting group ,Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Injection 1,Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Injection 2,and control group with 32 cases in each one. Gave 0.01 mg/kg Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Injection to Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Injection 1 through intramuscular injection ,0.005 mg/kg Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Injection to Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Injection 2 through intramuscular injection ,normal

  12. Exeqüibilidade, segurança e acurácia do ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina/ atropina para detecção de doença arterial coronariana em candidatos a transplante renal Feasibility, safety and accuracy of dobutamine/atropine stress echocardiography for the detection of coronary artery disease in renal transplant candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Muniz Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a exeqüibilidade, a segurança e a acurácia diagnóstica do ecocardiograma sob estresse (EEDA com dobutamina/atropina em candidatos a transplante renal. MÉTODOS: Pacientes candidatos a transplante renal com e sem nefropatia diabética realizaram EEDA e cineangiocoronariografia. Consideraram-se dois pontos de corte para doença arterial coronariana (DAC: > 50% e > 70% de obstrução de uma artéria epicárdica. RESULTADOS: Cento e quarenta e oito pacientes realizaram o EEDA e a angiografia coronariana. A média de idade foi de 52±9 anos, 69% eram do sexo masculino, 27% tinham nefropatia diabética, e 73%, HVE; 63% estavam assintomáticos, 36% e 22% apresentaram obstruções coronarianas > 50% e > 70%, respectivamente. A exeqüibilidade foi de 91% e houve 2,7% de complicações maiores. Obtiveram-se as seguintes médias de sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia, considerando obstrução coronariana > 50%: 53% (IC:45-61, 87% (IC:81-93, e 75% (IC:63-83, respectivamente. Para obstrução >70%, 71% (IC:64-92, 85% (IC:79-91 e 81% (IC:75-87. A sensibilidade para diagnosticar doença uniarterial foi 41% (IC:19-63 e doença multiarterial, 78% (IC:64-92. CONCLUSÃO: O EEDA foi exeqüível e seguro; entretanto, foi ineficiente para rastreamento de DAC, considerando obstruções > 50%, mas pode ser útil para detecção de DAC em pacientes com obstruções > 70% e doença multiarterial.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and accuracy of dobutamine/atropine stress echocardiography (DASE for the detection of coronary artery desease (CAD in renal transplant candidates. METHODS: Patients candidates to renal transplant were submitted consecutively to DASE and coronary angiography. The adopted angiographic criteria for CAD were an obstructive lesion of > 50% and > 70%. RESULTS: 148 patients underwent the DASE and the coronary angiography. Mean age was 52 ± 9 years, 69% of the patients were males; 27% had diabetic nephropathy

  13. Quantification by HPLC-MS/MS of atropine in human serum and clinical presentation of six mild-to-moderate intoxicated atropine-adulterated-cocaine users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, PAMM; Go, HS; Wessels, AMA; Uges, DRA

    2006-01-01

    An unexpectedly high number of initially suspected cocaine-intoxicated patients was presented to a general hospital in Lelystad, The Netherlands. Based on the unusual toxidram rate of not fitting cocaine intoxication, the suspicion of co-presence of an anticholinergic agent was raised. A newly devel

  14. Effect of Atropine on Local Skin Wettedness and Sensible Heat Loss,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    both a and B-blockers. When the a receptor was preferentially blocked with phentolamine , vasoconstriction converted to vasodilation (154% increase in...in the forearm treated with phentolamine . Brick and co-workers’ study (5) indicates that NE action in the forearm is the sum of a dominant

  15. Central blockade of (methyl-)atropine on carbachol drinking: A dose-response study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, G.K.; Slangen, J.L.

    1972-01-01

    Administration of carbachol in the tractus diagonalis in rats elicited drinking and no eating. Norepinephrine administered in the same place did not induce drinking or eating. The specific drinking response induced by stimulation with 7.2 nmol (= 1.3 μg) of carbachol was gradually inhibited by prece

  16. Prognostic value of dobutamine-atropine stress myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.L. Schinkel (Arend); A. Elhendy (Abdou); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni); F. Sozzi (Fabiola); R. Valkema (Roelf); D. Poldermans (Don); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); R.T. van Domburg (Ron)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Exercise tolerance in patients with diabetes is frequently impaired due to noncardiac disease such as claudication and polyneuropathy. This study assesses the prognostic value of dobutamine stress myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with diabetes. RESEAR

  17. Investigation of Visual Performance after Administration of Cholinergic Blocking Agents. 2. Atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    the optical stimulus and measurement systems of the SRI optometer (Cornsweet & Crane, 1970) using a bite bar independently adjustable for the x, y...and z axes. Fixation targets were 10/40 size Landolt C’s having a contrast of 70Z and a background luminance of 3.5 cd/m 2. To calibrate the optometer

  18. Percutaneous exposure to the nerve agent VX: Efficacy of combined atropine, obidoxime and diazepam treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.J.A.; Schans, M.J. van der; Helden, H.P.M. van

    2010-01-01

    The nerve agent VX is most likely to enter the body via liquid contamination of the skin. After percutaneous exposure, the slow uptake into the blood, and its slow elimination result in toxic levels in plasma for a period of several hours. Consequently, this has implications for the development of t

  19. The Effects of Anticholinesterases and Atropine Derivatives on Visual Function in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    frequency was also measured as the mean of 3 readings obtained with the Visual Function Tester of Genco and Task (1984), which was on loan from the US Air...and physostigmine eyedrops. Experimental Eye Research 20, 15-21. Genco ,L.V. and Task, H.L. (1984). Testing changes in visual function due to orbital

  20. A Comparison between the Rhesus Monkey and the Human on the Effect of Atropine on the Electroencephalogram. Volume 2. Preliminary Statistical Analysis of Spectral EEG Waveforms in Rhesus Monkeys Exposed to Atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    H HiW r-N M N NWr-N W rý U) r- -0N-w Cno oO wmw m vo r- Lt)m nmw wH H o H N V -HH-4 f 0 r NN H M H M H H- 1 COM O WOV 0D0 N ~W tD mLn N N r- L,-iUnN...w Ltoq. VMN 04 04 N’ 0CY1LLNHHMO WN~r00 MWN~fC MHmW0 VMH M oNoDr~r-0mov El0 0 " Nr-ON H 0 HH NN v H HH m H N H m WN O Olf)H4m0.D NVmH0LtNHH! Hm0N...H- H HI o to 4Ln t v4m’ H Lt r rH m Rw c4 0q0vo ( a w oo LnW tm r. rim am m4wu) co~ Wnr Ln um tim a owL mQ 04 -4 RV r tD 4Ln -004N4H M 0 rý -C-W0MHV

  1. Effects of the Chemical Defense Antidote Atropine Sulfate on Helicopter Pilot Performance: An In-Flight Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    introduction of other drugs (such as alcoholic beverages or cold remedies, for example) during the study period. Subjects were free to smoke cigarettes and... lectronic AscteInc. 13 est Monrouth Parkway ,West Long4 Branch, NJ 0� lI, LillIy & Co. 1CY’T F~ist McCarty Street I ndlIa napolIis5, I N 4 f)28 5 Gou.10

  2. Toxicokinetics of the nerve agent (+/-)-VX in anesthetized and atropinized hairless guinea pigs and marmosets after intravenous and percutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schans, Marcel J; Lander, Brenda J; van der Wiel, Herma; Langenberg, Jan P; Benschop, Hendrik P

    2003-08-15

    In continuation of our investigations on the toxicokinetics of the volatile nerve agents C(+/-)P(+/-)-soman and (+/-)-sarin, we now report on the toxicokinetics of the rather nonvolatile agent (+/-)-VX. A validated method was developed to determine blood levels of (+/-)-VX by means of achiral gas chromatography at blood levels > or =10 pg/ml. The ratio of the two enantiomers of VX in blood could be measured at levels > or =1 ng/ml by using chiral HPLC in combination with off-line gas chromatographic analysis. In order to obtain basic information on the toxicokinetics of (+/-)-VX, i.e., under conditions of 100% bioavailability, the blood levels of this agent were measured in hairless guinea pigs at iv doses corresponding with 1 and 2 LD50. The derived AUCs indicate a reasonable linearity of the toxicokinetics with dose. Also, the toxicokinetics in marmoset primates was studied at an absolute iv dose corresponding with 1 LD50 in the hairless guinea pig which led to approximately the same levels of (+/-)-VX in blood as observed at 2 LD50 in the hairless guinea pig. Finally, the toxicokinetics of (+/-)-VX were measured in hairless guinea pigs via the most relevant porte d' entrée for this agent, which is the percutaneous route at a dose corresponding with 1 LD50 (pc). Large variations were observed between individual animals in the rate of penetration of (+/-)-VX and in concomitant progression of AChE inhibition in blood of these animals. Blood levels of (+/-)-VX increased gradually over a 6-h period of time. After a 7-h penetration period, the total AUC corresponded with 2.5% bioavailability relative to iv administration. In contrast with the G-agents C(+/-)P(+/-)-soman and (+/-)-sarin, stereospecificity in the sequestration of the two enantiomers of (+/-)-VX is not a prominent phenomenon. It appears that (+/-)-VX is substantially more persistent in vivo than the two G-agents. This persistence may undermine the efficacy of pretreatment with carbamates of percutaneous intoxication in particular due to gradual replacement of carbamate on AChE by (+/-)-VX, whereas classical treatment of intoxication with oximes is hampered by the short persistence of oximes relative to the agent.

  3. One case of transient mental disorder caused by atropine eye ointment%阿托品眼膏引起短暂性精神错乱1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄刚哲; 金世兰

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1临床资料 患者女,12岁,因视远物不清,在我院眼科就诊,为调节充分麻痹后检查眼的屈光状态和屈光度的目的,用1%阿托品眼膏(3次/d).第1天用阿托品眼膏后出现口干、头晕、视物模糊.第2天继续用阿托品眼膏后,患者神志不清,言语零乱,兴奋躁动.但无呕吐,无四肢抽搐.入院查体:体温37℃、脉搏102次/min、呼吸20次/min、血压110/70 mmHg.神志不清,言语零乱,兴奋躁动,有错觉及幻觉,查体不能合作.颜面潮红,双侧瞳孔扩大,呼吸运动规则,双肺未闻及干、湿罗音,心率102次/min,节律整齐,心脏各瓣膜区未闻及病理性杂音.临床诊断为阿托品中毒,用息斯的明皮下注射及安定肌注后,患者安静入睡.第2天清晨睡醒后,患者无口干,无头晕,神情语明,自主体位,双侧瞳孔等大同圆,无瞳孔扩大,心率76次/min,节律整齐.

  4. Incremental prognostic value of dobutamine-atropine stress{sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging for predicting outcome in diabetic patients with limited exercise capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedone, Chiara [Bellaria Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Bologna (Italy); Schinkel, Arend F.L.; Elhendy, Abdou; Domburg, Ron T. van; Biagini, Elena; Simoons, Maarten L. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Valkema, Roelf [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bax, Jeroen J. [University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Poldermans, Don [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Thoraxcenter, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-01

    This study assessed the incremental value of dobutamine stress{sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the prediction of cardiac events in diabetic patients with limited exercise capacity. The study population comprised 125 consecutive diabetic patients (mean age 61{+-}9 years, 61% men) who were unable to perform an exercise test and underwent dobutamine{sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT. Follow-up was successful in 124 (99%) patients. Three patients who underwent early revascularisation (within 60 days) were excluded. End-points during follow-up were cardiac death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. An abnormal scan (with the presence of reversible or fixed perfusion defects) was observed in 76 (63%) patients. During the follow-up (3.4{+-}1.5 years), 36 patients died (19 cardiac deaths) and four patients had non-fatal myocardial infarction. Cardiac death occurred in one of 49 (2%) patients with a normal myocardial perfusion study and in 18 of 75 (24%) patients with an abnormal study (p<0.001). Abnormal scan was incremental to the clinical parameters in predicting cardiac death ({chi}{sup 2}=48 vs 39, p<0.05) and hard cardiac events ({chi}{sup 2}=50 vs 43, p<0.05). Dobutamine stress{sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT provides prognostic information additional to clinical data for the prediction of cardiac death and hard cardiac events in diabetic patients unable to perform an exercise test. (orig.)

  5. Identification of low and high frequency ranges for heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses using pharmacological autonomic blockade with atropine and propranolol in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding autonomic nervous system functioning, which mediates behavioral and physiological responses to stress, offers great potential for evaluation of farm animal stress and welfare. Evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), using time and frequency doma...

  6. Comparative study of tropicamide and atropine in mydriatic refractometry%托吡卡胺与阿托品扩瞳验光结果对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊芳; 陶利娟; 漆争艳; 郭燕; 罗俊; 肖志刚

    2009-01-01

    目的:了解5g/L托吡卡胺滴眼液与10g/L阿托品眼膏扩瞳对不同年龄阶段儿童验光结果的影响.方法:对 212例疑屈光不正儿童先用5g/L托吡卡胺滴眼液扩瞳验光;待瞳孔恢复,再用10g/L阿托品眼膏扩瞳验光,比较两种扩瞳方法的结果.结果:远视组:球镜:相同5.6%,差异≥0.25DS者94.4%,柱镜:相同32.2%,差异≥0.25DC者67.8%,球、柱镜均以10g/L阿托品眼膏扩瞳高于5g/L托吡卡胺滴眼液扩瞳验光结果;各年龄组之间两两比较,具有显著统计学意义(P=0.000,P<0.01);近视组:球镜:相同者为10.7%,有不同程度的差异占89.3%;柱镜:相同者为26.7%,有不同程度的差异占73.3%,球、柱镜均以5g/L托吡卡胺滴眼液扩瞳高于10g/L阿托品眼膏扩瞳验光结果;混合散光组:球镜:33眼中有不同程度的差异占100.0%,以差异最大值为1.25DS,柱镜:33眼中两种扩瞳方法结果相同者40.0%,差异0.25~0.5DC者60.0%.结论:为确保验光结果的准确性,远视和混合散光12岁以内的儿童必须用10g/L阿托品眼膏扩瞳验光.

  7. Toxicokinetics of the nerve agent (±)-VX in anesthetized and atropinized hairless guinea pigs and marmosets after intravenous and percutaneous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, M.J. van der; Lander, B.J.; Wiel, H. van der; Langenberg, J.P.; Benschop, H.P.

    2003-01-01

    In continuation of our investigations on the toxicokinetics of the volatile nerve agents C(±)P(±)-soman and (±)-sarin, we now report on the toxicokinetics of the rather nonvolatile agent (±)-VX. A validated method was developed to determine blood levels of (±)-VX by means of achiral gas chromatograp

  8. Drug: D03814 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03814 Drug Atropine methylbromide (JAN) C18H26NO3. Br 383.1096 384.3079 D03814.gif...BB02 Methylatropine D03814 Atropine methylbromide (JAN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Gastrointestina...l Agents Antispasmodics, Gastrointestinal Atropine D03814 Atropine methylbromide ...K04132 K04133] Atropine [ATC:A03BA01 S01FA01] D03814 Atropine methylbromide (JAN) CAS: 2870-71-5 PubChem: 47

  9. Determination of Atropine in Pig Plasma by Capillary GC%猪血浆中阿托品含量的毛细管气相色谱测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘谷欲; 潘颖; 陈桂良

    2003-01-01

    采用气相色谱法测定猪血浆中阿托品的浓度.色谱柱为HP-5(5%苯基-95%聚二甲基硅氧烷)石英毛细管柱(30m×0.53mm,1.5μm),FID检测器.进样口温度250°C,柱温220°C,检测器温度250°C.线性范围0.68~4.25μg/ml(r=0.9991),最低检测浓度2.5ng/ml.

  10. 有机磷农药接触中毒亚阿托品化治疗分析%Sub-atropinization therapy in contact poisoning by organic phosphate insecticide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀梅

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨经皮肤接触有机磷农药中毒的临床及治疗特点.方法 回顾性分析59例经皮肤接触有机磷农药中毒的中毒潜伏期、亚阿托品化维持时间、临床及治疗特点.结果 经皮肤接触有机磷农药中毒潜伏期较长;亚阿托品化时间随中毒分级而延长;后期皮肤多汗常见于中、重度中毒.结论 经皮肤接触有机磷农药中毒临床特点具有特殊性,亚阿托品化是其有效的治疗方法.

  11. Atropine Rescues Severe Organophosphate Poisoning(68 cases)%阿托品抢救重度有机磷农药中毒68例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晋华

    2005-01-01

    目的:采用阿托品抢救重度有机磷农药中毒.方法:根据病情和服药剂量决定阿托品首次剂量,采用静脉滴注.结果:用阿托品抢救有机磷农药中毒效果肯定,成功率达91.1%.结论:阿托品是抢救急性有机磷农药中毒成功的主要药物.

  12. 复方托吡卡胺和硫酸阿托品在儿童散瞳验光中的效果评价%Application of compound tropicamide and atropine in mydriatic refractometry for ametropia children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳; 丁莉莉; 杨丽萍; 曹茜

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价复方托吡卡胺和硫酸阿托品在儿童散瞳验光中的效果.方法 随机抽取屈光不正儿童126例(252眼),年龄4 ~18岁,按年龄分为A组(<8岁)40例(近视22例,远视18例)、B组(8~12岁)48例(近视33例,远视15例)、C组(>12岁)38例(近视21例,远视17例).所有患儿先后使用复方托吡卡胺眼液和阿托品凝胶散瞳后行电脑验光并记录屈光度.用配对t检验分析其统计学意义.结果 复方托吡卡胺眼液和阿托品眼凝胶对儿童远视屈光不正散瞳后,A、B组患者所得的屈光度值比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),C组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);对儿童近视屈光不正散瞳后,A组患者使用2种散瞳方法所得的屈光度值比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),B、C组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 阿托品散瞳验光对8岁以下近视患儿和12岁以下远视患儿的验光是必要的.

  13. 青少年阿托品和复方托品酰胺散瞳验光效果临床观察%Effects of atropine and compound tropicamide on mydriatic refractometry in juvenile with ametropia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任志凤; 马蕾

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨阿托品和复方托品酰胺在青少年散瞳验光中的实用价值.方法 对青少年屈光不正患者40例,按年龄分为Ⅰ组(5-10岁)和Ⅱ组(11-20岁),每组各20例,40眼,对两组患者均行复方托品酰胺和1%阿托品散瞳后,对其验光结果进行对照观察.结果 Ⅰ组两种药物有统计学意义,P<0.01.Ⅱ组两种药物无统计学意义,P>0.05.结论 对于5-10岁屈光不正患者阿托品散瞳验光较准确,11-20岁屈光不正患者可以先用复方托品酰胺散瞳后验光.

  14. Effect of Atropine and Compound Tropicamide on Mydriatic Refractometry in Juvenile with Ametropia%不同年龄段青少年散瞳验光药品选择效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何炯; 罗红

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨用复方托品酰胺滴眼液和阿托品眼药水在不同年龄段青少年散瞳验光的效果.方法:80例屈光不正患者,随机分为Ⅰ组(5~10岁)和Ⅱ组(11~20岁),每组各40例,80根,对两组患者均行复方托品酰胺滴眼液和阿托品散瞳后,比较2种药物散瞳验光的结果.结果:5~10岁屈光不正青少年远视占多数,11~20岁则以近视多见.Ⅰ组患者采用托品酰胺与阿托品散瞳后验光的结果有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:阿托品对于5~10岁屈光不正患者散瞳验光较准确;复方托品酰胺是11~20岁屈光不正患者散瞳验光的理想药物,对这类患者可以先用复方托品酰胺散瞳,如果效果不满意再改用阿托品.

  15. 阿托品与美多丽-P在学龄期儿童扩瞳验光中的比较%Comparative Study between Mydrin-P and Atropine in Mydriatic Refractometry In the School-age Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    渠继芳

    2010-01-01

    目的:比较两种睫状肌麻痹剂在学龄期儿童扩瞳验光后的验光数值和舒适度.方法:96名学龄期儿童,192眼.每例先后用美多丽-P及1%阿托品扩瞳验光取得验光数值与舒适度值,做自身对照.结果:球镜结采相差0.25D以内的总计有180眼,占93.75%;球镜结果相差0.25D或以上的总计有12眼,占6.25%.用配对t检验,P>0.05.舒适度统计,1%阿托品组为105分;美多丽-P组为2分. t检验,P<0.01.结论:美多丽-P眼水用于学龄期儿童屈光不正的扩瞳验光准确度高,并且使用方便,舒适度高.

  16. Content Determination of Atropine Sulfate Eye Drops by BaS04 Turbidimetry%BaSO4比浊法测定硫酸阿托品滴眼液的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玉洪; 华剑

    2003-01-01

    目的建立一种硫酸阿托品滴眼液的含量测定方法.方法 BaSO4比浊法.结果硫酸阿托品在0.0386~0.2702mg*ml-1(r=0.9998)范围内,吸收度与浓度呈良好的线性关系.方法平均回收率101.3%,RSD为1.59%.结论方法稳定、简便易行、快速准确,可作为该制剂的质量控制方法.

  17. An Efficacy and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Dose of Diazepam That Will Reduce the Incidence of Convulsions in Indian Rhesus Monkeys Pretreated with Pyridostigmine Bromide, Challenged with Soman, and Treated with Atropine and Pralidoxime Chloride with the Diazepam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    0...’Ii I I I I I I I In conducting the research described in this report, the investigator(s) adhered to the *Guide for the Care and Use of...Laboratory Animals," prepared by the Comittre on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research...differentials of loaded and spent syringes. (C)Animal died at 18 hr. (M)Animal died at 74 hr.. W’Animal died at 22 hr. I MAnimal died at 52 min. W(OAnimal

  18. 浅析急性有机磷中毒中阿托品的应用%The Simple Analisis About the Application of Atropine in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秀玲

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨急性有机磷中毒(AOPP)中阿托品的应用.方法:根据AOPP的诊断分级应用阿托品.结果:治愈21例;死亡2例,均死于呼吸衰竭.结论:在治疗AOPP时应密切注意阿托品的应用和可能出现的情况,增加治愈率.

  19. Clinical observation of intramuscular atropine before operation on the vocal chords by electronic laryngoscope%电子喉镜声带手术前肌注阿托品的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉; 李海燕

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察电子喉镜下声带手术前肌注阿托品的有效性及探讨该用法的必要性.方法:将拟行电子喉镜声带手术的93名患者分为术前肌注阿托品的实验组,及不肌注阿托品的对照组,比较两组患者口干及恶心的发生率,手术成功率.结果:与对照组相比,实验组口干及恶心发生率明显增高,差异有统计学意义(p0.05).结论:电子喉镜声带手术前不建议肌注阿托品.

  20. Motor Neuron Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... glycopyrrolate and atropine to treat excessive saliva; and anticonvulsants and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve pain. ... glycopyrrolate and atropine to treat excessive saliva; and anticonvulsants and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve pain. ...

  1. Optimization of Quantitative Proteomics Using 2-Dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis to Characterize Molecular Mechanisms of Chemical Warfare Nerve Agent Exposure in the Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    damaging effects of nerve agents. Currently, one prophylactic (pyridostigmine) and three therapeutic drugs (atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and diazepam ...and J.H. McDonough, Efficacy of biperiden and atropine as anticonvulsant treatment for organophosphorus nerve agent intoxication. Archives of

  2. Drug: D07477 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiary amines A03BA01 Atropine D07477 Atropine oxide (INN) USP drug clas...DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES,

  3. Drug: D03876 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03876 Mixture, Drug Morphine hydrochloride hydrate - atropine sulfate hydrate (JP16); Morphine... and atropine (TN) Morphine hydrochloride [DR:D02271], Atropine sulfate [DR:D02069] Therapeutic ...al narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8119 Others D03876 Morphine hydrochloride hydrat...OUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AG Opioids in combination with antispasmodics N02AG01 Morphine and... antispasmodics D03876 Morphine hydrochloride hydrate - atropine sulfate hydrate (JP16) PubChem: 17397960 ...

  4. Drug: D03863 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03863 Mixture, Drug Opium alkaloids and atropine injection (JP16); Opium alkaloids... hydrochloride - atropine sulfate hydrate mixt; Opiato (TN) Opium alkaloids hydrochlorides [DR:D03445], Atro...8301] 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8119 Others D03863 Opium alkaloids and atropine injection (JP16) PubChem: 17397948 ...

  5. Drug: D02273 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02273 Mixture, Drug Isoproterenol sulfate - dexamethasone - atropine methybromide ...mixt; Stmerin D (TN) Isoproterenol sulfate [DR:D02066], Atropine methylbromide [DR:D03814], Dexamethasone [D...9 Others D02273 Isoproterenol sulfate - dexamethasone - atropine methybromide mixt PubChem: 7849332 ...

  6. 小儿术前口服咪唑安定、氯胺酮、阿托品混合液的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Oral Premedicant of a Mixture of Midazolam, Ketamine,and Atropine in Boys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩盛; 张锦; 孙云清

    2003-01-01

    目的:比较小儿术前口服咪唑安定氯胺酮阿托品混合液与常规方法肌注安定阿托品的临床效果.方法:择期行小儿泌尿外科手术的男性小儿40例,随机分为2组.观察指标:对术前药的接受程度、给药后的血氧饱和度、镇静状态评分、与父母分离程度和静脉穿刺时的反应、对面罩的接受程度、苏醒时间以及术后并发症.结果:肌肉注射给药65%小儿不能接受、哭闹 ,给药30 min后,与父母难分离,静脉穿刺及麻醉诱导不平稳.口服组用药30 min后,小儿安静、合作,易与父母分离,静脉穿刺及麻醉诱导无抵抗,两组差异显著(P<0.01).结论:小儿术前口服咪唑安定氯胺酮阿托品混合液的临床效果优于常规传统方法肌注安定阿托品,是较为理想的麻醉前用药.

  7. 丙泊酚芬太尼复合液伍用少量麻黄碱、阿托品用于人工流产术的观察%Anesthetic effect of propofol fentanyl combination intermixed with ephedrine or atropine in 90 cases of induced abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 李俊; 黄艳; 王美芹; 何平; 许鑫; 潘小梅

    2006-01-01

    目的 观察丙泊酚芬太尼复合液伍用少量麻黄碱或阿托品用于人工流产的麻醉效果,探讨此类手术合理的静脉药物配方.方法 90例ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级早孕妇女,随机分为A、B、C组,每组各30例.术前A组给予丙泊酚2 mg/kg+芬太尼2μg/kg;B组给予A组药液+麻黄碱(0.08 mg/kg);C组给予A组药液+阿托品0.25 mg.记录术中及术后各组镇痛效果、用药前、术中、术后生命体征的变化,同时监测其不良反应.结果 三组患者术中及术后镇痛效果(意识消失时间、清醒时间、恢复行走时间)差异无显著性(P>0.05).A组患者给药诱导后SBP明显下降,HR减慢,RR变慢变浅,Sp02下降,与用药前差异有显著性(P<0.05);B、C组患者用药后循环稳定,SBP、HR、RR、SpO2与诱导前相比差异无显著性,与A组比较SBP、HR、RR、SpO2显著升高,不良反应减少.结论 丙泊酚芬太尼复合液伍用少量麻黄碱或阿托品用于门诊无痛人流手术是一种非常安全和有效的配方.

  8. 盐酸环喷托酯和阿托品在学龄儿童散瞳验光中的比较性研究%Comparison of Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride and Atropine for school-age children with hyperopia in mydriatic refractometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宇; 刘意; 周利晓; 郭娟

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较3~7岁远视儿童应用1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液与1%阿托品滴眼液散瞳后验光的屈光度值.方法 2012年7月-12月来郑州大学第五附属医院眼科就诊患儿,将符合条件的36例患儿分成2组,第1组给予1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液滴眼液散瞳,每10min点药1次,共2次,第2次给药后1h进行检影验光,将患儿屈光检查结果进行记录;第2组应用1%阿托品眼药水,用阿托品前,排除患儿对该药物过敏,每天3次点眼,每次1滴,共3d,第4d进行检影验光,将患儿屈光检查的结果进行记录;屈光度按等效球镜值计算,应用t检验和x2检验对数据进行处理.结果 应用1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液麻痹前的等效球镜屈光度为(+3.16±1.12)D,麻痹后为(+4.77±1.62)D;应用1%阿托品滴眼液麻痹前的等效球镜屈光度为(+3.32±1.33)D,麻痹后为(+5.65±1.51)D;两种药物麻痹前后度数差异比较有统计学意义(P<0.05);根据患儿的小瞳状态的屈光度分成了两组,一组为屈光度数≥+ 3.00D(15眼),小瞳状态下屈光度为(+4.19±1.03)D,采用1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液麻痹后,屈光度为(+4.68±1.61)D,待瞳孔完全恢复后采用1%阿托品麻痹后,屈光度为(+5.47±1.23)D;另一组屈光度数< +3.00D(14眼),小瞳状态下屈光度为(+2.34±0.61)D,采用1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液麻痹后,屈光度为(+3.05±1.05)D,待瞳孔完全恢复后采用1%阿托品麻痹后,屈光度为(+3.16±1.09)D.通过两种药物麻痹前后度数差异比较,发现屈光度≥+ 3.00D患者采用1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液与1%阿托品麻痹前后屈光度的变化差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);屈光度< +3.00D患者麻痹前后屈光度差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论 对于3~7岁的远视儿童尤其是屈光度数超过+3.00D,应该首选1%阿托品滴眼液散瞳,+3.00D以下可考虑1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液散瞳.

  9. Comparison of tropicamide and atropine ophthalmic solution in mydriatic refractometry for juvenile hyperopia%应用托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对青少年远视散瞳验光的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国兴; 张颐

    2004-01-01

    目的:对比托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对青少年远视散瞳验光的结果.方法:用托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对143眼青少年远视进行散瞳视网膜检影验光.结果:143眼远视球镜度数两次验光结果相同和相差≤0.50D者93眼、相差0.75D以上者50眼、远视球镜度数符合率为65.0%,78眼复性远视柱镜度数2次验光结果相同和相差≤0.50D者为71眼、相差0.75D以上者7眼、复性远视柱镜度数符合率为91.0%,散光轴向符合率为82.1%.本组资料2种不同散瞳剂散瞳验光结果对比远视球镜或复性远视柱镜度数相差0.75D以上者均为托吡卡胺低于阿托品散瞳验光的度数.结论:青少年远视患者睫状肌调节力大,对青少年远视患者应用托吡卡胺散瞳验光仍可存留部分调节的隐性远视的屈光度数.阿托品眼液用于青少年远视散瞳验光麻痹睫状肌彻底,可暴露全部的远视度数.对青少年远视仍以阿托品眼液散瞳验光为宜.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of currently used antidotes in tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jirí; Krejèová, Gabriela

    2003-06-01

    The neuroprotective effects of antidotes (atropine, pralidoxime/atropine, obidoxime/atropine and HI-6/atropine mixtures) on rats poisoned with tabun at a lethal dose (220 microg/kg intramuscularly; 100% of LD50 value) were studied. The tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored using a functional observational battery and an automatic measurement of motor activity. The neurotoxicity of tabun was monitored at 24 hr and 7 days after tabun challenge. The results indicate that atropine alone is not able to protect the rats from the lethal effects of tabun. Three non-treated tabun-poisoned rats and one tabun-poisoned rat treated with atropine alone died within 24 hr. On the other hand, atropine combined with all tested oximes allows all tabun-poisoned rats to survive at least 7 days following tabun challenge. Obidoxime combined with atropine seems to be the most effective antidotal treatment for the elimination of tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of lethal poisoning among tested antidotal mixtures. The antidotal mixture consisting of atropine and HI-6 is significantly less effective than the combination of atropine with obidoxime in the elimination of tabun-induced neurotoxicity in rats at 24 hr following tabun challenge. Pralidoxime in combination with atropine appears to be practically ineffective to decrease tabun-induced neurotoxicity at 24 hours as well as 7 days following tabun poisoning. Due to its neuroprotective effects, obidoxime seems to be the most effective and most suitable oxime for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun exposure among currently used oximes. Thus, the replacement of obidoxime by a more effective acetylcholinesterase reactivator for soman poisoning, the oxime HI-6, can to a small extent diminish the neuroprotective efficacy of antidotal treatment in the case of acute tabun poisonings.

  11. The effect of anti-parkinsonian drugs on chlorpromazine-induced depression of operant behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, J I; Dunai-Kovács, Z; Borsy, J

    1976-01-01

    Rats were conditioned in automatic Skinner boxes on a discrete trial avoidance-escape schedule. The chlorpromazine-induced conditioned reflex inhibition could be reversed by apomorphine and amantadine, but not by atropine, trihexyphenidyl and diethazine. These findings seem to provide an additional tool for differentiating the atropine-like and dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian drugs.

  12. The human thoracic duct is functionally innervated by adrenergic nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telinius, Niklas; Baandrup, Ulrik; Rumessen, Jüri Johs.

    2013-01-01

    and immunohistochemistry suggested scarce diffuse distribution of nerves in the entire vessel wall, but nerve-mediated contractions could be induced with EFS and were sensitive to the muscarinic receptor blocker atropine and the α-adrenoceptor blocker phentolamine. The combination of phentolamine and atropine resulted...

  13. Modulation of membrane potential by an acetylcholine-activated potassium current in trout atrial myocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, C.E.; Gesser, Hans; Llach, A.

    2007-01-01

    in both atrial myocytes and tissue, and this effect was antagonized by atropine. When applied alone, atropine prolonged the action potential in atrial tissue but had no effect on membrane potential, action potential, or Im in isolated atrial myocytes. This suggests that ACh-mediated activation...

  14. Induces vasodilatation of rat mesenteric artery in vitro mainly by inhibiting receptor-mediated Ca(2+)-influx and Ca(2+)-release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yong-Xiao; Zheng, Jian-Pu; He, Jian-Yu;

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of atropine on peripheral vasodilation and the mechanisms involved. The isometric tension of rat mesenteric artery rings was recorded in vitro on a myograph. The results showed that atropine, at concentrations greater than 1 microM, relaxed...... the contraction derived from NA and CaCI2 in Ca(2+)-free medium, in a concentration dependent manner, indicating the vasodilatation was related to the inhibition of extracellular Ca2+ influx through the receptor-operated calcium channels and intracellular Ca2+ release from the Ca2+ store. Atropine had no effect...... on the caffeine-induced contraction in the artery segments, indicating the inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ release as a result of atropine most likely occurs via the IP3 pathway rather than the ryanodine receptors. Our results suggest that atropine-induced vasodilatation is mainly from artery smooth muscle cells...

  15. The protective effects of total phenols in magnolia officinalix rehd. et wils on gastrointestinal tract dysmotility is mainly based on its influence on interstitial cells of cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Huang, Dazhi; Li, Tao; Huang, Lihua; Zheng, Xingguang; Tang, Danxia; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils is a kind of herb which is widely used for gastrointestinal tract mobility disorder in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated whether the total phenols of Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils (TPM) treatment improves gastrointestinal tract dysmobility induced by intraperitoneal injection of atropine (5 mg/kg) in rats. Rats were randomly grouped into three units: TPM-pretreated/atropine-treated group, atropinetreated group and control group. TPM were administrated for 7 days. Gastric residual rate and intestinal transit were measured 20 min after atropine injected, and gastrointestinal hormones (including: gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL), somatostatin (SS) and p substance (PS) levels in serum were also measured by ELISA kits. The number and distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in stomach were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis, while c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF) expressions in stomach were also measured by western blotting. We found that TPM pretreatment significantly improved atropine-induced gastric residual rate increase, while had no significantly effects on intestinal transit; it also significantly normalized GAS, MTL and PS serum levels. Atropine-induced ICCs numbers decreased in both sinuses ventriculi and body of stomach, which is improved by TPM pretreatment. Western blotting results showed the expressions of c-kit and SCF were down-regulated after atropine injection, which can be reversed with TPM pretreatment. These results above indicates that TPM treatment can significantly protected atropine-induced gastric dysmoblility, which may owed to its regulation on c-kit/SCF signing pathway.

  16. Effects of single or repeated administration of a carbamate, propoxur, and an organophosphate, DDVP, on jejunal cholinergic activities and contractile responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Sato, I; Akatsu, Y; Fujii, S; Suzuki, T; Matsusaka, N; Yuyama, A

    1994-01-01

    Wistar rats were injected once or repeatedly for 10 days with dichlorvos (DDVP, 5 mg kg-1), propoxur (10 mg kg-1), oxotremorine (0.1 mg kg-1) or atropine (5 mg kg-1). Animals were killed 20 min or 24 h after single or consecutive injections, respectively, for determinations of cholinergic activities and contractile responses to acetylcholine (ACh) of the jejunum. Single treatments: while DDVP and propoxur decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, oxotremorine and atropine did not. Although DDVP, propoxur and oxotremorine increased levels of ACh, atropine decreased them. Contractile responses to ACh were enhanced by DDVP and reduced by oxotremorine and atropine. The Bmax value of binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate (QNB) to muscarinic ACh receptors was decreased by atropine. Consecutive treatments: DDVP and oxotremorine decreased AChE activity markedly and slightly, respectively. Although DDVP and oxotremorine increased levels of ACh, propoxur decreased them. Without affecting the contractile responses, DDVP caused a reduction and propoxur and atropine caused an increase in the Bmax value for binding of [3H]QNB. Both the contractile responses and the value of Bmax for binding of [3H]-QNB were decreased by oxotremorine. In summary, propoxur and DDVP showed similar effects mainly through their anticholinesterase properties in the case of single injection, but DDVP had similar effects to those of oxotremorine and propoxur had similar effects to those of atropine in the case of repeated injection.

  17. Evaluation of the benefit of the bispyridinium compound MB327 for the antidotal treatment of nerve agent-poisoned mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Pohanka, Miroslav; Timperley, Christopher M; Bird, Mike; Green, A Christopher; Tattersall, John E H

    2016-06-01

    The potency of the bispyridinium non-oxime compound MB327 [1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium) diiodide] to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the standard antidotal treatment (atropine in combination with an oxime) of acute poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents was studied in vivo. The therapeutic efficacy of atropine alone - or atropine in combination with an oxime, MB327, or both an oxime and MB237 - was evaluated by the determination of LD50 values of several nerve agents (tabun, sarin and soman) in mice with and without treatment. The addition of MB327 increased the therapeutic efficacy of atropine alone, and atropine in combination with an oxime, against all three nerve agents, although differences in the LD50 values only reached statistical significance for sarin. In conclusion, the addition of the compound MB327 to the standard antidotal treatment of acute poisonings with nerve agents was beneficial regardless of the chemical structure of the nerve agent, although at the dose employed, MB327 in combination with atropine, or atropine and an oxime, provided only a modest increase in protection ratio. These results from mice, and previous ones from guinea-pigs, provide consistent evidence for additional, albeit modest, efficacy resulting from the inclusion of the antinicotinic compound MB327 in standard antidotal therapy. Given the typically steep probit slope for the dose-lethality relationship for nerve agents, such modest increases in protection ratio could provide significant survival benefit.

  18. Side effects can enhance treatment response through expectancy effects: an experimental analgesic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Chantal; Kirsch, Irving; Zion, Sean R; Lee, Yvonne C; Jensen, Karin B; Sadler, Pamela; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Edwards, Robert R

    2017-02-04

    In randomized controlled trials, medication side effects may lead to beliefs that one is receiving the active intervention and enhance active treatment responses, thereby increasing drug-placebo differences. We tested these hypotheses with an experimental double-blind randomized controlled trial of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with and without the addition of atropine to induce side effects. One hundred healthy volunteers were told they would be randomized to either combined analgesics that might produce dry mouth or inert placebos. In reality, they were randomized double blind, double-dummy to 1 of the 4 conditions: (1) 100 mg diclofenac + 1.2 mg atropine, (2) placebo + 1.2 mg atropine, (3) 100 mg diclofenac + placebo, or (4) placebo + placebo, and tested with heat-induced pain. Groups did not differ significantly in demographics, temperature producing moderate pain, state anxiety, or depression. Analgesia was observed in all groups; there was a significant interaction between diclofenac and atropine, without main effects. Diclofenac alone was not better than double-placebo. The addition of atropine increased pain relief more than 3-fold among participants given diclofenac (d = 0.77), but did not enhance the response to placebo (d = 0.09). A chain of mediation analysis demonstrated that the addition of atropine increased dry mouth symptoms, which increased beliefs that one had received the active medication, which, in turn, increased analgesia. In addition to this indirect effect of atropine on analgesia (via dry mouth and beliefs), analyses suggest that among those who received diclofenac, atropine directly increased analgesia. This possible synergistic effect between diclofenac and atropine might warrant future research.

  19. Extrinsic control of the release of galanin and VIP from intrinsic nerves of isolated, perfused, porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messell, T; Harling, H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1992-01-01

    ). This increase was abolished by atropine (10(-6) M) and by hexamethonium (3.10(-5) M). Infusion of norepinephrine (10(-6) M) inhibited, whereas acetylcholine (10(-6) M) stimulated the release of both peptides. The effect of the latter was abolished by atropine. The inhibitory effect of nerve stimulation...... was not influenced by atropine. Our results suggest that the galanin- and VIP-producing intrinsic neurons receive inhibitory signals by noradrenergic nerve fibers and stimulatory signals mediated by cholinergic nerves, possibly via a cholinergic interneuron....

  20. Response of the Cardiovascular System to Vibration and Combined Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-30

    bringing the centrifuge down between tests. For the blocker studies, individual and combinations of pharmnacologic blockers ( Phentolamine , Atropine, and...adrenergic blocker. Peripheral vas- cular mechanisms were blocked by the administration of phentolamine , an alpha adrenergic blocker. Examples of the

  1. Sensitivity changes to morphine and other drugs induced by cholinergic blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, E; Tamayo, L; Quijada, L

    1975-04-01

    Mice were given several atropine injections at a high dosage level. After 2 to 5 days of cessation of treatment the effects of morphine, arecoline, amphetamine, pentylenetetrazol, reserpine, and hexobarbital were determined and compared with those found in saline injected controls. The influence of atropine treatment on tolerance development to morphine was also studied. After withdrawal of atropine a reduction of the analgesic responses to morphine and arecoline was observed. A decrease in hexobarbital sleeping time was also found. There was no significant influence on the analgesic effect of amphetamine, on the depressant action of reserpine, and on the convulsant effect of pentylenetetrazol. The influence of the administration and further withdrawal of atropine on tolerance development to morphine was masked by the concomitant reduction of morphine analgesia. It was impossible to observe a supersensitivity to the pharmacological agents studied.

  2. The role of efferent cholinergic transmission for the insulinotropic and glucagonostatic effects of GLP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plamboeck, Astrid; Veedfald, Simon; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2015-01-01

    The importance of vagal efferent signaling for the insulinotropic and glucagonostatic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was investigated in a randomized single-blinded study. Healthy male participants (n = 10) received atropine to block vagal cholinergic transmission or saline infusions...... on separate occasions. At t = 15 min, plasma glucose was clamped at 6 mmol/l. GLP-1 was infused at a low dose (0.3 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1)) from t = 45-95 min and at a higher dose (1 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1)) from t = 95-145 min. Atropine blocked muscarinic, cholinergic transmission, as evidenced by an increase...... in heart rate [peak: 70 ± 2 (saline) vs. 90 ± 2 (atropine) beats/min, P atropine) pmol/l × min, P

  3. Differential anti-ischaemic effects of muscarinic receptor blockade in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease; impaired vs normal left ventricular function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van den Heuvel; D.J. van Veldhuisen (Dirk); G.L. Bartels; M. van der Ent (Martin); W.J. Remme (Willem)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: In patients with coronary artery disease acetylcholine (a muscarinic agonist) causes vasoconstriction. The effect of atropine (a muscarinic antagonist) on coronary vasotone in patients with normal or impaired left ventricular function is unknown. METHO

  4. Aerospace Toxicology: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    convulsions, depressed heart action and respiratory rate, and possible death 70–80 Weak pulse, slow respiration, respiratory failure, and death within a...Labetalol Amitriptyline/Nortriptyline Lidocaine Amlodipine Maprotiline Atenolol Metoclopramide Atropine Metoprolol Azacyclonol Minoxidil Benzocaine

  5. Effect of autonomic blocking agents and structurally related substances on the “salt arousal of drinking”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wied, D. de

    1966-01-01

    The effect of autonomic blocking agents and structurally related substances was studied in rats in which thirst was produced by the administration of a hypertonic sodium chloride solution. Scopolamine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, chlorpromazine, atropine, mecamylamine, hexamethonium, nethalide, in

  6. New generic approach to the treatment of organophosphate poisoning : Adenosine receptor mediated inhibition of ACh-release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, HPM; Moor, E; Westerink, BHC; Bruijnzeel, PLB

    1998-01-01

    Current treatment of acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning includes a combined administration of a cholinesterase reactivator (oxime), a muscarinic receptor antagonist (atropine) and an anticonvulsant (diazepam). This treatment is not adequate since it does not prevent neuronal brain damage and incap

  7. Effects of alpha-adrenoceptor and of combined sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade on cardiac performance and vascular resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Hilsted, J

    1992-01-01

    1. Cardiac performance and vascular resistance was studied in seven healthy men by radionuclide cardiography and venous plethysmography before and after alpha-adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine and after combined alpha-adrenoceptor, beta-adrenoceptor (propranolol) and parasympathetic (atropine...... propranolol and atropine were added. 3. These results indicate that peripheral vasoconstriction especially that exerted by alpha-adrenoceptor nervous tone in skeletal muscle restricts left ventricular emptying of the intact heart. During pharmacologic blockade of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous...

  8. Development of In Vitro Isolated Perfused Porcine Skin Flaps for Study of Percutaneous Absorption of Xenobiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-30

    single pedicle, axial pattern tubed flaps (Figure 1). In the stage 1 procedure, each female pig was premedicated with atropine sulfate (0.04 mg/kg IM...R.H., and Hadgraft, J. (1985). Pharmacokinetic interpretation of the plasma levels of clonidine following transdermal delivery. J. Pharm. Sci. 74...Pigs weighing 18 to 32 kg are premedicated with atropine sulfate (0.04 mg/kg I .m.) and xylazine hydrochloridee (0.2 mg/kg i.m.). Anesthesia is

  9. A comparison of the neuroprotective efficacy of newly developed oximes (K117, K127) and currently available oxime (obidoxime) in tabun-poisoned rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jung, Young-Sik

    2009-01-01

    The potency of newly developed bispyridinium compounds (K117, K127) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with currently available oxime (obidoxime) using functional observational battery. The neuroprotective effects of atropine alone and atropine combined with one of three bispyridinium oximes (K117, K127, obidoxime) on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (180 μg/kg i.m.; 80% of LD50 value) were studied. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored us...

  10. The role of protein kinase-G in the antidepressant-like response of sildenafil in combination with muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebenberg, Nico; Wegener, Gregers; Brink, Christiaan

    2010-01-01

    effect when administered alone. 8-Br-cGMP significantly reduced immobility with or without atropine. Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMP prevented the anti-immobility effect of 8-Br-cGMP as well as that of sildenafil + atropine, and was without effect on its own. Swimming was increased by 8-Br-cGMP with or without atropine...... the antidepressant-like activity of sildenafil + atropine is mediated via the activation of PK-G, a downstream effector for cGMP, and whether this may target known pathways in antidepressant action. Purpose We investigated whether the antidepressant-like response of sildenafil ± atropine could be reversed by Rp-8-Br-PET...... of the experiment, followed by a 5 minute test session on the second day. Injections were given at -24, -6 and -1 hour before the final swim session. Rats received imipramine (15 mg/kg, i.p.), sildenafil (10 mg/kg, i.p.) ± atropine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) ± Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMP (1 nmol, i.c.v.), 8-Br-cGMP (25 nmol, i...

  11. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K027, K048) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to counteract tabun-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jirí; Kunesova, Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of newly developed oximes (K027, K048) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (170 microg kg(-1) i.m.; 80% of LD(50) value) were studied. The tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored using a functional observational battery and an automatic measurement of motor activity. The neurotoxicity of tabun was monitored at 24 h and 7 days following tabun challenge. The results indicate that the oxime HI-6 in combination with atropine was not able to protect the rats from the lethal effects of tabun. Two non-treated tabun-poisoned rats and one tabun-poisoned rat treated with atropine combined with HI-6 died within 2 h. On the other hand, all other tested oximes combined with atropine allowed all the tabun-poisoned rats to survive 7 days following tabun challenge. Both newly developed oximes combined with atropine seem to be sufficiently effective antidotes for a decrease in tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisoning although they are not able to eliminate tabun-induced neurotoxicity completely. The neuroprotective efficacy of obidoxime in combination with atropine approached the potency of newly developed oximes but the ability of the oxime HI-6 to counteract tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity was significantly lower, especially at 24 h after tabun poisoning. Due to their neuroprotective effects, both newly developed oximes appear to be suitable oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisoning.

  12. Protection against soman-induced neuropathology and respiratory failure: a comparison of the efficacy of diazepam and avizafone in guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taysse, L; Daulon, S; Delamanche, S; Bellier, B; Breton, P

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of diazepam and the pro-diazepam avizafone in preventing the severity of soman-induced pathology in guinea pig. Survival, respiration and seizures of experimental animals were investigated with on-line monitoring of respiratory and EEG parameters. Guinea pigs were pretreated with pyridostigmine (0.1mg/kg i.m.) and 30 min later challenged with 1 or 2 LD50 soman. One minute after intoxication they were treated with atropine (3 or 33.8 mg/kg), pralidoxime chloride (32 mg/kg) and either diazepam (2 mg/kg), avizafone (3.5 mg/kg) or saline solution. The highest dose of atropine (33.8 mg/kg) gave a protective effect in groups treated without anticonvulsants by reducing the severity of clinical signs and death within 24 h but also by decreasing seizure occurrence and brain injuries. When injected at the similar molar dose of 7 micromoles/kg, the protection of anticonvulsants against soman neurotoxicity was higher with the atropine/pralidoxime/avizafone combination than with atropine/pralidoxime/diazepam. Indeed, when atropine was used at the lowest dose, avizafone was found to prevent early mortality and seizures occurrence with better efficacy than diazepam. On the other hand, when added to the therapy, the both anticonvulsants did not prevent the moderate EEG depression (reduction of amplitude by 30-52%) observed under 2 LD50 soman. Moreover, the number of animals suffering from respiratory distress (defined as a decrease of minute ventilation of more than 20% from the baseline value) was enhanced when diazepam or avizafone were used in the therapy. This effect was dependent on the atropine dose and the nature of the anticonvulsant. The beneficial effects of the different therapeutics tested were assessed and compared to the previous data obtained with the same therapies against sarin and from the pharmacokinetics properties of the atropine/diazepam mixture.

  13. Involvement of the parasympathetic nervous system in the initiation of regeneration of pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Anya; Yamada, Satoko; Hara, Akemi; Hamamoto, Kohei; Kojima, Itaru

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism that initiates regeneration of pancreatic β-cells is not clear at present. The vagal nerve is implicated in the regulation of gastrointestinal functions, glucose metabolism and proliferation of pancreatic β-cells under physiological conditions. To elucidate the triggering mechanism of the regeneration of pancreatic β-cells, we examined the involvement of the vagal nerve. To this end, we employed a rat pancreatic duct ligation (DL) model, in which profound β-cell neogenesis and β-cell proliferation were observed within a week. We administered atropine to block the vagal nerve. Administration of atropine inhibited proliferation of β-cells in both islets and islet-like cell clusters (ICC), without affecting ductal cell proliferation in the ligated pancreas. The numbers of PDX-1 and MafB-positive cells in or attaching to the ducts were significantly reduced by atropine. MafB/glucagon and MafB/insulin double-positive cells were also decreased by atropine. Finally, atropine reduced the number of MafA-positive ductal cells, all of which were positive for insulin, by 50% on day 5. These results strongly suggest that the vagal nerve is involved in β-cell proliferation, induction of endocrine progenitors and neogenesis of α- and β-cells.

  14. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli Prevents Severe Scalds-Induced Gut Ischemia and Paralysis by Activating the Cholinergic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries may result in gastrointestinal paralysis, and barrier dysfunction due to gut ischemia and lowered vagus excitability. In this study we investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA at Zusanli (ST36 could prevent severe scalds-induced gut ischemia, paralysis, and barrier dysfunction and whether the protective role of EA at ST36 is related to the vagus nerve. 35% burn area rats were divided into six groups: (a EAN: EA nonchannel acupoints followed by scald injury; (b EA: EA at ST36 after scald injury; (c VGX/EA: vagotomy (VGX before EA at ST36 and scald injury; (d VGX/EAN: VGX before EAN and scald injury; (e atropine/EA: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at ST36; (f atropine/EAN: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at nonchannel acupoints. EA at the Zusanli point significantly promoted the intestinal impelling ratio and increased the amount of mucosal blood flow after scald injury. The plasma diamine oxidase (DAO and intestinal permeability decreased significantly after scald injury in the EA group compared with others. However, EA after atropine injection or cervical vagotomy failed to improve intestinal motility and mucosa blood flow suggesting that the mechanism of EA may be related to the activation of the cholinergic nerve pathway.

  15. A comparison of the neuroprotective efficacy of newly developed oximes (K117, K127) and currently available oxime (obidoxime) in tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jung, And Young-Sik

    2009-03-01

    The potency of newly developed bispyridinium compounds (K117, K127) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with currently available oxime (obidoxime) using functional observational battery. The neuroprotective effects of atropine alone and atropine combined with one of three bispyridinium oximes (K117, K127, obidoxime) on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (180 microg/kg i.m.; 80% of LD(50) value) were studied. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored using a functional observational battery and automatic measurement of motor activity at 24 h following tabun challenge. The results indicated that all tested oximes combined with atropine enabled tabun-poisoned rats to survive 24 h following tabun challenge while one tabun-poisoned rats died within 24 h after tabun poisoning when the rats were treated with atropine alone. Newly developed oxime K127 combined with atropine was the most effective in decreasing tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisonings among all oximes tested. Nevertheless, the differences of neuroprotective efficacy between K127 and obidoxime are not sufficient to replace obidoxime by K127 for the treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  16. Investigating the changes in heart rate asymmetry (HRA) with perturbation of parasympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Chandan; Khandoker, Ahsan; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2012-12-01

    The heart rate asymmetry (HRA) is a disproportionate distribution of heart rate signal. The current study was designed to assess the changes in HRA in experimental conditions using Poincaré plot during parasympathetic blockade (atropine infusion) and parasympathetic enhancement (scopolamine administration). After atropine infusion, the heart rate variability in 5 out of 8 subjects was found asymmetric. In contrast, all 8 subjects were found to be asymmetric during scopolamine administration. The physiological relevance of HRA was demonstrated by showing correlation with standard frequency domain parameters during all phases of the experiment. The deviation of asymmetry index (GI ( p )) from symmetric range was further analyzed, which was maximum during scopolamine administration and minimum during atropine infusion. These findings suggest that parasympathetic block reduces the prevalence of HRA, and has significant correlation of GI ( p ) with frequency domain features of HRV analysis.

  17. The invasive pest Drosophila suzukii uses trans-generational medication to resist parasitoid attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyet, M.; Eslin, P.; Chabrerie, O.; Prud’homme, S. M.; Desouhant, E.; Gibert, P.

    2017-01-01

    Animal medication is a behavioral strategy to resist enemies based on the use of substances from the environment. While it has been observed in several animals, whether invasive species can use medication to resist new enemies during its expansion is unknown. Here, we show that the worldwide invasive pest Drosophila suzukii performs trans-generational prophylactic medication by adapting its oviposition behavior in the presence of enemies. We find that flies preferentially lay their eggs on media containing atropine – an entomotoxic alkaloid – in the presence of parasitoids. We further show that flies developing on atropine more efficiently resist parasitization by parasitoids. Finally, we find that developing in hosts reared on atropine strongly impacts the life-history traits of parasitoids. This protective behavior is reported for the first time in a pest and invasive species, and suggests that animal medication may be an important driver of population dynamics during invasions. PMID:28287118

  18. Crude extract and purified components isolated from the stems of Tinospora crispa exhibit positive inotropic effects on the isolated left atrium of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praman, Siwaporn; Mulvany, Michael J.; Williams, David E.

    2013-01-01

    an increase in the force of contraction of the electrical field stimulated left atrium. This effect was inhibited by propranolol, atenolol, ICI-118,551, phentolamine and atropine. The positive inotropic effect on the reserpenized isolated left atrium of the Tinospora crispa extract was significantly inhibited...... concentrations salsolinol caused a slight increase in the force of contraction of the left atrium, but at higher concentrations a decrease was observed. The negative inotropic effect of salsolinol was significantly inhibited by propranolol and atropine. In the reserpinized isolated left atrium, the negative...... inotropic effect of salsolinol was potentiated and again this effect was significantly inhibited by propranolol and atropine. Tyramine caused a positive inotropic effect, and this effect was inhibited by propranolol or by pretreatment of the rat with reserpine. Adenosine caused a negative inotropic effect...

  19. Migrating Motor Complex in Colectomized Ileo Stoma Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mark B; Wallin, Lene; Husebye, Einar

    2011-01-01

    muscarinic receptors. We aimed to evaluate the effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), ondansetron and atropine on fasting and stimulated antro-duodeno-jejunal migrating motor complex (MMC) in colectomized patients with ileo stoma compared with healthy subjects. Manometric recordings were obtained in a blinded......, age- and gender-matched design. The effects of either standard meal or intravenous 5-HT (10 nmol/kg/min.) treatment with pre-treatment of saline (placebo) or ondansetron (250 µg/kg) or atropine (10 µg/kg) were compared. Adverse effects, blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiographic data were...... also evaluated. 5-HT increased the frequency (threefold) and migration velocity (twofold) of MMC phase III in both experimental groups. Ondansetron reduced 5-HT-induced frequency of MMC phase III in patients (p Atropine reduced 5-HT-induced frequency of MMC phase...

  20. Effect of ionizing radiation on advanced life support medications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.J.; Hubbard, L.B.; Broadbent, M.V.; Stewart, P.; Jaeger, M.

    1987-06-01

    Advanced life support medications stored in emergency department stretcher areas, diagnostic radiology rooms, and radiotherapy suites are exposed to ionizing radiation. We hypothesized that radiation may decrease the potency and thus the shelf life of medications stored in these areas. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were exposed to a wide range of ionizing radiation. The potency of the four drugs was unaffected by levels of radiation found in ED stretcher areas and high-volume diagnostic radiograph rooms (eg, chest radiograph, computed tomography, fluoroscopy). The potency of atropine may be reduced by gamma radiation in high-use radiotherapy suites. However, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were unaffected by high doses of gamma radiation. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol may be safely kept in ED stretcher areas and diagnostic radiology rooms without loss of potency over the shelf life of the drugs.

  1. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Gordon, Richard K; Rezk, Peter E; Katos, Alexander M; Wajda, Nikolai A; Moran, Theodore S; Steele, Keith E; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2007-03-01

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m(3) of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure.

  2. Regulation of bile duct motility by vagus and sympathetic nerves in the pigeon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neya,Toshiaki

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of stimulation of the vagus and sympathetic nerves on bile duct peristalses were studied in pigeons anesthetized with urethane. Vagus stimulation increased the frequency of peristalses. Atropine, hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin abolished this excitatory effect. After atropine, inhibition of peristalses sensitive to tetrodotoxin was produced. Stimulation of sympathetic area in the spinal cord inhibited peristalses. Propranolol converted this effect into an excitatory one, which was abolished by phentolamine. The results suggest that vagal and sympathetic innervations of the bile duct in pigeons are similar to those of the sphincter of Oddi in mammalian species.

  3. Central Anticholinergic Syndrome due to Hypoxia-Induced Bradycardia in a Child with Difficult Intubation Undergoing Complete Dental Restoration: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharavifard, Mohamad; Razavi, Majid; Ghandehari Motlagh, Mehdi; Ziyaeifard, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    Central anticholinergic syndrome (CAS) following general anesthesia (GA) is a well known syndrome in children and adults. Many cases of CAS have been previously reported in the literature. However, there are only two reports of post resuscitation CAS after administration of small doses of atropine. Hereby, we report a case of CAS in a child undergoing complete dental restoration under GA after receiving a small dose of atropine to reverse hypoxia induced bradycardia. Intraoperative events such as hypoxia or cardiac arrest may play a role as triggers for CAS. However, we cannot establish a causal relationship between the occurrence of CAS and such critical events.

  4. Central Anticholinergic Syndrome due to Hypoxia-Induced Bradycardia in a Child with Difficult Intubation Undergoing Complete Dental Restoration: A Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Gharavifard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Central anticholinergic syndrome (CAS following general anesthesia (GA is a well known syndrome in children and adults. Many cases of CAS have been previously reported in the literature. However, there are only two reports of post resuscitation CAS after administration of small doses of atropine. Hereby, we report a case of CAS in a child undergoing complete dental restoration under GA after receiving a small dose of atropine to reverse hypoxia induced bradycardia. Intraoperative events such as hypoxia or cardiac arrest may play a role as triggers for CAS. However, we cannot establish a causal relationship between the occurrence of CAS and such critical events.

  5. Acute severe organophosphate poisoning in a child who was successfully treated with therapeutic plasma exchange, high-volume hemodiafiltration, and lipid infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilbas, Osman; Kihtir, Hasan S; Altiti, Mohammad; Petmezci, Mey Talip; Balkaya, Seda; Bursal Duramaz, Burcu; Ersoy, Melike; Sevketoglu, Esra

    2016-10-01

    Acute severe organophosphate poisoning is a serious complication seen in developing and agricultural countries. Pralidoxime and high dose atropine are the standard treatments. There is no consensus about acute severe organophosphate poisonings that are unresponsive to pralidoxime, atropine, and supportive therapies. We report a case of acute severe organophosphate poisoning that was unresponsive to standard treatments and successfully treated with high-volume continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration and therapeutic plasma exchange combined with lipid infusion. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:467-469, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas is localized to nerves, many of which travel along the pancreatic ducts. VIP stimulates pancreatic fluid and bicarbonate secretion like secretin. Electrical vagal stimulation in the pig causes an atropine-resistant profuse secretion...... of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice. In an isolated perfused preparation of the pig pancreas with intact vagal nerve supply, electrical vagal stimulation caused an atropine-resistant release of VIP, which accurately parallelled the exocrine secretion of juice and bicarbonate. Perfusion of the pancreas...

  7. The relationship between respiratory sinus arrhythmia and heart rate during anesthesia in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, M; Spulber, S; Saravan, V

    2004-01-01

    rats, slowing of HR is associated with an increase in HF. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this relationship between HF and HR is preserved during anesthesia in rat. A 15 minutes long ECG signal was recorded from rats (N=15) under moderate chloral hydrate (CHL) anesthesia. Recordings......) the decrease in HR that occurs during CHL anesthesia in rat correlates with an increase in RSA; (2) atropine reduces RSA and the time-dependent decrease in HR; (3) the time-dependent increase in RSA is preserved after atropine. We conclude that the correlation between RSA and HR reflects the cardio...

  8. Avian Imc-tectal projection is mediated by acetylcholine and glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S R; Wu, G Y; Felix, D

    1995-03-27

    In the bird, biochemical and histochemical data suggest that the neurotransmitter between nucleus isthmi pars magnocellularis (Imc) and tectum is either acetylcholine or glutamate. There are, however, discrepancies regarding the functional role of acetylcholine. In the present study we investigated the action of acetylcholine and glutamate and their specific antagonists on excitatory isthmo-tectal synaptic transmission using electrophysiological and microiontophoretic techniques. The results show two different population of cells: (1) excitatory cholinergic input, blocked by atropine sulphate but not by glutamate antagonist; (2) excitatory glutamatergic input of NMDA or non-NMDA receptor type, which is blocked or reduced by CPP or CNQX but not by atropine sulphate.

  9. Involvement of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in nicotine-induced relaxation of the rat gastric fundus

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Nicotine-induced relaxation and release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)- and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI)-like immunoreactivity (LI) were measured in longitudinal muscle strips from the rat gastric fundus.Under non-cholinergic conditions (0.3 μM atropine), nicotine (3–300 μM) produced concentration-dependent relaxations of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (3 μM)-precontracted strips. Under non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) conditions (0.3 μM atropine+1 μM phentolamine+1 μM nadolol...

  10. Pilocarpine-induced seizure-like activity with increased BNDF and neuropeptide Y expression in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Jahnsen, Henrik; Blaabjerg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    with the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (100 microM). Regardless of dose and exposure time, the pilocarpine treatment induced very limited neuronal cell death, recorded as cellular propidium iodide uptake. Cultures exposed to 5 mM pilocarpine for up to 7 days displayed increased BDNF expression when analyzed...

  11. Antidepressant-like properties of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and cholinergic dependency in a genetic rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, Nico; Harvey, Brian H; Brand, Linda; Brink, Christiaan B

    2010-09-01

    We explored the antidepressant-like properties of two phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors in a genetic animal model of depression, namely Flinders sensitive line rats. We investigated the dose-dependency of the antidepressant-like action of sildenafil, and its interaction with the cholinergic system and behavioural correlates of monoaminergic neurotransmission, in the forced swim test. Antidepressant-like properties of tadalafil (a structurally distinct PDE5 inhibitor) were also evaluated. Flinders sensitive line rats were treated for 14 days with vehicle, fluoxetine, atropine or PDE5 inhibitors+/-atropine. Immobility, swimming and climbing behaviours were assessed in the forced swim test. In combination with atropine (1 mg/kg), both sildenafil (10, 20 mg/kg) and tadalafil (10 mg/kg) decreased immobility while increasing swimming (serotonergic) and climbing (noradrenergic) behaviours. Interestingly, sildenafil (3 mg/kg) decreased immobility while selectively increasing climbing behaviour in the absence of atropine. These results suggest that the antidepressant-like activity of PDE5 inhibitors involve alterations in monoaminergic neurotransmission, but involve a dependence on inherent cholinergic tone so that the final response is determined by the relative extent of activation of these systems. Furthermore, the behavioural profile of sildenafil alone, and its observed antidepressant-like properties, shows strict dose-dependency, with only higher doses showing an interaction with the cholinergic system.

  12. [Sinus-node recovery time in the sick-sinus syndrome (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delius, W; Wirtzfeld, A; Sebening, H; Blömer, H

    1975-11-01

    Sinus-node recovery times were measured, before and after atropine administration, in 21 patients with the clinical diagnosis of sick-sinus syndrome. The results were compared with those reported by other workers. It is concluded that sinus-node recovery times of more than 1 400 ms are most likely due to sinus-node damage (sick-sinus syndrome); normal recovery times are rare in such patients. The diagnosis of the syndrome is strengthened if the recovery time remains abnormally long even after atropine. Further useful diagnostic information can be obtained from the total stimulation phase (duration until restoration of the basic rhythm), this being overall longer in patients with the syndrome than in normal subjects. The increased incidence of A-V nodal rhythms before restoration of the basic rhythm is another indication of organic damage to the sinus node, especially if it also occurs after atropine. The significance of a recovery time which is prolonged before but normal after atropine is less clear: a raised sensitivity to vagotonic influences may be the determining factor here.

  13. Discovery of FDA-Approved Drugs that Promote Retinal Cell Survival or Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    pancreatic fibrogenesis and anti- nociceptive effects in suppressing pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Dr. Quigley Title Sponsor Period EY...typically caused by traumatic injury. In addition, Atropine is used to relieve pain caused by swelling and inflammation of the eye, whereas beta

  14. Influence of adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms in baclofen induced analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, L; Rifo, J; Contreras, E

    1988-01-01

    1. Baclofen induced analgesia was confirmed by means of the mouse hot plate test. 2. Physostigmine significantly increased the response to baclofen whilst neostigmine was ineffective. Baclofen analgesia was reduced by atropine. 3. The response to baclofen was increased by the administration of tolazoline, propranolol and nadolol. In contrast, the analgesic response to morphine was attenuated by the antiadrenergic drugs phenoxybenzamine, tolazoline and nadolol.

  15. Transmitter modulation of spike-evoked calcium transients in arousal related neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Leonard, Christopher S

    2006-01-01

    imaging in mouse (P14-P30) brain slices. Carbachol, noradrenaline and adenosine inhibited spike-evoked Ca(2+)-transients, while histamine, t-ACPD, a metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, and orexin-A did not. Carbachol inhibition was blocked by atropine, was insensitive to blockade of G...

  16. Changes in salivary secretion and sense of taste following cochlear implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jonas; Holst, René; Faber, Christian Emil

    2015-01-01

    for perioperative administration of glycopyrrolate (p atropine (p = 0.178), the former was highly associated with a 69.7% mean decrease in non-stimulated salivary flow at the visit the day after surgery. The third examination was still, independent of glycopyrrolate administration, borderline...

  17. Peptic ulcer pathophysiology: acid, bicarbonate, and mucosal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Mertz Nielsen, A; Rune, S J

    1996-01-01

    . Bicarbonate secretion is inhibited by atropine, muscarinic antagonists, alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, indomethacin, bile acids, tobacco smoking, and probably also by infection by Helicobacter pylori. Apart from mucus and bicarbonate, the mucosal defence is supported by a hydrophobic epithelial lining, rapid...

  18. Exocrine secretion of epidermal growth factor from Brunner's glands. Stimulation by VIP and acetylcholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1983-01-01

    infusion of VIP stimulated the flow rate of duodenal secretion, an effect which was inhibited by atropine. Ach alone did not significantly increase flow rate, and combined infusion of VIP and Ach induced the same flow as VIP alone. Concentration of EGF in duodenal secretion was increased by infusion of Ach...

  19. Autonomic control of the heart in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Nina Kerting; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Bayley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    .3 cm H2O). The autonomic control of the heart during water- and air-breathing was revealed by infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and muscarinic antagonist atropine (3 mg kg− 1) in eels instrumented with an arterial catheter. Inhibition of the sympathetic and parasympathetic...

  20. Electrolyte and protein secretion by the perfused rabbit mandibular gland stimulated with acetylcholine or catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Novak, I

    1980-01-01

    unstimulated or evoked by acetylcholine or eserine, could be blocked completely by atropine.4. During prolonged stimulation with acetylcholine, the fluid secretory response declined rapidly over a period of about 15 min from an initial high value to a much lower plateau value. After 3 or more hours...

  1. Inability of Some Commercial Assays to Measure Suppression of Glucagon Secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Veedfald, Simon; Plamboeck, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    resolved fluorescence (HTRF) detection, were not capable of detecting the suppression induced by a glucose clamp (6 mmol/L) with or without atropine in five healthy male participants, whereas a radioimmunoassay and a spectrophotometry-based ELISA were. In summary, measurement of glucagon is challenging...

  2. Plasma glucagon and glucose recovery after hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Holst, Janett

    1991-01-01

    The role of the autonomic nervous system in the glucagon response to hypoglycemia has not been fully clarified. We have studied the effect of total pharmacological blockade of the autonomic nervous system (concomitant alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockade with simultaneous atropine injection...

  3. Innervation of the human middle meningeal artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, L; Gulbenkian, S; Barroso, C P

    1998-01-01

    in arteries without endothelium, while the responses to norepinephrine, NPY, VIP, PHM, and CGRP were not changed by endothelium removal. Blockade experiments showed that the vasomotor responses to norepinephrine were blocked by prazosin, to NPY by BIBP 3226, acetylcholine by atropin, substance P by RP 67580...

  4. The mechanism of gastrin release in cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1982-01-01

    a rise in serum gastrin from 29 +/- 5 pg/ml to a maximum of 203 +/- 62 pg/ml after 3 h in unoperated rats, whereas no rise was seen in vagotomized or antrectomized rats. The beta-adrenergic blocking agent propranolol strongly inhibited cysteamine-induced gastrin release, whereas atropine dependent...

  5. Intravenously administered lidocaine in therapeutic doses increases the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban

    2002-01-01

    of acetylcholine. Ten and 30 mg/kg lidocaine injected intravenously significantly increased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. The effect of lidocaine could be reduced by pretreatment with intraspinally administered atropine or mecamylamine. Our results suggest that the antinociceptive effect produced...

  6. Digoxinforgiftning hos et spædbarn grundet forveksling af flasker med magistrelt fremstillet medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise Lindholdt; Herskind, Anne Maria

    2014-01-01

    -fragment and atropine. After three days of hospitalization she was discharged well-being. We suspect that the explanation for this intoxication is due to confusion of bottles of magistral preparations of medicine, as they were very identical. Therefore we call for increased attention in children receiving this type...

  7. Differential anti-ischaemic effects of muscarinic receptor blockade in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease - impaired vs normal left ventricular function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, AFM; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Bartels, GL; van der Ent, M; Remme, WJ

    1999-01-01

    Aims In patients with coronary artery disease acetylcholine (a muscarinic agonist) causes vasoconstriction. The effect of atropine (a muscarinic antagonist) on coronary vasotone in patients with normal or impaired left ventricular function is unknown. Methods and Results Twenty-four patients who req

  8. Gastrin release: Antrum microdialysis reveals a complex neural control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, P; Håkanson, R; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    that vagotomy suppresses an inhibitory as well as a stimulating effect on the G cells. While local infusion of atropine was without effect, infusion of the neuronal blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) (which had no effect on basal gastrin) virtually abolished the food-evoked gastrin response and lowered the high...

  9. Reflex bradycardia does not influence oxygen consumption during hypoxia in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Nina Kerting; McKenzie, David; Malte, H.

    2010-01-01

    of the muscarinic antagonist atropine (5 mg kg-1). In the untreated eels, f H fell from 39.0 ± 4.3 min-1 in normoxia to 14.8 ± 5.2 min-1 at the deepest level of hypoxia (2 kPa), and this was associated with a decline in Q, from 7.5 ± 0.8 mL min-1 kg-1 to 3.3 ± 0.7 mL min-1 kg-1 in normoxia versus deepest hypoxia......, respectively. Atropine had no effect on SMR, which was 16.0 ± 1.8 μmol O2 kg-1 min-1 in control versus 16.8 ± 0.8 μmol O2 kg-1 min-1 following treatment with atropine. Atropine also had no significant effect on normoxic f H or Q in the eel, but completely abolished the bradycardia and associated decline in Q...

  10. Effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on motility and on the release of substance P, neurokinin A, somatostatin and gastrin in the isolated perfused porcine antrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Schmidt, P; Poulsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    release. The effect of pCGRP was unaffected by the addition of the nonpeptide antagonists for the NK-1 (CP-99994) and NK-2 receptors (SR48968), both at 10(-6) mol L(-1), whereas atropine (10(-6) mol L(-1)) completely abolished the motor effect of pCGRP. The release of somatostatin was significantly...

  11. Life-threatening angio-oedema after the first dose of an ACE inhibitor-not an anaphylactic reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Nielsen, Troels; Bygum, Anette; Rye Rasmussen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    severe angio-oedema of the upper airways. Neither adrenaline inhalations, intravenously administrated corticosteroids, atropine nor furosemide were effective and the patient soon become bradycardic. A tracheotomy was performed and the patient was placed on a ventilator. She eventually made a full...

  12. Changes in nasal resistance and nasal geometry using pressure and acoustic rhinometry in a feline model of nasal congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLeod, R.L.; Mingo, G.G.; Herczku, C.

    1999-01-01

    .v.) had no decongestant activity. Also without decongestant activity were the muscarinic antagonist atropine, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, and the 5-HT blocker methysergide. Aerosolized histamine (0.1-1.0%) also produced a dose dependent increase in NAR. In studies using acoustic rhinometry...

  13. RCR - A Danish textbook for courses in Responsible Conduct of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristine B.; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S

    2015-01-01

    /kg in the formalin test. Administration of 50 mg/kg VU0152100 resulted in a non-significant tendency towards antinociception. The antinociceptive effects were reversed by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine. Binding studies indicated presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors...

  14. Effects of thapsigargin in isolated rat thoracic aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, E O; Thastrup, Ole; Christensen, S B

    1988-01-01

    response to Tg was resistent to wash-out in drug-free PSS and was not affected by phentolamine, indomethacin or mepyramine but partly reduced by the calcium-antagonist nitrendipine and eliminated by wash-out in calcium-free PSS. Atropine eliminated the endothelium dependent relaxant effect of carbachol...

  15. Adrenergic effects on renal secretion of epidermal growth factor in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1985-01-01

    , a beta-adrenergic blocking agent, decreased basal and beta-adrenergic stimulated total output of urinary EGF. Acetylcholine and the anticholinergic agent atropine had no effect on the output of EGF in urine. Also chemical sympathectomy induced by 6-hydroxydopamine reduced the urinary output of EGF. None...

  16. Functional partial agonism at cloned human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Ebert, B; Brann, M R

    1996-01-01

    , and a competitive antagonist, atropine or pirenzepine, at fixed ratios display functional partial agonism. The levels of apparent intrinsic activity of the functional partial agonist responses were shown to be dependent of the receptor density and G-protein concentration in the same manner as that determined...

  17. Clonidine overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marruecos, L; Roglan, A; Frati, M E; Artigas, A

    1983-12-01

    A case of acute intoxication in a 60-yr-old woman who ingested 20 mg of clonidine is presented. The patient showed CNS depression (bradycardia, hypotonia) with systemic hypertension and peripheral vasoconstriction. She was treated with atropine and sodium nitroprusside. There was no recurrence and the patient recovered in 8 days.

  18. Environ: E00010 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00010 Belladonna root (JP16) Crude drug Hyoscyamine [CPD:C02046], Atropine [CPD:C0...1479], Norhyoscyamine [CPD:C10862], Scopolamine [CPD:C01851] Atropa belladonna [TAX:33113] Same as: D03224 S...olanaceae (nightshade family) Belladonna root Major component: Hyoscyamine [DR:D00147] CAS: 8007-93-0 ...

  19. Non-enzymatic pretreatment of nerve agent (soman) poisoning: A brief state-of-the-art review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, H.P.M. van; Joosen, M.J.A.; Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid onset of toxic signs following nerve agent intoxication and the apprehension that current therapy (atropine, oxime, diazepam) may not prevent brain damage, requires supportive pretreatment. Since the current pretreatment drug pyridostigmine fails in protecting brain-AChE, more effective pr

  20. Effects of Chemical Agents on the Cholinergic Neurotransmitter System: Mechanisms of Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-20

    changes in cholinergic neurochemistry (31). The former was observed in such symptoms as salivation, lacrimation and tremor and in measures of hypothermia...to the belladonna drugs occurs in man to a limited extent, e.g., patients with Parkinsonism may eventually receive daily doses of atropine or

  1. A rational superfusion medium for the bioassay of E-type prostaglandins on the rat stomach strip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, L.P.; Hofman, G.A.; Noordwijk, J.V.

    1980-01-01

    The optimum composition of a mixture of antagonist to be used in the bioassay of E-type prostaglandins was determined for the rat stomach strip (RSS). In the presence of atropine (10t−7M), indomethacin (10t−6M), propranolol (10t−4M), and tolazoline (10t−4M) the sensitivity of the RSS to muscarinic,

  2. Clinical Record of Emergency Vascular Access Using Adult Intraosseous (IO) Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    port was used to administer emergency drugs such as sodium bicarbonate, lidocaine , atropine, and vasopressors. They concluded that IO administration... pharmacodynamics of hydroxyethyl starch in hypovolemic pigs; a comparison of peripheral and intraosseous infusion. Resuscitation. 1999 Jan;40(1):37-44. Clinical

  3. Pharmacology of the anticholinergic bronchospasmolytic agent flutropium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, R; Fügner, A

    1986-09-01

    The anticholinergic agent (8r)-8-(2-fluoroethyl)-3 alpha-hydroxy-1 alpha H,tropanium bromide benzilic acid ester (flutropium bromide, Ba 598 BR) is a classic competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. In in vitro experiments it is more effective than atropine. In addition there are indications, that flutropium bromide may interfere with the anaphylactic reaction in a certain dose range in vitro. In in vivo experiments for the characterization of the anticholinergic properties flutropium bromide is also somewhat more effective than atropine after parenteral administration. Because of its quaternary structure no central anticholinergic effect is detectable. Furthermore, a poor enteral absorption is to be expected; this can be concluded from the low relative effectiveness after oral administration. After systemic administration, flutropium bromide is only slightly more effective than atropine. The duration of action is longer. After local administration as an aerosol it is superior to atropine with regard to both effectiveness and duration of action. Since in aerosol administration the ratio of the main effect to the most sensitive side effects, inhibition of salivary secretion, is 1:100, no side effects are to be expected even after high inhalational overdoses. Flutropium bromide can therefore be described as a preparation which is free of side effects. When used prophylactically it represents a therapeutic alternative to beta-mimetics and xanthine derivatives for most cases of obstructive airway diseases.

  4. Acute angle closure glaucoma following ileostomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Meirelles Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Angle-closure glaucoma can be induced by drugs that may cause pupillary dilatation. We report a case of a patient that developed bilateral angle closure glaucoma after an ileostomy surgery because of systemic atropine injection. This case report highlights the importance of a fast ophthalmologic evaluation in diseases with ocular involvement in order to make accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatments.

  5. Management of Treatment and Prevention of Acute OP Pesticide Poisoning by Medical Informatics, Telemedicine and Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Chandra Sahoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphorous pesticide (OP poisoning kills a lot of people each year. Treatment of acute OP poisoning is of very difficult task and is a time taking event. Present day informatics methods (telemedicine, bioinformatics methods (data mining, molecular modeling, docking, cheminformatics, and nanotechnology (nanomedicine should be applied in combination or separately to combat the rise of death rate due to OP poisoning. Use of informatics method such as Java enabled camera mobiles will enable us early detection of insecticidal poisoning. Even the patients who are severely intoxicated (suicidal attempts can be diagnosed early. Telemedicine can take care for early diagnosis and early treatment. Simultaneously efforts must be taken with regard to nanotechnology to find lesser toxic compounds (use less dose of nanoparticle mediated compounds: nano-malathion as insecticides and find better efficacy of lesser dose of compounds for treatment (nano-atropine of OP poisoning. Nano-apitropine (atropine oxide may be a better choice for OP poisoning treatment as the anticholinergic agent; apitropine and hyoscyamine have exhibited higher binding affinity than atropine sulfate. Synthesis of insecticides (malathion with an antidote (atropine, apitropine in nanoscale range will prevent the lethal effect of insecticides.

  6. A comparison of the neuroprotective efficacy of individual oxime (HI-6) and combinations of oximes (HI-6+trimedoxime, HI-6+K203) in soman-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Tesarova, Sandra

    2011-07-01

    The ability of two combinations of oximes (HI-6+trimedoxime, HI-6+K203) to reduce soman-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with the neuroprotective efficacy of the oxime HI-6 alone, using a functional observational battery. Soman-induced neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective effects of HI-6 alone and HI-6 combined with trimedoxime or K203 in rats poisoned with soman at a sublethal dose (90 μg/kg intramuscularly, i.m.; 80% of LD₅₀ value) were monitored by the functional observational battery at 24 hours following soman administration. The results indicate that both tested oxime mixtures combined with atropine were able to allow soman-poisoned rats to survive 24 hours following soman challenge, while 4 nontreated soman-poisoned rats and 1 soman-poisoned rat treated with oxime HI-6 alone combined with atropine died within 24 hours following soman poisoning. While the oxime HI-6 alone combined with atropine treatment was able to eliminate a few soman-induced neurotoxic signs and symptoms, both oxime mixtures showed higher neuroprotective efficacy in soman-poisoned rats. Especially, the combination of HI-6 with trimedoxime was able to eliminate most soman-induced neurotoxic signs and symptoms and markedly reduce acute neurotoxicity of soman in rats. Thus, both tested mixtures of oximes combined with atropine were able to increase the neuroprotective effectiveness of antidotal treatment of acute soman poisonings, compared to the individual oxime.

  7. Organophosphate poisoning in a 12-day-old infant: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, D A; Heikens, G T

    2011-01-01

    A 12-day-old infant girl was admitted with increasing lethargy and respiratory distress. Initial treatment was for pneumonia but deterioration despite appropriate treatment prompted review of her diagnosis and consideration of organophosphate poisoning. There was a brisk response to atropine. To our knowledge, this is the youngest infant reported to have been exposed to poisoning by organophosphates.

  8. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  9. A Model of Medical Countermeasures for Organophosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    atmosphere (normal) bar barn British thermal unit (thermochemical) calorie (thermochemical) cal (thermochemical/cm ) curie degree (angle) degree...signs of atropinisation appeared ( dilated pupils and elevated heart rate). The second group of 15 patients were given atropine intermittently and 2

  10. Changes of rat plasma total low molecular weight antioxidant level after tabun exposure and consequent treatment by acetylcholinesterase reactivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jung, Young-Sik; Kassa, Jiri

    2011-02-01

    These experiments were performed on a rat model. The rats were divided into eight groups and consequently exposed to either a saline solution (control), atropine or a combination of atropine and tabun. The reactivation efficacy of the oximes was estimated on the rats exposed to tabun, atropine and a reactivator of AChE. The oximes HI-6, obidoxime, trimedoxime, K203 and KR-22836 were used as representative compounds of commonly available and new AChE reactivators. Besides the positive effect of the administered reactivators on blood AChE activity, the sizable modulation of low molecular weight antioxidant (LMWA) levels was also determined. The LMWA levels in the the animals treated with the oxime reactivators were decreased in comparison with the animals treated by atropine alone. It was found that the levels of LMWA returned to the level found in the control animals when either trimedoxime, K203 or KR-22836 were administered. The principle of oxime reactivator function and a novel insight into AChE activity regulation and oxidative stress is discussed.

  11. A comparison of neuroprotective efficacy of newly developed oximes (K203, K206) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana; Vasina, Libor; Bajgar, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil; Musilek, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of newly developed oximes (K203, K206) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (180 microg/kg i.m.; 80% LD(50)) were studied. The tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by using a functional observational battery and an automatic measurement of motor activity. The neurotoxicity of tabun was monitored at 24 hours and 7 days following tabun challenge. The results indicate that K203 and obidoxime in combination with atropine allow all tabun-poisoned rats to survive within 7 days following tabun challenge, while 2 nontreated tabun-poisoned rats and 1 tabun-poisoned rat treated with K206 or HI-6 in combination with atropine died within 7 days. Only one of the newly developed oximes (K203) combined with atropine seems to be effective for a decrease in tabun-induced neurotoxicity within 24 hours after tabun sublethal poisoning, although it is not able to eliminate tabun-induced neurotoxicity completely. On the other hand, the neuroprotective efficacy of commonly used oximes (obidoxime and HI-6), as well as one of the new synthesized oximes (K206), is significantly lower in comparison with K203, according to the number of eliminated tabun-induced neurotoxic signs at 24 hours after tabun challenge. Due to its neuroprotective effects, K203 appears to be a suitable oxime for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  12. Comparison of the efficacy of HI6 and 2-PAM against soman, tabun, sarin, and VX in the rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplovitz, I.; Stewart, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    This study compared the efficacy of H16 and 2-PAM against nerve agent (soman tabun sarin and VX) -induced lethality in the atropinesterase-free rabbits pretreated with vehicle (controls) or pyridostigmine. Treatment was administered at signs or 2 min after agent challenge and consisted ofoxime (l00umol/lkg) + atropine 13 mg(kg) (alone or together with diazepam). Twenty-four-h LD50 values were calculated for soman- and tabun-intoxicated animals, whereas 24-h survival was noted in animals given 10 LD50s of sarin or VX. In pyridostigmine and control rabbits intoxicated with soman and treated with oxime + atropine (alone or together with diazepam), HI6 was 35 times more effective than 2-PAM. In contrast 1116 was less effective than 2-PAM against tabun poisoning. In pyridostigmine-pretreated animals exposed to tabun, efficacy was increased more than 3-fold when compare to tabun-challenged animals treated with atropine + H16 alone. Both oximes were highly effective against satin and VX. These findings suggest that Hifi could replace 2-PAM as therapy for nerve agent poisoning because it is superior to 2-PAM against soman, and when used in pyridostigmine-pretreated animals it affords excellent protection against all four nerve agents when used in combination with atropine (alone or together with diazepam) therapy.

  13. The influence of antidotal treatment of low-level tabun exposure on cognitive functions in rats using a water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, J; Kunesova, G

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the influence of antidotal treatment of tabun poisoning on cognitive function, in the case of low-level tabun exposure, was studied. The impairment of cognitive function was evaluated by the measurement of spatial learning and memory in rats poisoned with a sublethal dose of tabun and treated with atropine alone or in combination with newly developed oximes {K027 [1-(4-hydroxyiminomethyl- pyridinium)-3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium) propane dibromide] and K048 [1-(4-hydroxyimino- methylpyridinium)-3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium) butane dibromide]} or currently available oxime (trimedoxime), using the Morris water maze. While atropine alone caused an impairment of studied cognitive functions, the addition of an oxime to atropine contributes to the improvement of cognitive performance of treated tabun-poisoned rats regardless of the type of oxime. The differences in the ameliorative effects of oximes on atropine-induced mnemonic deficits were not significant. Therefore, each low-level nerve agent exposure should be treated by complex antidotal treatment consisting of anticholinergic drug and oxime.

  14. Toxicity and characterization of cholinesterase-inhibition induced by diisopropyl fluorophosphate in Artemia salina larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fortún, S; Barahona, M V

    2009-03-01

    The acute toxicity of diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) on three age classes of Artemia salina was evaluated. An increase in toxicity of this organophosphorous (OP) compound was found following longer development of A. salina larvae. The effects of pretreatment with the non-selective muscarinic antagonist atropine, the two reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors physostigmine and pyridostigmine, and the cholinesterase-reactivating oxime 2-pyridine aldoxime methoiodide (2-PAM), as individual and combined pretreatments, on DFP-induced lethality in 24h Artemia were also investigated. The lethal action of DFP was not prevented by pretreatment of 24h Artemia with atropine, physostigmine, and pyridostigmine, while 2-PAM proved effective against intoxication with this OP compound. The inhibitory effects of combinations of atropine (10(-5)M) plus 2-PAM or physostigmine were greater than those elicited by either drug alone, with the maximum protection afforded being 100%. Pretreatment with 2-PAM (10(-6)M) plus physostigmine or pyridostigmine was ineffective. These results suggest that the combinations of atropine plus 2-PAM or physostigmine are effective in the prevention of the lethal effects induced by DFP in A. salina larvae.

  15. Drug: D04087 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1.2093 321.4559 D04087.gif Anticholinergic, Antiparkinsonian ATC code: N04AC30 Atropine [CPD:C01479] derivat...ynapse hsa04970(1131) Salivary secretion hsa04971(1131) Gastric acid secretion map07057 Antiparkinsonian age

  16. Interactions between chemical and electrical kindling of the rat amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, C G; Morin, A M; Jonec, V

    1982-09-16

    Holtzman rats were implanted with a chemitrode into the left basolateral amygdala, which could then be stimulated electrically (400 microA, 1 s, AC) or chemically by injection of carbachol (1 microliter, 2.7 nmoles, sterile, isotonic). Group A received a daily injection of carbachol and developed kindled seizures. Group B received carbachol mixed with equimolar atropine, which blocked seizures and kindling. After 20 injections, both groups were stimulated electrically once a day and kindled at similar rates. Two additional groups received electrical or sham stimulation, followed by carbachol kindling. No transfer effects were observed. Four additional groups received 27 nmoles of atropine through the chemitrode, followed 15 min later by electrical stimulation, sham stimulation, carbachol injection or saline injection, respectively. Atropine completely blocked carbachol kindling but did not alter the rate of electrical kindling. No different in the number of QNB binding sites was observed in the amygdala of rats sacrificed two weeks after full electrical kindling. The lack of interaction between electrical and carbachol kindling and the failure of atropine to block electrical kindling of the amygdala suggest that the activation of local muscarinic synapses, while essential for carbachol kindling, is not required for electrical kindling of the rat amygdala.

  17. Pharmacological Studies of p, N-(3, 4-Methylenedioxy phenyl Benzoic Acid (RRL-1364 - Part-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanukar Sharadini

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed pharmacological investigations of p-N-(3, 4-methylene dioxy phenyl benzoic acid revealed marked hypotensive action which was dose dependent and most marked in cats; it was absent in rats. Atropine could block this hypotensive action, thus suggest-ing cholinomimetic mechanism. Further studies indicated that the hypotension produced was central and possibly medullary in origin.

  18. Timing of decontamination and treatment in case of percutaneous VX poisoning: A mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.J.A.; Schans, M.J. van der; Kuijpers, W.C.; Helden, H.P.M. van; Noort, D.

    2013-01-01

    Low volatile organophosphorous nerve agents such as VX, will most likely enter the body via the skin. The pharmacokinetics of drugs such as oximes, atropine and diazepam, are not aligned with the variable and persistent toxicokinetics of the agent. Repeated administration of these drugs showed to im

  19. REM sleep pathways and anticholinesterase intoxication: A mechanism for nerve agent-induced, central respiratory failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanism of death following exposure to anticholinesterases, such as the highly toxic nerve agents soman and VX, and other organophosphate anticholinesterases such as the insecticide parathion, remains unclear, although evidence from nerve agent research suggests that death occurs by an atropin

  20. Computer Support of Hemoglobin and Blood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-21

    experiment. Each animal was sedated (0.08mg/kg atropine, 2.2 mg/kg ketamine. and 2.2 mg/kg xylazine ), and then splenectomized using aseptic techniques on the...valuable addition to the fluid management tools but for the possible dangers of elevated plasma sodium and sharply decreased cell volume. Also, the initial

  1. Clinical rescue experience of 42 cases of acute organophosphate poisoning%42例急性有机磷中毒抢救的临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize the rescue method of acute organophosphate poisoning. Methods Forty- two cases of patients with organophosphate poisoning were pumped into at ropine by the micro- pump continually. Strict observation was done before atropinization was com pleted in order to prevent excessive Atropine intake and atropine poisoning. Results Five out of 42 cases were reported dead and the remaining cases were improved and discharged after treatment. The total cure rate was 88.10%. The average atropinization time was (138.5 ± 38.2) min, and at ropinization process required (78.3 ± 6.8) mg. Two cases (4.76%) had Atropine overdose and poi soning, 3 cases (7. 14%) condition rebounding, and 2 cases (4. 76%) intermediate syndrome. Conclusion Using continuous micro - pump into the Atropine in acute organophosphate poisoning rescue can reduce the required dose of atropinization and reduce the risk of overdose and poisoning.%目的 总结急性有机磷中毒抢救的方法.方法 对42例有机磷中毒患者进行持续微量泵泵入阿托品,严格观察使之阿托品化,防止出现阿托品过量以及阿托品中毒.结果 42例病例除5例死亡外,其余病例均经治疗后好转出院,治愈率88.10%.患者达到阿托品化的平均时间为(138.5±38.2) min,阿托品化需药量(78.3±6.8) mg.出现阿托品过量及中毒2例(4.76%),出现病情反跳3例(7.14%),出现中间综合征者2例(4.76%).结论 在急性有机磷中毒的抢救中使用持续微量泵入阿托品,可以降低达到阿托品化的需药量,并且可以降低出现阿托品过量及中毒的风险.

  2. The pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7 in the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla involves multiple peripheral mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the peripheral mechanism that mediates the pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7 in the rostral ventrolateral medulla was investigated. METHOD: Angiotensin-(1-7 (25 pmol was bilaterally microinjected in the rostral ventrolateral medulla near the ventral surface in urethane-anesthetized male Wistar rats that were untreated or treated (intravenously with effective doses of selective autonomic receptor antagonists (atenolol, prazosin, methyl-atropine, and hexamethonium or a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist [d(CH25 -Tyr(Me-AVP] given alone or in combination. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, the pressor response produced by angiotensin-(1-7 (16 ± 2 mmHg, n = 12, which was not associated with significant changes in heart rate, was not significantly altered by peripheral treatment with prazosin, the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist, hexamethonium or methyl-atropine. Similar results were obtained in experiments that tested the association of prazosin and atenolol; methyl-atropine and the vasopressin V1 antagonist or methyl-atropine and prazosin. Peripheral treatment with the combination of prazosin, atenolol and the vasopressin V1 antagonist abolished the pressor effect of glutamate; however, this treatment produced only a small decrease in the pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7 at the rostral ventrolateral medulla. The combination of hexamethonium with the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist or the combination of prazosin, atenolol, the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist and methyl-atropine was effective in blocking the effect of angiotensin-(1-7 at the rostral ventrolateral medulla. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that angiotensin-(1-7 triggers a complex pressor response at the rostral ventrolateral medulla that involves an increase in sympathetic tonus, release of vasopressin and possibly the inhibition of a vasodilatory mechanism.

  3. Protective effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on acute lung injury caused by severe dichlorvos poisoning in swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Juan; LI Chun-sheng; HE Xin-hua; SONG Yu-guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Organophosphate poisoning is an important health problem in developing countries which causes death mainly by inducing acute lung injury.In this study,we examined the effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC),a selective M-receptor inhibitor,on dichlorvos-induced acute lung injury in swine.Methods Twenty-two female swines were randomly divided into control (n=5),dichlorvos (n=6),atropine (n=6),and PHC (n=5) groups.Hemodynamic data,extravascular lung water index (EVLWI),and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were monitored; blood gas analysis and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) levels were measured.PaO2/FiO2,cardiac index (Cl),and pulmonary vascular resistance indices (PVRI) were calculated.At termination of the study,pulmonary tissue was collected for ATPase activity determination and wet to dry weight ratio (W/D) testing 6 hours post-poisoning.TUNEL assay,and Bax,Bcl-2,and caspase-3 expression were applied to pulmonary tissue,and histopathology was observed.Results After poisoning,PHC markedly decreased PVRI,increased CI more effectively than atropine.Anticholinergic treatment reduced W/D,apoptosis index (AI),and mitigated injury to the structure of lung; however,PHC reduced AI and caspase-3 expression and improved Bcl-2/Bax more effectively than atropine.Atropine and PHC improved ATPase activities; a significant difference between groups was observed in Ca2+-ATPase activity,but not Na+-K+-ATPase activity.Conclusions The PHC group showed mild impairment in pathology,less apoptotic cells,and little impact on cardiac function compared with the atropine group in dichlorvos-induced acute lung injury.

  4. Controlling myopia progression in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith MJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Molly J Smith, Jeffrey J WallineThe Ohio State University College of Optometry, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Myopia is a common disorder, affecting approximately one-third of the US population and over 90% of the population in some East Asian countries. High amounts of myopia are associated with an increased risk of sight-threatening problems, such as retinal detachment, choroidal degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma. Slowing the progression of myopia could potentially benefit millions of children in the USA. To date, few strategies used for myopia control have proven to be effective. Treatment options such as undercorrection of myopia, gas permeable contact lenses, and bifocal or multifocal spectacles have all been proven to be ineffective for myopia control, although one recent randomized clinical trial using executive top bifocal spectacles on children with progressive myopia has shown to decrease the progression to nearly half of the control subjects. The most effective methods are the use of orthokeratology contact lenses, soft bifocal contact lenses, and topical pharmaceutical agents such as atropine or pirenzepine. Although none of these modalities are US Food and Drug Administration-approved to slow myopia progression, they have been shown to slow the progression by approximately 50% with few risks. Both orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses have shown to slow myopia progression by slightly less than 50% in most studies. Parents and eye care practitioners should work together to determine which modality may be best suited for a particular child. Topical pharmaceutical agents such as anti-muscarinic eye drops typically lead to light sensitivity and poor near vision. The most effective myopia control is provided by atropine, but is rarely prescribed due to the side effects. Pirenzepine provides myopia control with little light sensitivity and few near-vision problems, but it is not yet commercially available as an eye drop or

  5. Acute toxicity of several organophosphorous insecticides and protection by cholinergic antagonists and 2-PAM on Artemia salina larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fortún, S; Sanz, F; Barahona, M V

    1996-10-01

    The acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos, methylchlorpyrifos, parathion and methylparathion to three age classes of Artemia salina was determined. In general, A. salina 24-h old was less sensitive to these organophosphorous insecticides (OPI) than A. salina 48-h old and A. salina 48-h old was significantly more tolerant than A. salina 72-h old, in contrast, chlorpyrifos was equally toxic to A. salina 48- and 72-h old. There were some differences among the three age classes of A. salina in the relative order of toxicity of OPI tested. The rank order of toxicity to A. salina 48-h old was methylparathion salina 24- and 72-h old it was methylparathion = parathion Artemia salina 24-h old was investigated. The lethal action of OPI tested was completely prevented by pretreatment of Artemia salina 24-h old with 2-PAM (10(-5) M) and atropine (10(-4 )M). However no concentration of hexamethonium, pirenzepine or AF-DX 116 protected 100% of the animals poisoned by LC84 of the OPI selected, maximum protection obtained was 71 to 88%. In contrast, the maximum inhibition of mortality obtained with AF-DX 116 pretreatment was about 55% because this compound was used at concentrations which were non toxic to control Artemia salina. Atropine, hexamethonium, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 and 2-PAM afforded 50 % protection (IC50) of Artemia salina against mortality by LC84 of the OPI selected at concentrations in the range of 6.62x10(-7)-1.6x10(-6) M, 2. 38x10(-4)-2.05x10(-3)M, 8.91x10(-7)-1.24x10(-6) M, 9.66x10(-8)-1. 34x10(-7 )M, and 1.95x10(-8)-2.73x10(-8 )M, respectively. Pretreatment of atropine plus 2-PAM to determine whether this combination afforded greater inhibition of the lethality induced by four OPI tested than pretreatment with either atropine or 2-PAM alone was investigated. Atropine (10(-5) M) in combination with 2-PAM (10(-7 )M) inhibited completely the acute toxicity of all OPI tested, while the pretreatment with atropine (10(-6) M) plus 2-PAM at the same concentration gave a

  6. Peripheral nervous control of cold-induced reduction in the respiratory quotient of the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refinetti, Roberto

    1990-03-01

    Cold-exposed rats show a reduction in the respiratory quotient which is indicative of a relative shift from carbohydrates to lipids as substrates for oxidative metabolism. In the present study, the effects of food deprivation and cold exposure on the respiratory quotient were observed. In addition, the involvement of the three main branches of the peripheral nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic) was investigated by means of synaptic blockade with propranolol, atropine, and quinine, respectively. Both propranolol and quinine blocked the cold-induced decrease in respiratory quotient and increase in heat production, whereas atropine had only minor and very brief effects. It is concluded that both the sympathetic and somatic branches are involved in the metabolic changes associated with cold-induced thermogenesis and that the increase in metabolic heat production involves a shift from carbohydrate to lipid utilization irrespective of which of the two branches is activated.

  7. Trigemino-cardiac reflex during orbital floor reconstruction: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudev, Sunil; Reddy, K Sudhakara

    2015-03-01

    Trigemino-cardiac reflex is occurrence of hypotension and bradycardia upon surgical manipulation of areas supplied by the trigeminal nerve, and has been reported during craniofacial maxillofacial and ocular surgeries. Communication between the anaesthetic and surgical team is essential, and cessation of the precipitating stimulus is the first and most important therapeutic step. We report a case of immediate, reproducible, and reflexive response of Bradycardia and dysrhythmia upon manipulation of orbital fracture during orbital floor reconstruction in a 65-year-old man. Upon recognition of the reproducible relationship between falcine stimulation and increased vagal tone, the patient was given atropine in an effort to block cholinergic hyperactivity. After atropine administration, no further dysrhythmias occurred and surgery was carried uneventfully.

  8. Cerebrovascular response to CO/sub 2/ inhalation in unanesthetized goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.C.; Lopez de Pablo, A.L.; Dieguez, G.; Gomez, B.; Lluch, S.

    1979-02-01

    The effects on cerebral blood flow of inhalation of 9% CO/sub 2/ in air were examined in unanesthetized goats. This procedure increased mean cerebral blood flow from 118 to 185 ml/min per 100 g and was accompanied by a rise in Pco/sub 2/ from 33 to 50 mmHg and a fall in pH from 7.41 to 7.26. Administration of phentolamine, propranolol, or atropine into the internal maxillary artery did not modify the normal cerebrovascular response to CO/sub 2/ inhalation. It is concluded that blockade of vascular adrenergic of cholinergic atropine-sensitive receptors in the goat has no effect on the cerebral vasomotor response to hypercapnia.

  9. Partial inhibition of the abstinence syndrome in morphine tolerant-dependent mice following pharmacological denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, E; Tamayo, L; Quijada, L

    1978-09-01

    Mice were chronically treated with either atropine, methysergide or pentobarbital in order to induce sensitivity changes resulting from adaptative adjustments in the central nervous system (CNS), and to examine the degree of tolerance to and physical dependence on morphine several days after the discontinuation of pretreatments. Subsequently to the chronic blockade of muscarinic or serotonergic receptors, the intensity of tolerance was unaffected, but some manifestations of the abstinence behavior induced by naloxone were reduced in part. This attenuation of the abstinence syndrome in the pretreated mice was reverted by an additional dose of either atropine or methysergide administered a few min before naloxone. Additional experiments with physostigmine or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in morphine-dependent mice yielded results compatible with the hypothesis that morphine physical dependence may be the manifestation of compensatory changes of sensitivity to serotonin and acetylcholine in the CNS. These results do not exclude the participation of other neurotransmitters or neurohormones in morphine dependence.

  10. Electrocardiographic evaluation of two anesthetic combinations in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tárraga K.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate electrocardiographic changes in dogs aged 5 years or more submitted to two anesthetic combinations: atropine, levomeprazine, thiopental and halothane (ALTH, and atropine, tiletamine and zolazepam (ATZ. Forty dogs (24 males/16 females weighing 5-24kg, were used. Dogs had no cardiac problems and were submitted to tartarectomy. All animals were submitted to two electrocardiograms (ECG, one before anesthesia and other immediately before surgery. The dogs were divided into two groups: group 1 received ALTH and group 2 received ATZ. Alterations in the ST segment, T wave, cardiac rhythm and a significant reduction of vagal tonus index were observed in both groups, but in group 2 a significant reduction of the PR and QT intervals and an increase in heart rate were also observed. These data suggest that the ALTH combination caused fewer changes in the ECG than the ATZ combination.

  11. The A- and B-type muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from Drosophila melanogaster couple to different second messenger pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Guilin Robin; Folke, Jonas; Hauser, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by the agonists acetylcholine and muscarine and blocked by several antagonists, among them atropine. In mammals five mAChRs (m1-m5) exist of which m1, m3, and m5 are coupled to members of the Gq...... to classical antagonists such as atropine. Here, we find that the D. melanogaster A-type mAChR is coupled to Gq/11 and D. melanogaster B-type mAChR to Gi/0. Furthermore, by comparing the second and third intracellular loops of all animal mAChRs for which the G protein coupling has been established, we could...

  12. Acetylcholine produces contraction mediated by cyclooxigenase pathway in arterial vessels in the marine fish (Isacia conceptionis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA. Moraga

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies showed that dorsal artery contraction mediated by acetylcholine (ACh is blocked with indomethacin in intertidal fish (G. laevifrons. Our objective was to characterize the cholinergic pathway in several artery vessels of the I. conceptionis. Afferent and efferent branchial, dorsal and mesenteric arteries were dissected of 6 juvenile specimens, isometric tension studies were done using doses response curves (DRC for Ach (10–13 to 10–3 M, and cholinergic pathways were obtained by blocking with atropine or indomethacin. CRC to ACh showed a pattern of high sensitivity only in efferente branchial artery and low sensibility in all vessels. Furthermore, these contractions were blocked in the presence of atropine and indomethacin in all vessels. Our results corroborate previous results observed in intertidal species that contraction induced by acetylcholine is mediated by receptors that activate a cyclooxygenase contraction pathway.

  13. [Condition of patients after surgical wisdom tooth extraction under general anesthesia with different premedication variants--a prospective study based on a post-anesthesia questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, H; Schwarz, A

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of the modified "postanaesthesiological questionnaire" pointed to a subtle influencing of the condition of patients who had undergone 3rd molar surgery in general anaesthesia by using different premedication variants: "Atropine, Pethidine and Midazolam" (group A) and "Atropine, Midazolam and S-Ketamin" (group B). The combination in group B seems to be more suitable. On the one hand, a lower incidence of unwanted side-effects was found and, on the other hand, remarkable positive effects were observed. Of particular significance with this combination was also the more effective suppression of postoperative pain. The Propofol-supplemented general anaesthesia prepared in this way and administered using a nasal intubation technique found the full approval of the patients. Postoperative pain therapy was effective and also inexpensive, costing just 8.20 DM per patient, according to current prices calculated by Magdeburg University Hospital.

  14. [Sedation using ketamine for pain procedures in Pediatric Oncology.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, C; Tichit, R; Troncin, R; Bernard, F

    2009-09-01

    Procedural sedation and analgesia for children is widely practiced. Since 2005 to 2007, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of ketamine to control pain induced by diagnostic procedures in pediatric oncology patients. Eight hundred fifty procedures were carried out in 125 patients aged 2 to 16 years. We associated EMNO (inhaled equimolar mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen), atropin (oral or rectal), midazolam (oral or rectal) and ketamin (intravenous). An anesthesiologist injected ketamin. Average dose of ketamine was 0.33 to 2 mg/kg depending on number and invasiveness of procedures. This method requires careful monitoring and proper precautions. With these conditions, no complication was observed. All patients were effectively sedated. These results indicate that ketamine - in association with EMNO, atropine and midazolam - is safe and effective in pain management induced by diagnostic procedures in pediatric oncology patients. The sedative regimen of intravenous ketamine has greatly reduced patient, family and practitioners anxiety for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  15. Microinjection of limonene into caudate nucleus inhibits IMC of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Guo; Xin Yi Zhu; Yi Quan Wei; De Zhi Yang

    2000-01-01

    AIM We have discovered that Limonene modulates interdigestive myoelectrical complexes (IMCs) ofgastrointestinal tract in rats. In this research we will elucidate weather limonene affects acetylcholine M-receptor in caudate nucleus.METHODS Changes of IMCs were studied after limonene and/or atropine were microinjected into caudatenucleus. IMCs were recorded by a RM-6200 four-channel recorder and then delivered to Maclab and PowerMacintosh.RESULTS The active phases of IMCs occupied about 40% of total cycle in average. After microinjection oflimonene into caudate nucleus, the active phases were significantly shortened, while the cycle time of IMCswere not changed significantly. The inhibitory effects of limonene were abolished by pretreatment withatropine, whilst the atropine has no effect on IMCs.CONCLUSION It is suggested that limonene inhabits the gastrointestinal IMCs by affecting M-receptor incaudate nucleus.

  16. In vivo experimental approach to treatment against tabun poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Suzana; Katalinić, Maja; Vrdoljak, Ana Lucić; Kovarik, Zrinka; Kuca, Kamil; Radić, Bozica

    2010-08-01

    Organophosphorus compounds pose a potential threat to both military and civilian populations. Since post-exposure therapy has its limitations, our research was focused on the possibility of improving pretreatment in order to limit the toxic effects of tabun. We determined the protective index of various combinations of atropine, oximes (K074, K048, and TMB-4), and pyridostigmine given to mice before tabun intoxication. Although the tested oximes showed very good therapeutic efficacy in tabun-poisoned mice, the given pretreatments improved therapy against tabun poisoning. These regimens ensured survival of all animals up to 25.2 LD(50) of tabun. Our results indicate that even pretreatment with atropine alone is sufficiently effective in enhancing the survival of mice poisoned by multiple doses of tabun, if oxime therapy follows. K048 is our oxime of choice for future research, as it shows better protective and reactivating potency.

  17. Anticholinergic drugs--functional antidotes for the treatment of tabun intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejcová, Gabriela; Kassa, Jirí

    2004-01-01

    1. To study the influence of antidotes on tabun-induced neurotoxicity, the rats were injected intramuscularly with organophosphate tabun (LD50). The efficacy of choice antidotal treatment consisting of acetylcholinesterase reactivator obidoxime and one of four anticholinergic drugs (atropine, benactyzine, biperiden, scopolamine) was compared. 2. Testing of tabun-induced neurotoxicity progress was carried out using the method Functional observational battery. The experimental animals as well as controls were observed at 24 hours and 7 days following tabun or saline administration. 3. The results were compared to the condition of animals without anticholinergic drug (oxime alone) and control rats that received physiological solution instead of tabun and treatment. Antidotal treatment involving centrally acting anticholinergic drugs (benactyzine, biperiden, scopolamine) showed significantly higher neuroprotective efficacy compared to antidotal treatment containing atropine.

  18. Endomorphins decrease heart rate and blood pressure possibly by activating vagal afferents in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, E H; Dun, N J

    1998-08-24

    Endomorphin 1 (10, 30, 100 nmol/kg) administered intravenously (i.v. ) to urethane-anesthetized rats consistently and dose-dependently lowered heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP); the decrease in blood pressure recovered faster as compared to the HR. The effects of endomorphin 2 were qualitatively similar. Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.v.) completely antagonized the bradycardia and hypotension caused by endomorphin 1. Pretreatment of the rats with atropine methylnitrate, atropine sulfate (2 mg/kg, i.v.) or bilateral vagotomy nearly abolished the bradycardia and attenuated the hypotensive effect of endomorphin 1. Our studies suggest that the bradycardia effect following systemic administration of the new opioid peptide may be explained by activation of vagal afferents and the hypotensive effect may be secondary to a reduction of cardiac output and/or a direct vasodilation.

  19. Severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension in ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Yan Keung

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatera results when ciguatoxin-contaminated coral reef fish from tropical or subtropical waters are consumed. The clinical features that present in affected persons are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological, general, and much less commonly, cardiovascular. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed the characteristic combination of acute gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms after the consumption of an unidentified coral reef fish head. In addition to those symptoms, he developed dizziness, severe bradycardia (46 bpm) and prolonged hypotension, which required the administration of intravenous atropine and over three days of intravenous fluid replacement with dopamine infusion. Patients with ciguatera can develop severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension. Physicians should recognise the possible cardiovascular complications of ciguatera and promptly initiate treatment with intravenous atropine, intravenous fluid replacement and inotropic therapy if such complications are observed.

  20. Adsorption of inorganic and organic ions to polycarbophil as a means of sustained-release dosage formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, N A; Russell, J; Connors, K A; Bass, P

    1987-06-01

    The adsorption and desorption of drugs and inorganic ions to and from polycarbophil (PC), a polymer, were investigated to determine if PC would be a suitable carrier for sustained-release dosage formulations. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments with a polycarbophil-atropine sulfate complex demonstrated the gradual-release properties of this system. Adsorbed Cr3+ ions, like atropine, are released slowly. In contrast, 51CrO4(2-) ions are predominantly bound in an irreversible manner. A third group of drugs minimally adsorbed to PC under the conditions studied. We conclude that PC under both in vitro and in vivo conditions is able to bind certain ions and drugs and then release them over a period of time in a predictable and repeatable manner.

  1. Effects of orexins on myoelectric activity of sphincter of Oddi in fasted rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-tao LI; Xiao-wei CHEN; Hong-mei ZHAO; Na LI; Jie YAN; Zhi-an HU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of peripheral orexins on myoelectric activity of the sphincter of Oddi (SO) in fasted rabbits, and carry out a preliminary investigation into the mechanisms underlying these effects, Methods: Myoelectric activity of SO in fasted rabbits was recorded before and after intravenous or local application of orexins. The effects of intravenous atropine on orexin-increased myoelectric activity of SO were tested. Results: Myoelectric activity of SO was activated by both intravenous and local injection of orexin-A or orexin-B. Intravenous application of atropine completely inhibited the excitatory effect of orexins on SO.Conclusion: Peripheral application of orexins can increase myoelectric activity of SO in fasted rabbits, which is partially associated with the activation of the cholinergic pathway.

  2. Plantas de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina, con actividad gastroprotectora y antiespasmódica Antiulcerogenic and antispasmodic effects of plants from La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E Toso

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad gastroprotectora y antiespasmódica de extractos hidroalcohólicos de Marrubium vulgare (MV, Acmella decumbens (AD, Lippia turbinata (LT, Tribulus terrestres (TT y Ruta chalepensis (RC. Para determinar el efecto gastroprotector se indujeron úlceras por estrés y la motilidad gastrointestinal se evaluó midiendo el progreso del contenido intestinal en ratones. Atropina y ranitidina fueron utilizadas como drogas de referencia con actividad gastroprotectora y atropina fue utilizada, también, por su efecto inhibitorio sobre la motilidad gastrointestinal. Todos los extractos y la atropina mostraron actividad gastroprotectora (pThe objective of the research was the analysis of the antiulcerogenic and antispasmodic effects of Marrubium vulgare (MV, Acmella decumbens (AD, Lippia turbinata (LT, Tribulus terrestres and Ruta chalepensis (RC hidroalcoholic extracts. Antiulcerogenic activity was studied in mices for their ability to inhibit the gastric lesions induced on cold restraint stress. Gastrointestinal motility was evaluated with activated charcoal as intestinal transit indicator. Atropine and ranitidine were used like gastroprotectives. Atropine was used for decrease gastrointestinal motility. We proved that all plant extracts and atropine have gastroprotective activity (p< 0.01. Ranitidine did not prevent ulcers in mice. The extracts MV and AD also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared with atropine. LT, TT and RC extracts moderate but significantly inhibited gastrointestinal transit compared with control group (p< 0.01. These results further suggest that all extracts were found to possess antiulcerogenic and inhibitory activity on gastrointestinal motility, which might also be due to antispasmolitic activity.

  3. Effects of Acute and Recurrent Stress During Adolescence on Subsequent Indices of Adult Behavioral Health in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-10

    health. McEwen (2001b) reported that the effect of cortisol and adrenaline on the hippocampus promotes memory formation associated with harmful...excessive exercise, and administration of various drugs (e.g., atropine, morphine , formaldehyde) in non-lethal doses. He found that a predictable...the hippocampus . British Journal of Pharmacology, 89(2), 341-347. Barron, S., White, A., Swartzwelder, H. S., Bell, R. L., Rodd, Z. A., Slawecki, C

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Chemical Defense Bioscience Review (4th) Held at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 30 May-1 June 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    a dose of 2 milligrams/ kilogram, I.V., of a 2% solution in saline, was used for rapid visual assessments of cerebrovascular permeability. The dye was...may be killed by poisoning, infection, accidental injury, stroke or metabolic failure. The injured cells may respond in several ways to the insult...The effects of atropine upon the cerebrovascular system during Soman-induced respiratory depression. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn., 235: 211- 218. 12

  5. Intraoperative Gastric Suctioning and Postoperative Nausea, Retching, and Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    than atropine ( Baraka , 1977; Salem, 1976). Antacids are used to decrease gastric acidity (Taylor, 1966) but at the same time add to gastric volume...aspiration. Placement of a gastric tube postoperatively is rarely indicated for the treatment of vomiting. The primary means of treatment for nausea...strength of the field experiment since the very realism of the setting often makes the findings more generalizable and meaningful .-.-. The greatest

  6. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  7. Central interaction between physostigmine and histamine during yawning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Soraya, Hamid; Hamzeh-Gooshchi, Nasrin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effects of intraperitoneal (ip) injection of physostigmine, subcutaneous (sc) injection of atropine, and intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of histamine, chlorpheniramine (H(1)-receptor antagonist), and ranitidine (H(2)-receptor antagonist) in separate and combined treatments were investigated during yawning in rats. Physostigmine at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg produced the highest number of yawns. Atropine, used alone, was without effect, but physostigmine (0.25 mg/kg, ip)-induced yawning was blocked by pretreatment with atropine (1 mg/kg, sc). Histamine at the doses of 10, 20 and 40 microg produced yawning. Chlorpheniramine and ranitidine, used alone, had no effect, whereas pretreatments with chlorpheniramine and ranitidine at the same dose of 80 microg prevented histamine (40 microg, icv)-induced yawning. The suppressive effect of chlorpheniramine was more than that of ranitidine. Histamine (10 and 40 microg, icv) enhanced, whereas chlorpheniramine and ranitidine at the same dose of 80 microg suppressed, physostigmine (0.25 mg/kg, ip)-induced yawning. Atropine (1 mg/kg, sc) not only suppressed histamine-induced yawning, but also enhanced the inhibitory effect of chlorpheniramine, but not of ranitidine on yawning induced by histamine. These results indicate that muscarinic receptors mediate yawning induced by physostigmine. Histamine central H(1), and to a lesser extent H(2) receptors, may be involved in histamine-induced yawning. Cholinergic muscarinic receptors, as well as histaminergic H(1) and to a lesser extent H(2) receptors, may lso be involved in the interaction between brain acetylcholine and histamine.

  8. Phentolamine-induced rhythmic contractions in bladder detrusor muscle of guinea-pig.

    OpenAIRE

    Satake, N; Shibata, S.; Ueda, S.

    1984-01-01

    Phentolamine caused a rhythmic contraction concentration-dependently without affecting resting tone in the detrusor muscle. Prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol, noradrenaline, clonidine or isoprenaline failed to cause the rhythmic contraction. These agents did not modify the response to phentolamine suggesting no involvement of alpha- or beta-adrenoceptors in the response to phentolamine. Chlorpheniramine, cimetidine, methysergide, SK&F 83566, atropine, bretylium, hemicholinium or tetrodotoxin f...

  9. Effects of PYY on the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex in the small intestine in vivo and the neural and endocrinal mechanisms of the effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of peptide YY (PYY) on the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) in the small intestine in vivo and explore the neural and endocrinal mechanisms of the effects. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were supplied with a venous catheter and bipolar electrodes in the duodenum and jejunum for electromyography of stomach and small intestine in wake state. PYY,phentolamine,nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA,the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) and atropine were served with PYY res...

  10. Diabetic plasticity of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic and P2X-mediated rat bladder contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Alvaro; Boone, Timothy B; Smith, Christopher P; Somogyi, George T

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the plasticity effects of diabetes mellitus and diuresis on the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) and purinergic (P2X-type) contractile responses in longitudinal rat bladder strips. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received streptozotocin to induce diabetes, or sucrose in water to induce diuresis as a control condition for polyuria. Experiments were carried out at four weeks after treatments, using bladders from non-treated rats as control. Urinary bladder strips were electrically stimulated throughout the experiments to generate neurally evoked contractions (NEC). In all cases, P2X-mediated purinergic contractions were evaluated at the beginning and end of the stimulations with α,β-methylene-adenosine triphosphate (α,βMeATP). The NANC responses were assessed by using two independent protocols. First, cholinergic receptors were activated with carbachol (CCh), followed by inhibition of the muscarinic component with atropine. In the second protocol, the application order for CCh and atropine was reversed. The NANC response, unmasked with the application of atropine, and the P2X purinergic contractions were analyzed. NANC contractions in diabetic bladder strips are more resistant to the desensitizing effects caused by activation of cholinergic receptors. In early stages of experimental diabetes, NANC responses in diabetic strips are less sensitive to functional inhibition mediated by the cholinergic activation. However, P2X-mediated purinergic contractions are more sensitive to desensitization in diabetic or diuretic bladders. For instance preventing muscarinic receptor activation with atropine does not counteract the desensitization of purinergic contractions in either diabetic or diuretic strips. We suggest that diabetes may induce a plasticity of the NANC and P2X-mediated bladder contractile responses. The first one may be associated with diabetic neuropathic damage to bladder nerves, while impaired P2X purinergic contractions might be associated

  11. Dopamine-induced amylase secretion from rat parotid salivary gland in vitro: an effect mediated via noradrenergic and cholinergic nerves.

    OpenAIRE

    Hata, F.; Ishida, H.; Kondo, E

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dopamine on amylase secretion by rat parotid tissue was examined in vitro. Dopamine induced marked amylase secretion from the tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Its EC50 value was about 4 microM and the maximal response was obtained at a concentration of 100 microM. The dopamine-induced secretion was inhibited by the dopamine-antagonists haloperidol, (+)-butaclamol and spiroperidol. Atropine reduced the dopamine-induced secretion significantly, and physostigmine enhanced the sec...

  12. Post activation depression of the Ia EPSP in motoneurones is reduced in both aged mice and in the G127X SOD1 model of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Anne; Lehnhoff, Janna; Moldovan, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    /mL) and water, mixed 1:1:2 (induction: 0.15mL/25g, maintenance: 0.05mL/20min, SC). Anaesthesia was assessed by the lack of reflexes to a short noxious pinch on the hind foot. All mice received Atropine (0.02mg, SC). Prior to recording, mice were ventilated and paralysed with Pancuronium Bromide (0.01mg/h, IP...

  13. Changes in intraocular pressure and horizontal pupil diameter during use of topical mydriatics in the canine eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liga Kovalcuka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of topical 0.5% tropicamide, 1% atropine sulphate and 10% phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions on intraocular pressure (IOP and horizontal pupil diameter (HPD in the dog during the first hour after treatment. Forty clinically and ophthalmologically normal canine patients (between the ages of 2 and 6 years of varying breed and sex were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of ten and given one drop of tropicamide, atropine, phenylephrine or saline into one eye. IOP and HPD were measured in both eyes every 5 minutes for 60 minutes. Tropicamide increased IOP by 8.8±4.0 mmHg 35 minutes post-treatment compared to pre-treatment (P<0.01 only in treated eye. IOP in the contralateral eye did not increase. With atropine the maximum increase in IOP was 2.6±2.8 mmHg at 20 minutes post treatment in the treated eye (P<0.01. IOP in the contralateral eye did not increase. Phenylephrine increased IOP by 2.3±2.1 mmHg (P<0.05 10 minutes after treatment. Also in the untreated eye IOP increased by 2.3±2.1 mmHg, 20 minutes post-treatment. Maximum HPD in eyes treated with tropicamide occurred at 55 minutes and with atropine at 60 minutes. There were no HPD changes in the contralateral, untreated eye. Topical 10% phenylephrine showed maximal pupil dilation 60 minutes after treatment, but the HPD of the – untreated eye slightly decreased at 15 minutes, but this change only reached statistical significance at 40 min post- treatment (P<0.05. Normal saline showed no influence on IOP or HPD. The drugs investigated here show a significant increase in IOP after mydriatics.

  14. Role of M1 receptor in regulation of gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gajdus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:The subject of this study is determination of the influence of drugs on gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction induced by activation of muscarinic receptors M1. Experiments tested interactions between a receptor agonist, carbachol and muscarinic receptor antagonists, atropine and pirenzepine.Material/Methods:Testing was conducted on tissues isolated from rat’s stomach. Male Wistar rats with weight between 220 g and 360 g were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (120 mg/kg. The stomach was dissected, and later the gastric fundus was isolated. Tissue was placed in a dish for insulated organs with 20 ml in capacity, filled with Krebs fluid. Results contained in the study are average values ± SE. In order to determine statistical significance, the principles of receptor theory were used (Kenakin modification.Results:According to tests, carbachol, in concentrations ranging between 10–8 M to 10–4 M, in a dosage-dependent way induces gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction. Presented results indicate that carbachol meets the conditions posed to full agonists. On the other hand, atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, causes a concentration-dependent shift of concentration-effect curve (for carbachol to the right, maintaining maximum reaction. According to analysis of the curve determined, we can deduce that atropine meets the conditions posed to competitive antagonists. The use of pirenzepine, a competitive receptor agonist M1, causes shift of concentration-effect curve (for carbachol to the right, maintaining maximum reaction.Conclusions:From the testing conducted on the preparation of the gastric fundus we can deduce that atropine causes shift of concentration-effect curves for carbachol to the right. A similar effect is released by pirenzepine, selectively blocking muscarinic receptors of M1 type. The results indicate that in the preparation of the gastric fundus smooth muscle, M1 type

  15. Drug: D01491 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01491 Drug Butropium bromide (JP16/INN); Coliopan (TN) C28H38NO4. Br 531.1984 532....ensory organs 12 Agents affecting peripheral nervous system 124 Antispasmodics 1242 Atropines D01491 Butropium bromide...9 1131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] Butropium D01491 Butropium bromide (JP16/INN) CAS:

  16. Electrophysiological effects of Drugs Known to Affect Acetylcholinesterase and Its Inhibition on Neural Mechanisms of Rat Septal Nuclei, in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-30

    potential ( EPSP ); followed by B) a rapid GABA-activated, chloride-mediated, bicuculline/picrotoxin-sensitivq, fast inhibitory postsynaptic potential...receptors on DLSN neurons Based on the earlier studies with atropine by DeFrance et al. (8), a suggestion had been made that cholinergic interneurons might...applied focally within the slice and activates fimbrial input to the septum, from the hippocampus. A. EPSP mediated by excitatory amino acid acting

  17. GABAA Receptors Implicated in REM Sleep Control Express a Benzodiazepine Binding Site

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tin Quang; Liang, Chang-Lin; Marks, Gerald A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that non-subtype-selective GABAA receptor antagonists injected into the nucleus pontis oralis (PnO) of rats induced long-lasting increases in REM sleep. Characteristics of these REM sleep increases were identical to those resulting from injection of muscarinic cholinergic agonists. Both actions were blocked by the muscarinic antagonist, atropine. Microdialysis of GABAA receptor antagonists into the PnO resulted in increased acetylcholine levels. These findings were consis...

  18. Chloride current in mammalian cardiac myocytes. Novel mechanism for autonomic regulation of action potential duration and resting membrane potential

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The properties of the autonomically regulated chloride current (ICl) were studied in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes. This current was elicited upon exposure to isoproterenol (ISO) and reversed upon concurrent exposure to acetylcholine (ACh). ICl was time independent and exhibited outward rectification. The responses to ISO and ACh could be blocked by propranolol and atropine, respectively, and ICl was also elicited by forskolin, 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, and 3-iso...

  19. Prevalence of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Pilot Fatalities of Civil Aviation Accidents, 1990-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    Some of the drugs—such as atropine, lidocaine , etomidate, and analgesics—found in the pilot fatalities could have been administered by emergency...system of the pilots prior to the accidents. Thus, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic- level interactions of SSRIs and their active metabolites...2002. 17 6. Baumann P. Pharmacokinetic- pharmacodynamic relationship of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Clin Pharmacokinet 1996; 31:444

  20. A Critical Review of the Drug/Performance Literature. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    atropine and scopolamine: An experi- mental study on mice. Annales Medicinae Experimentalis et Biologiae, 1961, 39, 1-70. (Suppl. 3) Feldmann, H...amphetamine and secobarbi- tal on key press rates in normal humans. Archives of Interna - tional Pharmacodynamics, 1974, 207, 288-297. Stripling, J...flupenthixole and alcohol on psychomotor skills related to driving. Annales Medicinae Experimentalis et Biologiae Fenniae, 1973, 51, 125-132. Linnoila, M

  1. Quantitative Ischemia Detection During Cardiac MR Stress Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA 4 Cardiology Division of the School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract- Because ECG...independent detection of the onset of ischemia during acute coronary occlusion. Six mongrel dogs underwent acute coronary artery ischemia of 2 minutes...revised 1985). Six mongrel dogs (20-25 kgs) were preanesthetized with 10 mg/kg ketamine, 2.4 mg/kg xylazine, and 0.02 mg/kg atropine intramuscularly

  2. Shaker-type Kv1 channel blockers increase the peristaltic activity of guinea-pig ileum by stimulating acetylcholine and tachykinins release by the enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna-Jorge, Rosane; Oliveira, Cyntia F; Garcia, Maria L; Kaczorowski, Gregory J; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2003-01-01

    1 A constant intraluminal pressure system was used to evaluate the effects of Kv1 channel blockers on the peristaltic activity of guinea-pig ileum. 2 The nortriterpene correolide, a non-selective inhibitor of all Kv1 sub-types, causes progressive and sustained reduction of the pressure threshold for eliciting peristaltic contractions. 3 Margatoxin (MgTX), alpha-dendrotoxin (alpha-DTX) and dendrotoxin-K (DTX-K), highly selective peptidyl inhibitors of certain Kv1 sub-types, cause immediate reduction of the pressure threshold. This effect subsides with time, irrespective of the peptides' concentration in the bath. In preparations pretreated with saturating concentrations of MgTX, correolide further stimulates the peristaltic activity. 4 Iberiotoxin (IbTX), a selective inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels, and charybdotoxin (ChTX), which inhibits Kv1.2 and Kv1.3 as well as BK channels, fail to stimulate the peristaltic activity. 5 Blockade of muscarinic receptors by atropine reduces, and occasionally suppresses the peristaltic activity of guinea-pig ileum. In atropine-treated preparations, correolide and MgTX retain their abilities to reduce the pressure threshold and are able to restore the peristaltic reflex in the preparations where this reflex was suppressed by atropine. 6 The stimulatory effect of correolide and MgTX in atropine-treated preparations is abolished by subsequent addition of selective antagonists of both NK1 and NK2 receptors. 7 In conclusion, blockade of Kv1, particularly Kv1.1 channels, increases the peristaltic activity of guinea-pig ileum by enhancing the release of neurotransmitters at the enteric nervous system. In contrast, stimulation of the myogenic motility by blockade of BK channels does not affect the threshold for the peristaltic reflex.

  3. Selected Research Highlights and Potential Impact for Army Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson... PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING...Time after injection (min) Device 170 μg/kg H R ( b p m ) Accomplishments & Opportunities - 2 M. Cima N. Elman Rapid Reconstitution of Atropine

  4. Pharmacological investigation into the effects of histamine and histamine analogues on guinea-pig and rat colon in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, M. J.; MORALES-OLIVAS, F. J.; RUBIO, E.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of histamine and specific histamine agonists has been examined on isolated longitudinal colon strips of guinea-pig and rat. Histamine and 2-pyridyl-ethylamine but not 4 methylhistamine produced a concentration-related contractile response in the guinea-pig colon. The H1-antagonist clemizole antagonized competitively the effect of histamine but the H2-antagonist ranitidine did not modify the dose-response curve to histamine in the guinea-pig colon. Atropine, hexamethonium, prazosin...

  5. In Search of an Effective in vivo Reactivator for Organophosphorus Nerve Agent-Inhibited Acetylcholinesterase in the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Berends, D.M.W. Elskamp, L.A. Kepner, E. Meeter and R.P.L.S. Visser, The prophylactic value of oximes against organophosphate poisoning , In: SIPRI...new antidote drug combination (Atropine-HI-6-prodiazepam) for treatment of organophosphate poisoning , Eur. J. Pharm. Sci., 9(2000), 259–263. [9] J...Clement, Efficacy of pro-PAM (N-methyl-1,6-dihydropyridine-2- carbaldoxime hydrochloride) as a prophylaxis against organophosphate poisoning

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Carbamates as Prophylactic Agents against Organophosphate Intoxication Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chatterjee

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigates the effects of two well-known carbamates, physostigmine and pyridostigmine against organophosphorous compound and nerve gas toxicity. Physostigmine pretreatment for 30 min enhanced the survival time of rats against DFP intoxication whereas it did not have any effect with sarin poisoning. However, pyridostigmine pretreatment did not produce any significant effect on survival time either against DFP or sarin intoxication. Treatment with atropine along with carbamates further enhanced significantly the survival time against DFP poisoning.

  7. Amino acid biogeochemistry and bacterial contribution to sediment organic matter along the western margin of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; Garg, A.; Borole, D.V.

    and TN analysis. Concentrations of TOC and TN were determined by combusting pre-weighed samples in Elemental analyzer (Thermo Electron Corporation, Flash ES 1112 Series). Atropine was used as a standard. The C/N ratio was calculated as the molar ratio... 100 where, D-AA and THAA are molar concentrations 2.6. Contribution of peptidoglycan to THAA In order to determine the relative contribution of peptidoglycan (THAApep) to the total hydrolysable AA (THAA...

  8. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to counteract tabun-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana

    2007-01-05

    The neuroprotective effects of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (180 micro g/kg i.m.; 80% LD(50)) were studied. The tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored using a functional observational battery and an automatic measurement of motor activity. The neurotoxicity of tabun was monitored at 24h and 7 days following tabun challenge. The results indicate that all oximes studied in combination with atropine allow all tabun-poisoned rats to survive within 7 days following tabun challenge while two non-treated tabun-poisoned rats died within 2h. Both newly developed oximes combined with atropine seem to be effective antidotes for a decrease in tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisoning although they are not able to eliminate tabun-induced neurotoxicity completely. The oxime K075 showed a higher neuroprotective efficacy against tabun than K074 according to the number of eliminated tabun-induced neurotoxic signs at 24h as well as 7 days after tabun challenge. The neuroprotective efficacy of obidoxime in combination with atropine is similar to the potency of newly developed oxime K075 but the ability of the oxime HI-6 to counteract tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity is significantly lower at 24h as well as 7 days after tabun poisoning. Due to their neuroprotective effects, both newly developed oximes (especially K075) appear to be more suitable oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings than the oxime HI-6.

  9. Effects of Oxime K203 and Oxidative Stress in Plasma of Tabun Poisoned Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Berend, Suzana; Lucić Vrdoljak, Ana; Musilek, Kamil; Kuča, Kamil; Radić, Božica

    2012-01-01

    The highly toxic nature of tabun has been known for many years, but there are still serious limitations to antidotal therapy. In this study, we used rats as an experimental model to evaluate the efficiency of bispyridinium para-oxime K203 as therapy against tabun poisoning as well as to examine if induction of oxidative stress is linked to organophosphate toxicity. K203 showed high potency in counteracting tabun poisoning. Either alone or in combination with atropine, this oxime s...

  10. Pharmacognosy: Science of natural products in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkay Erdogan Orhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacognosy deals with the natural drugs obtained fromorganisms such as most plants, microbes, and animals. Up todate, many important drugs including morphine, atropine,galanthamine, etc. have originated from natural sources whichcontinue to be good model molecules in drug discovery.Traditional medicine is also a part of pharmacognosy and mostof the third world countries still depend on the use of herbalmedicines. Consequently, pharmacognosy always keeps itspopularity in pharmaceutical sciences and plays a critical role indrug discovery.

  11. An Analysis of Contracting Actions by United States Based Department of Defense Organizations to Support Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Personal Interviews . . . . .... 36 Use of the Delphi Method . . . . . .... 37 Discussion of Investigative Questions . . . 39 Investigative Questions...the end of Desert Storm. Prior to Desert Shield the two manufacturers of injectors for atropine, a nerve agent antidote, were producing 60,000 units...two-stage approach was the formal phase, in which the Delphi technique was determined to be appropriate (Emory and Cooper, 1991:149). The data was

  12. Prophylaxis against Organophosphorous Nerve Agents - State of the Art (profylaxe tegen organofosfaat zenuwgassen - stand van zaken)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Philippens, unpublished results 2000). During the first three weeks stress alone had a positive effect on the activity and exploration. During the...390-400, 1983. Kleinwaechter, L. Beobachtung uber die Wirkung des Calabar-Extracts gegen Atropin- Vergiftung. Berl. Klin. Wschr. 1 369-371, 1864... Marketing en Communicatie, digitale versie via Archief 21 ex. TNO Defensie en Veiligheid, vestiging Rijswijk, afdeling Tekstverwerking (digitale versie)

  13. Cholinergic modulation of non-N-methyl-D-aspartic acid glutamatergic transmission in the chick ventral lateral geniculate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J-Z; Sorenson, E M; Chiappinelli, V A

    2010-03-17

    Neurotransmission between glutamatergic terminals of retinal ganglion cells and principal neurons of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNv) was examined with patch clamp recordings in chick brain slices during electrical stimulation of the optic tract. Since muscarinic and nicotinic receptors are present in high densities in LGNv, the present study examined possible roles of both receptors in modulating retinogeniculate transmission. During whole-cell recordings from LGNv neurons, acetylcholine (ACh, 100 microM) caused an initial increase in amplitudes of optic tract-evoked non-N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamatergic postsynaptic currents (PSCs). This increase was unchanged when 1 microM atropine was present, indicating that this initial enhancement of PSCs was due entirely to activation of nicotinic receptors. However, during washout of ACh the amplitudes of evoked PSCs became significantly decreased by 40.4+/-5.0% for several minutes before recovering to their original amplitudes, an effect blocked by 1 microM atropine. Exogenously applied muscarine (10 microM) markedly depressed optic tract-evoked PSCs, and this decrease in amplitude was blocked by atropine. In a second set of experiments, we examined effects of releasing endogenous ACh prior to optic tract stimulation. This was accomplished by stimulation of the lateral portion of LGNv via a separate conditioning electrode. Following a brief train of low intensity conditioning stimuli, non-NMDA glutamatergic PSCs evoked by optic tract stimulation were potentiated. However, at higher conditioning stimulus intensities the PSCs were markedly decreased compared with control, and this decrease was partially blocked by atropine (1 microM). Neither ACh nor muscarine altered amplitudes of PSCs elicited by exogenously applied glutamate. Muscarine significantly reduced the frequency but not the amplitudes of miniature PSCs, consistent with a presynaptic location for muscarinic receptors mediating these

  14. Blast Overpressure Studies with Animals and Man: Biological Response to Complex Blast Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-31

    armored vehicle. 4. To investigate the relative importance of the quasi- static pressure rise component of complex waves in I producing trauma by...were to be protected were blocked with a selected I earplug. Each sheep received a preanesthetic intramuscular (IM) injection of atropine sulfate (0.44...ketamine hydrochloride (22 mg/kg), exsanguinated by severing the jugular veins and carotid I arteries, and necropsied. Each animal was assessed for

  15. Influence of pneumoperitoneum and postural change on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of pneumoperitoneum#(PP) and postural change under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane, which is routinely used in dogs, on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. As test animals, 6 adult beagles were used. To induce anesthesia, atropine, butorphanol and propofol were intravenously injected. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.3 MAC (1.7%) isoflurane. The following were the experiment conditions: I:E ratio, 1:1.9; tidal air exchange, 20 ml/kg; and ventilation...

  16. Pharmacognosy: Science of natural products in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacognosy deals with the natural drugs obtained from organisms such as most plants, microbes, and animals. Up to date, many important drugs including morphine, atropine, galanthamine, etc. have originated from natural sources which continue to be good model molecules in drug discovery. Traditional medicine is also a part of pharmacognosy and most of the third world countries still depend on the use of herbal medicines. Consequently, pharmacognosy always keeps its popularity in pharmaceutical sciences and plays a critical role in drug discovery.

  17. Effects of pharmacologic reductions in salivary flow on taste thresholds in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, C M; Navazesh, M; Brightman, V J

    1984-01-01

    The effects of short-term salivary flow reductions on human taste thresholds were measured. Recognition and detection thresholds were obtained from 65 subjects during periods of both normal and reduced salivary flow. Decreased salivary flow was achieved by oral administration of either Elavil, Benadryl or atropine. Thresholds were measured for NaCl, citric acid, quinine sulphate and sucrose with a traditional series of aqueous solutions as well as with a series of dry taste stimuli using a filter-paper base. Whole mouth resting flow and stimulated salivary flow were measured before and after taste testing. The pharmacologic agents produced depressions in salivary flow ranging between 30 and 75 per cent of normal levels. The large decreases in flow produced no measurable changes in taste thresholds with the exception that an increased sensitivity to aqueous and dry citric acid stimuli consistently was observed following atropine administration. Changes in salivary bicarbonate levels, produced by atropine, may have mediated the observed shifts in oral sensitivity to citric acid.

  18. Effect of carotid and aortic baroreceptors on cardiopulmonary reflex: the role of autonomic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Fernandes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We determined the sympathetic and parasympathetic control of heart rate (HR and the sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary receptors after selective carotid and aortic denervation. We also investigated the participation of the autonomic nervous system in the Bezold-Jarish reflex after selective removal of aortic and carotid baroreceptors. Male Wistar rats (220-270 g were divided into three groups: control (CG, N = 8, aortic denervation (AG, N = 5 and carotid denervation (CAG, N = 9. AG animals presented increased arterial pressure (12% and HR (11% compared with CG, while CAG animals presented a reduction in arterial pressure (16% and unchanged HR compared with CG. The sequential blockade of autonomic effects by atropine and propranolol indicated a reduction in vagal function in CAG (a 50 and 62% reduction in vagal effect and tonus, respectively while AG showed an increase of more than 100% in sympathetic control of HR. The Bezold-Jarish reflex was evaluated using serotonin, which induced increased bradycardia and hypotension in AG and CAG, suggesting that the sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary reflex is augmented after selective denervation. Atropine administration abolished the bradycardic responses induced by serotonin in all groups; however, the hypotensive response was still increased in AG. Although the responses after atropine were lower than the responses before the drug, indicating a reduction in vagal outflow after selective denervation, our data suggest that both denervation procedures are associated with an increase in sympathetic modulation of the vessels, indicating that the sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary receptors was modulated by baroreceptor fibers.

  19. Muscularis mucosae contraction evokes colonic secretion via prostaglandin synthesis and nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, W H; Fromm, T H; Wangsness, C E

    2003-02-01

    This in vitro study tested the hypothesis that muscularis mucosae contractile activity contributes to rabbit colonic mucosal function by mechanisms other than simple mechanical deformation of the epithelium. Experiments were performed by using a technique that allows simultaneous recording of muscle activity and transmucosal potential difference, a measure of epithelial ion transport. ATP, bradykinin, histamine, PGE(2), PGF(1alpha), and PGF(2alpha) elicited muscularis mucosae contractions that were resistant to atropine and TTX. Only ATP-induced contractions were indomethacin sensitive, and only those to dimethylphenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP) were reduced by atropine. All agonist-evoked increases in transmucosal potential difference were atropine resistant, and, with the exception of those to PGE(2), PGF(2alpha), and VIP, they were also TTX sensitive. Mucosal responses to ATP, bradykinin, and histamine were indomethacin sensitive, whereas those to DMPP, the prostaglandins, and VIP were not. When cyclooxygenase activity or the mucosal innervation was compromised, even maximal muscularis mucosae contractions did not produce large secretory responses. It is concluded that contraction-related prostaglandin synthesis and noncholinergic secretomotor neuron stimulation represent the physiological transduction mechanism through which muscularis mucosae motor activity is translated into mucosal secretion.

  20. Possible Mechanisms for Functional Antagonistic Effect of Ferula assafoetida on Muscarinic Receptors in Tracheal Smooth Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyanmehr, Majid; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Hashemzehi, Milad

    2016-01-01

    Background The contribution of histamine (H1) receptors inhibitory and/or β-adrenoceptors stimulatory mechanisms in the relaxant property of Ferula assa-foetida. (F. asafoetida) was examined in the present study. Methods We evaluated the effect of three concentrations of F. asafoetida extract (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/mL), a muscarinic receptors antagonist, and saline on methacholine concentration-response curve in tracheal smooth muscles incubated with β-adrenergic and histamine (H1) (group 1), and only β-adrenergic (group 2) receptors antagonists. Results EC50 values in the presence of atropine, extract (5 and 10 mg/mL) and maximum responses to methacholine due to the 10 mg/mL extract in both groups and 5 mg/mL extract in group 1 were higher than saline (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0477, and P = 0.0008 in group 1 and P < 0.0001, P = 0.0438, and P = 0.0107 in group 2 for atropine, 5 and 10 mg/mL extract, respectively). Values of concentration ratio minus one (CR-1), in the presence of extracts were lower than atropine in both groups (P = 0.0339 for high extract concentration in group 1 and P < 0.0001 for other extract concentrations in both groups). Conclusion Histamine (H1) receptor blockade affects muscarinic receptors inhibitory property of F. asafoetida in tracheal smooth muscle PMID:27540324

  1. Role of Chronic Inflammation in Myopia Progression: Clinical Evidence and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ju Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and treatment of myopia is an important public problem worldwide. We found a higher incidence of myopia among patients with inflammatory diseases such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (7.9%, uveitis (3.7%, or systemic lupus erythematosus (3.5% compared to those without inflammatory diseases (p < 0.001 using data from children (<18 years old in the National Health Insurance Research database. We then examined the inhibition of myopia by atropine in Syrian hamsters with monocular form deprivation (MFD, an experimental myopia model. We found atropine downregulated inflammation in MFD eyes. The expression levels of c-Fos, nuclear factor κB (NFκB, interleukin (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were upregulated in myopic eyes and downregulated upon treatment with atropine. The relationship between the inflammatory response and myopia was investigated by treating MFD hamsters with the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CSA or the inflammatory stimulators lipopolysaccharide (LPS or peptidoglycan (PGN. Myopia progression was slowed by CSA application but was enhanced by LPS and PGN administration. The levels of c-Fos, NF-κB, IL-6, and TNF-α were upregulated in LPS- and PGN-treated eyes and downregulated by CSA treatment. These findings provide clinical and experimental evidence that inflammation plays a crucial role in the development of myopia.

  2. Blood pressure lowering action of active principle from Trachyspermum ammi (L.) sprague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, K; Atta-Ur-Rahman; Usmanghani, K

    1995-07-01

    Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Syn. Carum copticum (L.) Bth. (Apiaceae) is locally known as Ajowan. Bioassay-directed fractionation of Trachyspermum ammi has resulted in the isolation of thymol which is present in other plants as well. However, its action on blood pressure has not been studied so far. In anaesthetized rats, thymol (1-10mg/kg) produced dose-dependent fall in blood pressure and heart rate. These effects were not blocked by atropine (1 mg/kg) and thymol did not modify presser response of norepinepherine, which rules out the possibility of cholinergic stimulation or adrenergic blockade. In spontaneously beating atria, thymol caused decrease in force and rate of atrial contractions. These effects remained unaltered in the presence of atropine. In rabbit aorta, thymol caused relaxation of norepinepherine and potassium induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. These relaxant effects remained unchanged after the removal of endothelium. Moreover, atropine, propranolol, indomethacine and glibenclamide did not alter the vasorelaxation by thymol. These results suggest that Trachyspermum ammi contains a calcium channel blocker-like constituent (thymol) which may explain the hypotensive and bradycardiac effects observed in the in vivo studies.

  3. Suppression and enhancement of non-native molecules within biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.A. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, CEAS, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: e.jones@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Lockyer, N.P. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, CEAS, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Vickerman, J.C. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, CEAS, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-30

    With the aim of evaluating the potential of SIMS to provide molecular information from small molecules within biological systems, here we investigate the effect of different biological compounds as they act as matrices. The results highlight the fact that the chemical environment of a molecule can have a significant effect on its limit of detection. This has implications for the imaging of drugs and xenobiotics in tissue sections and other biological matrices. A 1:1 mixture of the organic acid 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone and the dipeptide valine-valine demonstrates that almost complete suppression of the [M + H]{sup +} ion of one compound can be caused by the presence of a compound of higher proton affinity. The significance of this is highlighted when two similar drug molecules, atropine (a neutral molecule) and ipratropium bromide (a quaternary nitrogen containing salt) are mixed with brain homogenate. The atropine [M + H]{sup +} ion shows significant suppression whilst the [M - Br]{sup +} of ipratopium bromide is detected at an intensity that can be rationalised by its decreased surface concentration. By investigating the effect of two abundant tissue lipids, cholesterol and dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline (DPPC), on the atropine [M + H]{sup +} signal detected in mixtures with these lipids we see that the DPPC has a strong suppressing effect, which may be attributed to gas phase proton transfer.

  4. Ballooning-induced bradycardia during carotid stenting in primary stenosis and restenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nano, Giovanni; Dalainas, Ilias; Bianchi, Paolo; Stegher, Silvia; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G. [University of Milan, Istituto Policlinico San Donato, Milan (Italy); Bet, Luciano [University of Milan, Neurology Department, Istituto Policlinico San Donato, Milan (Italy)

    2006-08-15

    We compared the incidence of intraprocedural bradycardia and hypotension during carotid artery stenting in patients with primary carotid artery stenosis and those with prior ipsilateral carotid endarterectomy. A total of 213 carotid stenting procedures were performed in our institution in a 4-year period. The mean degree of stenosis was 78% (range 60-99%). Of these 213 procedures, 43 were performed for carotid restenosis, 9 after stenting and 34 after endarterectomy, and 170 for primary stenosis. Atropine was selectively administrated if patients suffered bradycardia (a decrease in heart rate to <50% or an absolute heart rate of <40 bpm) or hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg). We compared the group of patients with primary stenosis (n=170) and the group of patients with restenosis after carotid endarterectomy (n=34) in relation to intraprocedural hypotension or bradycardia/need for atropine administration. Hypotension occurred in 49 patients with primary stenosis and 2 patients with restenosis. The difference was statistically significant. Atropine was administered for bradycardia to 58 patients with primary stenosis and 3 patients with restenosis. The difference was statistically significant. Intraprocedural bradycardia and hypotension occur more frequently in patients with primary carotid artery stenosis. (orig.)

  5. Effect of tricyclic antidepressants on transmitter-stimulated inositol phosphate production in rat brain cortex in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, S.; Enna, S.J.

    1986-03-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have anticholinergic and ..cap alpha..-adrenergic blocking properties. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of amitriptyline, imipramine, and desipramine on inositol phosphate accumulation, a brain second messenger system associated with cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. Whereas the TCAs were 28 to 400-fold weaker than atropine as inhibitors of /sup 3/H-QNB binding to brain cholinergic receptors, they were 600 to 2000-fold less active than atropine as inhibitors of carbachol-stimulated IP accumulation in brain. In contrast, the relative potencies of the TCAs and prazosin to inhibit norepinephrine-stimulated IP accumulation and /sup 3/H-prazosin binding appeared to be similar in the two assays. The results suggest pharmacological differences between the cholinergic receptors labeled in the ONB binding assay and those mediating the IP response, whereas the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors appear to be similar in the two systems. Since atropine is considered a nonselective muscarinic antagonist, it is possible that the TCAs may differentiate between cholinergic receptor subtypes, which may be an important component of their clinical response.

  6. Nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are recruited by acetylcholine-mediated neurotransmission within the locus coeruleus during the organisation of post-ictal antinociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo; Biagioni, Audrey Franceschi; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; Dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-10-01

    Post-ictal antinociception is characterised by an increase in the nociceptive threshold that accompanies tonic and tonic-clonic seizures (TCS). The locus coeruleus (LC) receives profuse cholinergic inputs from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Different concentrations (1μg, 3μg and 5μg/0.2μL) of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist atropine and the nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonist mecamylamine were microinjected into the LC of Wistar rats to investigate the role of cholinergic mechanisms in the severity of TCS and the post-ictal antinociceptive response. Five minutes later, TCS were induced by systemic administration of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (64mg/kg). Seizures were recorded inside the open field apparatus for an average of 10min. Immediately after seizures, the nociceptive threshold was recorded for 130min using the tail-flick test. Pre-treatment of the LC with 1μg, 3μg and 5μg/0.2μL concentrations of both atropine and mecamylamine did not cause a significant effect on seizure severity. However, the same treatments decreased the post-ictal antinociceptive phenomenon. In addition, mecamylamine caused an earlier decrease in the post-ictal antinociception compared to atropine. These results suggest that muscarinic and mainly nicotinic cholinergic receptors of the LC are recruited to organise tonic-clonic seizure-induced antinociception.

  7. [Pharmacology of the bronchospasmolytic oxitropium bromide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, V R

    1985-01-01

    The anticholinergic substance (8r)-6 beta, 7 beta-epoxy-8-ethyl-3 alpha-[(-)-tropoyloxyl]-1 alpha H, 5 alpha H-tropanium bromide (oxitropium bromide, Ba 253 BR, Ventilat) is a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. In vitro, it is many times as effective as atropine. In vivo, oxitropium bromide, following i.v. administration, is also more effective than atropine. Due to its quaternary structure, a central anticholinergic effect cannot be demonstrated. Furthermore, poor enteral resorption is to be expected. Locally administered, as an aqueous aerosol, the effect of the substance is distinctly greater than that of atropine, both in potency and duration of action. This is also true when administered by metered-dose inhaler compared with ipratropium bromide. As, following aerosol administration, the margin between major effect and the most sensitive side-effect is in the ratio 1 : 100, side-effects are unlikely even with marked inhalational overdosage. Oxitropium bromide can be described, therefore, as a preparation free of side-effects which represents in prophylactic use in many cases of obstructive airway disease, an alternative to beta-mimetics and xanthine derivatives.

  8. Effect of electroacupuncture at Sibai on the gastric myoelectric acitivities of denervated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Rong Chang; Jie Yan; Yan-Ling Zhao; Jiang-Shang Li; Jian-Hua Liu; Jun-Feng He

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the mechanism of the exciting effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) at Sibai on the gastric myoelectric activities.METHODS: A total of 32 rats were randomly divided into four groups. Through intraperitoneal injection with atropine (the anti-cholinergic agent by blockade of muscarinic receptors), hexamethonium (automatic nerve ganglion-blocking agent) and reserpine (anti-adrenergic agent by depleting the adrenergic nerve terminal of its norepinephrine store), effects of EA at Sibai on the gastric myoelectric activities of the denervated rats were observed.RESULTS: After intraperitoneal injection of atropine and hexamethonium, the average amplitude and ratio of period to time in the phase of high activity of gastric myoelectric slow wave, and the average numbers of the peaks of gastric myoelectric fast wave were significantly decreased (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.01), while after intraperitoneal injection of reserpine, the aforementioned three parameters were increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P< 0.01). EA at Sibai point partially relieved the inhibitory effect of atropine and hexamethonium on the gastric myoelectric activities in the rats (P < 0.05 or P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: Cholinergic and adrenergic nervous systems and autonomic nerve ganglion participate in the peripheral passage of the controlling effects of EA at Foot Yangming Channel on gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Generation of theta and gamma rhythms in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L S

    1998-03-01

    In the behaving rat, theta rhythm was dominant during walking and rapid-eye-movement sleep, while irregular slow activity predominated during immobility and slow-wave sleep. Oscillatory evoked potentials of 20-50 Hz and spontaneous fast (gamma) waves were more prominent during theta compared with non-theta behaviors. The oscillations were simulated by a systems model with recurrent inhibition. The model also predicts a behaviorally dependent inhibition, which was confirmed experimentally using paired-pulse responses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) of the population spikes in CA1 was larger during walking than immobility, mostly mediated by a cholinergic input. Spike responses in vitro were characterized by a relative lack of inhibition or disinhibition compared with the behaving rat. The two-input, two-dipole model of the theta rhythm in CA1 is reviewed. Afferents to the CA1 pyramidal cells are assumed to be rhythmic and consist of atropine-sensitive and atropine-resistant inputs driving the somata and distal dendrites, respectively. The atropine-sensitive theta rhythm was mainly caused by a series of Cl- mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) on pyramidal cells. It is suggested that previous claims of the participation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and not IPSPs in the intracellular recordings in vivo were flawed. Single cell recordings in vitro suggested that intrinsic voltage-dependent membrane potential oscillations modulate the response to a theta-frequency driving. Membrane potentials of pyramidal cells in vitro showed resonance in the theta frequency range.

  10. Efficacy of fresh packed red blood transfusion in organophosphate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hang-xing; Tong, Pei-jian; Li, Cai-xia; Du, Jing; Chen, Bing-yu; Huang, Zhi-hui; Wang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The mortality rate caused by organophosphate (OP) poisoning is still high, even the standard treatment such as atropine and oxime improves a lot. To search for alternative therapies, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of packed red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in acute OP poisoning, and compare the therapeutic effects of RBCs at different storage times. Patients diagnosed with OP poisoning were included in this prospective study. Fresh RBCs (packed RBCs stored less than 10 days) and longer-storage RBCs (stored more than 10 days but less than 35 days) were randomly transfused or not into OP poisoning patients. Cholinesterase (ChE) levels in blood, atropine usage and durations, pralidoxime durations were measured. We found that both fresh and longer-storage RBCs (200–400 mL) significantly increased blood ChE levels 6 hours after transfusion, shortened the duration for ChE recovery and length of hospital stay, and reduced the usage of atropine and pralidoxime. In addition, fresh RBCs demonstrated stronger therapeutic effects than longer-storage RBCs. Packed RBCs might be an alternative approach in patients with OP poisoning, especially during early stages. PMID:28296779

  11. Effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic agents on locomotion in the mudpuppy (Necturus maculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, M; Stein, R B

    2002-08-01

    Some neurotransmitters act consistently on the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion in a wide range of vertebrates. In contrast, acetylcholine (ACh) and noradrenaline (NA) have various effects on locomotion in different preparations. The roles of ACh and NA have not been studied in amphibian walking, so we examined their effects in an isolated spinal cord preparation of the mudpuppy ( Necturus maculatus). This preparation contains a CPG that produces locomotor activity when N-methyl- D-aspartic acid (NMDA), an excitatory amino acid agonist, is added to the bath. The addition of carbachol, a long acting ACh agonist, to the bath disrupted the walking rhythm induced by NMDA, while not changing the level of activity in flexor and extensor motoneurons. Adding clonidine, an alpha(2)-noradrenergic agonist, had no effect on the NMDA-induced walking rhythm. Physostigmine, an ACh-esterase inhibitor, disrupted the walking rhythm, presumably by potentiating the effects of endogenously released ACh. Atropine, an ACh antagonist that binds to muscarinic ACh receptors, blocked the effects of carbachol, indicating that the action is mediated, at least in part, by muscarinic receptors. In the absence of carbachol, atropine had no effect. Locomotion was not induced by carbachol, atropine or clonidine in a resting spinal cord preparation. Cholinergic actions do not seem to be essential to the CPG for walking in the mudpuppy, but ACh may convert a rhythmic walking state to a more tonic state with occasional bursts of EMG activity for postural adjustments.

  12. [Drug or plant substances which antagonize venoms or potentiate antivenins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Rakotonirina, V S; Rakotonirina, A; Dzikouk, G

    1997-01-01

    Dendroaspis jamesoni (Elapidae) and Echis oceliatus (Viperidae) are responsible for most of severe evenomation in Cameroon. Toxicity of venoms of these two species has been measured using mice according to the method of Spearman & Kàrber. The effect on experimental envenomation of various drugs (atropine, promethazine, neostigmine, hydrocortisone, pentosane sulfuric polyester, heparin, tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid) and plant extracts (Schumanniophyton magnificum, Bidens pilosa, Securidaca longepedunculata and Garcinia lucida) has been observed associated or not with the antivenom lpser Afrique (SAV). The venom of D. jamesoni contains neurotoxins agonizing and antagonising acetylcholine. The toxicity of the venom did not depend on the route of injection. Atropine, promethazine, neostigmine and hydrocortisone protected animals against a venom dose up to 2 LD50. Moreover, atropine and promethazine potentiated the SAV. Similar results have been obtained with extracts from S. magnificum and B. pilosa. The venom of E. ocellatus induces haemorrhage and necrosis. The toxicity increased by 3-fold when the venom was injected through intravenous or intraperitoneal route, compared to intramuscular route. Pentosane sulfuric polyester and tranexamic acid protected mice against doses up to 3 LD50. Pentosane sulfuric polyester, hydrocortisone, heparin and aminocaproic acid increased the SAV protective titre by 50%. However, tried plant extracts weakly antagonised the venom and did not potentiate the SAV.

  13. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K347, K628) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to counteract acute neurotoxic effects of Tabun in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jirí; Karasová, Jana Zdarová; Tesarová, Sandra; Musílek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    The ability of newly developed oximes (K347, K628) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) using a functional observational battery. The neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied (K347, K628, obidoxime, HI-6) combined with atropine on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (220 microg/kg i.m.; 80% of LD50 value) were evaluated. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by a functional observational battery and automatic measurement of motor activity at 24 hours following tabun challenge. The results indicate that all tested oximes combined with atropine enable tabun-poisoned rats to survive 24 hours following tabun challenge. Both newly developed oximes (K347, K628) combined with atropine are able to decrease tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisonings but they do not eliminate all tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms. Their ability to decrease the tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity is higher than that of the oxime HI-6 and it is slightly slower than the neuroprotective efficacy of obidoxime. As the neuroprotective potency of both newly developed oximes (K347, K628) is not as high as the potency of obidoxime, they are not a suitable replacement for obidoxime for the treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  14. The evaluation of the neuroprotective effects of bispyridinium oximes in tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana

    2007-09-01

    Tabun (O-ethyl-N,N-dimethyl phosphoramidocyanidate) belongs to the group of highly toxic organophosphorus compounds that may be used as chemical warfare agents for military as well as terrorist purposes. Tabun differs from other highly toxic organophosphates by the fact that commonly used antidotes are not able adequately to prevent tabun-induced acute toxic effects. The neuroprotective effects of four bispyridinium oximes (K075, trimedoxime, HI-6, obidoxime) in combination with atropine on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (150 microg/kg i.m.; 80% of LD50 value) were studied. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored using a functional observational battery and automatic measurement of motor activity at 24 h and 7 d following tabun challenge. The results indicated that all tested oximes combined with atropine enabled tabun-poisoned rats to survive 7 d following challenge. Trimedoxime combined with atropine was the most effective antidote in decreasing tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisonings among all oximes tested. Due to its neuroprotective effects, trimedoxime may be considered to be more suitable oxime for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun exposure than currently used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) and the newly synthesized oxime K075.

  15. A comparison of neuroprotective efficacy of two novel reactivators of acetylcholinesterase called K920 and K923 with the oxime K203 and trimedoxime in tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Misik, Jan; Hatlapatkova, Jana; Zdarova Karasova, Jana

    2017-01-22

    The ability of two newly developed bispyridinium oximes (K920, K923) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with the oxime K203 and trimedoxime using a functional observational battery (FOB). The neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied combined with atropine on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (130 μg/kg i.m.; 80% of LD50 value) were evaluated. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by FOB at 2 h after tabun administration. The results indicate that all tested oximes combined with atropine enable tabun-poisoned rats to survive till the end of experiment while one non-treated tabun-poisoned rat died within 2 h. Both newly developed oximes (K920, K923) combined with atropine were able to markedly decrease tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisoning although they did not eliminate all tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms. Their ability to decrease tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity did not prevail the neuroprotective efficacy of trimedoxime and the oxime K203. Therefore, the newly developed oximes are not suitable for the replacement of currently available oximes (especially trimedoxime) in the treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  16. Evaluation of the potency of two novel bispyridinium oximes (K456, K458) in comparison with oxime K203 and trimedoxime to counteract tabun-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Misik, Jan; Karasova, Jana Z

    2013-09-01

    The ability of two newly developed bispyridinium oximes (K456, K458) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with oxime K203 and trimedoxime using the functional observational battery. The neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied combined with atropine on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (200 μg/kg i.m.; 85% of LD50 value) were evaluated. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by the functional observational battery and automatic measurement of motor activity at 2 hr after tabun challenge. The results indicate that all tested oximes combined with atropine enable tabun-poisoned rats to survive till the end of experiment. Both newly developed oximes (K456, K458) combined with atropine were able to decrease tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisonings although they did not eliminate all tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms. Their ability to decrease tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity was slightly higher than that of trimedoxime and oxime K203, but the difference in neuroprotective efficacy among all oximes studied is not large enough to make a decision about replacement of commonly used oximes (especially trimedoxime and obidoxime) in the treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  17. The Evaluation of the Potency of Newly Developed Oximes (K727, K733 and Trimedoxime to Counteract Acute Neurotoxic Effects of Tabun in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kassa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The ability of two newly developed oximes (K727, K733 to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was evaluated and compared with currently available trimedoxime in rats. Methods: The neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied combined with atropine on Wistar rats poisoned with tabun at a lethal dose (380 μg/kg i.m.; 90% of LD50 value were evaluated. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by the functional observational battery consisting of 38 measurements of sensory, motor and autonomic nervous functions at 2 hours following tabun challenge. Results: All tested oximes combined with atropine enable tabun-poisoned rats to survive till the end of experiment. Both newly developed oximes (K727, K733 combined with atropine were able to decrease tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of lethal poisoning although they did not eliminate all tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms. Conclusion: The ability of both novel bispyridinium oximes to decrease tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity was slightly lower than that of trimedoxime. Therefore, the newly developed oximes are not suitable for the replacement of commonly used oximes such as trimedoxime in the treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  18. A comparison of neuroprotective efficacy of the oxime K203 and its fluorinated analogue (KR-22836) with obidoxime in Tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Tesarova, Sandra; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jung, Young-Sik

    2010-11-01

    The ability of the newly developed bispyridinium compound K203 and its fluorinated analogue KR-22836 to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with the currently available reactivator of acetylcholinesterase-obidoxime. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective effects of all tested oximes in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (200 μg/kg intramuscularly (i.m.); 80% of LD(50) value) were monitored by a functional observational battery at 24 hr after tabun challenge. The results indicate that all tested oximes combined with atropine were able to survive tabun-poisoned rats 24 hr after tabun challenge while one non-treated tabun-poisoned rat died within 24 hr after tabun poisoning. All tested oximes combined with atropine were able to decrease tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisoning but they did not eliminate all tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms. While the ability to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity of obidoxime and K203 was similar, the neuroprotective efficacy of KR-22836 was slightly higher compared to other tested oximes. Thus, the newly developed fluorinated analogue of K203, called KR-22836, is able to slightly increase the neuroprotective effectiveness of antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings compared to K203 and currently available obidoxime.

  19. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of yawning and genital grooming by the aqueous extract of Saccharum officinarum L. (sugarcane) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria T; Gamberini, Maria C; Nasello, Antonia G

    2015-01-01

    Yawning, associated with genital grooming, is a physiological response that may be used for elucidating the mechanism of action of drugs. Preliminary analysis showed that aqueous extract (AE) of Saccharum induced yawns in rats. So, we aimed to quantify these behavioral responses and investigate the pharmacological mechanisms involved in these actions. During 120 min, after AE administration, the yawns and the genital grooming were quantified at 10 min intervals. Since dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are implied in these responses, AE were evaluated in the presence of haloperidol 0.5 mg/kg and atropine 2 mg/kg. AE 0.5 g/kg increased the yawns, effect that was blocked both by haloperidol and atropine. Genital grooming could only be stimulated by AE 0.5 g/kg when dopaminergic receptors were blocked by haloperidol. However, it was inhibited when atropine was previously administered. So, we demonstrated a central action of Saccharum and it was postulated that neural circuits with the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are involved. The fact that AE is comprised of innumerous compounds could justify the extract's distinct responses. Also, we cannot disregard the presence of different neural circuits that count on the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways and could be activated by the same induction agent.

  20. The long-term effects of neonatal morphine administration on the pentylenetetrazol seizure model in rats: the role of hippocampal cholinergic receptors in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboory, Ehsan; Gholami, Morteza; Zare, Samad; Roshan-Milani, Shiva

    2014-04-01

    Early life exposure to opiates may affect neuropathological conditions, such as epilepsy, during adulthood. We investigated whether neonatal morphine exposure affects pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in adulthood. Male rats were subcutaneously injected with morphine or saline on postnatal days 8-14. During adulthood, each rat was assigned to 1 of the following 10 sub-groups: saline, nicotine (0.1, 0.5, or 1 μg), atropine (0.25 or 1 μg), oxotremorine M (0.1 or 1 μg), or mecamylamine (2 or 8 μg). An intrahippocampal infusion of the indicated compound was administered 30 min before seizure induction (80 mg/kg PTZ). Compared with the saline/oxotremorine (1 μg), saline/saline, and morphine/saline groups, the morphine/oxotremorine (1 μg) group showed a significantly increased latency to the first epileptic behavior. The duration of tonic-clonic seizures was significantly lower in the morphine/oxotremorine (1 μg) group compared to the saline/saline and morphine/saline groups. The severity of seizure was significantly decreased in the morphine/atropine (1 μg) group than in the saline/atropine (1 μg). Seizure severity was also decreased in the morphine/mecamylamine (2 μg) group than in the saline/mecamylamine (2 μg) group. Latency for death was significantly lower in the morphine/mecamylamine (2 μg) group compared with the saline/mecamylamine (2 μg) group. Mortality rates in the morphine/atropine (1 μg) and morphine/mecamylamine (2 μg) groups were significantly lower than those in the saline/atropine (1 μg) and saline/mecamylamine (2 μg) groups, respectively. Chronic neonatal morphine administration attenuated PTZ-induced seizures, reduced the mortality rate, and decreased the impact of the hippocampal cholinergic system on seizures and mortality rate in adult rats. Neonatal morphine exposure induces changes to μ-receptors that may lead to activation of GABAergic neurons in the hippocampus. This pathway may explain the anti-convulsant effects of

  1. Effects of rhubarb on isolated gastric muscle strips of guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Yu; Ya-Li Luo; Jun-Wei Zheng; Yong-Hui Ding; Wei Li; Tian-Zhen Zheng; Song-Yi Qu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of rhubarb (dried root of Rheum officinale Baill.) on contractile activity of isolated gastric muscle strips of guinea pigs and its possible mechanism.METHODS: A total of 48 guinea pigs were killed to remove the whole stomach. Then, the stomach was opened and the mucosal layer was removed. Parallel to the circular fibers, muscle strips were cut from the body. Each isolated gastric muscle strip was suspended in a tissue chamber containing 5 mL Krebs solution, constantly warmed by water jacket at 37 ℃ and bubbled continuously with a mixed gas of 950 mL/L O2 and 50 mL/L CO2. After being incubated for 1 h with 1 g tension, rhubarb of varied concentrations (1%, 2%, 7%, 20% and 70%) was added cumulatively into the tissue chamber at intervals of 2 min. Atropine (10-6 mol/L) or isoptin (5×10-8 mol/L) orhexamethonium(10-5 mol/L) was given 2 min before the administration of rhubarb. The isometrical response was measured with an ink-writing recorder.RESULTS: Rhubarb dose dependently increased the resting tension of gastric body circular muscle(CM)(r = 0.726, P<0.05). Atropine (r= 0.829, P<0.05), isoptin (r = 0.764,P<0.05) and hexamethonium (r = 0.797, P<0.05) did notaffect its action in a dose-related manner. Atropine apparently reduced the increasing action of 1%, 3%, 10%, 30% and 100% rhubarb on the resting tension of gastric body CM. Isoptin inhibited the effect of 10%, 30% and 100% rhubarb on the resting tension of gastric body CM. Hexamethonium reduced the increasing action of 1%, 10%, 30% and 100% rhubarb on the resting tension of gastric body CM. Rhubarb increased the contractile frequency of CM of body. While atropine, isoptin and hexamethonium did not inhibit the contractile frequency of gastric body CM in comparison with rhubarb at the same concentration, rhubarb at the highest concentration (100%) decreased the meancontractile amplitude of gastric body CM. Atropine, isoptin and hexamethonium did not affect the mean contractile

  2. Pharmacological and morphological characteristics of the muscular system of the giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna - Bassi 1875).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trailović, Saša M; Marinković, Darko; Trailović, Jelena Nedeljković; Milovanović, Mirjana; Marjanović, Djordje S; Aničić, Milan R

    2015-12-01

    Motility is required for feeding, reproduction and maintenance of the fluke in the host's liver. According to that, the neuromuscular system can be an attractive drugable target for chemotherapy. Musculature of the Fascioloides magna is organized into three layers, an outer circular layer, beneath this layer the longitudinal layer, and third, the oblique, or diagonal layer underlies the longitudinal layer. In our study, the administration of atropine or caffeine did not cause classic muscle contractions of F. magna muscle strips. However, the Electrical Field Stimulation (EFS) induced stable and repeatable contractions, which enabled us to examine their sensitivity to the various substances. Acetylcholine (ACh) (300 μM and 1 mM), caused only a slight relaxation, without affecting the amplitude of spontaneous contractions or the amplitude of contractions induced by EFS. Contrary to that, atropine (100 μM) caused a significant increase in the basal tone and an increase of EFS-induced contractions. If acetylcholine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in trematodes, the described effects of atropine are achieved by the blockade of inhibitory neurotransmission. On the other hand, with respect to the process of excitation-contraction coupling, the plant alkaloid ryanodine (30 μM) significantly reduced the basal tone, as well as EFS-induced contractions of F. magna muscle strips. Ryanodine inhibited the potentiating effect of atropine on the basal tone and contractions caused by EFS, which indicates that the contractile effect of atropine is dependent on Ca(++) release from intracellular stores. Caffeine (500 μM) caused relaxation of fluke muscle strips and at the same time significantly enhanced the EFS-induced contractions. Both effects of caffeine can be explained by entry of extracellular Ca(++) into muscle cells. The muscle contractility of F. magna depends both on the entry of extracellular calcium, and calcium release from intracellular stores, which are

  3. 探讨复方托吡卡胺在儿童屈光检查中的应用价值%Discussion in the Application Value of Compound Tropicamide Children with Refractive Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨复方托吡卡胺在儿童屈光检查的应用价值探讨。方法需要屈光检查的儿童同时采用复方托吡卡胺和阿托品散瞳用药后屈光检查,以阿托品散瞳检影验光的远视屈光度为标准值,并比较两者的屈光差异。结果复方托吡卡散瞳验光110眼总屈光度低于阿托品散瞳验光总屈光度者95眼,占86.36%,低幅为0.25~1.25D,平均每眼低0.63D;复方托吡卡胺散瞳验光总屈光度高于阿托品散瞳验光总屈光度者13眼,占11.82%,高幅为0.25~0.75D,平均每眼高0.50D;相同者2眼,占1.82%。结论复方托吡卡胺散瞳验光总屈光度与阿托品散瞳验光总屈光度接近,在配眼镜时考虑这些因素,可以替代阿托品散瞳减少患儿的散瞳后各种不适。%Objective To study the compound supporting pyrazole card amine in children with refractive inspection application value. Methods Children need refractive check at the same time using compound pyrazole amine and atropine mydriatic refractive check, the medicine with atropine mydriatic optometry high hyperopia diopter of shadow to standard, and compares the difference of refractive. Results Compound pyrazole card mydriatic optometry total 110 eyes diopter is lower than atropine mydriatic optometry total 95 eyes diopter, accounted for 86.36%, low-rising 0.25-1.25 D, 0.63 D low average eye;Amine compound supporting pyrazole card mydriatic optometry dioptre always higher than atropine mydriatic optometry total 13 eyes diopter, accounted for 11.82%, high amplitude of 0.25-0.75 D, an average of 0.50 D per eye high;Are common in 2 eyes, accounting for 1.82%. Are common in 2 eyes, accounting for 1.82%. Conclusion Compound pyrazole card amine mydriatic optometry total dioptre and atropine mydriatic optometry dioptre always close, consider these factors when glasses, can replace atropine mydriatic reduce aches after children with mydriatic.

  4. Relaxant effect of Pimpinella anisum on isolated guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, M H; Ramazani-Assari, M

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the relaxant effect of Pimpinella anisum on isolated guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s). The bronchodilatory effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts and essential oil were examined on precontracted isolated tracheal chains of the guinea pig by 10 microM methacholine in two different conditions including: non-incubated tissues (group 1) and incubated tissues with 1 microM propranolol and 1 microM chlorpheniramine (group 2). In addition, the anticholinergic effects of essential oil and 10 nM atropine were tested by comparing the cumulative log concentration-response curves of methacholine induced contraction of tracheal chains and the effective concentration of methacholine, causing 50% of maximum response (EC(50)) in the presence of essential oil or atropine. Aqueous and ethanol extracts, essential oil and theophylline (1 mM) showed significant relaxant effects compared to those of controls. Although relaxant effect of essential oil was lower than theophylline, there was no significant difference between the effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts and that of theophylline. There was also no significant difference between the relaxant effects obtained in group 1 and 2 experiments. The results also showed parallel rightward shifts of methacholine-response curves and significant increase in EC(50) with the presence of atropine or essential oil. These results indicated bronchodilatory effects of essential oil, aqueous, and ethanol extracts from P. anisum. The results also showed that the relaxant effect of this plant is not due to an inhibitory effect of histamine (H(1)) or stimulatory effect of beta(2)-adrenergic receptors, but due to inhibitory effects on muscarinic receptors.

  5. Tramadol state-dependent memory: involvement of dorsal hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari-Sabet, Majid; Jafari-Sabet, Ali-Reza; Dizaji-Ghadim, Ali

    2016-08-01

    The effects on tramadol state-dependent memory of bilateral intradorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) injections of physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and atropine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, were examined in adult male NMRI mice. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. Post-training intra-CA1 administration of an atypical μ-opioid receptor agonist, tramadol (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse), dose dependently impaired memory retention. Pretest injection of tramadol (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory acquired under the influence of post-training tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1). A pretest intra-CA1 injection of physostigmine (1 μg/mouse) reversed the memory impairment induced by post-training administration of tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1). Moreover, pretest administration of physostigmine (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) with an ineffective dose of tramadol (0.25 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) also significantly restored retrieval. Pretest administration of physostigmine (0.25, 0.5, and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) by itself did not affect memory retention. A pretest intra-CA1 injection of the atropine (1 and 2 μg/mouse) 5 min before the administration of tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) dose dependently inhibited tramadol state-dependent memory. Pretest administration of atropine (0.5, 1, and 2 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) by itself did not affect memory retention. It can be concluded that dorsal hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mechanisms play an important role in the modulation of tramadol state-dependent memory.

  6. Simultaneous parasympathetic and sympathetic activation reveals altered autonomic control of heart rate, vascular tension and epinephrine release in anaesthetized hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torill eBerg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic hyperactivity and parasympathetic insufficiency characterize blood pressure control in genetic hypertension, but is difficult to demonstrate experimentally in anesthetized rats. Here we present a pharmacological approach to activate sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves simultaneously, and identify their contribution. Anaesthetized normotensive (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR were injected i.v. with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, a voltage-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor. Blood pressure was recorded through a femoral artery catheter, cardiac output and heart rate (HR through an ascending aorta flow probe. Total peripheral vascular resistance (TPVR was calculated. 4-AP induced an immediate, atropine- and hexamethonium-sensitive bradycardia in WKY, and in strains, a subsequent, sustained tachycardia, and norepinephrine but not epinephrine release. The tachycardia was eliminated by reserpine, nadolol or right vagal nerve stimulation, but not adrenalectomy, scopolamine or hexamethonium. 4-AP-induced, atropine-sensitive bradycardia was observed in reserpinized or nadolol-treated SHR, where atropine also increased the late HR-response. 4-AP increased TPVR, transiently in WKY but sustained in SHR. Yohimbine but not phentolamine prevented TPVR down-regulation in WKY. Reserpine, phentolamine and prazosin eliminated the late vasoconstriction in SHR. Plasma epinephrine overflow increased in nadolol-treated SHR. Conclusions: 4-AP activated parasympathetic ganglion transmission and peripheral, sympathetic nerve norepinephrine release. The sympathetic component dominated the HR-response to 4-AP in SHR. α2-adrenceptor-dependent vasodilatation opposed norepinephrine-induced α1-adrenergic vasoconstriction in WKY, but not in SHR. A βAR-activated, probably vagal afferent mechanism, hampered adrenal epinephrine secretion in SHR. Thus, 4-AP exposed mechanisms, which contribute to hypertension, and may allow identification of the factors

  7. In vivo binding, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the selective M{sub 2} muscarinic antagonists [{sup 3}H]AF-DX 116 and [{sup 3}H]AF-DX 384 in the anesthetized rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickala, Patrick; Boutin, Herve; Bellanger, Cecile; Chevalier, Cyril; MacKenzie, Eric T.; Dauphin, Francois

    1996-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics, in vivo binding and metabolism of two M{sub 2} muscarinic receptor antagonists, [{sup 3}H]AF-DX 116 and [{sup 3}H]AF-DX 384, were studied in anesthetized rats, which received either the tracer alone or following a saturating injection of atropine. Both radioligands were cleared from the circulation with distribution half-lives of 17 and 14 sec and elimination half-lives of 17 and 40 min for [{sup 3}H]AF-DX 116 and [{sup 3}H]AF-DX 384, respectively. A radioactive distribution, predominant in peripheral organs when compared to brain, was found at each time studied after tracer injection. Atropine-displaceable tracer uptake was evidenced at 20-40 min in brain (31%), submandibular glands (26%), spleen (37%) and notably heart (55%) for [{sup 3}H]AF-DX 116 but only in heart (50%) for [{sup 3}H]AF-DX 384 at 10-20 min. Regional brain sampling revealed a relatively uniform distribution of [{sup 3}H]AF-DX 384 and a -45% atropine saturation effect (i.e., specific binding) in the thalamus 20 min after injection. Sequential thin-layer chromatographic studies performed on tissue extracts demonstrated the rapid appearance of labeled metabolites of both radiotracers in brain (but less so in liver) and especially in cardiac tissues, where almost 70% of total radioactivity still corresponded to authentic tracer 40 min after injection. Thus, based on their low blood-brain barrier permeability and the high presence of labeled metabolites in the central nervous system, AF-DX 116 and AF-DX 384 might be more helpful in the study of M{sub 2} muscarinic receptors present in heart rather than brain. Labeled with positron emittors, these M{sub 2} antagonists might be applicable to the pathophysiological study of disease states, such as cardiomyopathies.

  8. Brainstem thyrotropin-releasing hormone regulates food intake through vagal-dependent cholinergic stimulation of ghrelin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Yan; Go, Vay Liang W; Toy, Natalie; Li, Tei; Wang, Yu; Song, Moon K; Reeve, Joseph R; Liu, Yanyun; Yang, Hong

    2006-12-01

    The brainstem is essential for mediating energetic response to starvation. Brain stem TRH is synthesized in caudal raphe nuclei innervating brainstem and spinal vagal and sympathetic motor neurons. Intracisternal injection (ic) of a stable TRH analog RX77368 (7.5-25 ng) dose-dependently stimulated solid food intake by 2.4- to 3-fold in freely fed rats, an effect that lasted for 3 h. By contrast, RX77368 at 25 ng injected into the lateral ventricle induced a delayed and insignificant orexigenic effect only in the first hour. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, RX77368 (50 ng) ic induced a significant bipeak increase in serum total ghrelin levels from the basal of 8.7+/-1.7 ng/ml to 13.4+/-2.4 ng/ml at 30 min and 14.5+/-2.0 ng/ml at 90 min, which was prevented by either bilateral vagotomy (-60 min) or atropine pretreatment (2 mg/kg, -30 min) but magnified by bilateral adrenalectomy (-60 min). TRH analog ic-induced food intake in freely fed rats was abolished by either peripheral atropine or ghrelin receptor antagonist (D-Lys-3)-GHRP-6 (10 micromol/kg) or ic Y1 receptor antagonist 122PU91 (10 nmol/5 microl). Brain stem TRH mRNA and TRH receptor 1 mRNA increased by 57-58 and 33-35% in 24- and 48-h fasted rats and returned to the fed levels after a 3-h refeeding. Natural food intake in overnight fasted rats was significantly reduced by ic TRH antibody, ic Y1 antagonist, and peripheral atropine. These data establish a physiological role of brainstem TRH in vagal-ghrelin-mediated stimulation of food intake, which involves interaction with brainstem Y1 receptors.

  9. Role of cholinergic neural transmission on airway resistance in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, T; Kobayashi, I; Hayama, N; Tazaki, G; Ohta, Y

    2000-04-12

    The unique contractile profiles of bronchial smooth muscle (Kondo et al., 1995) and its neural control were investigated by comparing responses of the bronchus and trachea to acute hypercapnia, stimulation of vagus efferent fibers before and after intravenous atropine, and intravenous acetylcholine in decerebrated and paralyzed dogs. During acute hypercapnia, airway resistance represented by peak airway pressure (Pedley et al., 1970) significantly increased as well as tracheal tension (Ttr). During electric stimulation of the vagal efferent fibers, Ttr increased and was sustained throughout the simulation period while the peak airway pressure was not maintained at the peak level. The peak Ttr and the airway resistance (Raw) calculated from ventilatory flow and airway pressure increased with increases in intensity of electric stimulation. Ttr reached its maximal level at an intensity 16 times of the threshold (T), while Raw became maximal at 4T. Although both the Ttr-stimulus intensity and Raw-intensity curves were shifted to the right by administration of intravenous atropine, the Raw curve shifted more to the right than the Ttr curve with the same dose of atropine. When muscular muscarinic receptors were directly stimulated by intravenous acetylcholine, Ttr once increased and then decreased promptly while peak airway pressure remained at a high level for a few minutes. These findings suggested that the bronchus is more sensitive to vagal efferent stimulation and susceptible to competitive antagonist of actylcholine than the trachea. In conclusion, the contractile profiles of the fifth-order bronchus we have reported (Kondo et al., 1995) were reflected in airway resistance, and the neuromuscular junction may be the site of adaptation of bronchoconstrictor response to motor nerve adaptation.

  10. Insulin resistance in two animal models of obesity: A comparison of HISS-dependent and HISS-independent insulin action in high-fat diet-fed and Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Ricardo Alexandre; Lautt, W Wayne; Ribeiro, Rogério Tavares; Legare, Dallas J; Macedo, Maria Paula

    2007-01-01

    Normal postprandial insulin sensitivity depends on the action of the hepatic insulin sensitizing substance (HISS), which requires hepatic parasympathetic nerve activation. Since HISS action is impaired in several pathological models, including the genetically-modified obese Zucker rat (OZR), we compared the HISS-dependent and HISS-independent components of insulin action between the OZR model, and the high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. We hypothesize that both models present an impaired HISS action, accounting for the decrease in insulin sensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a HFD for 1 week (n = 5) and OZR (n = 5) were used as obese models. Standard diet-fed (STD, n = 5) and lean Zucker rats (LZR, n = 6) were the HFD and OZR non-obese controls, respectively. Rats were 9-weeks-old when tested. Insulin sensitivity was measured in the fed state, before and after atropine blockade of HISS release), using the Rapid Insulin Sensitivity Test (RIST, mg glucose/kg bw). HISS-dependent action was the difference between control and post-atropine RISTs. HISS action was impaired in both the obese groups (HFD vs STD: 40.1 +/- 5.0 vs 117.0 +/- 3.8 mg glucose/kg bw, p < 0.001; OZR vs LZR: 34.4 +/- 12.8 vs 115.9 +/- 19.4 mg glucose/kg bw, p < 0.01), whereas the HISS-independent component (post-atropine RIST), i.e., insulin action per se, was decreased only in the OZR (OZR vs LZR: 39.3 +/- 3.5 vs 173.3 +/- 20.5 mg glucose/kg bw, p < 0.001). According to our data, the insulin resistance mechanisms are different in the two obesity models studied: in the HFD-fed rats, only the HISS-dependent component is impaired, whereas in the OZR both components of nsulin action are equally impaired.

  11. Involvement of M3 Cholinergic Receptor Signal Transduction Pathway in Regulation of the Expression of Chemokine MOB-1, MCP-1 Genes in Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海; 陈道达; 张景輝; 田原

    2004-01-01

    Whether M3 cholinergic receptor signal transduction pathway is involved in regulation of the activation of NF-κB and the expression of chemokine MOB-1, MCP-1genes in pancreatic acinar cells was investigated. Rat pancreatic acinar cells were isolated, cultured and treated with carbachol, atropine and PDTC in vitro. The MOB-1 and MCP-1 mRNA expression was detected by using RT-PCR. The activation of NF-κB was monitored by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay.The results showed that as compared with control group, M3 cholinergic receptor agonist (103mol/L, 104-4ol/L carbachol) could induce a concentration-dependent and time-dependent increase in the expression of MOB-1, MCP-1 mRNA in pancreatic acinar cells. After treatment with 10 -3mol/L carbachol for 2 h, the expression of MOB-1, MCP-1 mRNA was strongest. The activity of NF-κB in pancreatic acinar cells was significantly increased (P<0.01) after treated with M3 cholinergic receptor agonist (10-3 mol/L carbachol) in vitro for 30 min. Either M3 cholinergic receptor antagonist (10-5 mol/L atropine) or NF-κB inhibitor (10-2 mol/L PDTC) could obviously inhibit the activation of NF-κB and the chemokine MOB-1, MCP-1 mRNA expression induced by carbachol (P <0.05). This inhibitory effect was significantly increased by atropine plus PDTC (P<0.01). The results of these studies indicated that M3 cholinergic receptor signal transduction pathway was likely involved in regulation of the expression of chemokine MOB-1 and MCP-1genes in pancreatic acinar cells in vitro through the activation of NF-κB.

  12. Effect of acetylcholine receptors on the pain-related electrical activities in the hippocampal CA3 region of morphine-addicted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Zeng Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:To determine the effect of acetylcholine (ACh, pilocarpine, and atropine on pain evoked responses of pain excited neurons (PEN and pain inhibited neurons (PIN in hippocampal CA3 region of morphine addicted rats. Materials and Methods:Female Wistar rats, weighing between 230-260 g were used in this study. Morphine addicted rats were generated by subcutaneous injection of increasing concentrations of morphine hydrochloride for six days. Trains of electrical impulses applied to the sciatic nerve were used as noxious stimulation and the evoked electrical activities of PEN or PIN in hippocampal CA3 area were recorded using extracellular electrophysiological recording techniques in hippocampal slices. The effect of acetylcholine receptor stimulation byACh, the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine, and the muscarinic antagonist atropine on the pain evoked responses of pain related electrical activities was analyzed in hippocampal CA3 area of morphine addicted rats. Results:Intra-CA3 microinjection of ACh (2 μg/1 μl or pilocarpine (2 μg/1 μl decreased the discharge frequency and prolonged the firing latency of PEN, but increased the discharge frequency and shortened the firing inhibitory duration (ID of PIN. The intra-CA3 administration of atropine (0.5 μg/1 μl produced opposite effect. The peak activity of cholinergic modulators was 2 to 4 min later in morphine addicted rats compared to peak activity previously observed in normal rats. Conclusion: ACh dependent modulation of noxious stimulation exists in hippocampal CA3 area of morphine addicted rats. Morphine treatment may shift the sensitivity of pain related neurons towards a delayed response to muscarinergic neurotransmission in hippocampal CA3 region.

  13. ChAT-positive neurons participate in subventricular zone neurogenesis after middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Fu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Di; Yu, Lie; Li, Nan; Lu, Zhengfang; Gao, Yufeng; Wang, Menghan; Liu, Xi; Zhou, Chenguang; Han, Wei; Yan, Bo; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms of post-stroke neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) are unclear. However, neural stem cell-intrinsic and neurogenic niche mechanisms, as well as neurotransmitters, have been shown to play important roles in SVZ neurogenesis. Recently, a previously unknown population of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)(+) neurons residing in rodent SVZ were identified to have direct control over neural stem cell proliferation by indirectly activating fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). This finding revealed possible neuronal control over SVZ neurogenesis. In this study, we assessed whether these ChAT(+) neurons also participate in stroke-induced neurogenesis. We used a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model produced by transcranial electrocoagulation in mice, atropine (muscarinic cholinergic receptor [mAchR] antagonist), and donepezil (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) to investigate the role of ChAT(+) neurons in stroke-induced neurogenesis. We found that mAchRs, phosphorylated protein kinase C (p-PKC), and p-38 levels in the SVZ were upregulated in mice on day 7 after MCAO. MCAO also significantly increased the number of BrdU/doublecortin-positive cells and protein levels of phosphorylated-neural cell adhesion molecule and mammalian achaete scute homolog-1. FGFR was activated in the SVZ, and doublecortin-positive cells increased in the peri-infarction region. These post-stroke neurogenic effects were enhanced by donepezil and partially decreased by atropine. Neither atropine nor donepezil affected peri-infarct microglial activation or serum concentrations of TNF-α, IFN-γ, or TGF-β on day 7 after MCAO. We conclude that ChAT(+) neurons in the SVZ may participate in stroke-induced neurogenesis, suggesting a new mechanism for neurogenesis after stroke.

  14. Locality-dependent descending reflex motor activity in the anal canal-cholinergic and nitrergic contributions in the rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radomir RADOMIROV; Christina IVANCHEVA; Dimitar ITZEV; Polina PETKOVA-KIROVA

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Since the distal part of the intestine is targeted by a wide range of pathogens, the motility of the recto-anal region has been the object of many experimental and clinical observations. In this study, we investigated descending motor responses in the anal canal as a measure of the activation of autonomic reflex pathways underlying evacuatory recto-anal activity. Methods: The partitioned organ bath method was used to register motor responses of the anal canal as induced by balloon distension of the rectum in isolated rat recto-anal preparations. Results: Distension-induced descending responses of the anal canal comprised contractions (with distension at a distance of 15 mm), initial contractions and secondary relaxations (at 10 mm) and short contractions followed by deep relaxations (at 3-5 mm). Decreas-ing the distance between the distension stimulus and the anal canal resulted in a decreased contraction response and increased relaxation. Tetrodotoxin (0.1 μmol/L) inhibited these responses. Atropine (0.3 μmol/L) decreased contraction and did not change the relaxation response. N~G-nitro-L-arginine (0.5 mmol/L) enhanced contraction in both the absence and presence of atropine. L-arginine (0.5 mmol/L) inhibited contraction and extended relaxation in atropine-pretreated preparations. The actions of N~G-nitro-L-arginine and L-arginine were more pronounced in the aboral direction. ChAT-positive nerve fibers were observed in myenteric ganglia of the rectum and the anal canal. The density of NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons was higher in the anal canal region. Conclusion: Our results suggest that locality-dependent activation of the descending reflex neuromuscular communications underlie evacuatory activity in the recto-anal region. This activation response involves long excitatory cholinergic and non-cholinergic pathways along the rectum and short inhibitory nitrergic pathways located predominantly in the anal canal region.

  15. The development of new oximes and the evaluation of their reactivating, therapeutic and neuroprotective efficacy against tabun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil; Karasova, Jana; Musilek, Kamil

    2008-10-01

    Tabun (O-ethyl-N,N-dimethyl phosphoramidocyanidate) belongs to highly toxic organophosphorus compounds misused as chemical warfare agents for military as well as terroristic purposes. The antidotal treatment of tabun acute poisonings still represents a serious problem and the development of new, more effective AChE reactivators to achieve the satisfactorily effective antidotal treatment of acute poisonings with tabun still represents very important goal. Since 2003, we have prepared around 200 new AChE reactivators. Their potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase has been subsequently evaluated using our in vitro screening test. Afterwards, promising compounds were selected and kinetic parameters and reactivation constants were determined. Then, the best reactivators were subjected to the in vivo studies (toxicity test, the evaluation of therapeutic, reactivating and neuroprotective efficacy) and their potency to counteract the acute toxicity of tabun is compared to the therapeutic, reactivating and neuroprotective efficacy of commonly used oximes - obidoxime and the oxime HI-6. According to the results obtained, the newly synthesized oxime K075 showed the highest potency to reduce tabun-induced acute lethal toxicity while the therapeutic potency of obidoxime and the oxime HI-6 was significantly lower. The therapeutic efficacy of oximes studied corresponds to their reactivating efficacy in vivo as well as in vitro. The potency of all newly synthesized oximes to reactivate tabun-inhibited AChE is comparable with obidoxime with the exception of K074 that is significantly more efficacious in the brain. In addition, all newly synthesized oximes combined with atropine seem to be effective antidotes for a decrease in tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity. While the neuroprotective efficacy of obidoxime in combination with atropine is similar to the potency of newly synthesized oximes, the ability of the oxime HI-6 combined with atropine to counteract tabun

  16. Modulation of the release of ( sup 3 H)norepinephrine from the base and body of the rat urinary bladder by endogenous adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.T.; de Groat, W.C. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Modulation of (3H)NE release was studied in rat urinary bladder strips prelabeled with (3H)NE. (3H)NE uptake occurred in strips from the bladder base and body, but was very prominent in the base where the noradrenergic innervation is most dense. Electrical field stimulation markedly increased (3H)NE outflow from the superfused tissue. The quantity of (3H)NE release was approximately equal during three consecutive periods of stimulation. Activation of presynaptic muscarinic receptors by 1.0 microM oxotremorine reduced (3H)NE release to 46% of the control. Atropine (1 microM) blocked the effect of oxotremorine and increased the release to 147% of predrug control levels. Activation of presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors by 1 microM clonidine reduced (3H)NE release to 55% of control. Yohimbine blocked the action of clonidine and increased the release to 148% of control. The release of (3H)NE from the bladder base and body was increased by both 1 microM atropine (to 167% and 174% of control, respectively) and 1 microM yohimbine (to 286% and 425% of control, respectively). Atropine and yohimbine administered in combination had similar facilitatory effects as when administered alone. We conclude that the release of (3H)NE from adrenergic nerve endings in electrically stimulated bladder strips is modulated via endogenous transmitters acting on both muscarinic and alpha-2 adrenergic presynaptic receptors and that the latter provide the most prominent control.

  17. M-cholinoreactivity of erythrocytes of non-pregnant and pregnant women evaluated by changes in the rate of erythrocyte agglutination under the influence of acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikova, A I; Tsirkin, V I; Krysova, A V; Hlybova, S V; Dmitrieva, S L

    2012-12-01

    Acetylcholine (5.5×10(-10)-5.5×10(-6)M) accelerated erythrocyte agglutination in men, non-pregnant women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and pregnant women in the first trimester. The effect was blocked with atropine (5.5×10(-6)M). Acetylcholine had no effect on the rate of erythrocyte agglutination in non-pregnant women in the luteal phase and pregnant women in the second and third trimesters, which coincided with the development of myometrium refractoriness to acetylcholine in pregnant women. The results indicate that erythrocytes can reflect M-cholinoreactivity of internal organs.

  18. Cutaneous allergic reaction due to alprazolam in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Ozlem Kutuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous allergic reactions due to drug intake may be triggered by many types of drugs such as atropine, anticonvulsants and benzodiazepines. But allergic reactions due to benzodiazepines are extremely rare. Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine which may be useful for refractory idiopathic urticaria due to antihistaminergic effect. Although antihistaminergic effect of alprazolam, a cold urticaria case and an angioedema case induced by alprazolam are known in the literature. In the case, we present a child suffering from cutaneous allergic reaction due to alprazolam at the first dose taken. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 400-402

  19. Drug: D01201 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01201 Drug Tiemonium iodide (JAN/INN); Visceralgine (TN) C18H24NO2S. I 445.0572 44...y organs 12 Agents affecting peripheral nervous system 124 Antispasmodics 1242 Atropines D01201 Tiemonium iodide...NAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03AB Synthetic anticholinergics, quaternary ammonium compounds A03AB17 Tiemonium iodide... D01201 Tiemonium iodide (JAN/INN) Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] G Protein-co...131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] Tiemonium iodide [ATC:A03AB17] D01201 Tiemonium iod

  20. Asystole Following Profound Vagal Stimulation During Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Asystole in a non laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery following intense vagal stimulation is a rare event. This case report highlights the need for awareness of such a complication when a thoracic epidural anaesthetic has been given in addition to a general anaesthetic for an upper abdominal procedure. A combined thoracic epidural and general anaesthetic was given. The anterior abdominal wall was retracted forty minutes after administration of the epidural bolus. This maneuver resulted in a profound vagal response with bradycardia and asystole. The patient was resuscitated successfully with a cardiac massage, atropine and adrenaline and the surgery was resumed. Surgery lasted eleven hours and was uneventful.

  1. Dual action of antimuscarinic agents on the intestinal smooth muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya SRK

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Propantheline, oxyphenonium, isoproponaide, epidosine, adiphe-nine and atropine were studied for their effect on the superfused infesting of guinea pig and rat. In small, concentrations, all drugs produced a contraction, which with increasing concentration, was Hocked. Occasionally, a contraction and a relaxation or vice versa was recorded. A partial antagonism and a potentiation on the action of acetylcholine (Ach during recovery was observed. In very high concentrations, all drugs produced a graded contraction of intestine, except adiphenine which produced a sustained contraction. Some- times, a contraction and a relaxation was also observed.

  2. Mechanism of rhythmic contractions induced by uranyl ion in the ileal longitudinal muscle of guinea-pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenmei Fu; Shoeiyn Linshiau

    1985-07-17

    The uranyl ion (UO2S ) produces rhythmic contractions of the longitudinal muscle of the ileum, similar to those induced by repetitive transmural stimulation. Hexamethonium inhibited the action of UO2S , indicating a preganglionic site of action of UO2S and interneurons possibly being involved in the ACh-releasing effect of UO2S . In addition, the action of UO2S was enhanced by physostigmine but antagonized by atropine, ATP, adrenaline and morphine suggesting multiple sites of action of UO2S . The effects of BaS were studied simultaneously in order to compare them with those of UO2S . (Auth.). 25 refs.; 4 figs.

  3. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is involved in acetylcholine regulating stomatal movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In animal cells, action of acetylcholine depends on its binding with its two specific receptors on the plasma membrane: the nicotinic and muscarinic respectively. The present investigation has shown that agonists of muscarinic receptor (muscarine) could induce stomatal opening, while the antagonists (atropine) could block stomatal opening induced by acetylcholine. Their effects can only be realized in medium containing Ca2+, but not in medium containing K+. The results tend to reveal that the muscarinic receptor is involved in acetylcholine-induced stomatal movement.

  4. Central cholinergic control of vasopressin release in conscious rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iitake, K.; Share, L.; Ouchi, Y.; Crofton, J.T.; Brooks, D.P.

    1986-08-01

    Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of carbachol into conscious rats evoked a substantial increase in vasopressin secretion and blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with the muscarinic blocker, atropine (10 g icv), but not by the nicotinic blocker, hexamethonium (10 g icv). Hexamethonium did, however, block the increase in blood pressure, the decrease in heart rate, and they very small elevation in the plasma vasopressin concentration induced by nicotine (10 g icv). These results indicate that stimulation of either central nicotinic or muscarinic receptors can affect the cardiovascular system and suggest that the cholinergic stimulation of vasopressin secretion may involve primarily muscarinic receptors in the conscious rat.

  5. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  6. Datura Stramonium Abuse: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Yilmaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Datura stramonium, known as devils apple or tatula by the people of Turkey, is a plant known member of a belladonna alkaloid family contains atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine having hallucinogenic and anticholinergic effects. 19 years old male patient admitted to emergency department (ED by his relatives with the complaints of altered mental status, and meaningless speech. History revealed that patient consumed %u201CDatura stramonium%u201D for entertainment about 4 hours before the development of symptoms. In our study we described a case presented by delirium to our emergency department later diagnosed as Datura stramonium poisoning.

  7. Inhibitory effect of Schisandrin on spontaneous contraction of isolated rat colon

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jiaming; Ip, Paul SP; Yeung, John HK; Che, Chun-Tao

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of schisandrin, one of the major lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis, on spontaneous contraction in rat colon and its possible mechanisms. Schisandrin produced a concentration-dependent inhibition (EC50 = 1.66 μM) on the colonic spontaneous contraction. The relaxant effect of schisandrin could be abolished by the neuronal Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (1 μM) but not affected by propranolol (1 μM), phentolamine (1 μM), atropine (1 μM) or nicotine desens...

  8. Species and tissue-specificity of prokinetic, laxative and spasmodic effects of Fumaria parviflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb-ur-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fumaria parviflora Linn. (Fumariaceae, is a small branched annual herb found in many parts of the world including Saudi Arabia and Pakistan. This study was designed to provide pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Fumaria parviflora in gut motility disorders. Methods The in-vivo prokinetic and laxative assays were conducted in mice. Isolated intestinal preparations (ileum and jejunum from different animal species (mouse, guinea-pig and rabbit were separately suspended in tissue baths containing Tyrode's solution bubbled with carbogen and maintained at 37°C. The spasmogenic responses were recorded using isotonic transducers coupled with PowerLab data acquisition system. Results The aqueous-methanol extract of Fumaria parviflora (Fp.Cr, which tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones showed partially atropine-sensitive prokinetic and laxative activities in the in-vivo in mice at 30 and 100 mg/kg. In the in-vitro studies, Fp.Cr (0.01-1 mg/ml caused a concentration-dependent atropine-sensitive stimulatory effect both in mouse tissues (jejunum and ileum, and rabbit jejunum but had no effect in rabbit ileum. In guinea-pig tissues (ileum and jejunum, the crude extract showed a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect with higher efficacy in ileum and the effect was partially blocked by atropine, indicating the involvement of more than one types of gut-stimulant components (atropine-sensitive and insensitive. This could be a plausible reason for the greater efficacy of Fp.Cr in gut preparations of guinea-pig than in rabbit or mouse. Conclusions This study shows the prokinetic, laxative and spasmodic effects of the plant extract partially mediated through cholinergic pathways with species and tissue-selectivity, and provides a sound rationale for the medicinal use of Fumaria parviflora in gut motility disorders such as, indigestion and constipation. This study also suggests using

  9. Alopecia following oral acyclovir for the treatment of herpes simplex keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report acyclovir-induced alopecia in a patient treated for herpetic keratouveitis. A 32-years-old female was diagnosed with herpetic keratouveitis. She was placed on prednisolone acetate (1% suspension four times a day, atropine sulfate (1% thrice a day, and oral acyclovir 400 mg twice-daily. Three weeks following oral acylovir, keratouveitis improved, but she developed alopecia without any drug eruptions. Oral acyclovir was discontinued. Three months later, alopecia completely resolved. Alopecia may be considered a possible complication following oral acyclovir.

  10. Corneal ulcers in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynn B; Pinard, Chantale L

    2013-01-01

    Corneal ulceration is commonly diagnosed by equine veterinarians. A complete ophthalmic examination as well as fluorescein staining, corneal cytology, and corneal bacterial (aerobic) and fungal culture and sensitivity testing are necessary for all infected corneal ulcers. Appropriate topical antibiotics, topical atropine, and systemic NSAIDs are indicated for all corneal ulcers. If keratomalacia (melting) is observed, anticollagenase/antiprotease therapy, such as autologous serum, is indicated. If fungal infection is suspected, antifungal therapy is a necessity. Subpalpebral lavage systems allow convenient, frequent, and potentially long-term therapy. Referral corneal surgeries provide additional therapeutic options when the globe's integrity is threatened or when improvement has not been detected after appropriate therapy.

  11. Drug: D01451 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01451 Drug Scopolamine butylbromide (JP16); Butylscopolamine bromide; Buscopan (TN...24 Antispasmodics 1242 Atropines D01451 Scopolamine butylbromide (JP16) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC...nthetic, quaternary ammonium compounds A03BB01 Butylscopolamine D01451 Scopolamine butylbromide (JP16) USP d...rug classification [BR:br08302] Gastrointestinal Agents Antispasmodics, Gastrointestinal Scopolamine D01451 Scopolamine butylbromide...A:1128 1129 1131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] Scopolamine [ATC:A04AD01] D01451 Scopolamine butylbromide

  12. Preparation and Characterization of β-Cyclodextrin Derivatized Ovalbumin Used as Chiral Selector in Pressure Capillary Electrochromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yu-hong; TANG Li; DAI Rong-ji; DENG Yu-lin; FU Ruo-nong

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis and properties of β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin used as chiral selector were investigated.β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin was synthesized using β-cyclodextrin and ovalbumin in the presence of ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether in boric acid buffer at pH value 8.7 at 37 ℃.Amino group was coated on the internal surface of the silica capillary by sol-gel technology with triethoxylmethylsiloxane and (3-arninopropyl)trimethoxysiloxane.Covalent binding of β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin was performed by glutaraldehyde.Enantiomers of chlorpheniramine,phenylalanine and atropine were separated by pressure capillary electrochromatography column coated with β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin.

  13. Human eosinophil major basic protein is an endogenous allosteric antagonist at the inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacoby, D B; Gleich, G J; Fryer, A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of human eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) as well as other eosinophil proteins, on binding of [3H]N-methyl-scopolamine ([3H]NMS: 1 x 10(-10) M) to muscarinic M2 receptors in heart membranes and M3 receptors in submandibular gland membranes was studied. MBP inhibited specific binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors but not to M3 receptors. MBP also inhibited atropine-induced dissociation of [3H]NMS-receptor complexes in a dose-dependent fashion, demonstrating that the interaction of ...

  14. Infusion of Pentobarbital and Fentanyl Combination for Long-Term Anaesthesia in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    KILIÇ, Nuh

    2004-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary and clinical effects of the infusion of pentobarbital sodium in combination with fentanyl for long-term anaesthesia in 9 pigs were investigated. Pigs were premedicated with i.m. atropine at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg and azaperon at a dose of 2 mg/kg. General anaesthesia was induced with i.v. thiopental sodium at a dose of 3.3 mg/kg. After induction of anaesthesia, the pigs were intubated and supplied with oxygen during anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was maintained with an i.v. infusi...

  15. Study of Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Management of Acute Organophosphorous Pesticide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, H. N.; Kannan, Sudheesh; Tejasvi, C.; Duggappa, Devika Rani; Veeranna Gowda, K. M.; Nethra, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus compound poisoning (OPCP) is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. Atropine and oximes remain the main-stay of management. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has shown benefit in the management of OPCP. Aims: This study was designed to assess the effect of MgSO4 on outcome in OPCP patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Settings and Design: Double-blind prospective randomized clinical trial in an ICU of tertiary care institution. Methods: One hundred patients (50 in each group) of OPCP, confirmed by history and syndrome of OPCP with low plasma pseudocholinesterase, aged between 18 and 60 years were studied. Magnesium group (Group M) received 4 g of 20% MgSO4 infusion over 30 min at admission to ICU, control group (Group C) received normal saline placebo in the same manner. Patients were assessed for the need for intubation, requirement of atropine, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of ICU stay, and its effect on mortality. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test for categorical data, independent sample t-test, and paired t-test for nominal data. Results: Demographics and basal serum magnesium levels were comparable. Atropine requirement was higher in Group C (74.82 ± 22.39 mg) compared to Group M (53.11 ± 45.83 mg) (P < 0.001). A total of 33 patients in Group C and 23 patients in Group M required intubation, respectively (P = 0.043). The mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 4.51 ± 2 days in Group C compared to 4.13 ± 1.6 days in Group M (P = 0.45). ICU stay was 5.36 ± 2.018 days in Group C compared to 4.54 ± 1.581 days in Group M (P = 0.026). There was no significant difference in mortality between the groups. Conclusion: Four grams of MgSO4 given to OPCP patients within 24 h of admission to ICU, decreases atropine requirement, need for intubation, and ICU stay.

  16. Prostacyclin Increases Portal Venous Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    response curve . We2 constructed a dose response curve by using increasing doses of PGI (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 ug/kg) given through the left atrial...atropine 0 40- +1 S20- X ( 0- * -20 -40 , 0.005 0.05 0.5 5.0 DOSE jig/kg Figure 2A (top). The log dose response curve of femoral artery pressure (FAP...Figure 2B (bottom). The log dose response curve of {. pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). Both figures show the maximum . deviation from baseline

  17. Part Ⅱ Typical Cases of Urolithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文红; 董洪英; 徐立

    2004-01-01

    @@ CASE 1 Mr. WU, 28 years old, an army man. His first visit was on December 23, 2001. Chief complaints: He complained of having got an acute violent angina in the lumbar region, and the pain radiated toward the medial part of the lower limb. Examination: Pale and suffering complexion, profuse sweating, red tongue with yellowish coating, taut pulse; tapping pain in the left side kidney region. X-ray test suggested calculus in the upper part of the left ureter. He once tried treatment with oral administration of Atropine, but without apparent effect.

  18. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a patient of organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Phatake

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old male presented with a history of consuming some organophosphorous compound with suicidal intention.He was treated with atropine, pralidoxime, ventilator support. During stay patient had persistent irritability, tachycardiaand hypertension despite sedation and labetalol infusion. He developed headache, visual blurring hemiparesis and focal seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multifocal hyperintensities mainly in subcortical areas of parietal and occipital regions in T2-weighted images, with increased values of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient, suggesting posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES. The possibilities of PRES caused by organophosphorous poisoning either due to hypertension caused by autonomic deregulation or direct neurological toxicity has been discussed.

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Chemical Defense Bioscience Review (5th) Held at Columbia, Maryland on 29-31 May 1985. Appendix 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    AND FUNGISTATIC AGENTS (a) METHYL PARABEN (b) PROPYL PARABEN III. BY-PRODUCTS (a) ISONICOTINIC ACID (b) ISONICOTINAMIDE (c) 4-CYANO PYRIDINE (d) 4I...HI-6 o APROPHEN A METHYL PARABEN o3 PROPYL PARABEN UATROPINE SULFATE 100 90 80- 70- 60- c.50- ILu 40- 30- 20 I- 10- 0 4812 16 20 2428 32 364044 48 52...56 6064 68 7278 TIME IN WEEKS FIGURE 6 STABILITY CURVES OF HI-6 (9), APROPHEN (0), HETHYL PARABEN (es), PROPYL PARABEN ( tl ) AND ATROPINE ( 4

  20. Alopecia following oral acyclovir for the treatment of herpes simplex keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashok; Mohan, Kanwar; Sharma, Rajan; Nirankari, Verinder S

    2014-01-01

    The authors report acyclovir-induced alopecia in a patient treated for herpetic keratouveitis. A 32-years-old female was diagnosed with herpetic keratouveitis. She was placed on prednisolone acetate (1%) suspension four times a day, atropine sulfate (1%) thrice a day, and oral acyclovir 400 mg twice-daily. Three weeks following oral acylovir, keratouveitis improved, but she developed alopecia without any drug eruptions. Oral acyclovir was discontinued. Three months later, alopecia completely resolved. Alopecia may be considered a possible complication following oral acyclovir.

  1. Acute unilateral parotid gland swelling after lateral decubitus position under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Postaci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute swelling of the parotid gland after general anesthesia (commonly known as anesthesia mumps or acute postoperative sialadenitis is a rare but declared complication of anesthesia. The etiology is not clear, but some possible causes such as obstruction of glandular excretory ducts caused by patient position and increase in the viscosity of the saliva because of acute dehydratation and/or medications like atropin have been proposed. We report a swelling in the left preauricular and postauricular region extending to the angle of the mandibule in a 35-year-old patient after left lateral decubitus position for laparoscopic nephrectomy.

  2. Acute unilateral parotid gland swelling after lateral decubitus position under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postaci, Aysun; Aytac, Ismail; Oztekin, Cetin Volkan; Dikmen, Bayazit

    2012-07-01

    Acute swelling of the parotid gland after general anesthesia (commonly known as anesthesia mumps or acute postoperative sialadenitis) is a rare but declared complication of anesthesia. The etiology is not clear, but some possible causes such as obstruction of glandular excretory ducts caused by patient position and increase in the viscosity of the saliva because of acute dehydratation and/or medications like atropin have been proposed. We report a swelling in the left preauricular and postauricular region extending to the angle of the mandibule in a 35-year-old patient after left lateral decubitus position for laparoscopic nephrectomy.

  3. Annual Historical Report - AMEDD Activities, Calendar Year 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    performance decrements restored with diazepam and atropine in rats. Fed. Proc. 45:408, 1986. Szlyk, P.C., R.P. Francesconi, R.W. Hubbard, W.T. Matthew, I.V...counterparts. A trial of the efficacy of a shock absorbing viscoelastic polymer insole in preventing bone stress fractures and other lower extremity injuries...power during upper and lower body exercise. Fed. Proc. 45:645, 1986. Rubin, C.T., J.M. Harris, D. Sweet, B. Jones, L.E. Lanyon. Stress Fractures : An

  4. The Evaluation of the Potency of Newly Developed Oximes (K727, K733) and Trimedoxime to Counteract Acute Neurotoxic Effects of Tabun in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Kassa; Jana Hatlapatková; Jana Žďárová Karasová

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The ability of two newly developed oximes (K727, K733) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was evaluated and compared with currently available trimedoxime in rats. Methods: The neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied combined with atropine on Wistar rats poisoned with tabun at a lethal dose (380 μg/kg i.m.; 90% of LD50 value) were evaluated. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by the functional observational battery consisting of 38 measurements of sen...

  5. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of behavioral responses has been previously established. In the brain, M2 receptors are found predominantly in presynaptic cholinergic neurons as autoreceptors, and in dopaminergic neurons as heteroceptors, suggesting a control role of acetylcholine and dopamine release, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the role of M2 receptors on the yawning and genital grooming of rats induced by apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist, focusing on the interaction between cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Initially, the effect of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, on yawning and genital grooming induced by apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.) was analyzed. Atropine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before induction of the behavioral responses by apomorphine. Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were quantified over a 60 min period. Apomorphine-induced yawning was increased by low dose (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but not by high doses (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) of atropine. Genital grooming was antagonized by 2 mg/kg i.p. of atropine and showed no changes at the other doses tested. Tripitramine, a selective M2 cholinergic antagonist, was used as a tool for distinguishing between M2 and all other muscarinic receptor subtypes in yawning and genital grooming. Tripitramine doses of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 μmol/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.). Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were also quantified over a 60 min period. Tripitramine 0.01 μmol/kg increased all parameters. Higher doses, which possibly block all subtypes of muscarinic receptor, did not modify the response of apomorphine, suggesting a non-selective effect of tripitramine at these doses. Given that low doses of tripitramine increased the behavioral responses induced by apomorphine and that the main distribution of the M2

  6. Autonomic control of heart rate in the adult, aquatic Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkin, R B; Bonnet, K M

    1990-01-01

    1. We investigated the role of the autonomic nervous system in the control of the heart rate using an isolated heart preparation. 2. Addition of the parasympathetic blocker, atropine, to the organ bath resulted in an increase in heart rate as expected. 3. Addition of the sympathetic blocker, ergotamine, to the organ bath showed no change in the heart rate. 4. Addition of the sympathetic blocker, propranolol, to the organ bath resulted in the expected decrease in heart rate. 5. Both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems appear to play a role in the control of the heart rate.

  7. Natural Gastric Infection with Helicobacter pylori in Monkeys: A Model for Spiral Bacteria Infection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    as a risk factor for adenocarci- o00S-05 M/94/SO.0O DTI@ QUALITY INSPECTED 5 1406 DUB013 ET AL GASTROEMEROLOGY Vol. 106, No. 6 including primates." The...polysube chai reaction. has been implicated in the pathogenesis of gastritis2 and This Is a U.s. govermet wok. There no r o lb duodenal ulcer disease 3 and...underwent gastroduodenal endo- from rhesus monkeys have been found to be very similar scopic examination under general anesthesia (atropine sulfate, to

  8. Use of inhaled anticholinergic agents in obstructive airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Ruben D

    2007-07-01

    In the last 2 decades, anticholinergic agents have been generally regarded as the first-choice bronchodilator therapy in the routine management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and, to a lesser extent, asthma. Anticholinergics are particularly important bronchodilators in COPD, because the vagal tone appears to be the only reversible component of airflow limitation in COPD. The inhaled anticholinergics approved for clinical use are synthetic quaternary ammonium congeners of atropine, and include ipratropium bromide, oxitropium bromide, and tiotropium bromide. This article reviews the most current evidence for inhaled anticholinergics in obstructive airway disease and summarizes outcomes reported in randomized controlled trials.

  9. A Novel Electrochemiluminescence Sensor Based on Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(Ⅱ) Immobilized in Nafion/Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers Composite Films%基于电纺碳纳米纤维材料的阿托品固态电化学发光传感器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀云; 徐春荧; 袁柏青; 由天艳

    2011-01-01

    将电纺碳纳米纤维(CNF)掺杂于吸附有三联吡啶[RU(bpy)32+]的Nafion聚合物膜中,制成固态电化学发光(ECL)传感器,并将其用于对阿托品的检测.实验表明,CNF的加入能够增强Ru(bpy)32+/阿托品体系的电化学和ECL信号,且Ru(bpy)32+在膜中的电化学反应受扩散控制.在最佳实验条件下,ECL强度与阿托品浓度在1 × 10-7- 1 × 10-4mol/L范围内呈良好的线性关系,其线性回归方程为 logI=6.7408 + 0.81481ogC(n=8),r=0.9967;检出限为1× 10-7 mol/L(S/N=3).考察了此传感器的重现性,对1 ×10-5 mol/L阿托品重复检测7次,ECL强度的RSD为2.86%.此传感器的稳定性结果令人满意.将此方法用于尿样中阿托品的检测,回收率在81%-88%之间.%A novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor based on tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(Ⅱ) (Ru(bpy)32+)/electrospun carbon nanofiber (CNF)/Nafion composite films was demonstrated for the determination of atropine. The voltammetric and ECL behaviors of the presented sensor were investi-gated. The results indicated that the addition of CNF in the composite films could increase the current and ECL intensity of Ru(bpy)32+ , and the immobilized Ru(bpy)32+ performed a diffusion-controlled process. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the proposed ECL sensor gave a wide linear range (r= 0.9967) from 1 × 10-7 mol/L to 1 × 10-4 mol/L with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 1×10-7 mol/L for atropine. The relative standard deviation for 1 × 10-5 mol/L atropine is 2. 9% (n = 7) , and the present ECL sensor displays outstanding stability. The ECL sensor was also demonstrated for the determina-tion of atropine in human urine sample and satisfactory results were obtained.

  10. Diastolic and autonomic dysfunction in early cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Emilie Kristine; Møller, Søren; Kjær, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    cirrhosis during maximal β-adrenergic drive. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Nineteen patients with Child A (n = 12) and Child B cirrhosis (n = 7) and seven matched controls were studied during cardiac stress induced by increasing dosages of dobutamine and atropine. RESULTS. Pharmacological responsiveness was similar...... indicate that patients with early stage cirrhosis exhibit early diastolic and autonomic dysfunction as well as elevated pro-ANP. However, the cardiac chronotropic and inotropic responses to dobutamine stress were normal. The dynamics of ventricular repolarization appears normal in patients with early stage...

  11. Effects of toxin of red tide, Ptychodiscus brevis, on canine tracheal smooth muscle: a possible new asthma-triggering mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, S; Krzanowski, J J; Anderson, W H; Martin, D F; Polson, J B; Lockey, R F; Bukantz, S C; Szentivanyi, A

    1982-05-01

    The red tide toxin produced by Ptychodiscus brevis becomes airborne by the thrashing action of the surf and wind and induces cough, rhinorrhea, watery eyes, and sneezing in normal humans and wheezing in asthmatic patients. The mechanism of the contractile response induced by P. brevis toxin (PBTX) was investigated with isolated canine tracheal smooth muscle. Tetrodotoxin and atropine blocked the contractile effect of PBTX, and neostigmine potentiated the contraction. Mepyramine, phentolamine, methysergide, and chlorisondamine did not inhibit the effect of PBTX. This is the first description of a naturally occurring airborne substance that causes smooth muscle contraction by stimulating the axon sodium channels, resulting in the release of acetylcholine at postganglionic parasympathetic efferent nerve endings. The in vitro effect of PBTX on canine tracheal smooth muscle indicates that PBTX is capable of causing respiratory irritation and thus may precipitate an asthmatic attack. It is possible, however, that the mechanism is vivo may also include stimulation of a cough receptor reflex and/or stimulation of sodium channels of afferent vagus nerve fibers. In vitro evidence suggests that isoproterenol, atropine, and verapamil may be used to eliminate or prevent the respiratory symptoms that follow exposure to airborne red tide toxin. The use of high-pressure liquid chromatography separated fractions indicates that the neurotoxic component, not the hemolytic component, is responsible for contractions.

  12. Effect of Electroacupuncture on Reperfusion Ventricular Arrhythmia in Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing; LI Man; OUYANG Xingbiao; NONG Yi; LIU Xiaochun; SHI Jing; GUAN Xinmin

    2006-01-01

    Protective effect and mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) on acute reperfusion ventricular arrhthmia was investigated. Ventricular arrhythmia was induced by occlusion of the proximal left anterior descend (LAD) branch of coronary artery for 5 min and followed with 15 min reperfusion . EA on acupoint "Neiguan", "Jianshi" was performed at 30 min before ligation and continued another 5 min during ischemia. Isoprenaline (20, 30 and 50 μg/kg) or atropine (1 mg/kg) was intravenously injected at 5min before ischemia. The results showed that EA significantly decreased the incidence of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF) and mortality as compared to I/R group. Atropine partially suppressed the EA's effect of antiarrhythmia; Isoprenaline increased the incidence and severity of reperfusion arrhythmia, which was inhibited by EA, but this inhibition of EA was blocked with increasing dose of isoprenaline. The results indicated that EA treatment could prevent the occurrence of reperfusion ventricular arrhythmia in rats with myocardial ischemia, and its mechanism might be related to the regulation of EA on the β-adrenoceptors and M-cholinergic receptor activation in myocardium.

  13. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Induces Electrogenic Secretion in the Duodenum of Gerbil (Gerbillus cheesmani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Y. Al-Balool

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of serosally added 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT 100 µ­M on the short circuit-current (Isc across duodenum taken from fed, starved (4 days, water ad lib and undernourished (50% control food intake for 21 days gerbils (Gerbillus cheesmani were investigated. The effect of the neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX 10 µM and atropine (100 µ­M on the maximum increase in Isc induced by 5-HT were also studied. The 5-HT-induced Isc were higher in unstripped than in the stripped sheets in the three feeding conditions. TTX reduced the maximum increase in Isc induced by 5-HT across stripped and unstripped sheets taken from fed, starved and undernourished gerbils. Atropine decreased the 5-HT-induced Isc of stripped sheets in the three feeding conditions and it also decreased the 5-HT-induced Isc in unstripped sheets in fed duodenum. Therefore, the duodenal response to 5-HT occur partly by activation of a nonneural pathway and partly by activating electrogenic ion transport via muscarinic neural mechanism. It also showed that the 5-HT-induced Isc was chloride-dependent in fed duodenum and were chloride and bicarbonate dependent in the duodenum taken from starved and undernourished gerbil The results also showed that the increase in 5-HT-induced Isc as a results of starvation and undernourishment were TTX-sensitive and both chloride and bicarbonate dependent.

  14. Excretion of alkaloids by malpighian tubules of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddrell, S H; Gardiner, B O

    1976-04-01

    Nicotine is transported at high rates by Malpighian tubules of larvae of Manduca sexta, Pieris brassicae and Rhodnius prolixus and the transport persists in the absence of alkaloid from the diet. In the fluid-secreting portion of Rhodnius tubules this transport is not coupled to ion transport, nor is it dependent on the physiological state of the animal. The transport, which can occur against a steep electrochemical gradient, shows saturation kinetics with a maximal rate of 700 pmol. min-1 per tubule and is half saturated at 2-3 mM. Nicotine transport independent of ion movements also occurs in the lower resorptive parts of Rhodnius tubules. Both portions of Rhodnius tubules can transport morphine and atropine. These alkaloids and nicotine compete with one naother and are presumed to be carried by the smae transport system. Nicotine transport in Rhodnius was unaffected by organic anions, such as amaranth and benzyl penicillin, or by the organic anion transport inhibitor, probenecid. Fluid secretion in 5-HT-stimulated tubules was reduced by atropine and nicotine, probably by blocking the 5-HT receptors. The Malpighian tubules of adult Calliphora erythrocephala and Musca domestica remove nicotine from bathing solutions, an unknown metabolic accumulating in the tubules. Adult P. brassicae and M. sexta do not exhibit transport of nicotine by their Malpighian tubules.

  15. Nonlinear Control of Heart Rate Variability in Human Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, George; Allan, Walter; Sobel, Daniel; Allan, Kenneth D.

    1996-03-01

    Nonlinear analyses of infant heart rhythms reveal a marked rise in the complexity of the electrocardiogram with maturation. We find that normal mature infants (gestation >= 35 weeks) have complex and distinctly nonlinear heart rhythms (consistent with recent reports for healthy adults) but that such nonlinearity is lacking in preterm infants (gestation parasympathetic-sympathetic interaction and function are presumed to be less well developed. Our study further shows that infants with clinical brain death and those treated with atropine exhibit a similar lack of nonlinear feedback control. These three lines of evidence support the hypothesis championed by Goldberger et al. [Goldberger, A. L., Rigney, D. R. & West, B. J. (1990) Sci. Am. 262, 43-49] that autonomic nervous system control underlies the nonlinearity and possible chaos of normal heart rhythms. This report demonstrates the acquisition of nonlinear heart rate dynamics and possible chaos in developing human infants and its loss in brain death and with the administration of atropine. It parallels earlier work documenting changes in the variability of heart rhythms in each of these cases and suggests that nonlinearity may provide additional power in characterizing physiological states.

  16. Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem bark extract induces hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchikaya, Francis Olivier; Bantsielé, Guy Bernard; Kouakou-Siransy, Gisèle; Datté, Jacques Yao; Yapo, Paul Angoue; Zirihi, Noel Guedé; Offoumou, Michel Atté

    2011-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) is a plant largely used in Africa for the treatment of different diseases. In Côte d'Ivoire it's commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. The present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of Anacardium occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. A mercury manometer kymograph of Ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) and under the influence of ANOE. The contractile activity of an isolated rat heart was also measured in control conditions and under the influence of ANOE in different physiological media using a modified Langendhorff (1895) apparatus. The aqueous Anacardium occidentale (ANOE) bark extract applied intravenously in different doses (12, 40, 90, and 167 mg/kg b.w.), produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure of previously normotensive rabbits (up to 89% vs control). Atropine (1 mg/ml) pre-treatment failed to reverse the hypotensive effects elicited by the extract. ANOE applied to isolated rat heart preparations in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 µg/ml) induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Atropine pre-treatment of heart preparations (0.1 µg/ml) failed to reverse the negative effects induced by ANOE. The extract's action on heart contractile activity studied in modified culture media further confirmed its cardio-inhibitory effects. ANOE induced strong hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in animal models.

  17. Interventions to Reduce Myopia Progression in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Su Ann; Farzavandi, Sonal; Tan, Donald

    2017-03-01

    Efforts to reduce the progression of myopia in childhood are on the rise, due to an increasing incidence of myopia worldwide and its associated sight-threatening complications. Interventions are aimed at reducing myopia in childhood and include environmental considerations, spectacles, contact lenses, and pharmacological agents. We reviewed recent literature with interventions aimed at reducing myopia progression in children and found that a number of interventions were significant in reducing the progression of myopia. Of these interventions, atropine showed the largest dose-related effect on myopia progression control. Although higher doses are associated with side effects of pupil dilatation, loss of accommodation, near vision blur, and rebound phenomenon, low-dose atropine has also been shown to provide effective myopia control with minimal side effects and rebound. To a lesser degree, bifocal soft contact lenses have also been shown to be effective in reducing the progression of myopia, though compliance is an issue. Similarly, orthokeratology lenses have also been shown to be effective in reducing axial length elongation and myopia progression, though long-term data on its rebound effects are unavailable.

  18. Electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of nucleus basalis magnocellularis neurons in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-qiu ZHANG; Shao-gang LU; Ya-ping JI; Zhi-qi ZHAO; Jun MEI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the primary electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nbM) neurons. METHODS: Single unit extracellular recordings from the nbM neurons were obtained with glass micropipettes in urethane-anesthetized rats. RESULTS: Most nbM neurons responded to noxious but not innocuous mechanical, thermal, chemical, and electrical stimuli. The receptive fields were usually very large and bilateral. Electrical stimulation applied to the frontal cortex (FCX) either activated orthodromically or antidromically the nbM neurons. The FCX stimulation-induced excitatory response in the nbM neurons could be partly blocked by intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of atropine 2.5 mmol/L or tubocurarine 0.1 mmol/L. Icv injection of ACh (1, 10, and 100 mmol/L) dose-dependently increased the spontaneous firing rate in most of the nbM neurons. Atropine (2.5, 25, and 250 mmol/L) or tubocurarine (0.1, 1, and 10 mmol/L) not only antagonized the ACh-induced excitation, but also inhibited the spontaneous firing of the nbM neurons. CONCLUSION: The nbM might be involved in nociception, although it was considered to play a critical role in cognitive function. Also,the nbM appears to be rich in cholinergic autoreceptors.

  19. Anticonvulsant actions of anticholinergic drugs in soman poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capacio, B.R.; Shih, T.M.

    1991-12-31

    The acute effects of the organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor soman include hypersecretions, convulsions, and death. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticholinergic compounds, aprophen, atropine sulfate, azaprophen, benactyzine, benztropine, biperiden, scopolamine HBr, and trihexyphenidyl for their efficacy in preventing soman-induced hypersecretions and convulsions. Male rats were injected with the oxime HI-6 (125 mg/kg, i.p.), to increase survival time, along with various intramuscular doses of the anticholinergics 30 min prior to a dose of soman that produced 100% convulsions. Signs of intoxication as well as the time-to-onset of convulsions were observed. The calculated anticonvulsant median effective dose values were 0.18, 0.33, 0.36, 0.55, 2.17, 2.30, 2.45, and 31.09 micro mol per kilogram for scopolamine HBr, biperiden, trihexyphenidy, benactyzine, benztropine, azaprophen, aprophen, and atropine sulfate, respectively. The same rank order by potency for inhibition of hypersecretions among these compounds was observed.

  20. The signaling of amitriptyline-induced inhibitory effect on electrical field stimulation response in colon smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Tin Sandar; Khin, Phyu Phyu; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-09-01

    Amitriptyline, a well-known antidepressant, exerts inhibitory effect on electrically stimulated rat colon smooth muscle contraction. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway of amitriptyline-induced inhibitory effect. Changes in isometric force of colon muscle were recorded on polygraph, and data were analyzed by measuring the inhibitory extent induced by amitriptyline. Firstly, muscles were contracted by stimulation with electric field stimulation (EFS), and then, amitriptyline was added cumulatively to determine its influence effect on EFS. Amitriptyline significantly inhibited EFS-induced contraction dose dependently. Then, the mechanism of inhibitory effect of amitriptyline was evaluated by pretreating with various antagonists such as L-NAME, methylene blue, atropine, 5-HT receptors blockers, guanethidine, prazosin, guanabenz, isoprenaline, Y27632 (Rho-kinase inhibitor), ML9 (myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor), U73122 (PLC inhibitor), and chelerythrine (PKC inhibitor). Then, Ca(2+) channel blocker (nifedipine) and K(+)channel blockers, tetraethylammonium (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and glybenclamide, were used to determine the involvement of ion channels. L-NAME, guanabenz, 5HT4 receptor blocker, ML9, and Y27632 enhanced the effect of amitriptyline. Meanwhile, methylene blue, atropine, guanethidine, prazosin, methylsergide, ondansetron, U73122, and chelerythrine blocked its effect. It was also shown that nifedipine enhanced but TEA and glybenclamide blocked amitriptyline-induced inhibitory effect on EFS. Our results indicated that amitriptyline may exert inhibitory effect in response to EFS by inhibiting muscarinic receptors and then PLC-mediated PKC pathway leading to opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channel.

  1. Electroacupuncture at ST37 Enhances Jejunal Motility via Excitation of the Parasympathetic System in Rats and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqian; Li, Yuqin; Wang, Yidan; Zhang, Na; Hu, XuanMing; Yin, Yin; Zhu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background. The roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems in mediating the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at ST37 on jejunal motility have yet to be demonstrated. Aim. We used rats and mice to investigate the effect and mechanism of action of EA at ST37 on jejunal motility. Methods. Jejunal motility was recorded by a balloon placed in the jejunum and connected to a biological signal collection system through a transducer. The effects of EA (3 mA) at ST37 were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats without drugs and with the administration of clenbuterol, propranolol, acetylcholine, and atropine. Further, the efficacy of EA at different intensities (1/2/4/6/8 mA) was measured in wild-type mice and β1β2−/− mice and M2M3−/− mice. Results. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the excitatory effect of EA at ST37 on jejunal motility disappeared in the presence of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine. EA at ST37 was less effective in M2M3−/− mice than in wild-type mice. Furthermore, to a certain extent, there existed “intensity-response” relationship between jejunal motility and EA. Conclusions. EA at ST37 can enhance jejunal motility in rats and mice mainly via excitation of the parasympathetic pathway. There is an “intensity-response” relationship between EA and effect on jejunal motility.

  2. Tremorgenic mycotoxins increase gastric smooth muscle activity of sheep reticulum and rumen in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Cross, A L; Allen, K L; Smith, B L; McLeay, L M

    2003-02-01

    Reticulum and rumen strips (consisting of both muscle layers and the myenteric plexus) were superfused with Tyrode Ringer and their contractions recorded isometrically. The strips were subjected to exogenous acetylcholine and electrical field stimulation (EFS) resulting in contractions that could be blocked by atropine. Responses to the tremorgenic mycotoxin penitrem A and others thought to be involved in ryegrass staggers, paxilline and lolitrem B (10(-10)-10(-6)M), were compared with those of control vehicle (0.1% DMSO). The tremorgens were without effect on quiescent preparations. Penitrem A and paxilline enhanced spontaneously active preparations and the amplitude of contractions in response to EFS. Responses to paxilline had a shorter latency than to penitrem A. Responses of spontaneously active preparations were resistant to atropine. Penitrem A, but not paxilline, increased responses to exogenous acetylcholine. Lolitrem B (10(-6)M) increased responses to EFS, but many responses were equivocal, possibly due to the lower solubility of lolitrem B in aqueous solutions compared to the other tremorgens. The results show that these mycotoxins have peripheral excitatory effects on the reticulorumen and it is suggested that such activity in vivo may reflexly affect centrally derived cyclical contractions.

  3. Methanol extract ofDesmodium gangeticumDC root mimetic post-conditioning effect in isolated perfused rat heart by stimulating muscarinic receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gino A Kurian; Jose Paddikkala

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate pharmacological mimetic action of herbal extractDesmodium gangeticum (DG) roots on ischemia reperfusion injury.Methods:With the help of Langendroff perfusion technique, ischemic post condition (POC) mimetic action of DG methanol root extract was evaluated and compared by using standard drugs that acts as muscarinic receptor agonist and antagonist, namely acetylcholine (Ach) and atropine (Atr) respectively in an isolated rat heart. Results:The physiological parameters like left ventricular developed pressure, end diastolic pressure and working index of isolated rat heart showed significant recovery in DG root extract administrated rat heart, similar to the recovery by POC. Kymogram results showed muscarinic receptor agonist like action for DG methanol root extract, confirmed in rat heart by muscarnic receptor agonist (acetylcholine) and anatoginst (atropine). Administration of DG root extract prior to reperfusion showed better antioxidant status in myocardial tissue homogenate and mitochondrial, complemented by the levels of cardiac specific marker proteins in myocardial tissue and perfusate. Even though DG methanol root extract mimics its action similar to that of Ach, the myocardial protection mediated by the extract was superior to Ach, due to the presence of antioxidants in the crude extract.Conclusions: DG methanol root extract provides myocardial protection towards IRI by stimulating muscarinic receptors.

  4. Molecular targets for organophosphates in the central nervous system. Midterm report, 18 May 1995-17 November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, E.X.

    1996-11-01

    In this study, the patch-clamp technique was used as an approach to evaluate the pre- and postsynaptic effects of VX and soman on synaptic currents of cultured hippocampal neurons. Compared to control, the frequency of the currents mediated by the activation of GABA or glutamate receptors was increased in a concentration-dependent manner from 200% to 550%, when exposed to VX from 10 nM to 1 pM. The effect of VX was observed in the presence of TTX and atropine, indicating that it was a presynaptic effect unrelated to the activation of muscarinic receptors. In addition, it was found that the dlhydron-B-erythroldine did not prevent or abolished the effects of VX. Because, either soman or acetylcholine at high concentrations, applied for 5 to 10 min to the cultured neurons did not mimic the potentiation of transmitter release induced by VX, it was concluded that the presynaptic effect of VX was unrelated to the inhibition of cholinesterase enzyme. At the concentrations studied, VX and soman did not change the post-synaptic properties of GABAA, NMDA, and AMPA receptors. The effect of VX was markedly reduced when the extracellular calcium was removed, but was unaffected when the calcium channel blocker verapamil was added to the preparation. The present findings shows that VX exerts a presynaptic effect unrelated to cholinesterase enzyme that is unaffected by the common antidote atropine used for treating intoxication with VX.

  5. Unilateral anterior uveitis complicating zoledronic acid therapy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Saghir Nagi S

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zoledronic acid is very widely used in patients with metastatic bone disease and osteoporosis. Only one case of bilateral uveitis was recently reported related to its use. Case presentation We report the first case of severe unilateral anterior uveitis in a patient with breast cancer and an intraocular lens. Following zoledronic acid infusion, the patient developed severe and dramatic right eye pain with decreased visual acuity within 24 hours and was found to have a fibrinous anterior uveitis of moderate severity The patient was treated with topical prednisone and atropine eyedrops and recovered slowly over several months. Conclusion Internists, oncologists, endocrinologists, and ophtalmologists should be aware of uveitis as a possible complication of zoledronic acid therapy. Patients should be instructed to report immediately to their physicians and treatment with topical prednisone and atropine eyedrops should be instituted immediately at the onset of symptoms. This report documents anterior uveitis as a complication of zoledronic acid therapy. This reaction could be an idiosyncratic one but further research may shed more light on the etiology.

  6. Salvia miltiorrhiza Induces Tonic Contraction of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter in Rats via Activation of Extracellular Ca2+ Influx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chung Tsai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Up to 40% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD suffer from proton pump inhibitor refractory GERD but clinically the medications to strengthen the lower esophageal sphincter (LES to avoid irritating reflux are few in number. This study aimed to examine whether Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM extracts induce tonic contraction of rat LES ex vivo and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. To investigate the mechanism underlying the SM extract-induced contractile effects, rats were pretreated with atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist, tetrodotoxin (a sodium channel blocker, nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker, and Ca2+-free Krebs-Henseleit solution with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, followed by administration of cumulative dosages of SM extracts. SM extracts induced dose-related tonic contraction of the LES, which was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, atropine, or nifedipine. However, the SM extract-induced LES contraction was significantly inhibited by Ca2+-free Krebs-Henseleit solution with EGTA. Next, SM extracts significantly induce extracellular Ca2+ entry into primary LES cells in addition to intracellular Ca2+ release and in a dose-response manner. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the SM extracts consistently induced significant extracellular Ca2+ influx into primary LES cells in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, SM extracts could induce tonic contraction of LES mainly through the extracellular Ca2+ influx pathway.

  7. Orthostatic Dysregulation during Postural Change on the Dental Chair and Intraoperative Monitoring by Heart Rate Variability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Momota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first case report of orthostatic dysregulation (OD manifested during postural change on the dental chair and intraoperatively monitored by heart rate variability (HRV analysis. OD-associated autonomic dysfunction is induced by postural changes and easily leads to disturbance in circulatory dynamics; however, most dental practices have not yet realized the importance of managing OD. We measured autonomic activity in a patient with OD during dental therapy and assessed the clinical significance of HRV analysis for OD. The patient was a 17-year-old Japanese female. She was diagnosed with impacted wisdom teeth and had no previous history of a distinct systemic disease. A surgical procedure to extract the teeth was safely performed under both local anesthesia and sedation with nitrous oxide and midazolam. After the surgery, her postural change to sitting induced orthostatic hypotension. HRV variables showed parasympathetic dominance due to the upright position. Subsequently, her posture was returned to supine, and atropine sulfate administration for the immediate treatment of OD returned her blood pressure to normal levels. HRV variables showed relative sympathetic dominance due to an atropine-derived parasympathetic blockade. HRV analysis revealed OD-associated autonomic dysfunction and should become a standard tool for safe and secure dental management of OD.

  8. Mechanisms behind changes in gastric acid and bicarbonate outputs during the human interdigestive motility cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenbäck, J; Fändriks, L; Olbe, L; Sjövall, H

    1996-01-01

    Human gastric interdigestive acid and bicarbonate outputs vary cyclically in association with the migrating motor complex (MMC). These phenomena were studied in 26 healthy volunteers by constant-flow gastric perfusion, with continuous recording of pH and Pco2 in mixed gastric effluent and concomitant open-tip manometry of gastroduodenal motility. Stable acid and bicarbonate outputs were registered during less than 50% of the MMC cycle. Acid secretion started to increase 71 +/- 3% into the cycle, with maximum output during antral phase III. Bicarbonate output increased biphasically 1) 40 +/- 5% into the cycle, coinciding with reflux of bile, and 2) at the end of duodenal phase III when the aspirate was devoid of bile. The bicarbonate peak associated with phase III was abolished by atropine (0.01 mg/kg iv, n = 8) and by pyloric occlusion (n = 9) but remained unchanged after omeprazole (n = 10). The acid peak was abolished by both atropine and omeprazole. It is concluded that the MMC-related changes in acid and alkaline outputs represent two different and independent phenomena. Acid secretion cyclicity is due to periodical variations in cholinergic stimulation of the parietal cells. In contrast, the phase III-associated increase in bicarbonate output is due to duodenogastric reflux.

  9. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case reports We present here three patients with proven severe dimethoate poisoning. Clinically, all had inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation and profound hypotension on presentation, which progressed despite treatment with atropine, i.v. fluids, pralidoxime chloride, and inotropes. All died 2.5–32 h post-admission. Continuous cardiac monitoring and quantification of troponin T provided little evidence for a primary cardiotoxic effect of dimethoate. Conclusion Severe dimethoate self-poisoning causes a syndrome characterized by marked hypotension with progression to distributive shock and death despite standard treatments. A lack of cardiotoxicity until just before death suggests that the mechanism is of OP-induced low systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Further invasive studies of cardiac function and SVR, and post-mortem histology, are required to better describe this syndrome and to establish the role of vasopressors and high-dose atropine in therapy. PMID:19003596

  10. Dorsal raphe nucleus acetylcholine-mediated neurotransmission modulates post-ictal antinociception: The role of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-01-15

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is a key structure of the endogenous pain inhibitory system. Although the DRN is rich in serotoninergic neurons, cholinergic neurons are also found in that nucleus. Both ictal and inter-ictal states are followed by post-ictal analgesia. The present study investigated the role of cholinergic mechanisms in postictal antinociceptive processes using microinjections of atropine and mecamylamine, muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonists, respectively, in the DRN of rats. Intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (at 64mg/kg) caused tonic and tonic-clonic seizures. The convulsive motor reactions were followed by an increase in pain thresholds, a phenomenon known as post-ictal analgesia. Pre-treatment of the DRN with atropine or mecamylamine at 1µg, 3µg and 5µg/0.2µL decreased the post-ictal antinociceptive phenomenon. The present results showed that the post-ictal analgesia was mediated by muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the DRN, a structure crucially involved in the neural network that organises post-ictal hypoalgesia.

  11. ARRHYTHMIA INDUCED BY NICOTINE ACTIVATING CARDIAC INTRINSIC NEURONS IN CANINE ATRIAL AND VENTRICULAR GANGLIAL PLEXUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁秉祥; 刘书勤; 李萍; 李新华

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the arrhythmia induced by stimulation of nicotine-sensitive neurons in cardiac ganglial plexuses. Methods When nicotine (100μg) was injected into canine right atrial ganglial plexus (RAGP) and ganglial plexus between aorta and pulmonary artery (A-PGP) in 33 anesthetized open-chest dog, electrocardiogram, atrial force and ventricular intramyocardial pressures (IMP) were recorded. The responses were also recorded following administration of atropine or propranolol and after heart acute decentralization. Results Ventricular arrhythmia (VA) was induced by injections of nicotine into A-PGP, but not by injections of nicotine into RAGP in 13 dogs. Atrioventricilar (A-V) block was induced by nicotine activating RAGP in 10 dogs, but not by nicotine activating A-PGP. Propranolol could reduce the frequency of VA elicited by stimulating A-PGP, atropine could reduce the frequency of A-V block elicited by stimulating RAGP. After acute decentralization, VA was still induced by activation of A-PGP in 9 dogs, but A-V block elicited by stimulating RAGP was decreased. Conclusion VA is induced by stimulating N receptor in cardiac nicotine-sensitive efferent sympathetic neurons of ventricular ganglial plexus (A-PGP), and then modifying β receptor of ventricles. A-V block is elicited by stimulating N receptor in atrial ganglial plexus (RAGP), then modifying M receptor of A-V node not only via efferent parasympathetic neurons, but also via afferent pathway.

  12. Who gets antidotes? choosing the chosen few.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Nicholas A; Dawson, Andrew H; Juurlink, David N; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2016-03-01

    An understanding of mechanisms, potential benefits and risks of antidotes is essential for clinicians who manage poisoned patients. Of the dozens of antidotes currently available, only a few are regularly used. These include activated charcoal, acetylcysteine, naloxone, sodium bicarbonate, atropine, flumazenil, therapeutic antibodies and various vitamins. Even then, most are used in a minority of poisonings. There is little randomized trial evidence to support the use of most antidotes. Consequently, decisions about when to use them are often based on a mechanistic understanding of the poisoning and the expected influence of the antidote on the patient's clinical course. For some antidotes, such as atropine and insulin, the doses employed can be orders of magnitude higher than standard dosing. Importantly, most poisoned patients who reach hospital can recover with supportive care alone. In low risk patients, the routine use of even low risk antidotes such as activated charcoal is unwarranted. In more serious poisonings, decisions regarding antidote use are generally guided by a risk/benefit assessment based on low quality evidence.

  13. Acetylcholine plays an antinociceptive role by modulating pain-induced discharges of pain-related neurons in the caudate putamen of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Mei; Zhang, Da-Ming; Yang, Chun-Xiao; Ma, Xu; Gao, He-Ren; Zhang, Duo; Xu, Man-Ying

    2014-02-12

    The caudate putamen (CPu) has been suggested to be involved in nociceptive modulation. Some neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine (ACh), participate in pain modulation in the central nervous system. However, the active mechanism of ACh on the pain-related neurons in the CPu remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the cholinergic agonists ACh and pilocarpine and the muscarinic ACh receptor antagonist atropine on the pain-induced response of pain-related neurons in the CPu of Wistar rats. Trains of electrical impulses applied to the sciatic nerve of rat were used as the noxious stimulus. The electrical activities of pain-excited neurons (PENs) or pain-inhibited neurons (PINs) in the CPu were recorded by a glass microelectrode. Our results showed that an intra-CPu injection of 4 μg/2 μl ACh or pilocarpine decreased and increased the pain-induced discharge frequency in the PENs and PINs, respectively. Intra-CPu administration of 1 μg/2 μl atropine produced the opposite effect on these neurons. These findings indicate that ACh may play an analgesic role by affecting the electric activities of PENs and PINs, and the muscarinic pathway may be involved in the modulation of pain perception in the CPu.

  14. Analisis Gas Darah pada Kucing yang Mengalami Laparohisterotomi dengan Anestesi Xylazin-Ketamin dan Xylazin-Propofol (BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS OF XYLAZIN- KETAMIN AND XYLAZIN-PROPOFOL FOR ANESTHESIA TO LAPARO-HISTEROTOMY SURGERY IN CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Sari Yudaniayanti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the safety application of xylazine-ketamine and xylazinepropofolrecurrent dosage combination as anesthesia for laparo-histerotomy surgery in cat. Thisresearch used 10 female cats, 12-18 months of age, followed randomly divided into two groups, P1:atropine 0,04 mg/kgBW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + ketamine 20 mg/kg BW/IM; P2 : atropine0,04mg/kg BW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + Propofol 20 mg/kg BW/IV. The blood of the allgroups was taken from vena femuralis at 0 minute (before treatment, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutesduring anesthesia for measurement of blood gas value pH, pCO2 and HCO3. After all animals wereanesthetized, the animals were treated laparo-histerotomy surgery. The data were analyzed byusing Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD. The result showed both of groups were notsignificantly difference (p>0,05 to blood gas values for pH, pCO2 dan HCO3. Besides, both groupsanaesthetic agent perfectly caused metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis compensationperfectly, therefore it is relatively safe to use as anaesthetic agent for surgery that needs long timeprocedure, as laparo-histerotomy.

  15. Adenotomy under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokurka, J; Jakoubková, S; Vít, Z; Drahokoupilová, M

    1989-01-01

    Experience obtained from adenotomy (AT) under general anesthesia using Ketamin hydrochloride (Ketalar, Narkamon) in children are presented in this paper. The authors had used intramuscular premedication with Prothazin, Dolsin and Atropin at the first stage, then they shifted to oral administration of a combination of Diazepam, Theadryl and Atropin. Ketamin may be applied intravenously in the dosage of 1.0 to 1.5 mg/kg of body weight in most children. Where it is not possible, a triple dose into the muscle is used. A total of 2,266 AT were performed. About 70% of patients were calm during the operation, once a suspected aspiration was considered but it was not confirmed. The main contribution of the method is 100% amnesia of the surgery made. The procedure is a compromise between a requirement for minimal traumatization of the child's psyche by the intervention and the resources available, particularly the need of personnel at the majority of otorhinolaryngo-logical departments nowadays.

  16. Involvement of Cholinergic and Opioid System in γ-Terpinene-Mediated Antinociception

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    Flávia Franceli de Brito Passos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature shows that the monoterpenes are great candidates for the development of new drugs for the treatment of various pathological processes, including painful conditions. The gamma terpinene (γ-TPN is a monoterpene present in plant species that have multiple pharmacological properties and has structural similarity to antinociceptive monoterpenes, such as limonene and alpha-phellandrene. The γ-TPN molecular mass was evaluated by mass spectrometry and showed a pseudomolecular ion with m/z 137.0 Da. The animals did not present any signs of acute toxicity at 2 g/kg, p.o. γ-TPN (1.562 to 50 mg/kg, p.o. showed an antinociceptive effect in the formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests. γ-TPN has antinociceptive action when administered by others routes in glutamate test. To eliminate a possible sedative effect of γ-TPN, the open field and rota-rod test were conducted and the γ-TPN did not show muscle relaxant activity or central depressant effect. To investigate the mechanisms of action, the animals were pretreated with naloxone, glibenclamide, atropine, mecamylamine, or L-arginine in the glutamate test. γ-TPN antinociception was inhibited in the presence of naloxone, glibenclamide, atropine, and mecamylamine. The results suggest that the γ-TPN (p.o. produced antinociceptive effect in models of chemical nociception through the cholinergic and opioid systems involvement.

  17. Mad honey intoxication: A systematic review on the 1199 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silici, Sibel; Atayoglu, A Timucin

    2015-12-01

    Mad honey, produced by honeybees from the nectars of Rhododendron genus (R. ponticum and R. luteum) flowers, is widely used in indigenous medicine, especially in the treatment of hypertension and sexual dysfunction. However, the consumption of this honey can result in intoxication soon after. The diagnosis of honey poisoning and a full understanding of its treatment is important for both effective and immediate treatment, and also for the prevention of unnecessary costs. Upon the evaluation of approximately 34 years of case reports between 1981 and 2014, it was found that the cases of poisoning were more frequently reported in males (75.17%) and between the ages 41 to 65. The most common complaints related to honey poisoning were dizziness, nausea, presyncope and the ECG findings were: sinus bradycardia (79.58%), complete atrioventricular block (45.83%), atrioventricular block (30.91%), ST-segment elevation (22.63%), and nodal rhythm (11.27%), As a result of the evaluation of 1199 cases, it was found that no deaths were reported. The patients were most frequently treated with 0.5 mg atropine (37.79%), 1 mg atropine (49.73%), salin (iv fluid) (65.35%), and generally the patients were discharged within 24 h after recovery.

  18. New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus as an Unusual Presentation of a Suspected Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahan Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE is a new entity in medical literature. It has different infectious and noninfectious etiologies showing a devastating impact onto the clinical outcome of patients. Therapy with anaesthetic and antiepileptic agents often fails to improve the condition, unless the primary cause is rectified. Here is presented the case of a young female with a history of depression who after a recent bereavement came to the Emergency Department of Aga Khan University Hospital with complaints of drowsiness that lasted for few hours. Though she had no history of organophosphate poisoning, her physical examination and further investigations were suggestive of the diagnosis. During her hospital stay, she developed refractory status epilepticus. Her seizures did not respond to standard antiepileptic and intravenous anesthetic agents and subsided only after intravenous infusion of atropine for a few days. Organophosphate poisoning is a very common presentation in the developing world and the associated status epilepticus poses a devastating problem for emergency physicians. In patients with suspected organophosphate poisoning with favoring clinical exam findings, the continuation of atropine intravenous infusion can be a safe option to abate seizures.

  19. Is there a role for progesterone in the management of acute organophosphate poisoning during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Nasrabadi, Zeynab Nasri; Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Abbaspour, Abdollah; Vasigh, Shayesteh; Yousefinejad, Vahid; Marashi, Sayed Mahdi

    2013-06-01

    Organophosphates are commonly used pesticides and cause about one million unintentional and 2 million suicidal exposures with up to 300,000 fatalities every year around the world. Toxicity of organophosphates is due to inhibition cholinesterase activity and prolonging the effects of acetylcholine in the receptor site. Clinical features of organophosphate poisoning are defecation, urination, miosis, bronchorrhea, emesis, lacrimation and salivation. Spontaneous abortion reported some when in pregnant patients. Intravenous administration of benzodiazepines, atropine and pralidoxime is the formal treatment of this toxicity. Atropine and pralidoxime have been assigned to pregnancy class C by the FDA and should be recommended for use in pregnant women clinically suffer organophosphate poisoning. Benzodiazepines have been assigned to pregnancy class D and should be avoided during pregnancy. Clinical experiments suggest transplacental transfer of organophosphates is possible, and fetal sensitivity is probable, but a single acute overdose most likely don't make any physical deformities, therefore termination of pregnancy is not imperative. Nonetheless, no definite strategy focused on maintaining pregnancy. Here we propose an idea that in any female case of acute organophosphate poisoning in childbearing range of age, maternal serum Beta-HCG should be tested for pregnancy and prophylactic progesterone should be used in pregnant cases of organophosphate poisoning.

  20. Cases of poisoning with organophosphates treated at the University Clinical Centre of Kosova.

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    Gashi, Musli; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Merita; Mekaj, Agon; Gashi, Goneta

    2010-01-01

    Everywhere today, poisonings present a significant and continuous increase of incidence in illness. Poisonings with organophosphates are more and more often. We do not have accurate statistics for this problem. The aim of this work was to present the clinical characteristics of poisoning with organophosphates, treated in University Clinical Centre in Prishtina. With the retrospective method, 23 patients were analyzed, 18 female and 5 male. Out of these, to (43.5%) have had tentative suicide, while 13 (56%) were accidentally exposed to poison. Poisoning with organophosphates was present in 3.8% of the overall number of poisonings. Organophosphate that was found in the analyzed poisoned patients was malathion (known here as Etiol). Average hospitalization time was 8.8 days (1 - 50 days range), average age of the patients was 27.1 years. Mortality scale was 52.1%. All these patients were treated with atropine. Atropine was given in intravenous way during 4.2 +/- 3.5 days and the average total dose was 82 +/- 61.5 mg. Pralidoxime antidote was not given to any of the patients. In adults, the poisoning was done mainly with the aim of suicide. Poisoned children with Etiol are in larger numbers from rural areas.

  1. Fresh frozen plasma as a successful antidotal supplement in acute organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučinić, Slavica; Zlatković, Milica; Antonijević, Biljana; Ćurčić, Marijana; Bošković, Bogdan

    2013-06-01

    Despite improvements to intensive care management and specific pharmacological treatments (atropine, oxime, diazepam), the mortality associated with organophosphate (OP) poisoning has not substantially decreased. The objective of this examination was to describe the role of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in acute OP poisoning. After a deliberate ingestion of malathion, a 55-year-old male suffering from miosis, somnolence, bradycardia, muscular fasciculations, rales on auscultation, respiratory insufficiency, as well as from an inhibition of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), was admitted to hospital. Malathion was confirmed in a concentration of 18.01 mg L(-1). Apart from supportive measures (including mechanical ventilation for four days), antidotal treatment with atropine, oxime-pralidoxime methylsulphate (Contrathion(R)), and diazepam was administered, along with FFP. The potentially beneficial effects of FFP therapy included a prompt increase of BuChE activity (from 926 IU L(-1) to 3277 IU L(-1); reference range from 7000 IU L(-1) to 19000 IU L(-1)) and a reduction in the malathion concentration, followed by clinical recovery. Due to BuChE replacement, albumin content, and volume restitution, FFP treatment may be used as an alternative approach in patients with acute OP poisoning, especially when oximes are not available.

  2. A comparison of tabun-inhibited rat brain acetylcholinesterase reactivation by three oximes (HI-6, obidoxime, and K048) in vivo detected by biochemical and histochemical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajgar, Jiri; Hajek, Petr; Zdarova, Jana Karasova; Kassa, Jiri; Paseka, Antonin; Slizova, Dasa; Krs, Otakar; Kuca, Kamil; Jun, Daniel; Fusek, Josef; Capek, Lukas

    2010-12-01

    Tabun belongs to the most toxic nerve agents. Its mechanism of action is based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition at the peripheral and central nervous systems. Therapeutic countermeasures comprise administration of atropine with cholinesterase reactivators able to reactivate the inhibited enzyme. Reactivation of AChE is determined mostly biochemically without specification of different brain structures. Histochemical determination allows a fine search for different structures but is performed mostly without quantitative evaluation. In rats intoxicated with tabun and treated with a combination of atropine and HI-6, obidoxime, or new oxime K048, AChE activities in different brain structures were determined using biochemical and quantitative histochemical methods. Inhibition of AChE following untreated tabun intoxication was different in the various brain structures, having the highest degree in the frontal cortex and reticular formation and lowest in the basal ganglia and substantia nigra. Treatment resulted in an increase of AChE activity detected by both methods. The highest increase was observed in the frontal cortex. This reactivation was increased in the order HI-6 tabun, reactivation in various parts of the brain is not of the same physiological importance. AChE activity in the pontomedullar area and frontal cortex seems to be the most important for the therapeutic effect of the reactivators. HI-6 was not a good reactivator for the treatment of tabun intoxication.

  3. Oximes: Reactivators of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase and antidotes in therapy against tabun poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Zrinka; Calić, Maja; Sinko, Goran; Bosak, Anita; Berend, Suzana; Vrdoljak, Ana Lucić; Radić, Bozica

    2008-09-25

    One of the therapeutic approaches to organophosphate poisoning is to reactivate AChE with site-directed nucleophiles such as oximes. However, pyridinium oximes 2-PAM, HI-6, TMB-4 and obidoxime, found as the most effective reactivators, have limiting reactivating potency in tabun poisoning. We tested oximes varying in the type of ring (pyridinium and/or imidazolium), the length and type of the linker between rings, and in the position of the oxime group on the ring to find more effective oximes to reactivate tabun-inhibited human erythrocyte AChE. Three of our tested pyridinium oximes K027, K048, K074, along with TMB-4, were the most promising for AChE reactivation. Promising oximes were further tested in vivo on tabun poisoned mice not only as antidotes in combination with atropine but also as pretreatment drug. Herein, we showed that a promising treatment in tabun poisoning by selected oximes and atropine could be improved if oximes are also used in pretreatment. Since the reactivating efficacy of the oximes in vitro corresponded to their therapeutic efficacy in vivo, it seems that pharmacological effect of these oximes is indeed primarily related to the reactivation of tabun-phosphorylated AChE.

  4. The Study of Corneal Topography in Myopic and Hyperopic Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Gao; Xuying Zhuo; Lusheng Ma; Ning Yu; Zhonghao Wang; Pengfei Jiang

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the differences of corneal topographies in myopic and hyperopic children and study the effect of Atropin on their changes.Methods: The refractive components of 136 eyes with different refractive conditions were measured with A-Scan and their corneal topographies with and without cycloplegia were obtained respectively.Results: The mean corneal power of zones 3mm (MD3, P=0.031 ) and minor keratometer K2 (P=0.003) of myopia are greater than those of hyperopia without cycloplegia. MD3 (P=0.009) and Keratometer K1 (P = 0.025) increased in hyperopic eyes, while MD3(P=0.033), K1 (P = 0.035) and K2 (P = 0.002) decreased in myopic eyes significantly after cycloplegia. Similarly, the mean corneal power of zones 5mm (MD5) and 7mm (MD7) in myopic eyes decreased dramatically (P ≤ 0.001 ).Conclusions: The corneal power was found to be greater in myopia than that in hyperopia. The effect of Atropin on corneal shape of myopia and hyperopia was in the opposite direction.

  5. Role of the sympatho-adrenal system in the reflex tachycardia produced by hydralazine in the anesthetized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrio, H; García-Márquez, F

    1986-09-01

    The role of the sympatho-adrenal system in the production of tachycardia accompanying the hypotensive response to hydralazine was studied in urethane-anesthetized rats subjected to previous bilateral adrenal demedullation or to pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine and compared with intact control animals. The prolonged hypotension induced by the vasodilator was not affected by these maneuvers, but the slowly developing tachycardia was reversed to bradycardia, which in the demedullated group was followed after 60 min by a moderate increase in heart rate. In the chemically sympathectomized rats, the cardiac depressant response was completely blocked by pretreatment with atropine. In additional experiments, previous administration of methylatropine enhanced hydralazine tachycardia, but atropine partially inhibited this response and changed its time course to mirror that of the hypotension. These results indicate that in urethane-anesthetized rats, hydralazine tachycardia is mediated by sympatho-adrenal activation and that it is accompanied by a simultaneous heart rate-lowering parasympathetic discharge normally masked by the predominant tachycardia. They further suggest that the tachycardia is facilitated by a muscarinic mechanism which modulates central sympathetic influences on cardiovascular function.

  6. Cholinergic and glutamatergic transmission at synapses between pedunculopotine tegmental nucleus axonal terminals and A7 catecholamine cell group noradrenergic neurons in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Jiyuan; Chang, Tien-Wei; Hung, Wei-Chen; Wu, Chieh-Yi; Luo, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Hsuan; Lin, Chingju; Yang, Chi-Sheng; Yang, Hsiu-Wen; Min, Ming-Yuan

    2016-11-01

    We characterized transmission from the pedunculopotine tegmental nucleus (PPTg), which contains cholinergic and glutamatergic neurons, at synapses with noradrenergic (NAergic) A7 neurons. Injection of an anterograde neuronal tracer, biotinylated-dextran amine, into the PPTg resulted in labeling of axonal terminals making synaptic connection with NAergic A7 neurons. Consistent with this, extracellular stimulation using a train of 10 pulses at 100 Hz evoked both fast and slow excitatory synaptic currents (EPSCs) that were blocked, respectively, by DNQX, a non-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blocker, or atropine, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor (mAChR) blocker. Interestingly, many spontaneous-like, but stimulation-dependent, EPSCs, were seen for up to one second after the end of stimulation and were blocked by DNQX and decreased by EGTA-AM, a membrane permeable form of EGTA, showing they are glutamatergic EPSCs causing by asynchronous release of vesicular quanta. Moreover, application of atropine or carbachol, an mAChR agonist, caused, respectively, an increase in the number of asynchronous EPSCs or a decrease in the frequency of miniature EPSCs, showing that mAChRs mediated presynaptic inhibition of glutamatergic transmission of the PPTg onto NAergic A7 neurons. In conclusion, our data show direct synaptic transmission of PPTg afferents onto pontine NAergic neurons that involves cooperation of cholinergic and glutamatergic transmission. This dual-transmitter transmission drives the firing rate of NAergic neurons, which may correlate with axonal and somatic/dendritic release of NA.

  7. Pentobarbital Toxicity after Self-Administration of Euthasol Veterinary Euthanasia Medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jason Crellin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt via sodium pentobarbital is uncommon. A 48-year-old woman with a history of depression and prior suicide attempt was found unresponsive by her veterinarian spouse near a syringe containing pink solution. Upon EMS’ arrival, the patient was experiencing apnea, hypoxemia, and miotic pupils; her blood glucose level measured 73 mg/dL. She was bradycardic and administered atropine with transient improvement in heart rate and transported to an emergency department; 2 mg of intravenous naloxone was administered without effect. She was endotracheally intubated via rapid sequence intubation. Rapid urine drug screening detected both benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit where she demonstrated a nearly absent radial pulse. Emergent fasciotomy to the left forearm and carpal tunnel was performed for acute compartment syndrome; “Euthasol” had been self-administered into the antecubital fossa. Expanded toxicological analysis via liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy detected caffeine, atropine, 7-aminoclonazepam, phenytoin, citalopram, and naproxen. The patient’s coma resolved over 48 hours and she was successfully extubated without complication. Emergency physicians must closely monitor patients exposed to veterinary euthanasia agents who develop central nervous system and respiratory depression, hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension, or skin injury. Consultation with a regional poison center and medical toxicologist is recommended.

  8. [Effect of change in levels of motor activity and innervation on basic and secondary rhythms of rat heart rate and respiration in ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, A V; Dmitrieva, L E; Sizonov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the heart basic rhythm, its rhythmical variations on periodograms, and level of spontaneos motor activity were studied on offspring of white rats from newborn to 3-week age at transition from the state of active wakefulness to narcosis as well as under conditions of blockade of M-cholinoreceptors with atropine. It is shown that the endogenous rhythmical activity can be regulated not only by a change in frequency of basic rhythms, but also by action on all parameters and properties of their rhythmical variations and secondary rhythms. The changes in power of the heart secondary rhythms exceed considerably the frequency oscillations of basic rhythms during blockade of cholinergic innervation or a change in the motor activity level that affects both the basic rhythm circulation and respiration and their variations--secondary rhythms. The atropine blockade of M-cholinoreceptors at the studied ages changes the heart beating rhythm within the limits of 10% of bradicardia in newborns to tachycardia in the 3-week old animals. At the same time, power of the cardiac rhythm secondary oscillations changes several times. These data indicate that the cholinergic mechanisms play the key role in formation of the secondary rhythms and their correlation with motor activity.

  9. Changes in intraocular pressure and horizontal pupil diameter during use of topical mydriatics in the canine eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalcuka, Liga; Ilgazs, Agris; Bandere, Dace; Williams, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of topical 0.5% tropicamide, 1% atropine sulphate and 10% phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions on intraocular pressure (IOP) and horizontal pupil diameter (HPD) in the dog during the first hour after treatment. Forty clinically and ophthalmologically normal canine patients (between the ages of 2 and 6 years) of varying breed and sex were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of ten and given one drop of tropicamide, atropine, phenylephrine or saline into one eye. IOP and HPD were measured in both eyes every 5 minutes for 60 minutes. Tropicamide increased IOP by 8.8±4.0 mmHg 35 minutes post-treatment compared to pre-treatment (Ppupil dilation 60 minutes after treatment, but the HPD of the – untreated eye slightly decreased at 15 minutes, but this change only reached statistical significance at 40 min post- treatment (P<0.05). Normal saline showed no influence on IOP or HPD. The drugs investigated here show a significant increase in IOP after mydriatics. PMID:28210543

  10. Spatial reference- (not working- or procedural-) memory performance of aged rats in the water maze predicts the magnitude of sulpiride-induced facilitation of acetylcholine release by striatal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Lazaris, Anelise; Birthelmer, Anja; Jackisch, Rolf

    2007-08-01

    Cluster analysis of water-maze reference-memory performance distinguished subpopulations of young adult (3-5 months), aged (25-27 months) unimpaired (AU) and aged impaired (AI) rats. Working-memory performances of AU and AI rats were close to normal (though young and aged rats differed in exploration strategies). All aged rats showed impaired procedural-memory. Electrically evoked release of tritium was assessed in striatal slices (preloaded with [(3)H]choline) in the presence of oxotremorine, physostigmine, atropine+physostigmine, quinpirole, nomifensine or sulpiride. Aged rats exhibited reduced accumulation of [(3)H]choline (-30%) and weaker transmitter release. Drug effects (highest concentration) were reductions of release by 44% (oxotremorine), 72% (physostigmine), 84% (quinpirole) and 65% (nomifensine) regardless of age. Sulpiride and atropine+physostigmine facilitated the release more efficiently in young rats versus aged rats. The sulpiride-induced facilitation was weaker in AI rats versus AU rats; it significantly correlated with reference-memory performance. The results confirm age-related alterations of cholinergic and dopaminergic striatal functions, and point to the possibility that alterations in the D(2)-mediated dopaminergic regulation of these functions contribute to age-related reference-memory deficits.

  11. Neuroprotection against diisopropylfluorophosphate in acute hippocampal slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchmin, P. A.; Pérez, Dinely; Cuadrado, Brenda L.; Carrasco, Marimée; Martins, Antonio H.; Eterović, Vesna A.

    2015-01-01

    Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and a surrogate of the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent sarin. The neurotoxicity of DFP was assessed as a reduction of population spike (PS) area elicited by synaptic stimulation in acute hippocampal slices. Two classical antidotes, atropine, and pralidoxime, and two novel antidotes, 4R-cembranotriene-diol (4R) and a caspase 9 inhibitor, were tested. Atropine, pralidoxime, and 4R significantly protected when applied 30 min after DFP. The caspase inhibitor was neuroprotective when applied 5–10 min before or after DFP, suggesting that early synaptic apoptosis is responsible for the loss of PSs. It is likely that apoptosis starts at the synapses and, if antidotes are not applied, descends to the cell bodies, causing death. The acute slice is a reliable tool for mechanistic studies, and the assessment of neurotoxicity and neuroprotection with PS areas is, in general, pharmacologically congruent with in vivo results and predicts the effect of drugs in vivo. 4R was first found to be neuroprotective in slices and later we demonstrated that 4R is neuroprotective in vivo. The mechanism of neurotoxicity of OPs is not well understood, and there is a need for novel antidotes that could be discovered using acute slices. PMID:26438150

  12. Ketamine-propofol sedation in circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Gulec

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effects of ketamine alone or ketamine plus propofol on analgesia, sedation, recovery time, side effects in premedicated children with midazolam-ketamine-atropin who are prepared circumcision operation.METHODS: 60 American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I-II children, aged between 3 and 9 years, undergoing circumcision operations under sedation were recruited according to a randomize and double-blind institutional review board-approved protocol. Patients were randomized into two groups via sealed envelope assignment. Both groups were administered a mixture of midazolam 0.05 mg/kg + ketamine 3 mg/kg + atropine 0.02 mg/kg intramuscularly in the presence of parents in the pre-operative holding area. Patients were induced with propofol-ketamine in Group I or ketamine alone in Group II.RESULTS: In the between-group comparisons, age, weight, initial systolic blood pressure, a difference in terms of the initial pulse rate was observed (p > 0.050. Initial diastolic blood pressure and subsequent serial measurements of 5, 10, 15, 20th min, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate in ketamine group were significantly higher (p < 0.050.CONCLUSION: Propofol-ketamine (Ketofol provided better sedation quality and hemodynamy than ketamine alone in pediatric circumcision operations. We did not observe significant complications during sedation in these two groups. Therefore, ketofol appears to be an effective and safe sedation method for circumcision operation.

  13. Excitatory and inhibitory cholinergic effects of yohimbine on isolated guinea-pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Tacca, M; Tadini, P; Blandizzi, C; Bernardini, M C

    1988-08-01

    The interaction of yohimbine with the cholinergic intestinal system was investigated in the isolated guinea-pig ileum using a wide range of drug concentrations from 3 x 10(-13) to 2 x 10(-4) g/ml. Low concentrations of yohimbine (3 x 10(-13) to 3 x 10(-11) g/ml) caused dose-dependent contractions of the ileal longitudinal muscle, which were potentiated by eserine 1 x 10(-8) g/ml and prevented by tetrodotoxin 1 x 10(-6) g/ml or by atropine 1 x 10(-12) g/ml; methysergide and diphenydramine were ineffective up to 3 x 10(-7) g/ml dose. Submaximal stimulatory responses evoked by twitch stimulation or by acetylcholine were significantly potentiated by the same concentrations of yohimbine (3 x 10(-13) to 3 x 10(-11) g/ml) and blocked by atropine 1 x 10(-12) g/ml. By contrast, high concentrations of yohimbine (1 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(-4) g/ml) displayed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on cholinergic responses. The stimulant effect of yohimbine seems to be indirect and mediated by the increase in the release of acetylcholine, while the inhibitory action may be due to a molecular interaction with the muscarinic receptors allowing non-specific receptor blockade.

  14. Botulinum Toxin as an Alternative to Treat the Spasm of the Near Reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laria, Carlos; Merino-Suárez, María L; Piñero, David P; Gómez-Hurtado, Arantxa; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of an eight-year-old girl with complaints of headaches and blurred vision (uncorrected visual acuity: 0.1 decimal) that showed on examination miotic pupils, pseudomyopia, no ocular motility restrictions, and no associated neurological disease. After initial treatment with cyclopentolate for two months, pseudomyopia persisted with an intermittent and variable esotropia. Spectacles of +1 both eyes and atropine 1% one drop daily were then prescribed. The situation improved and remained stable for several weeks, with pseudomyopia and esotropia reappearing later. Finally, botulinum toxin (2.5 iu Botox) was injected in the medial rectus muscle on two occasions and a visual therapy program based on the stimulation of fusional divergence, diplopia, and stereopsis consciousness was recommended. This prescription was combined with the use of atropine during the first few weeks. Orthotropia and corrected distance visual acuity of 1.0 were found three months after treatment. The evolution and clinical results of this case report suggest that botulinum toxin in combination with other therapeutic alternatives may be useful in the treatment of spasm of the near reflex.

  15. Influence of Needling the Foot-Yangming Points on Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration in Smooth Muscles of the Gastric Antrum in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yuanjiang; Yi Shouxiang; Lin Yaping; Yan Jie; Guo Hui; Xiang Zhiyong; Wu Fang; Liu Weiying; Chen Zhengqiu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of acupuncture at the points of Foot-Yangming Meridian on intracellular concentration of Ca2, called the 2nd messenger of gastric smooth muscles. Methods: 45rabbits were randomly divided into the following 5 groups: a normal saline group, a model group treated with atropine, an acupuncture group treated by needling the points of Foot-Yangming Meridian, an acupuncture group treated by needling the points of Foot-Shaoyang Meridian, an acupuncture group treated by needling the points of Foot-Taiyang Meridian, i.e. 9 rabbits in each group. After treatment, the smooth muscles of the gastric antrum were taken to make the suspension containing alive single muscular cells, and the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was determined by a spectrofluorometer.Results: The concentration of [Ca2+]i in the group of Foot-Yangming Meridian was obviously higher than that of the atropine group (P<0.01), but with no significant differences found among all the other groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: The influence of acupuncture at the points of Foot-Yangming Meridian on gastric movement is related to the release of intracellular Ca2+ in the gastric smooth muscles.

  16. Effects of Charred Fructus Crataegi on the contractilily of isolated rat gastric and intestine muscle strips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hou-li; DIAO Yun-peng; LIU Zhi-hao; HUANG Shan-shan; MA Xiao-chi; LIN Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract on contractililty of isolated rat gastric and intesting smooth muscle strips. Methods Isolated rat intestine was selected in the assay to test the effects of Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract on contractilty of isolated rat gastric and intestine smooth muscle strips using Krebs' solution, to observe the effects of in the presence of acetylcholine or atropine. Results Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract in the range of 2-8 rag crude drugs/mL could significantly reduce the contractility of rat gastric and intestine smooth muscle strips in a dose-dependent manner, and Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract 8 mg·mL-1(crude drugs) could inhibit the stimulation induced by acetylcholine. Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract 8 mg·mL-1(crude drugs) was found to have a inhibiton of the relaxtion concurrently used with atropin. Conclusions The results suggest that Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract has prominent inhibitory effects on the contractile activity of isolated rat gastric and intestine smooth muscle strips.

  17. Hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects of citronellol, a monoterpene alcohol, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Joana F A; Moreira, Italo J A; Ribeiro, Thaís P; Medeiros, Isac A; Antoniolli, Angelo R; De Sousa, Damião P; Santos, Márcio R V

    2010-04-01

    Citronellol is an essential oil constituent from the medicinal plants Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon winterianus and Lippia alba which are thought to possess antihypertensive properties. Citronellol-induced cardiovascular effects were evaluated in this study. In rats, citronellol (1-20 mg/kg, i.v.) induced hypotension, which was not affected by pre-treatment with atropine, hexamethonium, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride or indomethacin, and tachycardia, which was only attenuated by pre-treatment with atropine and hexamethonium. These responses were less than those obtained for nifedipine, a reference drug. In intact rings of rat mesenteric artery pre-contracted with 10 microM phenylephrine, citronellol induced relaxations (pD(2) = 0.71 +/- 0.11; E(max) = 102 +/- 5%; n = 6) that were not affected by endothelium removal, after tetraethylamonium in rings without endothelium pre-contracted with KCl 80 mM. Citronellol strongly antagonized (maximal inhibition = 97 +/- 4%; n = 6) the contractions induced by CaCl(2) (10(-6) to 3 x 10(-3 )M) and did not induce additional effects on the maximal response of nifedipine (10 microM). Finally, citronellol inhibited the contractions induced by 10 microM phenylephrine or 20 mM caffeine. The present results suggest that citronellol lowers blood pressure by a direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle leading to vasodilation.

  18. Effects of ketamine on the gastrointestinal motility of mice%氯胺酮对小鼠胃肠道蠕动功能的影响及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴奎霖; 李瑶函; 孙锶琦; 郭小玮; 邹逸帆; 张鑫磊; 仝坤; 秦霞

    2016-01-01

    Object ive To investigate the effects of ketamine on the gastrointestinal mobility of mice and M -R in the small intestine .Methods A total of 40 mice were divided into four groups according to their routes of administra-tion:a normal saline lavage group , a ketamine lavage group , a normal saline group by intraperitoneal injection , and a ketamine group by intraperitoneal injection. After administration of2 min, 0.2 ml methylene blue solution was followed by oral administration.30 min later, mice were sacrificed and their abdominal cavity was opened to measure the move-ment of methylene blue in the bowel and the full length of the intestinal , and to calculate the movement rate of methylene blue .Meanwhile , another 40 mice were divided into a normal saline group , an atropine group , a ketamine group ,and an atropine and ketamine group .They were intraperitoneal injected with corresponding agents to measure the movement rate of methylene blue .Results The ketamine lavage group showed remarkably lower movement rate than the normal saline groups by lavage and intraperitoneal injection ( P<0.05 ) .The ketamine group by intraperitoneal injection showed re -markably lower movement rate than the normal saline group by intraperitoneal injection and the ketamine lavage group ( P<0.05).Meanwhile, compared with the atropine group , the movement rate was markedly reduced in the ketamine group and the atropine and ketamine group (P<0.05).Compared with the ketamine group, no significant change was found in the atropine and ketamine group .Conclusion Ketamine has inhibitory effects on the gastrointestinal motility in mice , without association with M -R.%目的:观察氯胺酮对小鼠胃肠道蠕动功能的影响及对小肠M受体的作用。方法将40只小鼠按给药方式分为生理盐水灌胃组、氯胺酮灌胃组、生理盐水腹腔注射组、氯胺酮腹腔注射组。给药2 min后,经口灌入亚甲蓝溶液0.2 ml。30 min后将小鼠处死,测量

  19. 胆碱能受体拮抗剂、拟肾上腺素药物及哌替啶对兔离体Oddi括约肌功能的影响%Effects of cholinergic receptor antagonists, adrenergic drugs and pethidine on the function of sphincter of Oddi isolated from rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平; 李丹丹; 江从勋; 唐承薇

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨胆碱能受体拮抗剂、拟肾上腺素药物及阿片受体激动剂哌替啶对Oddi括约肌舒缩功能的不同效果.方法 将60只健康家兔的离体Oddi括约肌环随机分为6组,每组10只,分别置入正常Krebs液(即正常功能记录组)和按非累积加药法,以浓度递增方式加入阿托品、山莨菪碱、肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素、哌替啶的Krebs液中,观察和比较不同浓度的上述药物对Oddi括约肌的舒缩频率和收缩幅度的影响.结果 与对照组相比,5种药物在其浓度为10-6mol/L~10-2mol/L时,均可明显降低Oddi括约肌的收缩幅度(P<0.05),而对Oddi括约肌收缩频率的影响则不明显.抑制效应的顺序是去甲肾上腺素>肾上腺素>阿托品>山莨菪碱≈哌替啶.结论 除阿托品和山茛菪碱外,去甲肾上腺素、肾上腺素和哌替啶也同样可以通过降低Oddi括约肌的收缩幅度而松弛Oddi括约肌;肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素对Oddi括约肌收缩幅度的降低作用强于阿托品和山莨菪碱.%Objective To investigate the contractive effect of atropine, noradrenaline,adrenaline and pethidine on sphincter of Oddi (SO) isolated from rabbits. Methods The rings of SO isolated from 60 rabbits were treated with Krebs solution and then were exposed to gradient atropine,anisodamin, noradrenalin, adrenaline or pethidine with 10 each. The rest 10 rings of SO treated with Krebs solution only were served as controls. The amplitude and frequency of contraction of SO were recorded. Results Compared with control group, all of the 5 medicines were able to significantly decrease the contractive amplitude, but not frequency, of SO at the concentrations ranged from 10-6 mol/L to 10-2 mol/L (P<0.05). The inhibition order was as follows: noradrenaline > adrenaline >atropine > anisodamin ≈ pethidine. Conclusions Beside atropine and anisodamin, noradrenaline,adrenaline and pethidine also showed the direct relaxation of SO by

  20. 长托宁对急性有机磷农药中毒患者的疗效分析%Clinical analysis of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride treatment for acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗来发

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect on acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning treated by Penehyclidine Hydrochloride. Methods 76 cases with acucte organophosphate peticide poisoning were randomly divided into Penehyclidine Hydrochloride group and Atropine group, with 38 cases in each group. The two groups were given Penehyclidine Hydrochloride and Atropine at the base of conventional treatment, the efficacy was compared. Results The total effective rate of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride group was 97.4%, significantly higher than 78.9% of Atropine group (P < 0.05). The disappear time of poisoning symptoms and cholinesterase energy recovery in Penehyclidine Hydrochloride group was shorter than the Atropine group (P < 0.05). The drug dose and the average number of drugs were significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.05). The incidence rate of adverse reaction of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride group was 7.9%, significantly lower than Atropine group (26.3%) (P < 0.05). Conclusion The clinical effect on acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning treated by Penehyclidine Hydrochloride is satisfactory, recovery faster and less adverse reactions, which is worthy of clinical application.%目的 观察长托宁治疗急性有机磷农药中毒的临床疗效.方法 将76例急性有机磷中毒患者随机分为长托宁组和阿托品组,各38例,两组在常规治疗的基础上分别给予长托宁和阿托品肌注联合氯解磷定治疗,比较两组的临床疗效.结果 长托宁组和阿托品组的有效率分别为97.4%和78.9%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05);长托宁组的中毒症状消失时间和胆碱酯酶活力恢复时间均明显短于阿托品组,住院时间也明显缩短(P < 0.05).长托宁组的用量和给药次数均明显少于阿托品组(P < 0.05).治疗过程中长托宁组的不良反应发生率为7.9%,显著低于阿托品组的26.3%(P < 0.05).结论 长托宁用于急性有机磷中毒的抢救疗效显

  1. 眼镜蛇长链神经毒素镇痛效应及可能机制%Analgesic effect of cobratoxin and its possible mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建明; 苏兰娣; 罗雪; 叶记林; 于有江

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the analgesic effect of cobratoxin (CBT) and its possible mechanisms. Methods The pain-evoked discharge from the spinal dorsal horn neurons in rats with chronic pain was recorded by the somatic extracellular record method. The 6 experimental rat groups were injected by the normal saline (5μL),CBT(20,40,80 ng/kg),atropine(2 mg/kg) and atropine(2 mg/kg)+CBT(40 ng/kg) respectively. The influence of different concentrations of CBT on the pain-evoked discharge from the spinal dorsal horn neurons was observed. At the same time ,whether cholinergic receptor antagonist atropine overturning its analgesic effect was observed too. Results The different concentrations of CBT could obviously inhibit the pain-evoked discharge from the spinal dorsal horn neuron in rats with chronic pain ,the discharge frequency had statistically significant difference between the different concentration and the normal saline group (P<0.05),moreover the effect could be blocked by atropine , the difference of the discharge frequency at 20,30,40,50,60 min had statistical difference between the atropine+CBT group and the CBT 40 ng/kg group(P<0.05). Conclusion CBT possesses a significant analgesic effect,this effect has certain dose dependence and the cholinergic receptor system participates in this analgesic process.%目的:探究眼镜蛇长链神经毒素(CBT)的镇痛作用及可能机制。方法采用在体细胞外记录方法记录慢性炎症痛模型大鼠脊髓背角神经元的痛诱发放电,分别对六组实验大鼠注射生理盐水(5μL)、CBT(20、40、80 ng/kg)、阿托品(2 mg/kg)、阿托品(2 mg/kg)+CBT(40 ng/kg),观察不同含量CBT对脊髓背角神经元痛诱发放电的影响,同时观察胆碱能受体拮抗剂阿托品能否翻转其镇痛效应。结果不同含量CBT均可以显著抑制慢性炎症痛大鼠脊髓背角神经元的痛诱发放电,各含量CBT组放电频率与生理盐水组比较,差

  2. Effect of rhubarb and Glauber's salt cathartic intervention on acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%大黄加芒硝导泻治疗有机磷农药中毒的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱茄英; 陈茶花; 鄢小莲; 肖玲; 黄敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of nasal tube feeding of rhubarb solution and umbilical compress of Glauber's salt for purgation in the treatment of patients with severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP).Methods A retrospective study was conducted.Eighty patients with severe AOPP were dividedinto two groups according to different treatment,with 40 patients in each group.A thorough gastric lavage was done,followed by cholinesterase complex agent and atropine were given for all the patients.On the base of this treatment,one group of patients were given nasogastric feeding of rhubarb solution (200 ml) and Glauber's salt solution ( 100 g) for umbilical compress (rhubarb plus Glauher group),and another group of patients were fed with 20% mannitol (200 ml)as a control group (mannitol group).The time of first defecation,number of passing stools,the time of normalization of cholinesterase (ChE) activity,time of atropinization,dosage of atropinization,and total amount of atropine given,incidence of adverse reactions,and hospital stay in two groups were observed,a statistical analysis of the data was conducted.Results In rhubarb plus Glauber group,all the conditions were improved better than those of mannitol group [first defecation time (minutes):134.13 ± 31.31 vs.154.35 ± 34.78,the number of stools (times/d):2.60 ±0.81 vs.2.14 ± 0.63,time of ChE activity returned to normal (days):9.65 ± 1.42 vs.10.66 ± 1.74,atropinization time ( hours ):3.00 ± 0.73 vs.3.56 ± 1.02,dosage of atropinization (mg):51.43 ± 7.03 vs.57.65 ± 7.74,the total amount of atropine given (mg):229.78 ± 28.96 vs.248.41 ± 31.45,the incidence of adverse reactions:abdominal pain 0 vs.17.5%,abdominal distention 0 vs.20.0%,hospital stay (days):10.43 ± 1.68 vs.11.59 ± 2.121,and all the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.01).Conclusion Combination usage with aqueous rhubarb solution and Glauber's salt in AOPP patients could yield quick clearance of toxin

  3. The role of muscarinic cholinergic signaling in cost-benefit decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobbs, Wambura

    Animals regularly face decisions that affect both their immediate success and long term survival. Such decisions typically involve some form of cost-benefit analysis and engage a number of high level cognitive processes, including learning, memory and motivational influences. While decision making has been a focus of study for over a century, it's only in the last 20 years that researchers have begun to identify functional neural circuits that subserve different forms of cost-benefit decision making. Even though the cholinergic system is both functionally and anatomically positioned to modulate cost-benefit decision circuits, the contribution of the cholinergic system to decision making has been little studied. In this thesis, I investigated the cognitive and neural contribution of muscarinic cholinergic signaling to cost-benefit decision making. I, first, re-examined the effects of systemic administration of 0.3 mg/kg atropine on delay and probability discounting tasks and found that blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by atropine induced suboptimal choices (impulsive and risky) in both tasks. Since the effect on delay discounting was restricted to the No Cue version of the delay discounting task, I concluded that muscarinic cholinergic signaling mediates both forms of cost-benefit decision making and is selectively engaged when decisions require valuation of reward options whose costs are not externally signified. Second, I assessed the impact of inactivating the nucleus basalis (NBM) on both forms decision making and the effect of injecting atropine locally into the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), or nucleus accumbens (NAc) core during the No Cue version of the delay discounting task. I discovered that although NBM inactivation failed to affect delay discounting, it induced risk aversion in the probability discounting task; and blockade of intra- NAc core, but not intra-OFC or intra-BLA, muscarinic cholinergic signaling lead to

  4. Intoxicación por organofosforados con necesidad de altas dosis de atropina y administración tardía de oximas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Andrés Leotau Rodríguez, MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La intoxicación por organofosforados es una de las causas más frecuentes de intoxicación en el mundo y una de las tres normas principales de suicidio, llegando a mortalidades cercanas al 15 %. Esta radica en la inhibición irreversible que sus componentes hacen en la enzima acetilcolinesterasa, llevando con ello a la aparición de signos y síntomas secundarios al exceso de acetilcolina en los sistemas donde actúa. Su manejo aún es controvertido y sigue basándoseen las medidas de descontaminación, utilización de atropina, oximas y benzodiacepinas, sin haber consenso en muchas de las dosis e intervalos de tiempo para la administración de estos medicamentos. En este artículo exponemos un caso en el cual se hace necesario utilizardosis e intervalos de administración de atropina y el uso tardío de las oximas. Con este caso se puede concluir que la administración tardía de oximas y la utilización de grandes cantidades de atropina pueden ser una alternativa en el manejo de este tipo de intoxicación.______________________________________________________________________Organophosphate poisoning is one of the most frequent causes of poisoning in the world and one of the three main forms of suicide, reaching roughly 15% mortality, this lies in the irreversible inhibition that make components in the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, leading thus the signs and symptoms secondary to excessive acetylcholine in the systems where it operates. Its management is still controversial and remains based on the decontaminationmeasures, use of atropine, oximes and benzodiazepines, no consensus on many of the doses and time intervals for administration of these drugs. In this article we present a case in which it becomes necessary to use dose and timing of administration of atropine and late use of oximes. In this case we can conclude that the late administration of oximes using grades and quantities of atropine may be an alternative in handling this type of

  5. Protective Effect of Tetrandrine on Mice Poisoned with Trichlorfon%粉防己碱对敌百虫中毒小鼠的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉清; 谢凤香; 梁尚栋; 穆松牛; 许宝华; 高云

    2001-01-01

    Acute toxicity experiment was done to determine the protective effect of tetrandrine on mice poisoned with trichlorfon(dipterex)of LD100.Significance in deviation of mortality between the poisoned mice treated with or without tetrandrine was examined by chisquare(Χ2) test.Results:Tetrandrine(20~40mg/kg,I.p.)exhibited adefinite protective effect on poisoned mice for the mortality of the animals treated with tetrandrine was significantly lower than that of the control group with normal saline(P<0.05).Themortality in the group treated with tetrandrine was close to that in the group treated with atropine(10mg/kg,I.p.)and there was no significant difference between them(P>0.05).Concdlusion:The results suggest that tetrandrine has protection against organophosphorus esters toxicity similar to that of atropine,and that it may be used as a synergist for atropine in the treatment of poisoning by these toxic compounds.The mechanism of action for tetrandrine is obscure at present and needs to be studied further.%目的:验证粉防己碱对有机磷酸酯中毒动物的保护作用。方法:采用急性毒性试验,以判断粉防己碱对LD100 剂量敌百虫中毒小鼠的保护作用。应用和未用粉防己碱处理的中毒小鼠死亡率间的差异显著性,以卡方测验进行 检验。结果:粉防己碱(20~40 mg/kg,i. p.)对中毒小鼠有确切的保护效果,因为粉防己碱处理的动物死亡率明显 低于用生理盐水处理的对照组死亡率(P0.05)。结论:粉防己碱具有近似阿托品的对抗有机磷酸酯中毒功效,并提示它 可被用作阿托品治疗此类毒物中毒时的协同剂。粉防己碱的作用机理目前尚不清楚,有待进一步探讨。

  6. Cardiovascular actions of the venom from the Irukandji (Carukia barnesi) jellyfish: effects in human, rat and guinea-pig tissues in vitro and in pigs in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Kenneth D; Tibballs, James; Molenaar, Peter; Lambert, Gavin; Coles, Peter; Ross-Smith, Mark; Wiltshire, Carolyn; Fenner, Peter J; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Hawdon, Gabrielle M; Wright, Christine E; Angus, James A

    2005-09-01

    1. We have investigated the cardiovascular pharmacology of the crude venom extract (CVE) from the potentially lethal, very small carybdeid jellyfish Carukia barnesi, in rat, guinea-pig and human isolated tissues and anaesthetized piglets. 2. In rat and guinea-pig isolated right atria, CVE (0.1-10 microg/mL) caused tachycardia in the presence of atropine (1 micromol/L), a response almost completely abolished by pretreatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.1 micromol/L). In paced left atria from guinea-pig or rat, CVE (0.1-3 microg/mL) caused a positive inotropic response in the presence of atropine (1 micromol/L). 3. In rat mesenteric small arteries, CVE (0.1-30 microg/mL) caused concentration-dependent contractions that were unaffected by 0.1 micromol/L TTX, 0.3 micromol/L prazosin or 0.1 micromol/L omega-conotoxin GVIA. 4. Neither the rat right atria tachycardic response nor the contraction of rat mesenteric arteries to CVE were affected by the presence of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) antivenom (92.6 units/mL). 5. In human isolated driven right atrial trabeculae muscle strips, CVE (10 microg/mL) tended to cause an initial fall, followed by a more sustained increase, in contractile force. In the presence of atropine (1 micromol/L), CVE only caused a positive inotropic response. In separate experiments in the presence of propranolol (0.2 micromol/L), the negative inotropic effect of CVE was enhanced, whereas the positive inotropic response was markedly decreased. 6. In anaesthetized piglets, CVE (67 microg/kg, i.v.) caused sustained tachycardia and systemic and pulmonary hypertension. Venous blood samples demonstrated a marked elevation in circulating levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline. 7. We conclude that C. barnesi venom may contain a neural sodium channel activator (blocked by TTX) that, in isolated atrial tissue (and in vivo), causes the release of transmitter (and circulating) catecholamines. The venom may also contain a 'direct' vasoconstrictor component

  7. 急性有机磷农药中毒84例的抢救及护理%The rescue and nursing of 84 cases of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓春

    2015-01-01

    目的:迅速清除毒物,及时使用解毒剂和尽快达到阿托品化以对抗烟碱样症状、毒蕈碱样症状、中枢神经系统症状,减轻对重要器官的损害,提高抢救成功率,防止反跳与猝死的发生。方法:催吐、洗胃、清除毒物,尽早快速使用解毒剂,使其短期达到阿托品化,对症处置。结果:84例有机磷农药中毒患者经及时抢救,精心护理,80例痊愈出院,4例死于呼吸、循环衰竭。结论:有机磷农药中毒抢救的关键是早期及时应用解毒剂,短期达到阿托品化,迅速彻底清除毒物,密切观察病情,采取有效的护理措施,可大大提高抢救成功率。%Objective:In order to fight against nicotine symptoms,muscarinic symptoms,central nervous system symptoms,to alleviate the damage of the vital organs,improve the success rate of rescue,prevent the occurrence of rebound and sudden death by quickly remove poisons,timely use of antidotes and reach atropinization as soon as possible.Methods: The use of emetic,gastric lavage,clean up the poison,early rapid use antidote,make its short-term reach atropinization and symptomatic disposal.Results:84 cases of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients with timely rescue,careful nursing,80 cases were cured,4 cases died of respiratory and circulatory failure.Conclusion:The key to rescue organophosphorus pesticide poisoning is that the early and timely application of antidote,short-term reach atropinization,quickly and thoroughly remove poison,close observation of disease,take effective nursing measures,which can greatly improve the success rate of rescue.

  8. Oxytocic effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Costus lucanusianus - family Costaceae on isolated non-pregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Omonkhelini J; Omogbai, Eric K I; Falodun, Abiodun

    2010-04-01

    Costus lucanusianus J. Braun (Costaceae) is a climbing herb, found mainly in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This plant is locally used in situations of pains, inflammation, dysmenorrhoea and in pyrexia. The purpose of this study was to investigate this claim with view to validating scientifically the ethno-medicinal usage. The aqueous extract was subjected to pharmacological testing in vitro on a piece of isolated rat uterus previously pretreated with 1 mg/kg stilbestrol for 24 h. The dose response curves of oxytocin and that of the extract were first obtained. The effects of antagonists like atropine (1 mg) and salbutamol (2 microg) on the dose response curve of the extract were also investigated. Possible synergy was investigated via co-administration of the extract and oxytocin. Finally the proximate analysis of the extract was investigated. The aqueous extract of C. lucanusianus and oxytocin both produced a dose dependent contraction of the uterus. An effect of 0.63+/-0.06 g force of uterine contraction produced by 12.5 mg of the extract was increased to 1.37+/-0.09 g when 200 mg of the extract was administered. Oxytocin at 0.16 i.u was observed to produce a similar force of contraction with 200 mg of the aqueous extract. Synergy was established as co administration of the extract at 200 mg and oxytocin at 0.08 i.u, produced higher contractile effect, significantly higher (p<0.05) than when either the extract (200mg) or oxytocin (0.08 i.u) was administered alone. Both atropine and salbutamol significantly (p<0.0001) inhibited the contractile effect produced by the extract. The inhibitory effect showed by atropine on the contractile effect of the extract seems to suggest the involvement of muscarinic receptors. The proximate analysis carried out in this study is used to establish the identity of the crude drug sample. A moisture content of 10.047 % was obtained. The total ash is a measure of the non-volatile inorganic constituents remaining after ashing. The

  9. Interactions between biomaterials and the sclera: Implications on myopia progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, James

    injectable materials. Fourth, the muscarinic antagonist drug, atropine, was encapsulated within the edsIPNs and delivered to the chick eye posterior pole to evaluate the local effect of atropine release. This fourth study offered an alternative method of ocular drug delivery for treatment of myopia, with the potential to elucidate the actual location of the inhibitive effect of atropine on myopia progression. In summary, this dissertation contributes to the design and use of biomaterials specific to myopia therapy and adds novel insights to scleral tissue engineering.

  10. A long-form α-neurotoxin from cobra venom produces potent opioidindependent analgesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-xin CHEN; Hui-ling ZHANG; Zhen-lun GU; Bo-wen CHEN; Rong HAN; Paul F REID; Laurence N RAYMOND; Zheng-hong QIN

    2006-01-01

    Aim:In light of the antinociceptive activity of the short-chain neurotoxin,cobrotoxin,and other acetylcholine antagonists,the antinociceptive activity and mechanisms of cobratoxin (CTX) ,a long-chain postsynaptic α-neurotoxin,was investigated in rodent pain models.Methods:CTX was administered intraperitoneally (30,45,68μg/kg) ,intra-cerebral ventricularly (4.5 μg/kg) or microinjected into periaqueductal gray (PAG;4.5 μg/kg).The antinociceptive action was tested using the hot.plate and acetic acid writhing tests in mice and rats.The involvement of the cholinergic system and opioid system in CTX-induced analgesia was examined by pretreatment of animals with atropine (0.5 mg/kg,im;or 10 mg/kg,ip) or naloxone (1 and 5 mg/kg,ip).The effect of CTX on motor activity was tested using the Animex test.Results:CTX exhibited a dose-dependent analgesic action in mice as determined by both the hot-plate and acetic acid writhing tests.The Deak effect of analgesia was seen 3 h after administration.In the mouse acetic acid writhing test,the intra-cerebral ventricular administration of CTX at 4.5μg/kg (1/12th of a systemic dose) produced marked analgesic effects.Microinjection of CTX (4.5μg/kg) into the PAG region did not elicit an analgesic action in rats in the hot-plate test.Atropine at 0.5 mg/kg (im) and naloxone at l and 5 mg/kg (ip) both failed to block the analgesic effects of CTX,but atropine at 1 0 mg/kg (ip) did antagonize the analgesia mediated bv CTX in the mouse acetic acid writhing test.Acetylsalicylic acid (300 mg/kg) did not enhance the analgesic effects of CTX.At the highest effective dose of 68μg/kg the neurotoxin did not change the spontaneous mobility of mice.Conclusion:CTX has analgesic effects.which are mediated in the central nervous system though not through the PAG.The central cholinergic system but not opioid system appears to be involved in the antinociceptive action of CTX.

  11. Descrição de um protocolo experimental para estudos cardiofisiológicos em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Soares de Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a preparing and application electrode method for cardiophysiological study performed in mice in order to relate the results obtained with these experiments to humans by means of comparative physiology. The study consisted of monitoring the state of mouse cardiophysiological parameters using an electrocardiograph during intravenous administration of subanesthetic ketamine. The final result was obtained by spectral analysis which outlined changes in cardiac activity of the animal after the drug injection, leading to the reduction of RR-interval duration and to the sharp fall in the low frequency (LF component signal. This result points out that there was an increase in heart rate after pretreatment of atropine and subsequent administration of ketamine.

  12. Can We Find Better Bronchodilators to Relieve Asthma Symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Townsend

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchodilators are the first line therapy during acute asthmatic exacerbations to reverse airway obstruction primarily by relaxing airway smooth muscle. Only three categories of bronchodilators exist in clinical practice: -adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics, and methylxanthines. Each of these categories have specific drugs dating back to the early 20th century, raising the question of whether or not we can find better bronchodilators. While caffeine, theophylline, atropine, and epinephrine were the first generations of therapeutics in each of these drug classes, there is no question that improvements have been made in the bronchodilators in each of these classes. In the following editorial, we will briefly describe new classes of potential bronchodilators including: novel PDE inhibitors, natural phytotherapeutics, bitter taste receptor ligands, and chloride channel modulators, which have the potential to be used alone or in combination with existing bronchodilators to reverse acute airway obstruction in the future.

  13. Adolf Hitler's medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, D

    2005-02-01

    For the last nine years of his life Adolf Hitler, a lifelong hypochondriac had as his physician Dr Theodor Morell. Hitler's mood swings, Parkinson's disease, gastro-intestinal symptoms, skin problems and steady decline until his suicide in 1945 are documented by reliable observers and historians, and in Morell's diaries. The bizarre and unorthodox medications given to Hitler, often for undisclosed reasons, include topical cocaine, injected amphetamines, glucose, testosterone, estradiol, and corticosteroids. In addition, he was given a preparation made from a gun cleaner, a compound of strychnine and atropine, an extract of seminal vesicles, and numerous vitamins and 'tonics'. It seems possible that some of Hitler's behaviour, illnesses and suffering can be attributed to his medical care. Whether he blindly accepted such unorthodox medications or demanded them is unclear.

  14. Catalytic bioscavengers in nerve agent poisoning: A promising approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2016-02-26

    The repeated use of the nerve agent sarin against civilians in Syria in 2013 emphasizes the continuing threat by chemical warfare agents. Multiple studies demonstrated a limited efficacy of standard atropine-oxime treatment in nerve agent poisoning and called for the development of alternative and more effective treatment strategies. A novel approach is the use of stoichiometric or catalytic bioscavengers for detoxification of nerve agents in the systemic circulation prior to distribution into target tissues. Recent progress in the design of enzyme mutants with reversed stereo selectivity resulting in improved catalytic activity and their use in in vivo studies supports the concept of catalytic bioscavengers. Yet, further research is necessary to improve the catalytic activity, substrate spectrum and in vivo biological stability of enzyme mutants. The pros and cons of catalytic bioscavengers will be discussed in detail and future requirements for the development of catalytic bioscavengers will be proposed.

  15. [Ocular signs in cases of down's syndrome (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnad, H D; Rett, A

    1979-11-09

    420 mongoloid children aged between one month and 14 years were examined in a special ophthalmology department for disabled children employing biomicroscopy, retinoscopy under atropine and, if possible, visual acuity testing. Epicanthal folds were present in 46%, mongoloid slanting of the lids in 72% of cases. A decrease in binocular vision was present in 40% of the children. Brushfield's spots were encountered in 86% of the patients in a circular arrangement, whilst in 7% only the temporal half of the iris was involved. Lens changes of a variable degree were present in altogether 55% of cases and an increase in the number of retinal vessels, as well as their radial arrangement, as described by Williams, were documented in 46% of the cases. A comparison of the incidence and degree of refractive anomalies in mongoloid and normal children was undertaken. The present findings are discussed and compared with the results of other investigators.

  16. Reversal of vecuronium with neostigmine in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Y; Hattori, H; Sanbe, N; Nakajima, H; Akatu, M; Murakawa, M

    2004-08-01

    Reversal of vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with neostigmine was compared in two groups of 16 subjects: patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal controls. When the first twitch of the train-of-four had returned to 25% of the control value, neostigmine 40 microg x kg(-1) and atropine 20 microg x kg(-1) were given to reverse the neuromuscular blockade. The train-of-four ratio was lower at 3 min, 6 min, 9 min, 12 min and 15 min after reversal in the diabetic group than in the control group but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Fifteen minutes after reversal, the number of patients in whom recovery from neuromuscular blockade was judged insufficient to guarantee good respiratory function (train-of-four ratio reversal, the number of patients with a train-of-four ratio Diabetic Group than in the Control Group (15 vs. 10, p = 0.033).

  17. Dorsomedial hypothalamic GABA regulates anxiety in the social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, A; Katner, J S

    1995-02-01

    Blockade of GABAA function in the region of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of rats is known to elicit a constellation of physiologic responses including increases in heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate, and plasma catecholamine levels, as well as behavioral responses such as increases in locomotor activity and anxiogenic-like effects as measured in a conflict test and the elevated plus-maze test. The aim of the present study was to test the effects of microinjecting GABAA antagonists bicuculline methiodide (BMI) and picrotoxin, as well as the GABAA agonist muscimol, into the DMH of rats placed in the social interaction (SI) test. Muscimol decreased HR and BP but increased SI, whereas the GABA antagonists increased HR and BP but decreased SI time. Blocking the HR changes elicited by GABAergic drugs injected into the DMH with systemic injections of atenolol and atropine methylbromide did not block their effects on SI.

  18. Nattrassia mangiferae causing fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindo A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fungal keratitis caused by the coelomycetous fungus Nattrassia mangiferae in a 70 year old gentleman, agriculturist by occupation, with a history of injury to his right eye. The scraping showed narrow septate fungal hyphae on a KOH mount, isolation of a fast growing black mould, which demonstrated hyphae and arthroconidia of varying widths typical of the Scytalidium synanamorph (S. dimidiatum. The formation of the pycnidia, which at maturity, expressed conidia. The patient was started on topical itraconazole one hourly and topical atropine thrice a day. The patient was lost to follow up hence we are not able to comment on the final outcome of the patient.

  19. Three-dimensional solubility parameters and their use in characterising the permeation of drugs through the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groning, R; Braun, F J

    1996-05-01

    The physico-chemical properties of drug substances are major determinants of their transdermal absorption. In the present study the concept of the three-dimensional solubility parameters of Hansen was applied in conjunction with the Bagley projection to describe the permeation of drugs and model substances through the skin. Drug permeation data from the literature were compared with the calculated solubility parameters of the drugs. It was demonstrated that the permeation of drugs can be estimated by their position in the Bagley diagram. There is a linear correlation between the logarithm of the skin permeation of drugs and the exchange cohesive energy for the steroids testosterone, progesterone, hydrocortisone acetate, corticosterone, cortisone, and dexamethasone. A linear correlation can be confirmed for the permeation of glyceryl trinitrate, digitoxin, oestradiol, scopolamine, atropine, diethylcarbamazine, fentanyl, and chlorpheniramine. In the case of morphine, codeine, sufentanil, meperidine and hydromorphone there is a linear relationship, too.

  20. In-vitro Antispasmodic Activity Analysis of Methanolic Leaves Extract of Lantana camara Linn. on Excised Rat Ileum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna P. Ghodake

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to provide the pharmacological basis for medicinal use of Lantana camara Linn. as an antispasmodic agent using in-vitro pharmacological assay. Lantana camara Linn. (Verbenaceae, is a widely growing shrub which found to be toxic to some animal species, has been used in the traditional medicine for treating many ailments. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antispasmodic effects of Lantana camara leaf constituents on rat ileum. Antispasmodic activity was assessed by the interpolation method on isolated rat ileum. Effects of acetylcholine, methanolic extract of Lantana camara leaves and acetylcholine along with methanolic leaves extract were studied on isolated rat ileum; which later compared with atropine as standard anti-spasmodic agent. The present study results revealed that methanolic leaves extract of Lantana camara Linn. showed promising antispasmodic action on excised rat ileum.

  1. Effects of intraocular mescaline and LSD on visual-evoked responses in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, J T; Wilkison, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of mescaline and LSD on the flash-evoked cortical potential (FEP) were determined in unrestrained rats with chronically-implanted electrodes. Systemic administration of mescaline or LSD significantly attenuated the primary component of the FEP at three stimulus intensities with the greatest effect observed 60-90 minutes following drug administration. The magnitude and specificity of the effects of these agents on the primary response suggest that they produce deficits in conduction through the retino-geniculato-cortical system. The serotonin receptor antagonists, cyproheptadine and methysergide, antagonized the mescaline-induced depression of the FEP in accordance with neurochemical and behavioral evidence that mescaline acts as a partial agonist on serotonin receptors. Topical or intraocular administration of atropine antagonized the actions of systemically-administered mescaline. In addition, intraocular administration of mescaline or LSD attenuated the FEP indicative of an action of these hallucinogens on visual processing in the retina which is modulated by muscarinic receptor activity.

  2. The effects of a new opioid analgesic, meptazinol, on the respiration of the conscious rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlrick, I S; Shepperson, N B

    1985-05-01

    In the conscious rat arterial PCO2 was measured as an index of respiratory status. The opioid analgesic meptazinol (7.5 - 30 mg kg-1) evoked small but significant increases in arterial PCO2 which were attenuated by naloxone. Meptazinol significantly reduced the increase in arterial PCO2 evoked by morphine. The respiratory depression induced by meptazinol, but not that induced by morphine, was enhanced by pretreatment with atropine. The (+)-enantiomer, but not the (-)-enantiomer of meptazinol increased arterial PCO2. In contrast, only the (-)-enantiomer reduced the respiratory depressant effect of morphine. It is proposed that the degree of respiratory depression induced by meptazinol is limited by its opioid antagonist and cholinomimetic properties.

  3. Contractile reaction of isolated frog aorta after X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michailov, M.C.; Prechter, I.; Greimel, H.; Welscher, U.E.

    1983-07-01

    The action of X-rays (50 kV, filtered by 0.3 mm Al) on helical strip of frog aorta (rana esculenta) has been investigated. The isolated preparations have a stable basal tone and are radio-sensitive to X-rays which induce reversible, dose-dependent, contractile responses. After repeated irradiational tachyphylaxis appears. The threshold doses are about 250 R at 3 to 6 kR/min, antiadrenergic (phentolamine, propranolol), anticholinergic (atropin), antihistaminic (Neo-Bridal) and serotoninergic (Deseril) drugs have no visible influence on the X-ray induced reaction, i.e. these action mechanisms of the irradiation-induced contraction do not seem probable. Theophylline and cAMP inhibit the X-ray contraction probably non-specifically. Indometacin also inhibits the X-ray contraction: this suggests participation of prostaglandin-mechanism on the contraction of frog aorta after irradiation.

  4. Quantification of phytochemical constituents and in-vitro antioxidant activity of Mesua ferrea leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narender Prasad D; B Ganga Rao; E Sambasiva Rao; T Mallikarjuna Rao; VS Praneeth D

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the quantification of total phenolic, alkaloid content and in-vitro antioxidant activity of ethanol (70%), methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of Mesua ferrea (M. ferrea) leaves. Methods: The quantification of the total phenolic and alkaloid contents were estimated by taking gallic acid and atropine are as a standard; In-vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for extracts by using different free radicals (superoxide, hydroxyl and DPPH).Results: M. ferrea leaves ethanol (70%) extract have more phenolic and alkaloidal content than other extracts. The selected plant extracts were produced concentration dependent percentage inhibition of different free radicals and produced maximum activity at a concentration of 1 280 μg and there after the percentage inhibition were raised gradually to its maximum level with higher concentrations. Conclusion: In the present study we found that the extracts of M. ferrea showed good antioxidant activity. Among the four extracts, the ethanol (70%) extract showed better activity than other extracts.

  5. Mannich Bases: An Important Pharmacophore in Present Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Bala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mannich bases are the end products of Mannich reaction and are known as beta-amino ketone carrying compounds. Mannich reaction is a carbon-carbon bond forming nucleophilic addition reaction and is a key step in synthesis of a wide variety of natural products, pharmaceuticals, and so forth. Mannich reaction is important for the construction of nitrogen containing compounds. There is a number of aminoalkyl chain bearing Mannich bases like fluoxetine, atropine, ethacrynic acid, trihexyphenidyl, and so forth with high curative value. The literature studies enlighten the fact that Mannich bases are very reactive and recognized to possess potent diverse activities like anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antifilarial, antibacterial, antifungal, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitubercular, analgesic, anti-HIV, antimalarial, antipsychotic, antiviral activities and so forth. The biological activity of Mannich bases is mainly attributed to α, β-unsaturated ketone which can be generated by deamination of hydrogen atom of the amine group.

  6. The left ventricular contractility of the rat heart is modulated by changes in flow and a1-adrenoceptor stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F. Vassallo

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial contractility depends on several mechanisms such as coronary perfusion pressure (CPP and flow as well as on a1-adrenoceptor stimulation. Both effects occur during the sympathetic stimulation mediated by norepinephrine. Norepinephrine increases force development in the heart and produces vasoconstriction increasing arterial pressure and, in turn, CPP. The contribution of each of these factors to the increase in myocardial performance needs to be clarified. Thus, in the present study we used two protocols: in the first we measured mean arterial pressure, left ventricular pressure and rate of rise of left ventricular pressure development in anesthetized rats (N = 10 submitted to phenylephrine (PE stimulation before and after propranolol plus atropine treatment. These observations showed that in vivo a1-adrenergic stimulation increases left ventricular-developed pressure (Pa1-adrenoceptors and increased flow, increased cardiac performance acting simultaneously and synergistically.

  7. Growth cone neurotransmitter receptor activation modulates electric field-guided nerve growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, L; McCaig, C D

    1995-10-01

    We have studied the interactions between two nerve guidance cues, which alone induce substantial growth cone turning: endogenous neurotransmitters and small dc electric fields. d-tubocurarine, a nicotinic AChR (acetylcholine receptor) antagonist, inhibited field-induced cathodal orientation of cultured neurites, whereas atropine, a muscarinic AChR blocker, and suramin, a P2-purinoceptor antagonist, markedly enhanced the guidance properties of the applied field. These experiments implicate the activation of growth cone nicotinic AChRs by self-released acetylcholine in the mechanism underpinning electric field-induced neurite orientation and raise the possibility that growth cones release neurotransmitter prior to target interaction in order to assist their own pathfinding. Additionally, they provide the first evidence that coactivation of several neurotransmitter receptors may interact to regulate directed nerve growth. Such interaction in vivo, where guidance signals coexist, would add further levels of control to neurite guidance.

  8. Ambiguous nucleus regulates the proliferation and percentage of T lymphocytes in peripheral blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Wei Chen; Yingwu Mei; Bin Guo; Zhanqing Yang; Shoupeng Fu; Zhanpeng Yue; Juxiong Liu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the immunomodulatory role of the unilateral ambiguous nucleus (Amb). We performed electrical stimulation of the unilateral Amb, electrical stimulation of the left parietal cortex and the lateral hypothalamus following unilateral Amb lesion, as well as microinjection of acetylcholine chloride and hemicholine-3 into the unilateral Amb, and electrical stimulation of the unilateral Amb after injection of atropine, mecamylamine, propranolol, and phentolamine. Results showed that the number and proliferation of peripheral blood T lymphocytes were increased after electrical stimulation of the unilateral Amb. The cholinergic neurons in the Amb released choline substances to alter cellular immunity, thus confirming that the Amb mediates the neuro-immunomodulatory process.

  9. Acetylcholine regulates pancreastatin secretion from the human pancreastatin-producing cell line (QGP-1N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, A; Tateishi, K; Tsuru, M; Jimi, A; Wakasugi, H; Kono, A

    1991-07-01

    Studies were made of pancreastatin (PST) secretion from a human PST-producing cell line (QGP-1N) in response to various secretagogues. Cells with immunoreactivity for PST were observed in monolayer cultures of QGP-1N cells. Carbachol stimulated PST secretion and the intracellular Ca2+ mobilization concentration dependently in the range of 10(-6)-10(-4) M. The PST secretion and Ca2+ mobilization induced by carbachol were inhibited by atropine. The calcium ionophore (A23187) stimulated PST secretion. However, cholecystokinin and gastrin-releasing peptide did not stimulate either PST secretion or Ca2+ mobilization. Secretin also did not stimulate PST secretion. The glucose concentration in the culture medium had no effect on PST secretion. These results suggest that PST secretion is mainly regulated by acetylcholine through a muscarinic receptor, and that an increase in intracellular Ca2+ plays an important role in stimulus-secretion coupling in QGP-1N cells.

  10. Effects of ganglion blocking agents on nicotine extensor convulsions and lethality in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, M. D.; Bentley, H. C.; Dembinski, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    1. The ganglion blocking agents, chlorisondamine, pentamethonium, mecamylamine, decamethonium and hexamethonium all block nicotine extensor convulsions when administered intraventricularly in mice. Tetraethylammonium was inactive. 2. For the intraventricular route, there is a relationship between ganglionic blocking potency and blocking of nicotine extensor convulsions. Indirect evidence suggests that the site(s) of action of nicotine extensor convulsions and lethality is central in origin and associated with brain areas near the ventricles. 3. When ganglion blocking agents are given orally, subcutaneously or intravenously varying degrees of protection can be observed probably depending on factors such as whether or not the drugs cross the blood-brain barrier, absorption, etc., and the effectiveness in protecting mice from nicotine is not related to ganglionic blocking potency. 4. Atropine and morphine given intraventricularly or subcutaneously did not protect mice from the LD95 of nicotine. Chlorpromazine gave very erratic results and phenobarbitone was effective subcutaneously and to a lesser extent intraventricularly. PMID:4390479

  11. Zebrafish M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: cloning, pharmacological characterization, expression patterns and roles in embryonic bradycardia

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Liao, Ching-Fong

    2002-01-01

    A zebrafish M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) gene was cloned. It encodes 495 amino acids in a single exon. The derived amino acid sequence is 73.5% identical to its human homologue.Competitive binding studies of the zebrafish M2 receptor and [3H]-NMS gave negative log dissociation constants (pKi) for each antagonist as follows: atropine (9.16)>himbacine (8.05)⩾4-DAMP (7.83)>AF-DX 116 (7.26)⩾pirenzepine (7.18)⩾tropicamide (6.97)⩾methoctramine (6.82)⩾p-F-HHSiD (6.67)>carbachol (5.20...

  12. Spasmogenic effect of the aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae) on the contractile activity of guinea-pig taenia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A; Aka, K J

    2007-02-16

    The effect of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica (AETI) was studied on the guinea pig taenia coli, due to its use for treatment of constipation in traditional medicines. AETI, at concentrations ranging from 10(-8) mg/ml to 10(-2) mg/ml, increased the spontaneous contractile activity of guinea pig taenia coli in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 = 4x10(-6) mg/ml). This activity was unaffected by atropine. In high K(+), Ca(2+)-free solution containing EDTA, AETI as well as acetylcholine, used as a control, induced tonic contraction. These results suggest that the plant extract exert a spasmogenic effect that would not involve cholinergic mechanism of action. However, these active principles could mobilize both extra cellular calcium and intracellular calcium from internal stores.

  13. A prospective randomized double blind study to compare dexmedetomidine and midazolam in ear nose and throat surgery for monitored anesthesia care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmath A. Delmade

    2016-08-01

    Results: The drop in HR and MBP from pre-operative value was observed at various intervals during the surgery and also in the recovery in both the groups but it was significant in group D (P<0.005. Patient satisfaction was significantly better with dexmedetomidine compared to midazolam (p=0.0001. There were no side effects in both of the groups except for bradycardia in group D which was reversed easily with injection atropine. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine promises to be a suitable alternative to midazolam with added advantage of better patient satisfaction and faster recovery, but with close monitoring of hemodynamics. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3159-3163

  14. 预防老年性白内障术中虹膜松弛综合征的研究%The study of preventing floppy iris syndrome during age-related cataract surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小玲; 罗乐平

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨术前应用阿托品及新福林滴眼对高危人群在老年性白内障术中出现虹膜松弛综合征的预防作用。方法回顾性分析我院2012年1月至2013年12月施行的老年性白内障手术596例(641眼)。对手术患者术前询问全身病史和用药史,2013年对有良性前列腺增生症并服用坦洛新或非那雄胺的患者52眼术前应用阿托品及新福林滴眼,与2012年术前未用该药者对比术中虹膜松弛综合征的发生情况。结果2012年发病10眼,占2.95%;2013年为2眼,占0.66%,两组发生率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论老年性白内障术中易出现虹膜松弛综合征的高危人群术前应用阿托品及新福林滴眼对术中出现虹膜松弛综合征有预防作用。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of applying atropine and neosynephrine to prevent intraoperative floppy iris syndrome during age-related cataract surgery in high risk patients .Methods Six hundred and forty-one eyes of 596 patients receiving age-related cataract surgery in our hospital from Jan.2012 to Dec.2013 were analysed .The past history of illness and drug history before the surgery were enquired.50 patients (52 eyes) that had benign prostatic hyperplasia in 2013 and used tamsulosin and finasteride were applied with atropine and neosynephrine .Patients of the same history in 2012 had not applied atropine or neosynephrine .The incidence of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome during surgery between patients in 2013 and 2012 were compared.Results The intraoperative floppy iris syndrome occurred in 10 eyes(2.95%) in 2012 and 2 eyes(0.66%) in 2013,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion Atropine and neosynephrine can be applied in patients with high risk of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome , to prevent its occurance during age-related cataract surgery .

  15. Role of central histaminergic mechanism in behavioural depression (swimming despair) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, C; Gulati, A; Dhawan, K N; Gupta, G P

    1988-01-01

    The role of the central histaminergic system in depression was studied by using swimming despair test in mice - a behavioural model of depression. In this test, immobility of mice reflects a state of depression. Intracerebral (ic) injection of histamine (50-200 micrograms) increased significantly the immobility. The H1-receptor blocker mepyramine (2.5-20 mg/kg ip) had no effect while H2-receptor blocker cimetidine (100-200 micrograms ic) caused a significant decrease in immobility. The histamine induced facilitation was blocked completely by cimetidine and antidepressant drugs-imipramine and desipramine, but remained unaffected in mice pretreated with mepyramine or atropine. The H2 agonist impromidine (20-40 micrograms ic) also enhanced significantly, the immobility which was blocked by cimetidine and antidepressant drugs. It has been concluded that central H2-receptors facilitate depression and antidepressant drugs block central H2-receptors.

  16. Ammonium Ion Exchanged Zeolite for Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Phosphorylated Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengrui Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA, an organic matrix molecule for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, was adsorbed to NH4+-type zeolite surface, and this new matrix was used for the detection of low-molecular-weight compounds. It was found that this matrix could simplify the mass spectrum in the low-molecular-weight region and prevent interference from fragments and alkali metal ion adducted species. CHCA adsorbed to NH4+-type ZSM5 zeolite (CHCA/NH4ZSM5 was used to measure atropine and aconitine, two toxic alkaloids in plants. In addition, CHCA/NH4ZSM5 enabled us to detect phosphorylated peptides; peaks of the protonated peptides had higher intensities than the peaks observed using CHCA only.

  17. Aromatic Esters of Bicyclic Amines as Antimicrobials against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gracia Retamosa, María; Díez-Martínez, Roberto; Maestro, Beatriz; García-Fernández, Esther; de Waal, Bas; Meijer, E W; García, Pedro; Sanz, Jesús M

    2015-11-09

    A double approach was followed in the search of novel inhibitors of the surface choline-binding proteins (CBPs) of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) with antimicrobial properties. First, a library of 49 rationally-designed esters of alkyl amines was screened for their specific binding to CBPs. The best binders, being esters of bicyclic amines (EBAs), were then tested for their in vitro effect on pneumococcal growth and morphology. Second, the efficiency of EBA-induced CBP inhibition was enhanced about 45,000-fold by multivalency effects upon synthesizing a poly(propylene imine) dendrimer containing eight copies of an atropine derivative. Both approaches led to compounds that arrest bacterial growth, dramatically decrease cell viability, and exhibit a protection effect in animal disease models, demonstrating that the pneumococcal CBPs are adequate targets for the discovery of novel antimicrobials that overcome the currently increasing antimicrobial resistance issues.

  18. IDIOPATHIC SICK SINUS SYNDROME

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    S. Y. Nikulina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate changes in hereditary burden of sick sinus syndrome (SSS in families of patients with SSS and assess heart rate variability (HRV in patients with SSS.Results. 33 families of patients with SSS were examined. Clinical study, ECG-Holter monitoring, atropine test, transesophageal left atrial stimulation, echocardiography, veloergometry were fulfilled in all probands and their relatives in 1990 and 2005-2006. Cardiorhythmography was done in patients with SSS only in 2005-2006.Results. Increase in hereditary burden with SSS from 31 to 35% is registered during 15 years. Significant growth of patients with SSS was observed among daughters (from 50 to 71%, nephews (from 33 to 50% and nieces (from 0 to 20%. HRV analysis shows prevalence of sympathetic system activity in patients with SSS.Conclusion. Growth of hereditary burden with SSS especially among female relatives is shown. HRV analysis can be used for SSS diagnostics.

  19. Kindling: a pharmacological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, C G; Morin, A M; Jonec, V

    1982-01-01

    Injection of a few nanomoles of the muscarinic agonists carbamylcholine, muscarine or (+)-acetyl-beta-methylcholine once a day into the rat amygdala was initially subconvulsive, but on repetition led to the progressive development of kindled epileptic seizures. This behaviour was stereospecific, was potentiated by the cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine, and was blocked by the muscarinic antagonists atropine, QNB and scopolamine. The kindling potencies of cholinergic muscarinic agonists and antagonists paralleled their relative affinities for muscarinic receptors in vitro. No changes in muscarinic receptors, in cholinesterase or in choline acetyltransferase were observed in kindled brains after a stimulation-free period of at least 1 week. These data support the aggregate hypothesis of epileptogenesis and suggest that abnormal activity through a particular group of muscarinic synapses can be sufficient to generate an epileptic focus.

  20. Assessment of Mechanisms Involved in Antinociception Produced by the Alkaloid Caulerpine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Agra Cavalcante-Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In previous works we showed that oral administration of caulerpine, a bisindole alkaloid isolated from algae of the genus Caulerpa, produced antinociception when assessed in chemical and thermal models of nociception. In this study, we evaluated the possible mechanism of action of this alkaloid in mice, using the writhing test. The antinociceptive effect of caulerpine was not affected by intraperitoneal (i.p. pretreatment of mice with naloxone, flumazenil, l-arginine or atropine, thus discounting the involvement of the opioid, GABAergic, l-arginine-nitric oxide and (muscarinic cholinergic pathways, respectively. In contrast, i.p. pretreatment with yohimbine, an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, or tropisetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, significantly blocked caulerpine-induced antinociception. These results suggest that caulerpine exerts its antinociceptive effect in the writhing test via pathways involving α2-adrenoceptors and 5-HT3 receptors. In summary, this alkaloid could be of interest in the development of new dual-action analgesic drugs.

  1. Effects of CW (chemical warfare)-related chemicals on social behavior and performance. Annual report, 30 September 1984-29 September 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunnell, B.N.; Iturrian, W.B.

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished in the second year of a three-year project aimed at developing a battery of tests of social behavior and performance that wil be sensitive to the effects of chemical warfare-related chemicals considered for use as antidotes or prophylactics against chemical-warfare agents. Procedures for assessing social behavior in nonhuman primates are described and compared. Performance scores on three operant schedules, a test of complex problem solving, and behavior in a novel environment are presented and correlations between the social and performance variables are examined. The effects of atropines on several of the social and performance measures are reported as are data from plasma hormone assays for cortisol and prolactin.

  2. Effect of anticholinesterase agents on airway epithelial function. Annual report, 15 July 1888-14 August 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, M.G.

    1989-09-15

    Irreversible anticholinesterase compounds have potential serious health effects when employed as chemical warfare agents. Intoxication with these agents will cause an accumulation of acetylcholine at nerve muscle and nerve-gland junctions. Because tracheal glands have rich cholinergic innervation, we hypothesized that exposure to anticholinesterase agents, such as soman, would stimulate glandular secretion. This would cause pathological changes in the important lung defense mechanism of mucociliary clearance. Initial work on this contract revealed a dose-related increase in mucociliary transport in the ferret in response to soman. This effect could be inhibited by atropine but not by pralidoxime. The investigation described in this report relates to the effects of soman and its antidotes on glycoconjugate secretion of ferret trachea in vitro.

  3. Prophylaxis Against Nerve Agent Intoxications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Patocka

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of organophosphates is usually attributed to their irreversible inhibitionof an enzyme acetylcholinesterase that hydrolyses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Theresultant increase in concentration of acetylcholine at the cholinergic synapses of the peripheraland central nervous system, and neuromuscular junction is manifested by over-stimulation ofthe cholinergic neurotransmission. Current antidotal regimens for organophosphate poisoningconsisting of a post-exposure therapy with anticholinergics such as atropine, acetylcholinesterasereactivators (oximes, benzodiazepines have some limitations. Therefore, effective prophylaxisbefore intoxication is of a special interest. Four fundamental prophylactic methods are: (iprotection of acetylcholinesterase against irreversible inhibition by organophosphates usingdifferent reversible inhibitors, (ii protection against neurotoxic effect of organophosphates usingbenzodiazepines, memantine, NMDA receptor blockers, (iii administration of cholinesterasepreparations of different sources (sometimes commercially available at present acting asbioscavengers, and (iv gene therapy being a new treatment modality under intensive researchusing enzymes hydrolysing/splitting organophosphates with the aim to eliminate toxic agentbefore it is transported to the target organs.

  4. 1 cases of acute organophosphate poisoning combined experience from the nursing of alcohol withdrawal syndrome%1例急性有机磷中毒合并酒精戒断综合征的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚松楠; 徐娟

    2016-01-01

    The nursing experience of one case of acute organic phosphorus poisoning combined with alcohol withdrawal syndrome was reported. Close observation of the patient's condition changes; observe the effect and adverse reaction of drugs such as atropine, and to observe the mental symptoms of patients with alcohol withdrawal reaction, strengthen safety management, and pay attention to the patient's psychological nursing.%报道1例急性有机磷中毒合并酒精戒断综合征的护理体会。密切观察该患者病情变化,以及应用阿托品等药物的疗效和不良反应;关注患者酒精戒断反应的精神症状的观察;加强安全管理;重视患者的心理护理。

  5. Coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieris, Rajeeva R; Fernando, Ravindra

    2015-08-30

    A 43-year-old male, with no previous history of mental illness, was diagnosed with coronary heart disease, after which he became acutely depressed and attempted suicide by ingesting an organophosphate pesticide. He was admitted to an intensive care unit and treated with pralidoxime, atropine, and oxygen. His coronary occlusion pattern required early coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. His family, apprehensive of a repeat suicidal attempt, requested surgery be performed as soon as possible. He recovered well from the OP poisoning and was mentally fit to express informed consent 2 weeks after admission. Seventeen days after poisoning, he underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and recovered uneventfully. Six years later, he remains in excellent health. We report this case because to the best of our knowledge there is no literature regarding CABG performed soon after organophosphate poisoning.

  6. Amitraz: a mimicker of organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-10-01

    Amitraz is used as an ectoparasiticide for dogs and cattle. Human poisoning due to amitraz may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate/carbamate (OPC) toxicity, since amitraz poisoning shares several clinical features (miosis, bradycardia and hypotension) encountered with OPC poisoning. A 19-year-old man with an alleged history of suicidal ingestion of a pesticide presented with drowsiness and was found to have constricted pupils, hypotension and bradycardia. He was diagnosed as a case of OPC poisoning and was treated with atropine and pralidoxime prior to presentation to our centre. Absence of a hypersecretory state, and the presence of hyperglycaemia and hypothermia along with a normal serum cholinesterase level suggested an alternate possibility. Retrieval of the poison container confirmed the diagnosis of amitraz poisoning. The patient made a rapid recovery with supportive management. Clinician awareness is key to successful management of this poisoning, which carries a good prognosis.

  7. Intentional chlorpyrifos poisoning in pregnant woman and subsequent fetal death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T H Indu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate poisoning is an important medical emergency exist in agriculture-oriented countries such as India. This case report describes the treatment strategies followed for a management of suicidal intoxication of a pregnant woman by chlorpyrifos compound at a secondary care public hospital, Udhagamandalam, India. The patient was unable to perceive fetal movements and had classic clinical symptoms of organophosphate poisoning such as excess salivation and pinpoint pupil. The patient was administered with 2 g of pralidoxime and 10 ampoules of atropine sulfate (1.2 mg each. The fetotoxic evaluation showed fetal death. The antidote given to the patient was according to the criteria given by the World Health Organization. The late admission of the patient may be considered as a reason for fetal death. Psychosocial, educational programs are highly recommended for the population in this region to reduce the number of intentional poisoning attempts.

  8. Clinical Implication of Cough CPR in Cardiac Cath Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish S Rau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year-old-male with inferoposterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI was shifted to cardiac cath lab for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Coronary angiography revealed right coronary artery (RCA dominance with complete occlusion of the RCA in mid vessel. During angioplasty, the patient developed reperfusion induced Bezold Jarisch Reflex (BJR with profound bradycardia along with decrease in systolic pressure. The patient was asked to cough. The use of cough-CPR maintained the consciousness as the patient was getting syncopal. This report focuses on BJR and cough-CPR specific to interventional cardiology practice within the catheterization laboratory. Awareness of the fact that BJR may develop due to successful restoration of flow which can be managed with cough CPR, atropine and fluids can avoid the administration of vasoconstrictors.

  9. [The antagonistic effect of physostigmine on sedation by lormetazepam (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, B; Doenicke, A; Kugler, J; Laub, M; Ott, H; Fichte, K; Suttmann, H; Zwisler, P

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the arousal effect of physostigmine after lormetazepam sedation on the human EEG. 12 male volunteers received 2 mg/kg bm lormetazepam and 30 minutes later physostigmine 2 mg preceded by atropine 1 mg. Generally an arousal effect of physostigmine could be clinically observed and more objectively demonstrated by reduced sleep stages in the vigilosomnogram (p less than 0.05). 2 volunteers did not fall asleep. 9 volunteers were awake 5-12 minutes after termination of physostigmine injection. 1 volunteer did not show any effect. Resedation and parasympathetic side effects did not occur. In earlier studies deep sleep stages after lormetazepam 1 or 2 mg/70 kg bm lasted 70 to 120 minutes. Physostigmine is recommended to counteract undesirable benzodiazepine induced sedation.

  10. Neural regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Lampert, Sarah; Mineo, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 is secreted rapidly from the intestine postprandially. We therefore investigated its possible neural regulation. With the use of isolated perfused porcine ileum, GLP-1 secretion was measured in response to electrical stimulation of the mixed, perivascular nerve supply...... and infusions of neuroactive agents alone and in combination with different blocking agents. Electrical nerve stimulation inhibited GLP-1 secretion, an effect abolished by phentolamine. Norepinephrine inhibited secretion, and phentolamine abolished this effect. GLP-1 secretion was stimulated by isoproterenol...... and weak effects on glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and somatostatin secretion, although this elicited a marked atropine-resistant release of the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide to the portal circulation. Thus GLP-1 secretion is inhibited by the sympathetic nerves to the gut and may...

  11. GRP nerves in pig antrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    We extracted gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its C-terminal decapeptide corresponding to 6.4 and 6.8 pmol/g from pig antrum mucosa. By immunohistochemistry GRP was localized to mucosal, submucosal, and myenteric nerve fibers. A few nerve cell bodies were also identified. Using isolated perfused...... pig antrum with intact vagal innervation, we found concomitant, atropine-resistant release of GRP and gastrin during electrical stimulation of the vagal nerves. Intra-arterial GRP at 10(-11)-10(-10) mol/l caused up to fivefold, dose-dependent increases in gastrin secretion; higher doses were less...... response to GRP and abolished the effect of vagal stimulation. The available evidence strongly suggests that GRP nerves are responsible for the stimulatory vagal effects on gastrin secretion in the pig....

  12. GRP-producing nerves control antral somatostatin and gastrin secretion in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Orskov, C; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    of isolated perfused pig antrum with intact vagus nerve supply. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves at 4 Hz increased the antral release of GRP up to 10-fold and increased SS output 2- to 3-fold. Atropine at 10(-6) M had no effect on these responses. Intra-arterial GRP increased SS secretion...... the effects of vagus stimulation on gastrin and somatostatin output. Gastrin in concentrations up to 10(-7) M was without effect on SS secretion. We conclude that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves increases antral SS gastrin secretion and that GRP is a likely transmitter.......By immunohistochemistry, nerve fibers containing gastrin-releasing polypeptide (GRP)-like immunoreactivity were identified close to the somatostatin (SS)-producing cells of the gastric antral mucosa. We, therefore, studied the possible role of GRP in the control of antral SS secretion by use...

  13. RAT EXOCRINE PANCREATIC SECRETION BY VAGAL STIMULATION OCCURS VIA MULTIPLE MEDIATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓东; MTimmthyNelson; HaileTDebas

    1996-01-01

    The vagus is a mixed nerve containing cholinerrgic and non-cholinergie neurons. Vagal fibers interact with peptidergic neurons of the enteric nervous system which stain immunohistcchemically for cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and gastrin releasing peptide. The contribution of these pepticdergic neurons in the pancreatic response to vagal stimulation is unknown. We tested the effect of specific inhibitor of these stimulants against vagally mediated exocrine secretion in rats. The response to vagal stimulation was blocked significantly hy each of the following:the ganglionic blocker hexmethoninm (100% inhibition); the muscarinic, cholinergic blocker atropine (85%inhibition) ; the specific cholaeystokinln-A receptor blocker (91% inhibition); and a vasoactive intestinal polypeptide polyclonal antibody (89% inhibition). This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that potentiating interactions among several agonisrs mediate the vagal response. Our study, however, dose not exclude acetylehollne as the final commom mediator.

  14. [Anesthetic management of an infant with a single ventricle (asplenia syndrome) for non-cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Ando, T; Okuda, C

    1992-11-01

    Ketamine and fentanyl were used for surgery of esophageal hiatus hernia in a 9 month old boy with single ventricle (asplenia syndrome). The patient was orally premedicated with diazepam 2.5 mg, and intravenously with atropine 0.04 mg. General anesthesia was induced with ketamine-fentanyl-pancuronium-100% oxygen, and maintained with fentanyl-pancuronium-100% oxygen. The total dose of ketamine or fentanyl was 0.8 mg.kg-1 or 15 micrograms.kg-1, respectively. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate of the patient were stable during ketamine-fentanyl anesthesia. Arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry was over 90% and arterial oxygen tension was above 60 mmHg during the operation. Ketamine-fentanyl anesthesia might be useful for non-cardiac surgery of a child with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  15. A dramatic drop in blood pressure following prehospital GTN administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Malcolm J

    2007-03-01

    A male in his sixties with no history of cardiac chest pain awoke with chest pain following an afternoon sleep. The patient did not self medicate. The patient's observations were within normal limits, he was administered oxygen via a face mask and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Several minutes after the GTN the patient experienced a sudden drop in blood pressure and heart rate, this was rectified by atropine sulphate and a fluid challenge. There was no further deterioration in the patient's condition during transport to hospital. There are very few documented case like this in the prehospital scientific literature. The cause appears to be the Bezold-Jarish reflex, stimulation of the ventricular walls which in turn decreases sympathetic outflow from the vasomotor centre. Prehospital care providers who are managing any patient with a syncopal episode that fails to recover within a reasonable time frame should consider the Bezold-Jarisch reflex as the cause and manage the patient accordingly.

  16. Fungal keratitis in Lattice dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Samrat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fungal keratitis occurring in a patient with lattice dystrophy. A 57-year-old farmer presented with a corneal ulcer following probable entry of paddy husk in the right eye, of one month duration. Corneal scraping revealed pigmented fungal filaments while culture grew Alternaria alternata. Treatment with 5% natamycin eye drops and 1% atropine healed the infection in four weeks. We would like to draw attention to the fact that the cornea in lattice dystrophy is prone to frequent erosions and is a compromised epithelial barrier to invasion by microorganisms. Patients must be made aware of this fact and should seek attention at the earliest following any trivial trauma. Management of minor corneal abrasions in them should be directed at healing the epithelium with adequate lubricants and preventing infection with topical antibiotic prophylaxis.

  17. Determinantes genéticos de las variables psicofisiológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaz Abe

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the genetic influence on varíous physiological functions related to the activity of the autonomic nervous system, on response to drugs and on sleep behaviors were reviewed. Genetic factor appears to play a significant role in; heart beat, electrocardíogramm, heart beat and respiratory response to startling events, or adrenalin or atropin injectíon, in predísposítíon to cardiac neurosis, peripheral vasomotor activity, (acrocyanosis, frost-bite sweat gland activity (hyperidrosis, galvaníc skin reflex, salivarysecretion rate, motion síckness, basal metabolism, blood sugar level, response to antídepressants, drug-induced Parkinsonism, sleepwalking, sleeptalking, childhood insomnia, and major shifts of sleep stages as observed by electroencephalogramm during sleep.

  18. The influence of the time of antidotal treatment administration on the potency of newly developed oximes to counteract acute toxic effects of tabun in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jirí

    2005-01-01

    (1) The influence of the time of administration of antidotal treatment consisting of anticholinergic drug (atropine) and newly developed oxime (K027 or K048) on its effectiveness to eliminate tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was studied in mice. (2) The therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treatment of tabun-induced acute poisoning depends on the time of its administration regardless of the choice of the oxime. (3) Our results show that both oximes studied (K027, K048) are able to sufficiently eliminate lethal effects of tabun. Nevertheless, their efficacy significantly decreases when they were administered 5 min after tabun poisoning. (4) The findings support the hypothesis that both newly developed oximes appear to be suitable oximes to counteract acute toxicity of tabun although their ability to eliminate lethal toxic effects of tabun significantly decreases with prolonged time interval between tabun challenge and antidotal treatment administration.

  19. Tabun-inhibited rat tissue and blood cholinesterases and their reactivation with the combination of trimedoxime and HI-6 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajgar, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Kassa, Jiri; Cabal, Jiri; Fusek, Josef; Blaha, Vaclav; Tesarova, Sandra

    2010-09-06

    Up to now, intensive attempts to synthesize a universal reactivator able to reactivate cholinesterases inhibited by all types of nerve agents/organophosphates were not successful. Therefore, another approach using a combination of two reactivators differently reactivating enzyme was used: in rats poisoned with tabun and treated with combination of atropine (fixed dose) and different doses of trimedoxime and HI-6, changes of acetylcholinesterase activities (blood, diaphragm and different parts of the brain) were studied. An increase of AChE activity was observed following trimedoxime treatment depending on its dose; HI-6 had very low effect. Combination of both oximes showed potentiation of their reactivation efficacy; this potentiation was expressed for peripheral AChE (blood, diaphragm) and some parts of the brain (pontomedullar area, frontal cortex); AChE in the basal ganglia was relatively resistant. These observations suggest that the action of combination of oximes in vivo is different from that observed in vitro.

  20. New bispyridinium oximes: in vitro and in vivo evaluation of their biological efficiency in soman and tabun poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Suzana; Vrdoljak, Ana Lucić; Radić, Bozica; Kuca, Kamil

    2008-09-25

    Improving the efficacy of antidotal treatment of poisonings with nerve agents is still a challenge for the scientific community. This study investigated the interactions of four bispyridinium oximes with human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and their effects on soman- and tabun-poisoned mice. Oximes HI-6 and TMB-4 were used for comparison. These oximes inhibited AchE with inhibitory potency (IC(50)) ranging from 0.02 to 1.0 mM. The best reactivating potency (%R) was obtained with K074, when AChE was inhibited by tabun. The protective potency (P(50)) of all oximes in human erythrocyte AChE inhibited by soman and tabun could not be determined. In tabun-poisoned mice very good antidotal efficacy was obtained with K027, K048, and K074, which makes them interesting for future investigation. The combination of HI-6 and atropine is the therapy of choice for soman poisoning.

  1. Combined approach to demonstrate acetylcholinesterase activity changes in the rat brain following tabun intoxication and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajgar, Jiri; Hajek, Petr; Kassa, Jiri; Slizova, Dasa; Krs, Otakar; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Fusek, Josef; Capek, Lukas; Voicu, Victor A

    2012-01-01

    Reactivation effects of K203 and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine on acetylcholinesterase activities in the brain parts of rats poisoned with tabun were studied. The activity was determined by quantitative histochemical and biochemical methods correlating between them very well. The tabun-induced changes in acetylcholinsterase activity as well as in reactivation potency of reactivators used were different in various parts of the brain. Pontomedullar area seems to be important for observed changes following tabun intoxication and its treatment. From the oximes studied, the reactivation effect of K203 was comparable with obidoxime; HI-6 was ineffective. Combination of bio- and histochemical methods allow fine differentiation among the action of different oximes following tabun poisoning.

  2. PENGARUH EKSTRAK BEBERAPA TANAMAN OBAT TERHADAP USUS TERISOLASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dzulkarnain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Anacardium occidentale L.leaves, Aegle marmelos Corr leaves and wood bark, Acorus calamus L. tuber and Desmodium triquetrum D.C. leaves has been tested on the isolated rabbit and guinea pig intestine. The extraction of A. occidentale L. leaves stimulated the isolated rabbit and guinea pig intestine which may due to the anacardic acid content. No consistent influence was seen by the extraction of A.marmelos Corr. leaves and wood bark. The A. calamus L. tuber extraction decreases the isolated intestine activities which is of the atropine-like type not antihistamin one. This may explain the use as antidysentri agent from the motility point of view. The D. triquetrum D.C. leaves extraction stimulated the isolated intestine which has a pilocarpine and histamine-like activity but does not exclude a seretonine-like action.

  3. Diverse Presentation of Breath Holding Spells: Two Case Reports with Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Rathore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breath holding spells are a common and dramatic form of syncope and anoxic seizure in infancy. They are usually triggered by an emotional stimuli or minor trauma. Based on the color change, they are classified into 3 types, cyanotic, pallid, and mixed. Pallid breath holding spells result from exaggerated, vagally-mediated cardiac inhibition, whereas the more common, cyanotic breathholding spells are of more complex pathogenesis which is not completely understood. A detailed and accurate history is the mainstay of diagnosis. An EKG should be strongly considered to rule out long QT syndrome. Spontaneous resolution of breath-holding spells is usually seen, without any adverse developmental and intellectual sequelae. Rare cases of status epilepticus, prolonged asystole, and sudden death have been reported. Reassurance and education is the mainstay of therapy. Occasionally, pharmacologic intervention with iron, piracetam; atropine may be of benefit. Here we present 2 cases, one of each, pallid and cyanotic breath holding spells.

  4. Nicotine and the effect of antisympathomimetic agents on the aorta of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILLSON, D R

    1959-06-01

    The responses of strips of rabbit aorta to almost maximal doses of nicotine were less readily antagonized by five antisympathomimetic agents than were comparable responses to noradrenaline. The effect was most marked with dibenamine, ergotamine, and tolazoline: approximately twice the dose of noradrenaline was required to match the test dose of nicotine after treatment with the antagonists. Dose/response curves for nicotine before and after phentolamine 10(-7) indicate that the phenomenon may be reversed with low doses of nicotine and that the release of noradrenaline by nicotine within the tissues is probably a graded response. The pattern of nicotine/phentolamine antagonism in this preparation is consistent with the view that nicotine acts indirectly by releasing a noradrenaline-like substance, and the difficulty found in antagonizing responses to nicotine with antisympathomimetic agents is probably similar to that responsible for failure of atropine to block some parasympathomimetic responses to nicotine.

  5. CNS depression in an infant after the ingestion of tobacco: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borys, D J; Setzer, S C; Ling, L J

    1988-02-01

    An 8-month-old female infant was brought in after ingesting cigarette butts. Upon presentation to the ED approximately 2.5 hr post-ingestion, the child was very lethargic and respirations were depressed. She was intubated and a NG tube was placed. Gastric lavage was performed, after which activated charcoal and sorbitol were given. Atropine was administered to treat excessive secretions. The patient became progressively more obtunded throughout the emergency department stay. Upon admission to the PICU she was minimally responsive. The urine tox screen was positive only for nicotine. The patient gradually improved with supportive care and was sent home on the third hospital day. Although the effects of Nicotine are well documented, few cases have been reported of severe toxicity in pediatric patients. We believe this to be the only reported case of severe CNS depression secondary to the ingestion of cigarette butts in a pediatric patient.

  6. Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaf methanolic extract of Rauwolfia serpentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezeigbo II; Ezeja MI; Madubuike KG; Ifenkwe DC; Ukweni IA; Udeh NE; Akomas SC

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiarrhoeal property of methanol extract of the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) in experimental diarrhoea induced by castor oil in mice. Methods:Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg R. serpentina leaf methanol extracts were administered to castor oil induced diarrhoea mice to determine its antidiarrhoeal activity. Results: All doses of the extract and the reference drug atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-dependent reduction in intestinal weight and fluid volume. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to diphenoxylate Hcl (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusions: The results show that the extract of R. serpentina leaves has a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine.

  7. A study on the aetiology of reserpine ulceration and the antiulcer action of solcoseryl in rat stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C H; Ogle, C W; Dai, S

    1985-11-01

    The aetiology of reserpine-induced gastric ulcer formation and the antiulcer effects of solcoseryl were studied in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of reserpine produced severe ulceration, as well as mast cell and histamine depletion, in the gastric glandular mucosa. Mepyramine and cimetidine markedly antagonized the gastric lesions, but did not influence the reduced mast cell count; atropine pretreatment significantly inhibited both parameters. Intramuscular injection of solcoseryl lessened ulcer severity and prevented the decreased mast cell counts and histamine levels in reserpine-treated rats. However, the same dose of solcoseryl injected intraperitoneally was ineffective. Solcoseryl, irrespective of the route of administration, did not influence the gastric secretory activities of reserpine. It is concluded that reserpine ulceration is both cholinergic- and histamine-mediated, and that the antiulcer effects of solcoseryl appear to be due to prevention of histamine depletion in the gastric mucosa.

  8. Update and review of Urrets-Zavalia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio A. Magalhães

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For more than half a century, Urrets-Zavalia syndrome (fixed dilated pupil has been described as a postoperative complication of ophthalmic surgery. Since first reported as a complication of penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus in patients receiving atropine, the characteristic features of Urrets-Zavalia syndrome have been expanded. In previous literature, a total of 110 cases resulted in a fixed and dilated pupil. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP in the immediate postoperative period, phakia, and air or gas in the anterior chamber appear to be the most important risk factors for Urrets-Zavalia syndrome following ophthalmic procedures. Mannitol, IOP control, the removal of air or gas in the anterior chamber, and iridectomy have all demonstrated utility in managing Urrets-Zavalia syndrome.

  9. The inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 as a novel target for antidepressant action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebenberg, Nico

    2010-01-01

    therapy of depression. A recent study from our laboratory reported an antidepressant-like response in the rat forced swim test (FST) following chronic (11 day) co-administration of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil and the muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonist atropine......-related, suggesting that it may differentially affect the regulation of neurotransmission associated with antidepressant and depressogenic responses at different doses. Unlike the mood-regulating responses, however, the anxiolytic-like responses following chronic PDE5 inhibition does not appear to involve...... not involve up-regulation of frontal cortical and hippocampal mACh receptors. In summary, this project emphasises the potential of PDE5 inhibition as a novel antidepressant and anxiolytic strategy, and provides important insight into the specific neuronal mechanism(s) that may be involved...

  10. Preliminary observations on the Colibri CO2-indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroianu, G A; Maleck, W H; Bergler, W F; Altmannsberger, S; Rüfer, R

    1998-11-01

    The performance of a new colorimetric CO2-indicator (Colibri) was assessed in mini-pigs. It performed well during 8-hour procedures. Neither nitrous oxide, nor halothane, nor carbon monoxide, nor intratracheal application of drugs (epinephrine, atropine, lidocaine, and naloxone) interfered with its function. It gave a distinct color change at high ventilation frequencies up to 120/min. The only problem observed was difficulty in matching the colors displayed with the comparison color chart provided. The Colibri's performance seems at least equal to that of the EasyCAP detector, although both devices share some disadvantages (no alarms, semiquantitative, difficult reading in the dark). After initial control of endotracheal tube position by an esophageal detector device, both the Colibri and the EasyCAP seem suited for monitoring of ventilation and circulation if quantitative capnometry is unavailable.

  11. Anticholinergic toxicity from nightshade berry poisoning responsive to physostigmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceha, L J; Presperin, C; Young, E; Allswede, M; Erickson, T

    1997-01-01

    The woody nightshade, Solanum dulcamara, belongs to the genus Solanum and its primary toxin is solanine. We report a large nightshade ingestion in a 4-yr-old girl who presented to the emergency department in acute anticholinergic crisis. The child was given 0.2 mg of intravenous physostigmine (0.02 mg/kg). Within 50 min, the patient received two additional equal doses with complete resolution of symptoms. After 36 h of observation, the child was discharged. Our patient presented with symptoms more suggestive of the deadly nightshade species, Atropa belladonna, which is native to Europe; however, a detailed laboratory analysis of the suspect berries revealed no atropine or hyoscyamine. Analysis did reveal sterols consistent with solanine. This is a unique case presentation of woody nightshade, S. dulcamara, poisoning presenting with anticholinergic crisis and responding to physostigmine.

  12. Effect of electroacupuncturein Weijing points on gastroin testinal interdigestive migrating motor complex and brain gut peptides release in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interdigestive gastrointestinal migratingmotor complex (MMC) activities were recorded by strain gauge implanted on the serosa in 7 conscious dogs. We studied theffects of electroacupuncture (EAP) Weijing points Zusanli (S36), Tianshu (S25), Liangmen (S21) on MMC and release of motilin and gastrin, and compared them with that of EAP Pangguangjing points. The results indicated that EAP Weijing points could not only strengthen MMC contractions in antrum, duodenum and proximal jejunum, but also increase plasma concentration of motilin and gastrin. Anti-motilin serum, proglumide, atropine, or hexamethonium could markedly block the effect of EAP on reinforcing MMC contraction and release of motilin and gastrin. We could get the conclusions that such enhancing effect of EAP Weijing points on MMC and brain-gut peptides release is mediated by motilin and gastrin, on which both cholinergic nerve and sympathetic nerve play important roles.

  13. A new method of assessing cardiac autonomic function and its comparison with spectral analysis and coefficient of variation of R-R interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toichi, M; Sugiura, T; Murai, T; Sengoku, A

    1997-01-12

    A new non-linear method of assessing cardiac autonomic function was examined in a pharmacological experiment in ten healthy volunteers. The R-R interval data obtained under a control condition and in autonomic blockade by atropine and by propranolol were analyzed by each of the new methods employing Lorenz plot, spectral analysis and the coefficient of variation. With our method we derived two measures, the cardiac vagal index and the cardiac sympathetic index, which indicate vagal and sympathetic function separately. These two indices were found to be more reliable than those obtained by the other two methods. We anticipate that the non-invasive assessment of short-term cardiac autonomic function will come to be performed more reliably and conveniently by this method.

  14. Autoantibodies against Muscarinic Receptors in Breast Cancer: Their Role in Tumor Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, María Gabriela; Negroni, María Pía; Pelegrina, Laura Tatiana; Castro, María Ester; Fiszman, Gabriel L.; Azar, María Eugenia; Morgado, Carlos Cresta; Sales, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    The presence of autoantibodies in cancer has become relevant in recent years. We demonstrated that autoantibodies purified from the sera of breast cancer patients activate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in tumor cells. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from breast cancer patients in T1N0Mx stage (tumor size≤2 cm, without lymph node metastasis) mimics the action of the muscarinic agonist carbachol stimulating MCF-7 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Angiogenesis is a central step in tumor progression because it promotes tumor invasion and metastatic spread. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is the main angiogenic mediator, and its levels have been correlated with poor prognosis in cancer. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of T1N0Mx-IgG on the expression of VEGF-A, and the in vivo neovascular response triggered by MCF-7 cells, via muscarinic receptor activation. We demonstrated that T1N0Mx-IgG (10−8 M) and carbachol (10−9 M) increased the constitutive expression of VEGF-A in tumor cells, effect that was reverted by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. We also observed that T1N0Mx-IgG and carbachol enhanced the neovascular response produced by MCF-7 cells in the skin of NUDE mice. The action of IgG or carbachol was reduced in the presence of atropine. In conclusion, T1N0Mx-IgG and carbachol may promote VEGF-A production and neovascularization induced by breast tumor cells via muscarinic receptors activation. These effects may be accelerating breast tumor progression. PMID:23460876

  15. Autoantibodies against muscarinic receptors in breast cancer: their role in tumor angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Lombardi

    Full Text Available The presence of autoantibodies in cancer has become relevant in recent years. We demonstrated that autoantibodies purified from the sera of breast cancer patients activate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in tumor cells. Immunoglobulin G (IgG from breast cancer patients in T1N0Mx stage (tumor size≤2 cm, without lymph node metastasis mimics the action of the muscarinic agonist carbachol stimulating MCF-7 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Angiogenesis is a central step in tumor progression because it promotes tumor invasion and metastatic spread. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A is the main angiogenic mediator, and its levels have been correlated with poor prognosis in cancer. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of T1N0Mx-IgG on the expression of VEGF-A, and the in vivo neovascular response triggered by MCF-7 cells, via muscarinic receptor activation. We demonstrated that T1N0Mx-IgG (10(-8 M and carbachol (10(-9 M increased the constitutive expression of VEGF-A in tumor cells, effect that was reverted by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. We also observed that T1N0Mx-IgG and carbachol enhanced the neovascular response produced by MCF-7 cells in the skin of NUDE mice. The action of IgG or carbachol was reduced in the presence of atropine. In conclusion, T1N0Mx-IgG and carbachol may promote VEGF-A production and neovascularization induced by breast tumor cells via muscarinic receptors activation. These effects may be accelerating breast tumor progression.

  16. Autoantibodies against muscarinic receptors in breast cancer: their role in tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, María Gabriela; Negroni, María Pía; Pelegrina, Laura Tatiana; Castro, María Ester; Fiszman, Gabriel L; Azar, María Eugenia; Morgado, Carlos Cresta; Sales, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    The presence of autoantibodies in cancer has become relevant in recent years. We demonstrated that autoantibodies purified from the sera of breast cancer patients activate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in tumor cells. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from breast cancer patients in T1N0Mx stage (tumor size≤2 cm, without lymph node metastasis) mimics the action of the muscarinic agonist carbachol stimulating MCF-7 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Angiogenesis is a central step in tumor progression because it promotes tumor invasion and metastatic spread. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is the main angiogenic mediator, and its levels have been correlated with poor prognosis in cancer. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of T1N0Mx-IgG on the expression of VEGF-A, and the in vivo neovascular response triggered by MCF-7 cells, via muscarinic receptor activation. We demonstrated that T1N0Mx-IgG (10(-8) M) and carbachol (10(-9) M) increased the constitutive expression of VEGF-A in tumor cells, effect that was reverted by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. We also observed that T1N0Mx-IgG and carbachol enhanced the neovascular response produced by MCF-7 cells in the skin of NUDE mice. The action of IgG or carbachol was reduced in the presence of atropine. In conclusion, T1N0Mx-IgG and carbachol may promote VEGF-A production and neovascularization induced by breast tumor cells via muscarinic receptors activation. These effects may be accelerating breast tumor progression.

  17. Cardiovascular effects induced by linalool in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Paulo J C; Lima, Aline O; Cunha, Patrícia S; De Sousa, Damião P; Onofre, Alexandre S C; Ribeiro, Thais P; Medeiros, Isac A; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Santosa, Márcio R V

    2013-01-01

    Linalool is a monoterpene alcohol and constituent of several Brazilian aromatic medicinal plants, popularly used against hypertension. Cardiovascular effects induced by linalool were evaluated. In normotensive rats, (+/-)-linalool [1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body weight (BW); intravenous (i.v.)]-induced hypotension was associated with tachycardia, which was attenuated by atropine (2 mg/kg BW) and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (20 mg/kg BW), but was not modified after indomethacin (5 mg/kg BW) administration. In hypertensive rats, linalool [200 mg/kg BW; oral (v.o.)] reduced blood pressure without changing the heart rate. In intact rings of rat mesenteric artery precontracted with 10 microM phenylephrine, linalool (from 6.4 x 10(-6) to 6.4 x 10(-3) M) induced relaxations in a concentration-dependent manner [E(max) = (115 +/- 13)%] that were not changed after atropine administration [E(max) = (105 +/- 2)%], and were not different from those obtained in endothelium-denuded rings precontracted with phenylephrine [E(max) = (108 +/- 7)%] or 80 mM KCl [E(max) = (113 +/- 7)%] or tetraethylammonium incubation [E(max) = (105 +/- 12)%]. Linalool (1.9 x 10(-3) M) antagonized the contractions induced by CaCl2 (3 x 10(-6)-10(-2) M) (maximal inhibition, 81%). Furthermore, linalool inhibited the contractions induced by 10 microM phenylephrine or 20 mM caffeine. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that linalool reduces blood pressure probably due to a direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle leading to vasodilation.

  18. Evidence for activation of both adrenergic and cholinergic nervous pathways by yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, H; Chale, J J; Guyen, L N; Tran, M A; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L

    1995-01-01

    Adrenoceptors are involved in the control of the activity of the autonomic nervous system and especially the sympathetic nervous system. Activation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors decreases sympathetic tone whereas their blockade has an opposite effect. However, previous investigations have shown that yohimbine (a potent alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist) increases salivary secretion through activation of cholinergic pathways. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the involvement of both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic system in several pharmacological effects of yohimbine. For this purpose, salivary secretion and various endocrino-metabolic parameters (noradrenaline and insulin secretions, lipomobilization) were evaluated in conscious fasting dogs before and after blockade of either the sympathetic (with the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist agent nadolol) or the parasympathetic (with the anticholinergic agent atropine) systems. Yohimbine alone (0.4 mg.kg-1, i.v.) increased within 5-15 minutes, plasma noradrenaline (600%), insulin levels (300%), free-fatty acids (79%) and salivary secretion (143%). Atropine (0.2 mg.kg-1, i.v.) suppressed yohimbine-induced salivary secretion (90%) but did not significantly modify the yohimbine induced changes in noradrenaline (312%), insulin (277%) and free-fatty acids (102%) plasma levels. Administration of nadolol (1 mg.kg-1, i.v.) did not change the magnitude of the increase in both noradrenaline plasma levels (550%) and salivary secretion (300%) induced by yohimbine. However, nadolol totally blunted the increase in insulin (15%) and free-fatty acids (4%) plasma levels. These results show that yohimbine-induced increase in salivary secretion is a cholinergic effect whereas the increase in insulin and free fatty acids can be explained by an increase in sympathetic tone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. [Participation of parasympathetic part of nervous system in realization of bioflavonoids action on gastric secretion in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovkun, T V; Yanchuk, P I; Shtanova, L Y; Veselskyy, S P; Shalamay, A S

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of corvitin--modified form of flavonoid quercetin on the stomach secretory function and physiological mechanisms involved in the maintenance of such effects in rat's pylorus-ligated model. In animals which corvitin was injected at a dose of 5 mg/kg, regardless of the route of administration--in the stomach or duodenum, did not observe any changes in the volume of gastric juice or general production of hydrochloric acid, compared with the control data. Dose of 40 mg/kg caused an increase in the volume of gastric juice and hydrochloric acid output as when administered in the stomach and in the duodenum. We also found that after the application of a large dose of corvitin (intragastrically) in the blood of experimental animals showed reduction in glucose levels, which was not detected when using the drug in a dose of 5 mg/kg. Nonspecific antagonist of M-cholinergic receptors--atropine almost completely blocked the enhancement of gastric secretion, which was caused by the introduction into the stomach of corvitin in large dose. From the present data, it is reasonable to conclude that intragastric administration of a large dose of corvitin to pylorus-ligated rats induces hypoglycemic reaction of blood, which may causes an increase in vagus nerve activity with subsequent stimulation of gastric secretion. The increase in gastric juice volume and gastric acid output induced by corvitin was completely inhibited by atropine. These results suggested that the increase in gastric secretion induced by intragastrically administered corvitin could be mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system.

  20. Characterization of PCS1055, a novel muscarinic M4 receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Carrie H; Chan, Wai Y; Castetter, Andrea M; Watt, Marla L; Quets, Anne T; Felder, Christian C

    2016-07-05

    Identification of synthetic ligands selective for muscarinic receptor subtypes has been challenging due to the high sequence identity and structural homology among the five muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Here, we report the pharmacological characterization of PCS1055, a novel muscarinic M4 receptor antagonist. PCS1055 inhibited radioligand [(3)H]-NMS binding to the M4 receptor with a Ki=6.5nM. Though the potency of PCS1055 is lower than that of pan-muscarinic antagonist atropine, it has better subtype selectivity over previously reported M4-selective reagents such as the muscarinic-peptide toxins (Karlsson et al., 1994; Santiago and Potter, 2001a) at the M1 subtype, and benzoxazine ligand PD102807 at the M3-subtype (Bohme et al., 2002). A detailed head-to-head comparison study using [(3)H]-NMS competitive binding assays characterizes the selectivity profiles of PCS1055 to that of other potent muscarinic-antagonist compounds PD102807, tropicamide, AF-DX-384, pirenzapine, and atropine. In addition to binding studies, the subtype specificity of PCS1055 is also demonstrated by functional receptor activation as readout by GTP-γ-[(35)S] binding. These GTP-γ-[(35)S] binding studies showed that PCS1055 exhibited 255-, 69.1-, 342- and >1000-fold greater inhibition of Oxo-M activity at the M4 versus the M1-, M2(-), M3-or M5 receptor subtypes, respectively. Schild analyses indicates that PCS1055 acts as a competitive antagonist to muscarinic M4 receptor, and confirms the affinity of the ligand to be low nanomolar, Kb=5.72nM. Therefore, PCS1055 represents a new M4-preferring antagonist that may be useful in elucidating the roles of M4 receptor signaling.