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Sample records for atropine

  1. Atropinic (Anticholinergic) Burden in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Germay, Sibylle; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Rousseau, Vanessa; Chebane, Leila; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Moulis, Florence; Durrieu, Genevieve; Bagheri, Haleh; Rascol, Olivier; Pariente, Antoine; Bégaud, Bernard; Montastruc, François

    2016-05-01

    Use of atropinic drugs remains controversial in Parkinson's disease (PD) because there is insufficient evidence about their efficacy and they can induce serious adverse drug reactions. Atropinic risk scales were developed to help to identify atropinic drugs in prescription forms and to evaluate their burden in clinical practice. In the present review, we discuss the few studies investigating atropinic burden in PD and present the results of our study indicating that atropinic drugs are still widely prescribed in PD (almost 3 of 5 prescriptions) with a clinically significant atropinic burden in around 1 of 6 PD patients. Drugs mainly responsible for high values of atropinic burden were those used for nonmotor symptoms. Clinically significant atropinic burdens were mainly induced by associations of several "low-risk" drugs. Physicians must be aware that in addition to classical atropinic antiparkinsonian drugs, many others (psychotropics) can contribute to increased atropinic burden in PD patients. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27028036

  2. Optimization of perfusion studies using Atropine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies of myocardial perfusion require an adequate stress; exercise or pharmacological. Every day, more pharmacological studies are performed, specially in some group of patients (women, AMI, etc). There some drugs that are used for this purpose, as adenosine and dobutamine. However, their cost and the lack of availability and infrastructure in our country do not allow there routinely use. We performed dipyridamol as a pharmacological stress, however in some patients there is a doubt regarding if the pharmacological effect was adequate. Atropine is a drug that is frequently used for different purpose and it is well know its tachycardic response. We present and alternative technique, using dipyridamol-atropine as a protocol of stress perfusion study. Our goal was to correlate the standard dipyridamol -thallium perfusion study and the dipyridamol -atropine-perfusion in patients with chronic coronary disease. We evaluated 6 patients (5 males) with stable angina and chronic coronary disease. A standard dipyridamol-thallium study was performed in all of them. Dipyridamole was administered intravenously at a rate of 0.14 mg/kg/min over 6 min for a total of 0.84 mg/kg body weight. Blood pressure, heart rate, EKG and symptoms were monitored before, during and after the pharmacological infusion. Two minutes after the infusion was completed, the radiotracer was injected intravenously. In the next 6 months, without any modification of the clinical situation (symptoms and therapy) a new dipyridamol study was performed, using 1 mg of atropine after the administration of dipyridamol. There were no differences in the collateral effects and we observed and average increase of 30% in the heart rate in relation with the study using dipyridamol alone. The addition of atropine to the standard dipyridamol perfusion study is safe, cheaper and improved the detection of perfusion defects in patients with coronary artery disease

  3. Comparison of efficacy of atropine versus atropine with pralidoxime in organophosphorus poisoning

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    Vikrama Raja

    2013-12-01

    Results: Total hospital stay was not significantly different between the treatment groups (95% CI of difference: -4.227, 0.784. Length of stay was also not significantly different between patients who received atropine plus PAM within 6 hours of consumption of poison and those who received 6 hours later (95% CI of difference: -4.154, 0.954; p value: 0.2. Conclusion: Our data supports the use of only atropine over atropine plus PAM in patients with OP poisoning on account of no significant difference /reduction of hospital/ICU stay and mortality in the latter group. However, a study with a larger sample needs to be conducted, to be able to draw a definitive conclusion. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 810-813

  4. Retarding Progression of Myopia with Seasonal Modification of Topical Atropine

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    Paul CS Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate whether seasonal modification in the concentration of atropine drops is effective in retarding the progression of myopia. Methods: Two hundred and forty eyes of 120 healthy preschool- and school-age children in Chiayi region, Taiwan were recruited. The treatment group consisted of 126 eyes of 63 children who received atropine eye drops daily for one year and the control group included 114 eyes of 57 children who received nothing. The concentration of atropine eye drops was modified by seasonal variation as follows: 0.1% for summer, 0.25% for spring and fall, and 0.5% for winter. Refractive error, visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP, and axial length were evaluated before and after intervention. Results: Mean age was 9.1±2.8 years in the atropine group versus 9.3±2.8 years in controls (P=0.88. Mean spherical equivalent, refractive error and astigmatism were -1.90±1.66 diopters (D and -0.50±0.59 D in the atropine group; corresponding values in the control group were -2.09±1.67 D (P=0.97 and -0.55±0.60 D (P=0.85, respectively. After one year, mean progression of myopia was 0.28±0.75 D in the atropine group vs 1.23±0.44 D in controls (P<0.001. Myopic progression was significantly correlated with an increase in axial length in both atropine (r=0.297, P=0.001 and control (r=0.348, P<0.001 groups. No correlation was observed between myopic progression and IOP in either study group. Conclusion: Modifying the concentration of atropine drops based on seasonal variation, seems to be effective and tolerable for retarding myopic progression in preschool- to school-age children.

  5. Central anticholinergic syndrome vs. idiosyncratic reaction triggered by a small IV dose of atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X; Cui, Y; White, P F; Tang, J; Ma, H

    2016-02-01

    A 58-year-old male was scheduled to undergo radical gastrectomy for cancer under general anesthesia. The patient developed agitation and irregular breathing after receiving a single dose of atropine (0.5 mg) to treat bradycardia immediately prior to induction of anesthesia. Within 5 min after the atropine injection, the patient became unresponsive with facial flushing and diaphoresis. When a drop in oxygen saturation was observed, a laryngeal mask airway was inserted after administering a small bolus dose of propofol (80 mg) and the patient was ventilated with 100% oxygen. Physostigmine was not administered because of the relatively low dose of atropine and the fact that his symptoms were not totally consistent with central anticholinergic syndrome (CAS). The differential diagnosis at the time also included an acute cardiovascular event and an idiosyncratic reaction to atropine. The patient fully recovered within 80 min from this highly unusual reaction to a single 0.5 mg IV dose of atropine. PMID:26471203

  6. Acute atropine intoxication with psychiatric symptoms by herbal infusion of Pulmonaria officinalis (Lungwort

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    Enrique Baca-García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lungwort infusion is a preparation extracted from Pulmonaria officinalis which is occasionally used as a folk remedy for the common cold. The current report aims to describe acute atropine intoxications with delirium caused by Lungwort infusion in several members of the same family. Methods: Description of three case reports. Search of literature through Medline. Results: Three generations of a same family presented acute and moderately severe atropine intoxications after drinking an infusion prepared with Pulmonaria officinalis. Conclusions: Despite the lack of scientific evidence for its clinical use, medicinal plants continue being widely used. In spite of severe adverse effects reported, the general thought is that herbal remedies are harmless. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute atropine intoxications with psychiatric symptoms secondary to Pulmonaria officinalis in several members of a family. We suspect that the lungwort infusion may have been contaminated with some other substance with atropinic properties.

  7. Comparison of the effects of atropine and glycopyrrolate on various end-organs1

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakhur, R. K.; Dundee, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Atropine and glycopyrrolate (glycopyrronium bromide), a quaternary ammonium drug, were evaluated in volunteers following intramuscular administration with respect to effects on various end-organs with cholinergic innervation. Glycopyrrolate appears to be five to six times more potent than atropine in its antisialogogue effect and also exhibits a selective, though prolonged, effect on salivary secretion and sweat gland activity. It has minimal cardiovascular, ocular and central nervous system ...

  8. Abnormal gait sequence in locomotion after atropine treatment of catecholamine-deficient akinetic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Pellis, S M; Pellis, V C; Chesire, R M; Rowland, N; Teitelbaum, P

    1987-01-01

    Excessive, abnormal locomotion occurs after a high dose (25-50 mg/kg) of atropine sulfate to rats already akinetic due to catecholamine deficiency from intraventricular administration of 6-hydroxydopamine. This abnormal locomotion involves an abnormal gait sequence [right (R) hindleg (H), left (L) foreleg (F), LH, RF] instead of the normal gait sequence (RH, RF, LH, LF). In such animals atropine progressively (i) decreases hindleg step size, (ii) decreases arching of the trunk, and (iii) incr...

  9. Determination of atropine using Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as novel luminescent sensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method using water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of atropine in pharmaceutical formulation. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. It was found that ZnS quantum dots acted as enhancers of the weak CL emission produced upon oxidation of sulfite by Ce(IV) in acidic medium. Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots yielding a significant chemiluminescence enhancement of the Ce(IV)–SO32−–ZnS QD system. Therefore, a new CL analysis system was developed for the determination of atropine. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative chemiluminescence intensity and the concentration of atropine in the range of 1×10−9–1×10−6 M of atropine with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9992. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 2.54×10−10 M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications. -- Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots could enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of cerium(IV)–sodium sulfite system. • ZnS quantum dots were used as the nanocatalyst. • Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots. • This work is introduced as a new method for the determination of atropine commercial drugs. • Detection limit of atropine was obtained 2.54×10−10 mol L−1

  10. The Effect of Atropine on Post-ECT Bradycardia in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

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    Hassan Farashbandi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is utilized for treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD. One of the major complications in using ECT is cardiovascular problems i.e., bradycardia. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of atropine on the pulse rate (PR of the patients under treatment with ECT. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with diagnosis of MDD who received atropine before ECT treatment (control group were compared with 30 patients with the same diagnosis without receiving atropine (experimental group under ECT treatment. Both groups received ECT under the same term and condition. The PR of the patients were recorded 7 times (twice before anesthesia and ECT and 5 fixed one min intervals immediately after receiving ECT; for 10 sessions of treatment with ECT (3 times a week. The results were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. The PR under 50 was the cut off point for differentiating the patients suffering from bradycardia and those without it. Results: Slight increment in PRs for experimental group (patient who did not receive atropine in contrast to control group were observed, but it did not reach a statistically significant level. The gender (male/female did not have different PR. The age of the patients and initial PR (regarded as co-variances did not show significant effect on PR for total sample. Conclusion: There seems to be not necessary to use atropine treatment for depressed patients receiving ECT.

  11. Split-dose atropine versus glycopyrrolate with neostigmine for reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, J; Jarnvig, I; Jørgensen, L N;

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a split-dose of atropine sulphate versus a single dose of glycopyrrolate given with neostigmine for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade were studied in 55 patients undergoing gynaecological surgery. The patients were randomized to receive either a single dose of......, whereas none occurred in the glycopyrrolate group (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that a split-dose of atropine has similar chronotropic effects to a single dose of glycopyrrolate for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade. However, the finding of a higher incidence of cardiac...... arrhythmias in the atropine group suggests that this reversal regime should be reserved for patients without cardiac disease....

  12. The molal volumes of atropine and hyoscine in relation to their respective potencies.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, S.; Haberman, F.

    1984-01-01

    The partial molal volumes, V2, at infinite dilution of atropine and hyoscine were determined in each of eight different solvents having cohesive energy densities in the range 64 to 144 cal cm-3. V2 for hyoscine in a given solvent was invariably and significantly smaller than that of atropine in the same solvent. The difference being 1.58 cm3 mol-1 in the least polar solvent (n-propylbenzene) and 4.29 cm3 mol-1 in the most polar one (acetonitrile) in the series studied. It is proposed that the...

  13. Comparative study of oral and intramuscular atropine sulphate as a premedicant in paediatric age group.

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    Chaudhari L

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of atropine sulphate in the paediatric age group as a premedicant orally in a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg body weight 70 minutes prior to surgery was found to be as effective as atropine sulphate given intramuscularly 35 minutes prior to surgery in a dosage of 0.01 mg/kg body weight. This avoids the unpleasant memory of needle prick; The duration of effect as studied in the normal healthy children not subjected to surgery was found to be 2 1/2-3 hours.

  14. Determination of atropine using Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as novel luminescent sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizi, Seyed Naser [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chaichi, Mohammad Javad, E-mail: jchaichi@yahoo.com [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakeri, Parmis [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bekhradnia, Ahmadreza [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method using water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of atropine in pharmaceutical formulation. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. It was found that ZnS quantum dots acted as enhancers of the weak CL emission produced upon oxidation of sulfite by Ce(IV) in acidic medium. Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots yielding a significant chemiluminescence enhancement of the Ce(IV)–SO{sub 3}{sup 2−}–ZnS QD system. Therefore, a new CL analysis system was developed for the determination of atropine. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative chemiluminescence intensity and the concentration of atropine in the range of 1×10{sup −9}–1×10{sup −6} M of atropine with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of 0.9992. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 2.54×10{sup −10} M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications. -- Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots could enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of cerium(IV)–sodium sulfite system. • ZnS quantum dots were used as the nanocatalyst. • Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots. • This work is introduced as a new method for the determination of atropine commercial drugs. • Detection limit of atropine was obtained 2.54×10{sup −10} mol L{sup −1}.

  15. Efficacy of atropine combined with paroxetine in vagus nerve excitatory panic disorder

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    Du N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Na Du, Xue-Li Sun Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Panic disorder is often associated with the autonomic nervous system pattern – sympathetic activation and parasympathetic (vagal withdrawal. However, we present one special case here to show a totally reversed pathogenesis – vagal activation occupying the leading role, which requires atropine to cure the patient’s symptoms. Through this report, it is reasonably proven that panic disorder may be a heterogeneous condition, whose mechanism might be the imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic tone. Keywords: panic disorder, vagal activation, bradycardia, atropine

  16. A Double-Blind Atropine Trial for Active Learning of Autonomic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jeffrey R.; Burr, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to…

  17. Permanent alterations in muscarinic receptors and pupil size produced by chronic atropinization in kittens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic mydriasis was induced in six kittens (four monocular, two binocular) and two adult cats (both monocular) by the daily topical application of atropine. Both the kittens and the adult cats were atropinized for a 13-week period with the treatment regimen beginning at the time of eye opening for the kittens. Pupil size measurements, obtained 1 year after the atropinization were discontinued, revealed that, although the pupils of the adult cats were normal, the pupils of the kittens' treated eyes were consistently smaller than pupils in control eyes. The status of the muscarinic receptors in the kittens' irides was investigated using 3H-QNB binding assays. In comparison with iris muscle homogenates from the control eyes, those from the treated eyes demonstrated an eightfold increase in the number of receptor binding sites. The results indicate that pupil size can be altered permanently by chronic mydriasis initiated early in the life of a kitten and that the permanent change in pupil size may result, in part, from a type of permanent supersensitivity response in the muscle following chronic blockade of muscarinic transmission by atropine

  18. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang-tao

    2012-09-01

    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time. PMID:23141569

  19. Utility of atropine in patients under beta-blocker effect during exercise stress echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to assess the usefulness of adding atropine 0.5 to 1.0 mg by intravenous injection during peak exercise in patients under beta-blocker effect that are subjected to exercise stress echocardiography. Population: exercise stress echocardiography was performed in 73 patients receiving beta-blocking agents with basal heart rate below 60 beats per minute (BPM). Two groups were established at random: group I (18 patients that did not receive atropine during maximal exercise) and group II (50 patients from whom 28 received 0.5 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before concluding the exercise and 22 patients who received 1.0 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before its conclusion). From a demographic point of view, there were no differences between the two groups. Mean age was 59 ± 10.8 years (57% male). Most of the patients received metoprolol (87%) and no significant statistical differences in relation with the doses were found in these two groups. At the end of the exercise, the patients had a mean heart rate of 84% from their maximal heart rate (MHR). The values post-exercise were 76% at 30 seconds, 68% at 60 sec., 62% at 90 sec., and 59% of the maximal heart rate at 120 sec. When comparing the percentage of the maximal heart rate achieved in maximal exercise and the one observed during the first 120 sec. after exercise, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: during the performance of stress exercise echocardiography, the administration of intravenous atropine was of no use for incrementing the peak heart rate post-exercise in patients with significant beta-blocker effect (basal heart rate < 60 BPM)

  20. EFFECTS OF ATROPINE ON ANTIGEN-INDUCED BRONCHOSPASM IN THE HORSE

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    K.B. Mirbahar, R.B. Mirbahar, Nasreen Akhter, W.N. McDonell1 and P. Eyre2,

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of atropine to attenuate Ascaris suum induced bronchospasm was studied in 6 conscious standing horses. Animals were challenged with saline and a 10-2 dilution of A. suum aerosolized for 3 minutes. Pulmonary function tests (PFT were performed at 15, 30 and 60 minutes after antigen challenge. Pulmonary mechanics and ventilation values were measured using a differential pressure transducer and a Fleisch Pnemotachograph. One week later, animals were treated with atropine sulfate (6.0 mg administered IM and rechallenged with saline followed by same dose of A. suum. Clinical signs noted after the inhalation of A. suum alone included hyperpnea, dyspnea, sweating and salivation. The effect of antigen was rapid in onset starting during the inhalation and lasting for over 60 minutes. The PFT revealed significant (P<0.05 increases in Wb, max.  Ppl RL, V1, f, and VT whereas the Cdyn decreased (P<0.05. The changes were more severe in lower airways. Atropine abolished the clinical signs. Comparison of post atropine saline and A. suum challenge values revealed significant increase in Wb, max.  Ppl at 15 minutes post antigen challenge. Changes in RL, f and Cdyn were abolished. Comparison of responses to A. suum in the presence and absence of atropine revealed a significant (P<0.05 inhibition of changes in max. Ppl, Wb, inspiratory and expiratory RL, VI, f and flow. The study suggested that the A. suum induced bronchospasm in the horses is mediated, at least in part by vagal reflexes.

  1. Bilateral vagotomy or atropine pre-treatment reduces experimental diesel-soot induced lung inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the role of the vagus nerve in acute inflammatory and cardiorespiratory responses to diesel particulate (DP) in the rat airway, we measured changes in respiration, blood pressure and neutrophils in lungs of urethane anesthetized Wistar rats 6-h post-instillation of DP (500 μg) and studied the effect of mid-cervical vagotomy or atropine (1 mg kg-1) pre-treatment. In conscious rats, we investigated DP, with and without atropine pre-treatment. DP increased neutrophil level in BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) fluid from intact anesthetized rats to 2.5 ± 0.7 x 106 cells (n = 8), compared with saline instillation (0.3 ± 0.1 x 106, n = 7; P 6 cells (n = 8; P 6 (n = 4; P 6, n = 4, was reduced by pre-treatment with atropine to 2.2 ± 1.2 x 106 cells, n = 3. Hyperventilation occurred 6 h after DP in anesthetized rats with intact vagi, but not in bilaterally vagotomized or atropine pre-treated animals and was abolished by vagotomy (P < 0.05, paired test). There were no significant differences in the other variables (mean blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate variability) measured before and 360 min after DP. In conclusion, DP activates a pro-inflammatory vago-vagal reflex which is reduced by atropine. Muscarinic ACh receptors in the rat lung are involved in DP-induced neutrophilia, and hence muscarinic antagonists may reduce airway and/or cardiovascular inflammation evoked by inhaled atmospheric DP in susceptible individuals

  2. Opposing effects of atropine and timolol on the color and luminance emmetropization mechanisms in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Laura A; Rucker, Frances J

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the luminance and color emmetropization response in chicks treated with the nonselective parasympathetic antagonist atropine and the sympathetic β-receptor blocker timolol. Chicks were binocularly exposed (8h/day) for 4days to one of three illumination conditions: 2Hz sinusoidal luminance flicker, 2Hz sinusoidal blue/yellow color flicker, or steady light (mean 680lux). Atropine experiments involved monocular daily injections of either 20μl of atropine (18nmol) or 20μl of phosphate-buffered saline. Timolol experiments involved monocular daily applications of 2 drops of 0.5% timolol or 2 drops of distilled H2O. Changes in the experimental eye were compared with those in the fellow eye after correction for the effects of saline/water treatments. Atropine caused a reduction in axial length with both luminance flicker (-0.078±0.021mm) and color flicker (-0.054±0.017mm), and a reduction in vitreous chamber depth with luminance flicker (-0.095±0.023mm), evoking a hyperopic shift in refraction (3.40±1.77D). Timolol produced an increase in axial length with luminance flicker (0.045±0.030mm) and a myopic shift in refraction (-4.07±0.92D), while color flicker caused a significant decrease in axial length (-0.046±0.017mm) that was associated with choroidal thinning (-0.046±0.015mm). The opposing effects on growth and refraction seen with atropine and timolol suggest a balancing mechanism between the parasympathetic and β-receptor mediated sympathetic system through stimulation of the retina with luminance and color contrast. PMID:26971621

  3. Molecular mechanisms of muscarinic receptors in mouse scleral fibroblasts: Prior to and after induction of experimental myopia with atropine treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Barathi, V. A.; Roger W. Beuerman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of atropine on the development of spectacle lens induced myopia in the mouse and to determine if the level of mRNAs for the muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1 - M5 ) is affected by atropine treatment. Methods Experimental myopia was developed in Balb/CJ (BJ) mice by placing −10 diopter spectacle lens on post-natal day 10 over the right eyes of 150 mice (n=10 in each group, 5 repetitions) for six weeks. After 2 weeks of lens wearing, the atropine group received ...

  4. Intramuscular atropine in elderly people: Pharmacokinetic studies using the radioreceptor assay and some pharmacodynamic responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pharmacokinetics (radioreceptor assay, RRA) and som clinical effects of atropine were studied in 7 elderly gynaecological surgery patients. The RRA measures only the pharmacologically active isomer of atropine, 1-hyoscyamine. Following a single 0.01 mg/kg intramuscular (M. deltoideus) injection, a very fast rate of absorption was found with mean peak serum concentration occurring after only 13 min. The reason for this could be either a preferential tissue uptake of the 1-form or the injection site or both. The elimination half-life was 2.27 hr. Only 23.1% of the given drug was excreted in urine in 24 hr as a pharmacologically active form. The clinical effects (heart rate rise, subjective sedation and antisialogogue effect) were seen after only 30 min. This somewhat faster appearance of clinical effects than in previous studies can be due to the injection site. The sedative effect of the drug is clear and long lasting in elderly people. (author)

  5. Interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on the binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on binding constant, binding sites, and conformation were studied in an aqueous buffer solution (pH 7.40) by ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The study results show that aconitine quenched the endogenous fluorescence of BSA via a dynamic quenching procedure. Predominant intermolecular forces between aconitine and BSA were hydrophobic interactions, which stabilized the complex of aconitine–BSA. The distance between the donor and acceptor was 2.62 nm. The conformation of BSA was investigated by synchronous fluorescence techniques, indicating that the microenvironment around tryptophan (Trp) residues was changed. Furthermore, with the addition of atropine sulphate or glycyrrhizic acid, binding constant and the number of binding sites of aconitine to BSA were decreased, and the conformation had no change, which provide an important theoretical support for aconitine detoxification by atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid. - Highlights: ► Effect of atropine or glycyrrhizic acid on aconitine–BSA binding. ► UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques used. ► Aconitine quenched BSA fluorescence via dynamic quenching with r=2.62 nm. ► Atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid decreased KA and n of aconitine–BSA. ► Support for aconitine detoxification by atropine and glycyrrhizic acid.

  6. A comparative study of clonidine versus a combination of diazepam and atropine for premedication in orthopaedic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaurasia S

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty patients in the age group of 18-60 years of A.S.A. Grade I/II risk, scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgeries under general anaesthesia were studied for pre-medication with either oral clonidine or with combination of effects of diazepam & atropine. Patients in Group A (clonidine group received tablet clonidine 100 mcg (1 tablet if less than 50 kg in weight and 200 mcg if weighing more than 50 kg two hours before surgery. Patients in Group B (Diazepam-atropine group received one tablet of Diazepam (10 mg orally two hours before surgery and injection atropine-sulphate 0.01 mg/kg half an hour preoperatively by intramuscular route. In our study, the sedative and anti-sialogogue effects of clonidine were comparable to those of diazepam-atropine combination, which are commonly used premedicants. The anti-anxiety effect of clonidine was found to be better than that of diazepam-atropine combination. Clonidine also proved to be a better agent for the attenuation of pressor response to laryngoscopy and intubation. Thus, oral clonidine is a better premedicant compared to atropine-diazepam combination. Also, it is a more acceptable agent because of its oral route of administration.

  7. Atropine Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: fever irritability fast pulse irregular heartbeat mental confusion difficulty urinating If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  8. The QT interval and cycle length: the influence of atropine, hyoscine and exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Staniforth, D H

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-seven healthy male subjects of mean age 24.3 +/- 4.0 years and mean weight 74.9 +/- 9.1 kg took part in an investigation to assess the most suitable correction for the QT interval as a function of cardiac cycle length. 547 sets of data points were generated. Atropine 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mg, and hyoscine 0.4 and 0.8 mg, and exercise on a bicycle ergometer at power levels of 50-250 watts together with post-exercise values were employed to obtain a range of heart rates. Simultaneous measurem...

  9. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures. PMID:26453200

  10. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR (≥85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  11. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manganelli, Fiore; Sauro, Rosario; Di Lorenzo, Emilio; Rosato, Giuseppe [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Department of Cardiology and Heart Surgery, Avellino (Italy); Spadafora, Marco; Varrella, Paola; Peluso, Giuseppina [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Avellino (Italy); Daniele, Stefania [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); Cuocolo, Alberto [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, Naples (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR ({>=}85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  12. Use of atropine to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cohort study included children with esotropia and hypermetropia of ≥ +2.0 diopters (D. The deviation was measured at presentation, under atropine cycloplegia and 3 months after full refractive correction. Of 44 children with a mean age of 5.2 ± 2.4 years, 25 were males. Eighteen (41% had fully refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE, 10 (23% had partial accommodative esotropia (PAE, and 5 (11% had nonaccommodative esotropia (NAE. Eleven (25% had convergence excess (CE. Under cycloplegia, all with RAE and RAE with CE had orthotropia. There was no significant change in the deviation in the patients with NAE. The deviation under cycloplegia and that with full refractive correction in PAE and PAE with CE (with +3.0 D addition were not different. The intraclass correlation coefficient for deviation under cycloplegia and after full refractive correction (+3.0 D addition for CE was 0.89. It was concluded that ocular deviation under cycloplegia can help to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia.

  13. Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) extract exhibits atropine-sensitive activity in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Satin; Long, Shannon R; Proteau, Philip J; Filtz, Theresa M

    2009-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) plant extract is used as a herbal alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was shown that hawthorn extract preparations caused negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay, independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of hawthorn extract to decrease the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis that hawthorn is acting via muscarinic receptors, the effect of hawthorn extract on atrial versus ventricular cardiomyocytes in culture was evaluated. As would be expected for activation of muscarinic receptors, hawthorn extract had a greater effect in atrial cells. Atrial and/or ventricular cardiomyocytes were then treated with hawthorn extract in the presence of atropine or himbacine. Changes in the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes revealed that both muscarinic antagonists significantly attenuated the negative chronotropic activity of hawthorn extract. Using quinuclidinyl benzilate, L-[benzylic-4,4'-(3)H] ([(3)H]-QNB) as a radioligand antagonist, the effect of a partially purified hawthorn extract fraction to inhibit muscarinic receptor binding was quantified. Hawthorn extract fraction 3 dose-dependently inhibited [(3)H]-QNB binding to mouse heart membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that decreased contraction frequency by hawthorn extracts in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes may be mediated via muscarinic receptor activation. PMID:18696181

  14. Development of a combined solution formulation of atropine sulfate and obidoxime chloride for autoinjector and evaluation of its stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettehadi, Hossein Ali; Ghalandari, Rouhollah; Shafaati, Alireza; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Atropine (AT) and oximes, alone or in combination, have been proven greatly valuable therapeutics in the treatment of organophosphates intoxications. An injectable mixture of AT and obidoxime (OB) was formulated for the administration by automatic self-injector. The aqueous single dose solution contained 275 mg obidoxime chloride and 2.5 mg atropine sulfate per 1 mL (220 mg and 2 mg per 0.8 effective dose, respectively). The final solution was sterilized by filtration through a 0.22 μm pore size filter. This more concentrated solution allowed to use a smaller size and lighter weight cartridge. Quality control tests, including assay of the two major compounds were performed separately, using reversed-phase HPLC methods. Besides, the stability test was carried out according to ICH guideline for the accelerated test. The obtained results showed that the proposed formulation is stable over a period of 2 years after preparation. PMID:24250669

  15. Assessment of atropine-sufentanil-atracurium anaesthesia for endotracheal intubation: an observational study in very premature infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Durrmeyer, Xavier; Dahan, Sonia; Delorme, Pierre; Blary, Sabine; Dassieu, Gilles; Caeymaex, Laurence; Carbajal, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Premedication before neonatal intubation is heterogeneous and contentious. The combination of a short acting, rapid onset opioid with a muscle relaxant is considered suitable by many experts. The purpose of this study was to describe the tolerance and conditions of intubation following anaesthesia with atropine, sufentanil and atracurium in very premature infants. METHODS: Monocentric, prospective observational study in premature infants born before 32 weeks of gestational age, ho...

  16. Uptake of (14)C-atropine and/or its transformation products from soil by wheat (Triticum aestivum var Kronjet) and their translocation to shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandrić, Zora; Rathor, Mohammad N; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph; Mayr, Leopold; Resch, Christian; Bado, Souleymane; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Plant uptake of toxins and their translocation to edible plant parts are important processes in the transfer of contaminants into the food chain. Atropine, a highly toxic muscarine receptor antagonist produced by Solanacea species, is found in all plant tissues and can enter the soil and hence be available for uptake by crops. The absorption of atropine and/or its transformation products from soil by wheat (Triticum aestivum var Kronjet) and its distribution to shoots was investigated by growing wheat in soil spiked with unlabeled or (14)C-labeled atropine. Radioactivity attributable to (14)C-atropine and its transformation products was measurable in plants sampled at 15 d after sowing (DAS) and thereafter until the end of experiment. The highest accumulation of (14)C-atropine and/or its transformation products by plants was detected in leaves (between 73 and 90% of the total accumulated) with lower amounts in stems, roots, and seeds (approximately 14%, 9%, and 3%, respectively). (14)C-Atropine and/or its transformation products were detected in soil leachate at 30, 60, and 90 DAS and were strongly adsorbed to soil, with 60% of the applied dose adsorbed at 30 DAS, plateauing at 70% from 60 DAS. Unlabeled atropine was detected in shoots 30 DAS at a concentration of 3.9 ± 0.1 μg kg(-1) (mean ± SD). The observed bioconcentration factor was 2.3 ± 0.04. The results suggest a potential risk of atropine toxicity to consumers. PMID:24007480

  17. The muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and atropine are competitive antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Scopolamine is a high affinity muscarinic antagonist that is used for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are used for the same purpose and are structurally related to scopolamine. To examine whether 5-HT3 receptors are affected by scopolamine we examined the effects of this drug on the electrophysiological and ligand binding properties of 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor-responses were reversibly inhibited by scopolamine with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by Schild plot (pA2 = 5.02) and by competition with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists [(3)H]granisetron (Ki = 6.76 μM) and G-FL (Ki = 4.90 μM). The related molecule, atropine, similarly inhibited 5-HT evoked responses in oocytes with an IC50 of 1.74 μM, and competed with G-FL with a Ki of 7.94 μM. The reverse experiment revealed that granisetron also competitively bound to muscarinic receptors (Ki = 6.5 μM). In behavioural studies scopolamine is used to block muscarinic receptors and induce a cognitive deficit, and centrally administered concentrations can exceed the IC50 values found here. It is therefore possible that 5-HT3 receptors are also inhibited. Studies that utilise higher concentrations of scopolamine should be mindful of these potential off-target effects. PMID:27108935

  18. Visual hallucinations on eye closure associated with atropine toxicity. A neurological analysis and comparison with other visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C M

    1991-02-01

    Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium. PMID:2036612

  19. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Saleh Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Acute poisoning with organophosphorus (OP pesticides is a common method of suicide and entails considerable mortality in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and outcomes of a protocol for treatment of OP poisoning that included titrated incremental atropine as loading dose and slow infusion for maintenance.  Methods:In this prospective descriptive case series, definitive OP poisoned patients were enrolled in an adult medicine unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2006 to April 2007. Clinical examinations were done as soon as the patient entered the ward. Patient’s demographics, comorbid conditions and the occurrence of specific clinical outcomes including death, need for assisted ventilation and clinical complications were recorded. The patients were treated according to the protocol. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled over the study period. The median age of the study population was 22.5 years. Most patients were men (67.8%. The most common clinical presentation was miosis (58.9%. In total, 11 patients died (19.6%. Intermediate syndrome developed in 12 patients (21.4% and 6 of them died. Assisted ventilation was required in 16 cases (28.5. Patients with diastolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mmHg and/or GCS ≤ 10 were significantly less likely to survive (P = 0.02, 0.006, respectively. Moreover, early respiratory failure (P < 0.001 and the need for assisted ventilation (P < 0.001 were significantly higher among deceased cases. The mortality rate in this study was similar to previous studies. The frequency of atropine toxicity in the present study (1.8% was considerably lower than conventional regimen used in previous studies. Conclusion:Using the new protocol, lower rate of atropine toxicity developed in victims. Hence, the new protocol appears to be safer and its effectiveness should be further evaluated in case control studies in Bangladesh.    How to cite this article: Ahmed AS

  20. Prolactin release during exercise in normal and adrenodemedullated untrained rats submitted to central cholinergic blockade with atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, N R; Pereira, W; Reis, A M; Coimbra, C C; Marubayashi, U

    2001-12-01

    To study the role of the central cholinergic system in pituitary prolactin (PRL) release during exercise we injected atropine (5 x 10(-7) mol) into the lateral cerebral ventricle of intact or adrenodemedullated (ADM) untrained rats, at rest or submitted to exercise on a treadmill (18 m x min(-1), 5% grade) until exhaustion. The rats were implanted with chronic jugular catheters for blood sampling and with unilateral intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulas placed in the right lateral ventricle. Blood prolactin concentrations were measured before and every 10 min after the start of exercise for a period of 60 min. After the animals started running, plasma prolactin levels rose rapidly in both normal and ADM rats, reaching near maximum at 10 min. Close to exhaustion (19.8 +/- 2.9 min for intact rats and 23.5 +/- 4.1 min for ADM) they were still high, remained increased until 30 min, and returned to preexercise levels at 40 min. Icv injections of atropine decreased the time to exhaustion by 67% in intact rats and by 96.2% in ADM and also reduced the exercise-induced PRL release in both intact (50%) and ADM rats (90%). The results showed that prolactin release induced by exercise was dependent on the exercise workload and could be observed as early as after 10 min of running, remaining increased until 30 min. These data indicate that adrenodemedullation does not affect prolactin secretion induced by exercise, although adrenodemedullated rats proved to be more sensitive to the reducing effect of central cholinergic blockade on their maximal capacity for exercise. PMID:11716582

  1. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is

  2. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhote, Franck, E-mail: franck.dhote@irba.fr [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Peinnequin, André [Département Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); and others

    2012-03-01

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is

  3. Vasoespasmo coronariano induzido pela ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina Coronary spasm induced by dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. Bogaz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos caso de mulher de 45 anos de idade, com antecedentes de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e tabagismo, submetida a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina para investigação de doença arterial coronariana. No pico do estresse, a paciente apresentou dor precordial súbita e de forte intensidade. O eletrocardiograma de doze derivações revelou elevação do segmento ST nas derivações DII, DIII, aVF, V5 e V6 e depressão do segmento ST nas derivações DI, aVL, V2 e V3. Pela monitoração das imagens ecocardiográficas foi observado aparecimento de discinesia do septo inferior e acinesia da parede inferior do ventrículo esquerdo. O exame foi interrompido imediatamente, a paciente foi medicada e evoluiu com melhora da dor precordial e das alterações de motilidade segmentar. A angiografia coronariana revelou lesões coronarianas irregulares com menos de 50% de obstrução do diâmetro luminal. Trata-se de um caso de vasoespasmo coronariano induzido por estimulação alfa-adrenérgica durante a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina.This is the report on a 45-year-old female, with a history of systemic arterial hypertension and cigarette smoking, submitted to dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography for the investigation of coronary artery disease. At stress peak, the patient reported sudden, highly intense precordial pain. The 12-lead electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevation in DII, DIII, aVF, V5 and V6, and depression in DI, aVL, V2 and V3. Echocardiographic imaging monitoring showed dyskinesia of inferior septum and akinesia of inferior wall. The test was interrupted immediately. The patient was medicated and improved her precordial pain condition as well as wall motion abnormalities. Coronary angiography showed irregular coronary lesions with <50% luminal diameter obstruction. It is a case of coronary spasm induced by alpha-adrenergic stimulation during dobutamine-atropine stress

  4. The Effect of Intramuscular Administration of Atropine and Hyoscine Combination on Labor Progress and Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Primigravid Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mehri Jamilian; Maryam Karamali; Bahman Sadeghi; Maasoumeh Ghazi Mirsaeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported that neonatal and maternal complications as well as duration of labor could be diminished through labor management. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of intramuscular (IM) administration of atropine and hyoscine combination on labor progress and maternal and neonatal outcomes in primigravid women admitted to Taleghani Hospital of Arak, Iran. Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 216 primigravid women were randomly a...

  5. Hippocampal rhythmical slow activity following ibotenic acid lesions of the septal region. I. Relations to behavior and effects of atropine and urethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D J; Vanderwolf, C H

    1987-10-13

    The effects of intraseptal injections of various concentrations of ibotenic acid on hippocampal electrical activity were studied in freely moving and urethane-anesthetized rats. Ibotenic acid selectively abolished the atropine-sensitive form of hippocampal rhythmical slow activity (RSA) normally seen during urethane anesthesia. Large amplitude irregular activity (LIA) and RSA in the waking state were somewhat depressed as well. Despite this, clear RSA persisted in the waking state in association with locomotion or struggling (Type 1 behavior). As in normal rats, such RSA was resistant to systemic administration of atropine. Analysis of brain sections stained with gallocyanin or for acetylcholinesterase showed that ibotenic acid produced cell loss in the dorsal lateral septal nucleus and the septohippocampal nucleus. Cells in the medial septal and diagonal band nuclei were resistant to ibotenic acid. The results suggest that intrinsic septal circuitry is critically involved in the generation of the atropine-sensitive (presumably cholinergic) form of RSA. The mechanisms by which LIA and the two forms of RSA are generated in the hippocampus is discussed. PMID:3676823

  6. Changes of The Muscle Na and K Content, Kidney Functions and Cholinesterase in Rats Injected with Atropine and Serotonin Pre-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to evaluate the effect of the double treatment with atropine and serotonin (5-HT) as a protective agent against gamma-radiation on Na and K content and Na/K ratio in both heart and diaphragm muscles and plasma levels of urea, creatinine and cholinesterase at 1,3 and 5 hr post-irradiation. Male albino rats were divided into four groups: control, whole body gamma-irradiated (6 Gy), injected i.p. with atropine ( 0.5 mg/100 g b. wt.) followed by immediate i.p.injection with serotonin (100 mug /100 g b. wt.) and 15 min. pre-irradiation injected with both drugs. The study suggests that: 1-Combined treatment with atropine and serotonin showed a restricted prophylactic role for restoring the induced radiation impairments of Na+ and K+ contents in both cardiac and skeletal muscles during the early period post-irradiation. 2- During the early period after irradiation, the changes in plasma levels of Ch E and urea were proportional with time. So, they can be used as adjunct tests for the study of hematological indices for the early diagnosis of pre-acute forms of irradiation sickness

  7. Anestesia endovenosa en perros mediante el uso de propofol en dosis única, premedicado con acepromazina-atropina y xilazina-atropina Intravenous anaesthesia in dogs using a single dose of propofol premedicated with atropine _ acepromazine or atropine _ xylazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. THIBAUT

    2002-01-01

    anestesia; en el grupo 1 tremores musculares (3 casos y opistótono (1 caso, en el grupo 2 apnea transitoria (2 casos. Se concluye que propofol premedicado con atropina - xilacina reduce el período de latencia, aumenta el tiempo de anestesia y recuperación sin alterar significativamente las variables fisiológicasTwenty mongrel dogs, both sexes, of 1 to 6 years were divided into two groups of ten animals each. A dose of 1.5 mg/kg of acepromazine was administered to the first group (A.A.P of 16.2±1,63 kg body weight. The second group (X.A.P of 11.9±1.7.1 kg. body weight, received a 3 mg/kg i.m. dose of xylazine. Both groups received atropine 0.1 mg/kg s.c. ten minutes before the administration of propofol 5 mg/kg i.v. The effects of Propofol on latency period, surgical anesthesia duration, recovery period, respiratory rate, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and body temperature were evaluated. Adverse reactions to propofol were registered. The results of the anesthesiological variable significantly differed between the two groups: induction of anesthesia was 0.45 + 0.03 min in the first and 0.26 + 0.03 in the second group. Surgical anesthesia period was 12.3 + 1.89 min in the first and 25.2 + 1.78 min in the second group, and recovery period was 4.5 + 0.63 min and 10.1 + 0.98 min in group 1 and 2, respectively. The physiological variables in both groups were maintained without significant modification during the surgical anesthesia period; respiratory rate had an initial average of 14.3 + 2.45 and 13.0 + 1.54 breaths/min in group 1 and 2 respectively. The heart rate was 175 + 11.81 beats/min in the first and 148.,4 + 9.04 beats/min in the second group; the average arterial blood pressure was 102.6 + 5.69 and 111.8 + 10.43 mm Hg for the first and second group, respectively. Body temperature in the first group was 38.5 + 0.17 and 38.7 + 0.2 ºC for the second group. Adverse reactions were muscle twitching (3 cases and opisthotonus (1 case in group 1; transitory apnea (2

  8. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD50 of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD50), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD50 of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD50 soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after soman, blocked seizures.

  9. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Steven L., E-mail: stevenmiller17@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki, E-mail: vanderjaska@usuhs.edu [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Figueiredo, Taiza H., E-mail: taiza.figueiredo.ctr@usuhs.edu [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Prager, Eric M., E-mail: eric.prager683@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Almeida-Suhett, Camila P., E-mail: camilapalmeida@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Apland, James P., E-mail: james.p.apland.civ@mail.mil [Neurotoxicology Branch, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD{sub 50} of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD{sub 50}), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD{sub 50} soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after

  10. Non-neuronal, but atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses to short-chain fatty acids: age-dependent desensitization and restoration under inflammatory conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Masako; Kimura, Shunsuke; Karaki, Shinichiro; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Atsukazu; Yajima, Takaji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells sense short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to secrete non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh). However, the roles of luminalSCFAs and epithelialACh under normal and pathological conditions remain unknown. We examined ileal contractile responses toSCFAs at different ages and their mucosal cholinergic alterations under inflammatory conditions. Ileal contractile responses toSCFAs in 1-day-old pups to 7-week-old mice were compared using an isotonic transducer, and responses to an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in 7-week-old mice. ThemRNAexpression levels of aSCFAactivate free fatty acid receptor, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (Chat), and choline transporter-like protein 4 (CTL4) were measured using real-time quantitativeRT-PCRAChE was analyzed by histochemical and optical enzymatic assays. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs occurred in all 1-day-old pups, but were frequently desensitized after the weaning period. These contractile responses were not inhibited by tetrodotoxin and did not appear when the mucosal layer had been scraped off. Contractile desensitization in 7-week-old mice was abolished in the presence of theAChE inhibitor, eserine, which was consistent with increasedAChE activity after weaning. Ileal contractions toSCFAs in adult mice were restored byLPS, which significantly increased the epithelialmRNAexpression of Chat andCTL4. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs constitutively occur in the newborn period, and are desensitized during developmental stages following the up-regulated expression ofAChE in the villous mucosa, but are restored under inflammatory conditions possibly via the release of epithelialACh. PMID:27053293

  11. The reasonable application of atropine in the treatment of acute organic phosphorus poisoning%阿托品在治疗急性有机磷中毒中的合理应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭育旋

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the reasonable application of atropine in the treatment of acute organic phosphorus poisoning. Methods:37 patients with acute organic phosphorus poisoning were selected.After emetic,gastric lavage and other routine therapy, they were given atropine treatment.We analyzed the recovery of the patients.Results:In 37 patients,the recovery of 36 cases(97.3%) was good after the use of atropine treatment.1 case(2.7%) died because of atropine poisoning.Conclusion:In the treatment process of patients with organic phosphorus poisoning,the reasonable application of atropine was the important factor for affecting the therapeutic effects.%目的:探讨阿托品在抢救急性有机磷农药中毒患者时的合理应用。方法:收治急性有机磷中毒患者37例,通过催吐、洗胃等常规治疗,再使用阿托品治疗,分析患者恢复情况。结果:37例患者中,使用阿托品治疗后恢复情况良好36例(97.3%),死于阿托品中毒1例(2.7%)。结论:在有机磷中毒患者救治过程中,合理应用阿托品是救治成功的重要因素。

  12. 阿托品救治有机磷中毒不同给药途径的疗效比较%Study on Atropine Administration Methods in Rescuing Patients with Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄新桥; 谭琪敏; 钟房友; 钟丽娴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of different atropine medications in remedy of severely acute organophosphorus pesticide. Methods A retrospective study were performed.This study was carried out in 75 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. The patients were divided into three groups according atropine medications: Group A(25 cases), were treated with intravenous injection of atropine and artificial; Group B(25 cases)directly with micro pump delivery, Group C(25 cases)achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration patients are atropine artificial intravenous injection, the patient achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration; Compared the efficacy and complications among the three groups. Results There is significant difference between minim continuous pump after atropine administration and interval injecting or minim continuous pump. As a result, the patients in Group C were more effective and fewer complications than that in Group A and C. Conclusion Using micro-pump after atropine administration artificial intravenous injection of atropine was the better effect, it has proved to be a fine medication.%目的:分析基层医院救治有机磷中毒患者时,阿托品不同给药方式的疗效差异,为探索其最佳给药方法提供依据。方法回顾分析75例急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床资料,25例进行人工间歇静脉推注阿托品法(A 组),25例采用微量泵持续静脉输注阿托品法(B 组,25例先间歇静脉推注阿托品,达阿托品化后再用微量泵泵入阿托品(C 组),分析比较三组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、疗效以及不良反应和并发症。结果 C 组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、阿托品过量、不足中毒、用量、尿潴留和多器官功能损害等明显降低而治愈率显著提高(P <0.05)。结论采用阿托品人工静脉推注,待患者阿托品化再予以微量泵给药,不仅起效

  13. Estudio comparativo del efecto de las asociaciones anestésicas atropina-tiletamina/zolazepam y atropina-ketamina/diazepam en emúes (Dromaius novaehollandiae adultos Effects of the anaesthetic associations atropine-tiletamine/zolazepam and atropine-ketamine/diazepam on adult emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pulgar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se determinó el efecto de las asociaciones anestésicas atropina IM (0,05 mg/kg-tiletamina/zolazepam EV (4 mg/kg total y atropina IM (0,05 mg/kg-ketamina EV (5 mg/kg total/diazepam (0,5 mg/kg sobre la respuesta fisiológica, anestésica y bioquímica de emúes adultos. Los ejemplares (n = 7 por grupo fueron asignados al azar a dos tratamientos anestésicos. La frecuencia cardiaca y la temperatura corporal de los emúes mostraron un incremento al inicio del tratamiento experimental (entre 5-10 min, P = 0,001. Sin embargo, la frecuencia respiratoria y pulso disminuyeron (entre 5-15 min, P = 0,003. Estos patrones fueron detectados para ambas asociaciones anestésicas. Por otra parte, la inducción anestésica y el tiempo de recuperación anestésica no fueron afectados por los tratamientos (P = 0,12 y P = 0,13 respectivamente. Los emúes tratados con tiletamina mostraron un mayor tiempo de anestesia quirúrgica, comparados con los emúes tratados con ketamina (P = 0,012. En el caso de A.S.T. y glucosa, ambas variables presentaron un incremento a las 24 h de la aplicación del tratamiento anestésico, resultando los niveles de glucosa más altos en emúes tratados con ketamina (P = 0,006 y P = 0,008 respectivamente. Finalmente, la hemoglobina, proteínas totales y ácido úrico no presentaron diferencias significativas entre tratamientos (P = 0,99, P = 0,97 y P = 0,81 respectivamente. En conclusión, los dos protocolos anestésicos resultaron seguros y eficientes para la manipulación de los animales; sin embargo, el mayor tiempo de anestesia observado en animales tratados con tiletamina podría determinar la preferencia por esta asociación anestésica.In this study, the effects of the anaesthetic associations atropine IM (0.05 mg/kg-tiletamine/zolazepam IV (4 mg/kg total and atropine IM (0.05 mg/kg-ketamine IV (5 mg/kg total/diazepam (0.5 mg/kg on physiological, anaesthetic and biochemical responses were determined on adult

  14. 阿托品联合血液灌流在有机磷中毒中的效果研究%The study on the effect of atropine combined with hemoperfusion in the patients with organophosphorus poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨阿托品联合血液灌流在有机磷中毒中的效果.方法:60例有机磷中毒患者随机均分为两组,每组各30例,A组采用阿托品联合血液灌流进行治疗,B组单纯采用阿托品进行治疗,后将两组患者的综合治疗效果进行比较.结果:A组的各项治疗效果评价项目均优于B组,P<0.05,差异均有统计学意义.结论:阿托品联合血液灌流在有机磷中毒中的效果较佳,值得临床推广应用.%Objective: To study the effect of atropine combined with hemoperfusion in the patients with organophosphorus poisoning. Methods: 60 patients with organophosphorus poisoning were randomly divided into two groups with 30 patients in each group, and the group A were treated with atropine combined with hemoperfusion, the group B were treated with atropine, then the comprehensive effect of the two groups were compared. Results: The various evaluation items of group A were all better than those of group B, all ρ<0.05, there were significant differences. Conclusion: The effect of atropine combined with hemoperfusion in the patients with organophosphorus poisoning is better, and it is worthy of popularization and application.

  15. Application of critical thinking in atropine dynamic observation and nursing intervention%评判性思维在阿托品化动态观察与护理干预中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨评判性思维在阿托品化动态观察与护理干预中的应用效果。方法:将我院2013年1~12月期间收治的重度有机磷中毒患者60例作为观察组,将我院2012年1~12月期间收治的重度有机磷中毒患者60例作为对照组。对照组采用常规方式进行业务培训,对阿托品化进行常规观察与护理,观察组应用评判性思维模式进行业务培训,对阿托品化进行动态观察与干预。观察对比两组患者阿托品化误判率、并发中间综合征例数及平均住院时间。结果:观察组患者阿托品化误判率、并发中间综合征、平均住院时间均少于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05)。结论:在阿托品化观察过程中,护士应用评判性思维模式,对阿托品化进行动态观察与干预,可降低阿托品化误判率,减少并发症的发生,并可缩短患者住院时间。%Objective:To investigate the application of critical thinking in atropine dynamic observation and nursing intervention. Methods:From January to December 2013 in our hospital severe organophosphate poisoning patients admitted as the observation group 60 cases,and the severe organophosphate poison-ing patients admitted to our hospital from January to December 2012 period 60 cases as the control group. Control group with conventional ways for project training,atropine routine observation and care,while the observation group of critical thinking for project training,atropine dynamic observation and interven-tion. Compared the two groups with observed atropine false positive rate,the number of cases and average length of stay in the middle of concurrent syn-drome. Results:The atropine false positive rate,concurrent intermediate syndrome,average hospital stay of observation group were less than the control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion:In atropine observation process,the nurse applied critical

  16. Curative effect observation on combined using of nefopam and atropine to treat renal colic%平痛新联合阿托品用于肾绞痛镇痛的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜霖; 韩凤东; 赵英男

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察平痛新联合阿托品对肾绞痛镇痛的效果.方法 对临床确诊的257例由泌尿系结石所引起急性肾绞痛患者随机分组,131例为观察组,应用平痛新联合阿托品肌注;126例为对照组,应用哌替啶联合阿托品肌注.对比观察两组止痛效果及副作用.结果 观察组总有效率为90.9%,对照组总有效率为92.9%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).而观察组复发率低,副作用小.结论 平痛新联合阿托品对泌尿系结石所致肾绞痛镇痛效果与哌替啶联合阿托品的镇痛效果无明显差别,且复发率低,副作用少,无成瘾性.%Objective To observe the analgesic effect of combined using of nefopam and atropine on renal colic. Methods 257 confirmed patients who suffered renal colic caused by urinary stone were divided into two groups; 131 for observation group who were jointly used nefopam and atropine and 126 for control group who were jointly used pethidine and atropine. The effect of relieving pain and side effect were observed and compared between the two groups. Results The total effective rate of the observation group is 90. 9% and the control group is 92. 9% . The difference between two groups showed no statistical significance( P > 0. 05 ) . However the recurrence rate and side effete of the observation group are lower than the control group. Conclusion It is no significant difference between the observation group and the control group to treat renal colic caused by urinary stone and it is worthy of using for clinic patients because of its lower recurrence rate and addiction.

  17. 强效睫状肌麻痹剂环戊通能否替代阿托品%Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许江涛

    2012-01-01

    For a long time,atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China,while internationally,cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic.In recent years,1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country.This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedoophthalmiaters.According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs,the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children.However,the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So,for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old,all esotropia children,Am children,and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry.In this article,we also discuss the medication dosage,medication method,possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.%阿托品眼膏长期以来都是中国儿童验光主流使用的睫状肌麻痹剂,而国际上则普遍使用环戊通滴眼液作为一线的睫状肌麻痹药物.近年来,国内引了进1%盐酸环戊通眼液,这种快速强效的睫状肌麻痹剂已被国内小儿眼科医师所关注.一系列国内外自身对照药物疗效研究证实,环戊通的睫状肌麻痹效果接近于阿托品,能广泛应用于中国儿童验光前的睫状肌麻痹.尽管如此,其药物疗效仍略逊于阿托品,故对于7岁以内的远视儿童、所有内斜视儿童、混合性散光儿童及短期内视力下降需要排除调节性近视的儿童,验光前仍应常规使用阿托品眼膏行睫状肌麻痹.本文同时对环戊通眼液的用药剂量、用药方法、可

  18. 弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效%Efficacy of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘真; 陈玮; 刘玉岭; 赵梅

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia. Methods One hundred and twenty children (240 eyes with ametropic amblyopia) were grouped randomly, and the improvement of visual acuity and visual function between the two methods were compared. Results The differences in binocularvision improvement and stereopsis visual acuity of the two methods were significant(t=2.24,P<0.05).Conclusions Low level laser combined with atropine therapy seems to be superio to traditional treatment in binocularvision improvement and recovery.%目的 观察弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效.方法 120例(240只弱视眼)患儿随机分为治疗组(弱激光联合阿托品疗法)和对照组(传统治疗),比较两种方法对视力的提升效果及双眼视功能的改善情况.结果 弱激光联合阿托品疗法使弱视眼视力进步有效率及立体视锐度与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(t=2.24,P<0.05).结论 弱激光联合阿托品疗法更有利于患儿视力提升、双眼视力恢复.

  19. Segurança e exeqüibilidade do ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina e atropina em pacientes octogenários Safety and feasibility of dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography in octogenarian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sebastião de Abreu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a exeqüibilidade e segurança do ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina e atropina (EED em octogenários. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 5.467 EED, distribuídos entre grupo dos octogenários (GI=203 e grupo controle (GII=5.264. A idade média no GI=83±3 (80-95 e no GII=59±11 (17-79 anos. Os parâmetros resultantes do EED, coletados prospectivamente, foram comparados e analisados. RESULTADOS: O percentual de pacientes que atingiram freqüência cardíaca máxima foi em GI=63,5% e GII=41% (GI vs. GII; pOBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and safety of dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE in octogenarians. METHODS: We evaluated 5,467 DASE which were distributed in two groups: group I (GI with 203 DASE performed in octogenarians, and group II (GII, the control group, with 5,264 DASE. The mean age of GI and GII was 83±3 (80-95 and 59±11 (17-79 years, respectively. DASE parameters that were prospectively collected, were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: The percentage of patients that achieved maximum heart rate was 63.5% in GI and 41% in GII (p<0.001, and GI patients required less atropine compared to GII (GI=47%, GII=78%, p<0.001.The presence of chest pain (GI=13%, GII=15.6%, p=0.429 and DASE positive for myocardial ischemia (GI=20.7%, GII=16.9%, p=0.296 were not statistically different between the two groups. However, concomitant positive DASE and absence of chest pain (GI=17%, GII=11%, p=0.029 was higher in GI. The incidence of premature beats in GI was higher than in GII (GI=47.8%, GII=27.6%, p<0.001, and there were more supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (ST in GI than in GII (GI=5.9%, GII=1.9%, p=0.001. Out of 11 ST that happened in GI, 9 reverted spontaneously. There weren't either deaths or acute myocardial infarction. Ventricular fibrillation only happened in GII (2 cases, 0.03%. CONCLUSION: In the present study, octogenarians achieved maximum heart rate more frequently despite the lesser amount of atropine

  20. The Clinical Study on the Effect of Tropicamide and Atropine Ophthalmic Solution in Mydriatic Refractometry for Children%托吡卡胺与阿托品对儿童散瞳验光效果的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李战梅; 黄海; 周李

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effect of tropicamide and atropine ophthalmic solution in mydriatic refractometry for children.Methods:Totally 260 cases (520 eyes) of ametropia children from 4 to 14 years without other eye disease were received optometry after using the tropicamide eye drops and 1%atropine sulfate,The results of optometry were compared by paired T-test.Results:There existed statistically significant difference between the hyperopia and myopia in 4 to 7 years old group,hyperopia in 8 to 11 years old group.But there were no significant difference between the myopia in 8 to 11 years old group,myopia and hyperopia in 12 to 14 years old group.Conclusion:Aged 8 years and older children with myopia and hyperopia in aged 12 years and above children could receive optometry after using the tropicamide eye drops.%  目的:对比托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对儿童散瞳验光的效果。方法:用托吡卡胺眼液和1%硫酸阿托品眼膏先后分别对4~14岁260例(520只眼),无其它眼疾,眼位正常的屈光不正儿童散瞳后进行电脑验光,采用自身配对t检验对两种药物验光结果进行比较。结果:4~7岁组远视、近视和8~11岁组远视两种药物散瞳验光所得结果差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:托吡卡胺散瞳验光方法适用于眼位正常的8岁及以上近视儿童和12岁及以上远视儿童。

  1. 托吡卡胺和阿托品用于儿童散瞳验光的对比%Tropicamide and atropine for comparison of children with refraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉洁; 门大伟; 陈娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:对比在儿童散瞳验光中采用托吡卡胺和阿托品的应用效果。方法:选取我院在2014年5月至2015年5月期间门诊收治的视力异常患儿168例,根据患儿的年龄将其分为3组,A组为4-8岁,B组为9-11岁,C组为12-14岁,每组有患儿56例,分2天给予托吡卡胺及阿托品进行散瞳验光。将其验光结果进行记录和对比。结果:A组与B组远视和近视结果对比具有统计学意义(P<0.05);B组与C组患儿近视和远视对比无明显的差异性,无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:在儿童验光中应用托吡卡胺对于9岁以上儿童近视及12岁以上儿童远视应用效果较好。%objective: to contrast in children’s specialized order pyrazole card amine and the application effects of atropine. Selection methods: our hospital in May 2014 to May 2015 outpatient treated 168 cases of abnormal vision, it can to the patient’s age, A group of 4 to 8 years, group B for 9 to 11 years of age, group C for 12-14 years old, each group had 56 cases. The optometry results recorded and compared. Results: in group A and group B hyperopia and myopia results compared statistically significant (P 0.05). Conclusion: applied in the children’s eyes pyrazole card amine for 9 years of age or older children myopia and 12 years of age or older children hyperopia application effect is good.

  2. Sulfato de atropina nos parâmetros hemodinâmicos e hemogasométricos de cães anestesiados com clorpromazina, dexmedetomidina e isoflurano Hemodynamic and hemogasometric in the atropine administration in dogs anesthetized with chlorpromazine and dexmedetomidine and isoflurane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Niederauer Flôres

    2008-08-01

    , at least 7 days apart, in randomized blinded manner. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in mechanical ventilation. After instrumentation, the end-tidal isoflurane was maintained at 1,3%V throughout the study. After a 30 minutes stabilization period (M -15, baseline hemodynamic parameters and arterial blood gases were recorded and atropine (atropine group or 0.9% NaCl (saline group were administered. Fifteen minutes later, data were recorded again (M0 and a chlorpromazine- dexmedetomidine (Chlor-Dex combination was administered. Variables were measured for an additional 65 minutes after Chlor-Dex. A one-way ANOVA-Student-Newman-Keuls was used for comparisons within groups, while a paired t test was used for comparisons between groups (P£0,05. Heart rate was higher in atropine group after Chlor-Dex administration. Cardiac index (CI was reduced from baseline after Chlor-Dex in both treatments. Although mean CI values tended to be higher in atropine group, CI did not differ between groups. Chlor-Dex administration caused increased arterial blood pressure in dogs treated with atropine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP was significantly higher in the atropine group from 5 to 65 min after Chlor-Dex. The systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI increased from baseline in both groups after Chlor-Dex administration. No significant differences were observed for arterial blood gases. Atropine administration prior to Chlor-Dex resulted in increased arterial blood pressure. Bradycardia induced by the administration of these drugs was prevented by the anticholinergic given, however decrease in cardiac output was not prevented.

  3. Levomepromazina e atropina como medicações pré-anestésicas na anestesia pela associação tiletamina/zolazepam, em cães Comparison between levomepromazine and atropine as premedication agents before anesthesia using tiletamine/zolazepam in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Pompermayer

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o emprego da atropina e da levomepromazina como medicações pré-anestésicas para a anestesia pela associação tiletamina/zolazepam. Foram empregados 30 cães, distribuídos em três grupos iguais. O grupo 1 (controle foi tratado com 0,2 ml/kg de solução fisiológica (placebo por via intravenosa; o grupo 2 com 0,044mg/kg de sulfato de atropina por via subcutânea e o grupo 3 com 1mg/kg de cloridrato de levomepromazina por via intravenosa. Quinze minutos após, todos os grupos receberam a associação tiletamina/zolazepam na dose de 10mg/kg por via intramuscular. Antes da medicação pré-anestésica, 15 minutos após a mesma e aos 15, 30, 60 e 105 minutos após a administração da associação tiletamina/zolazepam foram registrados: ECG, temperatura, freqüência respiratória, volume corrente, volume minuto, freqüência cardíaca, pressão arterial, valores hemogasométricos arteriais, graus de analgesia e miorrelaxamento e reflexos protetores. Outros dados como: secreção salivar, período de latência, período anestésico hábil e período de recuperação foram igualmente mensurados para efeito comparativo. De acordo com os resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o sulfato de atropina não deve ser administrado como medicação pré-anestésica, por potencializar a taquicardia induzida pela associação tiletamina/zolazepam. A levomepromazina, além de inibir a sialorréia, mantém a estabilidade cardiorrespiratória e apresenta ação potencializadora dos efeitos anestésicos da associação.The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of levomepromazine and atropine sulfate as a premedication to the dissociative anesthesia produced by a tiletamine/zolazepam combination. Ten dogs were randomly assigned to each of the three groups: control, atropine and levomepromazine. Fifteen minutes before tiletamine/zolazepam, the dogs were treated either with atropine sulfate (0.044mg/kg, subcutaneously

  4. Alterações cardiovasculares de gatos submetidos à toracotomia intercostal, pré-medicados com associação de tramadol, butorfanol e atropina e anestesiados com propofol e halotano Cardiovascular changes in cats submitted to intercostal thoracotomy, premedication with association tramadol, butorphanol, atropine, anesthetised with propofol and halothane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Tabarelli Brondani

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A toracotomia é um procedimento cirúrgico que produz estímulo doloroso intenso. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito cardiovascular da associação tramadol, butorfanol e atropina na medicação pré-anestésica de gatos anestesiados com propofol e halotano. Doze animais, SRD, machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 2,7 ± 0,62kg receberam como medicação pré-anestésica (MPA, a associação de tramadol (2,0mg kg-1, butorfanol (0,4mg kg-1 e atropina (0,044mg kg-1, via intramuscular. Trinta minutos após MPA, a indução foi realizada com propofol (5,0mg kg-1 por via intravenosa. A manutenção anestésica foi obtida com halotano e oxigênio 100% sob ventilação artificial manual. Os gatos foram submetidos à toracotomia intercostal para implante de um segmento autólogo de pericárdio no diafragma. As variáveis avaliadas foram: freqüência cardíaca (bpm, saturação de oxigênio da hemoglobina (%, pressão arterial sistólica (mmHg e vaporização de halotano (%. As variáveis foram mensuradas 20 minutos após a MPA (TMPA, 10 minutos após indução e a cada 10 minutos até o final do procedimento cirúrgico (T10 a T100.Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente através de ANOVA e teste de Bonferroni (pIntercostal thoracotomy is a very painful procedure that deserves proper prevention and treatment. In this study we aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effect of the association of tramadol, butorphanol and atropine in the premedication of cats anesthetised with propofol and halothane. Twelve cats of mixed breed, female and male, with mean body weight of 2.7 ± 0.62kg were premedicated with 2.0mg kg-1 tramadol and 0.4mg kg-1 butorphanol and 0.044mg kg-1 atropine combined in the same syringe intramuscularly administered. After 30 minutes of premedication, anesthetic induction was obtained with 5.0mg kg-1 propofol intravenously. Anesthetic maintenance was done with halothane and 100% oxygen with manual artificial

  5. Assessment of serum enzymatic markers of cardiomyocytes injury in female dogs submitted to ketamine S(+, atropin and xylazine association Mensuração da atividade sérica de marcadores de lesão cardíaca em cadelas anestesiadas com cetamina S(+, atropina e xilazina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Guimarães Franco

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assessment of the aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK and creatine kinase isoenzyme fraction MB (CK-MB serum activity in female dogs anesthetized with ketamine S (+, atropine and xylazine in several associations. METHODS: Twenty three healthy female dogs randomly distributed in four groups named as GI (n=6, GII (n=6, GIII (n=6 and GIV (n=5 were treated respectively with atropine and ketamine S(+ (0.04mg/kg; 10 mg/kg; ketamine S(+ (10 mg/kg; atropine, xylazine and ketamine S(+ (0.04mg/kg; 1.1 mg/kg; 10 mg/kg and xylazine and ketamine S(+ (1.1 mg/kg; 10 mg/kg. AST, CK and CK-MB serum activity measurement before pre-medication (M0 and one, two, three, six, 12, 24, 36 hours after. RESULTS: There was no significant change in AST, CK e CK-MB serum activity among groups. However, CK serum activity in relation to moments within the groups was increased in all groups over the time in spite of treatment, except GI. In relation to CK-MB activity, in the moments within the group, it was observed an increase compared to baseline in all groups. CONCLUSION: Creatine kinase and creatine kinase fraction MB isoenzyme showed changes in their mean values remained higher than baseline for a longer time in GIII and GIV.OBJETIVO: Determinar a atividade sérica de AST, CK e CK-MB em cadelas anestesiadas com cetamina S (+, atropina e xilazina em diferentes associações. MÉTODOS: Vinte e três cadelas saudáveis foram distribuídas ao acaso em quarto grupos denominados GI (n=6, GII (n=6, GIII (n=6 e GIV (n=5 tratados respectivamente com atropina e cetamina S (+ (0,04mg/kg; 10 mg/kg; cetamina S (+ (10 mg/kg; atropina, xilazina e cetamina S (+ (0,04mg/kg; 1,1 mg/kg; 10 mg/kg exilazina e cetamina S (+ (1,1 mg/kg; 10 mg/kg. A atividade sérica de AST, CK e CK-MB foi determinada antes da pré-medicação (M0 e uma, duas, três seis, 12, 24 e 36 horas após M0. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas mudanças significativas na atividade sérica de

  6. Rapid Simultaneous Determination of Atropine, Anisodamine and Scopolamine in Huashanshen Dripping Pill by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry%HPLC-MS/MS法同时测定华山参滴丸中阿托品、山莨菪碱和东莨菪碱的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯媛媛; 李若洁; 彭佳敏; 王利强

    2010-01-01

    华山参滴丸是含有托烷类生物碱的中药制剂,主要用于治疗哮喘,具有很好的临床疗效,但缺乏较有效的定量方法控制其质量.建立了一种快速、简单、准确的HPLC-MS/MS法同时测定华山参滴丸中阿托品、山莨菪碱和东莨菪碱的含量.首先采用超声的方法对滴丸进行提取来制备样品溶液,然后采用C18色谱柱对样品进行分离.流动相为20 mmol/L醋酸铵水溶液:甲醇(70:30);流速为0.3 mL/min.质谱检测器采用电喷雾正离子模式的多重反应监测方式进行测定,整个分析时间仅耗时1.5 rain.阿托品和山莨菪碱在250~4 000 ng/mL范围内、东莨菪碱在62.5~1 000 ng/mL范围内均呈良好的线性关系(r2>0.999).三种成分的日内和日间精密度均小于3.0;平均回收率均大于98%.此方法快速、可靠、重现性好,适用于华山参滴丸的日常质量控制.%Huashanshen dripping pill,traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)preparation containing tropane alkaloids,is used for the anti-asthmatic treatment and has good clinical efficacy.But there is not an effective quantification method to assess the quality of Huashanshen dripping pill.In this study,a rapid,simple and accurate HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of atropine,anisodamine and scopolamine in Huashanshen dripping pill.After a simple extraction with sonication used for sample preparation,chromatographic separation was performed on a short C18 column with mobile phase of a mixture of 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate in water and methanol(70:30)at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min.The mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source(ESI)was operated in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring(MRM).The whole analytical run time was only 1.5 min and the calibration graphs exhibited a linear concentration range of 250~4 000 ng/mL for atropine and anisodamine and 62.5~1 000 ng/mL for scopolamine with correlation coefficients of

  7. 健脾消胀片对阿托品致小鼠胃肠蠕动降低模型肠蠕动的影响%Effect of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian on the enterokinesia of the mice with depressed gastrointestinal peristalsis induced by atropine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭辉; 马珍珍; 刘艳; 郝少君

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian on the enterokinesia of mice with depressed gastrointestinal peristalsis induced by atropine. Methods Seventy mice were randomly divided into seven groups:large,medium and small doges of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian groups, domperidone group, Baohewan group and model group, ten mice in each group. Among the groups, the mice in six groups were made as the model of depressed gastrointestinal peristalsis induced by 0. 1 mg ·kg-1 atropine through intraperitoneal injection,while in another group as blank control group. Then, the mice in the large,medium and small doses of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian groups were respectively given with large( 180 g · L-1), medium (90 g ·L-1 ) and small (45 g · L-1 ) doses of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian suspension by intragastric administration; the mice in domperidone group were given with domperidone suspension; the mice in Baohewan group were given with Baohewan suspension; the mice in model group and blank control group were given with the same volume of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. All rats were given with carbon powder suspl by intraperitoneal injection after one hour. The rates carbon powder impelling of all groups were calculated,and the incubation period of carbon appeared in feces and the number of feces containing carbon after six hours. Results Compared with the blank control group,the incubation period of carbon appeared in feces in model group was were significantly prolonged (P < 0.01), the number of feces containing carbon decreased obviously after six hours (P < 0. 01). Compared with the model group, the incubation period of carbon appeared in feces in the large and medium doses of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian groups,domperidone group and Baohewan group was significantly shorter(P <0. 01 ). Compared with the blank control group, the rate of carbon powder impelling in model group were significantly lower( P < 0.01). Compared with the model group,the rates of carbon powder impelling

  8. Atropine may prevent the development of neurogenic pulmonary edema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Syková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2009), s. 42-44. ISSN 0306-9877 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/06/1246; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA MZd(CZ) 1A8697; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538; EC FP6 RESCUE(FR) LSHB-CT-2005-518233; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0021620803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : central nervous system * neurogenic pulmonary edema Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.393, year: 2009

  9. Exeqüibilidade, segurança e acurácia do ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina/ atropina para detecção de doença arterial coronariana em candidatos a transplante renal Feasibility, safety and accuracy of dobutamine/atropine stress echocardiography for the detection of coronary artery disease in renal transplant candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Muniz Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a exeqüibilidade, a segurança e a acurácia diagnóstica do ecocardiograma sob estresse (EEDA com dobutamina/atropina em candidatos a transplante renal. MÉTODOS: Pacientes candidatos a transplante renal com e sem nefropatia diabética realizaram EEDA e cineangiocoronariografia. Consideraram-se dois pontos de corte para doença arterial coronariana (DAC: > 50% e > 70% de obstrução de uma artéria epicárdica. RESULTADOS: Cento e quarenta e oito pacientes realizaram o EEDA e a angiografia coronariana. A média de idade foi de 52±9 anos, 69% eram do sexo masculino, 27% tinham nefropatia diabética, e 73%, HVE; 63% estavam assintomáticos, 36% e 22% apresentaram obstruções coronarianas > 50% e > 70%, respectivamente. A exeqüibilidade foi de 91% e houve 2,7% de complicações maiores. Obtiveram-se as seguintes médias de sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia, considerando obstrução coronariana > 50%: 53% (IC:45-61, 87% (IC:81-93, e 75% (IC:63-83, respectivamente. Para obstrução >70%, 71% (IC:64-92, 85% (IC:79-91 e 81% (IC:75-87. A sensibilidade para diagnosticar doença uniarterial foi 41% (IC:19-63 e doença multiarterial, 78% (IC:64-92. CONCLUSÃO: O EEDA foi exeqüível e seguro; entretanto, foi ineficiente para rastreamento de DAC, considerando obstruções > 50%, mas pode ser útil para detecção de DAC em pacientes com obstruções > 70% e doença multiarterial.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and accuracy of dobutamine/atropine stress echocardiography (DASE for the detection of coronary artery desease (CAD in renal transplant candidates. METHODS: Patients candidates to renal transplant were submitted consecutively to DASE and coronary angiography. The adopted angiographic criteria for CAD were an obstructive lesion of > 50% and > 70%. RESULTS: 148 patients underwent the DASE and the coronary angiography. Mean age was 52 ± 9 years, 69% of the patients were males; 27% had diabetic nephropathy

  10. Quantification by HPLC-MS/MS of atropine in human serum and clinical presentation of six mild-to-moderate intoxicated atropine-adulterated-cocaine users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, PAMM; Go, HS; Wessels, AMA; Uges, DRA

    2006-01-01

    An unexpectedly high number of initially suspected cocaine-intoxicated patients was presented to a general hospital in Lelystad, The Netherlands. Based on the unusual toxidram rate of not fitting cocaine intoxication, the suspicion of co-presence of an anticholinergic agent was raised. A newly devel

  11. Formulation, in vitro release and transdermal diffusion of atropine by implementation of the delivery gap principle / Jani van der Westhuizen

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Westhuizen, Jani

    2014-01-01

    The transdermal delivery route has become a popular alternative to more conventional routes, such as oral administration, but has not yet reached its full potential (Prausnitz & Langer, 2008:1261). Although the transdermal route proves to have several advantages over the conventional route, the greatest challenge is to overcome the effective barrier of the skin (Jepps et al., 2012:153). The permeation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) through the skin is a complex, multi-step proc...

  12. Dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography : a method for preoperative cardiac risk stratification in patients undergoing major vascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Poldermans, Don

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAtherosclerosis is a systemic disease that may affect several blood vessels in different organs simultaneously. The spectrum of disease ranges from stroke to myocardial infarction, aortic aneurysms and peripheral vascular insufficiency. Patients suffering from one aspect of atherosclerotic disease will often have asymptomatic lesions elsewhere. Most patients seen with vascular disease by the internist or surgeon have a high prevalence of coronary artery disease, for example, 40-70...

  13. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K;

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a promising animal model for the study of pain mechanisms, therefore a thorough characterization of this species is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish the naked mole-rat as a model for studying the cholinergic receptor system in ...... antinociceptive effects of cholinergic agonists, it is suggested that the cholinergic antinociception acts via a gateway facilitated by opioid receptor blockage; however, the precise interaction between these receptor systems needs further investigation....

  14. Safety and feasibility of dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients unable to perform an exercise stress test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Elhendy (Abdou); D. Poldermans (Don); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); P.R. Nierop; M.L. Geleijnse (Marcel); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); R.T. van Domburg (Ron)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Dobutamine stress testing is increasingly used for the diagnosis and functional evaluation of coronary artery disease. However, little is known about the safety and feasibility of this stress modality in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METH

  15. Comparative study of tropicamide and atropine in mydriatic refractometry%托吡卡胺与阿托品扩瞳验光结果对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊芳; 陶利娟; 漆争艳; 郭燕; 罗俊; 肖志刚

    2009-01-01

    目的:了解5g/L托吡卡胺滴眼液与10g/L阿托品眼膏扩瞳对不同年龄阶段儿童验光结果的影响.方法:对 212例疑屈光不正儿童先用5g/L托吡卡胺滴眼液扩瞳验光;待瞳孔恢复,再用10g/L阿托品眼膏扩瞳验光,比较两种扩瞳方法的结果.结果:远视组:球镜:相同5.6%,差异≥0.25DS者94.4%,柱镜:相同32.2%,差异≥0.25DC者67.8%,球、柱镜均以10g/L阿托品眼膏扩瞳高于5g/L托吡卡胺滴眼液扩瞳验光结果;各年龄组之间两两比较,具有显著统计学意义(P=0.000,P<0.01);近视组:球镜:相同者为10.7%,有不同程度的差异占89.3%;柱镜:相同者为26.7%,有不同程度的差异占73.3%,球、柱镜均以5g/L托吡卡胺滴眼液扩瞳高于10g/L阿托品眼膏扩瞳验光结果;混合散光组:球镜:33眼中有不同程度的差异占100.0%,以差异最大值为1.25DS,柱镜:33眼中两种扩瞳方法结果相同者40.0%,差异0.25~0.5DC者60.0%.结论:为确保验光结果的准确性,远视和混合散光12岁以内的儿童必须用10g/L阿托品眼膏扩瞳验光.

  16. Vsebnosti atropina in skopolamina v strupenih rastlinah razhudnikovk na slovenskem: Content of atropine and scopolamine in poisonous Solanaceae plants from Slovenia:

    OpenAIRE

    Krbavčič, Aleš; KAC, JAVOR; Klančar, Uroš; Mlinarič, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    Na Slovenskem so nekatere vrste iz druzine razhudnikovk se vedno pogost predmet resnih, v glavnem namernih zastrupitev. Zlorabe so v veèini med mladimi, ki zelijo doseèi halucinogene uèinke po zauzitju teh rastlin. Kljub temu ne zasledimo dovolj podatkov v literaturi, ki bi prikazovali vsebnosti alkaloidov v teh strupenih vrstah na podroèju Slovenije.Kvantitativno smo doloèili vsebnost atropina in skopolamina v razliènih vrstah in rastlinskih delih razhudnikovk (Solanaceae), nabranih na podro...

  17. 阿托品两种给药方法的效果比较%Effect Comparison on Two Ways of Drug Administration of Atropine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀琴

    2002-01-01

    @@ 有机磷农药中毒是临床上常见的急性中毒之一[1].有机磷农药中毒的特效解毒剂为胆碱酯酶复能剂及抗胆碱药物阿托品,阿托品的剂量、给药时间直接关系到抢救治疗效果.我们将传统的人工定时静脉注射方法改为微量泵持续匀速注射法,取得了较好的效果,现总结如下:

  18. Effect of Atropine and Compound Tropicamide on Mydriatic Refractometry in Juvenile with Ametropia%不同年龄段青少年散瞳验光药品选择效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何炯; 罗红

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨用复方托品酰胺滴眼液和阿托品眼药水在不同年龄段青少年散瞳验光的效果.方法:80例屈光不正患者,随机分为Ⅰ组(5~10岁)和Ⅱ组(11~20岁),每组各40例,80根,对两组患者均行复方托品酰胺滴眼液和阿托品散瞳后,比较2种药物散瞳验光的结果.结果:5~10岁屈光不正青少年远视占多数,11~20岁则以近视多见.Ⅰ组患者采用托品酰胺与阿托品散瞳后验光的结果有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:阿托品对于5~10岁屈光不正患者散瞳验光较准确;复方托品酰胺是11~20岁屈光不正患者散瞳验光的理想药物,对这类患者可以先用复方托品酰胺散瞳,如果效果不满意再改用阿托品.

  19. 青少年阿托品和复方托品酰胺散瞳验光效果临床观察%Effects of atropine and compound tropicamide on mydriatic refractometry in juvenile with ametropia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任志凤; 马蕾

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨阿托品和复方托品酰胺在青少年散瞳验光中的实用价值.方法 对青少年屈光不正患者40例,按年龄分为Ⅰ组(5-10岁)和Ⅱ组(11-20岁),每组各20例,40眼,对两组患者均行复方托品酰胺和1%阿托品散瞳后,对其验光结果进行对照观察.结果 Ⅰ组两种药物有统计学意义,P<0.01.Ⅱ组两种药物无统计学意义,P>0.05.结论 对于5-10岁屈光不正患者阿托品散瞳验光较准确,11-20岁屈光不正患者可以先用复方托品酰胺散瞳后验光.

  20. 阿托品与美多丽-P在学龄期儿童扩瞳验光中的比较%Comparative Study between Mydrin-P and Atropine in Mydriatic Refractometry In the School-age Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    渠继芳

    2010-01-01

    目的:比较两种睫状肌麻痹剂在学龄期儿童扩瞳验光后的验光数值和舒适度.方法:96名学龄期儿童,192眼.每例先后用美多丽-P及1%阿托品扩瞳验光取得验光数值与舒适度值,做自身对照.结果:球镜结采相差0.25D以内的总计有180眼,占93.75%;球镜结果相差0.25D或以上的总计有12眼,占6.25%.用配对t检验,P>0.05.舒适度统计,1%阿托品组为105分;美多丽-P组为2分. t检验,P<0.01.结论:美多丽-P眼水用于学龄期儿童屈光不正的扩瞳验光准确度高,并且使用方便,舒适度高.

  1. 复方托吡卡胺和硫酸阿托品在儿童散瞳验光中的效果评价%Application of compound tropicamide and atropine in mydriatic refractometry for ametropia children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳; 丁莉莉; 杨丽萍; 曹茜

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价复方托吡卡胺和硫酸阿托品在儿童散瞳验光中的效果.方法 随机抽取屈光不正儿童126例(252眼),年龄4 ~18岁,按年龄分为A组(<8岁)40例(近视22例,远视18例)、B组(8~12岁)48例(近视33例,远视15例)、C组(>12岁)38例(近视21例,远视17例).所有患儿先后使用复方托吡卡胺眼液和阿托品凝胶散瞳后行电脑验光并记录屈光度.用配对t检验分析其统计学意义.结果 复方托吡卡胺眼液和阿托品眼凝胶对儿童远视屈光不正散瞳后,A、B组患者所得的屈光度值比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),C组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);对儿童近视屈光不正散瞳后,A组患者使用2种散瞳方法所得的屈光度值比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),B、C组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 阿托品散瞳验光对8岁以下近视患儿和12岁以下远视患儿的验光是必要的.

  2. Drug: D07477 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiary amines A03BA01 Atropine D07477 Atropine oxide (INN) USP drug clas...DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES,

  3. Drug: D03863 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03863 Mixture, Drug Opium alkaloids and atropine injection (JP16); Opium alkaloids hydr...ochloride - atropine sulfate hydrate mixt; Opiato (TN) Opium alkaloids hydrochlorides [DR:D03445], Atro...pine sulfate [DR:D02069] Therapeutic category: 8119 Injection Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br0

  4. Plasma aropine concentrations determined by radioimmunoassay after single-dose I.V. and I.M. administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma concentrations of atropine following i.v. or i.m. administration to surgical patients were determined by radioimmunoassay. When atropine sulphate(1 mg) was given i.v. there was a rapid initial removal of the drug from the circulation in the first 10 min; thereafter the plasma concentration decreased more slowly. Atropine i.m. was rapidly absorbed with peak concentrations occurring at 30 min following injection. The plasma atropine concentration then decreased slowly, probably because of uptake of atropine by muscarinic cholinergic receptors. The chronotropic effect of atropine appeared to correspond to the concentration in plasma following i.m. administration. It was concluded that i.m. atropine, as a premedication, should be given not later than 30 min before induction of anaesthesia. (author)

  5. Comparison of tropicamide and atropine ophthalmic solution in mydriatic refractometry for juvenile hyperopia%应用托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对青少年远视散瞳验光的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国兴; 张颐

    2004-01-01

    目的:对比托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对青少年远视散瞳验光的结果.方法:用托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对143眼青少年远视进行散瞳视网膜检影验光.结果:143眼远视球镜度数两次验光结果相同和相差≤0.50D者93眼、相差0.75D以上者50眼、远视球镜度数符合率为65.0%,78眼复性远视柱镜度数2次验光结果相同和相差≤0.50D者为71眼、相差0.75D以上者7眼、复性远视柱镜度数符合率为91.0%,散光轴向符合率为82.1%.本组资料2种不同散瞳剂散瞳验光结果对比远视球镜或复性远视柱镜度数相差0.75D以上者均为托吡卡胺低于阿托品散瞳验光的度数.结论:青少年远视患者睫状肌调节力大,对青少年远视患者应用托吡卡胺散瞳验光仍可存留部分调节的隐性远视的屈光度数.阿托品眼液用于青少年远视散瞳验光麻痹睫状肌彻底,可暴露全部的远视度数.对青少年远视仍以阿托品眼液散瞳验光为宜.

  6. 盐酸环喷托酯和阿托品在学龄儿童散瞳验光中的比较性研究%Comparison of Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride and Atropine for school-age children with hyperopia in mydriatic refractometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宇; 刘意; 周利晓; 郭娟

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较3~7岁远视儿童应用1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液与1%阿托品滴眼液散瞳后验光的屈光度值.方法 2012年7月-12月来郑州大学第五附属医院眼科就诊患儿,将符合条件的36例患儿分成2组,第1组给予1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液滴眼液散瞳,每10min点药1次,共2次,第2次给药后1h进行检影验光,将患儿屈光检查结果进行记录;第2组应用1%阿托品眼药水,用阿托品前,排除患儿对该药物过敏,每天3次点眼,每次1滴,共3d,第4d进行检影验光,将患儿屈光检查的结果进行记录;屈光度按等效球镜值计算,应用t检验和x2检验对数据进行处理.结果 应用1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液麻痹前的等效球镜屈光度为(+3.16±1.12)D,麻痹后为(+4.77±1.62)D;应用1%阿托品滴眼液麻痹前的等效球镜屈光度为(+3.32±1.33)D,麻痹后为(+5.65±1.51)D;两种药物麻痹前后度数差异比较有统计学意义(P<0.05);根据患儿的小瞳状态的屈光度分成了两组,一组为屈光度数≥+ 3.00D(15眼),小瞳状态下屈光度为(+4.19±1.03)D,采用1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液麻痹后,屈光度为(+4.68±1.61)D,待瞳孔完全恢复后采用1%阿托品麻痹后,屈光度为(+5.47±1.23)D;另一组屈光度数< +3.00D(14眼),小瞳状态下屈光度为(+2.34±0.61)D,采用1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液麻痹后,屈光度为(+3.05±1.05)D,待瞳孔完全恢复后采用1%阿托品麻痹后,屈光度为(+3.16±1.09)D.通过两种药物麻痹前后度数差异比较,发现屈光度≥+ 3.00D患者采用1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液与1%阿托品麻痹前后屈光度的变化差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);屈光度< +3.00D患者麻痹前后屈光度差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论 对于3~7岁的远视儿童尤其是屈光度数超过+3.00D,应该首选1%阿托品滴眼液散瞳,+3.00D以下可考虑1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液散瞳.

  7. Alterações cardiovasculares de gatos submetidos à toracotomia intercostal, pré-medicados com associação de tramadol, butorfanol e atropina e anestesiados com propofol e halotano Cardiovascular changes in cats submitted to intercostal thoracotomy, premedication with association tramadol, butorphanol, atropine, anesthetised with propofol and halothane

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Tabarelli Brondani; Cláudio Corrêa Natalini; João Eduardo Wallau Schossler; Saulo Tadeu Lemos Pinto Filho; Adriana Paula Bertin

    2003-01-01

    A toracotomia é um procedimento cirúrgico que produz estímulo doloroso intenso. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito cardiovascular da associação tramadol, butorfanol e atropina na medicação pré-anestésica de gatos anestesiados com propofol e halotano. Doze animais, SRD, machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 2,7 ± 0,62kg receberam como medicação pré-anestésica (MPA), a associação de tramadol (2,0mg kg-1), butorfanol (0,4mg kg-1) e atropina (0,044mg kg-1), via intramuscular. Trinta minut...

  8. Sulfato de atropina nos parâmetros hemodinâmicos e hemogasométricos de cães anestesiados com clorpromazina, dexmedetomidina e isoflurano Hemodynamic and hemogasometric in the atropine administration in dogs anesthetized with chlorpromazine and dexmedetomidine and isoflurane

    OpenAIRE

    Fabíola Niederauer Flôres; Aury Nunes de Moraes; Nilson Oleskovicz; Flávia de Oliveira; Neida Bortoluzzi; Vanessa Minsky; André Soares

    2008-01-01

    Seis cães, pesando 17,9kg (±3,9), foram anestesiados em duas ocasiões, com intervalo de sete dias, obedecendo estudo cego. A indução e a manutenção anestésica foram realizadas com isoflurano em ventilação mecânica. Depois da instrumentação, a concentração final de isoflurano foi fixada em 1,3V% durante o estudo. Após período de estabilização de 30 minutos, foram mensurados os parâmetros hemodinâmicos e hemogasométricos (M-15); na seqüência, administrou-se atropina (grupo atropina) ou c...

  9. Delayed presentation of scorpion sting with cardiogenic shock

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Lorraine Simone; Vivek, G; Manthappa, M; Acharya, Raviraja

    2012-01-01

    A young farmer presented with cardiogenic shock 5 days after a scorpion sting. He was managed with norepinephrine, atropine and supportive measures and made a complete recovery. The role of atropine in treating scorpion sting has to be defined better.

  10. Drug: D06805 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06805 Crude, Drug Scopolia rhizome ... (JP16); Scoolia (TN) Hyoscyamine [CPD:C02046], Atropine [CPD ... as: E00173 Solanaceae (nightshade family) Scopolia rhizome ... Major component: Atropine [CPD:C01479] Crude drugs ... ids Solanaceae (nightshade family) D06805 Scopolia rhizome ... PubChem: 47208456 ...

  11. Induces vasodilatation of rat mesenteric artery in vitro mainly by inhibiting receptor-mediated Ca(2+)-influx and Ca(2+)-release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yong-Xiao; Zheng, Jian-Pu; He, Jian-Yu;

    2005-01-01

    inhibited the contraction derived from NA and CaCI2 in Ca(2+)-free medium, in a concentration dependent manner, indicating the vasodilatation was related to the inhibition of extracellular Ca2+ influx through the receptor-operated calcium channels and intracellular Ca2+ release from the Ca2+ store. Atropine......-induced concentration-response curve to the right, in a non-parallel manner, suggesting the mechanism of atropine was not mediated via the (alpha1-adrenoreceptor. The beta-adrenoreceptor and ATP sensitive potassium channel, a voltage dependent calcium channel, were not involved in the vasodilatation. However, atropine...... had no effect on the caffeine-induced contraction in the artery segments, indicating the inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ release as a result of atropine most likely occurs via the IP3 pathway rather than the ryanodine receptors. Our results suggest that atropine-induced vasodilatation is mainly from...

  12. Motility of the distal portion of the jejunum and pelvic flexure in ponies: effects of six drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S B; Lamar, C H; Masty, J

    1984-04-01

    Bipolar stainless steel electrodes were surgically implanted in 4 ponies to record myoelectrical and mechanical activity of the distal portion of the jejunum and pelvic flexure. After determining normal activity, the effects of neostigmine, xylazine, flunixin meglumine, dipyrone, panthenol, and atropine sulfate were determined. Flunixin meglumine, dipyrone, and panthenol had no effect on the motility of the jejunum or pelvic flexure. Xylazine and atropine sulfate decreased motility of the distal portion of the jejunum and pelvic flexure, with atropine sulfate having a greater effect and lasting longer. Neostigmine stimulated propulsive motility in the pelvic flexure only. PMID:6731996

  13. The role of protein kinase-G in the antidepressant-like response of sildenafil in combination with muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebenberg, Nico; Wegener, Gregers; Brink, Christiaan; Harvey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently we reported on a novel antidepressant-like response following simultaneous administration of sildenafil (PDE5 inhibitor, thereby increasing cGMP levels), and atropine (muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) in the rat forced swim test (FST). It is unclear whether the...... antidepressant-like activity of sildenafil + atropine is mediated via the activation of PK-G, a downstream effector for cGMP, and whether this may target known pathways in antidepressant action. Purpose We investigated whether the antidepressant-like response of sildenafil ± atropine could be reversed by Rp-8-Br......-PET-cGMP, a PK-G inhibitor, and also whether a combination of 8-Br-cGMP (PK-G activator) ± atropine would likewise be active in the FST, and whether this combination could be attenuated by a PK-G inhibitor. Study methods The FST consisted of a 15 minute pre-conditioning swim session on the first day of the...

  14. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... atropine (Lomotil) Read more about antidiarrheal agents. Anti-anxiety medications – can be helpful for some people with ... who specializes in motility or stress-related gastrointestinal disorders. More complex medication regimens, and specialized motility and/ ...

  15. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... atropine (Lomotil) Read more about antidiarrheal agents. Anti-anxiety medications – can be helpful for some people with ... by a physician who specializes in motility or stress-related gastrointestinal disorders. More complex medication regimens, and ...

  16. Effects of various drugs on canine tracheal mucociliary transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the effects of dehydration, atropine, terbutaline and N-acetylcysteine on canine tracheobronchial mucus is presented. Mucociliary clearance rates, mucus secretion volumes and mucus rheologic properties were studied. Clearance rates were studied by a radioisotope technique mucus collected by a canine Tracheal pouch method and rheologic studies performed on a microrheometer. Clearance rate was unaffected by dehydration and terbutaline, increased by N-acetylcysteine and decreased by atropine. Secretion volume was increased by terbutaline while dehydration and atropine were without effect. Rheologic factors were increased by dehydration and atropine while terbutaline was without an effect. The effects of N-acetylcysteine on secretion volume and rheologic properties could not be studied because of the nature of the techniques employed

  17. The protective effects of total phenols in magnolia officinalix rehd. et wils on gastrointestinal tract dysmotility is mainly based on its influence on interstitial cells of cajal

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Hui; Huang, Dazhi; Li, Tao; Huang, Lihua; Zheng, Xingguang; Tang, Danxia; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils is a kind of herb which is widely used for gastrointestinal tract mobility disorder in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated whether the total phenols of Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils (TPM) treatment improves gastrointestinal tract dysmobility induced by intraperitoneal injection of atropine (5 mg/kg) in rats. Rats were randomly grouped into three units: TPM-pretreated/atropine-treated group, atropinetreated group and control group. TPM were a...

  18. Effect of Chronic Neuroleptic Treatment on Central and Peripheral Muscarinic Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Cawley, Thomas A.; Shickley, Timothy J.; Ruggieri, Michael R.; LUTHIN, GARY R.

    1993-01-01

    The regulation of muscarinic acetyicholine receptor (MAChR) subtypes in rat striatum, bladder and heart was examined following a 14-day administration of neuroleptics (clozapine or fluphenazine), anticholinergics (atropine) or a combination of anticholinergics and neuroleptics. Levels of MAChRs were ascertained by the use of immunoprecipitation and radioligand binding. The combined treatment of fluphenazine and atropine produced an increase in all MAChR subtype levels in striatum with m1 rece...

  19. A preliminary trial comparison of several anesthetic techniques in cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, M. L.; Luna, S P; de Castro, G B; Massone, F; Rosa, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of several drug combinations (atropine, xylazine, romifidine, methotrimeprazine, midazolam, or fentanyl) with ketamine for short term anesthesia in cats. Twelve cats were anesthetized 6 times by using a cross-over Latin square protocol: methotrimeprazine was combined with midazolam, ketamine, and fentanyl; midazolam and ketamine; romifidine and ketamine; and xylazine and ketamine. Atropine was combined with romifidine and ketamine, and xylaz...

  20. Atropa Belladonna intoxication: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; Chetouani, Khadija; Harandou, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Atropa Belladonna is a poisonous plant also called deadly nightshade. Its roots, leaves and fruits contain alkaloids: atropine, hyocyamine and scopolamine. The risk of poisoning in children is important because of possible confusion with other berries. Atropa Belladonna acute intoxication is a severe condition, it's should be considered in the presence of anti-cholinergic toxidrome, the differential diagnosis include other plants or psychoactive drugs containing atropine. The treatment is mai...

  1. Progression of myopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myopia is an important public health problem because it is common and is associated with increased risk for chorioretinal degeneration, retinal detachment, and other vision-threatening abnormalities. In animals, ocular elongation and myopia progression can be lessened with atropine treatment. This study provides information about progression of myopia and atropine therapy for myopia in humans. METHODS: A total of 214 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota (118 girls and 96 boys; m...

  2. Upregulation of regulator of G-protein signaling 2 in the sclera of a form deprivation myopic animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Leilei; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Xiaohui; Chu, Renyuan; Dai, Jinhui; Zhou, Hao; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Scleral remodeling is an important mechanism underlying the development of myopia. Atropine, an antagonist of G protein-coupled muscarinic receptors, is currently used as an off-label treatment for myopia. Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) functions as an intracellular selective inhibitor of muscarinic receptors. In this study we measured scleral RGS2 expression and scleral remodeling in an animal model of myopia in the presence or absence of atropine treatment. Methods Guinea...

  3. An olfactory ‘stress test’ may detect preclinical Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Peter W

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The olfactory bulb (OB receives extensive cholinergic input from the basal forebrain and is affected very early in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. We speculated that an olfactory ‘stress test’ (OST, targeting the OB, might be used to unmask incipient AD. We investigated if change in olfactory performance following intranasal atropine was associated with several known antecedents or biomarkers of AD. Methods We measured change in performance on the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT in the left nostril before (20-items and after (remaining 20-items intranasal administration of 1 mg of atropine. We administered cognitive tests, measured hippocampal volume from MRI scans and recorded Apolipoprotein E genotype as indices relevant to underlying AD. Results In a convenience sample of 56 elderly individuals (14 probable AD, 13 cognitive impairment no dementia, 29 cognitively intact the change in UPSIT score after atropine (‘atropine effect’ = AE correlated significantly with demographically scaled episodic memory score (r = 0.57, p Conclusions The OST using atropine as an olfactory probe holds promise as a simple, inexpensive screen for early and preclinical AD and further work, including longitudinal studies, is needed to explore this possibility.

  4. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli Prevents Severe Scalds-Induced Gut Ischemia and Paralysis by Activating the Cholinergic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries may result in gastrointestinal paralysis, and barrier dysfunction due to gut ischemia and lowered vagus excitability. In this study we investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA at Zusanli (ST36 could prevent severe scalds-induced gut ischemia, paralysis, and barrier dysfunction and whether the protective role of EA at ST36 is related to the vagus nerve. 35% burn area rats were divided into six groups: (a EAN: EA nonchannel acupoints followed by scald injury; (b EA: EA at ST36 after scald injury; (c VGX/EA: vagotomy (VGX before EA at ST36 and scald injury; (d VGX/EAN: VGX before EAN and scald injury; (e atropine/EA: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at ST36; (f atropine/EAN: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at nonchannel acupoints. EA at the Zusanli point significantly promoted the intestinal impelling ratio and increased the amount of mucosal blood flow after scald injury. The plasma diamine oxidase (DAO and intestinal permeability decreased significantly after scald injury in the EA group compared with others. However, EA after atropine injection or cervical vagotomy failed to improve intestinal motility and mucosa blood flow suggesting that the mechanism of EA may be related to the activation of the cholinergic nerve pathway.

  5. Changes in sensitivity of the isolated guinea-pig vas deferens induced by a lyophilized Phoradendron latifolium leaf infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz-Neto, A; Melito, I

    1990-02-01

    The effect of a lyophilized mistletoe infusion (LMI) was studied on isolated guinea-pig vas deferens. LMI caused a contraction which was partially blocked by phentolamine but not by atropine. LMI caused a shift to the left of the norepinephrine concentration-effect curve (CEC), an effect which appeared to be blocked by atropine and was absent in animals previously treated with reserpine and alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine. The increase of the norepinephrine maximal response induced by LMI was not blocked by atropine or pharmacological denervation. LMI caused a shift to the right of the acetylcholine CEC and had no effect on the acetylcholine maximal response. These results suggest that the effects seem to be due mainly to the presence of potassium ion in the LMI; however, the participation of muscarinic agonist(s) of reduced intrinsic activity or some tyramine-like substance could not be ruled out. PMID:2329809

  6. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m3 of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure

  7. Hippocampal formation is involved in movement selection: evidence from medial septal cholinergic modulation and concurrent slow-wave (theta rhythm) recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddie, S D; Kirk, I J; Whishaw, I Q; Bland, B H

    1997-11-01

    Hippocampal rhythmical slow-wave field activity which occurs in response to sensory stimulation is predominantly cholinergic (atropine-sensitive theta rhythm), can precede movement initiation, and co-occurs during non-cholinergic theta rhythm associated with ongoing movement (atropine-resistant). This relationship suggests that theta rhythm plays some role in movement control. The present naturalistic experiments tested the idea that atropine-sensitive theta rhythm plays a role in sensory integration and planning required for initiating appropriate movements. One of a pair of hungry rats, the victim, implanted with hippocampal field recording electrodes, a septal injection cannula, and a posterior hypothalamic stimulating electrode, was given food which the other, the robber, tries to steal. Since the victim dodges from the robber with a latency, distance, and velocity dependent upon the size of the food, elapsed eating time, and proximity of the robber, the movement requires sensory integration and planning. Although eating behavior seemed normal, atropine-sensitive theta rhythm and dodging were disrupted by an infusion of a cholinergic antagonist into the medial septum. When the victim in turn attempted to steal the food back, Type 1 theta rhythm was present and robbery attempts seemed normal. Prior to cholinergic blockade, posterior hypothalamic stimulation produced theta rhythm and dodges, even in the absence of the robber, but following injections, atropine-sensitive theta rhythm and dodging were absent as the animals dropped the food and ran. The results provide the first evidence to link atropine-sensitive theta rhythm and hippocampal structures to a role in sensory integration and planning for the initiation of movement. PMID:9404626

  8. Regulation of bile duct motility by vagus and sympathetic nerves in the pigeon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neya,Toshiaki

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of stimulation of the vagus and sympathetic nerves on bile duct peristalses were studied in pigeons anesthetized with urethane. Vagus stimulation increased the frequency of peristalses. Atropine, hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin abolished this excitatory effect. After atropine, inhibition of peristalses sensitive to tetrodotoxin was produced. Stimulation of sympathetic area in the spinal cord inhibited peristalses. Propranolol converted this effect into an excitatory one, which was abolished by phentolamine. The results suggest that vagal and sympathetic innervations of the bile duct in pigeons are similar to those of the sphincter of Oddi in mammalian species.

  9. Neuronal activity (c-Fos) delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Hong Qiu; Chen, Michael C.; Zhi-Li Huang

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG) form a neural circuit that is disrupted in disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the BG followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine if cortical activity is necessary for BG activity, we administered atropine to rats to induce a dissociative state resulting in slow-wave EEG but hyperactive motor behaviors. Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG...

  10. No effect of ethanol ingestion on beta-adrenoceptor-mediated circulatory responses to isoprenaline in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenhofer, G.; Lambie, D G; Johnson, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The acute effects of ethanol on circulatory responses to isoprenaline and atropine were investigated in 21 and 15 normal male subjects respectively. Each subject acted as his own control by participating twice, once after consumption of ethanol (1.0 ml kg-1, 20% v/v in orange juice) and once after orange juice. Ethanol increased baseline heart rate and forearm blood flow, but had no effect on heart rate and forearm blood flow responses to isoprenaline, or on heart rate responses to atropine. ...

  11. ECG changes during cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Itoh, K.; Hayashi, N.; Aoki, J.; Nakamura, K.; Imai, M.; Ono, T.; Morikawa, S.

    1984-09-01

    We have analyzed HR changes greater than 20% among 334 patients and 942 cerebral angiographies. A tachycardial effect was seen in 14.9% of patients, while a bradycardial effect was seen in 7.1% including two patients having cardiac standstill (0.5%). These two patients were examined without atropine premedication after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patients under 19 years of age, unpremedicated with atropine sulfate and suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation showed a significantly high incidence of bradycardia. On the other hand, patients with the neoplastic disease and having an initial sinus bradycardia showed a significantly high incidence of a tachycardial effect.

  12. Migrating Motor Complex in Colectomized Ileo Stoma Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mark B; Wallin, Lene; Husebye, Einar;

    2011-01-01

    muscarinic receptors. We aimed to evaluate the effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), ondansetron and atropine on fasting and stimulated antro-duodeno-jejunal migrating motor complex (MMC) in colectomized patients with ileo stoma compared with healthy subjects. Manometric recordings were obtained in a blinded...... also evaluated. 5-HT increased the frequency (threefold) and migration velocity (twofold) of MMC phase III in both experimental groups. Ondansetron reduced 5-HT-induced frequency of MMC phase III in patients (p < 0.05) but not in healthy subjects. Atropine reduced 5-HT-induced frequency of MMC phase...

  13. Relevance of selectivity and non-selectivity in beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonelli, J

    1982-01-01

    1 The heart rate responses to increasing doses of isoprenaline (n = 6) (during infusion with atropine 0.5 mg/min i.v.) and noradrenaline (n = 5), (during infusion with phentolamine 160 mg/h i.v.) were recorded before and after the intravenous administration of propranolol (15 mg) or metoprolol (15 mg). 2 In the doses used, metoprolol was less potent than propranolol in antagonizing isoprenaline-induced tachycardia, during atropine infusion. 3 In volunteers treated with phentolamine both metop...

  14. Analisis Gas Darah pada Kucing yang Mengalami Laparohisterotomi dengan Anestesi Xylazin-Ketamin dan Xylazin-Propofol (BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS OF XYLAZIN- KETAMIN AND XYLAZIN-PROPOFOL FOR ANESTHESIA TO LAPARO-HISTEROTOMY SURGERY IN CAT)

    OpenAIRE

    Ira Sari Yudaniayanti; Nusdianto Triakoso; Djoko Galijono

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the safety application of xylazine-ketamine and xylazinepropofolrecurrent dosage combination as anesthesia for laparo-histerotomy surgery in cat. Thisresearch used 10 female cats, 12-18 months of age, followed randomly divided into two groups, P1:atropine 0,04 mg/kgBW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + ketamine 20 mg/kg BW/IM; P2 : atropine0,04mg/kg BW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + Propofol 20 mg/kg BW/IV. The blood of the allgroups was taken from vena femural...

  15. Effects of cholinoblockers on acetylcholine content in rat striatum in neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagaev, S G; Kosmachev, A B; Soloveva, N E; Filko, O A; Sanotskii, V I; Dolgo-Saburov, V B

    2004-02-01

    Correction of neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism in rats with two central cholinoblockers atropine and pentifine (acetylene aminoalcohol synthesized at Institute of Toxicology) were studied by measuring the content of acetylcholine in the striatum. The content of the transmitter secretion was estimated from the content of bound acetylcholine fraction in homogenates of the above-mentioned compartment of the brain. The results indicate that atropine and pentifine in doses equally effectively preventing catalepsy in rats had different effects on acetylcholine secretion in the striatum. Hence, cholinolytics with different pharmacological selective effects differently interact with central muscarine receptor subtypes. PMID:15273765

  16. Neuronal activity (c-Fos) delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Mei-Hong; Chen, Michael C.; Huang, Zhi-Li; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG) form a neural circuit that is disrupted in disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the BG followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine if cortical activity is necessary for BG activity, we administered atropine to rats to induce a dissociative state resulting in slow-wave electroencephalography but hyperactive motor behaviors. Atropine blocked c-Fos expression i...

  17. The TRPA1 Activator Allyl Isothiocyanate (AITC) Contracts Human Jejunal Muscle: Pharmacological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Zsolt; Dekany, Andras; Kelemen, Dezsö; Bencsik, Timea; Papp, Robert; Bartho, Lorand

    2016-09-01

    The contractile effect of AITC (300 μM) on human jejunal longitudinal strips was inhibited by the TRPA1 antagonist HC 030031 and atropine or scopolamine, but was insensitive to tetrodotoxin, purinoceptor antagonists or capsaicin desensitization. It is concluded that TRPA1 activation stimulates a cholinergic mechanism in a tetrodotoxin-resistant manner. PMID:26928772

  18. [Acute poisoning by pesticides in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveau, P

    2016-07-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning in children is rare but potentially serious. Some clinical patterns (toxidromes) are suggestive of the drug class: cholinergic crisis for organophosphate or carbamate insecticides; neurological syndrome for rodenticides; digestive and respiratory syndrome for herbicides. Treatment is symptomatic and only a few patients are treated with an antidote: atropine and pralidoxime for organophosphate insecticides, vitamin K for anticoagulant rodenticides. PMID:27266642

  19. REM sleep pathways and anticholinesterase intoxication: A mechanism for nerve agent-induced, central respiratory failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kok

    1993-01-01

    The mechanism of death following exposure to anticholinesterases, such as the highly toxic nerve agents soman and VX, and other organophosphate anticholinesterases such as the insecticide parathion, remains unclear, although evidence from nerve agent research suggests that death occurs by an atropin

  20. Ontwikkeling proefdiermodel voor detectie van slokdarm-etsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danse; L.H.J.C.; Beenen; J.; Velsen; F.L.van; Heyst; A.N.P.van

    1984-01-01

    Een door Van Heyst et al. (1983) ontwikkeld proefdiermodel voor de detectie van de slokdarmetsende potentie van stoffen is aan een nader onderzoek onderworpen. Groepen van 6 konijnen kregen onder narcose en met een atropine-premedicatie huishoudchemicalien toegediend in de slokdarm. Drie weken n

  1. Mechanisms of carbacholine and GABA action on resting membrane potential and Na+/K+-ATPase of Lumbricus terrestris body wall muscles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volkov, E. M.; Nurullin, L. F.; Volkov, M. E.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Vyskočil, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 4 (2011), s. 520-524. ISSN 1095-6433 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110905; GA ČR GA202/09/0806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : GABA * acetylcholine * atropine Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2011

  2. Kinetics of in vivo binding of antagonist to muscarinic cholinergic receptor in the human heart studied by Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrota, A.; Paillotin, G.; Davy, J.M.; Aumont, M.C.

    1984-08-27

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was used to analyze in vivo antagonist binding to human myocardial muscarinic cholinergic receptor. The methiodide salt of the muscarinic antagonist, quinuclidinyl benzilate (MQNB), was labeled with the positron emitter, Carbon-11, and injected intravenously to 8 normal subjects. /sup 11/C-MQNB concentration was determined in vivo in the ventricular septum from 40 cross-sectional images acquired at the same transverse level over a period of 70 minutes. In 4 subjects, various amounts of unlabeled atropine were rapidly injected at 20 minutes to study whether atropine competitively inhibited MQNB. The kinetics of binding of /sup 11/C-MQNB were not the same in vivo and in vitro. The apparent dissociation rate of /sup 11/C-MQNB in vivo was much slower (by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude) than that observed in vitro with /sup 3/H-QNB. After atropine injection, /sup 11/C-MQNB dissociated from its binding sites at a rate that apparently depended on the amount of atropine present. /sup 11/C-MQNB kinetics were analyzed with a mathematical model which assumes the existence of a boundary layer containing free ligand in the vicinity of the binding sites. The dissociation rate of the radioligand depends on the probability of its rebinding to a free receptor site. 11 references, 1 table.

  3. Pharmacological Studies of p, N-(3, 4-Methylenedioxy phenyl Benzoic Acid (RRL-1364 - Part-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanukar Sharadini

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed pharmacological investigations of p-N-(3, 4-methylene dioxy phenyl benzoic acid revealed marked hypotensive action which was dose dependent and most marked in cats; it was absent in rats. Atropine could block this hypotensive action, thus suggest-ing cholinomimetic mechanism. Further studies indicated that the hypotension produced was central and possibly medullary in origin.

  4. 76 FR 11794 - Drugs for Human Use; Unapproved and Misbranded Oral Drugs Labeled for Prescription Use and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ..., cough, allergy, and related symptoms (38 FR 34481, December 14, 1973). The exemptions were granted... being marketed (24 FR 3756, May 9, 1959). Agency review of individual applications for extended-release... the following ingredients are not GRASE: Atropine; carbetapentane; cyproheptadine;...

  5. Innovations in Stroke Prevention: An Update on Carotid Stenting

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... up -- come down with a very quick inflation time. If they're bradycardic to start with, heart rate less than 70 or so, I tend to give a half an amp or half a milligram of atropine prophylactically once I'm sure they're adequate volume on board. So I mean, those are things that I ...

  6. The progressive onset of cholinergic and adrenergic control of heart rate during development in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Marina R; Leite, Cleo A C; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A; Taylor, Edwin W

    2015-10-01

    The autonomic control of heart rate was studied throughout development in embryos of the green iguana, Iguana iguana by applying receptor agonists and antagonists of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems. Acetylcholine (Ach) slowed or stopped the heart and atropine antagonized the response to Ach indicating the presence of muscarinic cholinoceptors on the heart of early embryos. However, atropine injections had no impact on heart rate until immediately before hatching, when it increased heart rate by 15%. This cholinergic tonus increased to 34% in hatchlings and dropped to 24% in adult iguanas. Although epinephrine was without effect, injection of propranolol slowed the heart throughout development, indicating the presence of β-adrenergic receptors on the heart of early embryos, possibly stimulated by high levels of circulating catecholamines. The calculated excitatory tonus varied between 33% and 68% until immediately before hatching when it fell to 25% and 29%, a level retained in hatchlings and adults. Hypoxia caused a bradycardia in early embryos that was unaffected by injection of atropine indicating that hypoxia has a direct effect upon the heart. In later embryos and hatchlings hypoxia caused a tachycardia that was unaffected by injection of atropine. Subsequent injection of propranolol reduced heart rate both uncovering a hypoxic bradycardia in late embryos and abolishing tachycardia in hatchlings. Hypercapnia was without effect on heart rate in late stage embryos and in hatchlings. PMID:26071949

  7. Early Resolution of Convergence Spasms Following the Addition of Antipsychotic Medications

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Hyo Jin; Chung, Un Sun; Chun, Bo Young

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of early resolution of convergence spasms following the addition of antipsychotic medications and present it as a possible alternative to the conventional treatment for convergence spasms. The cessation of atropinization of the eyes and the use of reading glasses was achieved after only 2 months following the initiation of antipsychotic medications for childhood emotional disorder.

  8. Effects of (MET-5) enkephalin on the electrically-evoked mechanical responses in longitudinal and circular strips of the cat terminal ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomirov, R; Pencheva, N; Venkova, K; Davidoff, M

    1990-09-01

    In longitudinal and circular strips from cat terminal ileum field electrical stimulation at a frequency of 2 Hz evoked contractile responses. Stimulation at frequencies of 10 or 30 Hz elicited contractions of the longitudinal muscle and relaxations of the circular strips. (Met-5) enkephalin (1 nM) naloxone-dependently reduced the contractile and increased the inhibitory responses. Atropine (3 microM) converted the contractile responses to slight relaxations and potentiated the inhibitory responses. After atropine (3 microM) and guanethidine (50 microM) both longitudinal and circular strips responded to electrical stimulation with relaxations. In atropine-pretreated strips (Met-5) enkephalin was effective only in the circular strips, increasing the inhibitory responses. In contrast, after atropine and guanethidine (Met-5) enkephalin decreased these inhibitory responses. In unstimulated strips (Met-5) enkephalin failed to change the responses to acetylcholine and noradrenaline. It is concluded that (Met-5) enkephalin reduces the excitatory cholinergic components of the electrically-evoked responses in both longitudinal and circular strips as well as the excitatory adrenergic and the inhibitory non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic components of the responses in the circular strips by acting presynaptically. Demonstration of (Met-5) enkephalin-like immunoreactivity showed immunostaining in nerves of the myenteric plexus and in nerve fibers between the smooth muscle cells suggesting that (Met-5) enkephalin effects could be also of physiological significance. PMID:2274118

  9. Parasympathetic blockade attenuates augmented pancreatic polypeptide but not insulin secretion in Pima Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Stefan, Norbert;

    2004-01-01

    atropine was administered for 120 min at the following doses: 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 micro g. kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1). h(-1). Areas under the curve for early (AUC(0-30 min)) and total (AUC(0-120 min)) postprandial insulin and PP secretory responses were calculated. Early postprandial insulin and PP secretory...

  10. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  11. Evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness of ophthalmic drops according to the pharmacopeial tests criteria

    OpenAIRE

    N Samadi; Tarighi, P.; M.R Fazeli; H Mehrgan

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In this study antimicrobial effectiveness test was performed on eye-drops which had high microbial contaminations in hospital practice to find out whether their antimicrobial efficacies affect the magnitude of microbial contamination during their uses. Materials and Methods: Artificial tear, atropine sulfate, betamethasone, homatropine hydrobromide, phenylephrine hydrochloride, phenylephrine zinc, pilocarpine hydrochloride, tetracaine hydrochloride and tropicamide eye-dro...

  12. Neural regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Lampert, Sarah; Mineo, Hitoshi;

    2004-01-01

    (abolished by propranolol). Acetylcholine stimulated GLP-1 secretion, and atropine blocked this effect. Dimethylphenylpiperazine stimulated GLP-1 secretion. In chloralose-anesthetized pigs, however, electrical stimulation of the vagal trunks at the level of the diaphragm had no effect on GLP-1 or GLP-2...

  13. Functional characterisation of the human alpha1 glycine receptor in a fluorescence-based membrane potential assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2004-01-01

    and RU 5135>strychnine>brucine>PMBA=picrotoxin>atropine for the antagonists. The actions of three allosteric modulators at the alpha1 GlyR cell line were also characterised in the FMP assay. Micromolar concentrations of Zn2+ inhibited alpha1 GlyR signalling but in contrast to previous reports the...

  14. Drug: D04087 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1.2093 321.4559 D04087.gif Anticholinergic, Antiparkinsonian ATC code: N04AC30 Atropine [CPD:C01479] derivat...ynapse hsa04970(1131) Salivary secretion hsa04971(1131) Gastric acid secretion map07057 Antiparkinsonian age

  15. HYPOTENSIVE ACTIVITY OF CRATAEGUS TANACETIFOLIA

    OpenAIRE

    G. MELİKOĞLU** A.H. MERİÇLİ**, H. BİRMAN* Ş. TAMER*

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the leaf extracts of Crataegw tanacetifolia cam.) Pers.(Rosaceae) on blood pressure and heart rate have been examined by using atropin, and alpha and beta-blokers. It have been found that the leaf extracts of C.tanacetifolia have hypotensive effects.Key words: Crataegus tanacetifolia, hypotensive activity, leaf extract. 

  16. Phenytoin in treatment of amiodarone-induced Torsades de pointes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibal Mukhopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin, a class IB anti-arrhythmic agent, is considered the drug of choice for ventricular arrhythmias due to digoxin toxicity. We report successful reversion of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia secondary to amiodarone toxicity by phenytoin administration that was resistant to the conventional drugs (magnesium sulphate, lidocaine and atropine.

  17. Acute effects of food, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and noradrenaline on metabolic rate and brown adipose tissue in normal and atropinised lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, N J; Saville, M E; Stock, M J

    1981-12-01

    1. Intragastric feeding (40 kJ) produced a 17% rise in metabolic rate in lean Zucker rats but only an 8% increase in obese (fa/fa) rats, and both of these responses were significantly reduced by beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol (10 mg/kg, s.c.). 2. Parasympathetic blockade with atropine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) caused a doubling of the response to food in lean rats and a threefold increase in the obese mutants, such that all atropinised animals showed the same increase in metabolic rate after food. 3. Feeding also caused a significant rise in interscapular brown adipose tissue temperature, which was greatest in the lean animals and was enhanced by atropine in both groups. 4. Injection of noradrenaline (250 micrograms/kg, s.c.) caused a similar (40%) rise in metabolic rate in lean and obese animals but this response was unaffected by atropine. 5. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose injection (360 mg/kg, s.c.) depressed oxygen consumption by 25 and 8% in lean and obese rats respectively and this effect was totally abolished by atropine. 6. These results suggest that the rise in metabolic rate after a meal is partly due to sympathetic activation of brown adipose tissue. The reduced thermic response in obese Zucker rats is not due to insensitivity to noradrenaline, but may be partly due to parasympathetic inhibition of thermogenesis and partly to insensitivity to glucose availability. PMID:7322844

  18. Evaluation of respiratory dysfunction in a pig model of severe acute dichlorvos poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xin-hua; WU Jun-yuan; LI Chun-sheng; SU Zhi-yu; JI Xian-fei; HAN Yi; WANG Sheng-qi; ZHANG Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Respiratory failure is the main cause of death in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.In this study,a pulse-induced contour cardiac output monitor was used to evaluate the respiratory status in a pig model of acute dichlorvos poisoning.Methods Twenty female pigs were randomly allocated to dichlorvos (n=7),atropine (n=7),and control (n=6) groups.In the dichlorvos group,pigs were administered 80% emulsifiable dichlorvos (100 mg/kg) via a gastric tube.In the atropine group,pigs were similarly administered dichlorvos,and 0.5 hours later,atropine was injected to attain and maintain atropinization.The control group was administered saline solution.Arterial blood gas was measured at 0,0.5,1,2,4,and 6 hours post-injection.The extravascular lung water index and pulmonary vascular permeability index were recorded by the pulse-induced contour cardiac output monitor.At termination of the study,the animals were euthanized,the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio was determined,and histopathology was observed.Results In the dichlorvos group,the extravascular lung water index and pulmonary vascular permeability index were substantially increased from 0.5 hours and were particularly high within 1 hour.In the atropine group,these indices increased initially,but decreased from the 1-hour mark.The control group exhibited no obvious changes.In both the dichlorvos and atropine groups,the extravascular lung water index was negatively correlated with partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspiration oxygen (PO2/FiO2) and positively correlated with the pulmonary vascular permeability index.Compared with the control group,the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio markedly increased and the histopathological findings obviously changed in the dichlorvos group,but only mildly increased and changed,respectively,in the atropine group.Conclusion The extravascular lung water index is an appropriate and valuable parameter for assessment of respiratory function in acute dichlorvos poisoning.

  19. The pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7 in the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla involves multiple peripheral mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the peripheral mechanism that mediates the pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7 in the rostral ventrolateral medulla was investigated. METHOD: Angiotensin-(1-7 (25 pmol was bilaterally microinjected in the rostral ventrolateral medulla near the ventral surface in urethane-anesthetized male Wistar rats that were untreated or treated (intravenously with effective doses of selective autonomic receptor antagonists (atenolol, prazosin, methyl-atropine, and hexamethonium or a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist [d(CH25 -Tyr(Me-AVP] given alone or in combination. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, the pressor response produced by angiotensin-(1-7 (16 ± 2 mmHg, n = 12, which was not associated with significant changes in heart rate, was not significantly altered by peripheral treatment with prazosin, the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist, hexamethonium or methyl-atropine. Similar results were obtained in experiments that tested the association of prazosin and atenolol; methyl-atropine and the vasopressin V1 antagonist or methyl-atropine and prazosin. Peripheral treatment with the combination of prazosin, atenolol and the vasopressin V1 antagonist abolished the pressor effect of glutamate; however, this treatment produced only a small decrease in the pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7 at the rostral ventrolateral medulla. The combination of hexamethonium with the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist or the combination of prazosin, atenolol, the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist and methyl-atropine was effective in blocking the effect of angiotensin-(1-7 at the rostral ventrolateral medulla. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that angiotensin-(1-7 triggers a complex pressor response at the rostral ventrolateral medulla that involves an increase in sympathetic tonus, release of vasopressin and possibly the inhibition of a vasodilatory mechanism.

  20. Controlling myopia progression in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith MJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Molly J Smith, Jeffrey J WallineThe Ohio State University College of Optometry, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Myopia is a common disorder, affecting approximately one-third of the US population and over 90% of the population in some East Asian countries. High amounts of myopia are associated with an increased risk of sight-threatening problems, such as retinal detachment, choroidal degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma. Slowing the progression of myopia could potentially benefit millions of children in the USA. To date, few strategies used for myopia control have proven to be effective. Treatment options such as undercorrection of myopia, gas permeable contact lenses, and bifocal or multifocal spectacles have all been proven to be ineffective for myopia control, although one recent randomized clinical trial using executive top bifocal spectacles on children with progressive myopia has shown to decrease the progression to nearly half of the control subjects. The most effective methods are the use of orthokeratology contact lenses, soft bifocal contact lenses, and topical pharmaceutical agents such as atropine or pirenzepine. Although none of these modalities are US Food and Drug Administration-approved to slow myopia progression, they have been shown to slow the progression by approximately 50% with few risks. Both orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses have shown to slow myopia progression by slightly less than 50% in most studies. Parents and eye care practitioners should work together to determine which modality may be best suited for a particular child. Topical pharmaceutical agents such as anti-muscarinic eye drops typically lead to light sensitivity and poor near vision. The most effective myopia control is provided by atropine, but is rarely prescribed due to the side effects. Pirenzepine provides myopia control with little light sensitivity and few near-vision problems, but it is not yet commercially available as an eye drop or

  1. Neurosecretory effect of ouabain on isolated rabbit ileal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouabain, when added to fluid bathing rabbit ileal mucosa mounted in a flux chamber, transiently increases short circuit current, implying a paradoxical secretory response. To determine the cause of this change, the authors studied unidirectional fluxes of 36Cl and 23Na and the effects of ion substitution, of reduced Ca concentration, verapamil, tetrodotoxin and atropine. Ouabain 0.1 mM, transiently increased the serosal to mucosal flux of Cl and Na, increased Isc and PD and reduced ion conductance. The Isc response to ouabain was diminished by reducing the bath fluid concentration of CL, of Ca, and by adding verapamil. Tetrodotoxin both delayed and reduced the maximal Isc response; atropine had no effect. They conclude that ouabain acts by releasing a neurotransmitter of unknown identity and by increasing the serosal to mucosal flux to Cl

  2. Antidepressant-like properties of sildenafil in a genetic rat model of depression: Role of cholinergic cGMP-interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebenberg, Nico; Brink, Christiaan; Brand, Linda;

    2008-01-01

    the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, sildenafil. Specifically, we demonstrated that chronic (11 days) treatment with a combination of sildenafil (10 mg/kg/day) + atropine (1 mg/kg/day) produces antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test (FST) in Sprague Dawley rats. Neither of these...... drugs produced any antidepressant-like effect when administered alone. In the current study, we investigated these findings in a genetic animal model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats. In addition, we evaluated the dose-dependency and onset of action for sildenafil + atropine, as...... injection) immobility was scored during five minutes swim in the FST. In addition, locomotor activity was evaluated in the Open Field Test 2 hours prior to the FST. Results: Fluoxetine and imipramine separately decreased immobility in FSL rats, comparable to that of FRL control rats, after 14 but not after...

  3. Mechanism of rectal contraction mediated by sympathetic efferents from rectoanal pelvic afferents in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neya,Toshiaki

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available In guinea pigs whose pelvic nerves were bilaterally sectioned, afferent stimulation of rectoanal branches of the pelvic nerve (PAS could produce an intense contraction in the rectum similar to propulsive contractions elicited during defecation. The mechanism of this reflex was analyzed. Rectal contraction by PAS was abolished after transecting the spinal cord at T13 or sectioning the lumbar splanchnic nerves (LSN or lumbar colonic nerves (LCN, but was unaffected by severing the intermesenteric and hypogastric nerves. Rectal contraction induced by PAS was abolished peripherally by atropine, guanethidine or yohimbine, while propranolol had no affect. Yohimbine antagonized the inhibitory effect of LSN or LCN stimulation on atropine-sensitive rectal contractions. It may, therefore, be concluded that PAS blocks the inhibition, by LCN efferents acting through alpha-adrenoreceptors, of cholinergic neurons in the myenteric plexus, thus facilitating recto-rectal propulsive contractions initiated by the defecation reflex.

  4. Prejunctional inhibition of norepinephrine release caused by acetylcholine in the human saphenous vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed experiments to determine whether or not acetylcholine exerts a prejunctional inhibitory effect on adrenergic neurotransmission in the human blood vessel wall. Rings of human greater saphenous veins were prepared 2 to 15 hours after death and mounted for isometric tension recording in organ chambers filled with Krebs-Ringer solution. Acetylcholine depressed contractile responses to electric activation of the sympathetic nerve endings significantly more than those to exogenous norepinephrine; the relaxations caused by the cholinergic transmitter were antagonized by atropine. Helical strips were incubated with [/sub 3/H]norepinephrine and mounted for superfusion. Electric stimulation augmented the fractional release of labeled norepinephrine. Acetylcholine caused a depression of the evoked /sub 3/H release which was antagonized by atropine but not by hexamethonium. These experiments demonstrate that, as in animal cutaneous veins, there are prejunctional inhibitory muscarinic receptors on the adrenergic nerve endings in the human saphenous vein. By contrast, the human vein also contains postjunctional inhibitory muscarinic receptors

  5. Acetylcholine produces contraction mediated by cyclooxigenase pathway in arterial vessels in the marine fish (Isacia conceptionis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, F A; Urriola-Urriola, N

    2015-05-01

    Preliminary studies showed that dorsal artery contraction mediated by acetylcholine (ACh) is blocked with indomethacin in intertidal fish (G. laevifrons). Our objective was to characterize the cholinergic pathway in several artery vessels of the I. conceptionis. Afferent and efferent branchial, dorsal and mesenteric arteries were dissected of 6 juvenile specimens, isometric tension studies were done using doses response curves (DRC) for Ach (10(-13) to 10(-3) M), and cholinergic pathways were obtained by blocking with atropine or indomethacin. CRC to ACh showed a pattern of high sensitivity only in efferente branchial artery and low sensibility in all vessels. Furthermore, these contractions were blocked in the presence of atropine and indomethacin in all vessels. Our results corroborate previous results observed in intertidal species that contraction induced by acetylcholine is mediated by receptors that activate a cyclooxygenase contraction pathway. PMID:26132019

  6. [Condition of patients after surgical wisdom tooth extraction under general anesthesia with different premedication variants--a prospective study based on a post-anesthesia questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, H; Schwarz, A

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of the modified "postanaesthesiological questionnaire" pointed to a subtle influencing of the condition of patients who had undergone 3rd molar surgery in general anaesthesia by using different premedication variants: "Atropine, Pethidine and Midazolam" (group A) and "Atropine, Midazolam and S-Ketamin" (group B). The combination in group B seems to be more suitable. On the one hand, a lower incidence of unwanted side-effects was found and, on the other hand, remarkable positive effects were observed. Of particular significance with this combination was also the more effective suppression of postoperative pain. The Propofol-supplemented general anaesthesia prepared in this way and administered using a nasal intubation technique found the full approval of the patients. Postoperative pain therapy was effective and also inexpensive, costing just 8.20 DM per patient, according to current prices calculated by Magdeburg University Hospital. PMID:11799850

  7. Rapid determination of scopolamine in evidence of recreational and predatory use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Mai, Thanh Duc; López, María López; Bartolomé, Carmen; Hauser, Peter C; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, scopolamine has become a drug of common use for recreational and predatory purposes and several ways of administration have been devised. A method for the rapid analysis of suspicious samples was developed, using a portable capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. The method allows the separation of scopolamine from atropine which has a similar structure and is present along with scopolamine in some samples. The method was demonstrated to be useful for the fast analysis of several types of evidential items which have recently been reported to have been abused with fatal consequences or employed for criminal purposes. An infusion of Datura stramonium L., in which scopolamine and atropine naturally coexist, was analyzed for being frequently consumed for recreational purposes. A spiked moisturizing cream and six spiked alcoholic beverages were also analyzed. In spite of the complexity of the specimens, the sample pre-treatment methods developed were simple and fast. PMID:24188342

  8. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas is localized to nerves, many of which travel along the pancreatic ducts. VIP stimulates pancreatic fluid and bicarbonate secretion like secretin. Electrical vagal stimulation in the pig causes an atropine-resistant profuse secretion...... of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice. In an isolated perfused preparation of the pig pancreas with intact vagal nerve supply, electrical vagal stimulation caused an atropine-resistant release of VIP, which accurately parallelled the exocrine secretion of juice and bicarbonate. Perfusion of the pancreas...... with a potent VIP-antiserum inhibited the effect of vagal stimulation on the exocrine secretion. It is concluded, that VIP is responsible for (at least part of) the neurally controlled fluid and bicarbonate secretion from the pig pancreas....

  9. Characterization of the hypotensive effects of glucagon-like peptide-2 in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Takashi; Kaneko, Maki; Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Oka, Jun-Ichiro

    2013-08-29

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a proglucagon-derived peptide released from enteroendocrine cells and neurons. We recently reported that GLP-2 induced hypotension. In the present study, we characterized the mechanisms of GLP-2-induced hypotension. GLP-2 was administered peripherally or centrally to male Wistar rats anesthetized with urethane and α-chloralose. The rats were vagotomized or systemically pretreated with atropine, prazosin, or propranolol before the GLP-2 administration. The central and peripheral administration of GLP-2 reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). The maximum change of MAP (maximum ΔMAP) was reduced by vagotomy or prazosin, but not propranolol. The effects of the central but not peripheral administration of GLP-2 were reduced by atropine. These results suggest that GLP-2 modulates vagal afferent inputs and inhibits the sympathetic nervous system in the brain to induce hypotension. PMID:23867714

  10. Severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension in ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Yan Keung

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatera results when ciguatoxin-contaminated coral reef fish from tropical or subtropical waters are consumed. The clinical features that present in affected persons are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological, general, and much less commonly, cardiovascular. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed the characteristic combination of acute gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms after the consumption of an unidentified coral reef fish head. In addition to those symptoms, he developed dizziness, severe bradycardia (46 bpm) and prolonged hypotension, which required the administration of intravenous atropine and over three days of intravenous fluid replacement with dopamine infusion. Patients with ciguatera can develop severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension. Physicians should recognise the possible cardiovascular complications of ciguatera and promptly initiate treatment with intravenous atropine, intravenous fluid replacement and inotropic therapy if such complications are observed. PMID:23665698

  11. Characteristics contractile response to the calcium ionophore, A23187, in guinea-pig vas deferens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Y.; Shibata, S.

    1980-01-01

    1. In the guinea-pig isolated vas deferens, the calcium ionophore, A23187, initially caused a phasic contraction followed by rhythmic activity. 2. Treatment with atropine, phentolamine, tetrodotoxin and reserpine modified neither of the components of the contraction induced by the ionophore. Verapamil and nifedipine abolished the rhythmic activity but had no effect on the phasic contraction. 4. In a calcium-free solution, both components of the contraction were abolished. 5. It is suggested t...

  12. NMDA antagonists exert distinct effects in experimental organophosphate or carbamate poisoning in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors produce seizures and lethality in mammals. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists encourage the investigation of their effects in AChE inhibitor-induced poisonings. In the present study, the effects of dizocilpine (MK-801, 1 mg/kg) or 3-((RS)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, 10 mg/kg), alone or combined with muscarinic antagonist atropine (1.8 mg/kg), on convulsant and lethal properties of an OP pesticide dichlorvos or a carbamate drug physostigmine, were studied in mice. Both dichlorvos and physostigmine induced dose-dependent seizure activity and lethality. Atropine did not prevent the occurrence of convulsions but decreased the lethal effects of both dichlorvos and physostigmine. MK-801 or CPP blocked or attenuated, respectively, dichlorvos-induced convulsions. Contrariwise, NMDA antagonists had no effect in physostigmine-induced seizures or lethality produced by dichlorvos or physostigmine. Concurrent pretreatment with atropine and either MK-801 or CPP blocked or alleviated seizures produced by dichlorvos, but not by physostigmine. Both MK-801 and CPP co-administered with atropine enhanced its antilethal effects in both dichlorvos and physostigmine poisoning. In both saline- and AChE inhibitor-treated mice, no interaction of the investigated antidotes with brain cholinesterase was found. The data indicate that both muscarinic ACh and NMDA receptor-mediated mechanisms contribute to the acute toxicity of AChE inhibitors, and NMDA receptors seem critical to OP-induced seizures

  13. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response

  14. Chemical composition and cardiovascular effects induced by the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf, Poaceae, in rats Composição química e efeitos cardiovasculares do óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf, Poaceae, em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia V. Moreira; Joana F. A. Bastos; Blank, Arie F.; Péricles B. Alves; Santos, Márcio R.V.

    2010-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf, Poaceae, is used in the folk medicine for hypertension treatment. This work investigated the chemical composition and cardiovascular effects in rats of C. citratus essential oil (EOCC). A phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of eight constituents, being geranial the major compound (43.08%). In rats, EOCC (1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.v.) induced transient hypotension and bradycardia that were attenuated by atropine and sodium thiopental, but not by L-N...

  15. Electroacupuncture at the Zusanli (ST-36 Acupoint Induces a Hypoglycemic Effect by Stimulating the Cholinergic Nerve in a Rat Model of Streptozotocine-Induced Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA at Zusanli (ST-36 and Zhongwan (CV-12 acupoints reduces plasma glucose concentrations in rats with type II diabetes. However, whether EA reduces plasma glucose levels in type I diabetes is still unknown. In this study, we explore the various non-insulin-dependent pathways involved in EA-induced lowering of plasma glucose. Streptozotocin (STZ (60 mg kg−1, i.v. was administered via the femoral vein to induce insulin-dependent diabetes in non-adrenalectomized and in adrenalectomomized rats. EA (15 Hz was applied for 30 min to bilateral ST-36 acupoints after administration of Atropine (0.1 mg kg−1 i.p., Eserine (0.01 mg kg−1 i.p., or Hemicholinium-3 (5 μg kg−1 i.p. in non-adrenalectomized rats. Rats administered acetylcholine (0.01 mg kg−1 i.v. did not undergo EA. Adrenalectomized rats underwent EA at bilateral ST-36 acupoints without further treatment. Blood samples were drawn from all rats before and after EA to measure changes in plasma glucose levels. Expression of insulin signaling proteins (IRS1, AKT2 in atropine-exposed rats before and after EA was measured by western blot. Atropine and hemicholinium-3 completely blocked the plasma glucose lowering effects of EA, whereas eserine led to a significant hypoglycemic response. In addition, plasma glucose levels after administration of acetylcholine were significantly lower than the fasting glucose levels. In STZ-adrenalectomized rats, EA did not induce a hypoglycemic response. EA stimulated the expression of IRS1 and AKT2 and atropine treatment blocked the EA-induced expression of those insulin signaling proteins. Taken together, EA at the ST-36 acupoint reduces plasma glucose concentrations by stimulating the cholinergic nerves.

  16. A STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jorige Archana et al

    2012-01-01

    Tinospora cordifolia is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, cardiovascular and antimicrobial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia were evaluated. Dose dependent negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects were observed with both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The effects were antagonized by atropine indicating involvement of muscarinic receptors. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found with ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia...

  17. Anwendbarkeit und Dosisfindung des Anästhetikums Thiopental für die Narkose des Schweins nach vorhergehender Neuroleptanalgesie mit Ketamin und Azaperon

    OpenAIRE

    Saers, Angela Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Die Arbeit beschreibt die Anwendbarkeit und Dosisfindung des Anästhetikums Thiopental für die Narkose des Schweins nach vorhergehender Neuroleptanalgesie mit einer Ketamin-/Stresnil-/Atropin-Kombination für Schweine verschiedener Gewichtsklassen und Nutzungsrichtungen. Mit Einstellung der Produktion des Thiamylal (Surital) im Jahr 2002 stellt die Anästhesie des Schweins einen Therapienotstand dar. Eine Zulassung für die Anwendung beim Schwein haben nur noch Ursotamin und Stresnil, die weder a...

  18. Reduced number of (3H)nicotine and (3H)acelylcholine binding sites in the frontal cortex of Alzheimer brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicotinic cholinergic receptors were measured in human frontal cortex using (3H)nicotine and (3H)acetylcholine (in the presence of atropine) as receptor ligands. A parallel marked reduction in number of (3H)nicotine (52%, P3H)acetylcholine (-55%, P3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate and found to be significantly increased (+23%, P<0.01) in AD/SDAT compared to controls. (author)

  19. M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors may play a role in the neurotoxicity of anhydroecgonine methyl ester, a cocaine pyrolysis product

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Caio Tamborelli Garcia; Livia Mendonça Munhoz Dati; Larissa Helena Torres; Mariana Aguilera Alencar da Silva; Mariana Sayuri Berto Udo; Fernando Maurício Francis Abdalla; José Luiz da Costa; Renata Gorjão; Solange Castro Afeche; Mauricio Yonamine; Niswender, Colleen M.; P. Jeffrey Conn; Rosana Camarini; Maria Regina Lopes Sandoval; Tania Marcourakis

    2015-01-01

    The smoke of crack cocaine contains cocaine and its pyrolysis product, anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). AEME possesses greater neurotoxic potential than cocaine and an additive effect when they are combined. Since atropine prevented AEME-induced neurotoxicity, it has been suggested that its toxic effects may involve the muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). Our aim is to understand the interaction between AEME and mAChRs and how it can lead to neuronal death. Using a rat primary hipp...

  20. Prokinetic and laxative effects of the crude methanolic extract of Viola betonicifolia whole plant in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Naveed; Rehman, Najeeb ur; Khan, Haroon; Saeed, Muhammad; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was aimed to provide ethnopharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Viola betonicifolia whole plant in indigestion and constipation. Methods Mice were used in in-vivo prokinetic and laxative studies while in-vitro experiments were conducted on isolated tissues of rabbit and guinea-pig gut preparations suspended in a tissue bath to measure isotonic contractions. Results The crude methanolic extract of Viola betonicifolia (VBME) showed partially atropine-sensit...

  1. Adverse Reactions to Radiographic Contrast Material

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, William H.; Mullarkey, Michael F.; Webb, D. Robert

    1980-01-01

    Major adverse reactions to radiographic contrast media will occur more often as contrast material is now also administered during computerized tomographic (CT) scanning. Differentiation of the two major contrast reactions, the vagus reaction and the anaphylactoid reaction, is essential. Bradycardia is the key finding for identifying the vagus reaction. The vagus reaction involving hypotension and bradycardia requires treatment with large doses of atropine given intravenously. The immediate ge...

  2. Plantas de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina, con actividad gastroprotectora y antiespasmódica Antiulcerogenic and antispasmodic effects of plants from La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E Toso

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad gastroprotectora y antiespasmódica de extractos hidroalcohólicos de Marrubium vulgare (MV, Acmella decumbens (AD, Lippia turbinata (LT, Tribulus terrestres (TT y Ruta chalepensis (RC. Para determinar el efecto gastroprotector se indujeron úlceras por estrés y la motilidad gastrointestinal se evaluó midiendo el progreso del contenido intestinal en ratones. Atropina y ranitidina fueron utilizadas como drogas de referencia con actividad gastroprotectora y atropina fue utilizada, también, por su efecto inhibitorio sobre la motilidad gastrointestinal. Todos los extractos y la atropina mostraron actividad gastroprotectora (pThe objective of the research was the analysis of the antiulcerogenic and antispasmodic effects of Marrubium vulgare (MV, Acmella decumbens (AD, Lippia turbinata (LT, Tribulus terrestres and Ruta chalepensis (RC hidroalcoholic extracts. Antiulcerogenic activity was studied in mices for their ability to inhibit the gastric lesions induced on cold restraint stress. Gastrointestinal motility was evaluated with activated charcoal as intestinal transit indicator. Atropine and ranitidine were used like gastroprotectives. Atropine was used for decrease gastrointestinal motility. We proved that all plant extracts and atropine have gastroprotective activity (p< 0.01. Ranitidine did not prevent ulcers in mice. The extracts MV and AD also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared with atropine. LT, TT and RC extracts moderate but significantly inhibited gastrointestinal transit compared with control group (p< 0.01. These results further suggest that all extracts were found to possess antiulcerogenic and inhibitory activity on gastrointestinal motility, which might also be due to antispasmolitic activity.

  3. Remifentanil for endotracheal intubation in premature infants: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Badiee, Zohreh; Vakiliamini, Mazyar; Mohammadizadeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Endotracheal intubation is a common procedure in neonatal care. The objective of this study was to determine whether the premedication with remifentanil before intubation has analgesic effects in newborn infants. Methods: A total of 40 premature infants who needed endotracheal intubation for intubation-surfactant-extubation method were randomly assigned in two groups of an equal number at two university hospitals. The control group was given 10 μg/kg atropine IV infusions in 1 min ...

  4. Excitatory effect of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin on the rat isolated aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Y.; Nomura, S; Oshita, Y.; Sakurai, J

    1986-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin caused contraction of the isolated aorta of the rat in a dose-dependent manner. The contractile action caused by the toxin was inhibited or abolished by calcium antagonists such as nifedipine, verapamil and cinnarizine, or a Ca-free medium, but was not affected by phentolamine, chlorpheniramine, atropine, tetrodotoxin or a low Na medium. The toxin stimulated Ca uptake into the aorta in a dose-dependent manner. 8-N,N'-diethylaminooctyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoa...

  5. Pilot experiments on the actions of drugs injected into the human corpus cavernosum penis.

    OpenAIRE

    Brindley, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    Seven drugs that are known to relax smooth muscle (phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine, thymoxamine, imipramine, verapamil, papaverine, naftidrofuryl) caused erection when injected intracavernosally. Salbutamol, hydralazine, lignocaine and bupivacaine caused tumidity but not erection. Metaraminol and guanethidine caused shrinkage followed by tumidity. Neostigmine, atropine, propranolol and idazoxan had no effect in the doses tried. It is argued that the seven drugs that cause erection do so by rel...

  6. Comparison between children dilated computer and retinoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Li Qi; Li-Li Sun; Ji Li

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the dilation effect of computer optometry and retinoscopy optometry before and after mydriasis in children and to understand whether the application of computer refractor in children.METHODS: Therelated data of 500 children cases(1 000 eyes)with ametropia in our hospital were analyzed. The children firstly received computer optometry, and then use the 10g/L atropine sulfate eye gel drops, respectively. After 3d, they were performed computer optometry and retinoscopy, and c...

  7. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  8. STUDY ON 52 PATIENTS WITH ACUTE SEVERE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE POISONING%急性重度有机磷中毒52例临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟瑞; 卢敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump infusion of atropine in the treatment of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning( ASOPP ). Methods A total of 104 patients with ASOPP were retrospectively analysed, all patients were treated with gastric lavage and so on, the treated group adopted hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump infusion of atropine in addition to basic therapy. The clinical data was compared. Results The treated group was superior to the control group in time from coma to consciousness, total amount of atropine and recovery time of cholinesterase etc. The recovery rate was 84.6%. Conclusion It is effective to apply hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump iffusion of atropine in rescuing the acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的 评价血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵持续泵入治疗急性重度有机磷中毒(acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,ASOPP)的临床应用价值.方法 对104例ASOPP患者进行回顾性分析,所有患者均给予洗胃等治疗,治疗组在对照组基础上加用血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵治疗,比较2组各项临床资料.结果 治疗组昏迷至清醒时间、阿托品总量、胆碱酯酶恢复时间等明显优于对照组,治愈率为84.6%.结论 应用血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵治疗ASOPP效果较好.

  9. The occurrence of postsynaptic alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors in the guinea-pig gall bladder.

    OpenAIRE

    Doggrell, S A; Scott, G W

    1980-01-01

    1 Guinea-pig gall bladder strips were contracted by (-)-noradrenaline, 10(-5) M, and by field stimulation at 5 Hz (in the absence or presence of 10(-6) M atropine) and relaxed to 10(-5) M (-)-isoprenaline. (-)-Adrenaline, 10(-5) M, predominantly contracted, but sometimes relaxed, this preparation. 2 In the presence of 10(-6) M phentolamine, contractions to (-)-noradrenaline and to (-)-adrenaline were reversed to relaxations. The relaxations produced by (-)-isoprenaline were unaltered. In the ...

  10. Binding and functional properties of antimuscarinics of the hexocyclium/sila-hexocyclium and hexahydro-diphenidol/hexahydro-sila-diphenidol type to muscarinic receptor subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Waelbroeck, M.; Tastenoy, M.; Camus, J.; Christophe, J; Strohmann, C.; Linoh, H.; Zilch, H.; Tacke, Reinhold; Mutschler, E.; Lambrecht, G.

    2012-01-01

    1. In an attempt to assess the structural requirements for the muscarinic receptor selectivity of hexahydro-diphenidol (hexahydro-difenidol) and hexahydro-sila-diphenidol (hexahydro-sila-difenidol), a series of structurally related C/Si pairs were investigated, along with atropine, pirenzepine and methoctramine, for their binding affinities in NB-OK 1 cells as well as in rat heart and pancreas. 2. The action of these antagonists at muscarinic receptors mediating negative inotropic responses i...

  11. Assessment of Pharmaceutical Equivalence: Difference Test or Equivalence Test?

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Felipe R.; Pinto, Terezinha J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical equivalence is an important step towards the confirmation of similarity and interchangeability among pharmaceutical products, particularly regarding those that will not be tested for bioequivalence. The aim of this paper is to compare traditional difference testing to two one-side equivalence tests in the assessment of pharmaceutical equivalence, by means of equivalence studies between similar, generic and reference products of acyclovir cream, atropine sulfate injection, merop...

  12. Cephalic phase secretion of insulin and other enteropancreatic hormones in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veedfald, Simon; Plamboeck, Astrid; Deacon, Carolyn F; Hartmann, Bolette; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    mmol/l on all days. The meal stimulus for the MSF consisted of an appetizing breakfast. Participants (9/10) also had a 6 mmol/l glucose clamp without MSF. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels rose from 6.3 ± 1.1 to 19.9 ± 6.8 pmol/l (means ± SE) in response to MSF and atropine lowered basal PP levels and...

  13. Pharmacological investigation into the effects of histamine and histamine analogues on guinea-pig and rat colon in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Aguilar; Morales-Olivas, F. J.; Rubio, E.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of histamine and specific histamine agonists has been examined on isolated longitudinal colon strips of guinea-pig and rat. Histamine and 2-pyridyl-ethylamine but not 4 methylhistamine produced a concentration-related contractile response in the guinea-pig colon. The H1-antagonist clemizole antagonized competitively the effect of histamine but the H2-antagonist ranitidine did not modify the dose-response curve to histamine in the guinea-pig colon. Atropine, hexamethonium, prazosin...

  14. The response of cat airways to histamine in vivo and in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Blaber, L. C.; Fryer, A D

    1985-01-01

    The effects of histamine have been examined in anaesthetized cats and on cat cat isolated lung parenchyma strip. Histamine infused intravenously for 2 min produced a small and inconsistent effect on central airways and a small but consistent constriction of peripheral airways. Histamine bronchoconstriction of the central airways was unmasked by non-selective and beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade but not by beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade. This bronchoconstriction was antagonized by atropine but not b...

  15. Dopamine-induced amylase secretion from rat parotid salivary gland in vitro: an effect mediated via noradrenergic and cholinergic nerves.

    OpenAIRE

    Hata, F.; Ishida, H.; Kondo, E.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dopamine on amylase secretion by rat parotid tissue was examined in vitro. Dopamine induced marked amylase secretion from the tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Its EC50 value was about 4 microM and the maximal response was obtained at a concentration of 100 microM. The dopamine-induced secretion was inhibited by the dopamine-antagonists haloperidol, (+)-butaclamol and spiroperidol. Atropine reduced the dopamine-induced secretion significantly, and physostigmine enhanced the sec...

  16. Effects of PYY on the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex in the small intestine in vivo and the neural and endocrinal mechanisms of the effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of peptide YY (PYY) on the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) in the small intestine in vivo and explore the neural and endocrinal mechanisms of the effects. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were supplied with a venous catheter and bipolar electrodes in the duodenum and jejunum for electromyography of stomach and small intestine in wake state. PYY,phentolamine,nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA,the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) and atropine were served with PYY res...

  17. Effects of tachykinins on inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in slices of hamster urinary bladder.

    OpenAIRE

    Bristow, D. R.; Curtis, N. R.; Suman-Chauhan, N.; Watling, K. J.; B J Williams

    1987-01-01

    Tachykinin-stimulated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis was examined in slices of hamster urinary bladder. In the presence of lithium, to inhibit inositol monophosphatase activity, substance P, eledoisin and related tachykinins induced large, dose-dependent increases in [3H]-inositol monophosphate accumulation. The responses to substance P and eledoisin were not antagonized by the cholinoceptor antagonist, atropine. The rank order of potency for various tachykinins was kassinin greater than ne...

  18. Carbachol-induced rhythmic slow activity (theta) in cat hippocampal formation slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacki, J; Gołebiewski, H; Eckersdorf, B

    1992-04-24

    Application of the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, produced theta-like rhythmical waveforms, recorded in the stratum moleculare of the dentate gyrus in the cat hippocampal formation slices. This effect of carbachol was antagonized by atropine but not D-tubocurarine. These results provide first direct evidence that the hippocampal formation neuronal network in the cat is capable of producing synchronized slow wave activity when isolated from pulsed rhythmic inputs of the medial septum. PMID:1511270

  19. Outpatient Termination of Early Pregnancies Using Syringe and Plastic Cannula

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Byrne R.; McGeachin, Stewart G.; Hepler, James K.; Hayden, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    Using a 50 ml syringe and a Karman-type cannula-curette, outpatient therapeutic abortions were done in 543 women who were not more than eight weeks pregnant. All patients received paracervical block analgesia and atropine was given intravenously to minimize vagal reactions. In five women (0.9 percent) pregnancies were missed by the procedure, and in 13 women (2.4 percent) abortions were incomplete. In only one patient did a significant postoperative pelvic infection occur. Twenty-seven women ...

  20. Gastric cytoprotection of bolivian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, E; Iglesias, I; Carretero, E; Villar, A

    2000-06-01

    Several extracts obtained from Bolivian medicinal plants have been evaluated for cytoprotective activity on ethanol-induced ulcer formation in rats. Preliminary results suggest, that the majority of the plants tested showed a significant activity, the aqueous extracts of Phoradendron crassifolium and Franseria artemisioides being the most active, exerting a cytoprotective activity comparable to atropine. The analysis of the chemical constituents of the extracts studied showed the presence of tanins, saponins, flavonoids and coumarins. PMID:10837995

  1. Effects of organophosphorus anticholinesterase compounds on brain glucose and energy metabolism. Final summary report, 1 October 1981-29 February 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, M.A.; Miller, A.L.

    1984-09-01

    The effects of Soman and paraoxon on cerebral metabolic rate (CMRg) and the levels of various metabolites in rate brain were investigated. In non-convulsing animals, 0.8 of the paraoxon LD50 and 0.5 of the Soman LD50 tended to lower CMRg. A higher dose of Soman, 0.8-0.95 of the LD50, resulted in convulsive seizures in some but not all of the animals. In convulsing rats the CMRg and lactate levels were elevated primarily in the cortex and thalamus/basal ganglia. Decreased ATP and glucose levels with an elevated CMRg and lactate concentration was observed in the cortex, suggesting that Soman may be uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. Pretreatment with atropine prevented the behavioral manifestations and the elevated CMRg but not the hyperglycemia produced by an 0.8 LD50 dose of Soman. These results suggest that Soman-induced convulsions are similar to those produced by other central nervous system (CNS) excitatory agents in that only certain brain regions are affected. The use of atropine to block the CNS disturbances produced by Soman appears to be effective also does not result in the extensive depression of CMRg observed with TAB, a mixture of trimedoxime, atropine and benactyzine.

  2. The study of cardiovascular changes by intravascular injection of contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was aimed to study the effect of contrast media on the cardiovascular system. So in this study, pithed rats were used whether alteration in cardiovascular system by contrast media were controlled centrally. Furthermore, several hypertonic solutions were also used to clarify the effect of contrast media. The results are as follows: 1. Intravenous injection of contrast media in rats (2.5 ml/kg) caused hypotension and bradycardia. The effects were neither blocked by pretreatment of atropine nor pyribenzamine+atropine. 2. NaCI 4.7%, dextrose 24.8%, urea 9.0% and glycerol 10.1% (v/v) which were equiosmolar with contrast media, caused hypotension, but did not affect the heart rate. 3. In pithed rats, intravenous injection of Angiografin increased blood pressure in a dose-dependant manner, and caused decrease in heart rate compared with those of control rats. 4. In pithed rats, bradycardia by intravascular injection with Angiografin was partially blocked by atropine. 5. Metrizamide of which iodine content was adjusted to 280 mg/ml caused increased in blood pressure when was injected intravenously in pithed rats with little effect on heart rate. 6. When perfused with contrast media in rat hindlimb at 15 ml/min./kg speed both perfusion pressure and flow effluent increased, simultaneously. These results suggest that hypotension might be caused by the central effect due to hyperosmolarity of contrast media and bradycardia caused by both parasympathetic stimulation and direct inhibitory action on the cardiac conductive system.

  3. The evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux before and after medical therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastroesophageal scintigraphy is a quantitative technique that can be employed to detect and quantitate gastroesophageal reflux before and after the application of therapeutic modalities, including change in body position, bethanechol, atropine, antacids, and antacid-alginate compounds. Five groups of 10-15 patients each were studied before and after using each therapeutic modality and before and after atropine. The results were compared to the patient's symptomatology and to the acid reflux test. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy was performed following oral administration of 300 microCi 99mTc-sulfur colloid in 300 ml acidified orange juice. Thirty-second gamma camera images were obtained as the gastroesophageal gradient was increased from approximately 10 to 35 mm Hg at 5 mm Hg increments using an inflatable abdominal binder. Data were processed using a digital computer. Reflux was reduced by change in position from recumbent to upright, and by the use of subcutaneous bethanechol, oral antacid, or oral antacidalginate compound. Atropine increased reflux. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy is more sensitive than fluoroscopy, correlates well with clinical symptomatology, and is a reliable and convenient technique for the quantitative estimation of reflux before and after therapy

  4. Effect of tricyclic antidepressants on transmitter-stimulated inositol phosphate production in rat brain cortex in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have anticholinergic and α-adrenergic blocking properties. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of amitriptyline, imipramine, and desipramine on inositol phosphate accumulation, a brain second messenger system associated with cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. Whereas the TCAs were 28 to 400-fold weaker than atropine as inhibitors of 3H-QNB binding to brain cholinergic receptors, they were 600 to 2000-fold less active than atropine as inhibitors of carbachol-stimulated IP accumulation in brain. In contrast, the relative potencies of the TCAs and prazosin to inhibit norepinephrine-stimulated IP accumulation and 3H-prazosin binding appeared to be similar in the two assays. The results suggest pharmacological differences between the cholinergic receptors labeled in the ONB binding assay and those mediating the IP response, whereas the α1-adrenergic receptors appear to be similar in the two systems. Since atropine is considered a nonselective muscarinic antagonist, it is possible that the TCAs may differentiate between cholinergic receptor subtypes, which may be an important component of their clinical response

  5. Suppression and enhancement of non-native molecules within biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. A.; Lockyer, N. P.; Vickerman, J. C.

    2006-07-01

    With the aim of evaluating the potential of SIMS to provide molecular information from small molecules within biological systems, here we investigate the effect of different biological compounds as they act as matrices. The results highlight the fact that the chemical environment of a molecule can have a significant effect on its limit of detection. This has implications for the imaging of drugs and xenobiotics in tissue sections and other biological matrices. A 1:1 mixture of the organic acid 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone and the dipeptide valine-valine demonstrates that almost complete suppression of the [M + H] + ion of one compound can be caused by the presence of a compound of higher proton affinity. The significance of this is highlighted when two similar drug molecules, atropine (a neutral molecule) and ipratropium bromide (a quaternary nitrogen containing salt) are mixed with brain homogenate. The atropine [M + H] + ion shows significant suppression whilst the [M - Br] + of ipratopium bromide is detected at an intensity that can be rationalised by its decreased surface concentration. By investigating the effect of two abundant tissue lipids, cholesterol and dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline (DPPC), on the atropine [M + H] + signal detected in mixtures with these lipids we see that the DPPC has a strong suppressing effect, which may be attributed to gas phase proton transfer.

  6. Suppression and enhancement of non-native molecules within biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of evaluating the potential of SIMS to provide molecular information from small molecules within biological systems, here we investigate the effect of different biological compounds as they act as matrices. The results highlight the fact that the chemical environment of a molecule can have a significant effect on its limit of detection. This has implications for the imaging of drugs and xenobiotics in tissue sections and other biological matrices. A 1:1 mixture of the organic acid 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone and the dipeptide valine-valine demonstrates that almost complete suppression of the [M + H]+ ion of one compound can be caused by the presence of a compound of higher proton affinity. The significance of this is highlighted when two similar drug molecules, atropine (a neutral molecule) and ipratropium bromide (a quaternary nitrogen containing salt) are mixed with brain homogenate. The atropine [M + H]+ ion shows significant suppression whilst the [M - Br]+ of ipratopium bromide is detected at an intensity that can be rationalised by its decreased surface concentration. By investigating the effect of two abundant tissue lipids, cholesterol and dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline (DPPC), on the atropine [M + H]+ signal detected in mixtures with these lipids we see that the DPPC has a strong suppressing effect, which may be attributed to gas phase proton transfer

  7. Effects of topical fucosyl-lactose, a milk oligosaccharide, on dry eye model: an example of nutraceutical candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eBucolo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Colostrum has been proposed to treat severe dryness and problematic eye lesions showing a beneficial effect. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of 2-fucosyl-lactose, a natural sugar present in the human colostrum, in an experimental dry eye. Methods: Dry eye was induced in adult male New Zealand albino rabbits by topical administration of 1% atropine. Tear volume (Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time (TBUT, corneal staining and tear osmolarity were assessed. Fucosyl-lactose eye drops was instilled at different concentrations (0.01%, 0.1%, 1%. Results: After 24 hours from first atropine administration, tear volume and TBUT values were significantly improved in groups treated with 2-flucosyl-lactose in a dose-dependent manner. Tear volume increased from 5.25 to 10.75 mm and TBUT values from 8.75 to 34.5 seconds with 0.01% or 1% 2-flucosyl-lactose treatment, respectively. No changes were observed in terms of corneal staining among the all groups treated with 2-fucosyl-lactose. Atropine instillation caused an increase of tear osmolarity (428 mOsm/L, which was reversed by topical treatment with 2-fucosyl-lactose at all doses.Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that 2-fucosyl-lactose, a human milk oligosaccharide, has protective effect on tear film stability.

  8. Comparative behavioral effects of anticholinergic agents in cats: psychomotor stimulation and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleslin, D B; Stefanović-Denić, K; Samardzić, R

    1986-03-01

    The effect on behavior of eight anticholinergic agents: atropine, scopolamine, trihexyphenidyl, biperiden, homatropine, eucatropine, hexocyclium and propantheline, injected into the cerebral ventricle (ICV) of the cat was investigated and compared. The anticholinergic agents evoked: (1) psychomotor stimulation such as miaowing, loud calling, restlessness, impelling locomotion, jumping, vacant staring, apprehension and loss of interest of the surroundings; (2) aggression, hissing, threat, attack, defense, fighting with paws and flight; (3) autonomic responses including mydriasis, tachypnea, dyspnea, licking, vomiting, salivation, micturition and defection; and (4) motor phenomena comprising scratching, ataxia, rigidity, tremor, weakness with adynamia or myoclonic jerks. Convulsions appeared only after ICV injections of atropine and homatropine. The most characteristic behavioral effect of anticholinergic agents was psychomotor stimulation accompanied by mild aggressive responses. The only exception was propantheline which caused a muscular weakness and adynamia. Atropine and scopolamine alone induced a dose-dependent impelling locomotion as well as fighting behavior. Carbachol and eserine injected intracerebroventricularly reversed the locomotion autonomic and motor phenomena produced by anticholinergic agents administered similarly. It is suggested that anticholinergic agents acting as partial agonists, can produce their behavioral effects through central cholinoceptive sites. PMID:3703893

  9. Cholinergic mediation of small intestinal transit in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that small intestinal transit (SIT) in the rat is not cholinergically mediated. The geometric mean of a marker may be a more powerful method for SIT studies. Therefore, it was their goal to evaluate the effect of muscarinic blockade in normal and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-enhanced SIT using this method. Male, food-fasted rats (190 to 240 g) were first dosed subcutaneously with atropine. 30 min after the atropine the rats received an oral dose of PGE2 at 5.0 mg/kg. 5 min after PGE2, a 51Cr-labeled marker was dosed intraduodenally, and a 25 min transit period followed. The results are: (1) 5.0 mg/kg of PGE2 significantly stimulates the geometric mean of the marker in agreement with previous findings and (2) atropine is inhibitory at doses as low as 0.20 mg/kg for basal SIT and 0.10 mg/kg for PGE2-stimulated SIT. This indicates (1) the rat has cholinergically mediated SIT, and (2) cholinergic activation may be important for PGE2 effects on SIT in the rat

  10. Effect of pilocarpine on the formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of subcutaneous (SC injection of pilocarpine (a cholinomimetic agent and atropine (a muscarinic receptors antagonist were investigated on a tonic model of orofacial pain in rats. The contribution of the endogenous analgesic opioid system was assessed using naloxone (an opioid receptors antagonist. Tonic orofacial pain was induced by SC injection of a diluted formalin solution (1%, 50 μL in the right upper lip, and the time spent face rubbing was measured in five min blocks for 1 h. Formalin induced a biphasic (first phase: 0-5 min and second phase: 15-35 min pain response. Pilocarpine significantly (P < 0.05 suppressed both phases of orofacial pain. Atropine did not have any effect and naloxone non-significantly increased the intensity of pain when used alone. In the pre-injection examinations, atropine prevented, but naloxone did not reverse the antinociceptive effect of pilocarpine. The results indicated that SC injection of formalin in the orofacial region induced a marked biphasic pain. Pilocarpine via muscarinic cholinergic receptors produced antinociceptive effect in the orofacial formalin-induced pain. The endogenous opioid analgesic system may not have a role in pilocarpine-induced antinociception.

  11. [Drug or plant substances which antagonize venoms or potentiate antivenins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Rakotonirina, V S; Rakotonirina, A; Dzikouk, G

    1997-01-01

    Dendroaspis jamesoni (Elapidae) and Echis oceliatus (Viperidae) are responsible for most of severe evenomation in Cameroon. Toxicity of venoms of these two species has been measured using mice according to the method of Spearman & Kàrber. The effect on experimental envenomation of various drugs (atropine, promethazine, neostigmine, hydrocortisone, pentosane sulfuric polyester, heparin, tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid) and plant extracts (Schumanniophyton magnificum, Bidens pilosa, Securidaca longepedunculata and Garcinia lucida) has been observed associated or not with the antivenom lpser Afrique (SAV). The venom of D. jamesoni contains neurotoxins agonizing and antagonising acetylcholine. The toxicity of the venom did not depend on the route of injection. Atropine, promethazine, neostigmine and hydrocortisone protected animals against a venom dose up to 2 LD50. Moreover, atropine and promethazine potentiated the SAV. Similar results have been obtained with extracts from S. magnificum and B. pilosa. The venom of E. ocellatus induces haemorrhage and necrosis. The toxicity increased by 3-fold when the venom was injected through intravenous or intraperitoneal route, compared to intramuscular route. Pentosane sulfuric polyester and tranexamic acid protected mice against doses up to 3 LD50. Pentosane sulfuric polyester, hydrocortisone, heparin and aminocaproic acid increased the SAV protective titre by 50%. However, tried plant extracts weakly antagonised the venom and did not potentiate the SAV. PMID:9479470

  12. Effects of rhubarb on isolated gastric muscle strips of guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Yu; Ya-Li Luo; Jun-Wei Zheng; Yong-Hui Ding; Wei Li; Tian-Zhen Zheng; Song-Yi Qu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of rhubarb (dried root of Rheum officinale Baill.) on contractile activity of isolated gastric muscle strips of guinea pigs and its possible mechanism.METHODS: A total of 48 guinea pigs were killed to remove the whole stomach. Then, the stomach was opened and the mucosal layer was removed. Parallel to the circular fibers, muscle strips were cut from the body. Each isolated gastric muscle strip was suspended in a tissue chamber containing 5 mL Krebs solution, constantly warmed by water jacket at 37 ℃ and bubbled continuously with a mixed gas of 950 mL/L O2 and 50 mL/L CO2. After being incubated for 1 h with 1 g tension, rhubarb of varied concentrations (1%, 2%, 7%, 20% and 70%) was added cumulatively into the tissue chamber at intervals of 2 min. Atropine (10-6 mol/L) or isoptin (5×10-8 mol/L) orhexamethonium(10-5 mol/L) was given 2 min before the administration of rhubarb. The isometrical response was measured with an ink-writing recorder.RESULTS: Rhubarb dose dependently increased the resting tension of gastric body circular muscle(CM)(r = 0.726, P<0.05). Atropine (r= 0.829, P<0.05), isoptin (r = 0.764,P<0.05) and hexamethonium (r = 0.797, P<0.05) did notaffect its action in a dose-related manner. Atropine apparently reduced the increasing action of 1%, 3%, 10%, 30% and 100% rhubarb on the resting tension of gastric body CM. Isoptin inhibited the effect of 10%, 30% and 100% rhubarb on the resting tension of gastric body CM. Hexamethonium reduced the increasing action of 1%, 10%, 30% and 100% rhubarb on the resting tension of gastric body CM. Rhubarb increased the contractile frequency of CM of body. While atropine, isoptin and hexamethonium did not inhibit the contractile frequency of gastric body CM in comparison with rhubarb at the same concentration, rhubarb at the highest concentration (100%) decreased the meancontractile amplitude of gastric body CM. Atropine, isoptin and hexamethonium did not affect the mean contractile

  13. Myopia Control: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walline, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Slowing the progression of myopia has become a considerable concern for parents of myopic children. At the same time, clinical science is rapidly advancing the knowledge about methods to slow myopia progression. This article reviews the peer-reviewed literature regarding several modalities attempting to control myopia progression. Several strategies have been shown to be ineffective for myopia control, including undercorrection of myopic refractive error, alignment fit gas-permeable contact lenses, outdoor time, and bifocal of multifocal spectacles. However, a recent randomized clinical trial fitted progressing myopic children with executive bifocals for 3 years and found a 39% slowing of myopia progression for bifocal-only spectacles and 50% treatment effect for bifocal spectacles with base-in prism, although there was not a significant difference in progression between the bifocal-only and bifocal plus prism groups. Interestingly, outdoor time has shown to be effective for reducing the onset of myopia but not for slowing the progression of myopic refractive error. More effective methods of myopia control include orthokeratology, soft bifocal contact lenses, and antimuscarinic agents. Orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses are both thought to provide myopic blur to the retina, which acts as a putative cue to slow myopic eye growth. Each of these myopia control methods provides, on average, slightly less than 50% slowing of myopia progression. All studies have shown clinically meaningful slowing of myopia progression, including several randomized clinical trials. The most investigated antimuscarinic agents include pirenzepine and atropine. Pirenzepine slows myopia progression by approximately 40%, but it is not commercially available in the United States. Atropine provides the best myopia control, but the cycloplegic and mydriatic side effects render it a rarely prescribed myopia control agent in the United States. However, low-concentration atropine has

  14. Locality-dependent descending reflex motor activity in the anal canal-cholinergic and nitrergic contributions in the rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radomir RADOMIROV; Christina IVANCHEVA; Dimitar ITZEV; Polina PETKOVA-KIROVA

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Since the distal part of the intestine is targeted by a wide range of pathogens, the motility of the recto-anal region has been the object of many experimental and clinical observations. In this study, we investigated descending motor responses in the anal canal as a measure of the activation of autonomic reflex pathways underlying evacuatory recto-anal activity. Methods: The partitioned organ bath method was used to register motor responses of the anal canal as induced by balloon distension of the rectum in isolated rat recto-anal preparations. Results: Distension-induced descending responses of the anal canal comprised contractions (with distension at a distance of 15 mm), initial contractions and secondary relaxations (at 10 mm) and short contractions followed by deep relaxations (at 3-5 mm). Decreas-ing the distance between the distension stimulus and the anal canal resulted in a decreased contraction response and increased relaxation. Tetrodotoxin (0.1 μmol/L) inhibited these responses. Atropine (0.3 μmol/L) decreased contraction and did not change the relaxation response. N~G-nitro-L-arginine (0.5 mmol/L) enhanced contraction in both the absence and presence of atropine. L-arginine (0.5 mmol/L) inhibited contraction and extended relaxation in atropine-pretreated preparations. The actions of N~G-nitro-L-arginine and L-arginine were more pronounced in the aboral direction. ChAT-positive nerve fibers were observed in myenteric ganglia of the rectum and the anal canal. The density of NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons was higher in the anal canal region. Conclusion: Our results suggest that locality-dependent activation of the descending reflex neuromuscular communications underlie evacuatory activity in the recto-anal region. This activation response involves long excitatory cholinergic and non-cholinergic pathways along the rectum and short inhibitory nitrergic pathways located predominantly in the anal canal region.

  15. Effect of acetylcholine receptors on the pain-related electrical activities in the hippocampal CA3 region of morphine-addicted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Zeng Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:To determine the effect of acetylcholine (ACh, pilocarpine, and atropine on pain evoked responses of pain excited neurons (PEN and pain inhibited neurons (PIN in hippocampal CA3 region of morphine addicted rats. Materials and Methods:Female Wistar rats, weighing between 230-260 g were used in this study. Morphine addicted rats were generated by subcutaneous injection of increasing concentrations of morphine hydrochloride for six days. Trains of electrical impulses applied to the sciatic nerve were used as noxious stimulation and the evoked electrical activities of PEN or PIN in hippocampal CA3 area were recorded using extracellular electrophysiological recording techniques in hippocampal slices. The effect of acetylcholine receptor stimulation byACh, the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine, and the muscarinic antagonist atropine on the pain evoked responses of pain related electrical activities was analyzed in hippocampal CA3 area of morphine addicted rats. Results:Intra-CA3 microinjection of ACh (2 μg/1 μl or pilocarpine (2 μg/1 μl decreased the discharge frequency and prolonged the firing latency of PEN, but increased the discharge frequency and shortened the firing inhibitory duration (ID of PIN. The intra-CA3 administration of atropine (0.5 μg/1 μl produced opposite effect. The peak activity of cholinergic modulators was 2 to 4 min later in morphine addicted rats compared to peak activity previously observed in normal rats. Conclusion: ACh dependent modulation of noxious stimulation exists in hippocampal CA3 area of morphine addicted rats. Morphine treatment may shift the sensitivity of pain related neurons towards a delayed response to muscarinergic neurotransmission in hippocampal CA3 region.

  16. Cardiovascular effects of Tacca integrifolia Ker-Gawl. extract in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakart Sawangchote

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizome of Tacca integrifolia, a Thai folk medicinal herb, has been used for controlling blood pressure and improving sexual function in humans. However, the biological activities of this herb on the cardiovascular system have not yet been documented. In the present study, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of methanolic extract from the rhizome of this herb (Tacca extract. In the in vivo study, intravenous injection of the Tacca extract (0.04-40 mg/kg caused a decrease in both mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate of anesthetized rats (Nembutal sodium, 60 mg/kg, i.p. in a dose dependent manner. Pretreatment of the animals with muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (1 mg/kg, i.v., significantly reduced the hypotensive and the negative chronotropic activities of the Tacca extract. In the in vitro preparation, the Tacca extract (0.001-3 mg/ml caused a decrease in both force and rate of spontaneous contraction of isolated atria in a dose dependent manner. These effects were reduced by preincubation of the atria with atropine (10-7 or 10-6 M. For isolated blood vessels, the Tacca extract (0.003-3 mg/ ml caused vasodilation of endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings pre-constricted with phenylephrine (3× 10-6 M. This effect disappeared after pre-incubation of blood vessels with atropine (10-6 M or with Nω-nitro- L-arginine (3×10-4 M, or by removing the vascular endothelium. The results obtained suggest that the hypotensive and negative chronotropic effects of the Tacca extract in the rat are due to the active components acting via the muscarinic receptors at the blood vessel to cause vasodilatation by stimulating the release of nitric oxide, as well as on the muscarinic receptors at the atria to cause the decrease of both rate and force of the atrial contraction.

  17. N-acetylcysteine in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: A Randomized, Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ebiary, Ahmad A; Elsharkawy, Rasha E; Soliman, Nema A; Soliman, Mohammed A; Hashem, Ahmed A

    2016-08-01

    Organophosphorus poisoning is a major global health problem with hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Research interest in N-acetylcysteine has grown among increasing evidence of the role of oxidative stress in organophosphorus poisoning. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of N-acetylcysteine as an adjuvant treatment in patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial on 30 patients suffering from acute organophosphorus poisoning, who were admitted to the Poison Control Center of Tanta University Emergency Hospital, Tanta, Egypt, between April and September 2014. Interventions included oral N-acetylcysteine (600 mg three times daily for 3 days) as an added treatment to the conventional measures versus only the conventional treatment. Outcome measures included mortality, total dose of atropine administered, duration of hospitalization and the need for ICU admission and/or mechanical ventilation. A total of 46 patients were screened and 30 were randomized. No significant difference was found between both groups regarding demographic characteristics and the nature or severity of baseline clinical manifestations. No major adverse effects to N-acetylcysteine therapy were reported. Malondialdehyde significantly decreased and reduced glutathione significantly increased only in the NAC-treated patients. The patients on NAC therapy required less atropine doses than those who received only the conventional treatment; however, the length of hospital stay showed no significant difference between both groups. The study concluded that the use of N-acetylcysteine as an added treatment was apparently safe, and it reduced atropine requirements in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. PMID:26786042

  18. Mechanisms of airway responses to esophageal acidification in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ivan M; Haworth, Steven T; Medda, Bidyut K; Forster, Hubert; Shaker, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Acid in the esophagus causes airway constriction, tracheobronchial mucous secretion, and a decrease in tracheal mucociliary transport rate. This study was designed to investigate the neuropharmacological mechanisms controlling these responses. In chloralose-anesthetized cats (n = 72), we investigated the effects of vagotomy or atropine (100 μg·kg(-1)·30 min(-1) iv) on airway responses to esophageal infusion of 0.1 M PBS or 0.1 N HCl at 1 ml/min. We quantified 1) diameter of the bronchi, 2) tracheobronchial mucociliary transport rate, 3) tracheobronchial mucous secretion, and 4) mucous content of the tracheal epithelium and submucosa. We found that vagotomy or atropine blocked the airway constriction response but only atropine blocked the increase in mucous output and decrease in mucociliary transport rate caused by esophageal acidification. The mucous cells of the mucosa produced more Alcian blue- than periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-stained mucosubstances, and the mucous cells of the submucosa produced more PAS- than Alcian blue-stained mucosubstances. Selective perfusion of the different segments of esophagus with HCl or PBS resulted in significantly greater production of PAS-stained mucus in the submucosa of the trachea adjacent to the HCl-perfused esophagus than in that adjacent to the PBS-perfused esophagus. In conclusion, airway constriction caused by esophageal acidification is mediated by a vagal cholinergic pathway, and the tracheobronchial transport response is mediated by cholinergic receptors. Acid perfusion of the esophagus selectively increases production of neutral mucosubstances of the apocrine glands by a local mechanism. We hypothesize that the airway responses to esophageal acid exposure are part of the innate, rather than acute emergency, airway defense system. PMID:26846551

  19. Involvement of M3 Cholinergic Receptor Signal Transduction Pathway in Regulation of the Expression of Chemokine MOB-1, MCP-1 Genes in Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海; 陈道达; 张景輝; 田原

    2004-01-01

    Whether M3 cholinergic receptor signal transduction pathway is involved in regulation of the activation of NF-κB and the expression of chemokine MOB-1, MCP-1genes in pancreatic acinar cells was investigated. Rat pancreatic acinar cells were isolated, cultured and treated with carbachol, atropine and PDTC in vitro. The MOB-1 and MCP-1 mRNA expression was detected by using RT-PCR. The activation of NF-κB was monitored by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay.The results showed that as compared with control group, M3 cholinergic receptor agonist (103mol/L, 104-4ol/L carbachol) could induce a concentration-dependent and time-dependent increase in the expression of MOB-1, MCP-1 mRNA in pancreatic acinar cells. After treatment with 10 -3mol/L carbachol for 2 h, the expression of MOB-1, MCP-1 mRNA was strongest. The activity of NF-κB in pancreatic acinar cells was significantly increased (P<0.01) after treated with M3 cholinergic receptor agonist (10-3 mol/L carbachol) in vitro for 30 min. Either M3 cholinergic receptor antagonist (10-5 mol/L atropine) or NF-κB inhibitor (10-2 mol/L PDTC) could obviously inhibit the activation of NF-κB and the chemokine MOB-1, MCP-1 mRNA expression induced by carbachol (P <0.05). This inhibitory effect was significantly increased by atropine plus PDTC (P<0.01). The results of these studies indicated that M3 cholinergic receptor signal transduction pathway was likely involved in regulation of the expression of chemokine MOB-1 and MCP-1genes in pancreatic acinar cells in vitro through the activation of NF-κB.

  20. Adrenergic and cholinergic activity contributes to the cardiovascular effects of lionfish (Pterois volitans) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jarrod E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to further investigate the cardiovascular activity of Pterois volitans crude venom. Venom (0.6-18 microg protein/ml) produced dose- and endothelium-dependent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries that was potentiated by atropine (10nM), but significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA; 0.1mM), by prior exposure of the tissue to stonefish antivenom (SFAV, 3 units/ml, 10 min), or by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). In rat paced left atria, venom (10 microg protein/ml) produced a decrease, followed by an increase, in contractile force. Atropine (0.5 microM) abolished the decrease in force and potentiated the increase. Propranolol (5 microM) did not affect the decrease in force but significantly attenuated the increase. In spontaneously beating right atria, venom (10 microg protein/ml) produced an increase in rate that was significantly attenuated by propranolol (5 microM). Prior incubation with SFAV (0.3 units/microg protein, 10 min) abolished both the inotropic and chronotropic responses to venom. In the anaesthetised rat, venom (100 micro protein/kg, i.v.) produced a pressor response, followed by a sustained depressor response. Atropine (1mg/kg, i.v.) potentiated the pressor response. The further addition of prazosin (50 microg/kg, i.v.) restored the original response to venom. Prior administration of SFAV (100 units/kg, i.v., 10 min) significantly attenuated the in vivo response to venom. It is concluded that P. volitans venom produces its cardiovascular effects primarily by acting on muscarinic cholinergic receptors and adrenoceptors. As SFAV neutralised many of the effects of P. volitans venom, we suggest that the two venoms share a similar component(s). PMID:12175616

  1. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a patient of organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Phatake

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old male presented with a history of consuming some organophosphorous compound with suicidal intention.He was treated with atropine, pralidoxime, ventilator support. During stay patient had persistent irritability, tachycardiaand hypertension despite sedation and labetalol infusion. He developed headache, visual blurring hemiparesis and focal seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multifocal hyperintensities mainly in subcortical areas of parietal and occipital regions in T2-weighted images, with increased values of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient, suggesting posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES. The possibilities of PRES caused by organophosphorous poisoning either due to hypertension caused by autonomic deregulation or direct neurological toxicity has been discussed.

  2. Further evidence for the involvement of Na+ channels in the release of adrenal catecholamine: the effect of scorpion venom and grayanotoxin I.

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, S; Nakazato, Y.; Ohga, A.

    1981-01-01

    1 The effects of venom from the scorpion, Leiurus quinquestriatus, and grayanotoxin I on catecholamine secretion were studied in the perfused adrenal glands of guinea-pig. 2 Scorpion venom (0.1 to 10 micrograms/ml) caused a dose-dependent increase in catecholamine output. The response to the venom was partially inhibited by atropine (0.5 mM) plus hexamethonium (1mM). The dose-response curve was shifted to the right in the presence of these blocking agents. 3 Grayanotoxin I (0.1 to 0.5 mM) cau...

  3. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J;

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  4. A STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorige Archana et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, cardiovascular and antimicrobial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia were evaluated. Dose dependent negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects were observed with both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The effects were antagonized by atropine indicating involvement of muscarinic receptors. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found with ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (15mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The organism showed resistance to aqueous extract giving an inhibition zone of 0.3mm. The data suggest that Tinospora cordifolia could be of benefit in arrhythmias and microbial infections.

  5. Modulation of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neural bronchoconstriction in guinea-pig airways via GABAB-receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Belvisi, M. G.; M. Ichinose; Barnes, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    1. Evidence suggests that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its receptors are present in the peripheral nervous system. We have now investigated the effect of GABA and related substances on non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) neurally-evoked bronchoconstriction in the anaesthetised guinea-pig. 2. Bilateral vagal stimulation (5 V, 5 ms, 3 or 5 Hz) for 30 s, after propranolol (1 mg kg-1 i.v.) and atropine (1 mg kg-1 i.v.) evoked a NANC bronchoconstrictor response manifest as a mean tracheal...

  6. [Differential diagnosis and therapy of bradycardic arrhythmias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, P; Jungmair, W; Kaliman, J F

    1994-01-01

    The most important symptoms in bradycardia are vertigo, dizziness and syncopy due to diminished cerebral blood sypply. Cardial symptoms are cardiac insufficiency and angina pectoris. By means of ECG, especially Holter-ECG, carotid sinus massage, atropin test and invasive methods (atrial stimulation, His-bundle ECG) sinu-nodal dysfunction, carotid sinus syndrome, bradyarrhythmia absoluta and AV-block can be diagnosed. Pharmacological treatment is only useful in acute situations. For symptomatic bradyarrhythmias the implantation of a Pacemaker is the therapy of choice. Individual treatment of the various types of bradyarrhythmia and the patients special needs is possible through the evolution of pacemaker technology. PMID:7825327

  7. Do we really need to panic in all acute vision loss in ICU? Acute angle-closure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akal, Ali; Kucuk, Ahmet; Yalcin, Funda; Yalcin, Saban

    2014-08-01

    Acute angle closure glaucoma is a sight-threatening situation characterized by a sudden and marked rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) due to obstruction of aqueous humour outflow. Many local (ocular drops, nasal and nebulized agents) and systemic drugs (e.g. atropine, adrenaline, ephedrine, some psychoactive and antiepileptic drugs) that are widely used in intensive care units have the potential to precipitate such an acute attack. In this case report, we describe progressive visual loss due to acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG) in a 59 year old female patient followed in the ICU due to a massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:25252529

  8. Species and tissue-specificity of prokinetic, laxative and spasmodic effects of Fumaria parviflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb-ur-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fumaria parviflora Linn. (Fumariaceae, is a small branched annual herb found in many parts of the world including Saudi Arabia and Pakistan. This study was designed to provide pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Fumaria parviflora in gut motility disorders. Methods The in-vivo prokinetic and laxative assays were conducted in mice. Isolated intestinal preparations (ileum and jejunum from different animal species (mouse, guinea-pig and rabbit were separately suspended in tissue baths containing Tyrode's solution bubbled with carbogen and maintained at 37°C. The spasmogenic responses were recorded using isotonic transducers coupled with PowerLab data acquisition system. Results The aqueous-methanol extract of Fumaria parviflora (Fp.Cr, which tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones showed partially atropine-sensitive prokinetic and laxative activities in the in-vivo in mice at 30 and 100 mg/kg. In the in-vitro studies, Fp.Cr (0.01-1 mg/ml caused a concentration-dependent atropine-sensitive stimulatory effect both in mouse tissues (jejunum and ileum, and rabbit jejunum but had no effect in rabbit ileum. In guinea-pig tissues (ileum and jejunum, the crude extract showed a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect with higher efficacy in ileum and the effect was partially blocked by atropine, indicating the involvement of more than one types of gut-stimulant components (atropine-sensitive and insensitive. This could be a plausible reason for the greater efficacy of Fp.Cr in gut preparations of guinea-pig than in rabbit or mouse. Conclusions This study shows the prokinetic, laxative and spasmodic effects of the plant extract partially mediated through cholinergic pathways with species and tissue-selectivity, and provides a sound rationale for the medicinal use of Fumaria parviflora in gut motility disorders such as, indigestion and constipation. This study also suggests using

  9. Pilocarpine-induced seizure-like activity with increased BNDF and neuropeptide Y expression in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Jahnsen, Henrik; Blaabjerg, Morten;

    2002-01-01

    exposed to 0.1 mM to 5 mM of pilocarpine for 4 h to 7 days. Other cultures were treated with pilocarpine for 7 days and left for 7-14 days in normal medium. Age-matched, non-treated cultures served as controls. Intracellular recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells revealed increased spontaneous activity in 31...... the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (100 microM). Regardless of dose and exposure time, the pilocarpine treatment induced very limited neuronal cell death, recorded as cellular propidium iodide uptake. Cultures exposed to 5 mM pilocarpine for up to 7 days displayed increased BDNF expression...

  10. Drug: D01201 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01201 Drug Tiemonium iodide (JAN/INN); Visceralgine (TN) C18H24NO2S. I 445.0572 44...y organs 12 Agents affecting peripheral nervous system 124 Antispasmodics 1242 Atropines D01201 Tiemonium iodide...NAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03AB Synthetic anticholinergics, quaternary ammonium compounds A03AB17 Tiemonium iodide... D01201 Tiemonium iodide (JAN/INN) Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] G Protein-co...131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] Tiemonium iodide [ATC:A03AB17] D01201 Tiemonium iod

  11. Dosagem hormonal e avaliação testicular em cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyun thous) utilizando diferentes protocolos anestésicos

    OpenAIRE

    N.P. Souza; L.D'A Guimarães; R.C.R. Paz

    2011-01-01

    Tree Cerdocyon thous males received different anesthesia protocols: tiletamine-zolazepan (7mg/kg); ketamine-xylazine (12 and 1mg/kg); ketamine-xylazine-atropin (12, 1.0 and 0.04mg/kg), ketamine-midazolam (12 and 0.5mg/kg) and ketamine-acepromazine (12 and 0.1mg/kg) for semen collection by electroejaculation, testosterone hormonal dosages, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), testicular manual evaluation, biometry by caliper and ultrassonography (US). The ejaculates collected by electroejac...

  12. Substances médicamenteuses ou végétales antagonistes du venin ou potentialisant le sérum antivenimeux

    OpenAIRE

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Rakotonirina, V.S.; Rakotonirina, A.; Dzikouk, G.

    1997-01-01

    #Dendroaspis jamesoni$ (#Elapidae$) et #Echis ocellatus$ (#Viperidae$) sont responsables des envenimations mortelles les plus fréquentes au Cameroun. La toxicité du venin de ces deux espèces a été déterminée chez la souris selon la méthode de Spearman et Kärber. L'effet sur l'envenimation expérimentale de diverses substances (atropine, prométhazine, néostigmine, hydrocortisone, polyester sulfurique de pentosane, héparine, acide tranexamique et acide aminocaproïque) et extraits végétaux (#Schu...

  13. Interventional ovarian tube catheterization in treating tubal ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the feasibility and curative effect of treating tubal pregnancy through the fallopian tube with interventional catheterization decrease the difficulty of the procedure and shorten the consuming time. Methods: Applying the method of interventional catheterization of fallopian tube and injecting 0.5 mg atropine at the cervix beforehand, then 70 mg MTX was administered into the fallopian tube. Results: 113 patients were successfully recovered with health except one without any adversary complication. Conclusions: The interventional fallopian tube catheterization for treating ectopic pregnancy is a simple, safe, minitraumatic, quick and effective method. (authors)

  14. Ketamine anaesthesia for medical procedures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, E; Hanid, T K; Arthur, L J; Kay, B

    1976-01-01

    Ketamine hydrochloride 2 mg/kg, together with atropine 0.2 mg, has been given intravenously on 100 occasions on a general paediatric ward. No serious side effects occurred. Dreams followed in 4 children but did not reduce acceptability of the drug. In our hands it has greatly reduced the pain and distress of children undergoing many routine medical procedures, particularly the dread which builds up when these have to be repeated in the same child. It has also produced close to ideal conditions for the operator, and probably increased his efficiency by reducing the emotional strain which occurs when doing painful things to a frightened patient. PMID:942230

  15. Motor response of the human isolated small intestine and urinary bladder to porcine neuromedin U-8.

    OpenAIRE

    Maggi, C. A.; Patacchini, R.; S. Giuliani; Turini, D; Barbanti, G.; ROVERO P; Meli, A.

    1990-01-01

    1. Porcine neuromedin U-8 produced a concentration (0.3 nM-1 microM)-dependent contraction of the longitudinal muscle of the human isolated ileum, which was unaffected by either atropine (1 microM) or tetrodotoxin (1 microM). 2. By contrast, neuromedin U-8 had only a weak effect on the circular muscle of the human isolated ileum. 3. Neuromedin U-8 also produced a concentration-dependent contraction of mucosa-free muscle strips from the dome of the human isolated urinary bladder, its action be...

  16. Autonomic control of heart rate during forced activity and digestion in the snake Boa constrictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Taylor, E W; Andrade, D; Abe, A S

    2001-10-01

    Reptiles, particularly snakes, exhibit large and quantitatively similar increments in metabolic rate during muscular exercise and following a meal, when they are apparently inactive. The cardiovascular responses are similar during these two states, but the underlying autonomic control of the heart remains unknown. We describe both adrenergic and cholinergic tonus on the heart during rest, during enforced activity and during digestion (24-36 h after ingestion of 30 % of their body mass) in the snake Boa constrictor. The snakes were equipped with an arterial catheter for measurements of blood pressure and heart rate, and autonomic tonus was determined following infusion of the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol (3 mg kg(-1)) and the muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonist atropine (3 mg kg(-1)). The mean heart rate of fasting animals at rest was 26.4+/-1.4 min(-1), and this increased to 36.1+/-1.4 min(-1) (means +/- S.E.M.; N=8) following double autonomic block (atropine and propranolol). The calculated cholinergic and adrenergic tones were 60.1+/-9.3 % and 19.8+/-2.2 %, respectively. Heart rate increased to 61.4+/-1.5 min(-1) during enforced activity, and this response was significantly reduced by propranolol (maximum values of 35.8+/-1.6 min(-1)), but unaffected by atropine. The cholinergic and adrenergic tones were 2.6+/-2.2 and 41.3+/-1.9 % during activity, respectively. Double autonomic block virtually abolished tachycardia associated with enforced activity (heart rate increased significantly from 36.1+/-1.4 to 37.6+/-1.3 min(-1)), indicating that non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic effectors are not involved in regulating heart rate during activity. Blood pressure also increased during activity. Digestion was accompanied by an increase in heart rate from 25.6+/-1.3 to 47.7+/-2.2 min(-1) (N=8). In these animals, heart rate decreased to 44.2+/-2.7 min(-1) following propranolol infusion and increased to 53.9+/-1.8 min(-1) after infusion of atropine, resulting in small

  17. Human eosinophil major basic protein is an endogenous allosteric antagonist at the inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacoby, D. B.; Gleich, G J; Fryer, A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of human eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) as well as other eosinophil proteins, on binding of [3H]N-methyl-scopolamine ([3H]NMS: 1 x 10(-10) M) to muscarinic M2 receptors in heart membranes and M3 receptors in submandibular gland membranes was studied. MBP inhibited specific binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors but not to M3 receptors. MBP also inhibited atropine-induced dissociation of [3H]NMS-receptor complexes in a dose-dependent fashion, demonstrating that the interaction of ...

  18. Antinociceptive and antiamnesic properties of the presynaptic amplifier PG-9

    OpenAIRE

    C. Ghelardini; Galeotti, N.; Gualtieri, F.; MARCHESE, V.; C. BELLUCCI; Bartolini, A.

    1998-01-01

    The antinociceptive effect of 3a-tropyl 2-(p-bromophenyl)propionate [(6)-PG-9] (10–40 mg kg21 s.c.; 30–60 mg kg21 p.o.; 10–30 mg kg21 i.v.; 10–30 mg/mouse i.c.v.) was examined in mice, rats and guinea pigs by use of the hot-plate, abdominalconstriction, tail-flick and paw-pressure tests. (6)-PG-9 antinociception peaked 15 min after injection and then slowly diminished. The antinociception produced by (6)-PG-9 was prevented by the unselective muscarinic antagonist atropine...

  19. An electrophysiological study of excitatory purinergic neuromuscular transmission in longitudinal smooth muscle of chicken anterior mesenteric artery

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, Maisa; El-Mahmoudy, AbuBakr; SHIINA, Takahiko; Shimizu, Yasutake; NIKAMI, Hideki; El-Sayed, Mossad; Kobayashi, Haruo; TAKEWAKI, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    The object of the present study was to clarify the neurotransmitters controlling membrane responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the longitudinal smooth muscle cells of the chicken anterior mesenteric artery.EFS (5 pulses at 20 Hz) evoked a depolarization of amplitude 19.7±2.1 mV, total duration 29.6±3.1 s and latency 413.0±67.8 ms. This depolarization was tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive and its amplitude was partially decreased by atropine (0.5 μM); however, its duration was shorten...

  20. Cardiac adaptation to high altitude in the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pichon, Aurélien; Zhenzhong, Bai; Marchant, Dominique; Jin, Guoen; Voituron, Nicolas; Haixia, Yun; Favret, Fabrice; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Ge, Ri-Li

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess maximal heart rate (HR) and heart morphological changes in high altitude living “plateau pikas” and rats bred at 2260 m. Rats and pikas were catheterized to measure HR (2260 m). After baseline measurements, 1 mg/kg of atropine (AT) and increasing doses of isoproterenol (IsoP) (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg kg) were injected into animals. Right (RV) and left ventricles (LV) were removed to calculate Fulton's ratio (LV + septum (S) to RV weights) and to assess mRNA ...

  1. Comparison of the efficacy of three premedicants administered to cats

    OpenAIRE

    Dyson, Doris H.; Pascoe, Peter J.; Honeyman, Virginia; Rahn, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Healthy cats (n = 90), anesthetized for minor procedures, were included in a study designed to evaluate the efficacy of three premedicant mixtures. The drug combination was assigned randomly and the evaluations were made by individuals unaware of the treatment used. The mixtures and their final concentrations were as follows: acepromazine (1.0 mg/mL) and atropine (0.25 mg/mL) with either meperidine (20.0 mg/mL), ketamine (25.0 mg/mL), or oxymorphone (0.2 mg/mL). The dose used was 0.2 mL/kg0.7...

  2. A comparison of epidural anaesthesia with lignocaine, bupivacaine and a lignocaine-bupivacaine mixture in cats

    OpenAIRE

    F.M. Lawal; Adetunji, A.

    2009-01-01

    A mixture of 2% lignocaine (LIG) and 0.5% bupivacaine (BUP), at respective dose rates of 2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg (LIG-BUP), was compared to LIG (4 mg/kg) and BUP (1 mg/kg) for lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia in 5 sedated cats. Each cat received all 3 treatment regimens at 1-week intervals. The cats were premedicated with an intramuscular injection of atropine sulphate (0.04 mg/kg) and ketamine hydrochloride (10 mg/kg). Onset and duration of analgesia, and time to walking were determined. Assoc...

  3. Effects of maintenance of propofol-ketamine anesthesia with repeat bolus and constant rate infusion of propofol on physiological, biochemical, anesthetic and analgesic indices in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Njoku Uchechukwu Njoku

    2015-01-01

    The research work was aimed at investigating physiological, biochemical, analgesic and anesthetic indices of dogs anesthetized with propofol-ketamine and maintained with repeat bolus and constant infusions of propofol. Eight dogs, assigned to two groups (n=4), were used in this study. All dogs were pre-medicated with atropine (at 0.03 mg/kg bwt) and xylazine (at 2 mg/kg bwt). Anesthesia was induced by a concurrent administration of propofol (at 4 mg/kg bwt) and ketamine (at 2.5 mg/kg bwt). Ma...

  4. Plasma glucagon and glucose recovery after hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Holst, Janett;

    1991-01-01

    The role of the autonomic nervous system in the glucagon response to hypoglycemia has not been fully clarified. We have studied the effect of total pharmacological blockade of the autonomic nervous system (concomitant alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockade with simultaneous atropine injection) and of...... glucose recovery after hypoglycemia. We conclude that the autonomic nervous system has no major influence on the glucagon response to hypoglycemia in healthy man. Changes in autonomic nervous activity are not essential for blood glucose recovery after hypoglycemia in healthy man....

  5. Cholinergic component in the human pancreatic secretory response to intraintestinal oleate.

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela, J E; Lamers, C B; Modlin, I. M.; Walsh, J H

    1983-01-01

    To determine the role of cholinergic reflexes on pancreatic secretory response to food, we studied the effect of atropine on amylase secretion in response to the octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK8) and to intraintestinal oleate. Four studies were done in six healthy volunteers. The duodenal content was aspirated by a double lumen tube while synthetic secretin (41 pmol/kg/h) was infused as a background in all the studies. Graded doses of CCK8 IV or 0.42 M oleate pH 9.4 at 25 ml/h into the in...

  6. Alopecia following oral acyclovir for the treatment of herpes simplex keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report acyclovir-induced alopecia in a patient treated for herpetic keratouveitis. A 32-years-old female was diagnosed with herpetic keratouveitis. She was placed on prednisolone acetate (1% suspension four times a day, atropine sulfate (1% thrice a day, and oral acyclovir 400 mg twice-daily. Three weeks following oral acylovir, keratouveitis improved, but she developed alopecia without any drug eruptions. Oral acyclovir was discontinued. Three months later, alopecia completely resolved. Alopecia may be considered a possible complication following oral acyclovir.

  7. Dual action of antimuscarinic agents on the intestinal smooth muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya SRK

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Propantheline, oxyphenonium, isoproponaide, epidosine, adiphe-nine and atropine were studied for their effect on the superfused infesting of guinea pig and rat. In small, concentrations, all drugs produced a contraction, which with increasing concentration, was Hocked. Occasionally, a contraction and a relaxation or vice versa was recorded. A partial antagonism and a potentiation on the action of acetylcholine (Ach during recovery was observed. In very high concentrations, all drugs produced a graded contraction of intestine, except adiphenine which produced a sustained contraction. Some- times, a contraction and a relaxation was also observed.

  8. Asystole Following Profound Vagal Stimulation During Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Asystole in a non laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery following intense vagal stimulation is a rare event. This case report highlights the need for awareness of such a complication when a thoracic epidural anaesthetic has been given in addition to a general anaesthetic for an upper abdominal procedure. A combined thoracic epidural and general anaesthetic was given. The anterior abdominal wall was retracted forty minutes after administration of the epidural bolus. This maneuver resulted in a profound vagal response with bradycardia and asystole. The patient was resuscitated successfully with a cardiac massage, atropine and adrenaline and the surgery was resumed. Surgery lasted eleven hours and was uneventful.

  9. Ketamine-propofol sedation in circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Gulec

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effects of ketamine alone or ketamine plus propofol on analgesia, sedation, recovery time, side effects in premedicated children with midazolam-ketamine-atropin who are prepared circumcision operation.METHODS: 60 American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I-II children, aged between 3 and 9 years, undergoing circumcision operations under sedation were recruited according to a randomize and double-blind institutional review board-approved protocol. Patients were randomized into two groups via sealed envelope assignment. Both groups were administered a mixture of midazolam 0.05 mg/kg + ketamine 3 mg/kg + atropine 0.02 mg/kg intramuscularly in the presence of parents in the pre-operative holding area. Patients were induced with propofol-ketamine in Group I or ketamine alone in Group II.RESULTS: In the between-group comparisons, age, weight, initial systolic blood pressure, a difference in terms of the initial pulse rate was observed (p > 0.050. Initial diastolic blood pressure and subsequent serial measurements of 5, 10, 15, 20th min, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate in ketamine group were significantly higher (p < 0.050.CONCLUSION: Propofol-ketamine (Ketofol provided better sedation quality and hemodynamy than ketamine alone in pediatric circumcision operations. We did not observe significant complications during sedation in these two groups. Therefore, ketofol appears to be an effective and safe sedation method for circumcision operation.

  10. Salvia miltiorrhiza Induces Tonic Contraction of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter in Rats via Activation of Extracellular Ca2+ Influx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chung Tsai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Up to 40% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD suffer from proton pump inhibitor refractory GERD but clinically the medications to strengthen the lower esophageal sphincter (LES to avoid irritating reflux are few in number. This study aimed to examine whether Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM extracts induce tonic contraction of rat LES ex vivo and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. To investigate the mechanism underlying the SM extract-induced contractile effects, rats were pretreated with atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist, tetrodotoxin (a sodium channel blocker, nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker, and Ca2+-free Krebs-Henseleit solution with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, followed by administration of cumulative dosages of SM extracts. SM extracts induced dose-related tonic contraction of the LES, which was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, atropine, or nifedipine. However, the SM extract-induced LES contraction was significantly inhibited by Ca2+-free Krebs-Henseleit solution with EGTA. Next, SM extracts significantly induce extracellular Ca2+ entry into primary LES cells in addition to intracellular Ca2+ release and in a dose-response manner. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the SM extracts consistently induced significant extracellular Ca2+ influx into primary LES cells in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, SM extracts could induce tonic contraction of LES mainly through the extracellular Ca2+ influx pathway.

  11. Pentobarbital Toxicity after Self-Administration of Euthasol Veterinary Euthanasia Medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jason Crellin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt via sodium pentobarbital is uncommon. A 48-year-old woman with a history of depression and prior suicide attempt was found unresponsive by her veterinarian spouse near a syringe containing pink solution. Upon EMS’ arrival, the patient was experiencing apnea, hypoxemia, and miotic pupils; her blood glucose level measured 73 mg/dL. She was bradycardic and administered atropine with transient improvement in heart rate and transported to an emergency department; 2 mg of intravenous naloxone was administered without effect. She was endotracheally intubated via rapid sequence intubation. Rapid urine drug screening detected both benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit where she demonstrated a nearly absent radial pulse. Emergent fasciotomy to the left forearm and carpal tunnel was performed for acute compartment syndrome; “Euthasol” had been self-administered into the antecubital fossa. Expanded toxicological analysis via liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy detected caffeine, atropine, 7-aminoclonazepam, phenytoin, citalopram, and naproxen. The patient’s coma resolved over 48 hours and she was successfully extubated without complication. Emergency physicians must closely monitor patients exposed to veterinary euthanasia agents who develop central nervous system and respiratory depression, hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension, or skin injury. Consultation with a regional poison center and medical toxicologist is recommended.

  12. Antimotility effects of extracts and fractions of Eastern Nigeria mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus Linn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patience O Osadebe; Chika C Abba; Matthias O Agbo

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate the antimotility activity ofEasternNigerian mistletoe[Loranthus micranthus(L. micranthus)Linn] parasitic on six different host treesviz. Baphia nitida, Persia americana, Kola accuminata, Irvingia gabonensis, Citrus simensis andPentacletra macrophylla (P. mycrophylla).Methods:The antimotility of the methanol extracts and solvent fractions were evaluated in castor oil induced diarrheoa in rats.Results:The methanol extracts(200 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited defeacation significantly(P <0.05)4 h after administration(75.73% to93.33%) more than that of atropine sulphate(2 mg/kg,i.p.) which inhibited defeacation by80.0%.The methanol extract(200 mg/kg,i.p.) ofL. micranthus parasitic onP. mycrophylla exhibited significant(P<0.05) inhibition in gastrointestinal transit(67.6%) more than that of atropine sulphate(2 mg/kg,i.p.) which inhibited gastrointestinal transit by26.4%.The solvent fractions of L. micranthus parasitic onP. mycrophylla at dose levels of150 mg/kg inhibited significantly the gastrointestinal transit of mice.FractionF5 exhibited inhibitory activity which was comparable to loperamide(73.3%). Conclusions:The methanol extract ofL. micranthus parasitic onP. macrophylla exhibits higher antimotility activity that other extracts.The solvent fractions could serve as source of novel antimotility agents.

  13. Influence of Needling the Foot-Yangming Points on Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration in Smooth Muscles of the Gastric Antrum in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yuanjiang; Yi Shouxiang; Lin Yaping; Yan Jie; Guo Hui; Xiang Zhiyong; Wu Fang; Liu Weiying; Chen Zhengqiu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of acupuncture at the points of Foot-Yangming Meridian on intracellular concentration of Ca2, called the 2nd messenger of gastric smooth muscles. Methods: 45rabbits were randomly divided into the following 5 groups: a normal saline group, a model group treated with atropine, an acupuncture group treated by needling the points of Foot-Yangming Meridian, an acupuncture group treated by needling the points of Foot-Shaoyang Meridian, an acupuncture group treated by needling the points of Foot-Taiyang Meridian, i.e. 9 rabbits in each group. After treatment, the smooth muscles of the gastric antrum were taken to make the suspension containing alive single muscular cells, and the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was determined by a spectrofluorometer.Results: The concentration of [Ca2+]i in the group of Foot-Yangming Meridian was obviously higher than that of the atropine group (P<0.01), but with no significant differences found among all the other groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: The influence of acupuncture at the points of Foot-Yangming Meridian on gastric movement is related to the release of intracellular Ca2+ in the gastric smooth muscles.

  14. Neural contributions to irradiation shock and hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have introduced the young rabbit as a model for the irradiation hypotension of mammals, including man. Double cervical vagotomy (DCV) eliminates the acute shock and hypotension which occur 60 min after irradiation. DCV plus shielding of the heart and lungs protects almost completely. Low doses of atropine (1 mg/kg) block vagal depression of the heart, but have little effect on shock or hypotension. Higher doses (2 to 6 mg/kg) give partial protection proportional to the dose of atropine. Beta adrenergic block has no effect. Alpha block prevents the changes in the cutaneous vasculature which precede and accompany shock, but does not prevent shock. The electrical activity of the vagus may increase progressively from 20 min. This requires further work to establish its consistency and intensity, and the contributions of afferent and efferent pathways. Shock and severe hypotension depend on the intact vagus and this dependence is difficult to attribute to increased vagal depression of the heart or to increased adrenergic activity to date

  15. Dorsal raphe nucleus acetylcholine-mediated neurotransmission modulates post-ictal antinociception: The role of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-01-15

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is a key structure of the endogenous pain inhibitory system. Although the DRN is rich in serotoninergic neurons, cholinergic neurons are also found in that nucleus. Both ictal and inter-ictal states are followed by post-ictal analgesia. The present study investigated the role of cholinergic mechanisms in postictal antinociceptive processes using microinjections of atropine and mecamylamine, muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonists, respectively, in the DRN of rats. Intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (at 64mg/kg) caused tonic and tonic-clonic seizures. The convulsive motor reactions were followed by an increase in pain thresholds, a phenomenon known as post-ictal analgesia. Pre-treatment of the DRN with atropine or mecamylamine at 1µg, 3µg and 5µg/0.2µL decreased the post-ictal antinociceptive phenomenon. The present results showed that the post-ictal analgesia was mediated by muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the DRN, a structure crucially involved in the neural network that organises post-ictal hypoalgesia. PMID:26620541

  16. Action of cocaine and chronic sympathetic denervation on vagal escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, H. A.; Urquilla, P. R.

    1969-01-01

    1. The effect of cocaine has been studied on vagal escape and on the tachycardia due to vagal stimulation in the atropinized dog. All the dogs were submitted to acute cervical section of the spinal cord and acute or chronic sympathetic denervation. 2. Cocaine, 5 mg/kg or 40 μg/kg/min, I.V., induces a significant enhancement of the ventricular escape. The effects of a continuous infusion of cocaine are more reproducible than those of a single injection of the drug. 3. Cocaine, 40 μg/kg/min, I.V., potentiates the tachycardia due to vagal stimulation in the atropinized dog. 4. Chronic thoracic sympathectomy markedly retards the recovery of the ventricular rate from the inhibitory action of the vagus. Under this condition, the infusion of cocaine does not significantly enhance the ventricular escape. 5. These findings suggest that an adrenergic mechanism located at the sympathetic nerves supplying the heart is substantially involved in the phenomenon of vagal escape. PMID:5249864

  17. Inhibition of the voltage-dependent chloride channel of Torpedo electric organ by diisopropylfluorophosphate and its reversal by oximes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), a potent organophosphate inhibitor of cholinesterases, was found to inhibit the specific binding of [35S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS), specific chloride channels ligand, to the electric organ membranes of Torpedo, with a Ki of 21 +/- 3 μM. The binding sites of [35S]TBPS in the Torpedo membranes were found not to be GABA receptors or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as previously described. Interestingly, a stimulation of the binding of [35S]TBPS was observed in the presence of atropine and three oximes, monopyridinium oxime 2-PAM, bispyridinium bis-oxime TMB-4 and H-oxime HI-6. The maximal stimulation was 300-500% of control, after which, the stimulation was reversed at higher concentrations. The three oximes protected by more than 95% the inhibition by 1 mM DFP of the binding of [35S]TBPS to the voltage-dependent chloride channel. However, atropine protected only 20% of the inhibited channel. These results, thus, suggest that the protection against the toxic effects of DFP or other anticholinesterase agents by the tested oximes may not be solely a result of the reactivation of cholinesterases but also the protection of the voltage-dependent chloride channel

  18. Phosphatidylinositol turnover (PI) during synaptic activation results from the release of a stimulatory and in inhibitory agonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PI has been implicated in the process of synaptic transmission and is increased by agonists. It has been suggested that PI is involved in cellular Ca++ mobilization and the process represents a series of hydrolytic reactions with inositol as the final product. Hence, the rate of release of 3H-inositol (3H-Ins) from prelabelled inositol phospholipids can be used as an index of PI. In the 3H-inositol prelabelled frog sympathetic ganglia, they studied the effect of synaptic activity on PI. PI did not change during orthodromic stimulation (20 Hz, 5 min). However, upon cessation of the stimulation, PI increased rapidly and remained elevated for at least 30 min. This increase in PI was reduced by suffusing the ganglia with either acetylcholine or adenosine. In the presence of atropine (5 μM), orthodromic stimulation increased PI. They hypothesized that synaptic activation releases a long-lasting stimulatory agonist and a short-lived inhibitory (Ach/adenosine) agonist(s) affecting PI. To test this idea, 2 sympathetic ganglia were used. One was prelabelled with 3H-inositol and the other was not. The two ganglia were placed together in a 5 μl drop of Ringers solution containing atropine. Orthodromic stimuli were applied to the non-labelled ganglion and elicited release of 3H-Ins from the non-stimulated ganglion

  19. Neurophysiological effects of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) on isolated rat intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenkovic, M; Ivetic, V; Popovic, M; Mimica-Dukic, N; Veljkovic, S

    2006-05-01

    Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) is well known as a medicine from ancient times and the earliest notes. Today it is used as a remedy. The aim of this research was to examine the effects of mistletoe extracts and their components on some neurophysiological parameters in rat intestines. The tonus and contractile responses of isolated intestinal segments (duodenum, ileum and distal colon) were analysed. The experiment was carried out in three groups. In the first group (control group) different concentrations of acetylcholine were added into the organ bath (10-50 nmol/L). In the second group, mistletoe extracts were added into the organ bath with increasing concentrations and in the third group, atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, was added into the organ bath (concentration 10(-7) mol/L) and after atropine plant extracts were administered. The results obtained suggest that extracts from different parts of mistletoe have neurophysiological effects and change intestinal contractions. The results also suggest that the effects of mistletoe extracts on intestinal contractility act via cholinergic pathways, activating muscarinic receptors in the intestines. However, in order to establish the subtype of receptors, further investigations are necessary where selective antagonists of muscarinic cholinergic receptors should be used. PMID:16619366

  20. Measurement of total respiratory impedance in calves by the forced oscillation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, P; Dhem, A R; Lomba, F; Lekeux, P; Van de Woestijne, K P; Làndsér, F J

    1988-05-01

    We have determined the resistance (Rrs) and the reactance (Xrs) of the total respiratory system in unsedated spontaneously breathing calves at various frequencies. A pseudorandom noise pressure wave was produced at the nostrils of the animals by means of a loudspeaker adapted to the nose by a tightly fitting mask. A Fourier analysis of the pressure in the nostrils and flow signals yielded mean Rrs and Xrs, over 16 s, at frequencies of 2-26 Hz. A good correlation was found between values of pulmonary resistances measured by the isovolume method at the respiratory frequency of animals and values obtained at a frequency of 6 Hz by use of our technique. The linearity of the respiratory system, the reproducibility of the technique, and the effects of upper airways on results have been studied. In healthy calves, Rrs increases with frequency. Mean resonant frequency is 7.5 Hz. Bronchospasm was induced in six calves by administration of intravenous organophosphates. Rrs tended to decrease with increasing frequency. Resonant frequency exceeded 26 Hz. All parameters returned to initial values after administration of atropine. In healthy calves, atropine produces a decrease in Rrs, especially at low frequencies. Values of resonant frequency are not modified. PMID:3391882

  1. Electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of nucleus basalis magnocellularis neurons in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-qiu ZHANG; Shao-gang LU; Ya-ping JI; Zhi-qi ZHAO; Jun MEI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the primary electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nbM) neurons. METHODS: Single unit extracellular recordings from the nbM neurons were obtained with glass micropipettes in urethane-anesthetized rats. RESULTS: Most nbM neurons responded to noxious but not innocuous mechanical, thermal, chemical, and electrical stimuli. The receptive fields were usually very large and bilateral. Electrical stimulation applied to the frontal cortex (FCX) either activated orthodromically or antidromically the nbM neurons. The FCX stimulation-induced excitatory response in the nbM neurons could be partly blocked by intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of atropine 2.5 mmol/L or tubocurarine 0.1 mmol/L. Icv injection of ACh (1, 10, and 100 mmol/L) dose-dependently increased the spontaneous firing rate in most of the nbM neurons. Atropine (2.5, 25, and 250 mmol/L) or tubocurarine (0.1, 1, and 10 mmol/L) not only antagonized the ACh-induced excitation, but also inhibited the spontaneous firing of the nbM neurons. CONCLUSION: The nbM might be involved in nociception, although it was considered to play a critical role in cognitive function. Also,the nbM appears to be rich in cholinergic autoreceptors.

  2. Confirmed Datura poisoning in a horse most probably due to D. ferox in contaminated tef hay : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gerber

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Two out of a group of 23 mares exposed to tef hay contaminated with Datura ferox (and possibly D. stramonium developed colic. The 1st animal was unresponsive to conservative treatment, underwent surgery for severe intestinal atony and had to be euthanased. The 2nd was less seriously affected, responded well to analgesics and made an uneventful recovery. This horse exhibited marked mydriasis on the first 2 days of being poisoned and showed protracted, milder mydriasis for a further 7 days. Scopolamine was chemically confirmed in urine from this horse for 3 days following the colic attack, while atropine could just be detected for 2 days. Scopolamine was also the main tropane alkaloid found in the contaminating plant material, confirming that this had most probably been a case of D. ferox poisoning. Although Datura intoxication of horses from contaminated hay was suspected previously, this is the 1st case where the intoxication could be confirmed by urine analysis for tropane alkaloids. Extraction and detection methods for atropine and scopolamine in urine are described employing enzymatic hydrolysis followed by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS.

  3. Absence of cholinergic airway tone in normal BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Alexander N; Zosky, Graeme R; Bozanich, Elizabeth M; Turner, Debra J; Hantos, Zoltan; Sly, Peter D

    2008-05-31

    Basal airway smooth muscle (ASM) tone has not been demonstrated in mice in vivo. To determine whether basal ASM tone is present in mouse airways we measured respiratory system impedance (Zrs) before and after either atropine or bilateral vagotomy. Zrs was measured using forced oscillations delivered via a wave-tube during slow ( approximately 35s) inflation-deflation maneuvers between transrespiratory pressures (Prs) of 0 and 20 cm H2O. A constant-phase tissue model was applied to the Zrs to calculate airway resistance (R aw), tissue damping (G) and elastance (H). Thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined plethysmographically at Prs=0 cm H2O and by integration of the inspiratory flow. The relationship between conductance (G aw=1/R aw) and TGV during inflation was also examined. Neither atropine nor vagotomy produced any change in R aw, H, eta (=G/H), TGV or the slope of G aw vs. TGV that was different to that observed in the relevant control groups. These data show that BALB/c mice do not have cholinergic ASM tone in vivo. PMID:18440286

  4. Methanol extract ofDesmodium gangeticumDC root mimetic post-conditioning effect in isolated perfused rat heart by stimulating muscarinic receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gino A Kurian; Jose Paddikkala

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate pharmacological mimetic action of herbal extractDesmodium gangeticum (DG) roots on ischemia reperfusion injury.Methods:With the help of Langendroff perfusion technique, ischemic post condition (POC) mimetic action of DG methanol root extract was evaluated and compared by using standard drugs that acts as muscarinic receptor agonist and antagonist, namely acetylcholine (Ach) and atropine (Atr) respectively in an isolated rat heart. Results:The physiological parameters like left ventricular developed pressure, end diastolic pressure and working index of isolated rat heart showed significant recovery in DG root extract administrated rat heart, similar to the recovery by POC. Kymogram results showed muscarinic receptor agonist like action for DG methanol root extract, confirmed in rat heart by muscarnic receptor agonist (acetylcholine) and anatoginst (atropine). Administration of DG root extract prior to reperfusion showed better antioxidant status in myocardial tissue homogenate and mitochondrial, complemented by the levels of cardiac specific marker proteins in myocardial tissue and perfusate. Even though DG methanol root extract mimics its action similar to that of Ach, the myocardial protection mediated by the extract was superior to Ach, due to the presence of antioxidants in the crude extract.Conclusions: DG methanol root extract provides myocardial protection towards IRI by stimulating muscarinic receptors.

  5. Know your ABCs: Characterization and gene expression dynamics of ABC transporters in the polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretschneider, Anne; Heckel, David G; Vogel, Heiko

    2016-05-01

    Polyphagous insect herbivores are adapted to many different secondary metabolites of their host plants. However, little is known about the role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a multigene family involved in detoxification processes. To study the larval response of the generalist Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera) and the putative role of ABC transporters, we performed developmental assays on artificial diet supplemented with secondary metabolites from host plants (atropine-scopolamine, nicotine and tomatine) and non-host plants (taxol) in combination with a replicated RNAseq experiment. A maximum likelihood phylogeny identified the subfamily affiliations of the ABC transporter sequences. Larval performance was equal on the atropine-scopolamine diet and the tomatine diet. For the latter we could identify a treatment-specific upregulation of five ABC transporters in the gut. No significant developmental difference was detected between larvae fed on nicotine or taxol. This was also mirrored in the upregulation of five ABC transporters when fed on either of the two diets. The highest number of differentially expressed genes was recorded in the gut samples in response to feeding on secondary metabolites. Our results are consistent with the expectation of a general detoxification response in a polyphagous herbivore. This is the first study to characterize the multigene family of ABC transporters and identify gene expression changes across different developmental stages and tissues, as well as the impact of secondary metabolites in the agricultural pest H. armigera. PMID:26951878

  6. Stimulation of brain muscarinic acetylcholine receptors acutely reverses radiogenic hypodipsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation produces changes in water consumption. However, the direction, durations, and physiological substrates of these alterations remain in question. Here we report a 5-d hypodipsia in rats exposed to 600 rads 60Co but a more transient, albeit larger, reduction in drinking after 1000 60Co. Brain cholinergic neurons have been implicated as mediators of thirst. Therefore, we explored the role of hypothalamic muscarinic receptors in the production of radiation-induced hypodipsia. This was accomplished through the intrahypothalamic injection of carbachol (a muscarinic agonist) or atropine (a muscarinic antagonist) in irradiated rats. Intracranial carbachol produced acute reversal of radiogenic hypodipsia while atropine potentiated the hypodipsia. These post-irradiation drug-induced behaviors were similar to those observed after the same drug treatments before irradiation. Since cholinergic neuronal functions persist and are labile (can be pharmacologically stimulated and blocked) after irradiation, this suggests that other neuronal systems and/or neurochemicals may be more prominently involved in radiogenic hypodipsia

  7. Muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptor activation differentially mobilize Ca2+ in rat intracardiac ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beker, Friederike; Weber, Martin; Fink, Rainer H A; Adams, David J

    2003-09-01

    The origin of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) transients stimulated by nicotinic (nAChR) and muscarinic (mAChR) receptor activation was investigated in fura-2-loaded neonatal rat intracardiac neurons. ACh evoked [Ca2+]i increases that were reduced to approximately 60% of control in the presence of either atropine (1 microM) or mecamylamine (3 microM) and to <20% in the presence of both antagonists. Removal of external Ca2+ reduced ACh-induced responses to 58% of control, which was unchanged in the presence of mecamylamine but reduced to 5% of control by atropine. The nAChR-induced [Ca2+]i response was reduced to 50% by 10 microM ryanodine, whereas the mAChR-induced response was unaffected by ryanodine, suggesting that Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ stores may only contribute to the nAChR-induced [Ca2+]i responses. Perforated-patch whole cell recording at -60 mV shows that the rise in [Ca2+]i is concomitant with slow outward currents on mAChR activation and with rapid inward currents after nAChR activation. In conclusion, different signaling pathways mediate the rise in [Ca2+]i and membrane currents evoked by ACh binding to nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in rat intracardiac neurons. PMID:12761283

  8. Mediators involved in the hyperthermic action of neuromedin U in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegdy, G; Adamik, A

    2014-01-01

    Neuromedin U (NmU), first was isolated from the porcine spinal cord, has subsequently been demonstrated in a number of species, in which it is present in the periphery and also the brain. Two receptors have been identified: NmU1R is mainly present in peripheral tissues, and Nmu2R in the central nervous system. NmU, a potent endogenous anorectic, serves as a catabolic signaling molecule in the brain; it inhibits food uptake, increases locomotion, activates stress mechanism, having cardiovasscular effects and, causes hyperthermia. The mechanism of this hyperthermia is unknown. In the present experiments, the effects of NmU on the colon temperature following i.c.v administration were studied in rats. For an investigation of the possible role of receptors in mediating hyperthermia, the animals were treated simultaneously with CRF 9-41 and antalarmin, a CRH1 receptor inhibitors, astressin 2B, a CRH2 receptor antagonist, haloperidol a dopamine receptor antagonist, atropine a muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, noraminophenazone a cyclooxygenase inhibitor or isatin, a prostaglandin receptor antagonist. NmU increased the colon temperature, maximal action being observed at 2-3h. CRF 9-41, antalarmin, astressin 2B haloperidol, atropine, noraminophenazone and isatin prevented the NmU-induced increase in colon temperature. The results demonstrated that, when injected into the lateral brain ventricle NmU increased the body temperature, mediated by CRHR1 and CRHR2, dopamine and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. The final pathway involves prostaglandin. PMID:25108055

  9. GABAA and GABAB receptor-mediated effects on the spontaneous activity of the longitudinal layer in cat terminal ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, N; Radomirov, R; Venkova, K

    1991-01-01

    1. GABA and GABAergic agonists-muscimol and (+/-)baclofen changed the spontaneous mechanical activity in isolated cat terminal ileum. 2. GABA at doses ranging from 5 microM to 2 mM produced concentration-dependent biphasic responses consisting of a transient relaxation followed by contractions with a tonic and a phasic components. 3. The GABA-induced relaxation was sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxinin and was mimicked by muscimol, while the GABA-induced contractions were insensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxinin and were mimicked by (+/-)baclofen. Specific cross desensitization occurred between GABA and muscimol or GABA and (+/-)baclofen. 4. The bicuculline-sensitive relaxation induced by GABA and muscimol was abolished by atropine or tetrodotoxin (TTX), while the bicuculline-insensitive contractions induced by GABA and (+/-)baclofen were not antagonized by atropine or TTX, though they were slightly suppressed. 5. The GABA effects in the longitudinal layer of cat terminal ileum were mediated by the following receptors: -GABAA prejunctional receptors whose activation causes relaxation, probably through an inhibitory action on cholinergic neurons; -GABAB prejunctional receptors whose activation cause contractions; -GABAB postjunctional receptors located on the smooth muscle membrane whose activation induces tonic and phasic contractions. PMID:1646745

  10. Analisis Gas Darah pada Kucing yang Mengalami Laparohisterotomi dengan Anestesi Xylazin-Ketamin dan Xylazin-Propofol (BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS OF XYLAZIN- KETAMIN AND XYLAZIN-PROPOFOL FOR ANESTHESIA TO LAPARO-HISTEROTOMY SURGERY IN CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Sari Yudaniayanti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the safety application of xylazine-ketamine and xylazinepropofolrecurrent dosage combination as anesthesia for laparo-histerotomy surgery in cat. Thisresearch used 10 female cats, 12-18 months of age, followed randomly divided into two groups, P1:atropine 0,04 mg/kgBW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + ketamine 20 mg/kg BW/IM; P2 : atropine0,04mg/kg BW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + Propofol 20 mg/kg BW/IV. The blood of the allgroups was taken from vena femuralis at 0 minute (before treatment, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutesduring anesthesia for measurement of blood gas value pH, pCO2 and HCO3. After all animals wereanesthetized, the animals were treated laparo-histerotomy surgery. The data were analyzed byusing Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD. The result showed both of groups were notsignificantly difference (p>0,05 to blood gas values for pH, pCO2 dan HCO3. Besides, both groupsanaesthetic agent perfectly caused metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis compensationperfectly, therefore it is relatively safe to use as anaesthetic agent for surgery that needs long timeprocedure, as laparo-histerotomy.

  11. Investigation of fundo-antral reflex in human beings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satish SC Rao; Anjana Kumar; Brent Harris; Bruce Brown; Konrad S Schulze

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the sensory and motor response(s)of the stomach following fundic distention and to assess whether cholinergic mechanisms influence these responses.METHODS: Fundic tone, gastric sensory responses and antral motility were evaluated in eight healthy volunteers after a probe with two sensors was placed in the antrum and a highly compliant balloon in the fundus. Isobaric balloon distentions were performed with a barostat.Study was repeated in six volunteers after intravenous atropine was given.RESULTS: Fundic distention induced large amplitude antral contractions in all subjects. The area under the curve was higher (P<0.05) during fundic distention.First sensation was reported at 12±4 mmHg,moderate sensation at 18±4 mmHg and discomfort at 21±4 mmHg. Discomfort was associated with a decrease in antral motility. After atropine was given, the area under the curve of pressure waves and fundic tone decreased (P<0.05). Sensory thresholds were not affected.CONCLUSIONS: Fundic balloon distention induces an antral motor response, the fundo-antral reflex, which in part may be mediated by cholinergic mechanisms.

  12. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Induces Electrogenic Secretion in the Duodenum of Gerbil (Gerbillus cheesmani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Y. Al-Balool

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of serosally added 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT 100 µ­M on the short circuit-current (Isc across duodenum taken from fed, starved (4 days, water ad lib and undernourished (50% control food intake for 21 days gerbils (Gerbillus cheesmani were investigated. The effect of the neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX 10 µM and atropine (100 µ­M on the maximum increase in Isc induced by 5-HT were also studied. The 5-HT-induced Isc were higher in unstripped than in the stripped sheets in the three feeding conditions. TTX reduced the maximum increase in Isc induced by 5-HT across stripped and unstripped sheets taken from fed, starved and undernourished gerbils. Atropine decreased the 5-HT-induced Isc of stripped sheets in the three feeding conditions and it also decreased the 5-HT-induced Isc in unstripped sheets in fed duodenum. Therefore, the duodenal response to 5-HT occur partly by activation of a nonneural pathway and partly by activating electrogenic ion transport via muscarinic neural mechanism. It also showed that the 5-HT-induced Isc was chloride-dependent in fed duodenum and were chloride and bicarbonate dependent in the duodenum taken from starved and undernourished gerbil The results also showed that the increase in 5-HT-induced Isc as a results of starvation and undernourishment were TTX-sensitive and both chloride and bicarbonate dependent.

  13. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae on Sexual Behavior in Normal Male Rats

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    B. Nchegang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We studied prosexual effects of Eremomastax speciosa aqueous extract in male adult rats. Materials and Methods. 100 and 500 mg/kg of extract were administered orally (days 0, 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 (posttreatment. The sexual behavior of rats receiving a single dose (500 mg/kg was also evaluated after pretreatment with Lω-NAME (10 mg/kg, haloperidol (1 mg/kg, or atropine (5 mg/kg. Controls received distilled water or testosterone enanthate (20 mg/kg/day/3 days (s.c. before the test. Results. The extract (days 1–14 had no significant effect on mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies but on day 28 (14 days after treatment, it increased frequency of mounts and intromissions at 500 mg/kg. Mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies reduced and postejaculatory intervals decreased but the effect did not persist 2 weeks after treatment. Extract prosex effects were greatly reduced by atropine and completely abolished by haloperidol, while Lω-NAME increased mount latency and potentiated extract effect on intromission and ejaculation latencies. Conclusion. In summary, E. speciosa extract can have positive effects on male sexual motivation and performance when administered for two weeks at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The effects (dopaminergic and/or cholinergic dependent tend to appear during the posttreatment period.

  14. Adrenergic and cholinergic responses in the uteroplacental vascular bed of the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on uterine and maternal placental circulation of adrenergic and cholinergic drugs, injected selectively in the ovarian and uterine arteries of guinea pigs, were analysed by serial angiography. Noradrenaline, 0.5 nmol/kg, was found to cause a reduction in both ovarian and uterine blood flow, associated with arterial vasoconstriction and impairment of the placental circulation. This response could be prevented by α-adrenergic blockade with 25 nmol/kg phenoxybenzamine. At injection into the ovarian artery, phenoxybenzamine alone increased ovarian blood flow and elicited arterial vasodilatation. At injection into the uterine artery the response was more variable, but vasodilatation was observed in four animals of six. Acetylcholine, 0.5 to 5.0 nmol/kg, evoked an increase in both ovarian and uterine blood flow and arterial vasodilatation. When the dose was increased to 50 nmol/kg, dilatation of the extrinsic uterine arteries was maintained, but the placental circulation was reduced due to concomitant contraction of the myometrium. All the effects of acetylcholine could be blocked by prior administration of 10 nmol/kg atropine. This dose of atropine did not affect uterine or placental circulation when given alone. (Auth.)

  15. Unexpected Diagnosis in the Metropolis: Organophosphate Poisoning

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    Işıl Bavunoğlu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to point out that organophosphate poisoning is rarely seen in the metropolis and therefore diagnosis and treatment of these poisonings can be delayed. A 62 year old woman with a history of diabetes type II and ischemic cerebrovascular disease was admitted to the Emergency Department of Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine with diarrhea. During a 24-h follow-up, dysphagia, bronchorrhea and myosis were established. The patient was investigated for cholinergic symptoms due to intoxication. Toxicologic analysis was made and atropine treatment begun in the emergency room, and the patient was followed up for 10 days at the intensive care unit (ICU without intubation. After the muscarinic symptoms improved, atropine treatment was terminated. The patient was discharged from the ICU and followed up in the service because of continual hypoxia. At the service follow-up, intermediated syndrome manifested as paralysis and respiratory distress. Hence the patient was intubated and mechanical ventilation was begun at the ICU. After the treatment, she was discharged without any sequel. In unintentional organophosphate poisoning cases, diagnosis and the treatment can be delayed because it is rare in large cities, so that the patient and their relatives are not aware of the poisoning.

  16. Effects of Charred Fructus Crataegi on the contractilily of isolated rat gastric and intestine muscle strips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hou-li; DIAO Yun-peng; LIU Zhi-hao; HUANG Shan-shan; MA Xiao-chi; LIN Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract on contractililty of isolated rat gastric and intesting smooth muscle strips. Methods Isolated rat intestine was selected in the assay to test the effects of Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract on contractilty of isolated rat gastric and intestine smooth muscle strips using Krebs' solution, to observe the effects of in the presence of acetylcholine or atropine. Results Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract in the range of 2-8 rag crude drugs/mL could significantly reduce the contractility of rat gastric and intestine smooth muscle strips in a dose-dependent manner, and Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract 8 mg·mL-1(crude drugs) could inhibit the stimulation induced by acetylcholine. Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract 8 mg·mL-1(crude drugs) was found to have a inhibiton of the relaxtion concurrently used with atropin. Conclusions The results suggest that Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract has prominent inhibitory effects on the contractile activity of isolated rat gastric and intestine smooth muscle strips.

  17. Antinociception induced by stimulating amygdaloid nuclei in rats: changes produced by systemically administered antagonists

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    M.A. Oliveira

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The antinociceptive effects of stimulating the medial (ME and central (CE nuclei of the amygdala in rats were evaluated by the changes in the latency for the tail withdrawal reflex to noxious heating of the skin. A 30-s period of sine-wave stimulation of the ME or CE produced a significant and short increase in the duration of tail flick latency. A 15-s period of stimulation was ineffective. Repeated stimulation of these nuclei at 48-h intervals produced progressively smaller effects. The antinociception evoked from the ME was significantly reduced by the previous systemic administration of naloxone, methysergide, atropine, phenoxybenzamine, and propranolol, but not by mecamylamine, all given at the dose of 1.0 mg/kg. Previous systemic administration of naloxone, atropine, and propranolol, but not methysergide, phenoxybenzamine, or mecamylamine, was effective against the effects of stimulating the CE. We conclude that the antinociceptive effects of stimulating the ME involve at least opioid, serotonergic, adrenergic, and muscarinic cholinergic descending mechanisms. The effects of stimulating the CE involve at least opioid, ß-adrenergic, and muscarinic cholinergic descending mechanisms.

  18. Pentobarbital Toxicity after Self-Administration of Euthasol Veterinary Euthanasia Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crellin, Steven Jason; Katz, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Suicide attempt via sodium pentobarbital is uncommon. A 48-year-old woman with a history of depression and prior suicide attempt was found unresponsive by her veterinarian spouse near a syringe containing pink solution. Upon EMS' arrival, the patient was experiencing apnea, hypoxemia, and miotic pupils; her blood glucose level measured 73 mg/dL. She was bradycardic and administered atropine with transient improvement in heart rate and transported to an emergency department; 2 mg of intravenous naloxone was administered without effect. She was endotracheally intubated via rapid sequence intubation. Rapid urine drug screening detected both benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit where she demonstrated a nearly absent radial pulse. Emergent fasciotomy to the left forearm and carpal tunnel was performed for acute compartment syndrome; "Euthasol" had been self-administered into the antecubital fossa. Expanded toxicological analysis via liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy detected caffeine, atropine, 7-aminoclonazepam, phenytoin, citalopram, and naproxen. The patient's coma resolved over 48 hours and she was successfully extubated without complication. Emergency physicians must closely monitor patients exposed to veterinary euthanasia agents who develop central nervous system and respiratory depression, hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension, or skin injury. Consultation with a regional poison center and medical toxicologist is recommended. PMID:26881149

  19. Effects of ketamine on the gastrointestinal motility of mice%氯胺酮对小鼠胃肠道蠕动功能的影响及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴奎霖; 李瑶函; 孙锶琦; 郭小玮; 邹逸帆; 张鑫磊; 仝坤; 秦霞

    2016-01-01

    Object ive To investigate the effects of ketamine on the gastrointestinal mobility of mice and M -R in the small intestine .Methods A total of 40 mice were divided into four groups according to their routes of administra-tion:a normal saline lavage group , a ketamine lavage group , a normal saline group by intraperitoneal injection , and a ketamine group by intraperitoneal injection. After administration of2 min, 0.2 ml methylene blue solution was followed by oral administration.30 min later, mice were sacrificed and their abdominal cavity was opened to measure the move-ment of methylene blue in the bowel and the full length of the intestinal , and to calculate the movement rate of methylene blue .Meanwhile , another 40 mice were divided into a normal saline group , an atropine group , a ketamine group ,and an atropine and ketamine group .They were intraperitoneal injected with corresponding agents to measure the movement rate of methylene blue .Results The ketamine lavage group showed remarkably lower movement rate than the normal saline groups by lavage and intraperitoneal injection ( P<0.05 ) .The ketamine group by intraperitoneal injection showed re -markably lower movement rate than the normal saline group by intraperitoneal injection and the ketamine lavage group ( P<0.05).Meanwhile, compared with the atropine group , the movement rate was markedly reduced in the ketamine group and the atropine and ketamine group (P<0.05).Compared with the ketamine group, no significant change was found in the atropine and ketamine group .Conclusion Ketamine has inhibitory effects on the gastrointestinal motility in mice , without association with M -R.%目的:观察氯胺酮对小鼠胃肠道蠕动功能的影响及对小肠M受体的作用。方法将40只小鼠按给药方式分为生理盐水灌胃组、氯胺酮灌胃组、生理盐水腹腔注射组、氯胺酮腹腔注射组。给药2 min后,经口灌入亚甲蓝溶液0.2 ml。30 min后将小鼠处死,测量

  20. 胆碱能受体拮抗剂、拟肾上腺素药物及哌替啶对兔离体Oddi括约肌功能的影响%Effects of cholinergic receptor antagonists, adrenergic drugs and pethidine on the function of sphincter of Oddi isolated from rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平; 李丹丹; 江从勋; 唐承薇

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨胆碱能受体拮抗剂、拟肾上腺素药物及阿片受体激动剂哌替啶对Oddi括约肌舒缩功能的不同效果.方法 将60只健康家兔的离体Oddi括约肌环随机分为6组,每组10只,分别置入正常Krebs液(即正常功能记录组)和按非累积加药法,以浓度递增方式加入阿托品、山莨菪碱、肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素、哌替啶的Krebs液中,观察和比较不同浓度的上述药物对Oddi括约肌的舒缩频率和收缩幅度的影响.结果 与对照组相比,5种药物在其浓度为10-6mol/L~10-2mol/L时,均可明显降低Oddi括约肌的收缩幅度(P<0.05),而对Oddi括约肌收缩频率的影响则不明显.抑制效应的顺序是去甲肾上腺素>肾上腺素>阿托品>山莨菪碱≈哌替啶.结论 除阿托品和山茛菪碱外,去甲肾上腺素、肾上腺素和哌替啶也同样可以通过降低Oddi括约肌的收缩幅度而松弛Oddi括约肌;肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素对Oddi括约肌收缩幅度的降低作用强于阿托品和山莨菪碱.%Objective To investigate the contractive effect of atropine, noradrenaline,adrenaline and pethidine on sphincter of Oddi (SO) isolated from rabbits. Methods The rings of SO isolated from 60 rabbits were treated with Krebs solution and then were exposed to gradient atropine,anisodamin, noradrenalin, adrenaline or pethidine with 10 each. The rest 10 rings of SO treated with Krebs solution only were served as controls. The amplitude and frequency of contraction of SO were recorded. Results Compared with control group, all of the 5 medicines were able to significantly decrease the contractive amplitude, but not frequency, of SO at the concentrations ranged from 10-6 mol/L to 10-2 mol/L (P<0.05). The inhibition order was as follows: noradrenaline > adrenaline >atropine > anisodamin ≈ pethidine. Conclusions Beside atropine and anisodamin, noradrenaline,adrenaline and pethidine also showed the direct relaxation of SO by

  1. Inhibition effect of sanguinarine on contraction of rat intestinal smooth muscle cells%血根碱对大鼠肠平滑肌细胞收缩的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 王悦尚; 刘兆颖; 孙志良

    2012-01-01

    采用酶消化法原代培养大鼠肠平滑肌细胞,用倒置相差显微镜测定血根碱对大鼠肠平滑肌细胞收缩的影响.结果表明:酶消化法原代培养的大鼠肠平滑肌细胞纯度高(α-actin检测阳性率达90%以上),密度大,并呈现平滑肌细胞特有的“峰-谷”样排列;血根碱及阿托品可显著抑制肠平滑肌细胞收缩,抑制率分别为32.22%和34.99%;血根碱和阿托品联用对肠平滑肌细胞收缩的抑制率可达68.8%,与单独使用血根碱或阿托品的抑制率差异显著;血根碱对乙酰胆碱、组胺及KCI诱导的肠平滑肌细胞的收缩具有显著的抑制作用;血根碱主要通过作用于细胞膜上的M受体、H1受体和钙离子通道来实现对大鼠肠平滑肌细胞收缩的抑制作用.%The influence of sanguinarine(SA) on contraction of smooth muscle cells isolated from rat intestines using collagenase digestion was measured by inverted phase-contrast microscope. The result showed that rat intestinal smooth muscle cells isolated by enzyme digestion showed high purity, high density and "peak-valley" arrangement which is unique to smooth muscle cells. SA and atropine showed significant inhibition on the contractions of the isolated cells, the inhibition rates were 32.22% and 34.99% respectively. The inhibition rate of SA together with atropine on the contraction of the isolated cells was 68.8% which was significantly different from those when SA and atropine were used separately. SA showed significant inhibition on the contractions of intestinal smooth muscle cells induced by ACh, HA or KC1. The results suggested that the inhibition effects of SA on contraction of rat intestinal smooth muscle cells were achieved mainly through M receptor, H1 receptor and calcium ions channels on the cell membrane.

  2. Non-cholinergic component of rat splanchnic nerves predominates at low neuronal activity and is eliminated by naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, R K; Wakade, A R

    1987-02-01

    1. Effects of nicotinic (mecamylamine) and muscarinic (atropine) receptor antagonists were investigated on the secretion of catecholamines evoked by stimulation of splanchnic nerve terminals and acetylcholine in the isolated perfused adrenal gland of the rat to determine whether non-cholinergic substances released from nerve terminals participate in the secretion of catecholamines. 2. Increasing the frequency of stimulation from 0.5 to 10 Hz (300 pulses) caused enhanced secretion of catecholamines (26-110 ng/collection period). After blockade of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors with mecamylamine and atropine, the secretion was reduced by 40, 65 and 80% at 0.5, 1 and 10 Hz, respectively. Acetylcholine-evoked secretion of catecholamines, which was roughly equivalent to that produced by stimulation at 10 Hz, was blocked by over 90% by the cholinergic antagonists. 3. Naloxone (3-300 microM) caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of catecholamine secretion evoked by stimulation of splanchnic nerves (1 Hz); acetylcholine-evoked secretion was much less affected by naloxone. 4. The secretion of catecholamines that remained after blockade of cholinergic receptors at different frequencies of stimulation (see 2 above) was almost completely inhibited by inclusion of 30 microM-naloxone in the medium. The inhibitory effect of naloxone was concentration dependent (3-30 microM) and reversible. 5. Splanchnic nerve-evoked secretion of catecholamines was facilitated by 400% in the presence of tetraethylammonium or tetraethylammonium plus mecamylamine and atropine. The facilitatory effect of tetraethylammonium was inversely related to the frequency of stimulation. 6. The residual secretion of catecholamines obtained after blockade of cholinergic receptors was facilitated by increasing concentrations of tetraethylammonium (1-5 mM). 30 microM-naloxone antagonized the facilitatory effects of tetraethylammonium at 1 and 3 mM by 60% and 25%, respectively, but failed at 5 m

  3. Intoxicación por organofosforados con necesidad de altas dosis de atropina y administración tardía de oximas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Andrés Leotau Rodríguez, MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La intoxicación por organofosforados es una de las causas más frecuentes de intoxicación en el mundo y una de las tres normas principales de suicidio, llegando a mortalidades cercanas al 15 %. Esta radica en la inhibición irreversible que sus componentes hacen en la enzima acetilcolinesterasa, llevando con ello a la aparición de signos y síntomas secundarios al exceso de acetilcolina en los sistemas donde actúa. Su manejo aún es controvertido y sigue basándoseen las medidas de descontaminación, utilización de atropina, oximas y benzodiacepinas, sin haber consenso en muchas de las dosis e intervalos de tiempo para la administración de estos medicamentos. En este artículo exponemos un caso en el cual se hace necesario utilizardosis e intervalos de administración de atropina y el uso tardío de las oximas. Con este caso se puede concluir que la administración tardía de oximas y la utilización de grandes cantidades de atropina pueden ser una alternativa en el manejo de este tipo de intoxicación.______________________________________________________________________Organophosphate poisoning is one of the most frequent causes of poisoning in the world and one of the three main forms of suicide, reaching roughly 15% mortality, this lies in the irreversible inhibition that make components in the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, leading thus the signs and symptoms secondary to excessive acetylcholine in the systems where it operates. Its management is still controversial and remains based on the decontaminationmeasures, use of atropine, oximes and benzodiazepines, no consensus on many of the doses and time intervals for administration of these drugs. In this article we present a case in which it becomes necessary to use dose and timing of administration of atropine and late use of oximes. In this case we can conclude that the late administration of oximes using grades and quantities of atropine may be an alternative in handling this type of

  4. Interactions between biomaterials and the sclera: Implications on myopia progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, James

    injectable materials. Fourth, the muscarinic antagonist drug, atropine, was encapsulated within the edsIPNs and delivered to the chick eye posterior pole to evaluate the local effect of atropine release. This fourth study offered an alternative method of ocular drug delivery for treatment of myopia, with the potential to elucidate the actual location of the inhibitive effect of atropine on myopia progression. In summary, this dissertation contributes to the design and use of biomaterials specific to myopia therapy and adds novel insights to scleral tissue engineering.

  5. Comparison of gamma-aminobutyric acid effects in different parts of the cat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, N; Itzev, D; Milanov, P

    1999-02-26

    The effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and those of a GABA(A) (muscimol) and a GABA(B) (baclofen) receptor agonists were determined on the spontaneous activity of longitudinally or circularly oriented preparations (segments) isolated from terminal, proximal and distal parts of the cat ileum. GABA applied at 1 microM to 2 mM caused dose-dependent biphasic changes (relaxation and contraction) in spontaneous activity of the longitudinal and circular layers in the terminal and distal parts of the cat ileum and monophasic changes (contraction) in the proximal part. The potency of GABA to elicit relaxant and/or contractile effects in different parts of the ileum showed a proximal-to-terminal increasing pattern. In the longitudinal layer of the distal and terminal ileum, muscimol (100 microM) mimicked the relaxation phase of the GABA effect, while baclofen (100 microM) simulated the contractile phase. Bicuculline, atropine and tetrodotoxin abolished GABA- and muscimol-induced relaxation and suppressed, but failed to prevent GABA- and baclofen-induced contractions. In addition, 2-hydroxysaclofen antagonized the baclofen-induced contractile effect, reduced the GABA-induced contractile phase but failed to prevent GABA- and muscimol-induced relaxation. In the circular layer of the same regions, muscimol mimicked the biphasic GABA effects, while baclofen was without effect. Bicuculline, atropine and tetrodotoxin completely prevented the GABA- and muscimol effects, while 2-hydroxysaclofen failed to antagonize them. In the longitudinal and circular layers of the proximal ileum, muscimol (100 microM) exerted a 'GABA-like' transient contractile effect, while baclofen (100 microM) did not elicit any response. Bicuculline, atropine and tetrodotoxin antagonized the GABA- and muscimol-induced contractile responses of longitudinal and circular layers, while 2-hydroxysaclofen was ineffective. The results suggested that the inhibitory and/or excitatory action of GABA on

  6. Effect of a crude sulfated polysaccharide from Halymenia floresia (Rhodophyta on gastrointestinal smooth muscle contractility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ronaldo Vasconcelos Graça

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of Halymenia floresia (Hf on duodenum contractility, and on experimental protocols of gastric compliance (GC in rats. Fraction Hf2s exhibited a concentration-dependent myocontractile effect (EC50 12.48 µg/ml, and an inhibitory effect after consecutive washing. The contractile response promoted by Hf2s in the duodenum strips was completely inhibited by verapamil, and the effects were prevented in the presence of Ca2+-free medium. The pretreatment with atropine prevented the Hf2s myocontractile effect. Hf2s was also capable to decrease the GC (from 3.8±0.06 to 3.4±0.13 ml, P<0.05, which did not return to basal levels after more 50 min of observation. These results indicated that the algal polysaccharide possessed in vitro and in vivo gastrointestinal effects.

  7. Plant Intoxication Leading to Anticholinergic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan N et al.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Datura stramonium is a widely abundant plant in Turkey. It is regarded as pipe plant, lough plant, sorcerer’s plant, or devil’s apple among the population. People may frequently use it against asthma, diarrhea, nocturia, hemorrhoids, acne, and regional pain symptoms. The plant contains L-hiyosiyamin and this molecule is responsible for the atropine and scopolamine intoxication findings. In this report, we present a case that was admitted to the emergency department with anticholinergic symptoms and diagnosed as Datura stramonium intoxication with history and physical examination findings. We aim to stress on the importance of recalling Datura stramonium intoxication especially in patients who present to the emergency departments with anticholinergic symptoms.

  8. Assessment of Mechanisms Involved in Antinociception Produced by the Alkaloid Caulerpine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Agra Cavalcante-Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In previous works we showed that oral administration of caulerpine, a bisindole alkaloid isolated from algae of the genus Caulerpa, produced antinociception when assessed in chemical and thermal models of nociception. In this study, we evaluated the possible mechanism of action of this alkaloid in mice, using the writhing test. The antinociceptive effect of caulerpine was not affected by intraperitoneal (i.p. pretreatment of mice with naloxone, flumazenil, l-arginine or atropine, thus discounting the involvement of the opioid, GABAergic, l-arginine-nitric oxide and (muscarinic cholinergic pathways, respectively. In contrast, i.p. pretreatment with yohimbine, an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, or tropisetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, significantly blocked caulerpine-induced antinociception. These results suggest that caulerpine exerts its antinociceptive effect in the writhing test via pathways involving α2-adrenoceptors and 5-HT3 receptors. In summary, this alkaloid could be of interest in the development of new dual-action analgesic drugs.

  9. Mannich Bases: An Important Pharmacophore in Present Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Bala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mannich bases are the end products of Mannich reaction and are known as beta-amino ketone carrying compounds. Mannich reaction is a carbon-carbon bond forming nucleophilic addition reaction and is a key step in synthesis of a wide variety of natural products, pharmaceuticals, and so forth. Mannich reaction is important for the construction of nitrogen containing compounds. There is a number of aminoalkyl chain bearing Mannich bases like fluoxetine, atropine, ethacrynic acid, trihexyphenidyl, and so forth with high curative value. The literature studies enlighten the fact that Mannich bases are very reactive and recognized to possess potent diverse activities like anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antifilarial, antibacterial, antifungal, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitubercular, analgesic, anti-HIV, antimalarial, antipsychotic, antiviral activities and so forth. The biological activity of Mannich bases is mainly attributed to α, β-unsaturated ketone which can be generated by deamination of hydrogen atom of the amine group.

  10. Can We Find Better Bronchodilators to Relieve Asthma Symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Townsend

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchodilators are the first line therapy during acute asthmatic exacerbations to reverse airway obstruction primarily by relaxing airway smooth muscle. Only three categories of bronchodilators exist in clinical practice: -adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics, and methylxanthines. Each of these categories have specific drugs dating back to the early 20th century, raising the question of whether or not we can find better bronchodilators. While caffeine, theophylline, atropine, and epinephrine were the first generations of therapeutics in each of these drug classes, there is no question that improvements have been made in the bronchodilators in each of these classes. In the following editorial, we will briefly describe new classes of potential bronchodilators including: novel PDE inhibitors, natural phytotherapeutics, bitter taste receptor ligands, and chloride channel modulators, which have the potential to be used alone or in combination with existing bronchodilators to reverse acute airway obstruction in the future.

  11. Factors affecting radioactive microsphere measurement of blood flow in pregnant guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S.; Sparks, J.W.; Makowski, E.L.

    1986-10-01

    Comparative blood flow studies were performed in pregnant guinea pigs using radioactive microspheres to test the effects of different sphere sizes on blood flow measurements and the relationship between flows obtained intraoperatively and those performed after 5 days of recovery from anesthesia and surgery. We observed that 1.5% of the cardiac output was shunted through the microcirculation of the carcass, gut, skin and endomyometrium when 15 mu microspheres were used. Intraoperative measurements of heart rate, cardiac output and placental blood flow are significantly lower than measurements made after 5 days recovery. These reductions were ameliorated with the addition of a continuous infusion of isoproterenol and the deletion of atropine from the anesthetic.

  12. The emergency care of cocaine intoxications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroegop, M P; Franssen, E J; van der Voort, P H J; van den Berg, T N A; Langeweg, R J; Kramers, C

    2009-04-01

    Cocaine is frequently used, especially among adolescents and by men between the age of 25 and 44. Many of them are able to use cocaine in normal day-to-day life, without any problems. Reduced prices of cocaine and other recreational drugs such as MDMA (ecstasy) and gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has led to an increased incidence of intoxications with these drugs. Since the production of cocaine is illegal, it may be impure and mixtures with other drugs such as atropine may occur. The treatment of patients with an acute cocaine intoxication can be complicated. Combination of cocaine with other drugs results in clinical pictures which are difficult to discriminate and that may have important consequences for treatment. PMID:19581655

  13. [Respiratory preparation before surgery in patients with chronic respiratory failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Jean-Marc; Jaber, Samir

    2012-03-01

    Scheduled and/or thoracic, abdominal surgeries increase the risk of respiratory postoperative complications. In patients with chronic respiratory failure, preoperative evaluation should be performed to evaluate respiratory function in aim to optimize perioperative management. Preoperative gas exchange abnormalities (hypoxemia or hypercapnia) are associated with respiratory postoperative complications. Respiratory physiotherapy and prophylactic non-invasive ventilation should be integrated in a global rehabilitation management for cardiothoracic or abdominal surgery procedures, which are at high risk of postoperative respiratory dysfunction. Stopping tobacco consummation should be benefit, but decease risk of postoperative complications is relevant only after a period for 6 to 8 weeks of cessation. Bronchodilatator aerosol therapy (beta-agonists and atropinics) and inhaled corticotherapy allow a rapid preparation for 24 to 48 h. Systematic preoperative antibiotherapy should not be recommended. PMID:22004791

  14. Türkiye'deki eczanelerde bulunan bitkisel ilaçlar

    OpenAIRE

    Sevda Süzgeç-Selçuk; Seda Eyisan

    2012-01-01

    u çalışmada, 2012 yılında Türkiye'deki eczanelerde bulunan, Sağlık Bakanlığı ruhsatlı bitkisel ilaçlar incelenerek; formülasyonunda aktif bileşik olarak standardize edilmiş bitkisel drog ekstresi veya drog preparatları bulunan müstahzarlar ele alınmıştır. Bitkilerden kimyasal işlemler sonucu elde edilen, bitkisel kaynaklı saf bileşikler (atropin, morfin, efedrin vb.) bitkisel ilaç olarak değerlendirilmediklerinden, bu çalışma kapsamına dahil edilmemiştir. Bu kapsamda, bitkisel ilaçların içeri...

  15. Electroacupuncture-Induced Cholinergic Nerve Activation Enhances the Hypoglycemic Effect of Exogenous Insulin in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the mechanisms by which electroacupuncture (EA enhances the hypoglycemic effect of exogenous insulin in a streptozotocin- (STZ- diabetic rats. Animals in the EA group were anesthetized and subjected to the insulin challenge test (ICT and EA for 60 minutes. In the control group, rats were subjected to the same treatment with the exception of EA stimulation. Blood samples were drawn to measure changes in plasma glucose, free fatty acids (FFA, and insulin levels. Western blot was used to assay proteins involved in insulin signaling. Furthermore, atropine, hemicholinium-3 (HC-3, and Eserine were used to explore the relationship between EA and cholinergic nerve activation during ICT. EA augmented the blood glucose-lowering effects of EA by activating the cholinergic nerves in STZ rats that had been exposed to exogenous insulin. This phenomenon may be related to enhancement of insulin signaling rather than to changes in FFA concentration.

  16. 盐酸戊乙奎醚对诱导剂量顺式阿曲库铵起效及再次注药时间的影响%Effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on the onset time and re-injection time of in duction dose of cisatracurium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭; 董有静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride and atropine as premedication on the onset time and re-injection time of cisatracurium.Methods Thirty ASA I ~ Ⅱ female adult patients without any neuromuscular disease who underwent elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups with fifteen patients each :Group I (penehyclidine hydrochloride group)and Group l (atropine group).All patients were given penehyclidine hydrochloride 0.01 mg/kg or atropine 0.01 mg/kg deltoid muscle im.The responses of patients to train-of-four(TOF) stimulation of ulnar nerve were monitored.The onset time of cisatracurium ,the duration of neuromuscular blockade time from TOF ratio(T1/Tc)0 to 25% were recorded.Intravenous anesthesia was used for induction and sevoflurane inhalation anesthesia was used for maintenance.Results Compared with atropine, the onset time of cisatracurium of penehyclidine hydrochloride was significantly shorter( P < 0.05 ), and the re-injection time was significantly longer( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion The preoperative intramuscular injection of penehyclidine hydrochloride can significantly reduce the cisatracurium's onset time,increase the clinical relaxant maintance time of muscle and prolong the time of cisatracurium re-injection.%目的 比较盐酸戊乙奎醚与阿托品术前用药对诱导剂量顺式阿曲库铵起效时间及再次注药时间的影响.方法 选择30例ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级无神经肌肉疾患并拟在全麻下行择期手术的女性患者,随机分成盐酸戊乙奎醚组(Ⅰ组,15例)和阿托品组(Ⅱ组,15例).两组患者麻醉诱导前30 min分别肌注阿托品或盐酸戊乙奎醚0.01 mg/kg,采用TOF刺激方式,持续监测拇内收肌的收缩反应,TOF≥25%时追加肌松药,记录两组患者神经肌肉阻滞的起效时间及T从0恢复至25%的时间.应用静脉麻醉诱导,七氟烷吸入麻醉维持.结果 与阿托品组比较,盐酸戊乙奎醚组肌

  17. Adolf Hitler's medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, D

    2005-02-01

    For the last nine years of his life Adolf Hitler, a lifelong hypochondriac had as his physician Dr Theodor Morell. Hitler's mood swings, Parkinson's disease, gastro-intestinal symptoms, skin problems and steady decline until his suicide in 1945 are documented by reliable observers and historians, and in Morell's diaries. The bizarre and unorthodox medications given to Hitler, often for undisclosed reasons, include topical cocaine, injected amphetamines, glucose, testosterone, estradiol, and corticosteroids. In addition, he was given a preparation made from a gun cleaner, a compound of strychnine and atropine, an extract of seminal vesicles, and numerous vitamins and 'tonics'. It seems possible that some of Hitler's behaviour, illnesses and suffering can be attributed to his medical care. Whether he blindly accepted such unorthodox medications or demanded them is unclear. PMID:15825245

  18. Ambiguous nucleus regulates the proliferation and percentage of T lymphocytes in peripheral blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Wei Chen; Yingwu Mei; Bin Guo; Zhanqing Yang; Shoupeng Fu; Zhanpeng Yue; Juxiong Liu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the immunomodulatory role of the unilateral ambiguous nucleus (Amb). We performed electrical stimulation of the unilateral Amb, electrical stimulation of the left parietal cortex and the lateral hypothalamus following unilateral Amb lesion, as well as microinjection of acetylcholine chloride and hemicholine-3 into the unilateral Amb, and electrical stimulation of the unilateral Amb after injection of atropine, mecamylamine, propranolol, and phentolamine. Results showed that the number and proliferation of peripheral blood T lymphocytes were increased after electrical stimulation of the unilateral Amb. The cholinergic neurons in the Amb released choline substances to alter cellular immunity, thus confirming that the Amb mediates the neuro-immunomodulatory process.

  19. GRP nerves in pig antrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    We extracted gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its C-terminal decapeptide corresponding to 6.4 and 6.8 pmol/g from pig antrum mucosa. By immunohistochemistry GRP was localized to mucosal, submucosal, and myenteric nerve fibers. A few nerve cell bodies were also identified. Using isolated perfused...... pig antrum with intact vagal innervation, we found concomitant, atropine-resistant release of GRP and gastrin during electrical stimulation of the vagal nerves. Intra-arterial GRP at 10(-11)-10(-10) mol/l caused up to fivefold, dose-dependent increases in gastrin secretion; higher doses were less...... response to GRP and abolished the effect of vagal stimulation. The available evidence strongly suggests that GRP nerves are responsible for the stimulatory vagal effects on gastrin secretion in the pig....

  20. Iohexol compared to megulmine-Ca-metrizoate in common carotid angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakstad, P.; Sortland, O.; Aaserud, O.

    1983-04-01

    A randomized double blind cross-over study with iohexol (Omnipaque) and meglumine-Ca-metrizoate (Isopaque cerebral) was performed to answer questions concerning subjective side effects and tolerability that arrou from a double blind parallel study with the same two media. The cross-over study design, with injection of the contrast media under identical conditions in the same artery, seems to be the most practical method of comparison of two well tolerated media. Iohexol showed significantly less side effects than meglumine-Ca-metrizoate. The routine premedication with atropine was neglected in this study to evaluate effects on heart rate due, for example, to the toxicity of the media. Small tachycardial and bradycardial reactions were equally divided between the media. However, a short asystolic period following the injection of meglumine-Ca-metrizoate in two different patients may indicate a higher toxicity of this medium.

  1. Effect of electroacupuncturein Weijing points on gastroin testinal interdigestive migrating motor complex and brain gut peptides release in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interdigestive gastrointestinal migratingmotor complex (MMC) activities were recorded by strain gauge implanted on the serosa in 7 conscious dogs. We studied theffects of electroacupuncture (EAP) Weijing points Zusanli (S36), Tianshu (S25), Liangmen (S21) on MMC and release of motilin and gastrin, and compared them with that of EAP Pangguangjing points. The results indicated that EAP Weijing points could not only strengthen MMC contractions in antrum, duodenum and proximal jejunum, but also increase plasma concentration of motilin and gastrin. Anti-motilin serum, proglumide, atropine, or hexamethonium could markedly block the effect of EAP on reinforcing MMC contraction and release of motilin and gastrin. We could get the conclusions that such enhancing effect of EAP Weijing points on MMC and brain-gut peptides release is mediated by motilin and gastrin, on which both cholinergic nerve and sympathetic nerve play important roles.

  2. Analysis of toxic alkaloids in body samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Jochen; Drummer, Olaf H; Maurer, Hans H

    2009-03-10

    Many plants contain toxic alkaloids which may be dangerous to humans. Despite the large number of poisonous plants, cases of fatal plant poisonings are relatively rare. The frequencies of poisonings and the plants involved are often regionally specific. Plant poisonings can be aggregated into three categories: unintended ingestions, intended ingestions, and poisoning due to abuse of plant material. Unintended ingestions often occur in children or from a mix-up of plants and mushrooms in adults. Intended ingestions are common in homicides and suicides. Increasingly common is the abuse of plants for hallucinogenic reasons. Toxicological analysis of such alkaloids may help in diagnosis of poisoning or abuse cases. This review describes the toxic alkaloids aconitine, atropine, coniine, colchicine, cytisine, dimethyltryptamine, harmine, harmaline, ibogaine, kawain, mescaline, scopolamine, and taxine, which are often involved in fatal and non-fatal poisonings. The paper summarizes the symptoms of the intoxications and reviews the methods of detection of their toxic constituents in biological fluids. PMID:19147309

  3. Contractile reaction of isolated frog aorta after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action of X-rays (50 kV, filtered by 0.3 mm Al) on helical strip of frog aorta (rana esculenta) has been investigated. The isolated preparations have a stable basal tone and are radio-sensitive to X-rays which induce reversible, dose-dependent, contractile responses. After repeated irradiational tachyphylaxis appears. The threshold doses are about 250 R at 3 to 6 kR/min, antiadrenergic (phentolamine, propranolol), anticholinergic (atropin), antihistaminic (Neo-Bridal) and serotoninergic (Deseril) drugs have no visible influence on the X-ray induced reaction, i.e. these action mechanisms of the irradiation-induced contraction do not seem probable. Theophylline and cAMP inhibit the X-ray contraction probably non-specifically. Indometacin also inhibits the X-ray contraction: this suggests participation of prostaglandin-mechanism on the contraction of frog aorta after irradiation. (orig.)

  4. The left ventricular contractility of the rat heart is modulated by changes in flow and a1-adrenoceptor stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F. Vassallo

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial contractility depends on several mechanisms such as coronary perfusion pressure (CPP and flow as well as on a1-adrenoceptor stimulation. Both effects occur during the sympathetic stimulation mediated by norepinephrine. Norepinephrine increases force development in the heart and produces vasoconstriction increasing arterial pressure and, in turn, CPP. The contribution of each of these factors to the increase in myocardial performance needs to be clarified. Thus, in the present study we used two protocols: in the first we measured mean arterial pressure, left ventricular pressure and rate of rise of left ventricular pressure development in anesthetized rats (N = 10 submitted to phenylephrine (PE stimulation before and after propranolol plus atropine treatment. These observations showed that in vivo a1-adrenergic stimulation increases left ventricular-developed pressure (Pa1-adrenoceptors and increased flow, increased cardiac performance acting simultaneously and synergistically.

  5. Cholinergic receptor binding in the frontal cortex of suicide victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because there is a high incidence of individuals diagnosed as having an affective disorder who subsequently commit suicide, the author thought it would be of interest to determine QNB binding in the brains of a large sample of suicide victims, and to compare the findings with a well-matched control group. Brain samples were obtained at autopsy from 22 suicide victims and 22 controls. Frontal cortex samples were diseected, frozen, and stored until assayed. Samples of tissue homogenate were incubated in duplicate with 10 concentrations of tritium-QNB. Specific binding was determined with and without atropine. The results confirmed previous studies in which no changes were noted in suicide versus control brains. While the findings neither disprove nor support the cholinergic hypothesis of depression, they do suggest that the neurochemical basis for the in vivo observations of increased responsivity of depressed individuals to muscarinic cholinergic agents might not involve changes in receptors estimated by QNB binding

  6. Determination of reactivity of M-cholinergic receptor/cGMP system of peripheral lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphocytes were separated from peripheral blood and incubated in Hanks' solution with calcium or buffer solution containing phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX. When carbachol at 1-10 mmol/L was added to the incubation medium, the intracellular cGMP content as determined by high-sensitivity RIA was elevated by 66%-80%. Such an elevation could be blocked by atropine and hence is a specific reaction mediated through M-receptors. A method based on this reaction was thus established to reflect the reactivity of M-receptor/cGMP system. Preliminary experiment revealed that the base level of lymphocyte cGMP as well as the elevation of cGMP induced by carbachol in aged (24-26 months old) rats were significantly lower than young rats. The methodology, especially the influence of incubation conditions was discussed

  7. The effect of ions, ion channel blockers, and ionophores on uptake of vitellogenin into cockroach follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, H; Lanzrein, B; Kunkel, J G

    1990-12-01

    Since calcium plays an important role in vitellogenin binding and uptake in Nauphoeta cinerea and because calcium channels have been described in follicles of this species, we investigated the effect of various ions, ionophores, and ion channel blockers on vitellogenin uptake in vitro. Calcium significantly stimulated vitellogenin uptake; this effect could be substituted best by barium and less well by strontium and magnesium. The stimulatory effect of calcium, and to a certain extent also that of barium, was dependent on the vitellogenin concentration, whereas the effect of strontium and magnesium was not. In the presence of calcium, vitellogenin uptake was inhibited by barium, strontium, and magnesium as well as by the transition elements nickel, cobalt, and zinc, but not by manganese which had a stimulatory effect. Valinomycin, verapamil, tetraethylammonium, and atropine reduced vitellogenin uptake, while amiloride and ouabain were ineffective. Our results indicate that calcium inward (and possibly potassium outward) fluxes play an important role in vitellogenin uptake. PMID:2257971

  8. The role of nitric oxide in the development of neurogenic pulmonary edema in spinal cord-injured rats: the effect of preventive interventions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Hejčl, Aleš; Syková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 297, č. 4 (2009), R1111-R1117. ISSN 0363-6119 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GA309/06/1246; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0139; GA AV ČR IAA500390902 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA MZd(CZ) 1A8697; GA MZd(CZ) NR8339; EC FP6 projekt RESCUE(FR) LSHB-CT-2005-518233 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : blood pressure * atropine * heart rate Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.058, year: 2009

  9. Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaf methanolic extract of Rauwolfia serpentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezeigbo II; Ezeja MI; Madubuike KG; Ifenkwe DC; Ukweni IA; Udeh NE; Akomas SC

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiarrhoeal property of methanol extract of the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) in experimental diarrhoea induced by castor oil in mice. Methods:Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg R. serpentina leaf methanol extracts were administered to castor oil induced diarrhoea mice to determine its antidiarrhoeal activity. Results: All doses of the extract and the reference drug atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-dependent reduction in intestinal weight and fluid volume. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to diphenoxylate Hcl (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusions: The results show that the extract of R. serpentina leaves has a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine.

  10. ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON SCOPOLIA CARNIOLICA JACQ. VEGETATIVE ORGANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STEFANESCU

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Scopolia carniolica Jacq. is a medicinal species of Solanaceae, harvested from the Romanian spontaneous flora for its atropine and scopolamine content. We have analyzed the anatomical structure of the vegetative organs (rhizome, root, stem and leaf and the biometrical parameters of the leaf blade (vascular islet, stomatal index and palisade ratio, in order to establish the main specific characters and differential elements useful for the correct identification and for avoiding the impurification of medicinal products. The characteristic structures for the rhizome and root are the secondary ones, mainly with parenchyma elements and lacking in mechanical fibres; the stem has a primary becoming secondary structure, bicolateral vascular bundles with cambium in the interior and between them and endoderma as starch layer. The sand cells are characteristic for rhizome, root and stem structures. On the leaf surface were identified protector multicellular trichomes and specific secretory and glandular ones.

  11. Hypotensive activity of 8,24-euphadien-3 beta-ol (euphol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G B; Singh, S; Sharma, M L; Suri, O P; Chopra, C L; Ammon, H P

    1989-12-01

    8,24-Euphadien-3 beta-ol (euphol) on i.v. administration was found to exhibit a hypotensive activity in normotensive anesthetised dogs and rats which varied from a slight to a marked degree depending upon the dose range. Euphol inhibited various autonomic pressor and depressor responses. The hypotensive effect was not affected in dogs pretreated with atropine, antistine, and beta-blockers and in bilaterally vagotomised and carotid sinus denervated animals. The fall in blood pressure was enhanced in spinal transected and eviscerated dogs and after ganglion blockade with hexamethonium. Localisation of euphol to central cardiovascular loci displayed no effect on blood pressure. The LD50 in mice was found to be 1500 mg/kg i.p. and greater than 2 g/kg by the oral route. PMID:2616667

  12. RAT EXOCRINE PANCREATIC SECRETION BY VAGAL STIMULATION OCCURS VIA MULTIPLE MEDIATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓东; MTimmthyNelson; HaileTDebas

    1996-01-01

    The vagus is a mixed nerve containing cholinerrgic and non-cholinergie neurons. Vagal fibers interact with peptidergic neurons of the enteric nervous system which stain immunohistcchemically for cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and gastrin releasing peptide. The contribution of these pepticdergic neurons in the pancreatic response to vagal stimulation is unknown. We tested the effect of specific inhibitor of these stimulants against vagally mediated exocrine secretion in rats. The response to vagal stimulation was blocked significantly hy each of the following:the ganglionic blocker hexmethoninm (100% inhibition); the muscarinic, cholinergic blocker atropine (85%inhibition) ; the specific cholaeystokinln-A receptor blocker (91% inhibition); and a vasoactive intestinal polypeptide polyclonal antibody (89% inhibition). This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that potentiating interactions among several agonisrs mediate the vagal response. Our study, however, dose not exclude acetylehollne as the final commom mediator.

  13. Central cholinergic control of vasopressin release in conscious rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of carbachol into conscious rats evoked a substantial increase in vasopressin secretion and blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with the muscarinic blocker, atropine (10 μg icv), but not by the nicotinic blocker, hexamethonium (10 μg icv). Hexamethonium did, however, block the increase in blood pressure, the decrease in heart rate, and they very small elevation in the plasma vasopressin concentration induced by nicotine (10 μg icv). These results indicate that stimulation of either central nicotinic or muscarinic receptors can affect the cardiovascular system and suggest that the cholinergic stimulation of vasopressin secretion may involve primarily muscarinic receptors in the conscious rat

  14. A PRELIMINARY TRIAL OF THE MASS-TREATMENT OF URINARY BILHARZIASIS WITH AN ORGANO-PHOSPHORUS COMPOUND

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    I. Farahmandian

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available In the course of an evaluation of various schistosomicidal drugs In Iran, the effect of an organo-phosphorus compound in the-treatment of 45 mild cases of urinary bilhariziasis was assessed and the drug was given in 3 doses of 10 mg/kg body weight each with 3-week intervals. Follow-up examinations undertaken 3 weeks after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd doses as well as 3 months after completion of therapy showed cure rates of 71, 82, 91 and 90% responsively. A reverse correlation was observed between the mean number of eggs excreted in the urine and the cure rate. Side-effects were mild and were observed in only 20% of the patients. In order of their frequency, they were abdumina1 pain, nausea, headache, vertigo and vomiting. The administration of Atropine together with each dose of the drug did not have any effect on the reduction of side-effects.

  15. USE OF LOPINAVIR/RITONAVIR ASSOCIATED WITH ERGOTAMINE RESULTING IN FOOT AMPUTATION: BRIEF COMMUNICATION

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    Fernando Raphael de Almeida Ferry

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old female, was diagnosed in 2004 with a C1 HIV1 infection, using zidovudine/lamivudine 300/150 mg BID and lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg BID, in addition to prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 800/160 mg QD, but no prophylaxis with macrolide antibiotics. The patient presented with a severe headache and was prescribed two capsules of the anti-migraine drug Ormigrein™, which contained ergotamine tartrate 1 mg, caffeine 100 mg, paracetamol 220 mg, hyoscyamine sulfate 87.5 mcg, and atropine sulfate 12.5 mcg. Afterwards she was prescribed one capsule of Ormigrein every 30 minutes for a total of six capsules a day. The patient took the medication as prescribed but developed a pain in her left ankle three days later, which evolved to the need for amputation.

  16. Use of lopinavir/ritonavir associated with ergotamine resulting in foot amputation: brief communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Da Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; De Sá, Carlos Alberto Morais

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old female, was diagnosed in 2004 with a C1 HIV1 infection, using zidovudine/lamivudine 300/150 mg BID and lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg BID, in addition to prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 800/160 mg QD, but no prophylaxis with macrolide antibiotics. The patient presented with a severe headache and was prescribed two capsules of the anti-migraine drug Ormigrein™, which contained ergotamine tartrate 1 mg, caffeine 100 mg, paracetamol 220 mg, hyoscyamine sulfate 87.5 mcg, and atropine sulfate 12.5 mcg. Afterwards she was prescribed one capsule of Ormigrein every 30 minutes for a total of six capsules a day. The patient took the medication as prescribed but developed a pain in her left ankle three days later, which evolved to the need for amputation. PMID:24879006

  17. Acute organophosphorus poisoning complicated by acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankaj, Madhu; Krishna, Kavita

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of 30 year old alcoholic male admitted with vomiting, drowsiness, limb weakness and fasciculations after alleged history of consumption of 30 ml of chlorpyriphos insecticide. He had low serum cholinesterase levels. With standard treatment for organophosphorus poisoning (OPP), he improved gradually until day 5, when he developed neck and limb weakness and respiratory distress. This intermediate syndrome was treated with oximes, atropine and artificial ventilation. During treatment, his ECG showed fresh changes of ST elevation. High CPK & CPK-MB levels, septal hypokinesia on 2D echo suggested acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography was postponed due to his bedridden and obtunded status. The patient finally recovered fully by day 15 and was discharged. Acute coronary syndrome is a rare occurrence in OP poisoning. The present case thus emphasises the need for careful electrocardiographic and enzymatic monitoring of all patients of organophosphorus poisoning to prevent potential cardiac complication which can prove fatal. PMID:25672037

  18. Determination of the length and position of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) by correlation of external measurements with combined radiographic and manometric estimations in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty DSH cats were studied radiographically and a highly significant linear correlation was found between the length of the oesophagus measured to the diaphragmatic line on the radiographs and the externally measured distance from the lower jaw incisor teeth to the anterior border of the head of 10th rib. A subsequent manometric study utilizing this correlation in 40 cats suggests that the functional lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) is situated almost at the level of the diaphragm in the cat. Significant differences were found between the length of the LOS in cats anaesthetized with ketamine compared to alphaxalone-alphadolone or xylazine-ketamine-atropine. The mean lengths of the LOS was 1.42 +/- 0.3 cm. The findings of this study indicate that external measurements can be used to position catheters for accurate oesophageal manometry in the cat

  19. Determinantes genéticos de las variables psicofisiológicas

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    Kaz Abe

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the genetic influence on varíous physiological functions related to the activity of the autonomic nervous system, on response to drugs and on sleep behaviors were reviewed. Genetic factor appears to play a significant role in; heart beat, electrocardíogramm, heart beat and respiratory response to startling events, or adrenalin or atropin injectíon, in predísposítíon to cardiac neurosis, peripheral vasomotor activity, (acrocyanosis, frost-bite sweat gland activity (hyperidrosis, galvaníc skin reflex, salivarysecretion rate, motion síckness, basal metabolism, blood sugar level, response to antídepressants, drug-induced Parkinsonism, sleepwalking, sleeptalking, childhood insomnia, and major shifts of sleep stages as observed by electroencephalogramm during sleep.

  20. Anesthetic management for thoracic surgery in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, E; Narváez, D; Fernandez-Lopez, A; Garcia-Aparicio, L

    2016-01-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a chromosomopathy associated to molecular mutations or microdeletions of chromosome 16. It has an incidence of 1:125,000-700,000 live births. RTS patients present craniofacial and thoracic anomalies that lead to a probable difficult-to-manage airway and ventilation. They also present mental retardation and comorbidity, such as congenital cardiac defects, pulmonary structural anomalies and recurrent respiratory infections, which increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia. Cardiac arrhythmias have been reported after the use of certain drugs such as succinylcholine and atropine, in a higher incidence than in general population. There is an increased risk of postoperative apnea-hypopnea in these patients. We report the anesthetic management in a RTS patient undergoing emergent thoracic surgery due to oesophageal perforation and mediastinitis. Lung isolation was achieved with a bronchial blocker guided with a fiberoptic bronchoscope and one-lung ventilation was performed successfully. PMID:27062171

  1. In vitro anticholinesterase activity of various alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay; Naz, Qamar; Kartal, Murat; Tosun, Fatma; Sener, Bilge; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2007-01-01

    In the current study, a number of alkaloids including retamine, cytisine, and sparteine (quinolizidine-type), yohimbine and vincamine (indole-type), scopolamine and atropine (tropane-type), colchicine (tropolone-type), allantoin (imidazolidine-type), trigonelline (pyridine-type) as well as octopamine, synephrine, and capsaicin (exocyclic amine-type) were tested in vitro for their inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at 1 mg/ml concentration by the Ellman method using an ELISA microplate reader. Among the alkaloids tested, only capsaicin exerted a remarkable inhibitory effect towards both AChE and BChE [(62.7 +/- 0.79)% and (75.3 +/- 0.98)%, respectively]. While the rest of the alkaloids did not show any significant inhibition against AChE, three of the alkaloids, namely retamine, sparteine, and yohimbine, exerted a noteworthy anti-BChE effect as compared to galanthamine, the reference drug. PMID:18069241

  2. Panuveitis with disc edema after dengue fever: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Annamalai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 47 year old male who presented with panuveitis and disc oedema two weeks after an episode of dengue fever. He had complaints of headache with pain and defective vision in his right eye that had developed during his recovery from dengue fever. We treated him with topical steroid drops and subtenon steroid injections along with atropine eye drops. Oral prednisolone was started after 1 week on his review visit following which his symptoms resolved and vision improved. This case is being presented as panuveitis with disc oedema is a rare complication of dengue fever and also because the patient responded well to medical management with restoration of his vision.

  3. Pancreatic polypepetide inhibits pancreatic enzyme secretion via a cholinergic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In rat pancreatic slices, rat pancreatic polypeptide (PP) or C-terminal hexapeptide of PP [PP-(31-36)] inhibited potassium-stimulated amylase release in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was unaffected by addition of hexamethonium but blocked by atropine. In contrast, PP-(31-36) did not have any effect on acetylcholine- or cholecystokinin octapeptide-stimulated amylase release. In addition, when pancreatic slices were incubated with [3H]choline, PP-(31-36) inhibited the potassium-evoked release of synthesized [3H]acetylcholine in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory action of PP was unaffected by adrenergic, dopaminergic, or opioid receptor antagonists. Thus PP inhibits pancreatic enzyme secretion via presynaptic modulation of acetylcholine release. This newly identified pathway provides a novel mechanism for hormonal inhibition of pancreatic enzyme secretion via modulation of the classic neurotransmitter function

  4. Catalytic bioscavengers in nerve agent poisoning: A promising approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2016-02-26

    The repeated use of the nerve agent sarin against civilians in Syria in 2013 emphasizes the continuing threat by chemical warfare agents. Multiple studies demonstrated a limited efficacy of standard atropine-oxime treatment in nerve agent poisoning and called for the development of alternative and more effective treatment strategies. A novel approach is the use of stoichiometric or catalytic bioscavengers for detoxification of nerve agents in the systemic circulation prior to distribution into target tissues. Recent progress in the design of enzyme mutants with reversed stereo selectivity resulting in improved catalytic activity and their use in in vivo studies supports the concept of catalytic bioscavengers. Yet, further research is necessary to improve the catalytic activity, substrate spectrum and in vivo biological stability of enzyme mutants. The pros and cons of catalytic bioscavengers will be discussed in detail and future requirements for the development of catalytic bioscavengers will be proposed. PMID:26200600

  5. The inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 as a novel target for antidepressant action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebenberg, Nico

    2010-01-01

    Major depression is one of the most debilitating diseases of our time, while current antidepressant treatments remain deficient in several ways. The nitric oxide (NO) / cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) / cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-G) pathway shows promise as a novel target for the drug...... therapy of depression. A recent study from our laboratory reported an antidepressant-like response in the rat forced swim test (FST) following chronic (11 day) co-administration of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil and the muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonist atropine...... in Sprague Dawley rats. In the current study we explored the antidepressant-like properties of PDE5 inhibitors in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic animal model of depression, and investigated the mechanism(s) that may be involved in the antidepressant-like activity of these drugs. We...

  6. Quantification of phytochemical constituents and in-vitro antioxidant activity of Mesua ferrea leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narender Prasad D; B Ganga Rao; E Sambasiva Rao; T Mallikarjuna Rao; VS Praneeth D

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the quantification of total phenolic, alkaloid content and in-vitro antioxidant activity of ethanol (70%), methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of Mesua ferrea (M. ferrea) leaves. Methods: The quantification of the total phenolic and alkaloid contents were estimated by taking gallic acid and atropine are as a standard; In-vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for extracts by using different free radicals (superoxide, hydroxyl and DPPH).Results: M. ferrea leaves ethanol (70%) extract have more phenolic and alkaloidal content than other extracts. The selected plant extracts were produced concentration dependent percentage inhibition of different free radicals and produced maximum activity at a concentration of 1 280 μg and there after the percentage inhibition were raised gradually to its maximum level with higher concentrations. Conclusion: In the present study we found that the extracts of M. ferrea showed good antioxidant activity. Among the four extracts, the ethanol (70%) extract showed better activity than other extracts.

  7. Avoidance and management of trigeminocardiac reflex complicating awake-craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Vikram C; Bamber, Norman I; Shea, John F; Jellish, W Scott

    2008-12-01

    The trigeminocardiac reflex occurs from manipulation or stimulation of peripheral branches or the central component of the trigeminal nerve and consists of bradycardia, hypotension, apnea, and increased gastric motility. The efferent limb of the response is mediated by the vagus nerve. This 65-year-old Caucasian male suffered an episode of bradycardia progressing to transient asystole during the course of an awake-craniotomy procedure for tumor resection. The cardiac rhythm changes resolved with administration of intravenous atropine, removal of the precipitating stimulus, and application of topical anesthetic on the dura of the middle cranial fossa. The trigeminocardiac response may complicate the course of a craniotomy and may place an awake, unintubated patient at increased risk for morbidity. The reflex may be prevented by anesthetizing the dura innervated by the trigeminal nerve via injection or topical application of local anesthetic. If encountered, removal of the stimulus, airway protection, and administration of vagolytic medications are measures that need to be considered. PMID:18845385

  8. Factors affecting radioactive microsphere measurement of blood flow in pregnant guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative blood flow studies were performed in pregnant guinea pigs using radioactive microspheres to test the effects of different sphere sizes on blood flow measurements and the relationship between flows obtained intraoperatively and those performed after 5 days of recovery from anesthesia and surgery. We observed that 1.5% of the cardiac output was shunted through the microcirculation of the carcass, gut, skin and endomyometrium when 15 mu microspheres were used. Intraoperative measurements of heart rate, cardiac output and placental blood flow are significantly lower than measurements made after 5 days recovery. These reductions were ameliorated with the addition of a continuous infusion of isoproterenol and the deletion of atropine from the anesthetic

  9. PENGARUH EKSTRAK BEBERAPA TANAMAN OBAT TERHADAP USUS TERISOLASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dzulkarnain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Anacardium occidentale L.leaves, Aegle marmelos Corr leaves and wood bark, Acorus calamus L. tuber and Desmodium triquetrum D.C. leaves has been tested on the isolated rabbit and guinea pig intestine. The extraction of A. occidentale L. leaves stimulated the isolated rabbit and guinea pig intestine which may due to the anacardic acid content. No consistent influence was seen by the extraction of A.marmelos Corr. leaves and wood bark. The A. calamus L. tuber extraction decreases the isolated intestine activities which is of the atropine-like type not antihistamin one. This may explain the use as antidysentri agent from the motility point of view. The D. triquetrum D.C. leaves extraction stimulated the isolated intestine which has a pilocarpine and histamine-like activity but does not exclude a seretonine-like action.

  10. Colestipol hydrochloride prophylaxis of diarrhea during pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy to receive the bile acid-sequestering resin colestipol hydrochloride, 5 grams qid, during the entire time of their therapy or diphenoxylate hydrochloride and atropine sulfate 2.5-20 mg per day (control) if they experienced diarrhea. The colestipol patients also took diphenoxylate if they had diarrhea. The patients in the colestipol group often experienced nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps and 8 were forced to discontinue the drug. There was no difference in the weekly stool frequency between the colestipol and the control patients but the colestipol patients who took at least 50% of the prescribed dose required fewer diphenoxylate tablets than the controls. The data suggest that colestipol hydrochloride is not of value in preventing radiation-induced diarrhea because of the side effects associated with the drug, but the theory on which the use of bile acid-sequestering agents is based may be correct

  11. Clinical research of small doses penehyclidine hydrochloride in painless colonoscopy%小剂量长托宁在无痛肠镜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林承雄; 李少波

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the application value of small doses penehyclidine hydrochloride in painless colonoscopy examination. Methods From July 2012 to January 2013, 90 patients who planed to have painless colonoscopy were randomly divided into 3 groups with each group 30 cases. Before anesthesia, giving small doses of penehyclidine hydrochloride to small-dose group, giving conventional dose of penehyclidine hydrochloride to routine-dose group, and giving atropine intravenous administration to atropine group. Observe the smoothly de-gree, and check the heart rate, mean arterial pressure and postoperative adverse reactions of three groups. Results There was no obvious difference among the three groups in trems of smooth degree and oxyhemoglobin saturation. In small-dose group, heart rate and mean arterial pressure before and after the examination were better than that of routine-dose group and atropine group, and there were obviously lower inci-dence of postoperative adverse reaction compared with the routine-dose group and atropine group. Conclusion Giving small-dose of penehy-clidine hydrochloride before anesthesia of painless colonoscopy examination can significantly improve the effect of examination, and it can re-duce the incidence of postoperative adverse reactions.%目的:探讨在无痛肠镜检查麻醉前给予小剂量长托宁(盐酸戊乙奎醚)治疗的应用价值。方法我院2012年7月至2013年1月接受无痛肠镜检查患者90例,将其随机分为3组,每组30例,分别于麻醉前给予小剂量长托宁静注(小剂量组)、常规剂量长托宁静注(常规剂量组)及阿托品静脉注射(阿托品组),观察3组患者的下镜顺利程度、检查前后心率和平均动脉压及术后不良反应情况。结果3组患者的总下镜顺利率和血氧饱和度比较未见明显差异,小剂量组在检查前后心率及平均动脉压方面作用明显优于常规剂量组及阿托品组,且小剂量组术后不良反应发

  12. Investigations on behavioral effects of an extract of Cannabis sativa L. in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, S; Costa, G; Murari, G; Panico, A M; Rapisarda, E; Speroni, E; Arrigo-Reina, R

    1981-01-01

    The behavioral responses of the rat to an extract of Cannabis sativa were examined after IP injection of 5, 15 and 30 mg/kg (expressed as delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol). The lowest dose of the extract induced stereotyped behavior (rhythmic head movements, intermittent gnawing and sniffing) together with hypersensitivity to stimuli and hyperthermia. The administration of higher doses of the extract resulted, initially, in similar behavioral effects but of greater intensity, followed by a cataleptic state alternating with atonic muscular prostration; rectal temperature was decreased. Pre-treatment with 6-hydoxydopamine (6-OHDA, which produces degeneration of catecholamine-containing nerve terminals)or pimozide (blocker of dopamine receptors) significantly reduced both stereotype and hyperreactivity. Thermic effects were also antagonized by 6-OHDA pre-treatment. Cannabis-induced catalepsy was enhanced by pimozide but reduced by atropine (3 mg/kg SC). These results support the hypothesis that catecholamines play an important role in the complex behavioral effects of cannabis. PMID:6798604

  13. Acute and chronic gastric emptying disorders in rats after localized X-irradiation, and the therapy of these disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After localized 300 kV X-irradiation of the rat stomach the stomach emptying time of a liquid and a solid test meal was examined with a non-invasive radiological method. In the acute period one to three weeks after irradiation with single doses between 10.7 and 21.3 Gy we observed a faster emptying of the liquid and a delayed emptying of the solid test meal. The faster emptying of the liquid test meal was treated successfully with atropin. In the chromic period we observed a delayed emptying of the liquid and of the solid test meal. These emptying disorders were treated partially successfully with the parasympathomimeticum carbachol and they were treated completeley successfully with the dopamine antagonist metoclopramide. (orig.)

  14. Effects of alpha-adrenoceptor and of combined sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade on cardiac performance and vascular resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Hilsted, J;

    1992-01-01

    ) blockade. 2. During alpha-adrenoceptor blockade heart rate and cardiac output increased considerably and left ventricular ejection fraction increased because of increased contractility. Systemic vascular resistance fell both during alpha-adrenoceptor blockade alone and during combined blockade. The...... increase in calf blood flow was of the same magnitude after combined blockade and after alpha-adrenoceptor blockade alone, and was considerably higher than the fall in systemic vascular resistance. Plasma catecholamine concentrations increased after phentolamine, but the changes were blunted when...... propranolol and atropine were added. 3. These results indicate that peripheral vasoconstriction especially that exerted by alpha-adrenoceptor nervous tone in skeletal muscle restricts left ventricular emptying of the intact heart. During pharmacologic blockade of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous...

  15. Participation of the cholinergic system in the ethanol-induced suppression of paradoxical sleep in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Papale

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbance is among the many consequences of ethanol abuse in both humans and rodents. Ethanol consumption can reduce REM or paradoxical sleep (PS in humans and rats, respectively. The first aim of this study was to develop an animal model of ethanol-induced PS suppression. This model administered intragastrically (by gavage to male Wistar rats (3 months old, 200-250 g 0.5 to 3.5 g/kg ethanol. The 3.5 g/kg dose of ethanol suppressed the PS stage compared with the vehicle group (distilled water during the first 2-h interval (0-2 h; 1.3 vs 10.2; P < 0.001. The second aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which ethanol suppresses PS. We examined the effects of cholinergic drug pretreatment. The cholinergic system was chosen because of the involvement of cholinergic neurotransmitters in regulating the sleep-wake cycle. A second set of animals was pretreated with 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg/kg pilocarpine (cholinergic agonist or atropine (cholinergic antagonist. These drugs were administered 1 h prior to ethanol (3.5 g/kg or vehicle. Treatment with atropine prior to vehicle or ethanol produced a statistically significant decrease in PS, whereas pilocarpine had no effect on minutes of PS. Although the mechanism by which ethanol induces PS suppression is not fully understood, these data suggest that the cholinergic system is not the only system involved in this interaction.

  16. A functional study on small intestinal smooth muscles in jejunal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tyagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the contractile status of neonatal small intestinal smooth muscle of dilated pre-atretic part of intestinal atresia to resolve debatable issues related to mechanisms of persistent dysmotility after surgical repair. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 longitudinally sectioned strips were prepared from pre-atretic dilated part of freshly excised 8 jejunal atresia type III a cases. Spontaneous as well as acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contractions were recorded in vitro by using organ bath preparations. Chemically evoked contractions were further evaluated after application of atropine (muscarinic blocker, pheniramine (H1 blocker, and lignocaine (neuronal blocker to ascertain receptors and neuronal involvement. Histological examinations of strips were made by using Masson trichrome stain to assess the fibrotic changes. Results: All 34 strips, except four showed spontaneous contractions with mean frequency and amplitude of 5.49 ± 0.26/min and 24.41 ± 5.26 g/g wet tissue respectively. The response to ACh was nearly twice as compared to histamine for equimolar concentrations (100 μM. ACh (100 μM induced contractions were attenuated (by 60% by atropine. Histamine (100 μM-induced contractions was blocked by pheniramine (0.32 μM and lignocaine (4 μM by 74% and 78%, respectively. Histopathological examination showed varying degree of fibrotic changes in muscle layers. Conclusions: Pre-atretic dilated part of jejunal atresia retains functional activity but with definitive histopathologic abnormalities. It is suggested that excision of a length of pre-atretic part and early stimulation of peristalsis by locally acting cholinomimetic or H1 agonist may help in reducing postoperative motility problems in atresia patients.

  17. Gastric motor effects of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6 in diabetic mice with gastroparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cai Qiu, Zhi-Gang Wang, Wei-Gang Wang, Jun Yan and Qi Zheng

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the potential therapeutic significance of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6 in diabetic mice with gastric motility disorders.METHODS: A diabetic mouse model was established by intraperitoneal (ip injection of alloxan. Diabetic mice were injected ip with ghrelin or GHRP-6 (20-200 μg/kg, and the effects on gastric emptying were measured after intragastric application of phenol red. The effect of atropine, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME or D-Lys3-GHRP-6 (a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R antagonist on the gastroprokinetic effect of ghrelin or GHRP-6 (100 μg/kg was also investigated. The effects of ghrelin or GHRP-6 (0.01-10 μmol/L on spontaneous or carbachol-induced contractile amplitude were also investigated in vitro, in gastric fundic circular strips taken from diabetic mice. The presence of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a transcripts in the fundic strips of diabetic mice was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR.RESULTS: We established a diabetic mouse model with delayed gastric emptying. Ghrelin and GHRP-6 accelerated gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis. In the presence of atropine or L-NAME, which delayed gastric emptying, ghrelin and GHRP-6 (100 μg/kg failed to accelerate gastric emptying. D-Lys3-GHRP-6 also delayed gastric emptying induced by the GHS-R agonist. Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increased the carbachol-induced contractile amplitude in gastric fundic strips taken from diabetic mice. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of GHS-R mRNA in the strip preparations.CONCLUSION: Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increase gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis, perhaps by activating peripheral cholinergic pathways in the enteric nervous system.

  18. Acetylcholine Attenuates Hypoxia/ Reoxygenation-Induced Mitochondrial and Cytosolic ROS Formation in H9c2 Cells via M2 Acetylcholine Receptor

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    Yi Miao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anti-infammatory and cardioprotective effect of acetylcholine (ACh has been reported; nevertheless, whether and how ACh exhibits an antioxidant property against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced oxidative stress remains obscure. Methods: In the present study, H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R to mimic I/R injury. We estimated intracellular different sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS by measuring mitochondrial ROS (mtROS, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number, xanthine oxidase (XO and NADPH oxidase (NOX activity and expression of rac 1. Cell injury was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release and cleaved caspase-3 expression. The siRNA transfection was performed to knockdown of M2 acetylcholine receptor (M2 AChR expression. Results: 12-h hypoxia followed by 2-h reoxygenation resulted in an abrupt burst of ROS in H9c2 cells. Administration of ACh reduced the levels of ROS in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared to the H/R group, ACh decreased mtROS, recovered mtDNA copy number, diminished XO and NOX activity, rac 1 expression as well as cell injury. Co- treatment with atropine rather than hexamethonium abolished the antioxidant and cardioprotective effect of ACh. Moreover, knockdown of M2 AChR by siRNA showed the similar trends as atropine co-treatment group. Conclusions: ACh inhibits mitochondria-, XO- and NOX-derived ROS production thus protecting H9c2 cells against H/R-induced oxidative stress, and these benefcial effects are mainly mediated by M2 AChR. Our findings suggested that increasing ACh release could be a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment and prevention of I/R injury.

  19. Intravenous granisetron attenuates hypotension during spinal anesthesia in cesarean delivery: A double-blind, prospective randomized controlled study

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    Ahmed A Eldaba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of intravenous (IV granisetron in the prevention of hypotension and bradycardia during spinal anesthesia in cesarean delivery. Material and Methods: A total of 200 parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section were included in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group I was given 1 mg granisetron diluted in 10 ml normal saline slowly IV, 5 min before spinal anesthesia. Group II was given 10 ml of normal saline, 5 min before spinal anesthesia. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR were recorded every 3 min until the end of surgery (for 45 min. The total consumption of vasopressors and atropine were recorded. Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were also assessed. Results: Serial mean arterial blood pressure and HR values for 45 min after onset of spinal anesthesia were decreased significantly in group II, P < 0.0001. The incidence of hypotension after spinal anesthesia was 64% in group II and 3% in group I (P < 0.0001. The total doses of ephedrine (4.07 ± 3.87 mg vs 10.7 ± 8.9 mg, P < 0.0001, phenylephrine (0.0 microg vs 23.2 ± 55.1 microg, P < 0.0001, and atropine (0.0 mg vs 0.35 ± 0.49 mg P < 0.0001 consumed in both the groups respectively, were significantly less in group I versus group II. Conclusion: Premedication with 1 mg IV granisetron before spinal anesthesia in an elective cesarean section significantly reduces hypotension, bradycardia and vasopressors usage.

  20. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g) female rats (N = 7 in each group) the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected adrenomedullin (ADM) on blood pressure and heart rate (HR), and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors, peripheral V1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1) icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL) caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (ΔMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm). 2) Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37) and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM22-52) blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3) The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv) and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv) prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv). 4) The V1 receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl1, O-me-Tyr2,Arg8]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg), that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR

  1. Pharmacokinetic profile and quantitation of protection against soman poisoning by the antinicotinic compound MB327 in the guinea-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew E; Docx, Cerys J; Rice, Helen; Fairhall, Sarah J; Poole, Sarah J C; Bird, Michael; Whiley, Luke; Flint, Daniel P; Green, A Christopher; Timperley, Christopher M; Tattersall, John E H

    2016-02-26

    Current organophosphorus nerve agent medical countermeasures do not directly address the nicotinic effects of poisoning. A series of antinicotinic bispyridinium compounds has been synthesized in our laboratory and screened in vitro. Their actions can include open-channel block at the nicotinic receptor which may contribute to their efficacy. The current lead compound from these studies, MB327 1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium) as either the diiodide (I2) or dimethanesulfonate (DMS) has been examined in vivo for efficacy against nerve agent poisoning. MB327 I2 (0-113mgkg(-1)) or the oxime HI-6 DMS (0-100mgkg(- 1)), in combination with atropine and avizafone (each at 3mgkg(-1)) was administered to guinea-pigs 1min following soman poisoning. Treatment increased the LD50 of soman in a dose-dependent manner. The increase was statistically significant (pDMS reached plasma Cmax of 22μM at 12min with an elimination t1/2 of 22min. In an adverse effect study, in the absence of nerve agent poisoning, a dose of 100mgkg(-1) or higher of MB327 DMS was lethal to the guinea-pigs. A lower dose of MB327 DMS (30mgkg(-1)) caused flaccid paralysis accompanied by respiratory impairment. Respiration normalised by 30min, although the animals remained incapacitated to 4h. MB327 or related compounds may be of utility in treatment of nerve agent poisoning as a component of therapy with atropine, anticonvulsant and oxime, or alternatively as an infusion under medical supervision. PMID:26325216

  2. Application of forgetful analgesia induction in induction period in patients with obstructive jaundice

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    Wei DU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of forgetful analgesia induction and tracheal intubation on the hemodynamic changes in induction period in patients with obstructive jaundice, and explore a safe method for anesthesia induction and tracheal intubation. Methods Sixty patients with obstructive jaundice undergoing elective abdominal operation in General Hospital of PLA from February, 2013 to August, 2013 were involved in the present study. Participants included 36 male and 24 female patients, aging 19-65 years (mean 42±5 years, weighing 47-73 kg (mean 54±6 kg, with ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ. These 60 patients were randomly divided into forgetful analgesia induction-tracheal intubation group (group A, n=30 and rapid induction-tracheal intubation group (group B, n=30. The heart rate (HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 at the time point of before induction (T0, before intubation (T1, at the moment of intubation (T2 and 3 min after intubation (T3 were determined in both groups. Administration times of ephedrine hydrochloride and atropine was recorded in both groups. Results There was no significant difference in HR, MAP, SpO2 before and after induction in group A. In the patients of group B, the HR increased and MAP decreased after induction compared with those before induction (P<0.05, and the change of SpO2 was not significant. Ephedrine hydrochloride and atropine were administrated in both groups, and the cases and times of ephedrine hydrochloride administration were more in group B than in group A (P<0.05. Conclusion The forgetful analgesia induction-tracheal intubation could effectively control the stress response and reduce the fluctuation in hemodynamics during induction of anesthesia in patients with obstructive jaundice. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.15

  3. Effect of Qiangxin Fumai Granule(强心复脉颗粒) on Electrophysiological Functions of the Sinoatrial Node during Ischemia-reperfusion of the Right Coronary Artery in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of the Chinese medicine Qiangxin Fumai Granule (强心复脉颗粒,QFG) on electrophysiological functions of the sinoatrial node during ischemia-reperfusion (IR) of the right coronary artery in rabbits.Methods:The right coronary artery IR model in rabbits was adopted.The modeled rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups:the model group,the atropine group,the highclose QFG group,and the low-dose QFG group,with 8 animals in each group.In addition,twelve rabbits were selected for the sham-operative group.The drugs were administered once via duodenal perfusion after modeling had been stabilized for 10 min.The changes in AA interval,the sinoatrial conduction time (SACT),the sinus node recovery time (SNRT),the corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT) and the index of sinus node recovery time (ISNRT) at different time points during ischemia and reperfusion were measured.Results:The AA interval was prolonged for more than 40 ms in the model group during ischemia.Compared with the model group,the four electrophysiological parameters abovementioned in the high-dose QFG group and the low-dose QFG group were decreased to different extents at each time point (P<0.01 or P<0.05),and no statistically significant differences were found between the QFG groups and the atropine group (P>0.05).Conclusion:QFG is beneficial for accelerating the recovery of sinus node autorhythmicity and conduction function,so as to protect electrophysiological functions of the sinoatrial node.Accelerating the recovery of autorhythmicity and conduction function in the sinus node is considered its electrophysiological mechanism in the treatment of sinoatrial node injury induced by ischemia.

  4. The bradycardic and hypotensive responses to serotonin are reduced by activation of GABAA receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarius of awake rats

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    Callera J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of bilateral injections of the GABA receptor agonists muscimol (GABA A and baclofen (GABA B into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS on the bradycardia and hypotension induced by iv serotonin injections (5-HT, 2 µg/rat in awake male Holtzman rats. 5-HT was injected in rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally in the NTS, before and 5, 15, and 60 min after bilateral injections of muscimol or baclofen into the NTS. The responses to 5-HT were tested before and after the injection of atropine methyl bromide. Muscimol (50 pmol/50 nl, N = 8 into the NTS increased basal mean arterial pressure (MAP from 115 ± 4 to 144 ± 6 mmHg, did not change basal heart rate (HR and reduced the bradycardia (-40 ± 14 and -73 ± 26 bpm at 5 and 15 min, respectively, vs -180 ± 20 bpm for the control and hypotension (-11 ± 4 and -14 ± 4 mmHg, vs -40 ± 9 mmHg for the control elicited by 5-HT. Baclofen (12.5 pmol/50 nl, N = 7 into the NTS also increased basal MAP, but did not change basal HR, bradycardia or hypotension in response to 5-HT injections. Atropine methyl bromide (1 mg/kg body weight injected iv reduced the bradycardic and hypotensive responses to 5-HT injections. The stimulation of GABA A receptors in the NTS of awake rats elicits a significant increase in basal MAP and decreases the cardiac Bezold-Jarisch reflex responses to iv 5-HT injections.

  5. Effectiveness of donepezil, rivastigmine, and (+/-)huperzine A in counteracting the acute toxicity of organophosphorus nerve agents: comparison with galantamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aracava, Yasco; Pereira, Edna F R; Akkerman, Miriam; Adler, Michael; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2009-12-01

    Galantamine, a centrally acting cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor and a nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand used to treat Alzheimer's disease, is an effective and safe antidote against poisoning with nerve agents, including soman. Here, the effectiveness of galantamine was compared with that of the centrally active ChE inhibitors donepezil, rivastigmine, and (+/-)huperzine A as a pre- and/or post-treatment to counteract the acute toxicity of soman. In the first set of experiments, male prepubertal guinea pigs were treated intramuscularly with one of the test drugs and 30 min later challenged with 1.5 x LD(50) soman (42 microg/kg s.c.). All animals that were pretreated with galantamine (6-8 mg/kg), 3 mg/kg donepezil, 6 mg/kg rivastigmine, or 0.3 mg/kg (+/-)huperzine A survived the soman challenge, provided that they were also post-treated with atropine (10 mg/kg i.m.). However, only galantamine was well tolerated. In subsequent experiments, the effectiveness of specific treatment regimens using 8 mg/kg galantamine, 3 mg/kg donepezil, 6 mg/kg rivastigmine, or 0.3 mg/kg (+/-)huperzine A was compared in guinea pigs challenged with soman. In the absence of atropine, only galantamine worked as an effective and safe pretreatment in animals challenged with 1.0 x LD(50) soman. Galantamine was also the only drug to afford significant protection when given to guinea pigs after 1.0 x LD(50) soman. Finally, all test drugs except galantamine reduced the survival of the animals when administered 1 or 3 h after the challenge with 0.6 or 0.7 x LD(50) soman. Thus, galantamine emerges as a superior antidotal therapy against the toxicity of soman. PMID:19741148

  6. Investigation into the role of the cholinergic system in radiation-induced damage in the rat liver and ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been previously shown that acetylcholine (ACh) may affect pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The role of the cholinergic system in radiation-induced inflammatory responses and tissue damage remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the radio-protective properties of the cholinergic system in the ileum and the liver of rats. Rats were exposed to 8-Gy single-fraction whole-abdominal irradiation and were then decapitated at either 36 h or 10 d post-irradiation. The rats were treated either with intraperitoneal physiological saline (1 ml/kg), physostigmine (80 μg/kg) or atropine (50 μg/kg) twice daily for 36 h or 10 d. Cardiac blood samples and liver and ileal tissues were obtained in which TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 levels were assayed using ELISA. In the liver and ileal homogenates, caspase-3 immunoblots were performed and mye-loperoxidase (MPO) activity was analyzed. Plasma levels of IL-1β and TNF-α increased significantly following radiation (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) as compared with non-irradiated controls, and physostigmine treatment prevented the increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Plasma IL-10 levels were not found to be significantly changed following radiation, whereas physostigmine augmented IL-10 levels during the late phase (P < 0.01). In the liver and ileum homogenates, IL-1β and TNF-α levels were also elevated following radiation, and this effect was inhibited by physostigmine treatment but not by atropine. Similarly, physostigmine also reversed the changes in MPO activity and in the caspase-3 levels in the liver and ileum. Histological examination revealed related changes. Physostigmine experiments suggested that ACh has a radio-protective effect not involving the muscarinic receptors. (author)

  7. Management of exogenous intoxication by carbamates and organophosphates at an emergency unit

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    Sydney Correia Leão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objectives: to evaluate and indicate the procedure to be followed in the health unit, both for diagnosis and the treatment of acute exogenous intoxications by carbamates or organophosphates. Methods: a descriptive study based on retrospective analysis of the clinical history of patients diagnosed with intoxication by carbamates or organophosphates admitted at the emergency unit of the Hospital de Urgências de Sergipe Governador João Alves (HUSE between January and December of 2012. Some criteria were evaluated, such as: intoxicating agent; patient's age and gender; place of event, cause, circumstances and severity of the intoxication; as well as signs and symptoms of the muscarinic, nicotinic and neurological effects. Results: seventy patients (average age: 25±19.97 formed the study's population. It was observed that 77.14% of them suffered carbamate intoxication. However, organophosphate intoxications were more severe, with 68.75% of patients presenting moderate to severe forms. Suicide attempt was the leading cause of poisoning, with 62 cases (88.57% of total. Atropine administration was an effective therapeutic approach for treating signs and symptoms, which included sialorrhea (p=0.0006, nausea (p=0. 0029 and emesis (p lt0.0001. The use of activated charcoal was shown effective, both in combating the signs and symptoms presented by both patient groups (p <0.0001. Conclusion: it is concluded that the use of atropine and activated charcoal is highly effective to treat the signs and symptoms developed by patients presenting acute exogenous intoxication by carbamates or organophosphates.

  8. Betabloqueador tópico pode determinar resultados inconclusivos no ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina em pacientes com glaucoma Topical betablocker use can result in inconclusive dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients with glaucoma

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    Adriana Cordovil

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina é um método bem estabelecido para avaliar doença arterial coronária, cuja sensibilidade tem sido potencializada pela adição de atropina no final do protocolo. Indivíduos com glaucoma, doença com alta prevalência em pacientes cardiopatas com mais de 40 anos, não podem se beneficiar do uso de atropina por ser contra-indicada neste grupo. Além disso, estes indivíduos são tratados freqüentemente com betabloqueadores tópicos (colírios, que podem exercer efeitos sistêmicos diminuindo a freqüência cardíaca, pressão arterial e capacidade pulmonar. O objetivo do nosso trabalho foi verificar se a ocorrência de um possível efeito sistêmico causado por estes colírios, causando baixa resposta cronotrópica, poderia determinar resultados inconclusivos no ecocardiograma sob estresse pela dobutamina nestes pacientes com glaucoma.Dobutamine stress echocardiography is a well-established method to assess coronary artery disease, of which sensitivity has been enhanced by adding atropine at the end of the protocol. Individuals with glaucoma, a disease with a high prevalence in patients with cardiac diseases older than 40 years, cannot benefit from the use of atropine as it is contraindicated for this group of patients. Additionally, these individuals are often treated with topical betablockers (eye drops, which can have systemic effects by decreasing cardiac frequency, blood pressure and pulmonary capacity. The aim of our study was to verify whether a possible systemic effect caused by the use of these eye drops, yielding a low chronotropic response, could result in inconclusive dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients with glaucoma.

  9. In-Vitro effect of Ficus deltoidea on the contraction of isolated rat’s uteri is mediated via multiple receptors binding and is dependent on extracellular calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ficus deltoidea, is a perennial herb that is used to assist labor, firm the uterus post-delivery and to prevent postpartum bleeding. In view of its claimed uterotonic action, the mechanisms underlying plant’s effect on uterine contraction were investigated. Methods Adult female SD rats were injected with 2 mg/kg 17β-oestradiol (E2) to synchronize their oestrous cycle. A day after injection, uteri were removed for in-vitro contraction studies. The dose dependent effect of Ficus deltoidea aqeous extract (FDA) on the tension produced by the isolated rat’s uteri was determined. The effects of atropine (2×10-8 M), atosiban (0.5 IU), THG113.31 (10 μM), oxodipine (0.25 mM), EDTA (1 mM), 2-amino-ethoxy-diphenylborate (2-APB) (40 mM) and thapsigargin (1 mM) on the maximum force of contraction (Emax) achieved following 2 mg/ml FDA administration were also investigated. Results FDA induced in-vitro contraction of the isolated rat’s uteri in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of atropine, atosiban and THG113.31 reduced the Emax with atosiban having the greatest effect. The Emax was also reduced following oxodipine and EDTA administration. There was no significant change observed following 2-APB administration. Thapsigargin, however, augmented Emax. Conclusions FDA-induced contraction of the isolated rat’s uteri is mediated via multiple uterotonin receptors (muscarinic, oxytocin and prostaglandin F2α) and was dependent on the extracellular Ca2+. Contraction, however, was not dependent on the Ca2+ release from the internal stores. This in-vitro study provides the first scientific evidence on the claimed effect of Ficus Deltoidea on uterine contraction. PMID:24330515

  10. 农药透叶杀中毒三例报告%Three Reports of Insecticide Poison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月娥; 刘光辉; 徐振华

    2011-01-01

    Objective to discuss the clinical characteristic and cure of insecticide poison. Methods a retrospective analysis on three clinical materials of insecticide poison patients. Results threes patients appeared? gastrointestinal symptom like bellyache, nausea and vomiting, two of whom appeared neural symptom being recovery after skin cleaning, fluid infusion, atropine intravenous injection and heteropathy. Conclusions The main toxic ingredients of this kind of insecticide are deltamethrin, methidathion, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, small amount of matrine, nicotine, penetrating agent and etc. After poisoning, patients could appear bellyache, nausea and vomiting symptom. They are recovery after atropine intravenous injection and heteropathy, whom health conditions are well after leaving hospital.%目的 探讨农药透叶杀中毒的临床特点及治疗.方法 回顾性分析3例透叶杀中毒患者的临床资料.结果 3例患者于喷洒透叶杀后出现腹痛、恶心、呕吐等胃肠道症状,其中2例出现神经症状,经清洁皮肤、补液、阿托品静脉注射及对症治疗,痊愈.结论 农药透叶杀主要毒性成分有溴氰菊酯、杀扑磷、毒死稗、吡虫啉、以及少量的苦参碱以及烟碱、渗透剂等.中毒后,可以出现腹痛、恶心、呕吐症状.经阿托品静脉注射及对症治疗可痊愈,预后良好.

  11. The action of neuropeptide AF on passive avoidance learning. Involvement of neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palotai, Miklós; Telegdy, Gyula; Bagosi, Zsolt; Jászberényi, Miklós

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide AF (NPAF) is an amidated octadecapeptide, which is member of the RFamide peptide family. NPAF is encoded by the farp-1 gene and acts through the G protein coupled NPFF-1 and NPFF-2 receptors. NPAF is involved in several physiological functions of the central nervous system, however we have little evidence about the involvement of NPAF in learning and memory. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the action of NPAF on consolidation of memory in a passive avoidance learning paradigm in mice. We have also investigated the underlying neurotransmissions and the action of NPAF on β-amyloid-induced memory impairment. Accordingly, mice were pretreated with a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, atropine, a non-selective 5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine, a mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, methysergide, a D2, D3, D4 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, nitro-l-arginine, a α1/α2β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol or β-amyloid 25-35 in combination with NPAF administration. Our results demonstrate for the first time that NPAF improves the consolidation of passive avoidance learning. This effect is mediated through muscarinic cholinergic, 5HT1- and 5HT2-serotoninergic, dopaminergic, nitrergic and α- and β-adrenergic neurotransmissions, but not by opioid transmission, since atropine, cyproheptadine, methysergide, haloperidol, nitro-l-arginine, prazosin and propranolol reversed the action of NPAF, whereas naloxone was ineffective. The present study also shows that NPAF reverses the β-amyloid 25-35-induced memory impairment. PMID:26639667

  12. Neuropeptide AF induces anxiety-like and antidepressant-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palotai, Miklós; Telegdy, Gyula; Tanaka, Masaru; Bagosi, Zsolt; Jászberényi, Miklós

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the action of neuropeptide AF (NPAF) on anxiety and depression. Only our previous study provides evidence that NPAF induces anxiety-like behavior in rats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the action of NPAF on depression-like behavior and the underlying neurotransmissions in mice. In order to determine whether there are species differences between rats and mice, we have investigated the action of NPAF on anxiety-like behavior in mice as well. A modified forced swimming test (mFST) and an elevated plus maze test (EPMT) were used to investigate the depression and anxiety-related behaviors, respectively. Mice were treated with NPAF 30min prior to the tests. In the mFST, the animals were pretreated with a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, atropine, a non-selective 5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine, a mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, methysergide, a D2/D3/D4 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, a α1/α2β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin or a non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol 30min before the NPAF administration. In the mFST, NPAF decreased the immobility time and increased the climbing and swimming times. This action was reversed completely by methysergide and partially by atropine, whereas cyproheptadine, haloperidol, prazosin and propranolol were ineffective. In the EPMT, NPAF decreased the time spent in the arms (open/open+closed). Our results demonstrate that NPAF induces anti-depressant-like behavior in mice, which is mediated, at least in part, through 5HT2-serotonergic and muscarinic cholinergic neurotransmissions. In addition, the NPAF-induced anxiety is species-independent, since it develops also in mice. PMID:25116251

  13. Molecular cloning of motilin and mechanism of motilin-induced gastrointestinal motility in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, Auvijit Saha; Mondal, Anupom; Kitazawa, Takio; Takemi, Shota; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Motilin, a peptide hormone produced in the upper intestinal mucosa, plays an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In the present study, we first determined the cDNA and amino acid sequences of motilin in the Japanese quail and studied the distribution of motilin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract. We also examined the motilin-induced contractile properties of quail GI tracts using an in vitro organ bath, and then elucidated the mechanisms of motilin-induced contraction in the proventriculus and duodenum of the quail. Mature quail motilin was composed of 22 amino acid residues, which showed high homology with chicken (95.4%), human (72.7%), and dog (72.7%) motilin. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that motilin-immunopositive cells were present in the mucosal layer of the duodenum (23.4±4.6cells/mm(2)), jejunum (15.2±0.8cells/mm(2)), and ileum (2.5±0.7cells/mm(2)), but were not observed in the crop, proventriculus, and colon. In the organ bath study, chicken motilin induced dose-dependent contraction in the proventriculus and small intestine. On the other hand, chicken ghrelin had no effect on contraction in the GI tract. Motilin-induced contraction in the duodenum was not inhibited by atropine, hexamethonium, ritanserin, ondansetron, or tetrodotoxin. However, motilin-induced contractions in the proventriculus were significantly inhibited by atropine and tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that motilin is the major stimulant of GI contraction in quail, as it is in mammals and the site of action of motilin is different between small intestine and proventriculus. PMID:27179882

  14. Functional antidopaminergic and anticholinergic effects of thioridazine and its metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzwiecki, D.

    1986-01-01

    The relative potency of thioridazine and two of its clinically active metabolites, mesoridazine and sulforidazine was studied. In each of three separate methods, mesoridazine and sulforidazine exhibited greater potency than did thioridazine. Both metabolites showed greater affinities for striatal DA receptors as estimated by their competition for (/sup 3/H)spiperone binding sites in crude striatal membrane preparations. On a more functional level, both metabolites more potently antagonized the inhibitory effects of either the direct acting DA agonist apomorphine, or of endogenous DA, on the electrically evoked release of radiolabeled DA and ACh from perfused striatal slices. While thioridazine effectively blocked the agonist-induced inhibition at those striatal DA receptors which control DA release, it showed significantly lower potency at the striatal DA receptors which modulate ACh release. Thioridazine exhibited moderate affinity for striatal muscarinic cholinergic receptors. It was only five times less potent than atropine in competing for (/sup 3/H) quinuclidinylbenzilate binding sites in striatal membrane preparations. Unlike dopamine receptors, thioridazine showed greater antimuscarinic potency than did its metabolites. Despite this significant affinity for muscarinic binding sites in striatal homogenates, neither thioridezine nor its metabolites could block the inhibitory effects of the full muscarinic agonist carbachol, on the evoked release of ACh from striatal slices. This lack of effect contrasted with the antagonism of the carbachol-induced inhibition by such classical muscarinic blockers as quinuclindinylbenzilate or atropine. In combination with available pharmacokinetic data, these studies have demonstrated that the metabolites of thioridazine probably contribute to the antidopaminergic effects of this drug within the CNS.

  15. Characterization of cardiovascular reflexes evoked by airway stimulation with allylisothiocyanate, capsaicin, and ATP in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, J S; Hadley, S H; Morris, K F; Breslin, J W; Dean, J B; Taylor-Clark, T E

    2016-03-15

    Acute inhalation of airborne pollutants alters cardiovascular function and evidence suggests that pollutant-induced activation of airway sensory nerves via the gating of ion channels is critical to these systemic responses. Here, we have investigated the effect of capsaicin [transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist], AITC [TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonist], and ATP (P2X2/3 agonist) on bronchopulmonary sensory activity and cardiovascular responses of conscious Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Single fiber recordings show that allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and capsaicin selectively activate C fibers, whereas subpopulations of both A and C fibers are activated by stimulation of P2X2/3 receptors. Inhalation of the agonists by conscious rats caused significant bradycardia, atrioventricular (AV) block, and prolonged PR intervals, although ATP-induced responses were lesser than those evoked by AITC or capsaicin. Responses to AITC were inhibited by the TRP channel blocker ruthenium red and the muscarinic antagonist atropine. AITC inhalation also caused a biphasic blood pressure response: a brief hypertensive phase followed by a hypotensive phase. Atropine accentuated the hypertensive phase, while preventing the hypotension. AITC-evoked bradycardia was not abolished by terazosin, the α1-adrenoceptor inhibitor, which prevented the hypertensive response. Anesthetics had profound effects on AITC-evoked bradycardia and AV block, which was abolished by urethane, ketamine, and isoflurane. Nevertheless, AITC inhalation caused bradycardia and AV block in paralyzed and ventilated rats following precollicular decerebration. In conclusion, we provide evidence that activation of ion channels expressed on nociceptive airway sensory nerves causes significant cardiovascular effects in conscious SD rats via reflex modulation of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:26718787

  16. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam-Etoz, B.; Isbil-Buyukcoskun, N.; Ozluk, K. [Department of Physiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle/Bursa (Turkey)

    2012-03-02

    Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g) female rats (N = 7 in each group) the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected adrenomedullin (ADM) on blood pressure and heart rate (HR), and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors, peripheral V{sub 1} receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1) icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL) caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (ΔMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm). 2) Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP{sub 8-37}) and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM{sub 22-52}) blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3) The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv) and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv) prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv). 4) The V{sub 1} receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl{sup 1}, O-me-Tyr{sup 2},Arg{sup 8}]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg), that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V{sub 1} receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  17. Anxiolytic action of neuromedin-U and neurotransmitters involved in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegdy, G; Adamik, A

    2013-09-10

    Peptide Neuromedin-U (NmU) is widely distributed in the central nervous system and the peripheral tissues. Its physiological effects include the regulation of blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature, and the inhibition of gastric acid secretion. The action of NmU in rats is mediated by two G-protein-coupled receptors, NmU-1R and NmU-2R. NmU-2R is present mainly in the brain, and NmU-1R mainly in the periphery. Despite the great variety of the physiological action of NmU, little is known about its possible effects in different forms of behavior, such as anxiety. In the present work, NmU-23 (the rodent form of the peptide) was tested for its effect on anxiety in elevated plus maze test in mice. For detection of the possible involvement of neurotransmitters, the mice were pretreated with receptor blockers: haloperidol (a D2, dopamine receptor antagonist), propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist), atropine (a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist), phenoxybenzamine (a nonselective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) or nitro-l-arginine (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). The peptide and nitro-l-arginine were administered into the lateral brain ventricle, while the receptor blockers were applied intraperitoneally. An NmU-23 dose 0.5μg elicited anxiolytic action, whereas this action is faded away when the dose was increased. For further testing therefore 0.5μg i.c.v. was used. Propranolol and atropine fully blocked the NmU-induced anxiolytic action, while haloperidol, phenoxybenzamine and nitro-l-arginine were ineffective. The results suggest that β-adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms are involved in the anxiolytic action of NmU. PMID:23892031

  18. Baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability in conscious rats with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, C; Kalenka, A; Haunstetter, A; Schweizer, M; Maier, C; Rühle, U; Ehmke, H; Kübler, W; Haass, M

    1997-11-01

    The baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and the heart rate variability (HRV) were studied in conscious rats after myocardial infarction (MI; induced by coronary artery ligation) and after sham operation (SH). BRS was determined by linear regression of R-R interval vs. arterial pressure changes induced by nitroprusside or methoxamine (intravenous bolus). HRV was calculated from 3-min electrocardiogram recordings. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide were increased after MI; plasma norepinephrine and basal heart rate (HR) remained unchanged. At 3 and 28 days after MI, BRS was reduced as indicated by decreased reflex bradycardia (RB) (MI, 0.66 +/- 0.13 and 0.78 +/- 0.07 ms/mmHg; SH, 1.27 +/- 0.16 and 1.48 +/- 0.14 ms/mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05 MI vs. SH). At 56 days after MI, BRS was normalized. RB was unaffected by atropine 3 and 28 days after MI but reduced in all other groups. The increase of basal HR by atropine 3 and 28 days after MI was less than in all other groups. HRV (SD of mean N-N interval, coefficient of variance, low- and high-frequency power; studied at 28 and 56 days) was similar in all groups. It is concluded that BRS is transiently depressed in rats with left ventricular dysfunction after MI probably due to a reduced reflex vagal activity. Even though basal HR and HRV are unchanged after MI, a temporary attenuation of tonic vagal activity is unmasked after autonomic blockade. PMID:9374759

  19. Human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2): Inhibitor studies using S2-hOCT2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly expressed in kidney and located on the basolateral membrane, human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2) can transport various compounds (i.e. drugs and toxins) into the proximal tubular cell. Using cultured proximal tubule cells stably expressing hOCT2 (i.e. S2-hOCT2 cells), we sought to probe different compound classes (e.g. analgesics, anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, disinfectant, herbicides, insecticides, local anesthetic, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, sedatives, steroid hormone, stimulants and toxins) for their ability to inhibit 14C-TEA uptake, a prototypical OCT2 substrate. Aconitine, amitriptyline, atropine, chlorpyrifos, diazepam, fenitrothion, haloperidol, lidocaine, malathion, mianserin, nicotine and triazolam significantly inhibited 14C-TEA uptake; IC50 values were 59.2, 2.4, 2.0, 20.7, 32.3, 13.2, 32.5, 104.6, 71.1, 17.7, 52.8 and 65.5 μM, respectively. In addition, aconitine, amitriptyline, atropine, chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, haloperidol, lidocaine, and nicotine displayed competitive inhibition with Ki values of 145.6, 2.5, 2.4, 24.8, 16.9, 51.6, 86.8 and 57.7 μM, respectively. These in vitro data support the notion that compounds pertaining to a wide variety of different drug classes have the potential to decrease renal clearance of drugs transported via hOCT2. Consequently, these data warrant additional studies to probe hOCT2 and its role to influence drug pharmacokinetics

  20. Pulmonary function, cholinergic bronchomotor tone, and cardiac autonomic abnormalities in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study analyzed the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in pulmonary and cardiac function by evaluating cardiovascular reflex and its correlation with pulmonary function abnormalities of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients (N = 17 and healthy subjects (N = 17 were evaluated by 1 pulmonary function tests including spirometry, He-dilution method, N2 washout test, and specific airway conductance (SGaw determined by plethysmography before and after aerosol administration of atropine sulfate, and 2 autonomic cardiovascular activity by the passive tilting test and the magnitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA. Basal heart rate was higher in the diabetic group (87.8 ± 11.2 bpm; mean ± SD than in the control group (72.9 ± 7.8 bpm, P<0.05. The increase of heart rate at 5 s of tilting was 11.8 ± 6.5 bpm in diabetic patients and 17.6 ± 6.2 bpm in the control group (P<0.05. Systemic arterial pressure and RSA analysis did not reveal significant differences between groups. Diabetes intragroup analysis revealed two behaviors: 10 patients with close to normal findings and 7 with significant abnormalities in terms of RSA, with the latter subgroup presenting one or more abnormalities in other tests and clear evidence of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. End-expiratory flows were significantly lower in diabetic patients than in the control group (P<0.05. Pulmonary function tests before and after atropine administration demonstrated comparable responses by both groups. Type 2 diabetic patients have cardiac autonomic dysfunction that is not associated with bronchomotor tone alterations, probably reflecting a less severe impairment than that of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Yet, a reduction of end-expiratory flow was detected.

  1. Acute and long-lasting cardiac changes following a single whole-body exposure to sarin vapor in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allon, N; Rabinovitz, I; Manistersky, E; Weissman, B A; Grauer, E

    2005-10-01

    Epinephrine-induced arrhythmias (EPIA) are known to be associated with local cardiac cholinergic activation. The present study examined the development of QT prolongation and the effect on EPIA of whole-body exposure of animals to a potent acetylcholine esterase inhibitor. Freely moving rats were exposed to sarin vapor (34.2 +/- 0.8 microg/liter) for 10 min. The electrocardiograms (ECG) of exposed and control animals were monitored every 2 weeks for 6 months. One and six months post exposure, rats were challenged with epinephrine under anesthesia, and the threshold for arrhythmias was determined. Approximately 35% of the intoxicated rats died within 24 h of sarin exposure. Additional occasional deaths were recorded for up to 6 months (final mortality rate of 48%). Surviving rats showed, agitation, aggression, and weight loss compared to non-exposed rats, and about 20% of them experienced sporadic convulsions. Sarin-challenged rats with severe symptoms demonstrated QT segment prolongation during the first 2-3 weeks after exposure. The EPIA that appeared at a significantly lower blood pressure in the treated group in the first month after intoxication lasted for up to 6 months. This decrease in EPIA threshold was blocked by atropine and methyl-atropine. Three months post exposure no significant changes were detected in either k(D) or B(max) values of (3)H-N-methyl scopolamine binding to heart homogenates, or in the affinity of carbamylcholine to cardiac muscarinic receptors. The increase in the vulnerability to develop arrhythmias long after accidental or terror-related organophosphate (OP) intoxication, especially under challenging conditions such as stress or intensive physical exercise, may explain the delayed mortality observed following OP exposure. PMID:16033992

  2. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cam-Etoz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g female rats (N = 7 in each group the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv injected adrenomedullin (ADM on blood pressure and heart rate (HR, and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP receptors, peripheral V1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1 icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (DMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm. 2 Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM22-52 blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3 The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv. 4 The V1 receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl¹, O-me-Tyr²,Arg8]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg, that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  3. [Effect of stimulation of the tooth pulp on gastrointestinal motility in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nando, R

    1983-04-01

    Effects of electrical stimulation of the inciser tooth pulp on the gastrointestinal motility were investigated in the rabbit anesthetized with urethane and chloralose. Pulpal Stimulation caused an excitatory or an inhibitory effect in the gastric body and antrum and the ducodenum. After bilateral splanchnicotomy the excitatory response to the pulpal stimulation was reinforced or the inhibitory response converted to the excitatory response. An additional cervical vagotomy abolished the excitatory and inhibitory response. Atropine diminished the spontaneous efferent discharges of vagal gastric branch (VGB) and abolished the excitatory and inhibitory response to stimulation of the pulp and the inferior alveolar nerve. This agent also blocked the potentials of the VGB evoked by afferent stimulation of the inferior aveolar nerve. Hexamethonium bromide abolished the excitatory and inhibitory responses to the pulpal stimulation but did not affect spontaneous discharges and increased discharges of the VGB to pulpal stimulation. Morphine produced decreased rate of the spontaneous discharge of the VGB and abolished increased rate of discharges of the VGB as well as the gastrointestinal responses to pulpal stimulation. It is concluded from these results that the afferent impulses caused by pulpal stimulation and the inferior alveolar nerve 'reflex'ly activate the vagal motor nuclei in the medulla oblongata and the sympathetic splanchnic nuclei in the thoracic segments through the trigeminal nerve: The vagus nerves produced the excitatory response in the gastrointestinal motility, while the splanchnic nerves caused the inhibitory response. It was supposed that sites of action of atropine and morphine is not in peripheral site, but in the central nerves site. PMID:6663937

  4. A COMPARISON OF MIDAZOLAM AND KETAMINE PLUS MIDAZOLAM COMBINATION AS AN ORAL PREMEDICANT IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prabu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Effective premedication in pediatric patients posted for elective surgeries allays patients’ anxiety and reduces risk of post-operative behavioral problems. Oral midazolam and oral ketamine are tried in different doses as pediatric premedicant, but addition of 3mg/kg of oral ketamine with 0.5 mg/kg of oral midazolam resulted in better premedication when compared to oral midazolam 0.5mg/kg or oral ketamine 6mg/kg given alone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 60 healthy children under 1-8 yrs. age group posted for elective surgeries chosen for this study were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each. Double blinding was done using sealed envelope technique to prevent observer bias. Children with other co-existing illnesses were excluded from the study. Group KM received Ketamine 3 mg/kg and midazolam 0.5 mg/kg + atropine 20 µg/kg (oral route and Group M received midazolam 0.5 mg/kg and atropine 20 µg/kg (oral route 30 minutes before proposed induction time. Sedation score, anxiolysis score, parental separation and mask tolerance was assessed in all the patients 30 minutes after administration of the drug. RESULTS: The data collected was analyzed using SPSS statistical software. There was a statistically significant increase in sedation score at 15 and 30 minutes in group KM compared to group M. Parental separation at 30 minutes is peaceful in 30 children (100% in group KM compared to 24 children (80% in group M. CONCLUSION: The oral ketamine and midazolam combination produces significantly better anxiolysis, sedation, parental separation and mask tolerance, without hemodynamic alteration, when compared to oral midazolam (0.5mg/kg given alone.

  5. Effects of met-enkephalin on the mechanical activity and distribution of met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in the cat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomirov, R; Venkova, K; Davidoff, M; Pencheva, N

    1990-01-01

    Naloxone-dependent effects of Met-enkephalin (10(-8) M) on the spontaneous and electrically induced mechanical activities were studied in longitudinal and circular preparations isolated from the cat duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Met-Enkephalin changed the spontaneous activity of all preparations tested with the exception of the circular preparations from the ileum. Met-Enkephalin-induced responses of the longitudinal preparations from the ileum were abolished by treatment with tetrodotoxin (10(-7) M), while the responses of both longitudinal and circular preparations from the duodenum and jejunum were only partially depressed, being resistant to tetrodotoxin components. The latter were most pronounced in the duodenum. The neurogenic electrically induced (0.5 msec, 5 Hz, 150 pulses) responses of all the preparations consisted mainly of contractile components which were significantly and naloxone-dependently reduced by Met-enkephalin (10(-8) M). The contractile components of the responses, which were reduced by Met-enkephalin, were entirely abolished by atropine (3 x 10(-6) M). Both Met-enkephalin and atropine inhibitory effects on the neurogenic responses were more pronounced in the ileum. Met-Enkephalin was found in nerve fibers of the myenteric plexus distributed mainly among the circular muscle. Single immunoreactive nerve fibers were observed in the longitudinal muscle layer of the duodenum but not in the jejunum and ileum. The distribution of Met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity along the small intestine did not show significant differences among the three intestinal regions tested. The results obtained suggest that Met-enkephalin can modulate the mechanical activity of the cat small intestine, inhibiting cholinergic transmission and/or activating smooth muscle opioid receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2199944

  6. Effects of leu-enkephalin on the mechanical activity of longitudinal and circular muscles of the small intestine of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkova, K; Radomirov, R; Pencheva, N

    1989-11-01

    The effects of leu-enkephalin on the spontaneous and electrically-evoked activity were studied in the longitudinal and circular strips isolated from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of the cat. Leu-enkephalin affected the spontaneous activity of both longitudinal and circular strips, with the exception of the circular strips from the ileum, in a naloxone-dependent manner. Elimination of the neural input to the smooth muscle cells with tetrodotoxin blocked the effects of leu-enkephalin in the longitudinal and circular strips from the jejunum and in the longitudinal strips from the ileum. In the longitudinal strips from the duodenum the effect was resistant to tetrodotoxin, while in the circular strips a tetrodotoxin-sensitive component of the effect of leu-enkephalin was observed. Since leu-enkephalin evoked opposite effects in the longitudinal and circular layers of one and the same region, it is concluded that leu-enkephalin-induced modulation of the motility of the small intestine in the cat is a physiological phenomenon. Electrical stimulation, at a frequency of 5 Hz, evoked contractile responses in the longitudinal strips and relaxant, as well as low-amplitude, contractile responses in the circular strips. Rebound contractions developed after the end of stimulation in all preparations tested, with the exception of the longitudinal strips from the duodenum. Leu-enkephalin decreased the contractile components and tended to potentiate the relaxant components of the responses in a naloxone-dependent manner. Atropine inhibited the contractile components of the responses and significantly depressed the rebound contractions. Leu-enkephalin, applied after atropine, was ineffective suggesting that leu-enkephalin-induced modulation was mediated mainly through interaction with cholinergic transmission. PMID:2594164

  7. Neurofunctional endpoints assessed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells for estimation of acute systemic toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the EU-funded integrated project ACuteTox is to develop a strategy in which general cytotoxicity, together with organ-specific toxicity and biokinetic features, are used for the estimation of human acute systemic toxicity. Our role in the project is to characterise the effect of reference chemicals with regard to neurotoxicity. We studied cell membrane potential (CMP), noradrenalin (NA) uptake, acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, acetylcholine receptor (AChR) signalling and voltage-operated calcium channel (VOCC) function in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after exposure to 23 pharmaceuticals, pesticides or industrial chemicals. Neurotoxic alert chemicals were identified by comparing the obtained data with cytotoxicity data from the neutral red uptake assay in 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Furthermore, neurotoxic concentrations were correlated with estimated human lethal blood concentrations (LC50). The CMP assay was the most sensitive assay, identifying eight chemicals as neurotoxic alerts and improving the LC50 correlation for nicotine, lindane, atropine and methadone. The NA uptake assay identified five neurotoxic alert chemicals and improved the LC50 correlation for atropine, diazepam, verapamil and methadone. The AChE, AChR and VOCC assays showed limited potential for detection of acute toxicity. The CMP assay was further evaluated by testing 36 additional reference chemicals. Five neurotoxic alert chemicals were generated and orphendrine and amitriptyline showed improved LC50 correlation. Due to the high sensitivity and the simplicity of the test protocol, the CMP assay constitutes a good candidate assay to be included in an in vitro test strategy for prediction of acute systemic toxicity.

  8. Nonadrenergic, noncholinergic responses stabilize smooth muscle tone, with and without parasympathetic activation, in guinea-pig isolated airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, A; Löfdahl, C G; Ullman, A; Skoogh, B E

    1993-03-01

    In guinea-pig isolated airways, nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) neural responses converge towards a similar level of smooth muscle tone, via a contraction when the tone is low prior to stimulation, and via a relaxation when the tone is high prior to stimulation. We wanted to assess the effect of simultaneous parasympathetic activation on these converging NANC responses, with and without the addition of sympathetic activation. In guinea-pig isolated airways, the spontaneous airway tone was initially abolished by indomethacin (10 microM). In one series, adrenergic depletion by guanethidine (10 microM) was then established, with and without cholinergic blockade by atropine (1 microM). In another series, either cholinergic blockade by atropine (1 microM) or no blockade was utilized. Responses to electrical field stimulation (1,200 mA, 0.5 ms, 3 Hz for 240 s) were studied with no induced tone, at a moderate (0.3 microM) and at a near-maximum (6 microM), histamine-induced tone. The mean level of the tonus equilibrium (% of maximum tone) was higher with the simultaneous NANC and parasympathetic activation than with NANC activation alone (75% compared with 44%, in the main bronchus, n = 8). The level of the tonus equilibrium was also higher with the simultaneous NANC, sympathetic and parasympathetic activation than with NANC and sympathetic activation only (49% compared with 21%, in the main bronchus, n = 8). The pattern was similar in the distal trachea. In conclusion, NANC neural responses can stabilize smooth muscle tone, and this stabilizing effect can be modulated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic activation, in guinea-pig isolated airways. PMID:8472834

  9. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchove, C M; Markus, R P; Freitas, J C; Costa-Lotufo, L V

    2002-04-01

    Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 +/- 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 +/- 0.32 g) was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax) to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05), suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM). Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 +/- 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 +/- 0.9 g), which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 microM) with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [3H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 microM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively. PMID:11960200

  10. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Kerchove

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 ± 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 ± 0.32 g was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05, suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM. Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 ± 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 ± 0.9 g, which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 µM with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 µM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively.

  11. Effects of PYY on the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex in the small intestine in vivo and the neural and endocrinal mechanisms of the effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan Guo; Min-min Kong; Li Zhang; Lei Dong

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of peptide YY (PYY) on the interdigestive migrating myoelectrlc complex (MMC) in the small intestine in vivo and explore the neural and endecrinal mechanisms of the effects. Methods Spragne-Dawley rats were supplied with a venous catheter and bipolar electrodes in the duodenum and jejunum for electromyography of stomach and small intestine in wake state. PYY, phentolamine, nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) and atropine were served with PYY respectively. The plasma motilin levels before and after the infusion of PYY were observed. Results At all the three recording points, PYY lengthened the drde length of MMC [from (591.90±128.98)s to (999.25±216.59)s, P<0. 01] and lowered the frequency of phase Ⅲ [from (39.28±8.40) min-1 to (22.08±3.13) min-1 , P<0.01], amplitude of phase Ⅲ [from (0. 320±0.060)mV to (0. 179±0.030)mV, P<0.01], and the portion of phase Ⅲ over the whole circle length [from (28. 61 ± 5.84)% to (15.43 ±5.16)% , P<0.01]. Phentolumine had no influence on the role of PYY. Administered L-NNA combined with PYY, the percentage of phase Ⅲ increased [(42. 09±8.67)%] compared with that of control(P<0.01) and compared with that of PYY administered alone (P<0. 01) too. Atropine combined with PYY showed stronger depressing effects on MMC. No significant difference was found between the plasma motilin levels before and after the infusion of PYY. Conclusion PYY my inhibit the interdigestive intestine motility through the none-adrenergic none-choUnergic tract, while the m-receptor tract and circulating motilin are probably not involved In the depressing effect.

  12. Effect of Cynomorium songaricum polysaccharide on mice of gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion%锁阳多糖对小鼠胃排空、小肠推进功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰城

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究锁阳多糖(Cynomorium Songaircum polysalcharides,CSP)对小鼠胃肠运动的影响。方法:采用酚红标记的小鼠胃排空、小肠推进实验,观察CSP对正常小鼠胃排空、小肠推进影响以及对在阿托品负荷的小鼠胃排空、小肠推进抑制的影响。结果:CSP对小鼠的胃排空无显著影响(P>0.05),但对小肠的推进性蠕动作用明显(P<0.05),且成剂量依赖性。结论:CSP对小鼠胃排空的促进作用不明显,CSP对小鼠肠推进具有明显的促进作用,并且可以拮抗由阿托品引起的小鼠肠蠕动的抑制。%Objective:To study the effect of GSP on gastrointestinal motility in mice. Method:the gastric emptying, intestinal phenolsulfonphthalein propulsion experiments,the effects of CSP on gastric emptying,intestinal propulsion in normal mice and mice gastric emptying,intestinal propulsion in atropine loadinhibition effect. Results:there was no significant effect of CSP on mice gastric emptying (P>0.05),but on small intestinal propulsion significantly peristalsis function (P<0.05)in a dose-dependent;conclusion:CSP had less effect on gastric emptying in mice,CSP has obvious effect on small intestinal propulsion,suppression and can be antagonized by atropine due to the small intestinal peristalsis of mice.

  13. Gastric motor effects of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6 in diabetic mice with gastroparesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Cai Qiu; Zhi-Gang Wang; Wei-Gang Wang; Jun Yan; Qi Zheng

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the potential therapeutic significance of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6(GHRP-6) in diabetic mice with gastric motility disorders.METHODS:A diabetic mouse model was established by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan.Diabetic mice were injected ip with ghrelin or GHRP-6 (20-200 μg/kg),and the effects on gastric emptying were measured after intragastric application of phenol red.The effect of atropine,NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) or D-Lys3-GHRP-6 (a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) antagonist) on the gastroprokinetic effect of ghrelin or GHRP-6 (100 μg/kg)was also investigated.The effects of ghrelin or GHRP-6(0.01-10 μmol/L) on spontaneous or carbachol-induced contractile amplitude were also investigated in vitro,in gastric fundic circular strips taken from diabetic mice.The presence of growth hormone secretagogue receptor la transcripts in the fundic strips of diabetic mice was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS:We established a diabetic mouse model with delayed gastric emptying.Ghrelin and GHRP-6accelerated gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis.In the presence of atropine or L-NAME,which delayed gastric emptying,ghrelin and GHRP-6(100 μg/kg) failed to accelerate gastric emptying.D-Lys3-GHRP-6 also delayed gastric emptying induced by the GHS-R agonist.Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increased the carbachol-induced contractile amplitude in gastric fundic strips taken from diabetic mice.RT-PCR confirmed the presence of GHS-R mRNA in the strip preparations.CONCLUSION:Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increase gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis,perhaps by activating peripheral cholinergic pathways in the enteric nervous system.

  14. Cigarette Smoke Disturbs the Survival of CD8+ Tc/Tregs Partially through Muscarinic Receptors-Dependent Mechanisms in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

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    Gang Chen

    Full Text Available CD8+ T cells (Cytotoxic T cells, Tc are known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of smoking related airway inflammation including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, how cigarette smoke directly impacts systematic CD8+ T cell and regulatory T cell (Treg subsets, especially by modulating muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (MRs, has yet to be well elucidated.Circulating CD8+ Tc/Tregs in healthy nonsmokers (n = 15, healthy smokers (n = 15 and COPD patients (n = 18 were evaluated by flow cytometry after incubating with anti-CD3, anti-CD8, anti-CD25, anti-Foxp3 antibodies. Peripheral blood T cells (PBT cells from healthy nonsmokers were cultured in the presence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE alone or combined with MRs agonist/antagonist for 5 days. Proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry using Ki-67/Annexin-V antibodies to measure the effects of CSE on the survival of CD8+ Tc/Tregs.While COPD patients have elevated circulating percentage of CD8+ T cells, healthy smokers have higher frequency of CD8+ Tregs. Elevated percentages of CD8+ T cells correlated inversely with declined FEV1 in COPD. CSE promoted the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of CD8+ T cells, while facilitated both the proliferation and apoptosis of CD8+ Tregs. Notably, the effects of CSE on CD8+ Tc/Tregs can be mostly simulated or attenuated by muscarine and atropine, the MR agonist and antagonist, respectively. However, neither muscarine nor atropine influenced the apoptosis of CD8+ Tregs.The results imply that cigarette smoking likely facilitates a proinflammatory state in smokers, which is partially mediated by MR dysfunction. The MR antagonist may be a beneficial drug candidate for cigarette smoke-induced chronic airway inflammation.

  15. Evaluation of the oxytocic activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of Alchornea cordifolia

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    Zuleikha Nworgu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea cordifolia has been used traditionally for the induction of labour as an abortifacient. This study is aimed at verifying the folkloric use of the plant by investigating the effect of ethanolic extract of the root bark on the isolated stilboestrol pretreated uteri of non-pregnant female rats. The extract (1, 10, 50 g/l, oxytocin (4Χ10−5 to 8Χ10−3 g/l, acetylcholine (4Χ10−6 to 8Χ10−4 g/l, atropine (4Χ10−3 g/l, phenoxybenzamine (4Χ10−3 g/l, diphenhydramine(2Χ10−1 g/l, and verapamil (12Χ10−2 g/l were used. Log concentration response curves were plotted and EC 50 and Emax were obtained. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Dunnet corrections using Graph pad Instat version 2.05a was used for statistical analysis. The extract produced dose-dependent contraction of the uterus. Its potency was less than that of oxytocin and acetylcholine (P<0.05, but the Emax showed no significant difference (P>0.05. The Emax values of the extract in the presence of all antagonists were significantly reduced (P<0.01. The EC 50 in the presence of atropine showed no significant increase (P>0.05; however, in the presence of phenoxybenzamine, the increase was significant (P<0.05. The presence of diphenhydramine and verapamil produced an inhibition such that the EC 50 was unattainable. A. cordifolia stimulates the uterus possibly by binding to alpha-adrenergic or histaminergic receptors or both. This indicates the existence of active principles in the plant, which may be responsible for some of the applications in traditional medicines as an abortifacient and in the induction of labour.

  16. Changes in the pharmacotherapy of CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, J A; Gonzalez, E R

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review current changes in the pharmacologic management of cardiac arrest (ventricular fibrillation, pulseless ventricular tachycardia, asystole, and electromechanical dissociation) as put fourth by the American Heart Association's 1992 Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care. We concluded that the 1992 Guidelines provide a reference base for all clinicians involved in emergency cardiac care. The newly revised recommendations are classified on the basis of the true clinical merit of the intervention, for example, an intervention that has been proved effective (i.e., high-dose epinephrine) versus one that is possibly effective (i.e., high-dose epinephrine). The preferred intravenous fluid to be used in resuscitation is saline solution or lactated ringers solution because of possible adverse neurologic outcomes seen with dextrose-containing fluids. The dose of all drugs administered via the endotracheal route should be 2 to 2.5 times the intravenous dose. Modifications in the dose or dosing interval have been recommended for epinephrine, atropine, lidocaine, bretylium, and procainamide during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Options for high-dose epinephrine therapy are offered, but neither recommended or discouraged. Magnesium sulfate has been added for the management of torsades de points, severe hypomagnesemia, or refractory ventricular fibrillation. The maximum total dose of atropine in the treatment of asystole and electromechanical dissociation has been increased from 2 mg to 0.04 mg/kg. The use of sodium bicarbonate should be limited to the treatment of hyperkalemia, tricyclic antidepressant overdose, overdoses requiring urinary alkalinization, or preexisting bicarbonate sensitive acidosis. PMID:8288459

  17. Neuronal activity (c-Fos delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

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    Mei-Hong Qiu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG form a neural circuit that is disrupted in disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos in the BG followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine if cortical activity is necessary for BG activity, we administered atropine to rats to induce a dissociative state resulting in slow-wave EEG but hyperactive motor behaviors. Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG, despite high c-Fos expression in the sub-cortical arousal neuronal groups and thalamus, indicating that cortical activity is required for BG activation. To identify which glutamate receptors in the BG that mediate cortical inputs, we injected ketamine (NMDA receptor antagonist and 6-cyano-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX, a non-NMDA receptor antagonist. Systemic ketamine and CNQX administration revealed that NMDA receptors mediated subthalamic nucleus (STN input to internal globus pallidus (GPi and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr, while non-NMDA receptor mediated cortical input to the STN. Both types of glutamate receptors were involved in mediating cortical input to the striatum. Dorsal striatal (caudoputamen, CPu dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in reduced activity of the CPu, globus pallidus externa (GPe, and STN but increased activity of the GPi, SNr and putative layer V neurons in the motor cortex. Our results reveal that the cortical activity is necessary for BG activity and clarifies the pathways and properties of the BG-cortical network and their putative role in the pathophysiology of BG disorders.

  18. Development of novel encapsulated formulations using albumin-chitosan as a polymer matrix for ocular drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Richard Tettey

    Designing formulations for ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist due to the unique anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of the eye. Current treatment protocols for administration of drugs in eye diseases are primarily solution formulations, gels or ointments. However, these modes of delivery have several drawbacks such as short duration of exposure, need for repeated administrations and non-specific toxicity. We hypothesize that development of ocular drugs in microparticles will overcome the deficiencies of the current modalities of treatment. We based the hypothesis on the preliminary studies conducted with encapsulated tetracaine, an anesthetic used for surgical purposes and atropine, a medication used for several ophthalmic indications including mydriatic and cycloplegic effects. However, atropine is well absorbed into the systemic circulation and has been reported to exert severe systemic side effects after ocular administration (Hoefnagel D. 1961, Morton H. G. 1939 and Lang J. C. 1995) and may lead to serious side effects including death in extreme cases with pediatric use. Based on these observations, the focus of this dissertation is to formulate microparticulate drug carrier for treatment of various conditions of the eye. Purpose: To prepare, characterize, study the in vitro and in vivo interaction of albumin-chitosan microparticles (BSA-CSN MS), a novel particulate drug carrier for ocular drug delivery. Method: Microparticle formulations were prepared by method of spray drying. The percentage drug loading and efficiency were assessed using USP (I) dissolution apparatus. Using Malvern Zeta-Sizer, we determined size and surface charge of the fabrication. Surface morphology of the microparticles was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Microparticles were characterized in terms of thermal properties using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCET-1) were

  19. Effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of ;organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%两组用药清除有机磷农药中毒肠道毒物的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴艳丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨大黄、思密达与硫酸镁、漂白土在治疗急性有机磷农药中毒的疗效。方法将76例口服有机磷中毒的重度患者随机均分2组。两组均给予彻底洗胃、适量应用长托宁及阿托品解毒,氯磷定复能剂等综合常规治疗。A组(治疗组)应用大黄导泻、思密达吸附;B组(对照组)应用硫酸镁导泻、漂白土吸附。观察首次排便时间,胃肠功能不全发生率及严重程度评分;观察胃肠功能恢复时间、阿托品化时间、意识恢复时间、胆碱酯酶活力恢复50%以上时间、阿托品和长托宁用量、药物耐受、中毒反跳、中间综合征、迟发性神经病、住院时间和死亡情况。结果治疗组各指标均优于对照组,均差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01或P<0.05)。结论思密达、大黄是目前彻底清除AOPP患者胃肠道残留毒物较好的导泻、吸附联合用药,减少了药物用量和并发症、缩短了住院时间。%Objective investigate the effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of organopjophorus pesticide poisoning. Methods Seventy-six patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning underwent conventional treatment including thorough gastric lavage, muscular injection of penehyckiine hydrochloride, intravenous injection of atropine through micropumping, and intravenous drip of pyraloxime methylchloride. The patients were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: Group A underdoing catharsis with 200 ml of Chinese Rhubarb powder and then suspension of Smecta through gastric tube 2h later as a cycle per 4 hours for 48 hours, and Group B undergoing irrigation of magnesium sulphate solution and suspension of Fuller's earth per 4 hours as a cycle for 48 hours. The effects were observed. Results The first defecation yime, recovery time of gastrointestinal tract, time of atropinization time, consciousness recovery time, recovery time of cholinesterase activity, and length

  20. An inherent acceleratory effect of insulin on small intestinal transit and its pharmacological characterization in normal mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Murali Krishna Reddy Peddyreddy; Steven Aibor Dkhar; Subramanian Ramaswamy; Amrithraj Theophilus Naveen; Deepak Gopal Shewade

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study an inherent effect of insulin on small intestinal transit and to explore involvement of various systems/mechanisms in normal mice.METHODS: Insulin at the doses of 2 μU/kg, 2 mU/kg,2 U/kg or vehicle was subcutaneously administered to four groups of overnight fasted normal male mice.Blood glucose (BG) levels were measured 2 min before insulin administration and 2 min before sacrificing the animals for the measurement of small intestinal transit (SIT). Charcoal meal was administered (0.3 mL) intragastrically 20 min after insulin administration and animals were sacrificed after 20 min and SIT was determined. For exploration of the various mechanisms involved in insulin-induced effect on SIT, the dose of insulin which can produce a significant acceleration of SIT without altering BG levels was determined.The following drugs, atropine (1 mg/kg), clonidine (0.1 mg/kg), ondansetron (1 mg/kg), naloxone (5mg/kg), verapamil (8 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg), were administered intravenously 10 min prior to the administration of insulin (2 μU/kg).RESULTS: The lower doses of insulin (2 μU/kg and 2 mU/kg) produced a significant acceleration of SIT from 52.0% to 70.7% and 73.5% without lowering blood glucose levels (P< 0.01), while the highest dose of insulin (2 U/kg) produced a fall in blood glucose levels which was also associated with significant acceleration of SIT (P< 0.01). After pretreatment of insulin (2 μU/kg)group with atropine, insulin could reverse 50% of the inhibition produced by atropine. In clonidine-pretreated group, insulin administration could reverse only 37%of the inhibition produced by clonidine and inhibition of SIT was significant compared with vehicle + insulintreated group, i.e. from 74.7% to 27.7% (P<0.01). In ondansetron-pretreated group, insulin administration could produce only mild acceleration of SIT (23.5%). In naloxone-pretreated group, insulin administration could significantly reverse the inhibition of SIT produced

  1. 云木香不同提取物对小鼠胃排空和小肠推进功能的影响%Effect of Yunmuxiang on Gastric Emptying and Intestinal Propulsion of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张猛; 郭建生; 王小娟; 刘红艳; 聂子文; 陈君

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究云木香3种提取物对小鼠胃排空和小肠推进功能的影响,并探讨云木香影响胃肠道的物质基础.方法:采用改良的酚红含量测定法观察云木香3种提取液对正常状态下、新斯的明所致的亢进状态下、阿托品所致的抑制状态下小鼠胃排空和小肠推进功能的影响.结果:挥发油能够显著降低正常小鼠胃酚红排空率(P<0.01),能够显著提高阿托品所致抑制状态下的小鼠胃酚红排空率(P<0.01),能够显著降低新斯的明所致亢进状态下的小鼠胃酚红排空率(P<0.01),并降低小肠酚红推进率(P<0.05).结论:云木香挥发油能够抑制正常小鼠胃排空,改善阿托品所致抑制状态下的小鼠胃排空障碍,拮抗新斯的明所致的小鼠胃排空和小肠推进功能亢进.挥发油是云木香对小鼠胃肠道起作用的物质基础.%Objective: To study the effect of 3 kinds of extract of Yunmuxiang on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion of mice, and to find the material basis of Yunmuxiang which affact gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion of mice. Method: Using modified determination of content of phenol red to observe the effect of 3 kinds of extract of Yunmuxiang on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion of mice in normal state, hyperthyroidism state caused by neostigmine, inhibiting state caused by atropine. Result: Volatile oil of Yunmuxiang could significant decrease gastric emptying rate of phenol red of normal mice ( P < 0. 01 ), could significantly improve gastric emptying rate of phenol red in the state of inhibition caused by atropine (P < 0. 01 ) , could significantly decrease gastric emptying rate of phenol red in the state of hyperthyroidism caused by neostigmine (P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion: The extract of Yunmuxiang can inhibit gastric emptying of normal mice, can improve gastric emptying of mice in the state of inhibition caused by atropine, antagonistise gastric emptying and intestinal

  2. Mechanisms of relaxation induced by flavonoid ayanin in isolated aorta rings from Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Carrón

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study shows the relaxant effect induced by ayanin in aorta rings from Wistar rats linked to nitric oxide/cyclic-GMP pathway.  This flavonoid is the prevalent compound obtained from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht (Euphorbiaceae, specie used in Colombian folk medicine for the treatment of arterial hypertension. Objectives: To identify possible action mechanisms of vascular relaxation induced by ayanin (quercetin 3,4',7-trimethyl ether. Methodology: Isolated aorta rings from Wistar rats obtained at the Animal House of the University of Salamanca were contracted with KCl (80 mM or phenylephrine (PE, 10-6 M and exposed to ayanin (10-6-10-4 M.  Then, the effect of ayanin was assessed in deendothelized rings contracted with PE and in intact rings contracted with PE previously incubated with: ODQ (10-6 M, L-NAME (10-4 M, L-NAME plus D- and L-arginine (10-4 M, indomethacin (5x10-6 M, dipyridamole (3x10-7 M, glibenclamide (10-6 M, propranolol (10-6 M, verapamil (10-7 M or atropine (3x10-5 M.  In addition, the relaxant effect of acetylcholine (Ach, 10-8-3x10-4 M, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10-9-3x10-5 M was assessed in the presence and absence of ayanin (10-6 M. Results: Ayanin induced a greater concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels contracted with phenylephrine (pEC50: 5.84±0.05, an effect significantly reduced by deendothelization and by both ODQ and L-NAME.  L-arginine was able to reverse the effect of L-NAME.  Indomethacin weakly inhibited ayanin response.  Dipyridamole, glibenclamide, propranolol, verapamil, and atropine did not affect ayanin relaxation.  Ayanin did not have any effect on the relaxation elicited by acetylcholine (ACh, while weakly decreasing the relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Conclusion: Ayanin induces endothelium-dependent relaxation in the rat aorta mainly related to nitric oxide/cGMP pathway, according to the response observed in the presence of L-NAME, L-arginine and ODQ.

  3. Mechanisms of the antinociceptive action of (− Epicatechin obtained from the hydroalcoholic fraction of Combretum leprosum Mart & Eic in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Luciano da

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms of the antinociceptive activity of (− epicatechin (EPI, a compound isolated from the hydroalcoholic fraction of Combreum leprosum Mart & Eicher. Methods were assessed in the model of chemical nociception induced by glutamate (20 μmol/paw. To evaluate the mechanisms involved, the animals , male Swiss mice (25-30 g, received EPI (50 mg/kg p.o. after pretreatment with naloxone (2 mg/kg s.c. opioid antagonist, glibenclamide (2 mg/kg s.c. antagonist K + channels sensitive to ATP, ketanserin (0.3 mg/kg s.c. antagonist of receptor 5-HT2A, yoimbine (0.15 mg/kg s.c. α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, pindolol (1 mg/kg s.c. 5-HT1a/1b receptor antagonist, atropine (0.1 mg/kg s.c. muscarinic antagonist and caffeine (3 mg/kg s.c. adenosine receptor antagonist, ondansetron (0.5 mg/kg s.c. for 5-HT3 receptor and L-arginine (600 mg/kg i.p.. Results The antinociceptive effect of EPI was reversed by pretreatment with naloxone and glibenclamide, ketanserin, yoimbine, atropine and pindolol, which demonstrates the involvement of opioid receptors and potassium channels sensitive to ATP, the serotoninergic (receptor 5HT1A and 5HT2A, adrenergic (receptor alpha 2 and cholinergic (muscarinic receptor systems in the activities that were observed. The effects of EPI, however, were not reversed by pretreatment with caffeine, L-arginine or ondansetron, which shows that there is no involvement of 5HT3 receptors or the purinergic and nitrergic systems in the antinociceptive effect of EPI. In the Open Field and Rotarod test, EPI had no significant effect, which shows that there was no central nervous system depressant or muscle relaxant effect on the results. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the antinociceptive activity of EPI in the glutamate model involves the participation of the opioid system, serotonin, adrenergic and cholinergic.

  4. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of leading oxime therapies in guinea pigs exposed to organophosphorus chemical warfare agents or pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The currently fielded pre-hospital therapeutic regimen for the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in the United States (U.S.) is the administration of atropine in combination with an oxime antidote (2-PAM Cl) to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Depending on clinical symptoms, an anticonvulsant, e.g., diazepam, may also be administered. Unfortunately, 2-PAM Cl does not offer sufficient protection across the range of OP threat agents, and there is some question as to whether it is the most effective oxime compound available. The objective of the present study is to identify an oxime antidote, under standardized and comparable conditions, that offers protection at the FDA approved human equivalent dose (HED) of 2-PAM Cl against tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), and VX, and the pesticides paraoxon, chlorpyrifos oxon, and phorate oxon. Male Hartley guinea pigs were subcutaneously challenged with a lethal level of OP and treated at approximately 1 min post challenge with atropine followed by equimolar oxime therapy (2-PAM Cl, HI-6 DMS, obidoxime Cl2, TMB-4, MMB4-DMS, HLö-7 DMS, MINA, and RS194B) or therapeutic-index (TI) level therapy (HI-6 DMS, MMB4-DMS, MINA, and RS194B). Clinical signs of toxicity were observed for 24 h post challenge and blood cholinesterase [AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] activity was analyzed utilizing a modified Ellman's method. When the oxime is standardized against the HED of 2-PAM Cl for guinea pigs, the evidence from clinical observations, lethality, quality of life (QOL) scores, and cholinesterase reactivation rates across all OPs indicated that MMB4 DMS and HLö-7 DMS were the two most consistently efficacious oximes. - Highlights: • First comprehensive evaluation of leading AChE oxime reactivators • All oximes are compared against current U.S. therapy 2-PAM Cl. • Relative therapeutic oxime efficacies against OP CWNA and pesticides • Contribution to more effective antidotes

  5. 右美托咪定对扁桃体摘除术麻醉苏醒期躁动的影响%Effects of dexmdetomidine on emergence agitation after tonsillectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海健; 翁浩; 王建光

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of dexmedctomidine nn emergence agitation in patients after tonsillectomy. Methods Patients aged 12-30 years, weighing 35-65 kg, ASA status I or II , were equally randomized into two groups: dexmedetomidine group (group D) and control group (group C). Dexmedetomidirw was given with 1.0 jig/kg within 10 min following anesthesia induction in group D, then was continuously given at 0. 5 μgokg-1 oh-1 till 20 mm before the end of surgery. The same volume of normal saline was given in group C. Times and amount of atropine and ephedrine were recorded. Sedation-agitation score (SAS)at tracheal extubationand ramsay score at 10 nun after tracheal extubaiion were recored. Results Amount snd times of atropine, Ramsay score were higher, SAS was lower in group D than in group C (P<0. 05). Conclusion Dexmedetomidinc can reduce the occurrence of emergene agitation in tonsillectomy.%目的 评价右美托咪定对扁桃体摘除术患者麻醉苏醒期躁动的影响.方法 择期扁桃体摘除术患者60例,年龄12~20岁,体重35~65 kg,ASA Ⅰ或Ⅱ级,随机均分为两组.麻醉诱导后,右美托咪定组(D组)在10 min内静脉泵注右美托咪定1.0μg/kg(用生理盐水稀释至50 ml),然后以0.5μg,kg-1·h-1持续泵入至手术结束前20 min.对照组(C组)以同样方式泵注生理盐水.术中吸入异氟醚和静注丙泊酚维持麻醉.记录吸痰拔管时镇静躁动(SAS)评分及拔管后10 min的Ramsay镇静评分及VAS评分.结果 D组阿托品使用次数明显多于C组(P<0.05).拔管时D组SAS评分明显低于C组,而Ramsay评分明显高于C组(P<0.05).结论 右美托咪定可明显减少扁桃体摘除术患者麻醉苏醒期闻躁动的发生.

  6. Role of adenosine A2A receptor signaling in the nicotine-evoked attenuation of reflex cardiac sympathetic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baroreflex dysfunction contributes to increased cardiovascular risk in cigarette smokers. Given the importance of adenosinergic pathways in baroreflex control, the hypothesis was tested that defective central adenosinergic modulation of cardiac autonomic activity mediates the nicotine-baroreflex interaction. Baroreflex curves relating changes in heart rate (HR) to increases or decreases in blood pressure (BP) evoked by i.v. doses (1-16 μg/kg) of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively, were constructed in conscious rats; slopes of the curves were taken as measures of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Nicotine (25 and 100 μg/kg i.v.) dose-dependently reduced BRSSNP in contrast to no effect on BRSPE. BRSSNP was also attenuated after intracisternal (i.c.) administration of nicotine. Similar reductions in BRSSNP were observed in rats pretreated with atropine or propranolol. The combined treatment with nicotine and atropine produced additive inhibitory effects on BRS, an effect that was not demonstrated upon concurrent exposure to nicotine and propranolol. BRSSNP was reduced in preparations treated with i.c. 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist), 8-(3-Chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC, A2A antagonist), or VUF5574 (A3 antagonist). In contrast, BRSSNP was preserved after blockade of A1 (DPCPX) or A2B (alloxazine) receptors or inhibition of adenosine uptake by dipyridamole. CSC or 8-PT abrogated the BRSSNP depressant effect of nicotine whereas other adenosinergic antagonists were without effect. Together, nicotine preferentially impairs reflex tachycardia via disruption of adenosine A2A receptor-mediated facilitation of reflex cardiac sympathoexcitation. Clinically, the attenuation by nicotine of compensatory sympathoexcitation may be detrimental in conditions such as hypothalamic defense response, posture changes, and ventricular rhythms. - Research highlights: → The role of central adenosinergic sites in the nicotine

  7. Transient Receptor Potential Channel Opening Releases Endogenous Acetylcholine, which Contributes to Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Induced by Mild Hypothermia in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat but Not Wistar-Kyoto Rat Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Q; Leung, S W S; Vanhoutte, P M

    2015-08-01

    Mild hypothermia causes endothelium-dependent relaxations, which are reduced by the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine. The present study investigated whether endothelial endogenous acetylcholine contributes to these relaxations. Aortic rings of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were contracted with prostaglandin F2 α and exposed to progressive mild hypothermia (from 37 to 31°C). Hypothermia induced endothelium-dependent, Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-sensitive relaxations, which were reduced by atropine, but not by mecamylamine, in SHR but not in WKY rat aortae. The responses in SHR aortae were also reduced by acetylcholinesterase (the enzyme responsible for acetylcholine degradation), bromoacetylcholine (inhibitor of acetylcholine synthesis), hemicholinium-3 (inhibitor of choline uptake), and vesamicol (inhibitor of acetylcholine release). The mild hypothermia-induced relaxations in both SHR and WKY rat aortae were inhibited by AMTB [N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-[(3-methylphenyl)methoxy]-N-(2-thienylmethyl)-benzamide; the transient receptor potential (TRP) M8 inhibitor]; only those in SHR aortae were inhibited by HC-067047 [2-methyl-1-[3-(4-morpholinyl)propyl]-5-phenyl-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide; TRPV4 antagonist] while those in WKY rat aortae were reduced by HC-030031 [2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide; TRPA1 antagonist]. The endothelial uptake of extracellular choline and release of cyclic guanosine monophosphate was enhanced by mild hypothermia and inhibited by HC-067047 in SHR but not in WKY rat aortae. Compared with WKY rats, the SHR preparations expressed similar levels of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase, but a lesser amount of vesicular acetylcholine transporter, located mainly in the endothelium. Thus, mild hypothermia causes nitric oxide-dependent relaxations by opening TRPA1 channels in WKY rat aortae

  8. Early differential cell death and survival mechanisms initiate and contribute to the development of OPIDN: A study of molecular, cellular, and anatomical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophosphorus-ester induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia progressing to paralysis with a concomitant central and peripheral, distal axonapathy. Diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) produces OPIDN in the chicken that results in mild ataxia in 7–14 days and severe paralysis as the disease progresses with a single dose. White leghorn layer hens were treated with DFP (1.7 mg/kg, sc) after prophylactic treatment with atropine (1 mg/kg, sc) in normal saline and eserine (1 mg/kg, sc) in dimethyl sulfoxide. Control groups were treated with vehicle propylene glycol (0.1 ml/kg, sc), atropine in normal saline and eserine in dimethyl sulfoxide. The hens were euthanized at different time points such as 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 days, and the tissues from cerebrum, midbrain, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord were quickly dissected and frozen for mRNA (northern) studies. Northern blots were probed with BCL2, GADD45, beta actin, and 28S RNA to investigate their expression pattern. Another set of hens was treated for a series of time points and perfused with phosphate buffered saline and fixative for histological studies. Various staining protocols such as Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E); Sevier-Munger; Cresyl echt Violet for Nissl substance; and Gallocynin stain for Nissl granules were used to assess various patterns of cell death and degenerative changes. Complex cell death mechanisms may be involved in the neuronal and axonal degeneration. These data indicate altered and differential mRNA expressions of BCL2 (anti apoptotic gene) and GADD45 (DNA damage inducible gene) in various tissues. Increased cell death and other degenerative changes noted in the susceptible regions (spinal cord and cerebellum) than the resistant region (cerebrum), may indicate complex molecular pathways via altered BCL2 and GADD45 gene expression, causing the homeostatic imbalance between cell survival and cell death mechanisms. Semi quantitative

  9. 黄体酮联用美洛昔康治疗肾绞痛疗效观察%The curative effect of Progesterone combined with meloxicam in treating renal colic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰翔; 李利

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect and security of progesterone combined with meloxicam on renal colic.Methods 84 patients,who were clinically diagnosed as renal colic,were randomly divided into observation group and control group.The patients in observation group received Progesterone 40mg and meloxieaml5mg (im),while the patients in control group received atropine 0.5mg (im).The therapeutic effect,replace rate and side effects in both groups were observed.Results The total effective rate in observation group was 90.48%,which was 73.81% in control group,there was obvious difference between two groups(P<0.05).And the replace rate and side effects was lower in observation group than in control group(P<0.05).Conclusion The efficacy of progesterone combined with meloxicam in the treatment of renal colic is better than atropine,furthermore,with lower replace rate,few side effects,which is worth application extensively in clinic.%目的 观察黄体酮联合美洛昔康治疗肾绞痛的疗效和安全性.方法 选择临床确诊的84例急性肾绞痛患者,随机分为观察组及时照组各42例,观察组予以黄体酮40mg及美洛昔康15mg肌肉注射,对照组予以阿托品0.5mg肌肉注射,比较两组的疗效、复发率及不良反应.结果 观察组总有效率90.48%,对照组总有效率73.81%,两组疗效有明显差异(P<0.05),且复发率及不良反应发生率观察组也均明显低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 黄体酮联合美洛昔康治疗肾绞痛疗效确切,且复发率低,不良反应少,值得临床推广应用.

  10. 布比卡因局部阻滞治疗输尿管结石所致肾绞痛60例的临床观察%The Clinic Observation of 60 Cases of Bupivacaine Local Block Treatment in the Renal Colic Caused by Upper Ureteral Stones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘功海; 吴世东; 曾国华; 欧长伟; 范翰文; 何小鹏

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较药物治疗与布比卡因局部阻滞治疗输尿管上段结石所致的肾绞痛的临床疗效.方法:选择输尿管结石患者共120例.随机分成药物治疗组(M组)与局部阻滞组(B组)各60例,其中药物治疗组采用杜冷丁加阿托品治疗,局部阻滞组采用布比卡因行痛区局部阻滞,两组年龄、性别均无统计学差异,比较两组患者治疗的总有效率、不良反应、镇痛起效时间、缓解时间等疗效指标.结果:局部阻滞组治疗的总有效率大于药物治疗组,不良反应也比药物治疗组少.疼痛起效时间及缓解时间,局部阻滞组均明显短于药物治疗组.结论:布比卡因局部阻滞治疗输尿管上段结石所致的肾绞痛临床疗效明显优于以杜冷丁加阿托品为代表的药物治疗.%To compare the clinical efficacy of the drug treament way and the bupivacaine local block way in the patients with renal colic caused by upper ureteral stones. Methods: 120 patients with upper ureteral stones were randomly divided into drug treament group(Group D) and bupivacaine local block group(Group B) of each 60 cases. Group D were treated with pethidine plus atropine treatment, and Group B were treated with bupivacaine local block in pain regionl. There were no significant differences in the two groups in age and gender. The total efficiency, adverse reactions analgesic onset time, pain relief time of the two groups of patients were analyzed. Results: Group B have more advantages than the group D in the total efficiency, adverse reactions, analgesic onset time and pain relief time. Conclusion: The bupivacaine local block group is superior to the pethidine plus atropine as the representative of drug treatment group in the renal colic cases caused by upper ureteral stones .

  11. Imidazenil, a non-sedating anticonvulsant benzodiazepine, is more potent than diazepam in protecting against DFP-induced seizures and neuronal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophosphate (OP)-nerve agent poisoning may lead to prolonged epileptiform seizure activity, which can result in irreversible neuronal brain damage. A timely and effective control of seizures with pharmacological agents can minimize the secondary and long-term neuropathology that may result from this damage. Diazepam, the current anticonvulsant of choice in the management of OP poisoning, is associated with unwanted effects such as sedation, amnesia, cardio-respiratory depression, anticonvulsant tolerance, and dependence liabilities. In search for an efficacious and safer anticonvulsant benzodiazepine, we studied imidazenil, a potent anticonvulsant that is devoid of sedative action and has a low intrinsic efficacy at α1- but is a high efficacy positive allosteric modulator at α5-containing GABAA receptors. We compared the potency of a combination of 2 mg/kg, i.p. atropine with: (a) imidazenil 0.05-0.5 mg/kg i.p. or (b) equipotent anti-bicuculline doses of diazepam (0.5-5 mg/kg, i.p.), against diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP; 1.5 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced status epilepticus and its associated neuronal damage. The severity and frequency of seizure activities were determined by continuous radio telemetry recordings while the extent of neuronal damage and neuronal degeneration were assessed using the TUNEL-based cleaved DNA end-labeling technique or neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-immunolabeling and Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) staining, respectively. We report here that the combination of atropine and imidazenil is at least 10-fold more potent and longer lasting than the combination with diazepam at protecting rats from DFP-induced seizures and the associated neuronal damage or ongoing degeneration in the anterior cingulate cortex, CA1 hippocampus, and dentate gyrus. While 0.5 mg/kg imidazenil effectively attenuated DFP-induced neuronal damage and the ongoing neuronal degeneration in the anterior cingulate cortex, dentate gyrus, and CA1 hippocampus, 5 mg/kg or a higher

  12. Anthelmintic and relaxant activities of Verbascum Thapsus Mullein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbascum thapsus is used in tribal medicine as an antispasmodic, anti-tubercular agent and wormicide. In this study, we investigated the antispasmodic and anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract of the plant. Methods V. thapsus extracts were tested against roundworms (Ascaridia galli and tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis. Each species of worm was placed into a negative control group, an albendazole treatment group, or a V. thapsus treatment group, and the time taken for paralysis and death was determined. In addition, relaxation activity tests were performed on sections of rabbit's jejunum. Plant extracts were tested on KCl-induced contractions and the relaxation activities were quantified against atropine. V. thapsus calcium chloride curves were constructed to investigate the mode of action of the plant extracts. Results We detected flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, fats and fixed oils in V. thapsus. For both species of worm, paralysis occurred fastest at the highest concentration of extract. The relative index values for paralysis in A. galli were 4.58, 3.41 and 2.08, at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/ml of plant extract, respectively. The relative index for death in A. galli suggested that V. thapsus extract is wormicidal at high concentration. Similarly, the relative indexes for paralysis and death in R. spiralis suggested that the extract is a more potent wormicidal agent than albendazole. The mean EC50 relaxation activity values for spontaneous and KCl induced contractions were 7.5 ± 1.4 mg/ml (6.57-8.01, n = 6 and 7.9 ± 0.41 mg/ml (7.44-8.46, n = 6, respectively. The relaxation activity of the extract was 11.42 ± 2, 17.0 ± 3, 28.5 ± 4, and 128.0 ± 7% of the maximum observed for atropine at corresponding concentrations. The calcium chloride curves showed that V. thapsus extracts (3 mg/ml, had a mean EC50 (log molar [calcium] value of -1.9 ± 0

  13. Neurotransmissions of antidepressant-like effects of neuromedin U-23 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaru; Telegdy, Gyula

    2014-02-01

    Neuromedin U (NmU) is a widely distributed and multifunctional peptide in the central nervous system and the peripheral tissues. Little is know about the mechanisms of NmU on brain functions. The rodent isoform of the NmU, NmU-23, has been shown to have anxiolytic effects involved in the β-adrenergic and cholinergic nervous systems in elevated plus maze test. NmU-23 was tested for antidepressant-like effects in modified forced swimming test (FST) in mice and furthermore, the involvement of the adrenergic, serotonergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic or gaba-ergic receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of NmU-23 was studied in modified mice FST. Mice were pretreated with a non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist phenoxybenzamine, an α1/α2β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, yohimbine, a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, a mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, methysergide, a non-selective 5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine, nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, atropine, D2,D3,D4 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol or γ-aminobutyric acid subunit A (GABAA) receptor antagonist, bicuculline. NmU-23 showed the antidepressant-like effects by decreasing the immobility time and increasing the climbing and swimming time. Prazosin, haloperidol, and bicuculline prevented the effects of NmU-23 on the climbing and swimming time. Methysergide and cyproheptadine prevented the effects of NmU-23 on the immobility, swimming and climbing time. Atropine prevented the effects of NmU-23 on the climbing time. Phenoxybenzamine, yohimbine and propranolol did not change the effects of NmU-23. The results demonstrated that the antidepressant-like effect of NmU-23 is mediated, at least in part, by an interaction of the α2-adrenergic, 5-HT1-2 serotonergic, D2,D3,D4 dopamine receptor, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and γ-aminobutyric acid subunit A (GABAA

  14. Early differential cell death and survival mechanisms initiate and contribute to the development of OPIDN: A study of molecular, cellular, and anatomical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damodaran, T.V., E-mail: tdamodar@nccu.edu [Dept of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Pharmacology and Cancer biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Dept of Biology, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707 (United States); Attia, M.K. [Pharmacology and Cancer biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Abou-Donia, M.B., E-mail: donia@mc.duke.edu [Pharmacology and Cancer biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphorus-ester induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia progressing to paralysis with a concomitant central and peripheral, distal axonapathy. Diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) produces OPIDN in the chicken that results in mild ataxia in 7-14 days and severe paralysis as the disease progresses with a single dose. White leghorn layer hens were treated with DFP (1.7 mg/kg, sc) after prophylactic treatment with atropine (1 mg/kg, sc) in normal saline and eserine (1 mg/kg, sc) in dimethyl sulfoxide. Control groups were treated with vehicle propylene glycol (0.1 ml/kg, sc), atropine in normal saline and eserine in dimethyl sulfoxide. The hens were euthanized at different time points such as 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 days, and the tissues from cerebrum, midbrain, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord were quickly dissected and frozen for mRNA (northern) studies. Northern blots were probed with BCL2, GADD45, beta actin, and 28S RNA to investigate their expression pattern. Another set of hens was treated for a series of time points and perfused with phosphate buffered saline and fixative for histological studies. Various staining protocols such as Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E); Sevier-Munger; Cresyl echt Violet for Nissl substance; and Gallocynin stain for Nissl granules were used to assess various patterns of cell death and degenerative changes. Complex cell death mechanisms may be involved in the neuronal and axonal degeneration. These data indicate altered and differential mRNA expressions of BCL2 (anti apoptotic gene) and GADD45 (DNA damage inducible gene) in various tissues. Increased cell death and other degenerative changes noted in the susceptible regions (spinal cord and cerebellum) than the resistant region (cerebrum), may indicate complex molecular pathways via altered BCL2 and GADD45 gene expression, causing the homeostatic imbalance between cell survival and cell death mechanisms. Semi quantitative

  15. An electrophysiological study of excitatory purinergic neuromuscular transmission in longitudinal smooth muscle of chicken anterior mesenteric artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Maisa; El-Mahmoudy, AbuBakr; Shiina, Takahiko; Shimizu, Yasutake; Nikami, Hideki; El-Sayed, Mossad; Kobayashi, Haruo; Takewaki, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    The object of the present study was to clarify the neurotransmitters controlling membrane responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the longitudinal smooth muscle cells of the chicken anterior mesenteric artery. EFS (5 pulses at 20 Hz) evoked a depolarization of amplitude 19.7±2.1 mV, total duration 29.6±3.1 s and latency 413.0±67.8 ms. This depolarization was tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive and its amplitude was partially decreased by atropine (0.5 μM); however, its duration was shortened by further addition of prazosin (10 μM). Atropine/prazosin-resistant component was blocked by the nonspecific purinergic antagonist, suramin, in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that this component is mediated by the neurotransmitter adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP). Neither desensitization nor blocking of P2X receptor with its putative receptor agonist α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-MeATP, 1 μM) and its antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic (PPADS, up to 50 μM), had significant effect on the purinergic depolarization. In contrast, either desensitization or blocking of P2Y receptor with its putative agonist 2-methylthioATP (2-MeSATP, 1 μM) and its antagonist Cibacron blue F3GA (CBF3GA, 10 μM) abolished the purinergic depolarization, indicating that this response is mediated through P2Y but not P2X receptor. The purinergic depolarization was inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX, 600 ng ml−1). Furthermore, it was significantly inhibited by a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, U-73122 (10 μM), indicating that the receptors involved in mediating the purinergic depolarization are linked to a PTX-sensitive G-protein, which is involved in a PLC-mediated signaling pathway. Data of the present study suggest that the EFS-induced excitatory membrane response occurring in the longitudinal smooth muscle of the chicken anterior mesenteric artery is mainly purinergic in nature and is mediated via P2Y purinoceptors. PMID:15685211

  16. Treatment experience of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒的救治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡相东

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨急性有机磷农药中毒的救治体会。方法:2010年3月-2013年10月收治急性有机磷农药中毒患者78例,作为研究对象,回顾性分析所有患者的临床资料。结果:78例患者中,75例患者在经过洗胃、服用阿托品、输血治疗、其他症状治疗等系列治疗后均痊愈出院,有效率96.1%;有3例患者因口服有机磷农药中毒且治疗不及时,抢救无效死亡,死亡率3.9%。结论:及时给予患者彻底的洗胃、正确使用阿托品是及时抢救急性有机磷农药中毒的关键,同时有针对性治疗患者的其他症状可以显著提高治疗效果。%Objective:To explore the treatment experience of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.Methods:78 cases with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were selected from March 2010 to October 2013.They were as the study objects.The clinical data of all patients were retrospectively analyzed.Results:In 78 cases,75 cases were recovered discharge after a series of treatment method,such as gastric lavage,taking atropine,blood transfusion treatment and other symptoms treatment.The effective rate was 96.1%.3 cases with oral excessive pesticide poisoning and delayed treatment were rescue invalid death.The mortality was 3.9%.Conclusion:The timely and thorough gastric lavage for patients and the correct use of atropine are the key to timely rescue acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.And targeted therapy in patients with other symptoms can significantly improve the treatment effect.

  17. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of leading oxime therapies in guinea pigs exposed to organophosphorus chemical warfare agents or pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Christina M., E-mail: wilhelmc@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Snider, Thomas H., E-mail: snidert@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Babin, Michael C., E-mail: babinm@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Jett, David A., E-mail: jettd@ninds.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Platoff, Gennady E., E-mail: platoffg@niaid.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Yeung, David T., E-mail: dy70v@nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The currently fielded pre-hospital therapeutic regimen for the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in the United States (U.S.) is the administration of atropine in combination with an oxime antidote (2-PAM Cl) to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Depending on clinical symptoms, an anticonvulsant, e.g., diazepam, may also be administered. Unfortunately, 2-PAM Cl does not offer sufficient protection across the range of OP threat agents, and there is some question as to whether it is the most effective oxime compound available. The objective of the present study is to identify an oxime antidote, under standardized and comparable conditions, that offers protection at the FDA approved human equivalent dose (HED) of 2-PAM Cl against tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), and VX, and the pesticides paraoxon, chlorpyrifos oxon, and phorate oxon. Male Hartley guinea pigs were subcutaneously challenged with a lethal level of OP and treated at approximately 1 min post challenge with atropine followed by equimolar oxime therapy (2-PAM Cl, HI-6 DMS, obidoxime Cl{sub 2}, TMB-4, MMB4-DMS, HLö-7 DMS, MINA, and RS194B) or therapeutic-index (TI) level therapy (HI-6 DMS, MMB4-DMS, MINA, and RS194B). Clinical signs of toxicity were observed for 24 h post challenge and blood cholinesterase [AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] activity was analyzed utilizing a modified Ellman's method. When the oxime is standardized against the HED of 2-PAM Cl for guinea pigs, the evidence from clinical observations, lethality, quality of life (QOL) scores, and cholinesterase reactivation rates across all OPs indicated that MMB4 DMS and HLö-7 DMS were the two most consistently efficacious oximes. - Highlights: • First comprehensive evaluation of leading AChE oxime reactivators • All oximes are compared against current U.S. therapy 2-PAM Cl. • Relative therapeutic oxime efficacies against OP CWNA and pesticides • Contribution to more effective

  18. Outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation - predictors of survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the outcomes of patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Data were collected retrospectively of all adult patients who underwent CPR. Clinical outcomes of interest were survival at the end of CPR and survival at discharge from hospital. Factors associated with survival were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Of the 159 patients included, 55 (35%) were alive at the end of CPR and 17 (11%) were discharged alive from the hospital. At the end of CPR, univariate logistic regression analysis found the following factors associated with survival: cardiac arrest within hospital as compared to outside the hospital (odds ratio = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.27-6.20, p-value = 0.01), both cardiac and pulmonary arrest as compared to either cardiac or pulmonary arrest (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.19- 0.73, p-value = 0.004), asystole as cardiac rhythm at presentation (odds ratio = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.24-0.93, p-value = 0.03), and total atropine dose given during CPR (odds ratio = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62-0.97, p-value = 0.02). In multivariate logistic regression, cardiac arrest within hospital (odds ratio = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.06-5.99, p-value = 0.04) and both cardiac and pulmonary arrest as compared to cardiac or pulmonary arrest (odds ratio = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.21-0.91, p-value = 0.03) were associated with survival at the end of CPR. At the time of discharge from hospital, univariate logistic regression analysis found following factors that were associated with survival: cardiac arrest within hospital (odds ratio = 8.4, 95% CI = 1.09-65.64, p-value = 0.04), duration of CPR (odds ratio = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85-0.96, p-value = 0.001), and total atropine dose given during CPR (odds ratio = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.47-0.99, p-value = 0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analysis cardiac arrest within hospital (odds ratio 8.69, 95% CI = 1.01-74.6, p-value = 0.05) and duration of CPR (odds ratio 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.98, p-value = 0.01) were associated with survival at

  19. Lomotil (diphenoxylate dependence in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem Mehra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lomotil (diphenoxylate atropine combination has been in use as an antidiarrhoeal agent. Due to presence of opioid (diphenoxylate, there are chances of abuse. The reports of abuse of lomotil have been few in published literature. This chart review aimed to evaluate the characteristics of patients with dependence on lomotil coming to our centre. Materials and Methods: This retrospective chart review was conducted at the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. The records of patients who had presented to the centre with dependence on Lomotil in the last five years were identified, and clinical details were extracted from the records. Results: We identified 41 patients who had presented to our centre with dependence upon lomotil as the primary substance of abuse. The cases were typically married and employed males, educated up to 10 th grade, belonging to a rural Sikh extended or joint family. Most of the patients had taken other opioids too. The number of tablets taken in a day varied from 3- to 250 (median 25. The reasons of initiation were to relieve withdrawals, as a cheap substitute opioid, curiosity, and on suggestion of friends. Conclusion: Lomotil is a medication with a potential of abuse and regulatory controls are required to prevent escalation of misuse of this easily available prescription drug. Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine combination has been used since a long time as an anti-diarrheal agent. Reports of abuse of diphenoxylate had surfaced. We present a series of 41 cases of opioid dependence presenting with the use of the diphenoxylate as the primary substance. The cases were typically married and employed males, educated up to 10 th grade, belonging to a rural Sikh extended or joint family. Most of the patients had taken other opioids too. The number of tablets taken in a day varied from 3 to 250 (median 25. The reasons of initiation of diphenoxylate were to relieve withdrawals, as a

  20. Autonomic control of the pulmonary surfactant system and lung compliance in the lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, P G; Andrew, L K; Daniels, C B; Orgeig, S; Roberts, C T

    1997-01-01

    An increase in body temperature in the bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps, is accompanied by an increase in the amount of pulmonary surfactant, a mixture of proteins and lipids, with the latter consisting predominantly of phospholipid and cholesterol. This increase may result from a temperature-induced change in autonomic input to the lungs, as perfusing the isolated lungs of P. vitticeps with either acetylcholine or adrenaline increases surfactant phospholipid release. However, whether acetylcholine acts via intrapulmonary sympathetic ganglia or directly on alveolar Type II cells is unknown. Moreover, the relative importance of circulating catecholamines and pulmonary sympathetic nerves on the control of the surfactant system is also obscure. Here, we describe the mechanism of the modulation of the surfactant system and the effect of this modulation on lung compliance. The role of acetylcholine was determined by perfusing isolated lungs with acetylcholine, acetylcholine and the ganglionic antagonist hexamethonium, or acetylcholine, hexamethonium, and the muscarinic antagonist atropine. Perfusing with acetylcholine significantly increased phospholipid release but did not affect cholesterol release. While histological examination of the lung revealed the presence of a large autonomic ganglion at the apex, blocking sympathetic ganglia with hexamethonium did not prevent the acetylcholine-mediated increase in phospholipid. However, the increase was inhibited by blocking muscarinic receptors with atropine, which indicates that acetylcholine acts on muscarinic receptors to stimulate phospholipid release. By increasing pulmonary smooth muscle tone, acetylcholine decreased opening pressure and increased static inflation pressures. Plasma levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline increased with increasing temperature and were accompanied by a greater surfactant content in the lungs. While surfactant content was also higher in animals that exercised, plasma levels of adrenaline

  1. Therapeutic effects of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6 on gastroparesis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic guinea pigs in vivo and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Wen-cai; WANG Zhi-gang; WANG Wei-gang; YAN Jun; ZHENG Qi

    2008-01-01

    Background Diabetic gastroparesis is a disabling condition with no consistently effective treatment.In normal animals,both ghrelin and its synthetic peptide,growth hormone releasing peptide 6(GHRP-6),increase gastric emptying.Thus,we investigated the potential therapeutic significance of ghrelin and GHRP-6 in diabetic guinea pigs with gastric motility disorders.Methods A diabetic guinea pig model was produced by intraperitoneal(i.p.)injection of streptozotocin(STZ,280 mg/kg).Diabetic guinea pigs were injected i.p.with ghrelin or GHRP-6(10-100 pg/kg),and the effects on gastric emptying were measured after intragastric application of phenol red.The effect of atropine or a growth hormone secretagogue receptor(GHS-R)antagonist,D-Lys3-GHRP-6,on the gastroprokinetic effects of ghrelin or GHRP-6(100 μg/kg)was also investigated.Further,the in vitro effects of ghrelin or GHRP-6(0.01-10 μmol/L)on spontaneous or carbachol-induced contractile amplitude in gastric fundic circular strips taken from diabetic guinea pigs were examined.Growth hormone secretagogue receptor transcripts in the fundic strips of diabetic guinea pigs were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).Results We established a guinea pig model of delayed gastric emptying.Ghrelin(20,50,or 100 μg/kg)and GHRP-6 (20,50,or 1 00 μg/kg)accelerated gastric emptying in diabetic guinea pigs with gastroparesis(n=-6,P<0.05).In the presence of atropine,which delayed gastric emptying,ghrelin and GHRP-6(100 μg/kg)failed to accelerate gastric emptying(n=6,P<0.05).D-Lys3-GHRP-6 also delayed gastric emptying induced by the GHS-R agonist(n=6,P<0.05).Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increased the carbachol-induced contractile amplitude in gastric fundic strips taken from diabetic guinea pigs(n=6,P<0.05).RT-PCR confirmed the presence of GHS-R mRNA in the strip preparations.Conclusions Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increased gastric emptying in diabetic guinea pigs with gastroparesis,potentially,by activating the

  2. L- and DL-carnitine induce tetanic fade in rat neuromuscular preparation

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    G. Lopes

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine, a structurally choline-like metabolite, has been used to increase athletic performance, although its effects on neuromuscular transmission have not been investigated. It is present in skeletal muscle and its plasma levels are about 30 to 90 µM. Using rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparations indirectly and directly stimulated with high rate pulses, D-carnitine (30 and 60 µM, L-carnitine (60 µM and DL-carnitine (60 µM were shown to induce tetanic fade (D-carnitine = 19.7 ± 3.1%, N = 6; L-carnitine = 16.6 ± 2.4%, N = 6; DL-carnitine = 14.9 ± 2.1%, N = 6 without any reduction of maximal tetanic tension. D-carnitine induced tetanic fade in neuromuscular preparations previously paralyzed with d-tubocurarine and directly stimulated. The effect was greater than that obtained by indirect muscle stimulation. Furthermore, previous addition of atropine (20 to 80 µM to the bath did not reduce carnitine isomer-induced tetanic fade. In contrast to D-carnitine, the tetanic fade induced by L- and DL-carnitine was antagonized by choline (60 µM. The combined effect of carnitine isomers and hemicholinium-3 (0.01 nM was similar to the effect of hemicholinium-3 alone. The data suggest that L- and DL-carnitine-induced tetanic fade seems to depend on their transport into the motor nerve terminal.

  3. Use of salbutamol in detection of mechanism destructive to bronchial patency in dust-induced lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumabekova, B.K.

    1982-04-01

    Different mechanisms destroy the open passibility of the bronchi: bronchospasm, destruction of drop eliminator function of the bronchi, valvular mechanics, change in elastic properties of lungs, dyskinesia of the tracheobronchial tree and inflammatory edema of the mucous envelope. Bronchospasm is the most studied form of bronchial pathology. To detect the bronchospastic component, various bronchodilating means are used: (1) stimulators of adrenergic receptors, (2) blockers of acetylcholine (atropine, bella donna); preparations acting directly on smooth musculature of the bronchi (theophylline, euphylline). The pharmaceutical industry is now making aerosol bronchodilators. Since salbutamol is widely used as an aerosol and opinions of its effectiveness are not uniform, a test was made of it on 35 patients; 22 with chronic bronchitis and 13 with silicosis. The rate of air flow during inspiration and expiration was examined 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes after administration of salbutamol aerosol. Results of the test are presented in a table and show that the use of a pharmacological test with salbutamol aerosol to detect bronchospasm as a cause of lung obstruction is valid. If 10 minutes after inhalation of salbutamol, a therapeutic effect is observed and inhalation and exhalation increase, bronchospasm as the cause of the pathology is demonstrated. The absence of a measurable reaction to salbutamol after 10 minutes indicates that other mechanisms are the basis of the obstruction. (11 refs.) (In Russian)

  4. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  5. Gastrin-releasing peptide is a transmitter mediating porcine gallbladder contraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Birgit; Poulsen, S.S.; Schmidt, P.;

    1991-01-01

    We studied the role of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) for porcine gallbladder motility. Immunohistochemistry visualized nerve fibers containing GRP-like immunoreactivity in muscularis. GRP concentration dependently stimulated contractions of muscularis strips (ED50, 2.9 nM). Neuromedin B was less...... potent (ED50, 0.1 microM), suggesting existence of GRP-preferring receptors. GRP-induced contractions were unaffected by muscarinic antagonism (1 microM atropine), axonal blockade (1 microM tetrodotoxin), cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonism (10 microM MK-329), or substance P desensitization (1...... microM), supporting the existence of myogenic GRP receptors. The bombesin (BN) analogue D-Phe6-BN-(6-13)propylamide (PA) stimulated contractions (ED50, 3.3 nM) with low efficacy (29% of that of GRP). D-Phe6-BN-(6-13)PA (1 microM) shifted GRP concentration-response curves one log to the right. D-Phe6-BN...

  6. Ca2+ is involved in muscarine-acetylcholine-receptor-mediated acetylcholine signal transduction in guard cells of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fanxia; MIAO Long; ZHANG Shuqiu; LOU Chenghou

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important neurochemical transmitter in animals; it also exists in plants and plays a significant role in various kinds of physiological functions in plants. ACh has been known to induce the stomatal opening. By monitoring the changes of cytosolic Ca2+ with fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM under the confocal microscopy,we found that exogenous ACh increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of guard cells of Vicia faba L. Muscarine, an agonist of muscarine acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), could do so as well. In contrast, atropine, the antagonist of mAChR abolished the ability of ACh to increase Ca2+ in guard cells.This mechanism is similar to mAChR in animals. When EGTA was used to chelate Ca2+ or ruthenium red to block Ca2+ released from vacuole respectively, the results showed that the increased cytosolic Ca2+ mainly come from intracellular Ca2+ store. The evidence supports that Ca2+ is involved in guard-cell response to ACh and that Ca2+ signal is coupled to mAChRs in ACh signal transduction in guard cells.

  7. Ketamine and midazolam sedation for pediatric gastroinntestinal endoscopy in the Arab world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamad-Iqbal S Miqdady; Wail A Hayajneh; Ruba Abdelhadi; Mark A Gilger

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of intravenous ketamine-midazolam sedation during pediatric endoscopy in the Arab world. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of all pediatric endoscopic procedures performed between 2002-2008 at the shared endoscopy suite of King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science & Technology, Jordan was conducted. All children were > 1 year old and weighed > 10 kg with American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1 or 2. Analysis was performed in terms of sedation-related complications (desaturation, respiratory distress, apnea, bradycardia, cardiac arrest, emergence reactions), adequacy of sedation, need for sedation reversal, or failure to complete the procedure. RESULTS: A total of 301 patients (including 160 males) with a mean age of 9.26 years (range, 1-18 years) were included. All were premedicated with atropine; and 79.4% (239/301) had effective and uneventful sedation. And 248 (82.4%) of the 301 patients received a mean dose of 0.16 mg/kg (range, 0.07-0.39) midazolam and 1.06 mg/kg (range, 0.31-2.67) ketamine, respectively within the recommended dosage guidelines. Recommended maximum midazolam dose was exceeded in 17.6% patients [34 female (F):19 male (M), P = 0.003] and ketamine in 2.7% (3 M:5 F). Maximum midazolam dose was more likely to be exceeded than ketamine (P 1 year and weighing > 10 kg without co-morbidities.

  8. Dexmedetomidine Related Bradycardia Leading to Cardiac Arrest in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Chen2, K-S. Chen1,2, K. M. Chang2, W. M. Lee1,2, S. C. Chang1,2 and H. C. Wang1,2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old, mixed breed female dog (16 kg underwent an exploratory laparotomy following ultrasonographic diagnosis of foreign body and a segment of small intestine intussusceptions. The patient was classified as an ASA II. Ketamine (1mg/kg, IV, and dexmedetomidine (2.5 µg/kg, IV, and morphine (0.6 mg/kg, SC were given as anesthetic premedication. Propofol (0.1 mg/kg, IV titrated to a total amount of 4 ml (2.5 mg/ kg was given for intubation. Asystole was occurred. Cardiac resuscitation was then conducted immediately. Atipamezole (0.1 ml was injected, but showed no response on ECG. Atropine (0.02 mg/kg was then injected, and a second dosage was given. Two-three mins later, the heart rate at 84 beats/min. The NIBP showed 203/132 with MAP 153 mmHg, and the SpO2 showed 95% after the cardiac function was regained. Dexmedetomidine related bradycardia leading to cardiac arrest has been suggested in this case.

  9. Green coffee bean extract and its metabolites have a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Kagawa, Daiji; Ochiai, Ryuji; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Saito, Ikuo

    2002-01-01

    The effects of a water-soluble green coffee bean extract (GCE) on blood pressure were investigated using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). There was a dose-dependent reduction in blood pressure after a single ingestion (180 to 720 mg/kg, p.o.) or long-term ingestion (0.25 to 1% diet for 6 weeks) of GCE. A single oral ingestion (50 to 200 mg/kg) of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), the major component of GCE, dose-dependently decreased blood pressure, suggesting that 5-CQA is involved in the hypotensive effect of GCE in SHR. Because significant increases in caffeic acid (CA) or ferulic acid (FA) were detected in plasma after oral ingestion of 5-CQA in SHR, these acids (2.5, 5,10 micromol/kg) were intravenously injected into SHR under anesthesia and the carotid arterial pressure was measured. Of the two components, FA had a stronger depressor effect than CA. The depressor effect of FA (50 mg/kg, p.o.) was attenuated by the concurrent injection of atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg, s.c.), suggesting that the hypotensive effect of FA in SHR might be mediated via the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. These findings indicate that oral ingestion of GCE or 5-CQA decreases blood pressure in SHR, and that FA, which is a metabolite of 5-CQA, is a candidate hypotensive component. PMID:11924733

  10. Health Aspects of Organophosphorous Pesticides in Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Balali-Mood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorous (OP pesticides are used frequently in agriculture, particularly in Asian countries over the pastdecades. Poisoning by these agents, either as acute or chronic in these nations, is a serious health problem. OP pesticidesresidue in fruits and vegetables that may not induce early clinical features, could also affect the human health.Therefore, medical and health professionals should be aware and learn more on the toxicology, prevention and proper management of OP poisoning. The well-known mechanism of OP toxicity is the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase,resulting in an accumulation of acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors. Therefore, they arealso called anticholinesterase agents. Determination of blood acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase activities remains a mainstay for the rapid initial screening of OP pesticides. Quantitative analysis of OP and their degradation products in plasma and urine by mass spectrometric methods is a more specific method, but is expensive and limited to specialized laboratories. Therefore, history of OP pesticides exposure and clinical manifestations of a cholinergic syndrome is sufficient for management of the exposed patients. However, electrophysiological tests may be requiredfor the diagnosis of delayed neuropathy of OP poisoning. The standard management of OP poisoning includes decontamination,atropine sulphate with an oxime. Recent advances focus on blood alkalinisation and magnesium sulphate as promising adjunctive therapies. Preventive measures in OP exposure are of great importance in human health in developing countries. Therefore, regulations and controls on safe use of OP particularly in Asian countries are recommended.

  11. Activation of hatching in diapaused and quiescent Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Jones, John T; Cock, Peter J; Castillo, Pablo; Blok, Vivian C

    2013-04-01

    The potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis are major pests of potatoes. The G. pallida (and G. rostochiensis) life cycle includes both diapause and quiescent stages. Nematodes in dormancy (diapause or quiescent) are adapted for long-term survival and are more resistant to nematicides. This study analysed the mechanisms underlying diapause and quiescence. The effects of several compounds (8Br-cGMP, oxotremorine and atropine) on the activation of hatching were studied. The measurements of some morphometric parameters in diapaused and quiescent eggs after exposure to PRD revealed differences in dorsal gland length, subventral gland length and dorsal gland nucleolus. In addition, the expression of 2 effectors (IVg9 and cellulase) was not induced in diapaused eggs in water or PRD, while expression was slightly induced in quiescent eggs. Finally, we performed a comparative study to identify orthologues of C. elegans diapause related genes in plant-parasitic nematodes (G. pallida, Meloidogyne incognita, M. hapla and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). This analysis suggested that it was not possible to identify G. pallida orthologues of the majority of C. elegans genes involved in the control of dauer formation. All these data suggest that G. pallida may use different mechanisms to C. elegans in regulating the survival stage. PMID:23253858

  12. The ent-15α-Acetoxykaur-16-en-19-oic Acid Relaxes Rat Artery Mesenteric Superior via Endothelium-Dependent and Endothelium-Independent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Êurica Adélia Nogueira Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism of the relaxant activity of the ent-15α-acetoxykaur-16-en-19-oic acid (KA-acetoxy. In rat mesenteric artery rings, KA-acetoxy induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels precontracted with phenylephrine. In the absence of endothelium, the vasorelaxation was significantly shifted to the right without reduction of the maximum effect. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with L-NAME, an inhibitor of the NO-synthase (NOS, indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase, L-NAME + indomethacin, atropine, a nonselective antagonist of the muscarinic receptors, ODQ, selective inhibitor of the guanylyl cyclase enzyme, or hydroxocobalamin, a nitric oxide scavenger. The relaxation was completely reversed in the presence of L-NAME + 1 mM L-arginine or L-arginine, an NO precursor. Diterpene-induced relaxation was not affected by TEA, a nonselective inhibitor of K+ channels. The KA-acetoxy antagonized CaCl2-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner and also inhibited an 80 mM KCl-induced contraction. The KA-acetoxy did not interfere with Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The vasorelaxant induced by KA-acetoxy seems to involve the inhibition of the Ca2+ influx and also, at least in part, by endothelial muscarinic receptors activation, NO and PGI2 release.

  13. The ent-15α-Acetoxykaur-16-en-19-oic Acid Relaxes Rat Artery Mesenteric Superior via Endothelium-Dependent and Endothelium-Independent Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Êurica Adélia Nogueira; Herculano, Edla de Azevedo; da Costa, Cintia Danieli Ferreira; Furtado, Fabiola Fialho; da-Cunha, Emídio Vasconcelos Leitão; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; de Medeiros, Isac Almeida

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism of the relaxant activity of the ent-15α-acetoxykaur-16-en-19-oic acid (KA-acetoxy). In rat mesenteric artery rings, KA-acetoxy induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels precontracted with phenylephrine. In the absence of endothelium, the vasorelaxation was significantly shifted to the right without reduction of the maximum effect. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with L-NAME, an inhibitor of the NO-synthase (NOS), indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase, L-NAME + indomethacin, atropine, a nonselective antagonist of the muscarinic receptors, ODQ, selective inhibitor of the guanylyl cyclase enzyme, or hydroxocobalamin, a nitric oxide scavenger. The relaxation was completely reversed in the presence of L-NAME + 1 mM L-arginine or L-arginine, an NO precursor. Diterpene-induced relaxation was not affected by TEA, a nonselective inhibitor of K+ channels. The KA-acetoxy antagonized CaCl2-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner and also inhibited an 80 mM KCl-induced contraction. The KA-acetoxy did not interfere with Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The vasorelaxant induced by KA-acetoxy seems to involve the inhibition of the Ca2+ influx and also, at least in part, by endothelial muscarinic receptors activation, NO and PGI2 release. PMID:23346202

  14. Potential Additive Effects of Ticagrelor, Ivabradine, and Carvedilol on Sinus Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Di Serafino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old male patient presented to the emergency room with an anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction. After a loading dose of both ticagrelor and aspirin, the patient underwent primary-PCI on the left anterior descending coronary artery with stent implantation. After successful revascularization, medical therapy included beta-blockers, statins, and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Two days later, ivabradine was also administered in order to reduce heart rate at target, but the patient developed a severe symptomatic bradycardia and sinus arrest, even requiring administration of both atropine and adrenaline. Ivabradine and ticagrelor have been then suspended and this latter changed with prasugrel. Any other similar event was not reported during the following days. This clinical case raised concerns about the safety of the combination of beta-blockers and ivabradine in patients treated with ticagrelor, particularly during the acute phase of an acute coronary syndrome. These two latter drugs, in particular, might interact with the same receptor. In fact, ivabradine directly modulates the If-channel which is also modulated by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels. These latter have been shown to increase after ticagrelor assumption via inhibition of adenosine uptake by erythrocytes. Further studies are warrant to better clarify the safety of this association.

  15. Paraoxon Attenuates Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction through Inhibiting Ca2+ Influx in the Rabbit Thoracic Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouhong Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of paraoxon on vascular contractility using organ baths in thoracic aortic rings of rabbits and examined the effect of paraoxon on calcium homeostasis using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique in isolated aortic smooth muscle cells of rabbits. The findings show that administration of paraoxon (30 μM attenuated thoracic aorta contraction induced by phenylephrine (1 μM and/or a high K+ environment (80 mM in both the presence and absence of thoracic aortic endothelium. This inhibitory effect of paraoxon on vasoconstrictor-induced contraction was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, or in the presence of the Ca2+ channel inhibitor, verapamil. But atropine had little effect on the inhibitory effect of paraoxon on phenylephrine-induced contraction. Paraoxon also attenuated vascular smooth muscle contraction induced by the cumulative addition of CaCl2 and attenuated an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration induced by K+ in vascular smooth muscle cells. Moreover, paraoxon (30 μM inhibited significantly L-type calcium current in isolated aortic smooth muscle cells of rabbits. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that paraoxon attenuates vasoconstrictor-induced contraction through inhibiting Ca2+ influx in the rabbits thoracic aorta.

  16. Impaired baroreflex function in mice overexpressing alpha-synuclein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila eFleming

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, such as orthostatic hypotension consequent to baroreflex failure and cardiac sympathetic denervation, is frequently observed in the synucleinopathy Parkinson’s disease (PD. In the present study, the baroreceptor reflex was assessed in mice overexpressing human wildtype alpha-synuclein (Thy1-aSyn, a genetic mouse model of synucleinopathy. The beat-to-beat change in heart rate, computed from R-R interval, in relation to blood pressure was measured in anesthetized and conscious mice equipped with arterial blood pressure telemetry transducers during transient bouts of hypertension and hypotension. Compared to wildtype, tachycardia following nitroprusside-induced hypotension was significantly reduced in Thy1-aSyn mice. Thy1-aSyn mice also showed an abnormal cardiovascular response (i.e., diminished tachycardia to muscarinic blockade with atropine. We conclude that Thy1-aSyn mice have impaired basal and dynamic range of sympathetic and parasympathetic-mediated changes in heart rate and will be a useful model for long-term study of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction associated with PD.

  17. Carbachol induces a rapid and sustained hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositide in bovine tracheal smooth muscle measurements of the mass of polyphosphoinositides, 1,2-diacylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takuwa, Y.; Takuwa, N.; Rasmussen, H.

    1986-11-05

    The effects of carbachol on polyphosphoinositides and 1,2-diacylglycerol metabolism were investigated in bovine tracheal smooth muscle by measuring both lipid mass and the turnover of (/sup 3/H)inositol-labeled phosphoinositides. Carbachol induces a rapid reduction in the mass of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate and a rapid increase in the mass of 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. These changes in lipid mass are sustained for at least 60 min. The level of phosphatidylinositol shows a delayed and progressive decrease during a 60-min period of carbachol stimulation. The addition of atropine reverses these responses completely. Carbachol stimulates a rapid loss in (/sup 3/H)inositol radioactivity from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate associated with production of (/sup 3/H)inositol trisphosphate. The carbachol-induced change in the mass of phosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid is not affected by removal of extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ and does not appear to be secondary to an increase in intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. These results indicate that carbachol causes phospholipase C-mediated polyphosphoinositide breakdown, resulting in the production of inositol trisphosphate and a sustained increase in the actual content of 1,2-diacylglycerol. These results strongly suggest that carbachol-induced contraction is mediated by the hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositides with the resulting generation of two messengers: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol.

  18. Nucleus accumbens core acetylcholine is preferentially activated during acquisition of drug- vs food-reinforced behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Jose A; Stöckl, Petra; Zorn, Katja; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2008-12-01

    Acquisition of drug-reinforced behavior is accompanied by a systematic increase of release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) rather than dopamine, the expected prime reward neurotransmitter candidate, in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), with activation of both muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors in the AcbC by ACh volume transmission being necessary for the drug conditioning. The present findings suggest that the AcbC ACh system is preferentially activated by drug reinforcers, because (1) acquisition of food-reinforced behavior was not paralleled by activation of ACh release in the AcbC whereas acquisition of morphine-reinforced behavior, like that of cocaine or remifentanil (tested previously), was, and because (2) local intra-AcbC administration of muscarinic or nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists (atropine or mecamylamine, respectively) did not block the acquisition of food-reinforced behavior whereas acquisition of drug-reinforced behavior had been blocked. Interestingly, the speed with which a drug of abuse distributed into the AcbC and was eliminated from the AcbC determined the size of the AcbC ACh signal, with the temporally more sharply delineated drug stimulus producing a more pronounced AcbC ACh signal. The present findings suggest that muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors in the AcbC are preferentially involved during reward conditioning for drugs of abuse vs sweetened condensed milk as a food reinforcer. PMID:18418362

  19. Systemic Side-Effects of Topical Ophthalmic Drops in a 17-Year Old Boy Candidate for Deep Viterectomy: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maleki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs applied topically to the eye may be absorbed systemically to a substantial degree, with the potential to cause serious systemic side-effects. Children may be particularly vulnerable to systemic effects of topically applied agents as topical doses are often not weight-adjusted. Case presentation: This article describes a case of serious systemic side-effect by the use of topical phenylephrine, tetracaine, tropicamide and atropine in a 17-year old boy candidate for deep viterectomy in Farabi Hospital in 1389. Following application of the aforesaid eye drops, the patient developed hypertension and subsequent loss of conciseness. Conclusion: Several types of eye drops and their repeated use can lead to their systemic absorption and medical complications due to overdose. Strategies to minimize systemic absorption should be applied, including use of low concentrations of ophthalmic drugs, administration of one type of the drug, use of microdrops and punctal occlusion to minimize absorption via the nasolacrimal duct. While administering ophthalmic drops, one should take these precautions to minimize the systemic effects of the drugs to prevent subsequent complications.

  20. Trigemino-cardiac reflex during skull-base neurosurgeries: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khajavi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Trigemino-cardiac reflex (TCR has been studied as a phenomenon including; bradycardia, arterial hypotension, apnea and gastric hypermotility during manipulation of the peripheral or central parts of the trigeminal nerve.Case presentation: We report a case of a 26-year-old man undergoing surgery for a skull base extra axial tumor in right petrous bone suspected to metastasis of a previous renal cell carcinoma which had been treated four years ago. The patient presented with continuous and unilateral headache and difficulty in swallowing, sensory neural hearing loss, nasal speech and tongue deviation to left side. He underwent general anesthesia with standard monitoring and total intravenous anesthetic technique. The first episode of sudden onset bradycardia and hypotension related to surgical manipulation was detected intraoperatively in which the heart rate spontaneously returned to normal level once the surgical manipulation stopped. However, it repeated several times by beginning of tumor resection and manipulation in the region of trigeminal nerve. The intensity of bradycardia in subsequent episodes of TCR was relatively crescendo and had no fatigability. Finally, it was treated by administration of a single dose of atropine (0.5mg/IV and did not happen again.Conclusion: The risk of TCR should be considered in any neurosurgical intervention involving trigeminal nerve and its branches, especially at the skull base surgeries. The vigilance of the medical team and continuous intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring alerts the surgeons to interrupt surgical maneuvers upon the TCR occurrence, immediately.

  1. Current Pharmacological Advances in the Treatment of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Papastylianou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest is defined as the sudden cessation of spontaneous ventilation and circulation. Within 15 seconds of cardiac arrest, the patient loses consciousness, electroencephalogram becomes flat after 30 seconds, pupils dilate fully after 60 seconds, and cerebral damage takes place within 90–300 seconds. It is essential to act immediately as irreversible damage can occur in a short time. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is an attempt to restore spontaneous circulation through a broad range of interventions which are early defibrillation, high-quality and uninterrupted chest compressions, advanced airway interventions, and pharmacological interventions. Drugs should be considered only after initial shocks have been delivered (when indicated and chest compressions and ventilation have been started. During cardiopulmonary resuscitation, no specific drug therapy has been shown to improve survival to hospital discharge after cardiac arrest, and only few drugs have a proven benefit for short-term survival. This paper reviews current pharmacological treatment of cardiac arrest. There are three groups of drugs relevant to the management of cardiac arrest: vasopressors, antiarrhythmics, and other drugs such as sodium bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, atropine, fibrinolytic drugs, and corticosteroids.

  2. Simple and Rapid Hollow Fiber Liquid Phase Microextraction Followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Determination of Drug-protein Binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Guo-chen; HU Shuang; BAI Xiao-hong

    2011-01-01

    A method was established using hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction(HF-LPME) followed by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) to determine the concentration of the free(unbound) drug in the solution of the drug and protein.Measurements of drug-protein binding ratios and free drug concentrations were then analyzed with the Klotz equation to determine the equilibrium binding constant and number of binding sites for drug-protein interaction.The optimized method allows one to perform the efficient extraction and separation of free drug from protein-bound drug,protein,and other interfering substances.This approach was used to characterize the binding of the anticholinergic drugs atropine sulfate and scopolamine hydrobromide to proteins in human plasma and bovine serum albumin(BSA).The results demonstrate the utility of HF-LPME method for measuring free drug concentrations in protein-drug mixtures and determining the protein binding parameters of a pharmacologically important class of drugs.

  3. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  4. Effects of Afferent Stimulation of the Lingual Nerve on Gastrointestinal Motility in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimoto,Masaharu

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of afferent stimulation of the lingual nerve (LNAS on gastrointestinal motility and the reflex pathways which mediate the response to LNAS were investigated in rats. LNAS induced excitatory, inhibitory or biphasic responses in the stomach, duodenum and proximal colon. These responses continued after bilateral vagotomy, but were abolished after additional bilateral splanchnicotomy or transection of the spinal cord between Th4 and Th5. The inhibitory, excitatory and biphasic responses induced by LNAS were not affected by decerebration. Both after administration of atropine (0.2 mg/kg, i.v. and guanethidine (3-5 mg/kg, i.v., LNAS-induced excitatory and inhibitory responses were abolished in most cases, but the slight inhibitory response in the stomach and duodenum to LNAS remained in a few cases. These results suggest that the reflex centers which cause LNAS-induced excitatory and inhibitory responses are located in the dorsal nucleus of vagus and that the reflex pathways include the vagus and splanchnic nerves.

  5. The anti-malarial drug Mefloquine disrupts central autonomic and respiratory control in the working heart brainstem preparation of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lall Varinder K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is an anti-malarial drug that can have neurological side effects. This study examines how mefloquine (MF influences central nervous control of autonomic and respiratory systems using the arterially perfused working heart brainstem preparation (WHBP of the rat. Recordings of nerve activity were made from the thoracic sympathetic chain and phrenic nerve, while heart rate (HR and perfusion pressure were also monitored in the arterially perfused, decerebrate, rat WHBP. MF was added to the perfusate at 1 μM to examine its effects on baseline parameters as well as baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes. Results MF caused a significant, atropine resistant, bradycardia and increased phrenic nerve discharge frequency. Chemoreceptor mediated sympathoexcitation (elicited by addition of 0.1 ml of 0.03% sodium cyanide to the aortic cannula was significantly attenuated by the application of MF to the perfusate. Furthermore MF significantly decreased rate of return to resting HR following chemoreceptor induced bradycardia. An increase in respiratory frequency and attenuated respiratory-related sympathetic nerve discharge during chemoreceptor stimulation was also elicited with MF compared to control. However, MF did not significantly alter baroreceptor reflex sensitivity. Conclusions These studies indicate that in the WHBP, MF causes profound alterations in autonomic and respiratory control. The possibility that these effects may be mediated through actions on connexin 36 containing gap junctions in central neurones controlling sympathetic nervous outflow is discussed.

  6. Isolation of a dihydrobenzofuran lignan, icariside E4, with an antinociceptive effect from Tabebuia roseo-alba (Ridley) Sandwith (Bignoniaceae) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Júnior, Jesu C; Conserva, Lucia M; Lyra Lemos, Rosangela P; de Omena-Neta, Genilda C; Cavalcante-Neto, Araken; Barreto, Emiliano

    2015-06-01

    The antinociceptive activity of icariside E4, a dihydrobenzofuran-type lignan isolated from Tabebuia roseo-alba (Ridley) Sandwith (Bignoniaceae) bark, was evaluated in mice by using chemical and thermal models of nociception. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of crude T. roseo-alba bark extract and its methanol fraction inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction in mice. Furthermore, i.p. administration of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg of icariside E4 reduced the number of writhes evoked by acetic acid injection by 46.9, 82.3, and 66.6%, respectively. Icariside E4 administration had no effect in the first phase of the formalin test, but it reduced nociceptive behavior in the second phase as indicated by a reduction in the licking time. Icariside E4 did not modify thermal nociception in the hot-plate test model, suggesting that it had a peripheral antinociceptive action. The antinociceptive effect of icariside E4 in the writhing test was reversed by pre-administration of glibenclamide, but not of naloxone, atropine, yohimbine, or haloperidol. Together, these results indicated that the antinociceptive activity of icariside E4 from T. roseo-alba in models of chemical pain occurred through ATP-sensitive K(+) channel-dependent mechanisms. PMID:25138119

  7. Quantitative measurement of feline colonic transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonic transit scintigraphy, a method for quantitatively evaluating the movement of the fecal stream in vivo, was employed to evaluate colonic transit in the cat. Scintigraphy was performed in duplicate in five cats and repeated four times in one cat. After instillation of an 111In marker into the cecum through a surgically implanted silicone cecostomy tube, colonic movement of the instillate was quantitated for 24 h using gamma scintigraphy. Antegrade and retrograde motion of radionuclide was observed. The cecum and ascending colon emptied rapidly, with a half-emptying time of 1.68 +/- 0.56 h (mean +/- SE). After 24 h, 25.1 +/- 5.2% of the activity remained in the transverse colon. The progression of the geometric center was initially rapid, followed later by a delayed phase. Geometric center reproducibility was found to be high when analyzed using simple linear regression (slope = 0.92; r = 0.73; P less than 0.01). Atropine (0.1 mg/kg im) was found to delay cecum and ascending colon emptying and delay progression of the geometric center. These results demonstrate both 1) the ability of colonic transit scintigraphy to detect changes in transit induced by pharmacological manipulation and 2) the fact that muscarinic blockade inhibits antegrade transit of the fecal stream. We conclude that feline colonic transit may be studied in a quantitative and reproducible manner with colonic transit scintigraphy

  8. Gastrointestinal transit in the chicken using 198Au-colloid as a marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal transit in the chicken was investigated by using 198Au-colloid as a marker. Gastrointestinal transit was determined following administration of a 198Au-colloid solution (370 kBq (10 μCi), 0.5 ml) into the proventriculus by measuring the distribution of radioactivity in the gastrointestine. Most of 198Au-colloid administered into the proventriculus was transfered instantly to the gizzard and subsequently, some part of it quickly to the duodenum and the upper segment of the jejunoileum. A considerable quantity of 198Au-colloid in the duodenum, the upper and middle segment of the jejunoileum regurgitated to the gizzard. 198Au-colloid transferred to the caecum was retained for a long time (more than 48 hours) in these segments. A part of 198Au-colloid was found in the feces 90 to 120 minutes after administration into the proventriculus and the greater part of it was excreted into the feces 24 to 48 hours. Subcutaneous administration of acetylcholine (2 mg/kg) increased the gastrointestinal transit but atropine (2 mg/kg) decreased. (author)

  9. Effects of disopyramide on detrusor muscle contraction: in vitro experiment and report of 3 cases with disopyramide-induced urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, M; Kato, K; Saito, M; Kondo, A

    1987-01-01

    Three cases of disopyramide-induced urinary retention were reported and effects of disopyramide on agonist-induced contraction of detrusor muscle were studied in vitro. Muscle strips were obtained from rabbit bladder body and changes in isometric contraction of the strips were monitored. Acetylcholine, prostaglandin F2-alpha, potassium chloride, barium chloride, adenosine triphosphate and Ca2+ were used as agonists for detrusor muscle contraction. Disopyramide relaxed the contraction elicited by acetylcholine in normal Krebs solution, but exhibited no relaxing effect on contractions induced by prostaglandin F2-alpha, potassium chloride, barium chloride and adenosine triphosphate. In Ca2+-free Krebs solution, basal tension of the strips declined and spontaneous contractile activity was eliminated. Replenishment of 3 mM Ca2+ induced a slow contraction and redevelopment of spontaneous contraction of the strips. Pretreatment of the strips with disopyramide had no inhibitory effect on the Ca2+-induced contraction or on the spontaneous contractile activity in Ca2+-free solution. In normal Krebs solution, acetylcholine (10(-9)-10(-2)M) caused dose-dependent contractions of the detrusor muscle strips. Pretreatment of the strips with disopyramide (10(-5)-10(-3)M) dose-dependently inhibited the acetylcholine-induced contraction in a competitive way. The inhibitory effect of disopyramide on acetylcholine-induced contraction was less potent than that of atropine. We conclude that disopyramide may inhibit detrusor contractile activity mostly by its anticholinergic effect, resulting clinically in micturition disturbance. PMID:3482338

  10. Effects of metoclopramide and domperidone on cholinergically mediated contractions of human isolated stomach muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, G J

    1985-09-01

    The experiments examine the actions of metoclopramide and domperidone on the responses evoked by electrical field stimulation or by acetylcholine, in longitudinal muscle strips obtained from human stomach. Electrical field stimulation evoked contractions which were predominantly cholinergically mediated; metoclopramide 0.28-28 microM caused a concentration-dependent increase in the height of these contractions. In the presence of atropine and barium chloride, electrical stimulation evoked relaxations of the stomach muscle, probably by stimulating non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory nerves; metoclopramide 28 microM had no effect on these relaxations. Metoclopramide 0.003-2.8 microM had no effect on contractions evoked by exogenous acetylcholine, although higher concentrations of the drug increased the contractions. The results suggest that in human isolated stomach, low concentrations of metoclopramide may increase electrically evoked cholinergic activity by increasing the release of neuronal acetylcholine. Stimulation by metoclopramide of cholinergic activity in the gut may therefore be an important mechanism by which the drug increases gastrointestinal motility during therapy. Cholinergically mediated contractions were not increased by domperidone, and other mechanism(s) of action may therefore be important for this drug. PMID:2867191

  11. Effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on local cerebral glucose utilization, by the autoradiographic 2-deoxy [14C] glucose method, in conscious and pentobarbitalized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of TRH and pentobarbital alone, and in combination, on local cerebral glucose utilization of rats were studied by the autoradiographic 2-deoxy[14C] glucose method. TRH (5 mg/kg i.v.) reduced the rate of cerebral glucose utilization slightly in the whole brain. Locally, significant depression was observed in the following structures: frontal and visual cortices, hippocampus Ammon's horn and dentate gyrus, medial and lateral geniculate bodies, nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, pontine gray matter, superior colliculus, superior olivary nucleus, vestibular nucleus, lateral lemniscus and cerebellar cortex. Pentobarbital (30 mg/kg i.v.) produced a marked and diffuse reduction in the rate of glucose utilization throughout the brain. TRH given 15 min after the administration of pentobarbital markedly shortened the pentobarbital sleeping time and caused some reversal of the depression in local cerebral glucose utilization produced by pentobarbital., These effects were almost completely abolished by pretreatment with intracerebroventricular injection of atropine methyl bromide (20 μg/rat). These results indicate that although TRH acts to cause a reduction in the rate of cerebral glucose utilization, it reverses the depression induced by pentobarbital, via a cholinergic mechanism, in a number of structures, some of which are related to monoaminergic systems and the reticulo-thalamo-cortical activating system. (author)

  12. Acute effects of aflatoxins on guinea pig isolated ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, A; Cometa, M F; Palmery, M

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies on the aflatoxins have focused mainly on their chronic toxic effects. In this study we investigated the acute gastrointestinal effects of four common aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum. AFB(1) (EC(50) 4.6+/-0.4 microM) and AFB(2) (EC(50)17+/-4.4 microM) contracted isolated guinea pig ileum in a dose-dependent manner, whereas AFG(1) and AFG(2) evoked no contractions. Atropine (5.9 nM 11.8 and 23.6 nM) antagonized AFB(1)-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with the nicotinic ganglionic blocker, hexamethonium (up to 55 microM), left AFB(1)-induced contractions unchanged. In contrast, tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM), blocked AFB(1) contractile activity. The two inhibitors of ACh release, morphine (0.3 microM) and clonidine (0.4 microM), antagonized EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractions, and apamin, a drug that increases neuronal excitability, facilitated the EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractile effect. The choline uptake blocker, hemicholinium (17.4 microM) markedly reduced AFB(1)-induced contractions. These results suggest that aflatoxins induce their contractile effect indirectly through the cholinergic system by stimulating acetylcholine release from the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve endings. The acute actions of aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum could explain their acute gastrointestinal effects in humans and animals. PMID:12206819

  13. Enhancement of rat bladder contraction by artificial sweeteners via increased extracellular Ca2+ influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Consumption of carbonated soft drinks has been shown to be independently associated with the development of overactive bladder symptoms (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.18, 2.22) [Dallosso, H.M., McGrother, C.W., Matthews, R.J., Donaldson, M.M.K., 2003. The association of diet and other lifestyle factors with overactive bladder and stress incontinence: a longitudinal study in women. BJU Int. 92, 69-77]. We evaluated the effects of three artificial sweeteners, acesulfame K, aspartame and sodium saccharin, on the contractile response of isolated rat detrusor muscle strips. Methods: Strips of detrusor muscle were placed in an organ bath and stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the absence and presence of atropine, and with α,β methylene ATP, potassium, calcium and carbachol. Results: Sweeteners 10-7 M to 10-2 M enhanced the contractile response to 10 Hz EFS compared to control (p -6 M, aspartame 10-7 M and sodium saccharin 10-7 M. Acesulfame K 10-6 M increased the maximum contractile response to α,β methylene ATP by 35% (± 9.6%) (p -6 M increased the log EC5 from -2.79 (± 0.037) to -3.03 (± 0.048, p -7 M from -2.74 (± 0.03) to 2.86 (± 0.031, p +2 channels

  14. Modulation of Visceral Nociception, Inflammation and Gastric Mucosal Injury by Cinnarizine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M.E. Abdel-Salam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cinnarizine, a drug used for the treatment of vertigo was assessed in animal models of visceral nociception, inflammation and gastric mucosal injury. Cinnarizine (1.25–20 mg/kg, s.c. caused dose-dependent inhibition of the abdominal constrictions evoked by i.p. injection of acetic acid by 38.7–99.4%. This effect of cinnarizine (2.5 mg/kg was unaffected by co-administration of the centrally acting dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, sulpiride, haloperidol or metoclopramide, the peripherally acting D2 receptor antagonist domperidone, but increased by the D2 receptor agonist bromocryptine and by the non-selective dopamine receptor antagonist chlorpromazine. The antinociception caused by cinnarizine was naloxone insenstive, but enhanced by propranolol, atropine and by yohimbine. The antinociceptive effect of cinnarizine was prevented by co-treatment with the adenosine receptor blocker theophylline or by the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP blocker glibenclamide. Cinnarizine at 2.5 mg/kg reversed the baclofen-induced antinociception. Cinnarizine at 2.5 mg/kg reduced immobility time in the Porsolt’s forced-swimming test by 24%. Cinnarizine inhibited the paw oedema response to carrageenan and reduced gastric mucosal lesions caused by indomethacin in rats. It is suggested that cinnarizine exerts anti-infl ammatory, antinociceptive and gastric protective properties. The mechanism by which cinnarizine modulates pain transmission is likely to involve adenosine receptors and KATP channels.

  15. Regulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA release from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakawa, J.; Taniyama, K.; Iwai, S.; Tanaka, C.

    1988-12-01

    The presence of receptors that regulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied in strips of the guinea pig urinary bladder. GABA (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and muscimol (10(-8)-10(-5) M), but not baclofen (10(-5) M), reduced the Ca2+-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant release of (/sup 3/H)GABA evoked by high K+ from the urinary bladder strips preloaded with (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline and potentiated by diazepam, clonazepam, and pentobarbital sodium. The potentiating effect of clonazepam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. Acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited the high K+-evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of ACh was antagonized by atropine sulfate and pirenzepine but not by hexamethonium. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited the evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of NE was mimicked by clonidine, but not by phenylephrine, and was antagonized by yohimbine but not by prazosin. These results provide evidence that the release of GABA from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated via the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor, M1-muscarinic, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors.

  16. Regulation of [3H]GABA release from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of receptors that regulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied in strips of the guinea pig urinary bladder. GABA (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and muscimol (10(-8)-10(-5) M), but not baclofen (10(-5) M), reduced the Ca2+-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant release of [3H]GABA evoked by high K+ from the urinary bladder strips preloaded with [3H]GABA. The inhibitory effect of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline and potentiated by diazepam, clonazepam, and pentobarbital sodium. The potentiating effect of clonazepam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. Acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited the high K+-evoked release of [3H]GABA. The inhibitory effect of ACh was antagonized by atropine sulfate and pirenzepine but not by hexamethonium. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited the evoked release of [3H]GABA. The inhibitory effect of NE was mimicked by clonidine, but not by phenylephrine, and was antagonized by yohimbine but not by prazosin. These results provide evidence that the release of GABA from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated via the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor, M1-muscarinic, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors

  17. Early dobutamine echocardiography for the assessment of coronary stenosis after first Q-wave myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, F; Gostoli, E; Russo, M; Recanzone, P; Moretti, C; Pinneri, F; Borello, G

    2001-08-01

    We assessed the accuracy of early dobutamine stress echocardiography to detect infarct-related coronary artery and multivessel disease in patients with first Q wave myocardial infarction after withdrawal of cardioactive drugs. Dobutamine-atropine echocardiography was performed in 91 consecutive patients (mean age 59+/-6 years) 7+/-4 days after myocardial infarction. Dobutamine was infused at incremental doses of 5, 10, 20, 30 to 40 microg/kg/min each one dose for 3 min. Peak heart rate was 134+/-17 bpm. All patients underwent coronary angiography before discharge. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ischemic and biphasic response to detect residual stenosis of infarct-related coronary artery were 70, 92 and 73%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ischemic or biphasic response were similar in the vascular territories of left anterior descending (74, 86 and 75%, respectively), right (67, 100 and 70%, respectively) and circumflex coronary arteries (64, 100, and 69%, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of heterozonal wall motion abnormalities for multivessel coronary artery disease were 64, 82 and 76%, respectively. Dobutamine stress echocardiography is sensitive and specific in detecting residual coronary stenosis and multivessel disease in patients with first Q-wave myocardial infarction. The test is safe even without pharmacological protection. PMID:11532546

  18. Incremental value of contrast myocardial perfusion to detect intermediate versus severe coronary artery stenosis during stress-echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to compare the incremental value of contrast myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI for the detection of intermediate versus severe coronary artery stenosis during dipyridamole-atropine echocardiography (DASE. Wall motion (WM assessment during stress-echocardiography demonstrates suboptimal sensitivity to detect coronary artery disease (CAD, particularly in patients with isolated intermediate (50%-70% coronary stenosis. Methods We performed DASE with MPI in 150 patients with a suspected chest pain syndrome who were given clinical indication to coronary angiography. Results and discussion When CAD was defined as the presence of a ≥50% stenosis, the addition of MPI increased sensitivity (+30% and decreased specificity (-14%, with a final increase in total diagnostic accuracy (+16%, p Conclusions The addition of MPI on top of WM analysis during DASE increases the diagnostic sensitivity to detect obstructive CAD, whatever its definition (≥50% or > 70% stenosis, but it is mainly driven by the sensitivity increase in the intermediate group (50%-70% stenosis. The total diagnostic accuracy increased only when defining CAD as ≥50% stenosis, since in patients with severe stenosis (> 70% the decrease in specificity is not counterbalanced by the minor sensitivity increase.

  19. M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors may play a role in the neurotoxicity of anhydroecgonine methyl ester, a cocaine pyrolysis product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raphael Caio Tamborelli; Dati, Livia Mendonça Munhoz; Torres, Larissa Helena; da Silva, Mariana Aguilera Alencar; Udo, Mariana Sayuri Berto; Abdalla, Fernando Maurício Francis; da Costa, José Luiz; Gorjão, Renata; Afeche, Solange Castro; Yonamine, Mauricio; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Camarini, Rosana; Sandoval, Maria Regina Lopes; Marcourakis, Tania

    2015-01-01

    The smoke of crack cocaine contains cocaine and its pyrolysis product, anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). AEME possesses greater neurotoxic potential than cocaine and an additive effect when they are combined. Since atropine prevented AEME-induced neurotoxicity, it has been suggested that its toxic effects may involve the muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). Our aim is to understand the interaction between AEME and mAChRs and how it can lead to neuronal death. Using a rat primary hippocampal cell culture, AEME was shown to cause a concentration-dependent increase on both total [(3)H]inositol phosphate and intracellular calcium, and to induce DNA fragmentation after 24 hours of exposure, in line with the activation of caspase-3 previously shown. Additionally, we assessed AEME activity at rat mAChR subtypes 1-5 heterologously expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. l-[N-methyl-(3)H]scopolamine competition binding showed a preference of AEME for the M2 subtype; calcium mobilization tests revealed partial agonist effects at M1 and M3 and antagonist activity at the remaining subtypes. The selective M1 and M3 antagonists and the phospholipase C inhibitor, were able to prevent AEME-induced neurotoxicity, suggesting that the toxicity is due to the partial agonist effect at M1 and M3 mAChRs, leading to DNA fragmentation and neuronal death by apoptosis. PMID:26626425

  20. [Neuro-autonomic inhibition and haemodynamics management optimization during cesarean section under spinal anaesthesia in pregnant women with gestosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur'ianov, V A; Shumov, I V

    2012-01-01

    Results showed that autonomic nervous system (ANS) and blood circulation system (BCS) dysfunction in 3rd trimester pregnant women with gestosis are more pronounced, than in healthy pregnant women, despite the prescribed treatment. The most significant disturbances were vagotonia and hypokinetic haemodynamics type (often iatrogenic). Spinal anaesthesia (SA) during Cesarean section in pregnant women is accompanied by blood pressure decrease to the level demanding on vasopressors use. Considering normal indicators of SI, CI, oxygen transportation and electrocardiogram vasopressor was not introduced Apgar score assessment of newborns was within normal. However, vagotonia and hypokinetic haemodynamics type during anaesthesia that certifies autoregulation reserves insufficiency. Atropine introduction in pregnant women with vagotonia and hypokinetic haemodynamics type (often iatrogenic, owing to irrational therapy) before SA beginning of promoted neurovegetative inhibition optimization and haemodynamics stabilization in eukinetic range. Vagus blockade (elimination of ANS dysfunction) was accompanied by more physiologic sympathicotonia development with smaller decrease of blood pressure (without stroke index reduction!), absence of bradycardia and vomiting. Research showed that the blood pressure cannot be the only objective criterion of vasopressors use. PMID:23662521

  1. Comparative stimulation of motilin duodenal receptor by porcine or canine motilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitras, P; Lahaie, R G; St-Pierre, S; Trudel, L

    1987-03-01

    Motilins purified from porcine and canine intestine differ in their amino acid composition in positions 7-8-12-13-14. We studied in vitro the contractile response of longitudinal duodenal muscles from various animals (guinea pig, rabbit, dog) to porcine and canine synthetic motilins. Both substances failed to elicit contraction of the guinea pig duodenum but were active and equally potent on rabbit muscle. In dogs, porcine motilin was inactive at the concentrations tested (up to 10(-4) M) whereas canine motilin induced duodenal contractions in a dose-response fashion (mean dose required to induce half-maximal response: 4.82 +/- 0.25 X 10(-5) M). The contraction generated by synthetic canine motilin (10(-5) M) was not influenced by atropine, hexamethonium, tetrodotoxin, naloxone, or sodium nitroprusside (all used at 10(-4) M) but was blocked by verapamil (10(-4)). Our study shows that species-related structural alterations in motilin molecules generate different bioactive capacities in some animal species, suggests that the middle portion of the molecule is important for its bioactive expression, suggests the presence of motilin receptors on canine duodenal muscle, and suggests that an influx of extracellular calcium is involved in the canine duodenal muscle contraction elicited by canine motilin. PMID:3817389

  2. Small intestinal amyogenesia and dysmyogenesia induced by morphine and loperamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, S K; Otterson, M F

    1990-02-01

    We studied the effects of morphine and loperamide on small bowel myoelectric and contractile activity in 12 conscious dogs. After initially producing premature migrating myoelectric complexes, both substances destabilized and obliterated electrical control activity (ECA). The obliteration of ECA occurred mainly in the proximal half of the small intestine. During ECA obliteration, the base line was almost flat at the usual amplification. At higher amplification, the base line exhibited irregular low level fluctuations that could not be related to electrical response activity (ERA) bursts or contractions. The mean time lag for obliteration of ECA in the proximal small intestine decreased at higher doses of morphine infusion. During the destabilization and obliteration of ECA, contractions and ERA bursts occurred in unusual patterns. The ERA bursts and contractions were generally discoordinated. However, in the proximal small intestine some contractions migrated rapidly and uninterrupted at 32 +/- 7 cm/s over long distances (124 +/- 24 cm). ECA destabilization and obliteration were reversed in approximately 15-30 min after the ingestion of a meal or intravenous administration of atropine, hexamethonium, or naloxone. We conclude that during the absence or destabilization of ECA, the ERA bursts and contractions occur in an uncontrolled manner. These two states were called "amyogenesia" and "dysmyogenesia," respectively. The unusual patterns of contractions during small intestinal amyogenesia and dysmyogenesia may be one of the factors in delayed intestinal transit produced by morphine and loperamide. PMID:1968317

  3. Evaluation of analgesic activity of the leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn

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    Suvarna Ingale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora incarnata also known as ′Passion flower′ is used as an anxiolytic and sedative throughout the world from ancient time. The plant is used as an analgesic, antispasmodic, sedative- hypnotic and narcotic. It is also used in neuralgia, epilepsy, insomnia, ulcers, haemorrhoids and neurosis in many parts of the world. There was no report on analgesic activity of P. incarnata. Hence, the present study is designed to assess analgesic activity of leaves of P. incarnata using sodium chloride-induced eye wiping test and formalin test. In formalin test, n-butanol extract of leaves of P. incarnata (BEPI in the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg as well as BEPI-F1 showed significant reduction in duration of paw licking in neurogenic and inflammatory phase(P<0.001. Pretreatment with naloxone reversed the analgesia induced by BEPI, while atropine did not reverse the analgesia induced by BEPI significantly (P≤0.001. In eye wiping test, BEPI in the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, i.p. exerted significant reduction ( P≤0.001 in number of eye wipes compared to control group. Thus, the result concludes that BEPI and the fraction separated, BEPI-F1 has significant analgesic activity, which may be mediated through central mechanism by modulation of opioid receptors and nicotinic receptors.

  4. Insulin-like substance and insulin-degrading complex of hemolysate of human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lysate of human erythrocytes was fractionated on gel-filtration resins of different types and immunoreactive insulin, the insulinase activity and the effect of individual fractions on the insulinase activity was determined in the fractions obtained. It was established that the hemolysate contains a complex of insulin-metabolizing compounds, including an insulin-like substance, insulinase, and an inhibitor and activator of the insulinase activity. The insulin-like substance coincided with native insulin in site of elution from a column of Sephadex G-50 and its concentration in the lysate exceeded that of insulin in the blood plasma. Insulinase, which has a molecular weight of about 100,000, cleaved [125I] insulin to fragments soluble in trichloroacetic acid, but had no effect on hypophyseal proteins and glycoprotein hormones. The insulinase activity was inhibited by low temperatures, atropine, and a newly discovered intraerythrocytic proteinase inhibitor, which also inhibits the serine proteinases trypsin and chymotrypsin. A substance eluted from a column of Sephadex G-100 in the region of low-molecular-weight substances increased the insulinase activity. The elution curve of substances with proteinase-inhibiting and insulinase-activating activities indicates that there is more than one inhibitory and activating factor. The results of the studies suggest that the insulin-degrading complex in human erythrocytes acts as a regulator of the insulin level in the blood plasma. It is also possible that the insulin-like substance is produced in the cytosol of the erythrocytes

  5. A new family of insect muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, R-Y; Li, M-Q; Wu, Y-S; Qi, Y-X; Ye, G-Y; Huang, J

    2016-08-01

    Most currently used insecticides are neurotoxic chemicals that target a limited number of sites and insect cholinergic neurotransmission is the major target. A potential target for insecticide development is the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), which is a metabotropic G-protein-coupled receptor. Insects have A- and B-type mAChRs and the five mammalian mAChRs are close to the A-type. We isolated a cDNA (CG12796) from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. After heterologous expression in Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells, CG12796 could be activated by acetylcholine [EC50 (half maximal effective concentration), 73 nM] and the mAChR agonist oxotremorine M (EC50 , 48.2 nM) to increase intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Thus, the new mAChR is coupled to Gq/11 but not Gs and Gi/o . The classical mAChR antagonists atropine and scopolamine N-butylbromide at 100 μM completely blocked the acetylcholine-induced responses. The orthologues of CG12796 can also be found in the genomes of other insects, but not in the genomes of the honeybee or parasitoid wasps. Knockdown of CG12796 in the central nervous system had no effect on male courtship behaviours. We suggest that CG12796 represents the first recognized member of a novel mAChR class. PMID:27003873

  6. Cardiac systolic time intervals in fetal monkeys: pre-ejection period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Y; Martin, C B; Ikenoue, T; Petrie, R H

    1978-10-01

    The systolic time intervals of the fetal cardiac cycle were studied by means of simultaneous recordings of electrocardiogram (ECG) and ultrasound Doppler cardiogram (DCG) in chronic preparations of fetal rhesus monkeys. Recordings were made under physiologic conditions as well as during various experimental stresses. The pre-ejection period (PEP) showed no significant relationship with heart rate in the unstressed fetuses, but the acceleration of heart rate induced by epinephrine was accompanied by shortening of PEP. The PEP increased with advancing fetal age. The PEP was inversely correlated with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and arterial pulse pressure, but showed a positive correlation with both systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure. The PEP also exhibited strong negative correlation with arterial blood pH. the prolongation was essentially the same whether acidosis was of respiratory or metabolic origin. The PEP increased slightly but significantly during nonacidemic hypoxemia; however, there was no correlation between Pao2 and PEP Epinephrine shortened the PEP significantly, whereas the effect of atropine was inconsistent. Alteration of the plasma glucose level by injection of insulin or glucose did not affect PEP. These findings demonstrate that the PEP may be a useful indicator of fetal cardiac performance, reflecting both myocardial contractility and the hemodynamic state of the cardiovascular system. PMID:30282

  7. Muscarinic receptor subtypes mediating the mucosal response to neural stimulation of guinea pig ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscarinic receptors involved in the secretory response evoked by electrical stimulation of submucosal neutrons were investigated in muscle-stripped flat sheets of guinea pig ileum set up in flux chambers. Neural stimulation produced a biphasic increase in short-circuit current due to active chloride secretion. Atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperadine methiodide (4-DAMP) (10-7 M) were more potent inhibitors of the cholinergic phase of the response than was pirenzepine. Dose-dependent increases in base-line short-circuit current were evoked by carbachol and bethanechol; 4-hydroxy-2-butynyl trimethylammonium chloride (McN A343) produced a much smaller effect. Tetrodotoxin abolished the effects of McN A343 but did not alter the responses of carbachol and bethanechol. McN A343 significantly reduced the cholinergic phase of the neurally evoked response and caused a rightward shift of the carbachol dose-response curve. All muscarinic compounds inhibited [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to membranes from muscosal scrapings, with a rank order of potency of 4-DAMP > pirenzepine > McN A343 > carbachol > bethanechol. These results suggest that acetylcholine released from submucosal neurons mediates chloride secretion by interacting with muscarinic cholinergic receptors that display a high binding affinity for 4-DAMP. Activation of neural muscarinic receptors makes a relatively small contribution to the overall secretory response

  8. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05 relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusions: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain.

  9. Mechanisms of cardiovascular activity of Andrographis paniculata in the anaesthetized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C Y; Tan, B K

    1997-04-01

    The cardiovascular activities of crude water extract (WE) of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae), its three semi-purified ethyl acetate (FA), n-butanol (FB) and aqueous (FC) fractions, as well as andrographolide, a major plant constituent, were elucidated in anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for the very first time. FA and andrographolide, which possesses multiple pharmacological activities, elicited no drop in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), while WE, FB and FC produced a significant fall in MAP in a dose-dependent manner without significant decrease in heart rate. The ED50 values for WE, FB and FC were 11.4, 5.0 and 8.6 mg/kg-respectively. These suggested that the hypotensive substance(s) of the crude water extract was concentrated in FB. Pharmacological antagonist studies were consequently only tested in FB (5 mg/kg). The hypotensive action of FB was not mediated through effects on the beta-adrenoceptor, muscarinic cholinergic receptor and angiotensin-converting enzyme, for it was not affected by propranolol, atropine and captapril, respectively. However, it seems to work via alpha-adrenoceptors, autonomic ganglion and histaminergic receptors, since the hypotensive effect of FB was negated or attenuated in the presence of phentolamine, hexamethonium as well as pyrilamine and cimetidine. PMID:9174969

  10. Cardiovascular activity of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide in the anaesthetised rat and isolated right atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Kuroyangi, M; Tan, B K

    1998-12-01

    The cardiovascular activity of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDA) from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) was elucidated in anaesthetised Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and isolated rat right atria. In anaesthetised rats, DDA produced significant falls in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate in a dose-dependent manner with the maximum decrease of 37.6 +/- 2.6% and 18.1 +/- 4.8%, respectively. The ED50 value for MAP was 3.43 mmol kg-1. Pharmacological antagonist studies were done using this dose. The hypotensive action of DDA was not mediated through effects on the alpha-adrenoceptor, muscarinic cholinergic and histaminergic receptors, for it was not affected by phentolamine, atropine as well as pyrilamine and cimetidine. However, it seems to work via adrenoceptors, autonomic ganglia receptor and angiotensin-converting enzyme, since the hypotensive effect of DDA was negated or attenuated in the presence of propranolol, hexamethonium and captopril. In the isolated right atria, DDA caused negative chronotropic action and antagonised isoproterenol-induced positive chronotropic actions in a non-competitive and dose-dependent manner. These results further supported the bradycardia-inducing and beta-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties of DDA in vivo. PMID:9990649

  11. Carbon-11 labelling of an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase: [11C]physostigmine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physostigmine, an alkaloid from calabar bean is a strong inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and has been used clinically in the treatment of glaucoma, atropine intoxication, myasthenia gravis and more recently, in experimental trials in Alzheimer's disease. In order to study the AChE activity in the brain by positron emission tomography, we have undertaken the labelling of physostigmine with carbon-11. The synthesis involves the reaction of [11C]methylisocyanate with eseroline. [11C]Methylisocyanate was obtained by heating [11C]acetylchloride with tetrabutylammonium azide in toluene. The synthesis of [11C]CH3COC1 involves the carbonation of methylmagnesium bromide in THF with cyclotron produced [11C]carbon dioxide and the addition of phthaloyl dichloride. The [11C]methylisocyanate is distilled into a solution of eseroline in ether with a small piece of sodium. After 10 minutes at 25oC, the solution is purified by HPLC and the appropriate fraction collected. Starting with 55.5 GBq (1.5 Ci) of [11C]carbon dioxide, 0.92-1.48 GBq (25-40 mCi) of [11C]Physostigmine are obtained 57 minutes after EOB. (author)

  12. Pre- and post-treatment effect of physostigmine on soman-inhibited human erythrocyte and muscle acetylcholinesterase in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning includes administration of an antimuscarinic (e.g., atropine) and of an oxime-based reactivator. However, successful oxime treatment in soman poisoning is limited due to rapid aging of phosphylated acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Hence, the inability of standard treatment procedures to counteract the effects of soman poisoning resulted in the search for alternative strategies. Recently, results of an in vivo guinea pig study indicated a therapeutic effect of physostigmine given after soman. The present study was performed to investigate a possible pre- and post-treatment effect of physostigmine on soman-inhibited human AChE given at different time intervals before or after perfusion with soman by using a well-established dynamically working in vitro model for real-time analysis of erythrocyte and muscle AChE. The major findings were that prophylactic physostigmine prevented complete inhibition of AChE by soman and resulted in partial spontaneous recovery of the enzyme by decarbamylation. Physostigmine given as post-treatment resulted in a time-dependent reduction of the protection from soman inhibition and recovery of AChE. Hence, these date indicate that physostigmine given after soman does not protect AChE from irreversible inhibition by the OP and that the observed therapeutic effect of physostigmine in nerve agent poisoning in vivo is probably due to other factors.

  13. Mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects produced by the acute application of amfepramone in vitro to rat aortic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amfepramone (diethylpropion) is an appetite-suppressant drug used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. It has been suggested that the systemic and central activity of amfepramone produces cardiovascular effects such as transient ischemic attacks and primary pulmonary hypertension. However, it is not known whether amfepramone produces immediate vascular effects when applied in vitro to rat aortic rings and, if so, what mechanisms may be involved. We analyzed the effect of amfepramone on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings with or without endothelium and the influence of inhibitors or blockers on this effect. Amfepramone produced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings that was not affected by the vehicle, atropine, 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. The vasorelaxant effect of amfepramone was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and was blocked by removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that amfepramone had a direct vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings, and that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the opening of Ca2+-activated K+ channels were involved in this effect

  14. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND PURGATIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF VERNONIA AMYGDALINA DEL. LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wazis CH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vernonia amygdalina has diverse ethno-medical uses including constipation. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical component and purgative effect of ethanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf on rabbit jejunum. Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina were collected, dried, ground and extracted using 95% ethanol. Isolated tissue of rabbit jejunum was challenged with acetylcholine as standard and different strength of the extract at dose ranges of 10 mg to 160 mg in a 50 ml capacity organ bath. The preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phlabotannins, saponins, and anthraquinones. Alkaloids, tannins, and saponins appeared in high quantities, while steroids and flavonoids were absent. The extract at concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2mg/ml produce contractile responses of 3.0, 7.0, 10.2, 15.3 and 15.0 mm respectively which were dose depended. Atropine was able to block the contraction exerted by the extract. These suggest that the extract may be acting on the muscarinic receptors (M3 which are present on the intestine. This study amply justifies the ethno medical claim that the leaves are used as purgatives.

  15. Cholinergic vasodilator mechanism in human fingers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of a cholinergic agonist and antagonist on finger blood flow (FBF) was studied in 10 normal subjects. Total finger blood flow was measured by venous occlusion, air plethysmography, and capillary blood flow (FCF) by the disappearance rate of a radio-isotope from a fingertip injection. Methacholine in doses of 10-80 μg/min was given by constant infusion via a brachial artery catheter. Average FBF and vascular resistance were not significantly affected. However, the half time (t/sub 1/2/) of the disappearance rate decreased from 50.8 +/- 13.4 to 11.1 +/- 1.5 min; a decrease occurred in all subjects. In seven subjects, atropine (0.2 mg) had no affect alone but inhibited the effect of methacholine on FCF and prevented the redness and sweating of the forearm and hand that occurs with this agent. This study demonstrates a muscarinic cholinergic vasodilator mechanism in the fingertip that uniquely increase capillary blood flow

  16. Cholinergic vasodilator mechanism in human fingers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffman, J.D.; Cohen, R.A.

    1987-03-01

    The effect of a cholinergic agonist and antagonist on finger blood flow (FBF) was studied in 10 normal subjects. Total finger blood flow was measured by venous occlusion, air plethysmography, and capillary blood flow (FCF) by the disappearance rate of a radio-isotope from a fingertip injection. Methacholine in doses of 10-80 ..mu..g/min was given by constant infusion via a brachial artery catheter. Average FBF and vascular resistance were not significantly affected. However, the half time (t/sub 1/2/) of the disappearance rate decreased from 50.8 +/- 13.4 to 11.1 +/- 1.5 min; a decrease occurred in all subjects. In seven subjects, atropine (0.2 mg) had no affect alone but inhibited the effect of methacholine on FCF and prevented the redness and sweating of the forearm and hand that occurs with this agent. This study demonstrates a muscarinic cholinergic vasodilator mechanism in the fingertip that uniquely increase capillary blood flow.

  17. Cyanobacterial xenobiotics as evaluated by a Caenorhabditis elegans neurotoxicity screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jingjuan; Saul, Nadine; Kochan, Cindy; Putschew, Anke; Pu, Yuepu; Yin, Lihong; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2014-05-01

    In fresh waters cyanobacterial blooms can produce a variety of toxins, such as microcystin variants (MCs) and anatoxin-a (ANA). ANA is a well-known neurotoxin, whereas MCs are hepatotoxic and, to a lesser degree, also neurotoxic. Neurotoxicity applies especially to invertebrates lacking livers. Current standardized neurotoxicity screening methods use rats or mice. However, in order to minimize vertebrate animal experiments as well as experimental time and effort, many investigators have proposed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an appropriate invertebrate model. Therefore, four known neurotoxic compounds (positive compounds: chlorpyrifos, abamectin, atropine, and acrylamide) were chosen to verify the expected impacts on autonomic (locomotion, feeding, defecation) and sensory (thermal, chemical, and mechanical sensory perception) functions in C. elegans. This study is another step towards successfully establishing C. elegans as an alternative neurotoxicity model. By using this protocol, anatoxin-a adversely affected locomotive behavior and pharyngeal pumping frequency and, most strongly, chemotactic and thermotactic behavior, whereas MC-LR impacted locomotion, pumping, and mechanical behavior, but not chemical sensory behavior. Environmental samples can also be screened in this simple and fast way for neurotoxic characteristics. The filtrate of a Microcystis aeruginosa culture, known for its hepatotoxicity, also displayed mild neurotoxicity (modulated short-term thermotaxis). These results show the suitability of this assay for environmental cyanotoxin-containing samples. PMID:24776722

  18. Cyanobacterial Xenobiotics as Evaluated by a Caenorhabditis elegans Neurotoxicity Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjuan Ju

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In fresh waters cyanobacterial blooms can produce a variety of toxins, such as microcystin variants (MCs and anatoxin-a (ANA. ANA is a well-known neurotoxin, whereas MCs are hepatotoxic and, to a lesser degree, also neurotoxic. Neurotoxicity applies especially to invertebrates lacking livers. Current standardized neurotoxicity screening methods use rats or mice. However, in order to minimize vertebrate animal experiments as well as experimental time and effort, many investigators have proposed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an appropriate invertebrate model. Therefore, four known neurotoxic compounds (positive compounds: chlorpyrifos, abamectin, atropine, and acrylamide were chosen to verify the expected impacts on autonomic (locomotion, feeding, defecation and sensory (thermal, chemical, and mechanical sensory perception functions in C. elegans. This study is another step towards successfully establishing C. elegans as an alternative neurotoxicity model. By using this protocol, anatoxin-a adversely affected locomotive behavior and pharyngeal pumping frequency and, most strongly, chemotactic and thermotactic behavior, whereas MC-LR impacted locomotion, pumping, and mechanical behavior, but not chemical sensory behavior. Environmental samples can also be screened in this simple and fast way for neurotoxic characteristics. The filtrate of a Microcystis aeruginosa culture, known for its hepatotoxicity, also displayed mild neurotoxicity (modulated short-term thermotaxis. These results show the suitability of this assay for environmental cyanotoxin-containing samples.

  19. ECG changes during cerebral angiography; A comparison of low osmolality contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Abe, Mitsuyuki (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Hayakawa, Katsumi (Kyoto City Hospital (Japan). Department of Radiology)

    334 electrocardiographic recordings obtained from 109 patients who underwent cerebral angiography with low osmolality contrast media (CM) were analysed. CM used in this study included meglumine sodium ioxaglate, iopamidol and iohexol. A tachycardial effect greater than 10 percent was seen in 8.3 percent of the recordings, while a bradycardial effect greater than 10 percent was seen in 11.1 percent. Assessment was based on the type of CM used, age of the patients, usage of atropine sulfate as premedication, and the vessel injected. Patients who were under 19 years of age, and unpremedicated had a significantly higher incidence of bradycardia. On the other hand, there was no significant difference of the incidence of electrocardiographic abnormality between the 3 CM, and between the 2 injected vessel groups. The authors have also analysed the incidence of generalized adverse effect. There was no serious complication, however, 11.9 percent of the patients who under-went cerebral angiography with ioxaglate developed urticaria and this was significantly higher than in the other 2 CM groups. (author). 17 refs.; 9 tabs.

  20. Human Secreted Ly-6/uPAR Related Protein-1 (SLURP-1) Is a Selective Allosteric Antagonist of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Kudryavtsev, Denis;

    2016-01-01

    SLURP-1 is a secreted toxin-like Ly-6/uPAR protein found in epithelium, sensory neurons and immune cells. Point mutations in the slurp-1 gene cause the autosomal inflammation skin disease Mal de Meleda. SLURP-1 is considered an autocrine/paracrine hormone that regulates growth and differentiation...... recombinant analogue of human SLURP-1 (rSLURP-1) differing from the native protein only by one additional N-terminal Met residue. rSLURP-1 significantly inhibited proliferation (up to ~ 40%, EC50 ~ 4 nM) of human oral keratinocytes (Het-1A cells). Application of mecamylamine and atropine......,-non-selective inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, respectively, and anti-α7-nAChRs antibodies revealed α7 type nAChRs as an rSLURP-1 target in keratinocytes. Using affinity purification from human cortical extracts, we confirmed that rSLURP-1 binds selectively...

  1. Effect of Taurine on The Respiratory System of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammer E.M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effect of taurine on isolated trachea and pulmonary artery of rats and the possible mechanism(s of action. The possible antioxidant effect of taurine was also studied by measuring its protective effect against cyclophosphamide induced lung injuiry. Taurine produced a concentration dependent relaxation in the isolated tracheal strips and pulmonary arterial rings precontracted by serotonin (2x10-4 mM. The relaxing effect of taurine was not influenced by pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME , cysteinyl leukotreines receptor 1 blocker (montelukast , H1 receptor blocker (chlorpheniramine , β-adrenoceptor blocker (propranolol, potassium channel blocker (amiodarone , cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin or muscarinic receptor blocker (atropine. Preincubation with adenosine receptor blocker (aminophylline significantly potentiated the relaxing effect of taurine in the tracheal strips and pulmonary arterial rings. Cyclophosphamide (CYP, 150 mg/kg administerated i.p. in a single dose was used to produce lung injuiry in rats. CYP caused marked increase in lung lipid peroxides (MDA and decrease in lung reduced glutathione (GSH. Administration of taurine (1% in drinking water starting 7 days before CYP and continuing throughout the duration of the experiment (24 hours improved significantly the lung GSH and MDA. It can be concluded that taurine relaxes precontracted rat tracheal strips and pulmonary arterial rings probably by direct effect on the smooth muscles. Also, the observed antioxidant activity of taurine which may contribute to its relaxant effect suggesting the usefulness of turine in pulmonary hypertension.

  2. Pulmonary oedema in a patient undergoing vitreo-retinal surgery under peribulbar block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjolie Chhabra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42 - year-old diabetic and hypertensive male with good effort tolerance was administered peribulbar block for vitreo-retinal surgery. Ten millilitres of an equal mixture of 2% lignocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine was administered for the block after ascertaining negative aspiration for blood. Inadequate akinesia of the eye necessitated further supplementation with 4 mL of local anaesthetic (LA mixture. Thirty minutes later, the patient complained of uneasiness, respiratory distress and desaturated despite oxygen supplementation. He was found to be in pulmonary oedema. He subsequently developed a weak thready pulse, became unresponsive, apnoeic and had generalized tonic clonic convulsions. Immediately, atropine 0.6 mg, followed by midazolam, intubation, mechanical ventilation, morphine and furosemide, were administered intravenously. Spontaneous respiration returned in 20 minutes and he started responding to verbal commands 90 minutes later. He was weaned off the ventilator the next morning. There was no evidence of an ischemic myocardial event and non-contrast computerized tomography scan of the head was normal. The reversible cardiorespiratory arrest, associated convulsions and loss of consciousness were suggestive of LA toxicity. Pulmonary oedema manifesting as respiratory distress and desaturation can be the initial manifestation of LA toxicity in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease undergoing eye surgery under peribulbar block.

  3. Intoxicación aguda en perro por toxinas de sapo (Bufo bufo - Acute intoxication in a dog by toxins of a toad (Bufo bufo

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    Fernández-Palacios, O´Connor, Rocío

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas intoxicaciones por toxinas de sapo no son frecuentes en España y su incidencia es mayor en primavera y verano. En este trabajo describimos un caso de intoxicación aguda de una perra de 4 años de edad tras la aprehensión de un sapo (Bufo bufo en la zona de Huelva. Los signos de una intoxicación comenzaron a los 15 minutos de entrar en contacto con el sapo muriendo a las 3 horas sin responder al tratamiento suministrado (corticoides, atropina, fluidoterapia y acepromazina. Aunque el diagnóstico fue precoz, a pesar del tratamiento se produjo la muerte en 3 horas.SummaryIntoxications by toad toxins are not frequent in Spain, and its incidence is greater in spring and summer. In this work it is described a case of an acute intoxication of a dog of 4 years old by toad toxins (Bufo bufo in the area of Huelva. The animal began to show signs of intoxication 15 minutes after the contact with the toad, dying 3 hours later without any response to the provided treatment (corticoids, atropine, fluidotherapy and acepromazine. Although the diagnosis was precocious and the treatment was administrated, after 3 hours the animal died.

  4. A multi-component LC-MS/MS method for detection of ten plant-derived psychoactive substances in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnstad, Kristian; Beck, Olof; Helander, Anders

    2009-04-15

    A sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous detection of 10 plant-derived psychoactive substances (atropine, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, ephedrine, harmaline, harmine, ibogaine, lysergic acid amide, psilocin, scopolamine and yohimbine) in urine was developed. Direct injection of urine diluted with 3 deuterated internal standards allowed for a readily accessible method suitable for application in clinical intoxication cases. Separation was achieved using reversed phase chromatography and gradient elution with a total analysis time of 14 min. Electrospray ionization was used and ions were monitored in the positive selected reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.999) and the total imprecision at high (1000 microg/L) and low (50 microg/L) substance concentrations were 4.9-13.8% and 8.3-26%, respectively. Infusing the analytes post column and injecting matrix samples showed limited influence by ion suppression. The multi-component method proved to be useful for investigation of authentic cases of intoxication with plant-derived psychoactive drugs and was indicated to cover the clinically relevant concentration ranges. PMID:19332394

  5. Evidence for a direct action of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on the cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A L; Fontoura, B F; Freire-Maia, L; Machado, C R; Camargos, E R; Teixeira, M M

    2001-05-01

    The ability of toxins to activate the cardiovascular system plays an important role in the morbidity and lethality of the Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenoming. Most of the actions of the scorpion toxins are indirect and due to the release of adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmitters. Accordingly, treatment following envenoming is targeted towards inhibition of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors. Here, we have sought evidence for a direct action of T. serrulatus venom on the isolated rat heart (Langendorff's method). We show that the bradycardia induced by T. serrulatus venom was completely blocked by atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Similarly, the increase in heart rate that follows the venom-induced bradycardia was totally inhibited by a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist or by chemical sympathetic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine. In contrast to these findings, the venom-induced increase in contractile force was not modified by beta(1)-adrenoceptor blockade or by chemical sympathetic denervation. The results clearly demonstrate that the chronotropic effects of T. serrulatus are dependent on neurotransmitter release, but the inotropic effects are not. The neurotransmitter-independent increase in contractility seems to be a direct action of the venom on cardiomyocytes. We suggest that this direct effect on cardiac fibers may play a role in the development of cardiac arrhythmias and contractility defects following envenoming with T. serrulatus scorpion. PMID:11072050

  6. [Emergent drugs (III): hallucinogenic plants and mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo-Putze, G; López Briz, E; Climent Díaz, B; Munné Mas, P; Nogue Xarau, S; Pinillos, M A; Hoffman, R S

    2013-01-01

    An increase in the consumption of vegetable substances with a hallucinogenic effect has been observed. Some of these substances are associated with ancestral religious ceremonies, while many of them are legal or are partially regulated. Salvia divinorum is a powerful kappa receptor agonist, with dissociative and hallucinogenic properties, which start quickly and have a short duration. Kratom (Mytragyna speciosa) has mitragynine as its principal alkaloid, with stimulating effects at low doses (coke-like effect), and sedative effects (opiate-like effect) at high doses. Several deaths from its consumption have been detected. The consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms appears in cyclic form, although there has been increase in their online offer. They are consumed in search of their hallucinogenic effects, above all those belonging to the family of psilocybes, which contain tryptamines with a hallucinogenic effect similar to LSD. Peyote (Lophophora psilocybes), a cactus rich in mescaline (trimetoxifeniletilamina), produces hallucinations of the five senses, and forms part of the religious culture of the North American Indians. Daturas, which are ubiquitous, produce anticholinergic symptoms and effects on the central nervous system (delirium, hallucinations, etc.), due to their high atropine and scopolamine content. Other substances used for their hallucinogenic effects include the drink known as ayahuasca, and seeds for preparing infusions like Ololiuqui, Morning Glory (Ipomoea violacea), Hawaian Baby Woodrose (Argyreia nervosa), Syrian Rue (Peganum harmala) and Iboga Rootbark (Tabernanthe iboga). PMID:24406363

  7. Effect of anisodamine on the microcirculation of the hydronephrotic kidney of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, A P; Parekh, N; Steinhausen, M

    1990-08-01

    Anisodamine, an atropine analog, is widely used in China for treatment of acute circulatory shock but mechanisms of its action are not fully known. We investigated the effect of anisodamine on different renal vessels in the hydronephrotic kidney. Anisodamine was added to the tissue bath containing the kidney to produce increasing concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-3) M. Anisodamine dilated the arcuate artery, interlobular artery and afferent arteriole in a dose dependent manner. The maximal dilation of 15 to 25% in these preglomerular vessels was attained at a concentration of about 10(-5) M. In contrast, the efferent arteriole constricted by about 55% in response to anisodamine. The glomerular blood flow increased by 15 and 40% at anisodamine concentrations of 10(-8) and 10(-5) M respectively. The renal vascular effect of anisodamine could be abolished by the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol. Our data indicate that anisodamine is a potent vasodilator of preglomerular renal vessels and that its effect is mediated by activation of the dopaminergic system. The action of anisodamine through a dopaminergic mechanism, as found in the hydronephrotic kidney, may also be involved in its antishock properties. PMID:2394549

  8. Tako-Tsubo syndrome in an anaesthetised patient undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery

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    Artukoglu Feyzi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of stress-induced myocardial stunning, also known as tako-Tsubo syndrome, in an anaesthetised patient undergoing arthroscopic replacement of the cruciate ligament. The patient′s (44 y male, ASA class II had a history of hypertension with no other known disease. He underwent a femoral nerve block with 20 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine before receiving a balanced general anaesthesia (propofol induction, sevoflurane maintenance, 10 µg/kg sufentanil. Ten min after the beginning of surgery during endoscopic intra-articular manipulation, the patient suffered from bradycardia and hypotension; following the administration of ephedrine and atropine, he developed tachycardia, hypertension and ST segment depression. Subsequently, his systemic blood pressure dropped necessitating inotropic drug support and - later - intraaortic balloon counterpulsation; a TEE revealed no evidence of hypovolemia, anterior and antero-septal hypokinesia with an ejection fraction of 25%. Surgery was finished whilst stabilising the patient haemodynamically. Postoperative cardiac enzymes showed little elevation, an emergency coronary angiogram apical akinesia with typical ballooning and basal hyperkinesias, compatible with Tako-tsubo syndrome. The patient′s postoperative course was uneventful. We theorize that stress caused by sudden surgical pain stimulus (introduction of the endoscope into the articulation, superficial anaesthesia and insufficient analgesia created a stressful event which probably might have caused a catecholamine surge as basis of Tako-tsubo syndrome.

  9. A multiresidue screen for the analysis of toxicants in bovine rumen contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vudathala, Daljit K; Cummings, Margaret R; Murphy, Lisa A

    2014-07-15

    Analysis of rumen contents is helpful in solving poisoning cases when ingestion of a toxic substance by cattle or other ruminant animals is suspected. The most common technique employs extraction of the sample with organic solvent followed by clean-up method(s) before analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry equipped with a library of mass spectra to help identify unknowns. A rapid method using magnesium sulfate, primary secondary amine, and C18 sorbents following principles of QuEChERS to clean up rumen contents samples is reported herein. The method was validated to analyze fortified bovine rumen contents to detect commonly found organophosphorus pesticides, carbamates, and several other compounds such as atropine, 4-aminopyridine, caffeine, scopolamine, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline, strychnine, metaldehyde, and metronidazole. For each compound, the ratio of 2 ions from the mass spectrum was monitored in fortified rumen contents. The ion ratio of fortified sample was compared with the ion ratio of standard sample spectrum and was found to be within 20%, with the exception of aldicarb and 4-aminopyridine with ion ratio of 26% and 29%, respectively. Usefulness of the method was demonstrated by not only analyzing bovine rumen contents but also canine and avian gastrointestinal contents submitted for organic chemical screening. PMID:25027495

  10. Postprandial hemodynamics in the conscious rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The postprandial intestinal hyperemia was studied in conscious and anesthetized rats using the radioactive microsphere technique. Carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and mixed meals, and the vehicle (Tyrode's solution), were placed in the stomach via a gastrostomy tube. In conscious rats, blood flow increased by 40-80% in the duodenum and jejunum 1 h after either a carbohydrate, lipid, protein, or mixed meal. Tyrode's solution produced a comparable hyperemia. Blood flow in the distal bowel segments (ileum, cecum, and colon) was significantly increased only by Tyrode's solution and the carbohydrate meal. The proximal intestinal hyperemia produced by the mixed meal in conscious animals was significantly attenuated by vagotomy yet unaltered by atropine pretreatment. In contrast to the results obtained from conscious rats, the mixed meal did not significantly alter intestinal blood flow in anesthetized animals. The results of this study indicate that the postprandial intestinal hyperemia is much greater in conscious than anesthetized animals. This difference may result from the higher resting blood flows in the latter group. The hyperemic response in conscious animals may be mediated by the vagus nerve

  11. Contraction of rat thoracic aorta strips induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, H.; Lederis, K.

    1987-02-01

    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced a slow and progressive increase in tension of rat thoracic aorta strips in the presence of extracellular CaS . Complete relaxation could not be obtained in CaS -free buffer containing 1 mM ethyleneglycol-bis(US -aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 10 X M PMA. In the absence of extracellular CaS , PMA (10 X M) induced a small but sustained contraction which was not altered by the addition of another 2 mM EGTA and 3 x 10 V M verapamil. Papaverine (10 U M) relaxed the PMA-induced contraction to the base line, but phentolamine (10 V M), cyproheptadine (10 V M), atropine (10 V M) and tetrodotoxine (10 W M) did not change the contraction. CaS -depleted muscle strips, prepared by four repeated applications of 10 X M norepinephrine in CaS -free buffer, were contracted by 10 X M PMA, but at a lower maximum tension than nontreated strips. The action of PMA on rat aorta strips in CaS -free buffer did not require the presence of the adventitial layer or endothelial cells. These results suggest that PMA may induce activation of protein kinase C and smooth muscle contraction in the absence of extracellular CaS , without an increase in myoplasmic CaS .

  12. Peptide YY antagonizes beta-adrenergic-stimulated release of insulin in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peptide YY (PYY) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are peptides of 36 amino acids that share structural homologies with pancreatic polypeptide (PP). PP is predominantly found in the endocrine pancreas. PYY is primarily found in mucosal endocrine cells of the distal ileum, colon, and rectum, whereas NPY is found in both the peripheral and central nervous system. Previous studies indicate that these peptides can interact with the autonomic nervous system. The objective of the present experiments was to study the effect of PYY on neurally stimulated insulin release in conscious dogs. Intravenous administration of PYY (100, 200, and 400 pmol·kg-1 ·h-1) reduced 2-DG-stimulated insulin release in a dose-dependent manner (P <0.05) without affecting plasma glucose levels. Administration of NPY, but not PP, reduced 2-DG-stimulated release of insulin. The inhibitory action of PYY on 2-DG-stimulated insulin release persisted in the presence of atropine or phentolamine treatment; however, hexamethonium alone or phentolamine plus propranolol treatment blocked the inhibitory action of PYY. Release of insulin stimulated by the β-agonist isoproterenol was also inhibited by PYY. These results indicate that PYY can inhibit autonomic neurotransmission by a mechanism that may involve ganglionic or postganglionic inhibition of β-adrenergic stimulation. The findings suggest a role for PYY and NPY in the autonomic regulation of insulin release

  13. Recent advances in drug therapy for myopia%近视眼药物治疗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许瑶; 曾骏文

    2013-01-01

    本文回顾了最近国内外近视眼药物治疗的相关研究,从常见药物治疗和针对脉络膜新生血管的治疗两方面作了介绍,并为未来的治疗方向提出了一些设想.本文主要介绍了阿托品、哌仑西平、阿扑吗啡、7-甲基黄嘌呤等传统药物的新用法,同时也阐述了光动力疗法、单抗类药物用于近视治疗的最新研究进展.%This article reviews about recent advances of studies on drug therapy for myopia,introducing the common drug therapies and therapies for choroidal neovascularization.This article proposes some ideas of future treatment for myopia.This review introduces the new usage of some traditional drugs including atropine,pirenzepine,apomorphine,7-methylxanthine,and reviews the latest advances in studies on photodynamic therapy and monoclonal antibody drugs therapy for myopia.

  14. Clinicians’ perspectives of health related quality of life (HRQoL) implications of amblyopia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Aims or Purpose The health related quality of life (HRQoL) implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment have been reported. However the clinician’s perspective has not previously been explored. The purpose of this study was to explore the HRQoL implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment from a clinicians’ perspective. Methods Three focus group sessions were conducted with practising orthoptists. Thematic content analysis was undertaken, to identify HRQoL themes associated with amblyopia and/or its treatment. Results Nine HRQoL themes associated with amblyopia and/or its treatment were identified. These included adult quality of life issues; hospital appointments; appearance; glasses-wear; patching treatment; atropine treatment; limited activities; relationships within the family; and treatment compliance. Conclusions The HRQoL implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment was similar to those identified in the literature. Participants acknowledged a change in societal attitudes towards glasses and patching; with glasses becoming more socially acceptable. Further research is needed to explore the exact impact of amblyopia and/or its treatment from both the child and the parental perspective. PMID:22022338

  15. Pharmacological control of mucociliary activity in the gill of Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of studies has been carried out, which include the development of a radiolabelling technique for mucous secretion studies, the pharmacological mediation of mucous secretion and ciliary activity, and the identification and localization of cAMP activity in different cell types in the gill filament. A radiolabelling technique was developed using [14C]glucosamine as a precursor for the biosynthesis of mucous glycoproteins by the gill tissues. Selective incorporation of the radiolabel into mucous glycoproteins was evident from autoradiographic studies. The mucous secretion was significantly stimulated by serotonin, forskolin, and acetylcholine, and these effects were enhanced or blocked, respectively, by their agonists or antagonists. Interestingly, the stimulatory effect of serotonin on mucous secretion was inhibited by 10-4M atropine, a cholinergic antagonist, suggesting that the mucous secretion is directly mediated through acetylcholine-induced action rather than the cAMP second messenger system. To further substantiate this hypothesis, a histochemical localization of cAMP in the gill tissue sections was carried out using a horseradish peroxidase conjugated antibody method

  16. Dosagem hormonal e avaliação testicular em cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyun thous utilizando diferentes protocolos anestésicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tree Cerdocyon thous males received different anesthesia protocols: tiletamine-zolazepan (7mg/kg; ketamine-xylazine (12 and 1mg/kg; ketamine-xylazine-atropin (12, 1.0 and 0.04mg/kg, ketamine-midazolam (12 and 0.5mg/kg and ketamine-acepromazine (12 and 0.1mg/kg for semen collection by electroejaculation, testosterone hormonal dosages, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC, testicular manual evaluation, biometry by caliper and ultrassonography (US. The ejaculates collected by electroejaculation showed urine contamination making impossible the semen evaluation. The M±PD of serum testosterone was 0.74±0.2ng/mL. The cell types found in FNAC were: spermatogonia 13.3±11.5%, primary spermatocytes 5.5±1.1%, secondary spermatocytes 5.5±3.9%, early spermatids 12.8±6.2%, late spermatids 26.2±11.2%, sperm 14.5±4.7% and Sertoli cells 21.8±2.7%. Manual testicular evaluation showed normal consistency of testicles. The M±PD of testicular biometry by caliper was 3.8±1.5cm³ and by US was 1.1±0.3cm³. The animals showed normal spermatogenesis with normal spermatozoa observed in FNAC and normal testicular US.

  17. Bilateral ocular abnormalities in a wild stranded harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) suggestive of anterior segment dysgenesis and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Colitz, Carmen M H; Abrams, Ken; Smith, Ainsley; Tuttle, Allison D

    2011-06-01

    A male yearling harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) stranded and was brought to Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration's Seal Rescue and Rehabilitation Center. The seal presented with a bilateral pendular vertical nystagmus, negative menace response, and a positive palpebral response. Ophthalmological examination by slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed perilimbal corneal edema, excessive iridal surface structures, pupils that appeared to be shaped improperly (dyscoria), and suspected cataracts. Attempts to dilate the pupils with both dark-lighted conditions and repeated dosages of 10% phenylephrine and 1% atropine ophthalmic solution in each eye (OU) were unsuccessful. Ocular ultrasonography findings suggested bilateral cataracts with flattened anterior-posterior (A-P) diameter and possible persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. It is possible that these structural congenital abnormalities could produce further ocular complications for this seal including uveitis, secondary glaucoma, retinal detachment, and/or vitreal hemorrhage in the future. This case demonstrates the importance of a thorough ophthalmological examination in stranded wild animals, especially if their symptoms appear neurological. PMID:22946409

  18. Noninvasive treatments for iatrogenic priapism: Do they really work? A prospective multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habous, Mohamad; Elkhouly, Mohammed; Abdelwahab, Osama; Farag, Mohammed; Madbouly, Khaled; Altuwaijri, Talal; Spilotros, Marco; Bettocchi, Carlo; Binsaleh, Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intracorporeal injections (ICIs) of vasoactive substances during penile Doppler ultrasound (PDU) are a common investigation for erectile dysfunction (ED) diagnosis. ICI can be responsible of priapism, a pathological condition of prolonged penile erection not related to sexual stimulation. The aim of our study is to investigate the effectiveness of physical exercise and medical treatment as noninvasive therapy to restore detumescence in prolonged erections after ICI. Materials and Methods: Data were prospectively collected on men undergoing PDU in three urological centers. Three hundred and sixty-nine patients underwent PDU for the investigation of ED. All the participants received an ICI of quadrimix; prostaglandine E1, papaverine, phentolamine, and atropine. The data of the patients have been analyzed to record their comorbidities, results of PDU, and the complications encountered. Results: Fifty-three patients (14.4%) developed prolonged erections. Physical exercise alone was successful in reversing prolonged erection within 30 min in 21 (39.6%) patients. Out of the remaining 32 patients, oral salbutamol induced detumescence in 18 (34%) within the observation period of 60 min. Nonresponders were managed successfully with aspiration and irrigation of corpora with saline (11 patients, 20.75%) or with Phenylephrine (three patients, 5.66%). Conclusions: Physical exercise and oral salbutamol are safe and effective in restoring detumescence of pharmacologically-induced priapism. Noninvasive therapy may save a significant number of these patients an invasive treatment.

  19. [Sleep disorders with nocturnal bradycardia in 2 depressed patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, P; Canini, F; Ferber, C; Mouret, J

    1991-12-01

    Polygraphic sleep exploration is usually not necessary to evaluate and treat such dyssomnias as nightmares or anguish dreams, but it may be indispensable in case of severe repeated or refractory sleep disorders, particularly in patients with concomitant depression. Two cases of major depression (DSM III R) associated with wakings during the night and dreams of death are reported. In both cases, polygraphic sleep exploration performed after complete, two-weeks long discontinuation of medicines revealed sinus bradycardia during paradoxical sleep, particularly in pre-waking periods. Heart rates ranged from 33 to 43 beats/minute in the most pronounced bradycardic episodes. The possibility of organic cardiac pathology was excluded by additional examinations. Atropine (175 mg) administered alone resulted in complete disappearance of bradycardic episodes and in improvement of objective and subjective sleep parameters. In these two cases bradycardia seemed to be due to vagal dysfunction with exaggeration of the "rebound" bradycardia which follows the initial tachycardia that occurs during the phasic phenomena of paradoxical sleep. PMID:1837364

  20. Dissecting a role for melanopsin in behavioural light aversion reveals a response independent of conventional photoreception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'ayan Semo

    Full Text Available Melanopsin photoreception plays a vital role in irradiance detection for non-image forming responses to light. However, little is known about the involvement of melanopsin in emotional processing of luminance. When confronted with a gradient in light, organisms exhibit spatial movements relative to this stimulus. In rodents, behavioural light aversion (BLA is a well-documented but poorly understood phenomenon during which animals attribute salience to light and remove themselves from it. Here, using genetically modified mice and an open field behavioural paradigm, we investigate the role of melanopsin in BLA. While wildtype (WT, melanopsin knockout (Opn4(-/- and rd/rd cl (melanopsin only (MO mice all exhibit BLA, our novel methodology reveals that isolated melanopsin photoreception produces a slow, potentiating response to light. In order to control for the involvement of pupillary constriction in BLA we eliminated this variable with topical atropine application. This manipulation enhanced BLA in WT and MO mice, but most remarkably, revealed light aversion in triple knockout (TKO mice, lacking three elements deemed essential for conventional photoreception (Opn4(-/- Gnat1(-/- Cnga3(-/-. Using a number of complementary strategies, we determined this response to be generated at the level of the retina. Our findings have significant implications for the understanding of how melanopsin signalling may modulate aversive responses to light in mice and humans. In addition, we also reveal a clear potential for light perception in TKO mice.

  1. Serious response during tilt-table test in elderly and its prophylactic management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yang; LI Xiao-xia; JLANG Wei-li; WANG Zhao-di; CHEN Tian-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the serious response during tilt-table test (TTT) and its prophylactic management. Method:Seventy-six elderly patients were tested at a tilt angle of 70 degrees for a maximum of 45 min and then subjected to isoproterenol-provocative tilt testing. ECG and blood pressure were monitored during the test and patients were kept at normal saline condition through a peripheral intravenous duct. Results: Fifty-one of 76 patients were defined as positive including 23 having serious response; 6 of the 23 patients had arteriosclerosis involving intemal carotid arteries and 7 cases had bradycardia, two of which were associated with Ⅱ°-Ⅰ A-V block and the others with chronic atrial fibrillation. The serious response consisted of cardiac arrest for more than 5 s (6 cases), or serious bradycardia for more than 1 min (7 cases) or serious hypotension for more than 1 min (10 cases).Those with serious response were managed by returning to supine position, thus driving up legs and intravenous atropine, CPR (2cases with cardiac arrest) and needing oxygen supplementation (11 cases). Only 2 hypotension patients recovered gradually by 10min after emergency management, while others recovered rapidly with no complications. Conclusion: Although non-invasive,TTT may result in serious response, especially in elderly. Therefore proper patient selection, control of isoproterenol infusion and close observation of vital signs are decisive for a safe consequence.

  2. Mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects produced by the acute application of amfepramone in vitro to rat aortic rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Canales, J.S. [Section of Postgraduate Studies and Investigation, Higher School of Medicine from the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Department of Cellular Biology, National Institute of Perinatology, Mexico City (Mexico); Lozano-Cuenca, J.; Muãoz-Islas, E.; Aguilar-Carrasco, J.C. [Department of Cellular Biology, National Institute of Perinatology, Mexico City (Mexico); López-Canales, O.A.; López-Mayorga, R.M.; Castillo-Henkel, E.F.; Valencia-Hernández, I.; Castillo-Henkel, C. [Section of Postgraduate Studies and Investigation, Higher School of Medicine from the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2015-03-27

    Amfepramone (diethylpropion) is an appetite-suppressant drug used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. It has been suggested that the systemic and central activity of amfepramone produces cardiovascular effects such as transient ischemic attacks and primary pulmonary hypertension. However, it is not known whether amfepramone produces immediate vascular effects when applied in vitro to rat aortic rings and, if so, what mechanisms may be involved. We analyzed the effect of amfepramone on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings with or without endothelium and the influence of inhibitors or blockers on this effect. Amfepramone produced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings that was not affected by the vehicle, atropine, 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. The vasorelaxant effect of amfepramone was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and was blocked by removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that amfepramone had a direct vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings, and that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the opening of Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} channels were involved in this effect.

  3. Vasopressin release induced by water deprivation - Effects of centrally administered saralasin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Dundore, R. L.; Wurpel, J. N. D.; Severs, W. B.; Barbella, Y. R.

    1983-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to whether endogenous angiotensin activates brain mechanisms controlling vasopressin (AVP) secretion during dehydration. Various doses of saralasin were injected into a lateral cgrebroventricle (IVT) of conscious, male rats deprived of water for 48 h. The rats were killed at different times. The concentration of AVP in the plasma p(AVP), measured by radioimmunoassay, was unaffected by saralasin. IVT pretreatment with 1-Sar-8-Ile-angiotensin II blocked maximal AVP release by IVT angiotensin, but this pretreatment did not reduce p(AVP) after 24, 48 or 72 hr water deprivation. A 3-hour continuous IVT infusion of CSF or saralasin (10 micrograms/hour) into 48-hour water-deprived rats revealed equivalent p(AVP) concentration and urine volumes. When the infusions were continued for 3 h more with water available, control and saralasin-treated rats: (1) drank at similar rates, (2) excreted similar amounts of urine, and (3) reduced their p(AVP) concentration levels to the same extent. IVT saralasin did not affect p(AVP) concentration of rats dehydrated with hypertonic NaCl. Combined IVT saralasin and atropine reduced p(AVP) concentration of 48-hour water deprived rats about 30 percent (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that redundancy exists for sensing, integrating and releasing vasopressin in dehydrated rats.

  4. Mechanism of bombesin-induced tonic contraction of the porcine lower esophageal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Chang, Li-Ching; Lin, Kai-Jen; Tey, Shu-Leei; Su, Yu-Tsun; Liu, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Tong-Rong; Huang, Shih-Che

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a disorder that is related to an incompetent lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Previous studies showed that bombesin could increase LES pressure in humans and opossums. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of bombesin on porcine LES contraction. We used the selective agonists, neuromedin B (NMB), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and [D-Tyr(6),Apa-4Cl(11),Phe(13),Nle(14)]bombesin-(6-14) (DTACPN-BN), as well as receptor antagonists of bombesin receptor subtype 2 (BB2), and 3 (BB3) for ex vivo contraction studies. Atropine, nifedipine, tetrodotoxin, and ω-conotoxin GVIA were used to explore the agonist-induced LES contraction mechanism. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were applied to detect bombesin receptor expression. Our results indicate that GRP and DTACPN-BN, but not NMB, induced tonic contractions of the porcine LES in a dose-dependent manner, and the contractions were inhibited with selective BB2 and BB3 antagonists. The GRP-induced contraction is mainly caused by L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated Ca(2+) influx. However, DTACPN-BN-induced contractions are associated with neuronal conduction. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that BB2 and BB3 were expressed in the porcine LES. Bombesin-induced tonic contraction of the LES is mediated through BB2 and BB3. Bombesin, BB2, and BB3 agonists might have the potential to treat GERD. PMID:26522854

  5. Effects of carbachol and gastrin on [sup 14]C-aminopyrine accumulated in rabbit gastric glands and cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romell, B.; Seensalu, R.; Girma, K.; Nilsson, G. (Univ. of Agricultural Science, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1993-06-01

    The present study examines the possible existence of a mechanism regulating emptying of the secretory canaliculi content of the parietal cell and the possible effects of carbachol and gastrin on such a mechanism. In rabbit gastric glands stimulated with carbachol, [sup 14]C-aminopyrine accumulation reached a maximum after 15 min and then started to decrease. This decrease was not accompanied by a decrease in oxygen consumption, nor was any decrease of accumulated [sup 14]C-aminopyrine seen in dispersed gastric cells. In glands but not in cells stimulated with histamine together with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IMX), carbachol induced a reduction in the accumulated [sup 14]C-aminopyrine content, whereas the effect of gastrin was less pronounced. The carbachol-induced reduction was counteracted by atropine, but was not accompanied by a decrease in oxygen consumption. It is suggested that there exists a mechanism that controls the emptying of the secretory canaliculi content of the parietal cell, and that carbachol, in addition to stimulating acid production, also contributes to this emptying. Paracrine factors may be involved in this latter mechanism. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  6. The effect of cannabinoids on dinitrofluorobenzene-induced experimental asthma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Turgut Emrah; Kaya, Yesim; Durlu-Kandilci, Nezahat Tugba; Onder, Sevgen; Sahin-Erdemli, Inci

    2016-09-01

    Cannabinoids have anti-inflammatory effects and can produce bronchodilation in the airways. We have investigated the effects of cannabinoids on tracheal hyperreactivity and airway inflammation in dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced experimental non-atopic asthma in mice. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced contraction response was enhanced while carbachol- and electrical field stimulation-induced contractions, and isoprenaline-induced relaxation responses were remained unchanged in DNFB group. The increased 5-HT-induced contractions were inhibited by incubation with either atropine or tetrodotoxin. DNFB application resulted in increased macrophage number in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In vivo ACEA (CB1 agonist) treatment prevented the increase in 5-HT contractions, while JWH133 (CB2 agonist) had no effect. However, neither ACEA nor JWH133 prevented the increase in macrophage number in BALF. In vitro ACEA incubation also inhibited the increase in 5-HT contraction in DNFB group. These results show that cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist can prevent tracheal hyperreactivity to 5-HT in DNFB-induced non-atopic asthma in mice. PMID:27216000

  7. Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates tracheal submucosal gland secretion in ferret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peatfield, A.C.; Barnes, P.J.; Bratcher, C.; Nadel, J.A.; Davis, B.

    1983-07-01

    We studied the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the output of 35S-labeled macromolecules from ferret tracheal explants either placed in beakers or suspended in modified Ussing chambers. In Ussing chamber experiments, the radiolabel precursor, sodium (35S)sulfate, and all drugs were placed on the submucosal side of the tissue. Washings were collected at 30-min intervals from the luminal side and were dialyzed to remove unbound 35S, leaving radiolabeled macromolecules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide at 3 X 10(-7) M stimulated bound 35S output by a mean of + 252.6% (n . 14). The VIP response was dose-dependent with a near maximal response and a half maximal response at approximately 10(-6) M and 10(-8), M, respectively. The VIP effect was not inhibited by a mixture of tetrodotoxin, atropine, I-propranolol, and phentolamine. Vasoactive intestinal peptide had no effect on the electrical properties of the of the tissues. We conclude that VIP stimulates output of sulfated-macromolecules from ferret tracheal submucosal glands without stimulating ion transport. Our studies also suggest that VIP acts on submucosal glands via specific VIP receptors. Vasoactive intestinal peptide has been shown to increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, and we suggest that this may be the mechanism for its effect on the output of macromolecules. This mechanism may be important in the neural regulation of submucosal gland secretion.

  8. Correlation between oxytocin neuronal sensitivity and oxytocin receptor binding: An electrophysiological and autoradiographical study comparing rat and guinea pig hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In transverse hippocampal slices from rat and guinea pig brains, the authors obtained unitary extracellular recordings from nonpyramidal neurones located in or near the stratum pyramidale in the CA1 field and in the transition region between the CA1 and the subiculum. In rats, these neurones responded to oxytocin at 50-1,000 nM by a reversible increase in firing rate. The oxytocin-induced excitation was suppressed by a synthetic structural analogue that acts as a potent, selective antioxytocic on peripheral receptors. Nonpyramidal neurones were also excited by carbachol at 0.5-10 μM. The effect of this compound was postsynaptic and was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. In guinea pigs, by contrast, nonpyramidal neurones were unaffected by oxytocin, although they were excited by carbachol. Light microscopic autoradiography, carried out using a radioiodinated selective antioxytocic as a ligand, revealed labeling in the subiculum and in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of rats, whereas no oxytocin-binding sites were detected in the hippocampus of guinea pigs. The results indicate (i) that a hippocampal action of oxytocin is species-dependent and (ii) that a positive correlation exists between neuronal responsiveness to oxytocin and the presence in the hippocampus of high-affinity binding sites for this peptide

  9. Perioperative support reduces mortality of obese BALB/c mice after ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Laura; Jung, Juliane-Susanne; Hiebl, Bernhard; Garrels, Wiebke; Kielstein, Heike; Spielmann, Julia

    2016-06-21

    The incidence of obesity is on the rise in most western countries and represents major risks to health. Obesity causes complex metabolic dysfunctions and can be associated with a large number of secondary diseases. To investigate causal mechanisms of obesity and develop better options for treatment, researchers study the condition in animal models. In addition to genetically engineered animal models, diet-induced obesity is often used because it occurs similarly in animals as it does in humans. For several types of investigations that use obesity models, investigators must carry out surgical interventions and they frequently encounter severe perioperative complications induced by anesthesia. In an example of this problem, we observed 100% mortality in obese BALB/c mice after ovariectomy, despite no obvious surgical complications. We supposed that a failure to recover from surgery was the primary cause of this increased mortality. Therefore, to support their recovery from surgery we administered atropine to obese mice in order to facilitate blood circulation, and we also increased the oxygen content of the ambient air. With this specific support before and after surgery, we increased the survival rate of obese ovariectomized mice up to 83%. These results confirm the assumption that obesity is a risk factor for the recovery of obese animal models after ovariectomy, and they highlight the need to provide additional interventions for such experimental animals. PMID:27327014

  10. Libidibia ferrea Mature Seeds Promote Antinociceptive Effect by Peripheral and Central Pathway: Possible Involvement of Opioid and Cholinergic Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Armando Sawada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Libidibia ferrea (LF is a medicinal plant that holds many pharmacological properties. We evaluated the antinociceptive effect in the LF aqueous seed extract and Lipidic Portion of Libidibia ferrea (LPLF, partially elucidating their mechanisms. Histochemical tests and Gas chromatography of the LPLF were performed to characterize its fatty acids. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin-induced pain, and hot-plate test in mice were employed in the study. In all experiments, aqueous extract or LPLF was administered systemically at the doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg. LF aqueous seed extract and LPLF demonstrated a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all tests indicating both peripheral anti-inflammatory and central analgesia properties. Also, the use of atropine (5 mg/kg, naloxone (5 mg/kg in the abdominal writhing test was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of the LPLF, indicating that at least one of LF lipids components is responsible for the dose related antinociceptive action in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. Together, the present results suggested that Libidibia ferrea induced antinociceptive activity is possibly related to its ability to inhibit opioid, cholinergic receptors, and cyclooxygenase-2 pathway, since its main component, linoleic acid, has been demonstrated to produce such effect in previous studies.

  11. Libidibia ferrea Mature Seeds Promote Antinociceptive Effect by Peripheral and Central Pathway: Possible Involvement of Opioid and Cholinergic Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Luis Armando; Monteiro, Vanessa Sâmia da Conçeição; Rabelo, Guilherme Rodrigues; Dias, Germana Bueno; Da Cunha, Maura; do Nascimento, José Luiz Martins; Bastos, Gilmara de Nazareth Tavares

    2014-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea (LF) is a medicinal plant that holds many pharmacological properties. We evaluated the antinociceptive effect in the LF aqueous seed extract and Lipidic Portion of Libidibia ferrea (LPLF), partially elucidating their mechanisms. Histochemical tests and Gas chromatography of the LPLF were performed to characterize its fatty acids. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin-induced pain, and hot-plate test in mice were employed in the study. In all experiments, aqueous extract or LPLF was administered systemically at the doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg. LF aqueous seed extract and LPLF demonstrated a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all tests indicating both peripheral anti-inflammatory and central analgesia properties. Also, the use of atropine (5 mg/kg), naloxone (5 mg/kg) in the abdominal writhing test was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of the LPLF, indicating that at least one of LF lipids components is responsible for the dose related antinociceptive action in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. Together, the present results suggested that Libidibia ferrea induced antinociceptive activity is possibly related to its ability to inhibit opioid, cholinergic receptors, and cyclooxygenase-2 pathway, since its main component, linoleic acid, has been demonstrated to produce such effect in previous studies. PMID:24860820

  12. Antinociceptive effect of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hilleria latifolia (Lam. H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Woode

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Hilleria latifolia (Lam. H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae is a perennial herb used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of various painful conditions. Little scientific evidence exists in literature on the effect of this plant on pain. Materials and Methods : The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of H. latifolia in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, glutamate, formalin, and capsaicin tests and thermal (tail immersion test behavioral pain models in rodents. The possible mechanisms of the antinociceptive action were also assessed with various antagonists in the formalin test. Results : The H. latifolia extract (HLE together with morphine and diclofenac (positive controls, showed significant antinociceptive activity in all the models used. The antinociceptive effect exhibited by HLE in the formalin test was partly or wholly reversed by the systemic administration of naloxone, theophylline, and atropine. Glibenclamide, ondansetron, yohimbine, nifedipine, and NG -l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, however, did not significantly block the antinociceptive effect of the extract. HLE, unlike morphine, did not induce tolerance to its antinociceptive effect in the formalin test after chronic administration; morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to HLE. Interestingly, also, the chronic concomitant administration of HLE and morphine significantly suppressed the development of morphine tolerance. Conclusion : Together, these results indicate that HLE produces dose-related antinociception in several models of chemical and thermal pain, without tolerance induction, through mechanisms that involve an interaction with adenosinergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and opioid pathways.

  13. Biphasic GABA-A receptor-mediated effect on the spontaneous activity of the circular layer in cat terminal ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, N; Radomirov, R

    1993-07-01

    1. The GABA and GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol changed the spontaneous mechanical activity of a circular layer isolated from cat terminal ileum, while the selective GABA-B receptor agonist (+/-)baclofen had no effect. 2. GABA at doses ranging from 1 microM to 2 mM elicited concentration-dependent biphasic responses which consisted of a relaxation followed by contraction, with a tonic and a phasic component. The EC50 values, calculated at 95% confidence limits (CL), were 94.9 microM (83.5-109.8 microM) and 66.0 microM (51.2-75.5 microM) for the relaxation and contractile phases, respectively. 3. The GABA-induced biphasic responses were sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxinin and were entirely mimicked by muscimol. Bicuculline competitively antagonized the effects of GABA and gave closely similar pA2 values for both phases of these responses--inhibitory and stimulatory. Cross-desensitization occurred only between GABA and muscimol and not between (+/-)baclofen and GABA, or (+/-)baclofen and muscimol. 4. Both bicuculline-sensitive phases evoked by GABA and muscimol were abolished by tetrodotoxin or atropine, but were unaffected by guanethidine or naloxone. 5. The present results suggested that the biphasic GABA effect on the mechanical activity of the circular layer in cat terminal ileum was mediated by prejunctional GABA-A receptors, most probably through an action on the cholinergic pathway. PMID:8224749

  14. [Comparative effects of terbutaline sulphate and ipratropium bromide on the respiratory system (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villate Navarro, J I; Sobradillo Peña, V; Atxotequi Iaraoligoitia, V; Salaverri Nalda, A; Orive Martínez, C

    1980-04-10

    Bronchodilator action of two pharmacologically different drugs have been compared. Ipratropium bromide (Sch 1000) is a synthetic atropine derivative and terbutaline sulphate is a beta-stimulating agent. Twelve asthmatic patients and eight patients with chronic bronquitis received terbutaline 0.50 mg. and ipratropium 0.04 mg by aerosol inhalation. Both drugs were given at random on a consecutive-day schedule. All patients were clinically stable before treatment (basal FEV/VC less than 60 percent). Total lung capacity (TLC) forced expiratory volume (FEV), SRaw, and V'/V curves before and at 15, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after the produce administration were registered. Presence of side-effects was also checked. An intensive bronchodilator action was observed either after inhalation of ipratropium bromide or terbutaline, but statistical studies showed no significant differences between both drugs in relation to intensity and duration of their actions. Sch 1000 caused similar bronchodilator effects in all cases; a more intense effect in patients with chronic bronchitis could not be noticed. Evaluation of V'/V curve, and especially its relation to a same pulmonary volume, pointed out that both drugs act upon small respiratory airways. Advance side-effects were not present. PMID:6446008

  15. Asystole in young athletic women during breast augmentation: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schusterman, Asher; Schusterman, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Reported herein are three cases of spontaneous bradycardia progressing to asystole during routine breast augmentation in healthy, adult female patients with a history of endurance training and resting bradycardia (heart rate plastic surgery community of the possibility of these events occurring without warning in athletic patients, attempt to explain these findings, and provide a plan of action to minimize morbidity and mortality in these patients. The most severe case was that of a 38-year-old female who became severely bradycardic progressing to asystole during routine breast augmentation. She had no history of any medical problems, but did have a resting heart rate of surgery is not uncommon and routinely treated successfully with administration of atropine-like agents. Bradycardia progressing to frank asystole is rare and has not been reported in young, otherwise healthy, aesthetic surgery patients. This report should serve to alert the plastic surgeon to the possibility of this situation occurring and how to treat it successfully, especially in the outpatient or office-based surgery setting. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. PMID:22684612

  16. 急性有机磷中毒患者66例的急救护理%Emergency nursing care of 66 cases of patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the nursing measures and effect of acute organic phosphorus poisoning.Methods:66 patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning were selected.The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.Results:The average time of the patients with atropinization was (3.31±1.43) hours.62 cases had successful treatment;4 cases died;the success rate was 96.8%. Conclusion:Timely and effective treatment and nursing for patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning can improve the cure rate and promote the rehabilitation of patients.%目的:探讨急性有机磷中毒的护理措施及效果。方法:收治急性有机磷中毒患者66例,回顾性分析其临床资料。结果:患者达阿托品化时间平均(3.31±1.43)h。成功救治62例,死亡4例,抢救成功率96.8%。结论:对急性有机磷中毒实施患者实施及时、有效的治疗和护理可以提高治愈率,促进患者康复。

  17. Carbon-11 labelling of an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase: [[sup 11]C]physostigmine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnot-Lours, S.; Crouzel, C.; Prenant, C.; Hinnen, F. (CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot)

    1993-01-01

    Physostigmine, an alkaloid from calabar bean is a strong inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and has been used clinically in the treatment of glaucoma, atropine intoxication, myasthenia gravis and more recently, in experimental trials in Alzheimer's disease. In order to study the AChE activity in the brain by positron emission tomography, we have undertaken the labelling of physostigmine with carbon-11. The synthesis involves the reaction of [[sup 11]C]methylisocyanate with eseroline. [[sup 11]C]Methylisocyanate was obtained by heating [[sup 11]C]acetylchloride with tetrabutylammonium azide in toluene. The synthesis of [[sup 11]C]CH[sub 3]COC1 involves the carbonation of methylmagnesium bromide in THF with cyclotron produced [[sup 11]C]carbon dioxide and the addition of phthaloyl dichloride. The [[sup 11]C]methylisocyanate is distilled into a solution of eseroline in ether with a small piece of sodium. After 10 minutes at 25[sup o]C, the solution is purified by HPLC and the appropriate fraction collected. Starting with 55.5 GBq (1.5 Ci) of [[sup 11]C]carbon dioxide, 0.92-1.48 GBq (25-40 mCi) of [[sup 11]C]Physostigmine are obtained 57 minutes after EOB. (author).

  18. Demonstration of spread-on peel-off consumer products for sampling surfaces contaminated with pesticides and chemical warfare agent signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Deborah L; Smith, Deborah L; Katona, Vanessa R; Lewis, Alan T; Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    A terrorist attack using toxic chemicals is an international concern. The utility of rubber cement and latex body paint as spray-on/spread-on peel-off collection media for signatures attributable to pesticides and chemical warfare agents from interior building and public transportation surfaces two weeks post-deposition is demonstrated. The efficacy of these media to sample escalator handrail, stainless steel, vinyl upholstery fabric, and wood flooring is demonstrated for two pesticides and eight chemicals related to chemical warfare agents. The chemicals tested are nicotine, parathion, atropine, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, dipinacolyl methylphosphonate, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphonic acid, and thiodiglycol. Amounts of each chemical found are generally greatest when latex body paint is used. Analytes with low volatility and containing an alkaline nitrogen or a sulfur atom (e.g., nicotine and parathion) usually are recovered to a greater extent than the neutral phosphonate diesters and acidic phosphonic acids (e.g., dimethyl methylphosphonate and ethyl methylphosphonic acid). PMID:24835029

  19. Introduction to the clinical pharmacology of medetomidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, O

    1989-01-01

    Medetomidine is a sedative and analgesic drug intended for use in dogs and cats but it can also be successfully used in many other species. The effect of medetomidine is dose dependent at the recommended dose range (10-80 micrograms/kg for dogs and 50-150 micrograms/kg for cats). At doses higher than the recommended ones the strength of sedation does not increase, only the duration of the effect. From the cardiovascular changes induced with medetomidine, the profound bradycardia is most prominent. It can be transiently prevented with atropine or glycopyrrolate medication. An initial increase in arterial blood pressure followed by a longer lasting slightly hypotensive or normotensive period can be observed. Respiratory frequency tends to decrease but the changes stay within normal limits for resting animals. Vomiting may occur during the induction period of sedation. Occasional muscle jerks can be observed. Hypothermia has been reported in every animal sedated with medetomidine. Medetomidine can be used as preanaesthetic prior to ketamine, barbiturate and halothane anaesthesia. PMID:2571283

  20. Effects of maintenance of propofol-ketamine anesthesia with repeat bolus and constant rate infusion of propofol on physiological, biochemical, anesthetic and analgesic indices in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njoku Uchechukwu Njoku

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research work was aimed at investigating physiological, biochemical, analgesic and anesthetic indices of dogs anesthetized with propofol-ketamine and maintained with repeat bolus and constant infusions of propofol. Eight dogs, assigned to two groups (n=4, were used in this study. All dogs were pre-medicated with atropine (at 0.03 mg/kg bwt and xylazine (at 2 mg/kg bwt. Anesthesia was induced by a concurrent administration of propofol (at 4 mg/kg bwt and ketamine (at 2.5 mg/kg bwt. Maintenance of anesthesia in Group 1 was done with a repeat bolus of propofol (at 2 mg/kg bwt, while in Group 2 it was done with a constant infusion of propofol (at 0.2 mg/kg bwt/min. Gastrotomy was performed in both groups, and anesthesia was maintained for 60 min. Physiological, analgesic, anesthetic parameters and plasma glucose concentration were measured. There was no significant (P>0.05 difference found in the analgesia and pedal reflex scores, durations of analgesia and recumbency, recovery time and standing time between the groups. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature reduced significantly (P0.05 between the groups. In conclusion, both maintenance protocols are suitable for dogs, although the repeat bolus technique produces marked cardiopulmonary depression.

  1. Radiolabelling of phoneutria nigriventer spider toxin (Tx1): a tool to study its binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neurotoxin Tx1, isolated from the venom of the South American spider Phoneutria nigriventer produces tail elevation and spastic paralysis of posterior limbs after intracerebral ventricular injection in mice. Tx1 also produces ileum contraction in bioassay. We have investigated the binding of radioiodinated-Tx1 (125 I-Tx1) on the preparation of myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle membrane from guinea pig ileum (MPLM) as a tool to characterize the interaction of this neurotoxin with its site. The neurotoxin Tx1 was radioiodinated with Na125 I by the lactoperoxidase method. 125 I-Tx1 specifically binds to a single class of noninteracting binding sites of high affinity (Kd= 3.5 x 10-10 M) and low capacity (1.2 pmol/mg protein). The specific binding increased in parallel with the protein concentration. In competition experiments the ligands of ionic channels used (sodium, potassium and calcium) did not affect the binding of 125 I-Tx1 to MPLM neither did the cholinergic ligands (hemicholinium-3, hexamethonium, d-tubocurarine and atropine). Another neurotoxin (Tx2-6, one of the isoforms of Tx2 pool) decreased toxin with MPLM and showed that toxin has a specific and saturable binding site in guinea pig ileum and this binding site appears to be related to the Tx2 site. (author)

  2. Toxicity of tetramethylammonium hydroxide: review of two fatal cases of dermal exposure and development of an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hsun; Wang, Chao-Ling; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Chai, Chee-Yin; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2011-07-01

    To document two cases of patients who were fatally exposed to tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) on the skin and to establish a rat model to investigate the effects of dermal exposure to TMAH. The charts of two workers who died from occupational accidental exposure to TMAH were reviewed. The 4-hour lethal dose (LD₅₀) of TMAH was determined by applying solutions mimicking the two most common industrially used concentrations (2.38% and 25%) of TMAH to the skin of Sprague-Dawley rats. Exposure of the rat's skin to 2.38% or 25% TMAH generated LD₅₀ values of 85.9 mg/kg and 28.7 mg/kg, respectively. Application of either concentration of TMAH to the skin produced a rapid, significant increase in the rate of respiration. The serum concentrations of tetramethylammonium (TMA) also changed significantly with time of exposure to both concentrations of TMAH. The level of blood urea nitrogen decreased significantly in rats exposed to the 2.38% TMAH, and rats exposed to the 25% solution had a significant decrease in the serum concentration of sodium. Injection of atropine after 5 minutes of exposure did not significantly overcome any of the toxic effects observed with either solution of TMAH. The preliminary results in the rat model indicated that the lethality of TMAH cannot be fully explained by the severity of the patients' chemical burns, and the physiologic effects on respiratory and kidney functions were probably involved. PMID:21310775

  3. Autonomic Nervous System Mediates the Hypotensive Effects of Aqueous and Residual Methanolic Extracts of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum Leaves in Anaesthetized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A; Mohamed, M; Sulaiman, S A; Wan Ahmad, W A N

    2013-01-01

    Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum leaves are consumed as a traditional Malay treatment of hypertension. This study investigates hypotensive potential of aqueous (AESP) and residual methanolic (met-AESP) extracts of S. polyanthum leaves and possible involvement of autonomic receptors. AESP and met-AESP (20 to 100 mg/kg) were intravenously administered into anaesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Blood pressure and heart were monitored for 20 min. AESP and met-AESP induced significant dose-dependent hypotension, but only 100 mg/kg AESP caused mild bradycardia (n = 5). AESP-induced hypotension was more potent than that of met-AESP in WKY. AESP has a faster onset time than that of met-AESP in both WKY and SHR. However, met-AESP-induced hypotension was more sustained than that of AESP in SHR. Blockages of autonomic ganglion and α -adrenergic receptors using hexamethonium and phentolamine (n = 5 for each group) partially attenuated AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of α -adrenergic receptors. Blockages of autonomic ganglion, β -adrenergic, cholinergic receptors, and nitric oxide production using hexamethonium, propranolol, atropine, and N- ω -nitro-l arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (n = 5 for each group) partially attenuated met-AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of β -adrenergic and cholinergic receptors via nitric oxide production. PMID:24454508

  4. Autonomic Nervous System Mediates the Hypotensive Effects of Aqueous and Residual Methanolic Extracts of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight Walp. var. polyanthum Leaves in Anaesthetized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium polyanthum (Wight Walp. var. polyanthum leaves are consumed as a traditional Malay treatment of hypertension. This study investigates hypotensive potential of aqueous (AESP and residual methanolic (met-AESP extracts of S. polyanthum leaves and possible involvement of autonomic receptors. AESP and met-AESP (20 to 100 mg/kg were intravenously administered into anaesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR rats. Blood pressure and heart were monitored for 20 min. AESP and met-AESP induced significant dose-dependent hypotension, but only 100 mg/kg AESP caused mild bradycardia (n=5. AESP-induced hypotension was more potent than that of met-AESP in WKY. AESP has a faster onset time than that of met-AESP in both WKY and SHR. However, met-AESP-induced hypotension was more sustained than that of AESP in SHR. Blockages of autonomic ganglion and α-adrenergic receptors using hexamethonium and phentolamine (n=5 for each group partially attenuated AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of α-adrenergic receptors. Blockages of autonomic ganglion, β-adrenergic, cholinergic receptors, and nitric oxide production using hexamethonium, propranolol, atropine, and N-ω-nitro-l arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (n=5 for each group partially attenuated met-AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of β-adrenergic and cholinergic receptors via nitric oxide production.

  5. Evaluation of oxime efficacy in nerve agent poisoning: Development of a kinetic-based dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread use of organophosphorus compounds (OP) as pesticides and the repeated misuse of highly toxic OP as chemical warfare agents (nerve agents) emphasize the necessity for the development of effective medical countermeasures. Standard treatment with atropine and the established acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators, obidoxime and pralidoxime, is considered to be ineffective with certain nerve agents due to low oxime effectiveness. From obvious ethical reasons only animal experiments can be used to evaluate new oximes as nerve agent antidotes. However, the extrapolation of data from animal to humans is hampered by marked species differences. Since reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE is considered to be the main mechanism of action of oximes, human erythrocyte AChE can be exploited to test the efficacy of new oximes. By combining enzyme kinetics (inhibition, reactivation, aging) with OP toxicokinetics and oxime pharmacokinetics a dynamic in vitro model was developed which allows the calculation of AChE activities at different scenarios. This model was validated with data from pesticide-poisoned patients and simulations were performed for intravenous and percutaneous nerve agent exposure and intramuscular oxime treatment using published data. The model presented may serve as a tool for defining effective oxime concentrations and for optimizing oxime treatment. In addition, this model can be useful for the development of meaningful therapeutic animal models

  6. Procyanidins in crataegus extract evoke endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S H; Kang, K W; Kim, K W; Kim, N D

    2000-01-01

    The extract of Crataegus, a mixture of flavonoids and procyanidins extracted from hawthorn, Crataegus oxyacantha, L. and C. monogyna Jacq., relaxed vascular tone or increased production of cyclic GMP in the rat aorta, but flavonoid components of Crataegus extract, hyperoside, rutin and vitexin, did not affect the vascular tone. The aim of the present study was to characterize the endothelium-dependent relaxation elicited by procyanidins fractionated from Crataegus extract in isolated rat aorta. Procyanidins caused endothelium-dependent relaxation which was associated with the production of cyclic GMP. Both responses to these procyanidins were inhibited by methylene blue or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, but not by indomethacin. Relaxation in response to procyanidins was not affected by atropine, diphenhydramine, [D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9]substance P, propranolol, nifedipine, verapamil and glibenclamide, but were markedly reduced by tetraethylammonium. These findings showed that procyanidins in Crataegus extract may be responsible for the endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-mediated relaxation in isolated rat aorta, possibly via activation of tetraethylammonium-sensitive K+ channels. PMID:10901280

  7. Seizures caused by ingestion of Atropa belladonna in a homeopathic medicine in a previously well infant: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatstein, Miguel; Danino, Dana; Wolyniez, Ido; Scolnik, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Atropa belladonna is a poisonous plant that can cause anticholinergic effects when ingested. Roots, leaves, and fruits of the plant contain the alkaloids atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine, which can lead to an anticholinergic toxidrome; however, not all characteristics of the toxidrome are necessarily present in each case of poisoning. We present an infant who suffered serious seizures after ingestion of a homeopathic agent containing A. belladonna. The 20-day-old infant arrived at the emergency department with fever and generalized seizures for 30 minutes, 2 hours after ingesting the correct dose of a homeopathic medication agent used for infantile colic. The patient was treated with intravenous benzodiazepines and antibiotics after a full sepsis work up; all the laboratory results were normal and the fever resolved after several hours. The infant recovered fully with normal neurological function and a normal electroencephalogram. This infant probably manifested what is known as the central anticholinergic syndrome. We discuss his presentation and review of the literature on this topic. PMID:24105354

  8. Studies on the effects of acetylcholine and antiepileptic drugs on 32P incorporation into phospholipids of rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on the effects of antiepileptic drugs on the acetylcholine-stimulated 32P labeling of phospholipids in rat brain synaptosomes. Of the four antiepileptic drugs investigated in the present study, namely phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and valproate, only phenytoin blocked the acetylcholine-stimulated 32P labeling of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid, and the acetylcholine-stimulated breakdown of polyphosphoinositides. Phenytoin alone, like atropine alone, had no effect on the 32P labeling of phospholipids nor on the specific radioactivity of [32P]ATP. Omission of Na+ drastically reduced both the 32P labeling of synaptosomal phospholipids and the specific radioactivity of [32P]ATP and furthermore it significantly decreased the phosphoinositide effect. It was concluded that certain antiepileptic drugs, such as phenytoin, could exert their pharmacological actions through their antimuscarinic effects. In addition the finding that phenytoin, which acts to regulate NA+ and Ca2+ permeability of neuronal membranes, also inhibited the phosphoinositide effects in synaptosomes, support the conclusions that Ca2+ and Na+ are probably involved in the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon in excitable tissues

  9. Analysis of physiological (pao/sub 2/, pulse and blood pressure) changes during modified ect under general anaesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the changes in physiological parameters i e PAO2, pulse and blood pressure changes during ECT under GA. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Psychiatry and Department of Anaesthesiology, Combined Military Hospital Abbottabad from Sep 2009 to Feb 2010. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 patients with depression were given four separate ECT sessions each. All patients were anaesthetized using propofol 180-200 mg I/V and suxamethonium 50 mg i e 0.75-1 mg per kg I/V without atropine. They were stratified according to physiological changes including PAO2, pulse and blood pressure at 1, 2 and 5 min after ECT. Oxygen saturation was measured using a pulse oximeter, which measures saturations in the range of 65-100%. Results: Age range was 19-65 years; mean 46 years (SD+-13). Mean diastolic BP before ECT was 84.72 that decreased post ECT ie 78.02 and 77.46 and 74.44 at interval of 1, 2 and 5 minute respectively. Post-ECT pulse and PAO2 behaved similarly. Post ECT systolic BP decreased at 1 and 5 minutes. Pulse rate decreased after ECT. Conclusion: ECT under propofol is one of the most effective and safe modality of treatment for psychiatric patients under the supervision of qualified psychiatrists and anaesthesiologists and it gives more stable hemodynamic changes. (author)

  10. A report of the anesthesia in posterior fossa operations in the sitting position in 55 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanguiri B

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, 55 patients were studied in a period of six years for having the anesthesia in the sitting position. In this position, the surgeon will had a better access to the location, whose damages have been sustained, so less damages would be given to the healthy tissues. For the patients, due to their critical general conditions, one week prior to giving anesthesia to the posterior fossa, operation in the sitting position the right ventriculoatiral shunt was placed. For preventing the fall of blood pressure, a bandage was placed in the lower limbs after inducing anesthesia and changing supine position to sitting position. Before the induction, central venous pressure was measured for treating the air embolism. The head of catheter was placed inside the right atrial. Premedications such as atropine, pethidine, and inductive agents like thiopenton, and muscle relaxants, maintained with halothane and nitrous oxide. All of the patients endured this condition without the fall of blood pressure and air embolism

  11. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  12. Correlation between oxytocin neuronal sensitivity and oxytocin receptor binding: An electrophysiological and autoradiographical study comparing rat and guinea pig hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggenbass, M.; Tribollet, E.; Dubois-Dauphin, M.; Dreifuss, J.J. (Univ. Medical Center, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1989-01-01

    In transverse hippocampal slices from rat and guinea pig brains, the authors obtained unitary extracellular recordings from nonpyramidal neurones located in or near the stratum pyramidale in the CA1 field and in the transition region between the CA1 and the subiculum. In rats, these neurones responded to oxytocin at 50-1,000 nM by a reversible increase in firing rate. The oxytocin-induced excitation was suppressed by a synthetic structural analogue that acts as a potent, selective antioxytocic on peripheral receptors. Nonpyramidal neurones were also excited by carbachol at 0.5-10 {mu}M. The effect of this compound was postsynaptic and was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. In guinea pigs, by contrast, nonpyramidal neurones were unaffected by oxytocin, although they were excited by carbachol. Light microscopic autoradiography, carried out using a radioiodinated selective antioxytocic as a ligand, revealed labeling in the subiculum and in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of rats, whereas no oxytocin-binding sites were detected in the hippocampus of guinea pigs. The results indicate (i) that a hippocampal action of oxytocin is species-dependent and (ii) that a positive correlation exists between neuronal responsiveness to oxytocin and the presence in the hippocampus of high-affinity binding sites for this peptide.

  13. Effects of histamine and some related compounds on conditioned avoidance response in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When histamine (Hi) and other agonists were applied intraventricularly, Hi caused a dose-dependent inhibition of the avoidance response in rats; its ED50 was 3.60 μg. l-methylHi, l-methylimidazole acetic acid and imidazole acetic acid which are major metabolites of Hi produced no inhibitory effect even at 50 μg. H1-agonists (2-methylHi and 2-thiazolylethylamine) also depressed the avoidance response; their dose-response lines run parallel to that of Hi. The depressant effects of H2-agonists (4-methylHi and dimaprit) were relatively weak; their dose-response lines were not parallel to that of Hi. When antagonists were pretreated intravenously, Hi action was clearly antagonized by diphehydramine and pyrilamine, but not by cimetidine or ranitidine. Intraventricular injection of Hi mixed with cimetidine or ranitidine did not change the effect induced by Hi alone. The avoidance response was not affected by noradrenaline, dopamine or 5-hydroxytryptamine. Although acetylcholine (ACh) suppressed the avoidance response dose-dependently, its effect was much weaker than that of Hi. Pretreatment with cholinergic blocking drugs (atropine and scopolamine) antagonized ACh action but not Hi action. From these results, it is assumed that the inhibitory effect of Hi on the avoidance response is preferentially linked to the H1-receptor. After intraventricular application of 3H-Hi, the highest radioactivity was determined in the hypothalamus. 21 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  14. Changes in nasal resistance and nasal geometry using pressure and acoustic rhinometry in a feline model of nasal congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLeod, R.L.; Mingo, G.G.; Herczku, C.; Corboz, M.R.; DeGennaro-Culver, F.; Pedersen, Ole Finn; Hey, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    , increased nasal airway resistance (NAR) 1.2 +/- 0.6, 5.8 +/- 0.5, 8.6 +/- 1.1 and 7.9 +/- 1.5 cmH2O.L/minute, respectively. Increases in NAR produced by compound 48/80 were associated with a 395% increase in histamine concentration found in the nasal lavage fluid. Pretreatment with the alpha......-adrenoreceptor agonist, phenylpropanolamine (PPA; 0.1-3.0 mg/kg, i.v.), and the NO synthetase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg, i.v.) attenuated the increases in NAR produced by compound 48/80. The histamine H1 antagonist chlorpheniramine (1.0 mg/kg, i.v.) and the H2 antagonist, ranitidine (1.0 mg/kg, i.......v.) had no decongestant activity. Also without decongestant activity were the muscarinic antagonist atropine, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, and the 5-HT blocker methysergide. Aerosolized histamine (0.1-1.0%) also produced a dose dependent increase in NAR. In studies using acoustic rhinometry...

  15. Luminal oxidants selectively modulate electrogenic ion transport in rat colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julio M Mayol; Yolanda Adame-Navarrete; Pilar Alarma-Estrany; Elena Molina-Roldan; Fernando Huete-Toral; Jesus A Fernandez-Represa

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of luminal exposure to H2O2 and two related thiol oxidizing agents on basal and stimulated chloride secretion in native colon using electrophysiological and pharmacological approaches.METHODS: Unstripped rat distal colon segments were mounted in Ussing chambers. Potential difference, cal culated resistance and short-circuit current across unstripped colon segments were monitored with a dual voltage/current clamp. Paracellular permeability was assessed by measuring the mucosa-to-serosa flux of a fluorescent probe (FITC).RESULTS: Luminal exposure to hydrogen peroxide transitorily stimulated chloride secretion without altering barrier function. This stimulatory effect could be blocked by basolateral atropine but not indomethacin. The cysteine and methionine oxidizing compounds, phenylarsine oxide and chloramine T respectively, mimicked the effect of H2O2, except for a drop in transcolonic resistance after 30 min. In contrast to the observed stimulatory effect on basal secretion, cAMP-stimulated electrogenic ion trans port was blunted by luminal H2O2. However, the Ca2+-activated response remained unchanged.CONCLUSION: H2O2 may be an important selective modulator of intestinal ion and water secretion in certain pathologic conditions such as inflammation or ischemiareperfusion by multiple mechanisms.

  16. Chlorpyrifos induces oxidative stress in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are increasing concerns regarding the relative safety of chlorpyrifos (CPF) to various facets of the environment. Although published works suggest that CPF is relatively safe in adult animals, recent evidence indicates that juveniles, both animals and humans, may be more sensitive to CPF toxicity than adults. In young animals, CPF is neurotoxic and mechanistically interferes with cellular replication and cellular differentiation, which culminates in the alteration of synaptic neurotransmission in neurons. However, the effects of CPF on glial cells are not fully elucidated. Here we report that chlorpyrifos is toxic to oligodendrocyte progenitors. In addition, CPF produced dose-dependent increases in 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA) and dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence intensities relative to the vehicle control. Moreover, CPF toxicity is associated with nuclear condensation and elevation of caspase 3/7 activity and Heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression. Pan-caspase inhibitor QVDOPh and cholinergic receptor antagonists' atropine and mecamylamine failed to protect oligodendrocyte progenitors from CPF-induced injury. Finally, glutathione (GSH) depletion enhanced CPF-induced toxicity whereas nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor L-NAME partially protected progenitors and the non-specific antioxidant vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) completely spared cells from injury. Collectively, this data suggests that CPF induced toxicity is independent of cholinergic stimulation and is most likely caused by the induction of oxidative stress.

  17. Autonomic control of the heart in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Nina Kerting; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Bayley, Mark;

    2011-01-01

    during water- and air-breathing. The shift from water- to air-breathing was associated with a rise in heart rate from 27.7 ± 1.6 to 41.4 ± 2.6 min− 1 and an increase in cardiac output from 23.1 ± 3.0 to 58.7 ± 6.5 mL min− 1 kg− 1, while mean systemic blood pressure did not change (39.0 ± 3.5 and 46.4 ± 1......The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is an air-breathing teleost with very reduced gills that uses the buccal cavity for air-breathing. Here we characterise the cardiovascular changes associated with the intermittent breathing pattern in M. albus and we study the autonomic control of the heart.......3 cm H2O). The autonomic control of the heart during water- and air-breathing was revealed by infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and muscarinic antagonist atropine (3 mg kg− 1) in eels instrumented with an arterial catheter. Inhibition of the sympathetic and parasympathetic...

  18. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. PMID:26505271

  19. Cholecystokinin hyperresponsiveness in functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ASB Chua; PWN Keeling

    2006-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder of yet uncertain etiology. Dyspeptic symptoms are usually meal related and suggest an association to gastrointestinal (GI) sensorimotor dysfunction. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an established brain-gut peptide that plays an important regulatory role in gastrointestinal function. It inhibits gastric motility and emptying via a capsaicin sensitive vagal pathway. The effects on emptying are via its action on the proximal stomach and pylorus. CCK is also involved in the regulation of food intake. It is released in the gut in response to a meal and acts via vagal afferents to induce satiety. Furthermore CCK has also been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of panic disorder, anxiety and pain. Other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and noradrenaline may be implicated with CCK in the coordination of GI activity. In addition,intravenous administration of CCK has been observed to reproduce the symptoms in FD and this effect can be blocked both by atropine and Ioxiglumide (CCK-A antagonist). It is possible that an altered response to CCK may be responsible for the commonly observed gastric sensorimotor dysfunction, which may then be associated with the genesis of dyspeptic symptoms.

  20. Black henbane and its toxicity – a descriptive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Alizadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Black henbane (BH or Hyoscyamus niger, has been used as a medicine since last centuries and has been described in all traditional medicines. It applies as a herbal medicine, but may induce intoxication accidentally or intentionally. All part of BH including leaves, seeds and roots contain some alkaloids such as Hyoscyamine, Atropine, Tropane and Scopolamine. BH has pharmacological effects like bronchodilating, antisecretory, urinary bladder relaxant, spasmolytic, hypnotic, hallucinogenic, pupil dilating, sedative and anti-diarrheal properties. Clinical manifestations of acute BH poisoning are very wide which include mydriasis, tachycardia, arrhythmia, agitation, convulsion and coma, dry mouth, thirst, slurred speech, difficulty speaking, dysphagia, warm flushed skin, pyrexia, nausea, vomiting, headache, blurred vision and photophobia, urinary retention, distension of the bladder, drowsiness, hyper reflexia, auditory, visual or tactile hallucinations, confusion, disorientation, delirium, aggressiveness, and combative behavior. The main treatment of BH intoxicated patients is supportive therapies including gastric emptying (not by Ipecac, administration of activated charcoal and benzodiazepines. Health care providers and physicians particularly emergency physicians and clinical toxicologists should know the nature, medical uses, clinical features, diagnosis and management of BH poisoning.