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Sample records for atropine

  1. Comparison of efficacy of atropine versus atropine with pralidoxime in organophosphorus poisoning

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    Vikrama Raja

    2013-12-01

    Results: Total hospital stay was not significantly different between the treatment groups (95% CI of difference: -4.227, 0.784. Length of stay was also not significantly different between patients who received atropine plus PAM within 6 hours of consumption of poison and those who received 6 hours later (95% CI of difference: -4.154, 0.954; p value: 0.2. Conclusion: Our data supports the use of only atropine over atropine plus PAM in patients with OP poisoning on account of no significant difference /reduction of hospital/ICU stay and mortality in the latter group. However, a study with a larger sample needs to be conducted, to be able to draw a definitive conclusion. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 810-813

  2. Acute atropine intoxication with psychiatric symptoms by herbal infusion of Pulmonaria officinalis (Lungwort

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    Enrique Baca-García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lungwort infusion is a preparation extracted from Pulmonaria officinalis which is occasionally used as a folk remedy for the common cold. The current report aims to describe acute atropine intoxications with delirium caused by Lungwort infusion in several members of the same family. Methods: Description of three case reports. Search of literature through Medline. Results: Three generations of a same family presented acute and moderately severe atropine intoxications after drinking an infusion prepared with Pulmonaria officinalis. Conclusions: Despite the lack of scientific evidence for its clinical use, medicinal plants continue being widely used. In spite of severe adverse effects reported, the general thought is that herbal remedies are harmless. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute atropine intoxications with psychiatric symptoms secondary to Pulmonaria officinalis in several members of a family. We suspect that the lungwort infusion may have been contaminated with some other substance with atropinic properties.

  3. Determination of atropine using Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as novel luminescent sensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method using water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of atropine in pharmaceutical formulation. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. It was found that ZnS quantum dots acted as enhancers of the weak CL emission produced upon oxidation of sulfite by Ce(IV) in acidic medium. Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots yielding a significant chemiluminescence enhancement of the Ce(IV)–SO32−–ZnS QD system. Therefore, a new CL analysis system was developed for the determination of atropine. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative chemiluminescence intensity and the concentration of atropine in the range of 1×10−9–1×10−6 M of atropine with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9992. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 2.54×10−10 M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications. -- Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots could enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of cerium(IV)–sodium sulfite system. • ZnS quantum dots were used as the nanocatalyst. • Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots. • This work is introduced as a new method for the determination of atropine commercial drugs. • Detection limit of atropine was obtained 2.54×10−10 mol L−1

  4. Preparation and Evaluation of Veterinary 0.1% Injectable Solution of Atropine Sulphate

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    F K Mohammad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the know-how of preparing a multiple injection form atropine sulphate solution. An injectable aqueous solution of atropine sulphate at a concentration of 0.1%. was prepared under aseptic conditions in dark glass bottles each containing 50 ml. The preparation was intended for animal use only. It contained 1g atropine sulphate, 9 g sodium chloride as a normal saline, benzyl alcohol 15 ml as a preservative and water for injection up to 1000 ml. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 4.2 (range 3.0-6.5. The preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate solution was clear colorless solution free from undesired particles. It complied with the requirements for injectable solutions. Further, the preparation was safe when used under laboratory conditions in chicks, rats and donkeys. It was also effective in preventing dichlorvos (an organophosphate insecticide-induced poisoning in chicks in a manner comparable to a commercial preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate. In conclusion, the know-how of a preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate solution is presented for veterinary use. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 145-149

  5. The Effect of Atropine on Post-ECT Bradycardia in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

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    Hassan Farashbandi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is utilized for treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD. One of the major complications in using ECT is cardiovascular problems i.e., bradycardia. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of atropine on the pulse rate (PR of the patients under treatment with ECT. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with diagnosis of MDD who received atropine before ECT treatment (control group were compared with 30 patients with the same diagnosis without receiving atropine (experimental group under ECT treatment. Both groups received ECT under the same term and condition. The PR of the patients were recorded 7 times (twice before anesthesia and ECT and 5 fixed one min intervals immediately after receiving ECT; for 10 sessions of treatment with ECT (3 times a week. The results were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. The PR under 50 was the cut off point for differentiating the patients suffering from bradycardia and those without it. Results: Slight increment in PRs for experimental group (patient who did not receive atropine in contrast to control group were observed, but it did not reach a statistically significant level. The gender (male/female did not have different PR. The age of the patients and initial PR (regarded as co-variances did not show significant effect on PR for total sample. Conclusion: There seems to be not necessary to use atropine treatment for depressed patients receiving ECT.

  6. Split-dose atropine versus glycopyrrolate with neostigmine for reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, J; Jarnvig, I; Jørgensen, L N;

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a split-dose of atropine sulphate versus a single dose of glycopyrrolate given with neostigmine for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade were studied in 55 patients undergoing gynaecological surgery. The patients were randomized to receive either a single dose of......, whereas none occurred in the glycopyrrolate group (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that a split-dose of atropine has similar chronotropic effects to a single dose of glycopyrrolate for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade. However, the finding of a higher incidence of cardiac...... arrhythmias in the atropine group suggests that this reversal regime should be reserved for patients without cardiac disease....

  7. The molal volumes of atropine and hyoscine in relation to their respective potencies.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, S.; Haberman, F.

    1984-01-01

    The partial molal volumes, V2, at infinite dilution of atropine and hyoscine were determined in each of eight different solvents having cohesive energy densities in the range 64 to 144 cal cm-3. V2 for hyoscine in a given solvent was invariably and significantly smaller than that of atropine in the same solvent. The difference being 1.58 cm3 mol-1 in the least polar solvent (n-propylbenzene) and 4.29 cm3 mol-1 in the most polar one (acetonitrile) in the series studied. It is proposed that the...

  8. Comparative study of oral and intramuscular atropine sulphate as a premedicant in paediatric age group.

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    Chaudhari L

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of atropine sulphate in the paediatric age group as a premedicant orally in a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg body weight 70 minutes prior to surgery was found to be as effective as atropine sulphate given intramuscularly 35 minutes prior to surgery in a dosage of 0.01 mg/kg body weight. This avoids the unpleasant memory of needle prick; The duration of effect as studied in the normal healthy children not subjected to surgery was found to be 2 1/2-3 hours.

  9. Efficacy of atropine combined with paroxetine in vagus nerve excitatory panic disorder

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    Du N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Na Du, Xue-Li Sun Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Panic disorder is often associated with the autonomic nervous system pattern – sympathetic activation and parasympathetic (vagal withdrawal. However, we present one special case here to show a totally reversed pathogenesis – vagal activation occupying the leading role, which requires atropine to cure the patient’s symptoms. Through this report, it is reasonably proven that panic disorder may be a heterogeneous condition, whose mechanism might be the imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic tone. Keywords: panic disorder, vagal activation, bradycardia, atropine

  10. Determination of atropine using Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as novel luminescent sensitizers

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    Azizi, Seyed Naser [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chaichi, Mohammad Javad, E-mail: jchaichi@yahoo.com [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakeri, Parmis [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bekhradnia, Ahmadreza [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method using water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of atropine in pharmaceutical formulation. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. It was found that ZnS quantum dots acted as enhancers of the weak CL emission produced upon oxidation of sulfite by Ce(IV) in acidic medium. Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots yielding a significant chemiluminescence enhancement of the Ce(IV)–SO{sub 3}{sup 2−}–ZnS QD system. Therefore, a new CL analysis system was developed for the determination of atropine. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative chemiluminescence intensity and the concentration of atropine in the range of 1×10{sup −9}–1×10{sup −6} M of atropine with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of 0.9992. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 2.54×10{sup −10} M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications. -- Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots could enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of cerium(IV)–sodium sulfite system. • ZnS quantum dots were used as the nanocatalyst. • Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots. • This work is introduced as a new method for the determination of atropine commercial drugs. • Detection limit of atropine was obtained 2.54×10{sup −10} mol L{sup −1}.

  11. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].

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    Xu, Jiang-tao

    2012-09-01

    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time. PMID:23141569

  12. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang-tao

    2012-09-01

    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.

  13. A Double-Blind Atropine Trial for Active Learning of Autonomic Function

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    Fry, Jeffrey R.; Burr, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to…

  14. Enhanced accumulation of atropine in Atropa belladonna transformed by Rac GTPase gene isolated from Scoparia dulcis.

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    Asano, Kyouhei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2013-12-01

    Leaf tissues of Atropa belladonna were transformed by Sdrac2, a Rac GTPase gene, that is isolated from Scoparia dulcis, and the change in atropine concentration of the transformants was examined. Re-differentiated A. belladonna overexpressing Sdrac2 accumulated considerable concentration of atropine in the leaf tissues, whereas the leaves of plants transformed by an empty vector accumulated only a very low concentration of the compound. A. belladonna transformed by CASdrac2, a modified Sdrac2 of which translate was expected to bind guanosine triphosphate (GTP) permanently, accumulated very high concentrations of atropine (approximately 2.4-fold excess to those found in the wild-type plant in its natural habitat). In sharp contrast, the atropine concentration in transformed A. belladonna prepared with negatively modified Sdrac2, DNSdrac2, expected to bind guanosine diphosphate instead of GTP, was very low. These results suggested that Rac GTPases play an important role in the regulation of secondary metabolism in plant cells and that overexpression of the gene(s) may be capable of enhancing the production of natural products accumulated in higher plant cells. PMID:23852262

  15. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs

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    Koplovitz, I.; Menton, R.; Matthews, C.; Shutz, M.; Nalls, C.

    1995-12-31

    H1-6 (1-2-hydrnxyiminomethyl-1 pyridino-3-(4-carbameyl- 1--pyddino)-2- oxaprnpane dichioride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI-6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman.

  16. Mechanism of Cooperativity and Nonlinear Release Kinetics in Multivalent Dendrimer-Atropine Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Jhindan; Wong, Pamela T; Tang, Shengzhuang; Gam, Kristina; Coulter, Alexa; Baker, James R; Choi, Seok Ki

    2015-12-01

    Despite extensive studies on drug delivery using multivalent complexation systems, the biophysical basis for release kinetics remains poorly defined. The present study addresses this aspect involved in the complexation of a fifth generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer with atropine, an essential antidote used for treating organophosphate poisoning. First, we designed (1)H NMR titration studies for determining the molecular basis of the drug complexation with a glutarate-modified anionic dendrimer. These provide evidence pointing to a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions as the driving forces for dendrimer complexation with the alkaloid drug molecule. Second, using LC-MS/MS spectrometry, we determined the dissociation constants (KD) at steady state and also measured the drug release kinetics of atropine complexes with four negatively charged dendrimer types. Each of these dendrimers has a high payload capacity for up to ∼ 100 atropine molecules. However, the affinity of the atropine to the carrier was highly dependent on the drug to dendrimer ratio. Thus, a complex made at a lower loading ratio (≤ 0.1) displayed greater atropine affinity (KD ≈ μM) than other complexes prepared at higher ratios (>10), which showed only mM affinity. This negative cooperative variation in affinity is tightly associated with the nonlinear release kinetics observed for each complex in which drug release occurs more slowly at the later time phase at a lower loading ratio. In summary, the present study provides novel insights on the cooperativity as the mechanistic basis for nonlinear release kinetics observed in multivalent carrier systems. PMID:26485315

  17. Bilateral vagotomy or atropine pre-treatment reduces experimental diesel-soot induced lung inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the role of the vagus nerve in acute inflammatory and cardiorespiratory responses to diesel particulate (DP) in the rat airway, we measured changes in respiration, blood pressure and neutrophils in lungs of urethane anesthetized Wistar rats 6-h post-instillation of DP (500 μg) and studied the effect of mid-cervical vagotomy or atropine (1 mg kg-1) pre-treatment. In conscious rats, we investigated DP, with and without atropine pre-treatment. DP increased neutrophil level in BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) fluid from intact anesthetized rats to 2.5 ± 0.7 x 106 cells (n = 8), compared with saline instillation (0.3 ± 0.1 x 106, n = 7; P 6 cells (n = 8; P 6 (n = 4; P 6, n = 4, was reduced by pre-treatment with atropine to 2.2 ± 1.2 x 106 cells, n = 3. Hyperventilation occurred 6 h after DP in anesthetized rats with intact vagi, but not in bilaterally vagotomized or atropine pre-treated animals and was abolished by vagotomy (P < 0.05, paired test). There were no significant differences in the other variables (mean blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate variability) measured before and 360 min after DP. In conclusion, DP activates a pro-inflammatory vago-vagal reflex which is reduced by atropine. Muscarinic ACh receptors in the rat lung are involved in DP-induced neutrophilia, and hence muscarinic antagonists may reduce airway and/or cardiovascular inflammation evoked by inhaled atmospheric DP in susceptible individuals

  18. Effects of atropine, scopolamine and xylazine on the placement of an orally administered magnet in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Gansohr, B; Flückiger, M

    2003-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether the administration of atropine, scopolamine or xylazine to cows before the administration of a magnet orally would help to position it in the reticulum. The transit time of the magnet through the oesophagus was also measured. Sixty Swiss Braunvieh cows were examined by radiography and ultrasonography to locate the reticulum. They were then divided into six groups of 10. Before the administration of the magnet, a control group received 4 ml saline solution subcutaneously, one group received 0.10 mg/kg of atropine subcutaneously, a second received 0.05 mg/kg of atropine intravenously, a third received 0.15 mg/kg of scopolamine intravenously, a fourth group received 0.02 mg/kg of xylazine intravenously, and the cows in the fifth group were positioned so that their forelimbs were 30 cm lower than their hindlimbs during the administration of the magnet. The passage of the magnet through the oesophagus was timed with a stopwatch and monitored with a compass. In the control group the magnet passed through in less than 60 seconds, but in four of the cows receiving either atropine or xylazine intravenously, or having their forelimbs positioned lower than their hindlimbs, it took longer than 60 seconds. In the cows receiving atropine subcutaneously or scopolamine intravenously, it took the same time as in the control group. All the cows were radiographed one-and-a-half hours after the administration of the magnet to determine its location. In seven of the 10 cows in the control group, the magnet was located in the reticulum, but in the other three it was in the cranial dorsal blind sac of the rumen. In the other five groups the magnet was located in the reticulum of between four and seven of the 10 cows, but in the cranial dorsal sac of the rumen, the rumen or in other sites in the other cows.

  19. EFFECTS OF ATROPINE ON ANTIGEN-INDUCED BRONCHOSPASM IN THE HORSE

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    K.B. Mirbahar, R.B. Mirbahar, Nasreen Akhter, W.N. McDonell1 and P. Eyre2,

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of atropine to attenuate Ascaris suum induced bronchospasm was studied in 6 conscious standing horses. Animals were challenged with saline and a 10-2 dilution of A. suum aerosolized for 3 minutes. Pulmonary function tests (PFT were performed at 15, 30 and 60 minutes after antigen challenge. Pulmonary mechanics and ventilation values were measured using a differential pressure transducer and a Fleisch Pnemotachograph. One week later, animals were treated with atropine sulfate (6.0 mg administered IM and rechallenged with saline followed by same dose of A. suum. Clinical signs noted after the inhalation of A. suum alone included hyperpnea, dyspnea, sweating and salivation. The effect of antigen was rapid in onset starting during the inhalation and lasting for over 60 minutes. The PFT revealed significant (P<0.05 increases in Wb, max.  Ppl RL, V1, f, and VT whereas the Cdyn decreased (P<0.05. The changes were more severe in lower airways. Atropine abolished the clinical signs. Comparison of post atropine saline and A. suum challenge values revealed significant increase in Wb, max.  Ppl at 15 minutes post antigen challenge. Changes in RL, f and Cdyn were abolished. Comparison of responses to A. suum in the presence and absence of atropine revealed a significant (P<0.05 inhibition of changes in max. Ppl, Wb, inspiratory and expiratory RL, VI, f and flow. The study suggested that the A. suum induced bronchospasm in the horses is mediated, at least in part by vagal reflexes.

  20. Utility of atropine in patients under beta-blocker effect during exercise stress echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to assess the usefulness of adding atropine 0.5 to 1.0 mg by intravenous injection during peak exercise in patients under beta-blocker effect that are subjected to exercise stress echocardiography. Population: exercise stress echocardiography was performed in 73 patients receiving beta-blocking agents with basal heart rate below 60 beats per minute (BPM). Two groups were established at random: group I (18 patients that did not receive atropine during maximal exercise) and group II (50 patients from whom 28 received 0.5 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before concluding the exercise and 22 patients who received 1.0 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before its conclusion). From a demographic point of view, there were no differences between the two groups. Mean age was 59 ± 10.8 years (57% male). Most of the patients received metoprolol (87%) and no significant statistical differences in relation with the doses were found in these two groups. At the end of the exercise, the patients had a mean heart rate of 84% from their maximal heart rate (MHR). The values post-exercise were 76% at 30 seconds, 68% at 60 sec., 62% at 90 sec., and 59% of the maximal heart rate at 120 sec. When comparing the percentage of the maximal heart rate achieved in maximal exercise and the one observed during the first 120 sec. after exercise, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: during the performance of stress exercise echocardiography, the administration of intravenous atropine was of no use for incrementing the peak heart rate post-exercise in patients with significant beta-blocker effect (basal heart rate < 60 BPM)

  1. MRI findings in 6 cases of children by inadvertent ingestion of diphenoxylate-atropine

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    Xiao Lianxiang [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Lin Xiangtao, E-mail: yishui1982@126.com [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Cao Jinfeng [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Wang Xueyu [Division of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Wu Lebin [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Compound diphenoxylate (diphenoxylate-atropine) poisoning can cause toxic encephalopathy in children, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in this condition has not been reported. This study is to analyze brain MRI findings and to investigate the relations between MRI features and possible pathophysiological changes in children. Methods: Six children accidentally swallowed compound diphenoxylate, 4 males, 2 females, aged 20-46 months, average 33 months. Quantity of ingested diphenoxylate-atropine was from 6 to 30 tablets, each tablet contains diphenoxylate 2.5 mg and atropine 0.025 mg. These patients were referred to our hospital within 24 h after diphenoxylate-atropine ingestion, and underwent brain MRI scan within 24-72 h after emergency treatment. The characteristics of conventional MRI were analyzed. Results: These pediatric patients had various symptoms of opioid intoxication and atropine toxicity. Brain MRI showed abnormal low signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in bilateral in all cases; abnormal high signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR in 4 cases. Encephalomalacia was observed in 3 cases during follow-up. Conclusion: In the early stage of compound diphenoxylate poisoning in children, multiple extensive edema-necrosis and hemorrhagic-necrosis focus were observed in basic nucleus, pallium and cerebellum, these resulted in the corresponding brain dysfunction with encephalomalacia. MRI scan in the early stage in this condition may provide evidences of brain impairment, and is beneficial for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment.

  2. Mechanism of Cooperativity and Nonlinear Release Kinetics in Multivalent Dendrimer-Atropine Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Jhindan; Wong, Pamela T; Tang, Shengzhuang; Gam, Kristina; Coulter, Alexa; Baker, James R; Choi, Seok Ki

    2015-12-01

    Despite extensive studies on drug delivery using multivalent complexation systems, the biophysical basis for release kinetics remains poorly defined. The present study addresses this aspect involved in the complexation of a fifth generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer with atropine, an essential antidote used for treating organophosphate poisoning. First, we designed (1)H NMR titration studies for determining the molecular basis of the drug complexation with a glutarate-modified anionic dendrimer. These provide evidence pointing to a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions as the driving forces for dendrimer complexation with the alkaloid drug molecule. Second, using LC-MS/MS spectrometry, we determined the dissociation constants (KD) at steady state and also measured the drug release kinetics of atropine complexes with four negatively charged dendrimer types. Each of these dendrimers has a high payload capacity for up to ∼ 100 atropine molecules. However, the affinity of the atropine to the carrier was highly dependent on the drug to dendrimer ratio. Thus, a complex made at a lower loading ratio (≤ 0.1) displayed greater atropine affinity (KD ≈ μM) than other complexes prepared at higher ratios (>10), which showed only mM affinity. This negative cooperative variation in affinity is tightly associated with the nonlinear release kinetics observed for each complex in which drug release occurs more slowly at the later time phase at a lower loading ratio. In summary, the present study provides novel insights on the cooperativity as the mechanistic basis for nonlinear release kinetics observed in multivalent carrier systems.

  3. A comparison of the effects of atropine on real-feeding and sham-feeding of sucrose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, J W; Sclafani, A

    1988-02-01

    In Experiment 1 the influence of atropine methyl nitrate on the sham-feeding response of adult female rats to a sucrose solution was determined. Atropine (1 or 5 mg/kg) reliably suppressed the sham-intake of sucrose when the drug was administered 30 or 0 min prior to, or 17 min after the start of the feeding session. The suppressive effect was less, however, when the drug was administered 30 min before testing compared to the other two injection-test conditions. In Experiment 2 atropine failed to reliably decrease the real-feeding of a sucrose solution whether it was injected 30, 15, or 0 min prior to testing. These results were replicated in Experiment 3; atropine (0 min injection-test interval) reduced the sham-intake but not the real-intake of a sucrose solution. However, atropine decreased the rate of feeding under both real- and sham-feeding conditions. The fact that atropine reduced feeding rate but not meal size in the real-feeding condition was attributed to the drug's lack of effect on postingestive satiety. The present findings along with other recent results indicate that (1) the injection-test interval is a potentially important variable in studies involving atropine; (2) results obtained with sham-feeding animals do not always generalize to real-feeding animals; and (3) cholinergically-mediated cephalic responses are of questionable importance in the control of meal size.

  4. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplovitz, I; Menton, R; Matthews, C; Shutz, M; Nalls, C; Kelly, S

    1995-01-01

    HI-6 (1-2-hydroxyiminomethyl-1-pyridino-3-(4-carbamoyl-1-pyridino -2- oxapropane dichloride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman. It is concluded that 1) ATR has a large effect on the efficacy of HI-6 against OP poisoning, 2) the dose of ATR must be carefully selected in studies investigating the efficacy of HI-6 against OP poisoning, 3) the effective dose of ATR in the guinea pig is approximately 16 mg/kg, and 4) diazepam is a useful

  5. A comparative study of clonidine versus a combination of diazepam and atropine for premedication in orthopaedic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaurasia S

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty patients in the age group of 18-60 years of A.S.A. Grade I/II risk, scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgeries under general anaesthesia were studied for pre-medication with either oral clonidine or with combination of effects of diazepam & atropine. Patients in Group A (clonidine group received tablet clonidine 100 mcg (1 tablet if less than 50 kg in weight and 200 mcg if weighing more than 50 kg two hours before surgery. Patients in Group B (Diazepam-atropine group received one tablet of Diazepam (10 mg orally two hours before surgery and injection atropine-sulphate 0.01 mg/kg half an hour preoperatively by intramuscular route. In our study, the sedative and anti-sialogogue effects of clonidine were comparable to those of diazepam-atropine combination, which are commonly used premedicants. The anti-anxiety effect of clonidine was found to be better than that of diazepam-atropine combination. Clonidine also proved to be a better agent for the attenuation of pressor response to laryngoscopy and intubation. Thus, oral clonidine is a better premedicant compared to atropine-diazepam combination. Also, it is a more acceptable agent because of its oral route of administration.

  6. Interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on the binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on binding constant, binding sites, and conformation were studied in an aqueous buffer solution (pH 7.40) by ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The study results show that aconitine quenched the endogenous fluorescence of BSA via a dynamic quenching procedure. Predominant intermolecular forces between aconitine and BSA were hydrophobic interactions, which stabilized the complex of aconitine–BSA. The distance between the donor and acceptor was 2.62 nm. The conformation of BSA was investigated by synchronous fluorescence techniques, indicating that the microenvironment around tryptophan (Trp) residues was changed. Furthermore, with the addition of atropine sulphate or glycyrrhizic acid, binding constant and the number of binding sites of aconitine to BSA were decreased, and the conformation had no change, which provide an important theoretical support for aconitine detoxification by atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid. - Highlights: ► Effect of atropine or glycyrrhizic acid on aconitine–BSA binding. ► UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques used. ► Aconitine quenched BSA fluorescence via dynamic quenching with r=2.62 nm. ► Atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid decreased KA and n of aconitine–BSA. ► Support for aconitine detoxification by atropine and glycyrrhizic acid.

  7. Atropine and ODQ antagonize tetanic fade induced by L-arginine in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Cruciol-Souza

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO released from sodium nitrite induces tetanic fade in the cat neuromuscular preparations, the effect of L-arginine on tetanic fade and its origin induced by NO have not been studied in these preparations. Furthermore, atropine reduces tetanic fade induced by several cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs in these preparations, whose mechanism is suggested to be mediated by the interaction of acetylcholine with inhibitory presynaptic muscarinic receptors. The present study was conducted in cats to determine the effects of L-arginine alone or after pretreatment with atropine or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ on neuromuscular preparations indirectly stimulated at high frequency. Drugs were injected into the middle genicular artery. L-arginine (2 mg/kg and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 16 µg/kg induced tetanic fade. The Nw-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 2 mg/kg alone did not produce any effect, but reduced the tetanic fade induced by L-arginine. D-arginine (2 mg/kg did not induce changes in tetanic fade. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine or SNAP was reduced by previous injection of atropine (1.0 µg/kg or ODQ (15 µg/kg. ODQ alone did not change tetanic fade. The data suggest that the NO-synthase-GC pathway participates in the L-arginine-induced tetanic fade in cat neuromuscular preparations. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine probably depends on the action of NO at the presynaptic level. NO may stimulate guanylate cyclase increasing acetylcholine release and thereby stimulating presynaptic muscarinic receptors.

  8. Oxime and atropine failure to prevent intermediate syndrome development in acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intermediate syndrome (IMS was described a few decades ago, however, there is still a controversy regarding its exact etiology, risk factors, diagnostic parameters and required therapy. Considering that acute poisonings are treated in different types of medical institutions this serious complication of organophosphate insecticide (OPI poisoning is frequently overlooked. The aim of this paper was to present a case of IMS in organophosphate poisoning, which, we believe, provides additional data on the use of oxime or atropine. Case report. After a well-resolved cholinergic crisis, the patient developed clinical presentation of IMS within the first 72 h from deliberate malathion ingestion. The signs of IMS were weakness of proximal limb muscles and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves, followed by the weakness of respiratory muscles and serious respiratory insufficiency. Malathion and its active metabolite were confirmed by analytical procedure (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pralidoxime methylsulphate, adiministered as a continuous infusion until day 8 (total dose 38.4 g, and atropine until the day 10 (total dose 922 mg did not prevent the development of IMS, hence the mechanical ventilation that was stopped after 27 h had to be continued until the day 10. Conclusion. Continuous pralidoxime methylsulphate infusion with atropine did not prevent the development of IMS, most likely due to the delayed treatment and insufficient oxime dose but also because of chemical structure and lipophilicity of ingested OPI. A prolonged intensive care monitoring and respiratory care are the key management for the intermediate syndrome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 176018, No. 46009

  9. Atropine Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: fever irritability fast pulse irregular heartbeat mental confusion difficulty urinating If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  10. The QT interval and cycle length: the influence of atropine, hyoscine and exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Staniforth, D H

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-seven healthy male subjects of mean age 24.3 +/- 4.0 years and mean weight 74.9 +/- 9.1 kg took part in an investigation to assess the most suitable correction for the QT interval as a function of cardiac cycle length. 547 sets of data points were generated. Atropine 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mg, and hyoscine 0.4 and 0.8 mg, and exercise on a bicycle ergometer at power levels of 50-250 watts together with post-exercise values were employed to obtain a range of heart rates. Simultaneous measurem...

  11. Intravenously administered oxotremorine and atropine, in doses known to affect pain threshold, affect the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban

    2002-01-01

    muscarinic agonists and antagonists modify nociceptive threshold by affecting intraspinal release of acetylcholine (ACh). Catheters were inserted into the femoral vein in rats maintained on isoflurane anaesthesia for administration of oxotremorine (10-300 microg/kg) and atropine (0.1, 10, 5000 microg....../kg). Spinal microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally at approximately the C2-C5 spinal level for sampling of acetylcholine and dialysis delivery of atropine (0.1, 1, 10 nM). Additionally, the tail-flick behaviour was tested on conscious rats injected intraperitoneally with saline, atropine (10, 100...... and 5000 microg/kg), or subcutaneously with oxotremorine (30, 100, 300 microg/kg). Subcutaneous administration of oxotremorine (30, 100, 300 microg/kg) significantly increased the tail-flick latency. These doses of oxotremorine dose-dependently increased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine...

  12. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures. PMID:26453200

  13. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures.

  14. Leaching of zinc compound from rubber stoppers into the contents of automatic atropine injectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellin, R I; Kaminskis, A; Zvirblis, P; Sultan, W E; Shutz, M B; Matthews, R

    1985-07-01

    This report describes how a material within the cartridge of an automatic injector contaminated its contents. On prolonged storage, a formulation that contained atropine produced lethality in mice. The toxic material originated from zinc compounds that were present in the rubber stopper and plunger of the container and that subsequently leached into the formulation. The contents of cartridges that contained greater than or equal to 0.75 mg/mL of solubilized zinc were lethal to at least 20% of the mice tested; those that contained 0.42 mg/mL showed no lethality. The problem resulted from the physicochemical properties of the rubber, not the concentration of zinc used in the vulcanization process.

  15. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manganelli, Fiore; Sauro, Rosario; Di Lorenzo, Emilio; Rosato, Giuseppe [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Department of Cardiology and Heart Surgery, Avellino (Italy); Spadafora, Marco; Varrella, Paola; Peluso, Giuseppina [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Avellino (Italy); Daniele, Stefania [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); Cuocolo, Alberto [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, Naples (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR ({>=}85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  16. Sedation of children for auditory brainstem response using ketamine-midazolam-atropine combination - a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocskai, Tímea; Németh, Adrienne; Bogár, Lajos; Pytel, József

    2013-12-01

    Authors investigated sedation quality in children for auditory brainstem response testing. Two-hundred and seventy-six sedation procedures were retrospectively analyzed using recorded data focusing on efficacy of sedation and complications. Intramuscular ketamine-midazolam-atropine combination was administered on sedation preceded by narcotic suppository as pre-medication. On using the combination vital parameters remained within normal range, the complication rate was minimal. Pulse rate, arterial blood pressure and pulse oxymetry readings were stable, hypoventilation developed in 4, apnoea in none of the cases, post-sedation agitation occurred in 3 and nausea and/or vomiting in 2 cases. Repeated administration of narcotic agent was necessary in a single case only. Our practice is suitable for the sedation assisting hearing examinations in children. It has no influence on the auditory brainstem testing, the conditions necessary for the test can be met entirely with minimal side-effects. Our practice provides a more lasting sedation time in children during the examination hence there is no need for the repetition of the narcotics.

  17. Use of atropine to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cohort study included children with esotropia and hypermetropia of ≥ +2.0 diopters (D. The deviation was measured at presentation, under atropine cycloplegia and 3 months after full refractive correction. Of 44 children with a mean age of 5.2 ± 2.4 years, 25 were males. Eighteen (41% had fully refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE, 10 (23% had partial accommodative esotropia (PAE, and 5 (11% had nonaccommodative esotropia (NAE. Eleven (25% had convergence excess (CE. Under cycloplegia, all with RAE and RAE with CE had orthotropia. There was no significant change in the deviation in the patients with NAE. The deviation under cycloplegia and that with full refractive correction in PAE and PAE with CE (with +3.0 D addition were not different. The intraclass correlation coefficient for deviation under cycloplegia and after full refractive correction (+3.0 D addition for CE was 0.89. It was concluded that ocular deviation under cycloplegia can help to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia.

  18. Determination of Atropine in Injection with β-Cyclodextrin Modified Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ye Lin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new atropine drug-FET sensor, which was made of an ISFET (ion sensitivefield effect transistor and a drug sensitive membrane prepared by adding electric activematter to a β-cyclodextrin solution, was developed. The pH influence, selectivity, responsecurve, reproducibility, stability, response time and life of this sensor were investigated. Apreliminary application of the sensor was discussed as well. The experimental resultsindicated that the sensor showed a Nernst response to atropine with a slope of 58.0mV/decade over the concentration range of 5.0×10-3 - 1.0×10-6 mol/L and the pH rangeof 5.0-8.5. The sensor detection limit was 8.0×10-7 mol/L. The performance of this sensorwas very stable when it was used to determine atropine concentration in a medicinalinjection. The obtained results agreed well with the pharmacopoeia method.

  19. Uptake of (14)C-atropine and/or its transformation products from soil by wheat (Triticum aestivum var Kronjet) and their translocation to shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandrić, Zora; Rathor, Mohammad N; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph; Mayr, Leopold; Resch, Christian; Bado, Souleymane; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Plant uptake of toxins and their translocation to edible plant parts are important processes in the transfer of contaminants into the food chain. Atropine, a highly toxic muscarine receptor antagonist produced by Solanacea species, is found in all plant tissues and can enter the soil and hence be available for uptake by crops. The absorption of atropine and/or its transformation products from soil by wheat (Triticum aestivum var Kronjet) and its distribution to shoots was investigated by growing wheat in soil spiked with unlabeled or (14)C-labeled atropine. Radioactivity attributable to (14)C-atropine and its transformation products was measurable in plants sampled at 15 d after sowing (DAS) and thereafter until the end of experiment. The highest accumulation of (14)C-atropine and/or its transformation products by plants was detected in leaves (between 73 and 90% of the total accumulated) with lower amounts in stems, roots, and seeds (approximately 14%, 9%, and 3%, respectively). (14)C-Atropine and/or its transformation products were detected in soil leachate at 30, 60, and 90 DAS and were strongly adsorbed to soil, with 60% of the applied dose adsorbed at 30 DAS, plateauing at 70% from 60 DAS. Unlabeled atropine was detected in shoots 30 DAS at a concentration of 3.9 ± 0.1 μg kg(-1) (mean ± SD). The observed bioconcentration factor was 2.3 ± 0.04. The results suggest a potential risk of atropine toxicity to consumers. PMID:24007480

  20. The muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and atropine are competitive antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Scopolamine is a high affinity muscarinic antagonist that is used for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are used for the same purpose and are structurally related to scopolamine. To examine whether 5-HT3 receptors are affected by scopolamine we examined the effects of this drug on the electrophysiological and ligand binding properties of 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor-responses were reversibly inhibited by scopolamine with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by Schild plot (pA2 = 5.02) and by competition with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists [(3)H]granisetron (Ki = 6.76 μM) and G-FL (Ki = 4.90 μM). The related molecule, atropine, similarly inhibited 5-HT evoked responses in oocytes with an IC50 of 1.74 μM, and competed with G-FL with a Ki of 7.94 μM. The reverse experiment revealed that granisetron also competitively bound to muscarinic receptors (Ki = 6.5 μM). In behavioural studies scopolamine is used to block muscarinic receptors and induce a cognitive deficit, and centrally administered concentrations can exceed the IC50 values found here. It is therefore possible that 5-HT3 receptors are also inhibited. Studies that utilise higher concentrations of scopolamine should be mindful of these potential off-target effects. PMID:27108935

  1. Visual hallucinations on eye closure associated with atropine toxicity. A neurological analysis and comparison with other visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C M

    1991-02-01

    Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium.

  2. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Saleh Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Acute poisoning with organophosphorus (OP pesticides is a common method of suicide and entails considerable mortality in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and outcomes of a protocol for treatment of OP poisoning that included titrated incremental atropine as loading dose and slow infusion for maintenance.  Methods:In this prospective descriptive case series, definitive OP poisoned patients were enrolled in an adult medicine unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2006 to April 2007. Clinical examinations were done as soon as the patient entered the ward. Patient’s demographics, comorbid conditions and the occurrence of specific clinical outcomes including death, need for assisted ventilation and clinical complications were recorded. The patients were treated according to the protocol. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled over the study period. The median age of the study population was 22.5 years. Most patients were men (67.8%. The most common clinical presentation was miosis (58.9%. In total, 11 patients died (19.6%. Intermediate syndrome developed in 12 patients (21.4% and 6 of them died. Assisted ventilation was required in 16 cases (28.5. Patients with diastolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mmHg and/or GCS ≤ 10 were significantly less likely to survive (P = 0.02, 0.006, respectively. Moreover, early respiratory failure (P < 0.001 and the need for assisted ventilation (P < 0.001 were significantly higher among deceased cases. The mortality rate in this study was similar to previous studies. The frequency of atropine toxicity in the present study (1.8% was considerably lower than conventional regimen used in previous studies. Conclusion:Using the new protocol, lower rate of atropine toxicity developed in victims. Hence, the new protocol appears to be safer and its effectiveness should be further evaluated in case control studies in Bangladesh.    How to cite this article: Ahmed AS

  3. Visual hallucinations on eye closure associated with atropine toxicity. A neurological analysis and comparison with other visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C M

    1991-02-01

    Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium. PMID:2036612

  4. Atropine sulfate for treatment of bradycardia in a patient with morbid obesity: what may happen when you least expect it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Michele; Veronese, Stefano

    2015-01-29

    A 74-year-old morbidly obese man was scheduled for surgical repair of an incisional ventral hernia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl, and maintained with desflurane. A second dose of fentanyl 0.2 mg, given before starting surgery, resulted in sinus bradycardia and mild decrease of arterial blood pressure. Atropine sulfate 0.5 mg was administered. One minute later, the ECG rhythm on the monitor changed to third degree atrioventricular block with a ventricular response rate of 40 beats/min associated with marked hypotension. Isoproterenol 0.02 mg reverted the atrioventricular block to sinus rhythm. Cardiac enzymes and ECG ruled out acute myocardial ischaemia. The surgical procedure and the recovery from anaesthesia were uneventful. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the fifth postoperative day. For the treatment of bradycardia atropine sulfate should be adjusted at least to lean body weight in order to avoid paradoxical heart rate response in patients with obesity.

  5. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhote, Franck, E-mail: franck.dhote@irba.fr [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Peinnequin, André [Département Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); and others

    2012-03-01

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is

  6. Vasoespasmo coronariano induzido pela ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina Coronary spasm induced by dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. Bogaz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos caso de mulher de 45 anos de idade, com antecedentes de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e tabagismo, submetida a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina para investigação de doença arterial coronariana. No pico do estresse, a paciente apresentou dor precordial súbita e de forte intensidade. O eletrocardiograma de doze derivações revelou elevação do segmento ST nas derivações DII, DIII, aVF, V5 e V6 e depressão do segmento ST nas derivações DI, aVL, V2 e V3. Pela monitoração das imagens ecocardiográficas foi observado aparecimento de discinesia do septo inferior e acinesia da parede inferior do ventrículo esquerdo. O exame foi interrompido imediatamente, a paciente foi medicada e evoluiu com melhora da dor precordial e das alterações de motilidade segmentar. A angiografia coronariana revelou lesões coronarianas irregulares com menos de 50% de obstrução do diâmetro luminal. Trata-se de um caso de vasoespasmo coronariano induzido por estimulação alfa-adrenérgica durante a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina.This is the report on a 45-year-old female, with a history of systemic arterial hypertension and cigarette smoking, submitted to dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography for the investigation of coronary artery disease. At stress peak, the patient reported sudden, highly intense precordial pain. The 12-lead electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevation in DII, DIII, aVF, V5 and V6, and depression in DI, aVL, V2 and V3. Echocardiographic imaging monitoring showed dyskinesia of inferior septum and akinesia of inferior wall. The test was interrupted immediately. The patient was medicated and improved her precordial pain condition as well as wall motion abnormalities. Coronary angiography showed irregular coronary lesions with <50% luminal diameter obstruction. It is a case of coronary spasm induced by alpha-adrenergic stimulation during dobutamine-atropine stress

  7. Anestesia endovenosa en perros mediante el uso de propofol en dosis única, premedicado con acepromazina-atropina y xilazina-atropina Intravenous anaesthesia in dogs using a single dose of propofol premedicated with atropine _ acepromazine or atropine _ xylazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. THIBAUT

    2002-01-01

    anestesia; en el grupo 1 tremores musculares (3 casos y opistótono (1 caso, en el grupo 2 apnea transitoria (2 casos. Se concluye que propofol premedicado con atropina - xilacina reduce el período de latencia, aumenta el tiempo de anestesia y recuperación sin alterar significativamente las variables fisiológicasTwenty mongrel dogs, both sexes, of 1 to 6 years were divided into two groups of ten animals each. A dose of 1.5 mg/kg of acepromazine was administered to the first group (A.A.P of 16.2±1,63 kg body weight. The second group (X.A.P of 11.9±1.7.1 kg. body weight, received a 3 mg/kg i.m. dose of xylazine. Both groups received atropine 0.1 mg/kg s.c. ten minutes before the administration of propofol 5 mg/kg i.v. The effects of Propofol on latency period, surgical anesthesia duration, recovery period, respiratory rate, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and body temperature were evaluated. Adverse reactions to propofol were registered. The results of the anesthesiological variable significantly differed between the two groups: induction of anesthesia was 0.45 + 0.03 min in the first and 0.26 + 0.03 in the second group. Surgical anesthesia period was 12.3 + 1.89 min in the first and 25.2 + 1.78 min in the second group, and recovery period was 4.5 + 0.63 min and 10.1 + 0.98 min in group 1 and 2, respectively. The physiological variables in both groups were maintained without significant modification during the surgical anesthesia period; respiratory rate had an initial average of 14.3 + 2.45 and 13.0 + 1.54 breaths/min in group 1 and 2 respectively. The heart rate was 175 + 11.81 beats/min in the first and 148.,4 + 9.04 beats/min in the second group; the average arterial blood pressure was 102.6 + 5.69 and 111.8 + 10.43 mm Hg for the first and second group, respectively. Body temperature in the first group was 38.5 + 0.17 and 38.7 + 0.2 ºC for the second group. Adverse reactions were muscle twitching (3 cases and opisthotonus (1 case in group 1; transitory apnea (2

  8. Comparing the preventive effect of 2 percent Topical Lidocaine and Intravenous Atropine on oculocardiac reflex in Ophthalmological Surgeries under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sajedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study aimed to determine preventive effect of 2 percent topical xylocaine on oculocardiac reflex in ophthalmological surgeries except strabismus, including retinal detachment and vitrectomy with scleral buckling under general anesthesia. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out on 150 patients aged 18-90 years undergoing ophthalmological surgeries under general anesthesia. Samples randomly divided into the experimental group (received four drops of 2 percent topical xylocaine instilled in desired eye and control group (received 0.5 mg atropine sulfate injection. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure of patients and baseline heart rate were recorded. They were compared regarding the incidence of bradycardia, heart rate less than 60 beats/minute, hypotension and blood pressure less than 90 mm/Hg. Data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20 using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results: The difference between two groups was not statistically significant regarding demographic and basic variables. The incidence of bradycardia in both groups was respectively (90.7 percent vs. 17.3 percent, heart rate less than 60 beats/minute (40 percent vs. 13.3 percent, hypotension (76 percent vs. 32 percent and blood pressure less than 90 mmHg was (28 percent vs. 8 percent. Accordingly, the differences between both groups were statistically significant (P > 0.001. Conclusions: The preventive impact of topical xylocaine upon oculocardiac reflex in ophthalmological surgeries such as retinal detachment and vitrectomy with scleral buckling under general anesthesia was less effective than that of atropine injection. Therefore, to avoid this reflex in high-risk patients, injecting atropine would be safer.

  9. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K;

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a promising animal model for the study of pain mechanisms, therefore a thorough characterization of this species is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish the naked mole-rat as a model for studying the cholinergic receptor system....... The present study demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors produces antinociceptive effects in the naked-mole rat. The reversal effect of atropine and mecamylamine suggests that this effect is mediated by cholinergic receptors. As naloxone increases the antinociceptive effects...

  10. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD50 of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD50), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD50 of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD50 soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after soman, blocked seizures.

  11. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Steven L., E-mail: stevenmiller17@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki, E-mail: vanderjaska@usuhs.edu [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Figueiredo, Taiza H., E-mail: taiza.figueiredo.ctr@usuhs.edu [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Prager, Eric M., E-mail: eric.prager683@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Almeida-Suhett, Camila P., E-mail: camilapalmeida@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Apland, James P., E-mail: james.p.apland.civ@mail.mil [Neurotoxicology Branch, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD{sub 50} of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD{sub 50}), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD{sub 50} soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after

  12. 阿托品压抑疗法对儿童弱视的康复作用%Rehabilitation effect of atropine depre ssed therapy on amblyopia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳丽

    2003-01-01

    @@ BACKGROUND:The process of treating amblyopia is to create good development condictions for eyes of amblyopia so as to eyes of amblyopia and dominant eyes can grow successively. OBJECTIVE:To explore rehabilitation effect of Atropine depressed therapy on amblyopia of children.

  13. Non-neuronal, but atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses to short-chain fatty acids: age-dependent desensitization and restoration under inflammatory conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Masako; Kimura, Shunsuke; Karaki, Shinichiro; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Atsukazu; Yajima, Takaji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells sense short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to secrete non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh). However, the roles of luminalSCFAs and epithelialACh under normal and pathological conditions remain unknown. We examined ileal contractile responses toSCFAs at different ages and their mucosal cholinergic alterations under inflammatory conditions. Ileal contractile responses toSCFAs in 1-day-old pups to 7-week-old mice were compared using an isotonic transducer, and responses to an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in 7-week-old mice. ThemRNAexpression levels of aSCFAactivate free fatty acid receptor, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (Chat), and choline transporter-like protein 4 (CTL4) were measured using real-time quantitativeRT-PCRAChE was analyzed by histochemical and optical enzymatic assays. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs occurred in all 1-day-old pups, but were frequently desensitized after the weaning period. These contractile responses were not inhibited by tetrodotoxin and did not appear when the mucosal layer had been scraped off. Contractile desensitization in 7-week-old mice was abolished in the presence of theAChE inhibitor, eserine, which was consistent with increasedAChE activity after weaning. Ileal contractions toSCFAs in adult mice were restored byLPS, which significantly increased the epithelialmRNAexpression of Chat andCTL4. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs constitutively occur in the newborn period, and are desensitized during developmental stages following the up-regulated expression ofAChE in the villous mucosa, but are restored under inflammatory conditions possibly via the release of epithelialACh. PMID:27053293

  14. The reasonable application of atropine in the treatment of acute organic phosphorus poisoning%阿托品在治疗急性有机磷中毒中的合理应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭育旋

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the reasonable application of atropine in the treatment of acute organic phosphorus poisoning. Methods:37 patients with acute organic phosphorus poisoning were selected.After emetic,gastric lavage and other routine therapy, they were given atropine treatment.We analyzed the recovery of the patients.Results:In 37 patients,the recovery of 36 cases(97.3%) was good after the use of atropine treatment.1 case(2.7%) died because of atropine poisoning.Conclusion:In the treatment process of patients with organic phosphorus poisoning,the reasonable application of atropine was the important factor for affecting the therapeutic effects.%目的:探讨阿托品在抢救急性有机磷农药中毒患者时的合理应用。方法:收治急性有机磷中毒患者37例,通过催吐、洗胃等常规治疗,再使用阿托品治疗,分析患者恢复情况。结果:37例患者中,使用阿托品治疗后恢复情况良好36例(97.3%),死于阿托品中毒1例(2.7%)。结论:在有机磷中毒患者救治过程中,合理应用阿托品是救治成功的重要因素。

  15. 阿托品救治有机磷中毒不同给药途径的疗效比较%Study on Atropine Administration Methods in Rescuing Patients with Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄新桥; 谭琪敏; 钟房友; 钟丽娴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of different atropine medications in remedy of severely acute organophosphorus pesticide. Methods A retrospective study were performed.This study was carried out in 75 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. The patients were divided into three groups according atropine medications: Group A(25 cases), were treated with intravenous injection of atropine and artificial; Group B(25 cases)directly with micro pump delivery, Group C(25 cases)achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration patients are atropine artificial intravenous injection, the patient achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration; Compared the efficacy and complications among the three groups. Results There is significant difference between minim continuous pump after atropine administration and interval injecting or minim continuous pump. As a result, the patients in Group C were more effective and fewer complications than that in Group A and C. Conclusion Using micro-pump after atropine administration artificial intravenous injection of atropine was the better effect, it has proved to be a fine medication.%目的:分析基层医院救治有机磷中毒患者时,阿托品不同给药方式的疗效差异,为探索其最佳给药方法提供依据。方法回顾分析75例急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床资料,25例进行人工间歇静脉推注阿托品法(A 组),25例采用微量泵持续静脉输注阿托品法(B 组,25例先间歇静脉推注阿托品,达阿托品化后再用微量泵泵入阿托品(C 组),分析比较三组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、疗效以及不良反应和并发症。结果 C 组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、阿托品过量、不足中毒、用量、尿潴留和多器官功能损害等明显降低而治愈率显著提高(P <0.05)。结论采用阿托品人工静脉推注,待患者阿托品化再予以微量泵给药,不仅起效

  16. 阿托品联合血液灌流在有机磷中毒中的效果研究%The study on the effect of atropine combined with hemoperfusion in the patients with organophosphorus poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨阿托品联合血液灌流在有机磷中毒中的效果.方法:60例有机磷中毒患者随机均分为两组,每组各30例,A组采用阿托品联合血液灌流进行治疗,B组单纯采用阿托品进行治疗,后将两组患者的综合治疗效果进行比较.结果:A组的各项治疗效果评价项目均优于B组,P<0.05,差异均有统计学意义.结论:阿托品联合血液灌流在有机磷中毒中的效果较佳,值得临床推广应用.%Objective: To study the effect of atropine combined with hemoperfusion in the patients with organophosphorus poisoning. Methods: 60 patients with organophosphorus poisoning were randomly divided into two groups with 30 patients in each group, and the group A were treated with atropine combined with hemoperfusion, the group B were treated with atropine, then the comprehensive effect of the two groups were compared. Results: The various evaluation items of group A were all better than those of group B, all ρ<0.05, there were significant differences. Conclusion: The effect of atropine combined with hemoperfusion in the patients with organophosphorus poisoning is better, and it is worthy of popularization and application.

  17. Estudio comparativo del efecto de las asociaciones anestésicas atropina-tiletamina/zolazepam y atropina-ketamina/diazepam en emúes (Dromaius novaehollandiae adultos Effects of the anaesthetic associations atropine-tiletamine/zolazepam and atropine-ketamine/diazepam on adult emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pulgar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se determinó el efecto de las asociaciones anestésicas atropina IM (0,05 mg/kg-tiletamina/zolazepam EV (4 mg/kg total y atropina IM (0,05 mg/kg-ketamina EV (5 mg/kg total/diazepam (0,5 mg/kg sobre la respuesta fisiológica, anestésica y bioquímica de emúes adultos. Los ejemplares (n = 7 por grupo fueron asignados al azar a dos tratamientos anestésicos. La frecuencia cardiaca y la temperatura corporal de los emúes mostraron un incremento al inicio del tratamiento experimental (entre 5-10 min, P = 0,001. Sin embargo, la frecuencia respiratoria y pulso disminuyeron (entre 5-15 min, P = 0,003. Estos patrones fueron detectados para ambas asociaciones anestésicas. Por otra parte, la inducción anestésica y el tiempo de recuperación anestésica no fueron afectados por los tratamientos (P = 0,12 y P = 0,13 respectivamente. Los emúes tratados con tiletamina mostraron un mayor tiempo de anestesia quirúrgica, comparados con los emúes tratados con ketamina (P = 0,012. En el caso de A.S.T. y glucosa, ambas variables presentaron un incremento a las 24 h de la aplicación del tratamiento anestésico, resultando los niveles de glucosa más altos en emúes tratados con ketamina (P = 0,006 y P = 0,008 respectivamente. Finalmente, la hemoglobina, proteínas totales y ácido úrico no presentaron diferencias significativas entre tratamientos (P = 0,99, P = 0,97 y P = 0,81 respectivamente. En conclusión, los dos protocolos anestésicos resultaron seguros y eficientes para la manipulación de los animales; sin embargo, el mayor tiempo de anestesia observado en animales tratados con tiletamina podría determinar la preferencia por esta asociación anestésica.In this study, the effects of the anaesthetic associations atropine IM (0.05 mg/kg-tiletamine/zolazepam IV (4 mg/kg total and atropine IM (0.05 mg/kg-ketamine IV (5 mg/kg total/diazepam (0.5 mg/kg on physiological, anaesthetic and biochemical responses were determined on adult

  18. Application of critical thinking in atropine dynamic observation and nursing intervention%评判性思维在阿托品化动态观察与护理干预中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨评判性思维在阿托品化动态观察与护理干预中的应用效果。方法:将我院2013年1~12月期间收治的重度有机磷中毒患者60例作为观察组,将我院2012年1~12月期间收治的重度有机磷中毒患者60例作为对照组。对照组采用常规方式进行业务培训,对阿托品化进行常规观察与护理,观察组应用评判性思维模式进行业务培训,对阿托品化进行动态观察与干预。观察对比两组患者阿托品化误判率、并发中间综合征例数及平均住院时间。结果:观察组患者阿托品化误判率、并发中间综合征、平均住院时间均少于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05)。结论:在阿托品化观察过程中,护士应用评判性思维模式,对阿托品化进行动态观察与干预,可降低阿托品化误判率,减少并发症的发生,并可缩短患者住院时间。%Objective:To investigate the application of critical thinking in atropine dynamic observation and nursing intervention. Methods:From January to December 2013 in our hospital severe organophosphate poisoning patients admitted as the observation group 60 cases,and the severe organophosphate poison-ing patients admitted to our hospital from January to December 2012 period 60 cases as the control group. Control group with conventional ways for project training,atropine routine observation and care,while the observation group of critical thinking for project training,atropine dynamic observation and interven-tion. Compared the two groups with observed atropine false positive rate,the number of cases and average length of stay in the middle of concurrent syn-drome. Results:The atropine false positive rate,concurrent intermediate syndrome,average hospital stay of observation group were less than the control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion:In atropine observation process,the nurse applied critical

  19. 磷化铝中毒抑制大鼠胆碱酯酶及阿托品和氯解磷啶的作用%Cholinesterase inhibition by aluminium phosphide poisoning in rats and effects of atropine and pralidoxime chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivani MHrRA; Sharda Shah PESHIN; Shyam Bala LALL

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the cholinesterase inhibition and effect of atropine and pralidoxime (PAM) treatment on the survival time in the rat model of aluminium phosphide (ALP) poisoning. METHODS: The rats were treated with AlP (10 mg/kg; 5.55×LD50; ig) and the survival time was noted. The effect of atropine (1 mg/kg, ip) and PAM (5 mg/kg, ip) was noted on the above. Atropine and PAM were administered 5 min after AlP. Plasma cholinesterase levels were measured spectrophotometrically in the control and AlP treated rats 30 min after administration. RESULTS: Treaanent with atropine and PAM increased the survival time by 2.5 fold (1.4 h ±0.3 h vs 3.4 h±2.5 h, P<0.01) in9 out of 15 animals and resulted in total survival of the 6 remaining animals. Plasma cholinesterase levels were inhibited by 47%, (438±74) U/L in AlP treated rats as compared tocontrol (840±90) U/L (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: This preliminary study concludes that AlP poisoning causes cholinesterase inhibition and responds to treatment with atropine and PAM.

  20. 小茴香提取物对胃肠动力障碍小鼠胃肠运动的影响%Efects of fennel extracts on gastrointestinal movement of atropine-induced gastrointestinal motility disorder in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕光寿; 秦明; 毛峰峰; 张琰; 刘兴友; 贺建荣; 杨鹏; 刘曼玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察小茴香精油及水提物(去油)对阿托品致胃肠动力障碍小鼠胃肠运动的影响.方法 选择昆明种小鼠随机分为空白对照组、阿托品模型组、小茴香水提物组、小茴香精油组、莫沙必利组.空白对照组、阿托品模型组均给予0.2 ml/10 g生理盐水灌胃;小茴香水提物组给予去油小茴香水提物(含小茴香75 mg/ml)0.2 ml/10 g灌胃;小茴香精油组以300 mg/kg精油灌胃,莫沙必利组给莫沙必利混悬液(含莫沙必利15 mg/ml)灌胃.连续3 d,禁食18 h后,于第4天空白对照组腹腔注射生理盐水,其他组腹腔注射硫酸阿托品注射液,以葡聚糖蓝(BD)2000为标记物,观察胃排空率和肠推进率.结果 小茴香精油组、莫沙必利组、小茴香水提物组处理后小鼠的胃排空率分别为(91.97±4.42)%、(90.26±5.81)%、(80.01±6.27)%、(72.88±9.13)%;肠推进率分别为(53.32±7.49)%、(53.02±9.13)%、(44.16±7.68)%、(37.52±6.19)%.小茴香精油组、莫沙必利组、小茴香水提物组对阿托品所致胃肠动力障碍小鼠的胃排空(P值分别为0.004、0.001、0.004)和肠推进(P值分别0.003、0.025、0.015)均有拮抗作用;小茴香精油组促进胃排空作用(P值分别为0.000、0.002)、肠推进作用优于小茴香水提物组(P值分别为0.001、0.001).结论 小茴香提取物可拮抗小鼠的胃肠动力障碍,小茴香精油是主要活性成分.%Objective To observe the effects of fennel essential oil and water extracts (distilled oil is not included) on gastrointestinal motility disorder caused by atropine in mice.Methods Kunming mice were randomly divided into blank control group, model group atropine, water extracts group, fennel essential oil group, mosapride group. Blank control group and model group atropine were orally administered with normal saline of 0.2 ml/10 g. Water extracts group was orally administered with Water extracts (75 mg/ml) of 0.2 ml/10 g. Fennel essential oil group was orally

  1. Curative effect observation on combined using of nefopam and atropine to treat renal colic%平痛新联合阿托品用于肾绞痛镇痛的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜霖; 韩凤东; 赵英男

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察平痛新联合阿托品对肾绞痛镇痛的效果.方法 对临床确诊的257例由泌尿系结石所引起急性肾绞痛患者随机分组,131例为观察组,应用平痛新联合阿托品肌注;126例为对照组,应用哌替啶联合阿托品肌注.对比观察两组止痛效果及副作用.结果 观察组总有效率为90.9%,对照组总有效率为92.9%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).而观察组复发率低,副作用小.结论 平痛新联合阿托品对泌尿系结石所致肾绞痛镇痛效果与哌替啶联合阿托品的镇痛效果无明显差别,且复发率低,副作用少,无成瘾性.%Objective To observe the analgesic effect of combined using of nefopam and atropine on renal colic. Methods 257 confirmed patients who suffered renal colic caused by urinary stone were divided into two groups; 131 for observation group who were jointly used nefopam and atropine and 126 for control group who were jointly used pethidine and atropine. The effect of relieving pain and side effect were observed and compared between the two groups. Results The total effective rate of the observation group is 90. 9% and the control group is 92. 9% . The difference between two groups showed no statistical significance( P > 0. 05 ) . However the recurrence rate and side effete of the observation group are lower than the control group. Conclusion It is no significant difference between the observation group and the control group to treat renal colic caused by urinary stone and it is worthy of using for clinic patients because of its lower recurrence rate and addiction.

  2. 强效睫状肌麻痹剂环戊通能否替代阿托品%Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许江涛

    2012-01-01

    For a long time,atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China,while internationally,cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic.In recent years,1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country.This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedoophthalmiaters.According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs,the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children.However,the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So,for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old,all esotropia children,Am children,and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry.In this article,we also discuss the medication dosage,medication method,possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.%阿托品眼膏长期以来都是中国儿童验光主流使用的睫状肌麻痹剂,而国际上则普遍使用环戊通滴眼液作为一线的睫状肌麻痹药物.近年来,国内引了进1%盐酸环戊通眼液,这种快速强效的睫状肌麻痹剂已被国内小儿眼科医师所关注.一系列国内外自身对照药物疗效研究证实,环戊通的睫状肌麻痹效果接近于阿托品,能广泛应用于中国儿童验光前的睫状肌麻痹.尽管如此,其药物疗效仍略逊于阿托品,故对于7岁以内的远视儿童、所有内斜视儿童、混合性散光儿童及短期内视力下降需要排除调节性近视的儿童,验光前仍应常规使用阿托品眼膏行睫状肌麻痹.本文同时对环戊通眼液的用药剂量、用药方法、可

  3. Efficacy of intermittent administration of atropine combined with grey photochromic progressive multifocal lenses for juvenile my-opia%散瞳联合灰变渐进片治疗青少年近视的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志刚; 刘博; 方燕; 华雪莲; 廖慧芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of intermittent administration of 1% atropine combined with grey pho-tochromic and progressive multifocal lenses for juvenile myopia. Methods A total of 134 children and adolescents with slight to moderate myopia were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A (67 cases, 134 eyes) was treated by 1% atropine discontinuously combined with grey photochromic and progressive multifocal lenses and accommodation training during atropine discontinuance;group B (67cases,134 eyes) was treated by single focal lenses. The visual acuity, lens, retina, macular lutea, intraocular pressure, myopic diopters, corneal curvature and the axial length were examined every 3 month and the fol ow-up time was 1 year. Results After 1 year, the progression of myopia in group A and group B was (0.38±0.15)D and (1.08±0.35)D respectively; the extension of the axial length in group A and group B was(0.13±0.09)mm and(0.39±0.28)mm, respectively(both P0.05). There were no other complications, except two patients had photophobia in group A. Conclusion The progression of myopia and the exten-sion of the axial length can be control ed effectively with intermittent administration of 1% atropine combined with grey pho-tochromic and progressive multifocal lenses for juvenile myopia.%  目的观察间断使用1%阿托品眼用凝胶联合灰变渐进片治疗青少年低、中度近视的临床疗效.方法选择青少年低、中度近视患者134例(268只眼),按就诊先后分为 A、B 两组各67例(134只眼),A 组予以间断使用1%阿托品眼用凝胶联合灰变渐进片治疗,停用阿托品期间予以晶体操训练,B 组予以单光近视眼镜治疗.随访1年,每3个月复查视力、裂隙灯检查晶体、视网膜、黄斑等情况,测量眼压、屈光度、角膜曲率和眼轴长度.结果1年后,A 组的近视增长度数和眼轴增长分别为(0.38±0.15)D 和(0.13±0.09)mm ;B 组的近视增长度数和眼轴增长分别为(1.08±0.35)D

  4. 弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效%Efficacy of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘真; 陈玮; 刘玉岭; 赵梅

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia. Methods One hundred and twenty children (240 eyes with ametropic amblyopia) were grouped randomly, and the improvement of visual acuity and visual function between the two methods were compared. Results The differences in binocularvision improvement and stereopsis visual acuity of the two methods were significant(t=2.24,P<0.05).Conclusions Low level laser combined with atropine therapy seems to be superio to traditional treatment in binocularvision improvement and recovery.%目的 观察弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效.方法 120例(240只弱视眼)患儿随机分为治疗组(弱激光联合阿托品疗法)和对照组(传统治疗),比较两种方法对视力的提升效果及双眼视功能的改善情况.结果 弱激光联合阿托品疗法使弱视眼视力进步有效率及立体视锐度与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(t=2.24,P<0.05).结论 弱激光联合阿托品疗法更有利于患儿视力提升、双眼视力恢复.

  5. Evaluation of cycloplegic effectiveness of cyclopentolate and atropine%环戊通与阿托品睫状肌麻痹效果的差异性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新婷; 张芳; 吕帆

    2012-01-01

    Background Cycloplegia is well accepted for the first refraction estimate in childhood.Yet no good evidence is offered in terms of which cyclopegia is preferable for the different ages and refractive status in children. Objective This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of cycloplegia between 1% cyclopentolate and 1% atropine sulphate before optometry in ametropia children. Methods This was a prospective clinical trail.The self matched-pairs control randomly observation was designed.One hundred and sixty eyes of 80 children of 4-9 years old with refractive error were recruited in this study.1% cyclopentolate eye drops were topically administered once per 5 minutes for 3 times and 1% optometry was performed 45 minutes after eye dropping.Three days after that,1% atropine then was used 3 times per day for consecutive 3 days and again the refractive diopter was obtained.The differences of the results in autorefraction,retinoscope and residual accommodation were compared between 1% cyclopentolate and 1% atropine eye drops.This trail was approved by the Ethic Committee and written informed consent was obtained from each custodian. Results The autorefraction values were ( 0.55 ±3.52 ) D and ( 2.22 ±3.52) D before and after the administration of 1% atropine with the difference value( 1.66± 1.62) D (t =13.02,P =0.00 ).The autorefraction value was( 1.74±3.46 ) D after dropping of 1% cyclopentolate and the difference value from that of 1% atropine was (0.48 ± 0.46) D ( t =13.08,P =0.00 ).The cy(e)lplegic autorefractions of atropine and cyclopentolate have strong correlation ( R2 =0.98,P =0.000 ).The residual accommodation values were ( 0.32± 0.44 )D and(0.05±0.41 ) D after dropping of 1% cyclopentolate and 1% atropine with the difference( 0.27±0.55 ) D ( t =4.56,P =0.00 ).The difference value of refractive diopter was (0.31 ± 0.37 )D in myopic group,(0.56±0.48 )D in moderate hypermetropic group and(0.59±0.50)D in high myopic group

  6. Clinical study of sublingual atropine as premedication of sevoflurane anesthesia in premature infants undergoing fundus examination of eyes%阿托品舌下给药用于早产儿七氟醚全麻眼底检查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 冯艺; 乔青; 杨拔贤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of sublingual atropine as premedication of sevoflurane anesthesia in premature infants undergoing fundus examination of eyes. Methods Forty-premature infants undergoing examination of fundus of eyes were enrolled in this study. Their gestational age (from the first day of last menstruation period to birth) + after birth age (from birth to the day when examination was performed) = (46 ± 5) weeks. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: group A and group C. Infants in group A were given atropine solution 0. 02 mg/kg sublingually 15 min before anesthesia, while those in group C received the same dose of normal saline. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with 6% and 3% sevoflurane. At before atropine administration(T0) ,5 min(T1), 10 min(T2), 15 min(T3 )after atropine administration HR, SpO2, T, RR, PEtCO2 SEV-e and the incidence of oculocardiac reflex (OCR), the lowest HR during OCR period and the salivary secretion were recorded, and adverse events were evaluated. Results HR and T were significantly increased at T1-T3 in group A than that at T0. Compared with those in group C, HR was significantly increased at T4 -T6, the lowest HR during OCR period was significantly increased, and the salivary secretion significantly decreased in group A. Conclusion Sublingual atropine as premedication can decreas the secretion of salivary and stabalize HR during OCR It is an effective, safe, and easy premedication method in premature infants undergoing fundus examination.%目的 观察术前舌下给予阿托品用于早产儿吸入七氟醚全麻下行眼底检查术对眼心反射和唾液分泌量的影响.方法 选择矫正胎龄(46±5)周拟行眼底检查术的早产儿40例,随机均分为两组:A组和C组.检查前15 min A组舌下给予阿托品0.02 mg/kg,C组舌下给予等容量生理盐水,记录给药前即刻(T0)、给药后5 min(T1)、10 min(T2)、15 min(T3)患儿HR、SpO2、体表体温(T);吸入6

  7. Segurança e exeqüibilidade do ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina e atropina em pacientes octogenários Safety and feasibility of dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography in octogenarian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sebastião de Abreu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a exeqüibilidade e segurança do ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina e atropina (EED em octogenários. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 5.467 EED, distribuídos entre grupo dos octogenários (GI=203 e grupo controle (GII=5.264. A idade média no GI=83±3 (80-95 e no GII=59±11 (17-79 anos. Os parâmetros resultantes do EED, coletados prospectivamente, foram comparados e analisados. RESULTADOS: O percentual de pacientes que atingiram freqüência cardíaca máxima foi em GI=63,5% e GII=41% (GI vs. GII; pOBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and safety of dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE in octogenarians. METHODS: We evaluated 5,467 DASE which were distributed in two groups: group I (GI with 203 DASE performed in octogenarians, and group II (GII, the control group, with 5,264 DASE. The mean age of GI and GII was 83±3 (80-95 and 59±11 (17-79 years, respectively. DASE parameters that were prospectively collected, were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: The percentage of patients that achieved maximum heart rate was 63.5% in GI and 41% in GII (p<0.001, and GI patients required less atropine compared to GII (GI=47%, GII=78%, p<0.001.The presence of chest pain (GI=13%, GII=15.6%, p=0.429 and DASE positive for myocardial ischemia (GI=20.7%, GII=16.9%, p=0.296 were not statistically different between the two groups. However, concomitant positive DASE and absence of chest pain (GI=17%, GII=11%, p=0.029 was higher in GI. The incidence of premature beats in GI was higher than in GII (GI=47.8%, GII=27.6%, p<0.001, and there were more supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (ST in GI than in GII (GI=5.9%, GII=1.9%, p=0.001. Out of 11 ST that happened in GI, 9 reverted spontaneously. There weren't either deaths or acute myocardial infarction. Ventricular fibrillation only happened in GII (2 cases, 0.03%. CONCLUSION: In the present study, octogenarians achieved maximum heart rate more frequently despite the lesser amount of atropine

  8. The Clinical Study on the Effect of Tropicamide and Atropine Ophthalmic Solution in Mydriatic Refractometry for Children%托吡卡胺与阿托品对儿童散瞳验光效果的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李战梅; 黄海; 周李

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effect of tropicamide and atropine ophthalmic solution in mydriatic refractometry for children.Methods:Totally 260 cases (520 eyes) of ametropia children from 4 to 14 years without other eye disease were received optometry after using the tropicamide eye drops and 1%atropine sulfate,The results of optometry were compared by paired T-test.Results:There existed statistically significant difference between the hyperopia and myopia in 4 to 7 years old group,hyperopia in 8 to 11 years old group.But there were no significant difference between the myopia in 8 to 11 years old group,myopia and hyperopia in 12 to 14 years old group.Conclusion:Aged 8 years and older children with myopia and hyperopia in aged 12 years and above children could receive optometry after using the tropicamide eye drops.%  目的:对比托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对儿童散瞳验光的效果。方法:用托吡卡胺眼液和1%硫酸阿托品眼膏先后分别对4~14岁260例(520只眼),无其它眼疾,眼位正常的屈光不正儿童散瞳后进行电脑验光,采用自身配对t检验对两种药物验光结果进行比较。结果:4~7岁组远视、近视和8~11岁组远视两种药物散瞳验光所得结果差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:托吡卡胺散瞳验光方法适用于眼位正常的8岁及以上近视儿童和12岁及以上远视儿童。

  9. 托吡卡胺和阿托品用于儿童散瞳验光的对比%Tropicamide and atropine for comparison of children with refraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉洁; 门大伟; 陈娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:对比在儿童散瞳验光中采用托吡卡胺和阿托品的应用效果。方法:选取我院在2014年5月至2015年5月期间门诊收治的视力异常患儿168例,根据患儿的年龄将其分为3组,A组为4-8岁,B组为9-11岁,C组为12-14岁,每组有患儿56例,分2天给予托吡卡胺及阿托品进行散瞳验光。将其验光结果进行记录和对比。结果:A组与B组远视和近视结果对比具有统计学意义(P<0.05);B组与C组患儿近视和远视对比无明显的差异性,无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:在儿童验光中应用托吡卡胺对于9岁以上儿童近视及12岁以上儿童远视应用效果较好。%objective: to contrast in children’s specialized order pyrazole card amine and the application effects of atropine. Selection methods: our hospital in May 2014 to May 2015 outpatient treated 168 cases of abnormal vision, it can to the patient’s age, A group of 4 to 8 years, group B for 9 to 11 years of age, group C for 12-14 years old, each group had 56 cases. The optometry results recorded and compared. Results: in group A and group B hyperopia and myopia results compared statistically significant (P 0.05). Conclusion: applied in the children’s eyes pyrazole card amine for 9 years of age or older children myopia and 12 years of age or older children hyperopia application effect is good.

  10. Sulfato de atropina nos parâmetros hemodinâmicos e hemogasométricos de cães anestesiados com clorpromazina, dexmedetomidina e isoflurano Hemodynamic and hemogasometric in the atropine administration in dogs anesthetized with chlorpromazine and dexmedetomidine and isoflurane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Niederauer Flôres

    2008-08-01

    , at least 7 days apart, in randomized blinded manner. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in mechanical ventilation. After instrumentation, the end-tidal isoflurane was maintained at 1,3%V throughout the study. After a 30 minutes stabilization period (M -15, baseline hemodynamic parameters and arterial blood gases were recorded and atropine (atropine group or 0.9% NaCl (saline group were administered. Fifteen minutes later, data were recorded again (M0 and a chlorpromazine- dexmedetomidine (Chlor-Dex combination was administered. Variables were measured for an additional 65 minutes after Chlor-Dex. A one-way ANOVA-Student-Newman-Keuls was used for comparisons within groups, while a paired t test was used for comparisons between groups (P£0,05. Heart rate was higher in atropine group after Chlor-Dex administration. Cardiac index (CI was reduced from baseline after Chlor-Dex in both treatments. Although mean CI values tended to be higher in atropine group, CI did not differ between groups. Chlor-Dex administration caused increased arterial blood pressure in dogs treated with atropine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP was significantly higher in the atropine group from 5 to 65 min after Chlor-Dex. The systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI increased from baseline in both groups after Chlor-Dex administration. No significant differences were observed for arterial blood gases. Atropine administration prior to Chlor-Dex resulted in increased arterial blood pressure. Bradycardia induced by the administration of these drugs was prevented by the anticholinergic given, however decrease in cardiac output was not prevented.

  11. Levomepromazina e atropina como medicações pré-anestésicas na anestesia pela associação tiletamina/zolazepam, em cães Comparison between levomepromazine and atropine as premedication agents before anesthesia using tiletamine/zolazepam in dogs

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    Luiz Gonzaga Pompermayer

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o emprego da atropina e da levomepromazina como medicações pré-anestésicas para a anestesia pela associação tiletamina/zolazepam. Foram empregados 30 cães, distribuídos em três grupos iguais. O grupo 1 (controle foi tratado com 0,2 ml/kg de solução fisiológica (placebo por via intravenosa; o grupo 2 com 0,044mg/kg de sulfato de atropina por via subcutânea e o grupo 3 com 1mg/kg de cloridrato de levomepromazina por via intravenosa. Quinze minutos após, todos os grupos receberam a associação tiletamina/zolazepam na dose de 10mg/kg por via intramuscular. Antes da medicação pré-anestésica, 15 minutos após a mesma e aos 15, 30, 60 e 105 minutos após a administração da associação tiletamina/zolazepam foram registrados: ECG, temperatura, freqüência respiratória, volume corrente, volume minuto, freqüência cardíaca, pressão arterial, valores hemogasométricos arteriais, graus de analgesia e miorrelaxamento e reflexos protetores. Outros dados como: secreção salivar, período de latência, período anestésico hábil e período de recuperação foram igualmente mensurados para efeito comparativo. De acordo com os resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o sulfato de atropina não deve ser administrado como medicação pré-anestésica, por potencializar a taquicardia induzida pela associação tiletamina/zolazepam. A levomepromazina, além de inibir a sialorréia, mantém a estabilidade cardiorrespiratória e apresenta ação potencializadora dos efeitos anestésicos da associação.The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of levomepromazine and atropine sulfate as a premedication to the dissociative anesthesia produced by a tiletamine/zolazepam combination. Ten dogs were randomly assigned to each of the three groups: control, atropine and levomepromazine. Fifteen minutes before tiletamine/zolazepam, the dogs were treated either with atropine sulfate (0.044mg/kg, subcutaneously

  12. Assessment of serum enzymatic markers of cardiomyocytes injury in female dogs submitted to ketamine S(+, atropin and xylazine association Mensuração da atividade sérica de marcadores de lesão cardíaca em cadelas anestesiadas com cetamina S(+, atropina e xilazina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Guimarães Franco

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assessment of the aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK and creatine kinase isoenzyme fraction MB (CK-MB serum activity in female dogs anesthetized with ketamine S (+, atropine and xylazine in several associations. METHODS: Twenty three healthy female dogs randomly distributed in four groups named as GI (n=6, GII (n=6, GIII (n=6 and GIV (n=5 were treated respectively with atropine and ketamine S(+ (0.04mg/kg; 10 mg/kg; ketamine S(+ (10 mg/kg; atropine, xylazine and ketamine S(+ (0.04mg/kg; 1.1 mg/kg; 10 mg/kg and xylazine and ketamine S(+ (1.1 mg/kg; 10 mg/kg. AST, CK and CK-MB serum activity measurement before pre-medication (M0 and one, two, three, six, 12, 24, 36 hours after. RESULTS: There was no significant change in AST, CK e CK-MB serum activity among groups. However, CK serum activity in relation to moments within the groups was increased in all groups over the time in spite of treatment, except GI. In relation to CK-MB activity, in the moments within the group, it was observed an increase compared to baseline in all groups. CONCLUSION: Creatine kinase and creatine kinase fraction MB isoenzyme showed changes in their mean values remained higher than baseline for a longer time in GIII and GIV.OBJETIVO: Determinar a atividade sérica de AST, CK e CK-MB em cadelas anestesiadas com cetamina S (+, atropina e xilazina em diferentes associações. MÉTODOS: Vinte e três cadelas saudáveis foram distribuídas ao acaso em quarto grupos denominados GI (n=6, GII (n=6, GIII (n=6 e GIV (n=5 tratados respectivamente com atropina e cetamina S (+ (0,04mg/kg; 10 mg/kg; cetamina S (+ (10 mg/kg; atropina, xilazina e cetamina S (+ (0,04mg/kg; 1,1 mg/kg; 10 mg/kg exilazina e cetamina S (+ (1,1 mg/kg; 10 mg/kg. A atividade sérica de AST, CK e CK-MB foi determinada antes da pré-medicação (M0 e uma, duas, três seis, 12, 24 e 36 horas após M0. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas mudanças significativas na atividade sérica de

  13. Alterações cardiovasculares de gatos submetidos à toracotomia intercostal, pré-medicados com associação de tramadol, butorfanol e atropina e anestesiados com propofol e halotano Cardiovascular changes in cats submitted to intercostal thoracotomy, premedication with association tramadol, butorphanol, atropine, anesthetised with propofol and halothane

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    Juliana Tabarelli Brondani

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A toracotomia é um procedimento cirúrgico que produz estímulo doloroso intenso. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito cardiovascular da associação tramadol, butorfanol e atropina na medicação pré-anestésica de gatos anestesiados com propofol e halotano. Doze animais, SRD, machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 2,7 ± 0,62kg receberam como medicação pré-anestésica (MPA, a associação de tramadol (2,0mg kg-1, butorfanol (0,4mg kg-1 e atropina (0,044mg kg-1, via intramuscular. Trinta minutos após MPA, a indução foi realizada com propofol (5,0mg kg-1 por via intravenosa. A manutenção anestésica foi obtida com halotano e oxigênio 100% sob ventilação artificial manual. Os gatos foram submetidos à toracotomia intercostal para implante de um segmento autólogo de pericárdio no diafragma. As variáveis avaliadas foram: freqüência cardíaca (bpm, saturação de oxigênio da hemoglobina (%, pressão arterial sistólica (mmHg e vaporização de halotano (%. As variáveis foram mensuradas 20 minutos após a MPA (TMPA, 10 minutos após indução e a cada 10 minutos até o final do procedimento cirúrgico (T10 a T100.Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente através de ANOVA e teste de Bonferroni (pIntercostal thoracotomy is a very painful procedure that deserves proper prevention and treatment. In this study we aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effect of the association of tramadol, butorphanol and atropine in the premedication of cats anesthetised with propofol and halothane. Twelve cats of mixed breed, female and male, with mean body weight of 2.7 ± 0.62kg were premedicated with 2.0mg kg-1 tramadol and 0.4mg kg-1 butorphanol and 0.044mg kg-1 atropine combined in the same syringe intramuscularly administered. After 30 minutes of premedication, anesthetic induction was obtained with 5.0mg kg-1 propofol intravenously. Anesthetic maintenance was done with halothane and 100% oxygen with manual artificial

  14. 阿托品眼膏联合渐变多焦点眼镜治疗青少年低中度近视的一年疗效%The one-year efficacy of atropine combined with progressive multifocal lenses on mild and moderate myopic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈降; 周磊; 冯海江; 周宏健

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical therapeutic effect of 1% atropine combined with progressive multifocal lenses on myopic children. Design Clinical case control study. Participants 90 cases (180 eyes) myopic children aged from 8 to 13 years old with diopters from -0.50 D to -2.00 D. Methods 90 cases (180 eyes) myopic children were enrolled for the study, divided into 3 groups randomly, in which group A (30 cases, 60 eyes) was untreated, group B (30 cases, 60 eyes) was treated by progressive multifocal lenses and group C (30 cases, 60 eyes) was treated by 1% atropine every evening combined with progressive multifocal lenses. The visual acuity, the status of refraction and the axial length were examined every month, and the follow-up time was 12 months. Main Outcome Measures Changes of myopic diopters and axial length. Results After 12 months, the progression of myopia in group C, was significantly lower than group A and group B (F=55.636, P=0.000), and the extension of the axial length in group C was also significantly less than group A and group B (F=46.624, P=0.000). There was no other complaints and complications such as photophobia in children treated with 1% atropine every evening. Conclusions The progression of myopia can be controlled safely and effectively with 1% atropine combined with progressive multifocal lenses for most of myopic children. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2011, 20: 326-328)%目的 观察1%阿托品眼膏联合渐变多焦点镜治疗青少年低中度近视的临床疗效.设计临床病例对照研究.研究对象 选择2009年9月至2010年2月在宁波市眼科医院视光门诊诊治的90例(180眼)8~13岁青少年低中度近视患者,屈光度在-0.50~-2.00 D.方法采用随机数字表法随机将患者分为A、B、C三组,每组30例60眼,A组不予任何治疗,B组予以验配渐变多焦点镜,C组予以每晚睡前点1%阿托品眼膏联合验配渐变多焦点镜.随访12个月,每个月复查并比较裸眼视力、最佳矫正视力

  15. Rapid Simultaneous Determination of Atropine, Anisodamine and Scopolamine in Huashanshen Dripping Pill by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry%HPLC-MS/MS法同时测定华山参滴丸中阿托品、山莨菪碱和东莨菪碱的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯媛媛; 李若洁; 彭佳敏; 王利强

    2010-01-01

    华山参滴丸是含有托烷类生物碱的中药制剂,主要用于治疗哮喘,具有很好的临床疗效,但缺乏较有效的定量方法控制其质量.建立了一种快速、简单、准确的HPLC-MS/MS法同时测定华山参滴丸中阿托品、山莨菪碱和东莨菪碱的含量.首先采用超声的方法对滴丸进行提取来制备样品溶液,然后采用C18色谱柱对样品进行分离.流动相为20 mmol/L醋酸铵水溶液:甲醇(70:30);流速为0.3 mL/min.质谱检测器采用电喷雾正离子模式的多重反应监测方式进行测定,整个分析时间仅耗时1.5 rain.阿托品和山莨菪碱在250~4 000 ng/mL范围内、东莨菪碱在62.5~1 000 ng/mL范围内均呈良好的线性关系(r2>0.999).三种成分的日内和日间精密度均小于3.0;平均回收率均大于98%.此方法快速、可靠、重现性好,适用于华山参滴丸的日常质量控制.%Huashanshen dripping pill,traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)preparation containing tropane alkaloids,is used for the anti-asthmatic treatment and has good clinical efficacy.But there is not an effective quantification method to assess the quality of Huashanshen dripping pill.In this study,a rapid,simple and accurate HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of atropine,anisodamine and scopolamine in Huashanshen dripping pill.After a simple extraction with sonication used for sample preparation,chromatographic separation was performed on a short C18 column with mobile phase of a mixture of 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate in water and methanol(70:30)at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min.The mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source(ESI)was operated in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring(MRM).The whole analytical run time was only 1.5 min and the calibration graphs exhibited a linear concentration range of 250~4 000 ng/mL for atropine and anisodamine and 62.5~1 000 ng/mL for scopolamine with correlation coefficients of

  16. 阿托品、荷包牡丹碱对家鸽(Columba livia)顶盖Ⅱa-f亚层与Ⅲ层神经元间突触传递的影响%Effects of atropine and bicuculline on synapse transmission between sublayer Ⅱa-f and layer Ⅲ in optic tectum in pigeons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余小平; 王彬

    2000-01-01

    目的:探讨阿托品(Atropine,ATR)、荷包牡丹碱(Bicuculline,BIC)对家鸽顶盖Ⅱa-f亚层与Ⅲ层神经元间突触传递的影响.方法:在孵育离体顶盖脑片标本上,采用脉冲方波电刺激Ⅱa-f亚层,利用玻璃微电极胞外记录技术记录Ⅲ层神经元放电频率.结果:Ⅲ层神经元对电刺激Ⅱa-f亚层有反应的28个单位中,13个单位(占46.4%)表现为增频,15个单位(占53.6%)表现为减频.表现为增频的13个Ⅲ层神经元中10个单位(占76.9%)的增频效应可被ATR部分或完全逆转,另3个单位的阻断效果不明显;15个被Ⅱa-f亚层刺激传入减频的Ⅲ层神经元,其中11个单位(占73.3%)的减频作用可被BIC阻断,另4个单位则不产生阻遏作用.上述药物的作用具有可逆性和重复性.结论:乙酰胆碱(Acetylcholine,ACh)可能参与了家鸽顶盖Ⅱa-f亚层与Ⅲ层神经元间兴奋性突触传递,而γ-氨基丁酸(Gamma-aminobutyric,GABA)则参与其抑制性突触传递.

  17. 食管心房调搏联合阿托品负荷实验在窦房结、房室结病变诊断中的临床应用价值%Clinical application value of transesophageal atrial pacing combined with atropine load experiment in the diagnosis of the lesions of sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛红宇; 李志军; 王其琼; 许明; 艾斯娅; 班新全; 李惠荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application value of transesophageal atrial pacing (TEAP) combined with atropine load experiment in the diagnosis of the lesions of sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node.Methods One hundred and forty-four cases selected from the outpatient and hospitalized patients in the People's Hospital of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture from September 2009 to December 2012,who with dizziness, syncope and other clinical symptoms and electrocardiogram showe.TEAP combined with atropine load experiment were given to these patients.Results (1) The authors detected in all patients,83 cases (57.6%) were positive, among which, 48 cases (57.8%) male, 35 cases (42.2%) female.(2) The authors detected 57 cases(39.6%) non-increased vagus nerve tension cases in 83 positive cases,among which 33 cases (57.9%) male, 24 cases (42.1%) female;Among which 29 cases (20.1%) were sinoatrial node hypofunction, and 16 cases(55.2%) male;8 cases(5.6%) were atrioventricular node hypofunction,and 4 cases(50%) male;14 cases(9.7%) were double node hypofunction, and 10 cases (71.4%) male;6 cases (4.2%) were tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome, and 3 cases (50%) male;among which, a long interval of greater than 3 seconds appeared when we stimulate one 84 years old man with S1S1 stimulate way, immediately pressed protective pacemaker until his own sinus rhythm was restored, as a safety precaution, stoped further examination and classified him as sick sinus group.Conclusion Detect the common causes of slow sinus and atrioventricular block,such as the sinoatrial node dysfunction, atrioventricular node dysfunction, double node dysfunction and increased vagus nerve tension through TEAP combined with atropine load experiment.Consider that this methods have the best diagnostic value in decreasing its rate of false positivity,and should be used as a necessary check before implantation of pacemaker in such patients, suitable used in clinical, especially

  18. 健脾消胀片对阿托品致小鼠胃肠蠕动降低模型肠蠕动的影响%Effect of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian on the enterokinesia of the mice with depressed gastrointestinal peristalsis induced by atropine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭辉; 马珍珍; 刘艳; 郝少君

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian on the enterokinesia of mice with depressed gastrointestinal peristalsis induced by atropine. Methods Seventy mice were randomly divided into seven groups:large,medium and small doges of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian groups, domperidone group, Baohewan group and model group, ten mice in each group. Among the groups, the mice in six groups were made as the model of depressed gastrointestinal peristalsis induced by 0. 1 mg ·kg-1 atropine through intraperitoneal injection,while in another group as blank control group. Then, the mice in the large,medium and small doses of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian groups were respectively given with large( 180 g · L-1), medium (90 g ·L-1 ) and small (45 g · L-1 ) doses of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian suspension by intragastric administration; the mice in domperidone group were given with domperidone suspension; the mice in Baohewan group were given with Baohewan suspension; the mice in model group and blank control group were given with the same volume of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. All rats were given with carbon powder suspl by intraperitoneal injection after one hour. The rates carbon powder impelling of all groups were calculated,and the incubation period of carbon appeared in feces and the number of feces containing carbon after six hours. Results Compared with the blank control group,the incubation period of carbon appeared in feces in model group was were significantly prolonged (P < 0.01), the number of feces containing carbon decreased obviously after six hours (P < 0. 01). Compared with the model group, the incubation period of carbon appeared in feces in the large and medium doses of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian groups,domperidone group and Baohewan group was significantly shorter(P <0. 01 ). Compared with the blank control group, the rate of carbon powder impelling in model group were significantly lower( P < 0.01). Compared with the model group,the rates of carbon powder impelling

  19. Exeqüibilidade, segurança e acurácia do ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina/ atropina para detecção de doença arterial coronariana em candidatos a transplante renal Feasibility, safety and accuracy of dobutamine/atropine stress echocardiography for the detection of coronary artery disease in renal transplant candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Muniz Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a exeqüibilidade, a segurança e a acurácia diagnóstica do ecocardiograma sob estresse (EEDA com dobutamina/atropina em candidatos a transplante renal. MÉTODOS: Pacientes candidatos a transplante renal com e sem nefropatia diabética realizaram EEDA e cineangiocoronariografia. Consideraram-se dois pontos de corte para doença arterial coronariana (DAC: > 50% e > 70% de obstrução de uma artéria epicárdica. RESULTADOS: Cento e quarenta e oito pacientes realizaram o EEDA e a angiografia coronariana. A média de idade foi de 52±9 anos, 69% eram do sexo masculino, 27% tinham nefropatia diabética, e 73%, HVE; 63% estavam assintomáticos, 36% e 22% apresentaram obstruções coronarianas > 50% e > 70%, respectivamente. A exeqüibilidade foi de 91% e houve 2,7% de complicações maiores. Obtiveram-se as seguintes médias de sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia, considerando obstrução coronariana > 50%: 53% (IC:45-61, 87% (IC:81-93, e 75% (IC:63-83, respectivamente. Para obstrução >70%, 71% (IC:64-92, 85% (IC:79-91 e 81% (IC:75-87. A sensibilidade para diagnosticar doença uniarterial foi 41% (IC:19-63 e doença multiarterial, 78% (IC:64-92. CONCLUSÃO: O EEDA foi exeqüível e seguro; entretanto, foi ineficiente para rastreamento de DAC, considerando obstruções > 50%, mas pode ser útil para detecção de DAC em pacientes com obstruções > 70% e doença multiarterial.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and accuracy of dobutamine/atropine stress echocardiography (DASE for the detection of coronary artery desease (CAD in renal transplant candidates. METHODS: Patients candidates to renal transplant were submitted consecutively to DASE and coronary angiography. The adopted angiographic criteria for CAD were an obstructive lesion of > 50% and > 70%. RESULTS: 148 patients underwent the DASE and the coronary angiography. Mean age was 52 ± 9 years, 69% of the patients were males; 27% had diabetic nephropathy

  20. Quantification by HPLC-MS/MS of atropine in human serum and clinical presentation of six mild-to-moderate intoxicated atropine-adulterated-cocaine users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, PAMM; Go, HS; Wessels, AMA; Uges, DRA

    2006-01-01

    An unexpectedly high number of initially suspected cocaine-intoxicated patients was presented to a general hospital in Lelystad, The Netherlands. Based on the unusual toxidram rate of not fitting cocaine intoxication, the suspicion of co-presence of an anticholinergic agent was raised. A newly devel

  1. Formulation, in vitro release and transdermal diffusion of atropine by implementation of the delivery gap principle / Jani van der Westhuizen

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Westhuizen, Jani

    2014-01-01

    The transdermal delivery route has become a popular alternative to more conventional routes, such as oral administration, but has not yet reached its full potential (Prausnitz & Langer, 2008:1261). Although the transdermal route proves to have several advantages over the conventional route, the greatest challenge is to overcome the effective barrier of the skin (Jepps et al., 2012:153). The permeation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) through the skin is a complex, multi-step proc...

  2. Safety and feasibility of dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients unable to perform an exercise stress test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Elhendy (Abdou); D. Poldermans (Don); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); P.R. Nierop; M.L. Geleijnse (Marcel); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); R.T. van Domburg (Ron)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Dobutamine stress testing is increasingly used for the diagnosis and functional evaluation of coronary artery disease. However, little is known about the safety and feasibility of this stress modality in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METH

  3. Comparative study of tropicamide and atropine in mydriatic refractometry%托吡卡胺与阿托品扩瞳验光结果对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊芳; 陶利娟; 漆争艳; 郭燕; 罗俊; 肖志刚

    2009-01-01

    目的:了解5g/L托吡卡胺滴眼液与10g/L阿托品眼膏扩瞳对不同年龄阶段儿童验光结果的影响.方法:对 212例疑屈光不正儿童先用5g/L托吡卡胺滴眼液扩瞳验光;待瞳孔恢复,再用10g/L阿托品眼膏扩瞳验光,比较两种扩瞳方法的结果.结果:远视组:球镜:相同5.6%,差异≥0.25DS者94.4%,柱镜:相同32.2%,差异≥0.25DC者67.8%,球、柱镜均以10g/L阿托品眼膏扩瞳高于5g/L托吡卡胺滴眼液扩瞳验光结果;各年龄组之间两两比较,具有显著统计学意义(P=0.000,P<0.01);近视组:球镜:相同者为10.7%,有不同程度的差异占89.3%;柱镜:相同者为26.7%,有不同程度的差异占73.3%,球、柱镜均以5g/L托吡卡胺滴眼液扩瞳高于10g/L阿托品眼膏扩瞳验光结果;混合散光组:球镜:33眼中有不同程度的差异占100.0%,以差异最大值为1.25DS,柱镜:33眼中两种扩瞳方法结果相同者40.0%,差异0.25~0.5DC者60.0%.结论:为确保验光结果的准确性,远视和混合散光12岁以内的儿童必须用10g/L阿托品眼膏扩瞳验光.

  4. 阿托品两种给药方法的效果比较%Effect Comparison on Two Ways of Drug Administration of Atropine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀琴

    2002-01-01

    @@ 有机磷农药中毒是临床上常见的急性中毒之一[1].有机磷农药中毒的特效解毒剂为胆碱酯酶复能剂及抗胆碱药物阿托品,阿托品的剂量、给药时间直接关系到抢救治疗效果.我们将传统的人工定时静脉注射方法改为微量泵持续匀速注射法,取得了较好的效果,现总结如下:

  5. Drug: D03814 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03814 Drug Atropine methylbromide (JAN) C18H26NO3. Br 383.1096 384.3079 D03814.gif...BB02 Methylatropine D03814 Atropine methylbromide (JAN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Gastrointestina...l Agents Antispasmodics, Gastrointestinal Atropine D03814 Atropine methylbromide ...K04132 K04133] Atropine [ATC:A03BA01 S01FA01] D03814 Atropine methylbromide (JAN) CAS: 2870-71-5 PubChem: 47

  6. Effect of Atropine and Compound Tropicamide on Mydriatic Refractometry in Juvenile with Ametropia%不同年龄段青少年散瞳验光药品选择效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何炯; 罗红

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨用复方托品酰胺滴眼液和阿托品眼药水在不同年龄段青少年散瞳验光的效果.方法:80例屈光不正患者,随机分为Ⅰ组(5~10岁)和Ⅱ组(11~20岁),每组各40例,80根,对两组患者均行复方托品酰胺滴眼液和阿托品散瞳后,比较2种药物散瞳验光的结果.结果:5~10岁屈光不正青少年远视占多数,11~20岁则以近视多见.Ⅰ组患者采用托品酰胺与阿托品散瞳后验光的结果有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:阿托品对于5~10岁屈光不正患者散瞳验光较准确;复方托品酰胺是11~20岁屈光不正患者散瞳验光的理想药物,对这类患者可以先用复方托品酰胺散瞳,如果效果不满意再改用阿托品.

  7. 青少年阿托品和复方托品酰胺散瞳验光效果临床观察%Effects of atropine and compound tropicamide on mydriatic refractometry in juvenile with ametropia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任志凤; 马蕾

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨阿托品和复方托品酰胺在青少年散瞳验光中的实用价值.方法 对青少年屈光不正患者40例,按年龄分为Ⅰ组(5-10岁)和Ⅱ组(11-20岁),每组各20例,40眼,对两组患者均行复方托品酰胺和1%阿托品散瞳后,对其验光结果进行对照观察.结果 Ⅰ组两种药物有统计学意义,P<0.01.Ⅱ组两种药物无统计学意义,P>0.05.结论 对于5-10岁屈光不正患者阿托品散瞳验光较准确,11-20岁屈光不正患者可以先用复方托品酰胺散瞳后验光.

  8. 阿托品与美多丽-P在学龄期儿童扩瞳验光中的比较%Comparative Study between Mydrin-P and Atropine in Mydriatic Refractometry In the School-age Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    渠继芳

    2010-01-01

    目的:比较两种睫状肌麻痹剂在学龄期儿童扩瞳验光后的验光数值和舒适度.方法:96名学龄期儿童,192眼.每例先后用美多丽-P及1%阿托品扩瞳验光取得验光数值与舒适度值,做自身对照.结果:球镜结采相差0.25D以内的总计有180眼,占93.75%;球镜结果相差0.25D或以上的总计有12眼,占6.25%.用配对t检验,P>0.05.舒适度统计,1%阿托品组为105分;美多丽-P组为2分. t检验,P<0.01.结论:美多丽-P眼水用于学龄期儿童屈光不正的扩瞳验光准确度高,并且使用方便,舒适度高.

  9. 复方托吡卡胺和硫酸阿托品在儿童散瞳验光中的效果评价%Application of compound tropicamide and atropine in mydriatic refractometry for ametropia children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳; 丁莉莉; 杨丽萍; 曹茜

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价复方托吡卡胺和硫酸阿托品在儿童散瞳验光中的效果.方法 随机抽取屈光不正儿童126例(252眼),年龄4 ~18岁,按年龄分为A组(<8岁)40例(近视22例,远视18例)、B组(8~12岁)48例(近视33例,远视15例)、C组(>12岁)38例(近视21例,远视17例).所有患儿先后使用复方托吡卡胺眼液和阿托品凝胶散瞳后行电脑验光并记录屈光度.用配对t检验分析其统计学意义.结果 复方托吡卡胺眼液和阿托品眼凝胶对儿童远视屈光不正散瞳后,A、B组患者所得的屈光度值比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),C组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);对儿童近视屈光不正散瞳后,A组患者使用2种散瞳方法所得的屈光度值比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),B、C组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 阿托品散瞳验光对8岁以下近视患儿和12岁以下远视患儿的验光是必要的.

  10. 浅析急性有机磷中毒中阿托品的应用%The Simple Analisis About the Application of Atropine in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秀玲

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨急性有机磷中毒(AOPP)中阿托品的应用.方法:根据AOPP的诊断分级应用阿托品.结果:治愈21例;死亡2例,均死于呼吸衰竭.结论:在治疗AOPP时应密切注意阿托品的应用和可能出现的情况,增加治愈率.

  11. Drug: D07477 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiary amines A03BA01 Atropine D07477 Atropine oxide (INN) USP drug clas...DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES,

  12. Drug: D03863 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03863 Mixture, Drug Opium alkaloids and atropine injection (JP16); Opium alkaloids hydr...ochloride - atropine sulfate hydrate mixt; Opiato (TN) Opium alkaloids hydrochlorides [DR:D03445], Atro...pine sulfate [DR:D02069] Therapeutic category: 8119 Injection Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br0

  13. Drug: D02273 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02273 Mixture, Drug Isoproterenol sulfate - dexamethasone - atropine methybromide ...mixt; Stmerin D (TN) Isoproterenol sulfate [DR:D02066], Atropine methylbromide [DR:D03814], Dexamethasone [D...9 Others D02273 Isoproterenol sulfate - dexamethasone - atropine methybromide mixt PubChem: 7849332 ...

  14. Comparison of tropicamide and atropine ophthalmic solution in mydriatic refractometry for juvenile hyperopia%应用托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对青少年远视散瞳验光的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国兴; 张颐

    2004-01-01

    目的:对比托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对青少年远视散瞳验光的结果.方法:用托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对143眼青少年远视进行散瞳视网膜检影验光.结果:143眼远视球镜度数两次验光结果相同和相差≤0.50D者93眼、相差0.75D以上者50眼、远视球镜度数符合率为65.0%,78眼复性远视柱镜度数2次验光结果相同和相差≤0.50D者为71眼、相差0.75D以上者7眼、复性远视柱镜度数符合率为91.0%,散光轴向符合率为82.1%.本组资料2种不同散瞳剂散瞳验光结果对比远视球镜或复性远视柱镜度数相差0.75D以上者均为托吡卡胺低于阿托品散瞳验光的度数.结论:青少年远视患者睫状肌调节力大,对青少年远视患者应用托吡卡胺散瞳验光仍可存留部分调节的隐性远视的屈光度数.阿托品眼液用于青少年远视散瞳验光麻痹睫状肌彻底,可暴露全部的远视度数.对青少年远视仍以阿托品眼液散瞳验光为宜.

  15. 盐酸环喷托酯和阿托品在学龄儿童散瞳验光中的比较性研究%Comparison of Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride and Atropine for school-age children with hyperopia in mydriatic refractometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宇; 刘意; 周利晓; 郭娟

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较3~7岁远视儿童应用1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液与1%阿托品滴眼液散瞳后验光的屈光度值.方法 2012年7月-12月来郑州大学第五附属医院眼科就诊患儿,将符合条件的36例患儿分成2组,第1组给予1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液滴眼液散瞳,每10min点药1次,共2次,第2次给药后1h进行检影验光,将患儿屈光检查结果进行记录;第2组应用1%阿托品眼药水,用阿托品前,排除患儿对该药物过敏,每天3次点眼,每次1滴,共3d,第4d进行检影验光,将患儿屈光检查的结果进行记录;屈光度按等效球镜值计算,应用t检验和x2检验对数据进行处理.结果 应用1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液麻痹前的等效球镜屈光度为(+3.16±1.12)D,麻痹后为(+4.77±1.62)D;应用1%阿托品滴眼液麻痹前的等效球镜屈光度为(+3.32±1.33)D,麻痹后为(+5.65±1.51)D;两种药物麻痹前后度数差异比较有统计学意义(P<0.05);根据患儿的小瞳状态的屈光度分成了两组,一组为屈光度数≥+ 3.00D(15眼),小瞳状态下屈光度为(+4.19±1.03)D,采用1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液麻痹后,屈光度为(+4.68±1.61)D,待瞳孔完全恢复后采用1%阿托品麻痹后,屈光度为(+5.47±1.23)D;另一组屈光度数< +3.00D(14眼),小瞳状态下屈光度为(+2.34±0.61)D,采用1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液麻痹后,屈光度为(+3.05±1.05)D,待瞳孔完全恢复后采用1%阿托品麻痹后,屈光度为(+3.16±1.09)D.通过两种药物麻痹前后度数差异比较,发现屈光度≥+ 3.00D患者采用1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液与1%阿托品麻痹前后屈光度的变化差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);屈光度< +3.00D患者麻痹前后屈光度差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论 对于3~7岁的远视儿童尤其是屈光度数超过+3.00D,应该首选1%阿托品滴眼液散瞳,+3.00D以下可考虑1%盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液散瞳.

  16. Alterações cardiovasculares de gatos submetidos à toracotomia intercostal, pré-medicados com associação de tramadol, butorfanol e atropina e anestesiados com propofol e halotano Cardiovascular changes in cats submitted to intercostal thoracotomy, premedication with association tramadol, butorphanol, atropine, anesthetised with propofol and halothane

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Tabarelli Brondani; Cláudio Corrêa Natalini; João Eduardo Wallau Schossler; Saulo Tadeu Lemos Pinto Filho; Adriana Paula Bertin

    2003-01-01

    A toracotomia é um procedimento cirúrgico que produz estímulo doloroso intenso. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito cardiovascular da associação tramadol, butorfanol e atropina na medicação pré-anestésica de gatos anestesiados com propofol e halotano. Doze animais, SRD, machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 2,7 ± 0,62kg receberam como medicação pré-anestésica (MPA), a associação de tramadol (2,0mg kg-1), butorfanol (0,4mg kg-1) e atropina (0,044mg kg-1), via intramuscular. Trinta minut...

  17. Induces vasodilatation of rat mesenteric artery in vitro mainly by inhibiting receptor-mediated Ca(2+)-influx and Ca(2+)-release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yong-Xiao; Zheng, Jian-Pu; He, Jian-Yu;

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of atropine on peripheral vasodilation and the mechanisms involved. The isometric tension of rat mesenteric artery rings was recorded in vitro on a myograph. The results showed that atropine, at concentrations greater than 1 microM, relaxed...... the contraction derived from NA and CaCI2 in Ca(2+)-free medium, in a concentration dependent manner, indicating the vasodilatation was related to the inhibition of extracellular Ca2+ influx through the receptor-operated calcium channels and intracellular Ca2+ release from the Ca2+ store. Atropine had no effect...... on the caffeine-induced contraction in the artery segments, indicating the inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ release as a result of atropine most likely occurs via the IP3 pathway rather than the ryanodine receptors. Our results suggest that atropine-induced vasodilatation is mainly from artery smooth muscle cells...

  18. Effects of single or repeated administration of a carbamate, propoxur, and an organophosphate, DDVP, on jejunal cholinergic activities and contractile responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Sato, I; Akatsu, Y; Fujii, S; Suzuki, T; Matsusaka, N; Yuyama, A

    1994-01-01

    Wistar rats were injected once or repeatedly for 10 days with dichlorvos (DDVP, 5 mg kg-1), propoxur (10 mg kg-1), oxotremorine (0.1 mg kg-1) or atropine (5 mg kg-1). Animals were killed 20 min or 24 h after single or consecutive injections, respectively, for determinations of cholinergic activities and contractile responses to acetylcholine (ACh) of the jejunum. Single treatments: while DDVP and propoxur decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, oxotremorine and atropine did not. Although DDVP, propoxur and oxotremorine increased levels of ACh, atropine decreased them. Contractile responses to ACh were enhanced by DDVP and reduced by oxotremorine and atropine. The Bmax value of binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate (QNB) to muscarinic ACh receptors was decreased by atropine. Consecutive treatments: DDVP and oxotremorine decreased AChE activity markedly and slightly, respectively. Although DDVP and oxotremorine increased levels of ACh, propoxur decreased them. Without affecting the contractile responses, DDVP caused a reduction and propoxur and atropine caused an increase in the Bmax value for binding of [3H]QNB. Both the contractile responses and the value of Bmax for binding of [3H]-QNB were decreased by oxotremorine. In summary, propoxur and DDVP showed similar effects mainly through their anticholinesterase properties in the case of single injection, but DDVP had similar effects to those of oxotremorine and propoxur had similar effects to those of atropine in the case of repeated injection.

  19. The protective effects of total phenols in magnolia officinalix rehd. et wils on gastrointestinal tract dysmotility is mainly based on its influence on interstitial cells of cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Huang, Dazhi; Li, Tao; Huang, Lihua; Zheng, Xingguang; Tang, Danxia; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils is a kind of herb which is widely used for gastrointestinal tract mobility disorder in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated whether the total phenols of Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils (TPM) treatment improves gastrointestinal tract dysmobility induced by intraperitoneal injection of atropine (5 mg/kg) in rats. Rats were randomly grouped into three units: TPM-pretreated/atropine-treated group, atropinetreated group and control group. TPM were administrated for 7 days. Gastric residual rate and intestinal transit were measured 20 min after atropine injected, and gastrointestinal hormones (including: gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL), somatostatin (SS) and p substance (PS) levels in serum were also measured by ELISA kits. The number and distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in stomach were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis, while c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF) expressions in stomach were also measured by western blotting. We found that TPM pretreatment significantly improved atropine-induced gastric residual rate increase, while had no significantly effects on intestinal transit; it also significantly normalized GAS, MTL and PS serum levels. Atropine-induced ICCs numbers decreased in both sinuses ventriculi and body of stomach, which is improved by TPM pretreatment. Western blotting results showed the expressions of c-kit and SCF were down-regulated after atropine injection, which can be reversed with TPM pretreatment. These results above indicates that TPM treatment can significantly protected atropine-induced gastric dysmoblility, which may owed to its regulation on c-kit/SCF signing pathway.

  20. Evaluation of the benefit of the bispyridinium compound MB327 for the antidotal treatment of nerve agent-poisoned mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Pohanka, Miroslav; Timperley, Christopher M; Bird, Mike; Green, A Christopher; Tattersall, John E H

    2016-06-01

    The potency of the bispyridinium non-oxime compound MB327 [1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium) diiodide] to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the standard antidotal treatment (atropine in combination with an oxime) of acute poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents was studied in vivo. The therapeutic efficacy of atropine alone - or atropine in combination with an oxime, MB327, or both an oxime and MB237 - was evaluated by the determination of LD50 values of several nerve agents (tabun, sarin and soman) in mice with and without treatment. The addition of MB327 increased the therapeutic efficacy of atropine alone, and atropine in combination with an oxime, against all three nerve agents, although differences in the LD50 values only reached statistical significance for sarin. In conclusion, the addition of the compound MB327 to the standard antidotal treatment of acute poisonings with nerve agents was beneficial regardless of the chemical structure of the nerve agent, although at the dose employed, MB327 in combination with atropine, or atropine and an oxime, provided only a modest increase in protection ratio. These results from mice, and previous ones from guinea-pigs, provide consistent evidence for additional, albeit modest, efficacy resulting from the inclusion of the antinicotinic compound MB327 in standard antidotal therapy. Given the typically steep probit slope for the dose-lethality relationship for nerve agents, such modest increases in protection ratio could provide significant survival benefit.

  1. Motility of the distal portion of the jejunum and pelvic flexure in ponies: effects of six drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S B; Lamar, C H; Masty, J

    1984-04-01

    Bipolar stainless steel electrodes were surgically implanted in 4 ponies to record myoelectrical and mechanical activity of the distal portion of the jejunum and pelvic flexure. After determining normal activity, the effects of neostigmine, xylazine, flunixin meglumine, dipyrone, panthenol, and atropine sulfate were determined. Flunixin meglumine, dipyrone, and panthenol had no effect on the motility of the jejunum or pelvic flexure. Xylazine and atropine sulfate decreased motility of the distal portion of the jejunum and pelvic flexure, with atropine sulfate having a greater effect and lasting longer. Neostigmine stimulated propulsive motility in the pelvic flexure only. PMID:6731996

  2. Effect of autonomic blocking agents and structurally related substances on the “salt arousal of drinking”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wied, D. de

    1966-01-01

    The effect of autonomic blocking agents and structurally related substances was studied in rats in which thirst was produced by the administration of a hypertonic sodium chloride solution. Scopolamine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, chlorpromazine, atropine, mecamylamine, hexamethonium, nethalide, in

  3. Effects of various drugs on canine tracheal mucociliary transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the effects of dehydration, atropine, terbutaline and N-acetylcysteine on canine tracheobronchial mucus is presented. Mucociliary clearance rates, mucus secretion volumes and mucus rheologic properties were studied. Clearance rates were studied by a radioisotope technique mucus collected by a canine Tracheal pouch method and rheologic studies performed on a microrheometer. Clearance rate was unaffected by dehydration and terbutaline, increased by N-acetylcysteine and decreased by atropine. Secretion volume was increased by terbutaline while dehydration and atropine were without effect. Rheologic factors were increased by dehydration and atropine while terbutaline was without an effect. The effects of N-acetylcysteine on secretion volume and rheologic properties could not be studied because of the nature of the techniques employed

  4. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... atropine (Lomotil) Read more about antidiarrheal agents. Anti-anxiety medications – can be helpful for some people with ... who specializes in motility or stress-related gastrointestinal disorders. More complex medication regimens, and specialized motility and/ ...

  5. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... atropine (Lomotil) Read more about antidiarrheal agents. Anti-anxiety medications – can be helpful for some people with ... by a physician who specializes in motility or stress-related gastrointestinal disorders. More complex medication regimens, and ...

  6. Effect of Chronic Neuroleptic Treatment on Central and Peripheral Muscarinic Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Cawley, Thomas A.; Shickley, Timothy J.; Ruggieri, Michael R.; LUTHIN, GARY R.

    1993-01-01

    The regulation of muscarinic acetyicholine receptor (MAChR) subtypes in rat striatum, bladder and heart was examined following a 14-day administration of neuroleptics (clozapine or fluphenazine), anticholinergics (atropine) or a combination of anticholinergics and neuroleptics. Levels of MAChRs were ascertained by the use of immunoprecipitation and radioligand binding. The combined treatment of fluphenazine and atropine produced an increase in all MAChR subtype levels in striatum with m1 rece...

  7. A preliminary trial comparison of several anesthetic techniques in cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, M. L.; Luna, S P; de Castro, G B; Massone, F; Rosa, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of several drug combinations (atropine, xylazine, romifidine, methotrimeprazine, midazolam, or fentanyl) with ketamine for short term anesthesia in cats. Twelve cats were anesthetized 6 times by using a cross-over Latin square protocol: methotrimeprazine was combined with midazolam, ketamine, and fentanyl; midazolam and ketamine; romifidine and ketamine; and xylazine and ketamine. Atropine was combined with romifidine and ketamine, and xylaz...

  8. The role of protein kinase-G in the antidepressant-like response of sildenafil in combination with muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebenberg, Nico; Wegener, Gregers; Brink, Christiaan;

    2010-01-01

    .c.v.) ± atropine (1 mg/kg, i.p.), Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMP or atropine. Antidepressant-like activity was scored in terms of a reduction of immobility (in seconds) relative to vehicle-treated controls. Swimming and climbing behaviours were scored as an indication of serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms, respectively....... Locomotor activity (measured in terms of the number of line crosses) was assessed in an open field immediately prior to the final swim session. Results Sildenafil + atropine reduced immobility relative to vehicle control, and comparable to the effect of imipramine, whereas both drugs were devoid of any...... effect when administered alone. 8-Br-cGMP significantly reduced immobility with or without atropine. Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMP prevented the anti-immobility effect of 8-Br-cGMP as well as that of sildenafil + atropine, and was without effect on its own. Swimming was increased by 8-Br-cGMP with or without atropine...

  9. The protective effects of total phenols in magnolia officinalix rehd. et wils on gastrointestinal tract dysmotility is mainly based on its influence on interstitial cells of cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Huang, Dazhi; Li, Tao; Huang, Lihua; Zheng, Xingguang; Tang, Danxia; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils is a kind of herb which is widely used for gastrointestinal tract mobility disorder in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated whether the total phenols of Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils (TPM) treatment improves gastrointestinal tract dysmobility induced by intraperitoneal injection of atropine (5 mg/kg) in rats. Rats were randomly grouped into three units: TPM-pretreated/atropine-treated group, atropinetreated group and control group. TPM were administrated for 7 days. Gastric residual rate and intestinal transit were measured 20 min after atropine injected, and gastrointestinal hormones (including: gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL), somatostatin (SS) and p substance (PS) levels in serum were also measured by ELISA kits. The number and distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in stomach were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis, while c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF) expressions in stomach were also measured by western blotting. We found that TPM pretreatment significantly improved atropine-induced gastric residual rate increase, while had no significantly effects on intestinal transit; it also significantly normalized GAS, MTL and PS serum levels. Atropine-induced ICCs numbers decreased in both sinuses ventriculi and body of stomach, which is improved by TPM pretreatment. Western blotting results showed the expressions of c-kit and SCF were down-regulated after atropine injection, which can be reversed with TPM pretreatment. These results above indicates that TPM treatment can significantly protected atropine-induced gastric dysmoblility, which may owed to its regulation on c-kit/SCF signing pathway. PMID:26884941

  10. An olfactory ‘stress test’ may detect preclinical Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Peter W

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The olfactory bulb (OB receives extensive cholinergic input from the basal forebrain and is affected very early in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. We speculated that an olfactory ‘stress test’ (OST, targeting the OB, might be used to unmask incipient AD. We investigated if change in olfactory performance following intranasal atropine was associated with several known antecedents or biomarkers of AD. Methods We measured change in performance on the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT in the left nostril before (20-items and after (remaining 20-items intranasal administration of 1 mg of atropine. We administered cognitive tests, measured hippocampal volume from MRI scans and recorded Apolipoprotein E genotype as indices relevant to underlying AD. Results In a convenience sample of 56 elderly individuals (14 probable AD, 13 cognitive impairment no dementia, 29 cognitively intact the change in UPSIT score after atropine (‘atropine effect’ = AE correlated significantly with demographically scaled episodic memory score (r = 0.57, p Conclusions The OST using atropine as an olfactory probe holds promise as a simple, inexpensive screen for early and preclinical AD and further work, including longitudinal studies, is needed to explore this possibility.

  11. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli Prevents Severe Scalds-Induced Gut Ischemia and Paralysis by Activating the Cholinergic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries may result in gastrointestinal paralysis, and barrier dysfunction due to gut ischemia and lowered vagus excitability. In this study we investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA at Zusanli (ST36 could prevent severe scalds-induced gut ischemia, paralysis, and barrier dysfunction and whether the protective role of EA at ST36 is related to the vagus nerve. 35% burn area rats were divided into six groups: (a EAN: EA nonchannel acupoints followed by scald injury; (b EA: EA at ST36 after scald injury; (c VGX/EA: vagotomy (VGX before EA at ST36 and scald injury; (d VGX/EAN: VGX before EAN and scald injury; (e atropine/EA: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at ST36; (f atropine/EAN: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at nonchannel acupoints. EA at the Zusanli point significantly promoted the intestinal impelling ratio and increased the amount of mucosal blood flow after scald injury. The plasma diamine oxidase (DAO and intestinal permeability decreased significantly after scald injury in the EA group compared with others. However, EA after atropine injection or cervical vagotomy failed to improve intestinal motility and mucosa blood flow suggesting that the mechanism of EA may be related to the activation of the cholinergic nerve pathway.

  12. Relationship between PI decomposition and M3R expression in human cultured detrusor muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢根生; 宋波; 金锡御; 熊恩庆

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the expression of muscarinic receptor subtype M3R and the decomposition of phosphatidylinositol (PI). Methods: The [3H]-IP contents were detected with [3H] incorporation in human cultured detrusor muscle cells after being stimulated by carbachol, atropine, methoctramine, and 4-DAMP, respectively. Results: The [3H]-IP contents were increased with the elevation of carbachol concentration. Both atropine and 4-DAMP significantly inhibited the effect of carbachol on PI decomposition (P<0.01), but methoctramine did not. No significant difference was seen in the effect of atropine and 4-DAMP on PI decomposition. Conclusion: M3R is closely related to the decomposition of PI, the second messenger molecule IP3.

  13. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m3 of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure

  14. Hippocampal formation is involved in movement selection: evidence from medial septal cholinergic modulation and concurrent slow-wave (theta rhythm) recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddie, S D; Kirk, I J; Whishaw, I Q; Bland, B H

    1997-11-01

    Hippocampal rhythmical slow-wave field activity which occurs in response to sensory stimulation is predominantly cholinergic (atropine-sensitive theta rhythm), can precede movement initiation, and co-occurs during non-cholinergic theta rhythm associated with ongoing movement (atropine-resistant). This relationship suggests that theta rhythm plays some role in movement control. The present naturalistic experiments tested the idea that atropine-sensitive theta rhythm plays a role in sensory integration and planning required for initiating appropriate movements. One of a pair of hungry rats, the victim, implanted with hippocampal field recording electrodes, a septal injection cannula, and a posterior hypothalamic stimulating electrode, was given food which the other, the robber, tries to steal. Since the victim dodges from the robber with a latency, distance, and velocity dependent upon the size of the food, elapsed eating time, and proximity of the robber, the movement requires sensory integration and planning. Although eating behavior seemed normal, atropine-sensitive theta rhythm and dodging were disrupted by an infusion of a cholinergic antagonist into the medial septum. When the victim in turn attempted to steal the food back, Type 1 theta rhythm was present and robbery attempts seemed normal. Prior to cholinergic blockade, posterior hypothalamic stimulation produced theta rhythm and dodges, even in the absence of the robber, but following injections, atropine-sensitive theta rhythm and dodging were absent as the animals dropped the food and ran. The results provide the first evidence to link atropine-sensitive theta rhythm and hippocampal structures to a role in sensory integration and planning for the initiation of movement. PMID:9404626

  15. Regulation of bile duct motility by vagus and sympathetic nerves in the pigeon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neya,Toshiaki

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of stimulation of the vagus and sympathetic nerves on bile duct peristalses were studied in pigeons anesthetized with urethane. Vagus stimulation increased the frequency of peristalses. Atropine, hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin abolished this excitatory effect. After atropine, inhibition of peristalses sensitive to tetrodotoxin was produced. Stimulation of sympathetic area in the spinal cord inhibited peristalses. Propranolol converted this effect into an excitatory one, which was abolished by phentolamine. The results suggest that vagal and sympathetic innervations of the bile duct in pigeons are similar to those of the sphincter of Oddi in mammalian species.

  16. Analisis Gas Darah pada Kucing yang Mengalami Laparohisterotomi dengan Anestesi Xylazin-Ketamin dan Xylazin-Propofol (BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS OF XYLAZIN- KETAMIN AND XYLAZIN-PROPOFOL FOR ANESTHESIA TO LAPARO-HISTEROTOMY SURGERY IN CAT)

    OpenAIRE

    Ira Sari Yudaniayanti; Nusdianto Triakoso; Djoko Galijono

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the safety application of xylazine-ketamine and xylazinepropofolrecurrent dosage combination as anesthesia for laparo-histerotomy surgery in cat. Thisresearch used 10 female cats, 12-18 months of age, followed randomly divided into two groups, P1:atropine 0,04 mg/kgBW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + ketamine 20 mg/kg BW/IM; P2 : atropine0,04mg/kg BW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + Propofol 20 mg/kg BW/IV. The blood of the allgroups was taken from vena femural...

  17. Central Anticholinergic Syndrome due to Hypoxia-Induced Bradycardia in a Child with Difficult Intubation Undergoing Complete Dental Restoration: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharavifard, Mohamad; Razavi, Majid; Ghandehari Motlagh, Mehdi; Ziyaeifard, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    Central anticholinergic syndrome (CAS) following general anesthesia (GA) is a well known syndrome in children and adults. Many cases of CAS have been previously reported in the literature. However, there are only two reports of post resuscitation CAS after administration of small doses of atropine. Hereby, we report a case of CAS in a child undergoing complete dental restoration under GA after receiving a small dose of atropine to reverse hypoxia induced bradycardia. Intraoperative events such as hypoxia or cardiac arrest may play a role as triggers for CAS. However, we cannot establish a causal relationship between the occurrence of CAS and such critical events.

  18. Central Anticholinergic Syndrome due to Hypoxia-Induced Bradycardia in a Child with Difficult Intubation Undergoing Complete Dental Restoration: A Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Gharavifard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Central anticholinergic syndrome (CAS following general anesthesia (GA is a well known syndrome in children and adults. Many cases of CAS have been previously reported in the literature. However, there are only two reports of post resuscitation CAS after administration of small doses of atropine. Hereby, we report a case of CAS in a child undergoing complete dental restoration under GA after receiving a small dose of atropine to reverse hypoxia induced bradycardia. Intraoperative events such as hypoxia or cardiac arrest may play a role as triggers for CAS. However, we cannot establish a causal relationship between the occurrence of CAS and such critical events.

  19. ECG changes during cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Itoh, K.; Hayashi, N.; Aoki, J.; Nakamura, K.; Imai, M.; Ono, T.; Morikawa, S.

    1984-09-01

    We have analyzed HR changes greater than 20% among 334 patients and 942 cerebral angiographies. A tachycardial effect was seen in 14.9% of patients, while a bradycardial effect was seen in 7.1% including two patients having cardiac standstill (0.5%). These two patients were examined without atropine premedication after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patients under 19 years of age, unpremedicated with atropine sulfate and suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation showed a significantly high incidence of bradycardia. On the other hand, patients with the neoplastic disease and having an initial sinus bradycardia showed a significantly high incidence of a tachycardial effect.

  20. Avian Imc-tectal projection is mediated by acetylcholine and glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S R; Wu, G Y; Felix, D

    1995-03-27

    In the bird, biochemical and histochemical data suggest that the neurotransmitter between nucleus isthmi pars magnocellularis (Imc) and tectum is either acetylcholine or glutamate. There are, however, discrepancies regarding the functional role of acetylcholine. In the present study we investigated the action of acetylcholine and glutamate and their specific antagonists on excitatory isthmo-tectal synaptic transmission using electrophysiological and microiontophoretic techniques. The results show two different population of cells: (1) excitatory cholinergic input, blocked by atropine sulphate but not by glutamate antagonist; (2) excitatory glutamatergic input of NMDA or non-NMDA receptor type, which is blocked or reduced by CPP or CNQX but not by atropine sulphate.

  1. The relationship between respiratory sinus arrhythmia and heart rate during anesthesia in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, M; Spulber, S; Saravan, V;

    2004-01-01

    rats, slowing of HR is associated with an increase in HF. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this relationship between HF and HR is preserved during anesthesia in rat. A 15 minutes long ECG signal was recorded from rats (N=15) under moderate chloral hydrate (CHL) anesthesia. Recordings......) the decrease in HR that occurs during CHL anesthesia in rat correlates with an increase in RSA; (2) atropine reduces RSA and the time-dependent decrease in HR; (3) the time-dependent increase in RSA is preserved after atropine. We conclude that the correlation between RSA and HR reflects the cardio...

  2. The TRPA1 Activator Allyl Isothiocyanate (AITC) Contracts Human Jejunal Muscle: Pharmacological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Zsolt; Dekany, Andras; Kelemen, Dezsö; Bencsik, Timea; Papp, Robert; Bartho, Lorand

    2016-09-01

    The contractile effect of AITC (300 μM) on human jejunal longitudinal strips was inhibited by the TRPA1 antagonist HC 030031 and atropine or scopolamine, but was insensitive to tetrodotoxin, purinoceptor antagonists or capsaicin desensitization. It is concluded that TRPA1 activation stimulates a cholinergic mechanism in a tetrodotoxin-resistant manner. PMID:26928772

  3. Interactions between chemical and electrical kindling of the rat amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, C G; Morin, A M; Jonec, V

    1982-09-16

    Holtzman rats were implanted with a chemitrode into the left basolateral amygdala, which could then be stimulated electrically (400 microA, 1 s, AC) or chemically by injection of carbachol (1 microliter, 2.7 nmoles, sterile, isotonic). Group A received a daily injection of carbachol and developed kindled seizures. Group B received carbachol mixed with equimolar atropine, which blocked seizures and kindling. After 20 injections, both groups were stimulated electrically once a day and kindled at similar rates. Two additional groups received electrical or sham stimulation, followed by carbachol kindling. No transfer effects were observed. Four additional groups received 27 nmoles of atropine through the chemitrode, followed 15 min later by electrical stimulation, sham stimulation, carbachol injection or saline injection, respectively. Atropine completely blocked carbachol kindling but did not alter the rate of electrical kindling. No different in the number of QNB binding sites was observed in the amygdala of rats sacrificed two weeks after full electrical kindling. The lack of interaction between electrical and carbachol kindling and the failure of atropine to block electrical kindling of the amygdala suggest that the activation of local muscarinic synapses, while essential for carbachol kindling, is not required for electrical kindling of the rat amygdala.

  4. Evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness of ophthalmic drops according to the pharmacopeial tests criteria

    OpenAIRE

    N Samadi; Tarighi, P.; M.R Fazeli; H Mehrgan

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In this study antimicrobial effectiveness test was performed on eye-drops which had high microbial contaminations in hospital practice to find out whether their antimicrobial efficacies affect the magnitude of microbial contamination during their uses. Materials and Methods: Artificial tear, atropine sulfate, betamethasone, homatropine hydrobromide, phenylephrine hydrochloride, phenylephrine zinc, pilocarpine hydrochloride, tetracaine hydrochloride and tropicamide eye-dro...

  5. Phenytoin in treatment of amiodarone-induced Torsades de pointes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibal Mukhopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin, a class IB anti-arrhythmic agent, is considered the drug of choice for ventricular arrhythmias due to digoxin toxicity. We report successful reversion of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia secondary to amiodarone toxicity by phenytoin administration that was resistant to the conventional drugs (magnesium sulphate, lidocaine and atropine.

  6. RODENT BIODISTRIBUTION AND METABOLISM OF TRITIATED 4-DAMP, A M(3) SUBTYPE-SELECTIVE CHOLINOCEPTOR LIGAND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWAARDE, A; BOUWER, J; PAANS, AM; VAALBURG, W; Visser, Thomas; Visser, Gerben

    1994-01-01

    The biodistribution of [H-3]4-DAMP (a M(3)-selective cholinoceptor antagonist) was studied in rats which had received either saline or saline containing atropine (to block cholinoceptors). Specific binding of the radioligand was observed in the urinary bladder, ileum, pancreas, stomach, submandibula

  7. Innovations in Stroke Prevention: An Update on Carotid Stenting

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... up -- come down with a very quick inflation time. If they're bradycardic to start with, heart rate less than 70 or so, I tend to give a half an amp or half a milligram of atropine prophylactically once I'm sure they're adequate volume on board. So I mean, those are things that I ...

  8. Acute effects of food, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and noradrenaline on metabolic rate and brown adipose tissue in normal and atropinised lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, N J; Saville, M E; Stock, M J

    1981-12-01

    1. Intragastric feeding (40 kJ) produced a 17% rise in metabolic rate in lean Zucker rats but only an 8% increase in obese (fa/fa) rats, and both of these responses were significantly reduced by beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol (10 mg/kg, s.c.). 2. Parasympathetic blockade with atropine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) caused a doubling of the response to food in lean rats and a threefold increase in the obese mutants, such that all atropinised animals showed the same increase in metabolic rate after food. 3. Feeding also caused a significant rise in interscapular brown adipose tissue temperature, which was greatest in the lean animals and was enhanced by atropine in both groups. 4. Injection of noradrenaline (250 micrograms/kg, s.c.) caused a similar (40%) rise in metabolic rate in lean and obese animals but this response was unaffected by atropine. 5. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose injection (360 mg/kg, s.c.) depressed oxygen consumption by 25 and 8% in lean and obese rats respectively and this effect was totally abolished by atropine. 6. These results suggest that the rise in metabolic rate after a meal is partly due to sympathetic activation of brown adipose tissue. The reduced thermic response in obese Zucker rats is not due to insensitivity to noradrenaline, but may be partly due to parasympathetic inhibition of thermogenesis and partly to insensitivity to glucose availability. PMID:7322844

  9. REM sleep pathways and anticholinesterase intoxication: A mechanism for nerve agent-induced, central respiratory failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kok

    1993-01-01

    The mechanism of death following exposure to anticholinesterases, such as the highly toxic nerve agents soman and VX, and other organophosphate anticholinesterases such as the insecticide parathion, remains unclear, although evidence from nerve agent research suggests that death occurs by an atropin

  10. A comparison of the neuroprotective efficacy of individual oxime (HI-6) and combinations of oximes (HI-6+trimedoxime, HI-6+K203) in soman-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Tesarova, Sandra

    2011-07-01

    The ability of two combinations of oximes (HI-6+trimedoxime, HI-6+K203) to reduce soman-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with the neuroprotective efficacy of the oxime HI-6 alone, using a functional observational battery. Soman-induced neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective effects of HI-6 alone and HI-6 combined with trimedoxime or K203 in rats poisoned with soman at a sublethal dose (90 μg/kg intramuscularly, i.m.; 80% of LD₅₀ value) were monitored by the functional observational battery at 24 hours following soman administration. The results indicate that both tested oxime mixtures combined with atropine were able to allow soman-poisoned rats to survive 24 hours following soman challenge, while 4 nontreated soman-poisoned rats and 1 soman-poisoned rat treated with oxime HI-6 alone combined with atropine died within 24 hours following soman poisoning. While the oxime HI-6 alone combined with atropine treatment was able to eliminate a few soman-induced neurotoxic signs and symptoms, both oxime mixtures showed higher neuroprotective efficacy in soman-poisoned rats. Especially, the combination of HI-6 with trimedoxime was able to eliminate most soman-induced neurotoxic signs and symptoms and markedly reduce acute neurotoxicity of soman in rats. Thus, both tested mixtures of oximes combined with atropine were able to increase the neuroprotective effectiveness of antidotal treatment of acute soman poisonings, compared to the individual oxime.

  11. Pharmacological Studies of p, N-(3, 4-Methylenedioxy phenyl Benzoic Acid (RRL-1364 - Part-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanukar Sharadini

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed pharmacological investigations of p-N-(3, 4-methylene dioxy phenyl benzoic acid revealed marked hypotensive action which was dose dependent and most marked in cats; it was absent in rats. Atropine could block this hypotensive action, thus suggest-ing cholinomimetic mechanism. Further studies indicated that the hypotension produced was central and possibly medullary in origin.

  12. Acute angle closure glaucoma following ileostomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Meirelles Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Angle-closure glaucoma can be induced by drugs that may cause pupillary dilatation. We report a case of a patient that developed bilateral angle closure glaucoma after an ileostomy surgery because of systemic atropine injection. This case report highlights the importance of a fast ophthalmologic evaluation in diseases with ocular involvement in order to make accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatments.

  13. The role of the tractus diagonalis in drinking behaviour induced by central chemical stimulation, water deprivation and salt injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, G.K.; Slangen, J.L.

    1972-01-01

    The role of the tractus diagonalis in drinking behaviour induced by central chemical stimulation, 23-hr water deprivation and injection of a hypertonic sodium chloride solution was investigated by means of central and peripheral administration of atropine and methylatropine. The effect of the same d

  14. Antidepressant-like properties of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and cholinergic dependency in a genetic rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, Nico; Harvey, Brian H; Brand, Linda; Brink, Christiaan B

    2010-09-01

    We explored the antidepressant-like properties of two phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors in a genetic animal model of depression, namely Flinders sensitive line rats. We investigated the dose-dependency of the antidepressant-like action of sildenafil, and its interaction with the cholinergic system and behavioural correlates of monoaminergic neurotransmission, in the forced swim test. Antidepressant-like properties of tadalafil (a structurally distinct PDE5 inhibitor) were also evaluated. Flinders sensitive line rats were treated for 14 days with vehicle, fluoxetine, atropine or PDE5 inhibitors+/-atropine. Immobility, swimming and climbing behaviours were assessed in the forced swim test. In combination with atropine (1 mg/kg), both sildenafil (10, 20 mg/kg) and tadalafil (10 mg/kg) decreased immobility while increasing swimming (serotonergic) and climbing (noradrenergic) behaviours. Interestingly, sildenafil (3 mg/kg) decreased immobility while selectively increasing climbing behaviour in the absence of atropine. These results suggest that the antidepressant-like activity of PDE5 inhibitors involve alterations in monoaminergic neurotransmission, but involve a dependence on inherent cholinergic tone so that the final response is determined by the relative extent of activation of these systems. Furthermore, the behavioural profile of sildenafil alone, and its observed antidepressant-like properties, shows strict dose-dependency, with only higher doses showing an interaction with the cholinergic system.

  15. The A- and B-type muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from Drosophila melanogaster couple to different second messenger pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Guilin Robin; Folke, Jonas; Hauser, Frank;

    2015-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by the agonists acetylcholine and muscarine and blocked by several antagonists, among them atropine. In mammals five mAChRs (m1-m5) exist of which m1, m3, and m5 are coupled to members of the Gq...

  16. Drug: D01491 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01491 Drug Butropium bromide (JP16/INN); Coliopan (TN) C28H38NO4. Br 531.1984 532....ensory organs 12 Agents affecting peripheral nervous system 124 Antispasmodics 1242 Atropines D01491 Butropium...9 1131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] Butropium D01491 Butropium bromide (JP16/INN) CAS:

  17. [Sinus-node recovery time in the sick-sinus syndrome (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delius, W; Wirtzfeld, A; Sebening, H; Blömer, H

    1975-11-01

    Sinus-node recovery times were measured, before and after atropine administration, in 21 patients with the clinical diagnosis of sick-sinus syndrome. The results were compared with those reported by other workers. It is concluded that sinus-node recovery times of more than 1 400 ms are most likely due to sinus-node damage (sick-sinus syndrome); normal recovery times are rare in such patients. The diagnosis of the syndrome is strengthened if the recovery time remains abnormally long even after atropine. Further useful diagnostic information can be obtained from the total stimulation phase (duration until restoration of the basic rhythm), this being overall longer in patients with the syndrome than in normal subjects. The increased incidence of A-V nodal rhythms before restoration of the basic rhythm is another indication of organic damage to the sinus node, especially if it also occurs after atropine. The significance of a recovery time which is prolonged before but normal after atropine is less clear: a raised sensitivity to vagotonic influences may be the determining factor here.

  18. Ontwikkeling proefdiermodel voor detectie van slokdarm-etsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danse; L.H.J.C.; Beenen; J.; Velsen; F.L.van; Heyst; A.N.P.van

    1984-01-01

    Een door Van Heyst et al. (1983) ontwikkeld proefdiermodel voor de detectie van de slokdarmetsende potentie van stoffen is aan een nader onderzoek onderworpen. Groepen van 6 konijnen kregen onder narcose en met een atropine-premedicatie huishoudchemicalien toegediend in de slokdarm. Drie weken n

  19. Neural regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Lampert, Sarah; Mineo, Hitoshi;

    2004-01-01

    (abolished by propranolol). Acetylcholine stimulated GLP-1 secretion, and atropine blocked this effect. Dimethylphenylpiperazine stimulated GLP-1 secretion. In chloralose-anesthetized pigs, however, electrical stimulation of the vagal trunks at the level of the diaphragm had no effect on GLP-1 or GLP-2...

  20. Parasympathetic blockade attenuates augmented pancreatic polypeptide but not insulin secretion in Pima Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Stefan, Norbert;

    2004-01-01

    atropine was administered for 120 min at the following doses: 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 micro g. kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1). h(-1). Areas under the curve for early (AUC(0-30 min)) and total (AUC(0-120 min)) postprandial insulin and PP secretory responses were calculated. Early postprandial insulin and PP secretory...

  1. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  2. Drug: D04087 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1.2093 321.4559 D04087.gif Anticholinergic, Antiparkinsonian ATC code: N04AC30 Atropine [CPD:C01479] derivat...ynapse hsa04970(1131) Salivary secretion hsa04971(1131) Gastric acid secretion map07057 Antiparkinsonian age

  3. Evaluation of respiratory dysfunction in a pig model of severe acute dichlorvos poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xin-hua; WU Jun-yuan; LI Chun-sheng; SU Zhi-yu; JI Xian-fei; HAN Yi; WANG Sheng-qi; ZHANG Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Respiratory failure is the main cause of death in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.In this study,a pulse-induced contour cardiac output monitor was used to evaluate the respiratory status in a pig model of acute dichlorvos poisoning.Methods Twenty female pigs were randomly allocated to dichlorvos (n=7),atropine (n=7),and control (n=6) groups.In the dichlorvos group,pigs were administered 80% emulsifiable dichlorvos (100 mg/kg) via a gastric tube.In the atropine group,pigs were similarly administered dichlorvos,and 0.5 hours later,atropine was injected to attain and maintain atropinization.The control group was administered saline solution.Arterial blood gas was measured at 0,0.5,1,2,4,and 6 hours post-injection.The extravascular lung water index and pulmonary vascular permeability index were recorded by the pulse-induced contour cardiac output monitor.At termination of the study,the animals were euthanized,the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio was determined,and histopathology was observed.Results In the dichlorvos group,the extravascular lung water index and pulmonary vascular permeability index were substantially increased from 0.5 hours and were particularly high within 1 hour.In the atropine group,these indices increased initially,but decreased from the 1-hour mark.The control group exhibited no obvious changes.In both the dichlorvos and atropine groups,the extravascular lung water index was negatively correlated with partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspiration oxygen (PO2/FiO2) and positively correlated with the pulmonary vascular permeability index.Compared with the control group,the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio markedly increased and the histopathological findings obviously changed in the dichlorvos group,but only mildly increased and changed,respectively,in the atropine group.Conclusion The extravascular lung water index is an appropriate and valuable parameter for assessment of respiratory function in acute dichlorvos poisoning.

  4. The pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7 in the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla involves multiple peripheral mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the peripheral mechanism that mediates the pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7 in the rostral ventrolateral medulla was investigated. METHOD: Angiotensin-(1-7 (25 pmol was bilaterally microinjected in the rostral ventrolateral medulla near the ventral surface in urethane-anesthetized male Wistar rats that were untreated or treated (intravenously with effective doses of selective autonomic receptor antagonists (atenolol, prazosin, methyl-atropine, and hexamethonium or a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist [d(CH25 -Tyr(Me-AVP] given alone or in combination. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, the pressor response produced by angiotensin-(1-7 (16 ± 2 mmHg, n = 12, which was not associated with significant changes in heart rate, was not significantly altered by peripheral treatment with prazosin, the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist, hexamethonium or methyl-atropine. Similar results were obtained in experiments that tested the association of prazosin and atenolol; methyl-atropine and the vasopressin V1 antagonist or methyl-atropine and prazosin. Peripheral treatment with the combination of prazosin, atenolol and the vasopressin V1 antagonist abolished the pressor effect of glutamate; however, this treatment produced only a small decrease in the pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7 at the rostral ventrolateral medulla. The combination of hexamethonium with the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist or the combination of prazosin, atenolol, the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist and methyl-atropine was effective in blocking the effect of angiotensin-(1-7 at the rostral ventrolateral medulla. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that angiotensin-(1-7 triggers a complex pressor response at the rostral ventrolateral medulla that involves an increase in sympathetic tonus, release of vasopressin and possibly the inhibition of a vasodilatory mechanism.

  5. Controlling myopia progression in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith MJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Molly J Smith, Jeffrey J WallineThe Ohio State University College of Optometry, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Myopia is a common disorder, affecting approximately one-third of the US population and over 90% of the population in some East Asian countries. High amounts of myopia are associated with an increased risk of sight-threatening problems, such as retinal detachment, choroidal degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma. Slowing the progression of myopia could potentially benefit millions of children in the USA. To date, few strategies used for myopia control have proven to be effective. Treatment options such as undercorrection of myopia, gas permeable contact lenses, and bifocal or multifocal spectacles have all been proven to be ineffective for myopia control, although one recent randomized clinical trial using executive top bifocal spectacles on children with progressive myopia has shown to decrease the progression to nearly half of the control subjects. The most effective methods are the use of orthokeratology contact lenses, soft bifocal contact lenses, and topical pharmaceutical agents such as atropine or pirenzepine. Although none of these modalities are US Food and Drug Administration-approved to slow myopia progression, they have been shown to slow the progression by approximately 50% with few risks. Both orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses have shown to slow myopia progression by slightly less than 50% in most studies. Parents and eye care practitioners should work together to determine which modality may be best suited for a particular child. Topical pharmaceutical agents such as anti-muscarinic eye drops typically lead to light sensitivity and poor near vision. The most effective myopia control is provided by atropine, but is rarely prescribed due to the side effects. Pirenzepine provides myopia control with little light sensitivity and few near-vision problems, but it is not yet commercially available as an eye drop or

  6. [Condition of patients after surgical wisdom tooth extraction under general anesthesia with different premedication variants--a prospective study based on a post-anesthesia questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, H; Schwarz, A

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of the modified "postanaesthesiological questionnaire" pointed to a subtle influencing of the condition of patients who had undergone 3rd molar surgery in general anaesthesia by using different premedication variants: "Atropine, Pethidine and Midazolam" (group A) and "Atropine, Midazolam and S-Ketamin" (group B). The combination in group B seems to be more suitable. On the one hand, a lower incidence of unwanted side-effects was found and, on the other hand, remarkable positive effects were observed. Of particular significance with this combination was also the more effective suppression of postoperative pain. The Propofol-supplemented general anaesthesia prepared in this way and administered using a nasal intubation technique found the full approval of the patients. Postoperative pain therapy was effective and also inexpensive, costing just 8.20 DM per patient, according to current prices calculated by Magdeburg University Hospital.

  7. [Sedation using ketamine for pain procedures in Pediatric Oncology.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, C; Tichit, R; Troncin, R; Bernard, F

    2009-09-01

    Procedural sedation and analgesia for children is widely practiced. Since 2005 to 2007, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of ketamine to control pain induced by diagnostic procedures in pediatric oncology patients. Eight hundred fifty procedures were carried out in 125 patients aged 2 to 16 years. We associated EMNO (inhaled equimolar mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen), atropin (oral or rectal), midazolam (oral or rectal) and ketamin (intravenous). An anesthesiologist injected ketamin. Average dose of ketamine was 0.33 to 2 mg/kg depending on number and invasiveness of procedures. This method requires careful monitoring and proper precautions. With these conditions, no complication was observed. All patients were effectively sedated. These results indicate that ketamine - in association with EMNO, atropine and midazolam - is safe and effective in pain management induced by diagnostic procedures in pediatric oncology patients. The sedative regimen of intravenous ketamine has greatly reduced patient, family and practitioners anxiety for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  8. Jimson "loco" weed abuse in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervette, R E; Schydlower, M; Lampe, R M; Fearnow, R G

    1979-04-01

    Over a three-year period, 29 adolescent patients were hospitalized because of intentional Jimson weed ingestion. Their records were reviewed for the presence of signs and symptoms of atropine/scopolamine toxicity clinical course, treatment, and outcome. Twenty-two were male and seven were female. All had mydriasis, hallucinations, and were disoriented. Tachycardia (heart rate greater than 95), dry mucous membranes, and flushed facies were often present. Urinary retention requiring catheterization was present in five patients. Sixty-five percent (17/26) had detectable atropine or scopolamine in their urine. The average length of hospitalization was 1.8 days. No serious complications were encountered during hospitalization and full recovery were noted in all patients. Gastric lavage and hospital admission for close monitoring and medical support are essential phases of management. Physicians who care for adolescents should be aware of this relatively new form of drug abuse and its management. PMID:440859

  9. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas is localized to nerves, many of which travel along the pancreatic ducts. VIP stimulates pancreatic fluid and bicarbonate secretion like secretin. Electrical vagal stimulation in the pig causes an atropine-resistant profuse secretion...... of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice. In an isolated perfused preparation of the pig pancreas with intact vagal nerve supply, electrical vagal stimulation caused an atropine-resistant release of VIP, which accurately parallelled the exocrine secretion of juice and bicarbonate. Perfusion of the pancreas...... with a potent VIP-antiserum inhibited the effect of vagal stimulation on the exocrine secretion. It is concluded, that VIP is responsible for (at least part of) the neurally controlled fluid and bicarbonate secretion from the pig pancreas....

  10. Mechanism of rectal contraction mediated by sympathetic efferents from rectoanal pelvic afferents in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neya,Toshiaki

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available In guinea pigs whose pelvic nerves were bilaterally sectioned, afferent stimulation of rectoanal branches of the pelvic nerve (PAS could produce an intense contraction in the rectum similar to propulsive contractions elicited during defecation. The mechanism of this reflex was analyzed. Rectal contraction by PAS was abolished after transecting the spinal cord at T13 or sectioning the lumbar splanchnic nerves (LSN or lumbar colonic nerves (LCN, but was unaffected by severing the intermesenteric and hypogastric nerves. Rectal contraction induced by PAS was abolished peripherally by atropine, guanethidine or yohimbine, while propranolol had no affect. Yohimbine antagonized the inhibitory effect of LSN or LCN stimulation on atropine-sensitive rectal contractions. It may, therefore, be concluded that PAS blocks the inhibition, by LCN efferents acting through alpha-adrenoreceptors, of cholinergic neurons in the myenteric plexus, thus facilitating recto-rectal propulsive contractions initiated by the defecation reflex.

  11. The effects of pentobarbitone and urethane on pulmonary airway resistance in guinea-pigs and their interactions with drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advenier, C; Boissier, J R; Ho, S; Mallard, B; Ruff, F

    1978-01-01

    1 Propranolol increased pulmonary airway resistance (PAR) in the conscious guinea-pig, whereas atropine had no effect, suggesting the existence of a continual sympathetic bronchodilator tone. 2 The direct bronchoconstrictor effects of histamine, acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine were modified by autonomic reflexes: a bronchodilator one, abolished by propranolol, and a cholinergic bronchoconstrictor one, seen with histamine. 3 Pentobarbitone increased PAR, an effect which was reduced by propranolol but which was unaffected by atropine. The bronchoconstrictor effects of histamine, acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine were potentiated by pentobarbitone. 4 Pentobarbitone therefore appears to inhibit the adrenergic bronchodilator tone and to depress adrenergic reflexes, these being the preponderant autonomic influences in these experiments. 5 Like pentobarbitone, urethane increased PAR in the conscious guinea-pig and potentiated the bronchoconstrictor effects of the three amines. These actions are similarly attributed to a reduction in adrenergic influences. PMID:728681

  12. Microinjection of limonene into caudate nucleus inhibits IMC of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Guo; Xin Yi Zhu; Yi Quan Wei; De Zhi Yang

    2000-01-01

    AIM We have discovered that Limonene modulates interdigestive myoelectrical complexes (IMCs) ofgastrointestinal tract in rats. In this research we will elucidate weather limonene affects acetylcholine M-receptor in caudate nucleus.METHODS Changes of IMCs were studied after limonene and/or atropine were microinjected into caudatenucleus. IMCs were recorded by a RM-6200 four-channel recorder and then delivered to Maclab and PowerMacintosh.RESULTS The active phases of IMCs occupied about 40% of total cycle in average. After microinjection oflimonene into caudate nucleus, the active phases were significantly shortened, while the cycle time of IMCswere not changed significantly. The inhibitory effects of limonene were abolished by pretreatment withatropine, whilst the atropine has no effect on IMCs.CONCLUSION It is suggested that limonene inhabits the gastrointestinal IMCs by affecting M-receptor incaudate nucleus.

  13. Adsorption of inorganic and organic ions to polycarbophil as a means of sustained-release dosage formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, N A; Russell, J; Connors, K A; Bass, P

    1987-06-01

    The adsorption and desorption of drugs and inorganic ions to and from polycarbophil (PC), a polymer, were investigated to determine if PC would be a suitable carrier for sustained-release dosage formulations. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments with a polycarbophil-atropine sulfate complex demonstrated the gradual-release properties of this system. Adsorbed Cr3+ ions, like atropine, are released slowly. In contrast, 51CrO4(2-) ions are predominantly bound in an irreversible manner. A third group of drugs minimally adsorbed to PC under the conditions studied. We conclude that PC under both in vitro and in vivo conditions is able to bind certain ions and drugs and then release them over a period of time in a predictable and repeatable manner.

  14. [Condition of patients after surgical wisdom tooth extraction under general anesthesia with different premedication variants--a prospective study based on a post-anesthesia questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, H; Schwarz, A

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of the modified "postanaesthesiological questionnaire" pointed to a subtle influencing of the condition of patients who had undergone 3rd molar surgery in general anaesthesia by using different premedication variants: "Atropine, Pethidine and Midazolam" (group A) and "Atropine, Midazolam and S-Ketamin" (group B). The combination in group B seems to be more suitable. On the one hand, a lower incidence of unwanted side-effects was found and, on the other hand, remarkable positive effects were observed. Of particular significance with this combination was also the more effective suppression of postoperative pain. The Propofol-supplemented general anaesthesia prepared in this way and administered using a nasal intubation technique found the full approval of the patients. Postoperative pain therapy was effective and also inexpensive, costing just 8.20 DM per patient, according to current prices calculated by Magdeburg University Hospital. PMID:11799850

  15. Antidepressant-like properties of sildenafil in a genetic rat model of depression: Role of cholinergic cGMP-interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebenberg, Nico; Brink, Christiaan; Brand, Linda;

    2008-01-01

    was scored during five minutes swim in the FST. In addition, locomotor activity was evaluated in the Open Field Test 2 hours prior to the FST. Results: Fluoxetine and imipramine separately decreased immobility in FSL rats, comparable to that of FRL control rats, after 14 but not after 7 days. Likewise, when...... of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, sildenafil. Specifically, we demonstrated that chronic (11 days) treatment with a combination of sildenafil (10 mg/kg/day) + atropine (1 mg/kg/day) produces antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test (FST) in Sprague Dawley rats. Neither of these drugs produced....... Rats were also treated with sildenafil (10 mg/kg/day) ± atropine in combination with fluoxetine (5 mg/kg/day) or imipramine (15 mg/kg/day) for 7 and 14 days. Behavioural testing: On the last day of treatment, approximately 5 hours into the dark-cycle (±12 hours following the last injection) immobility...

  16. Characterization of the hypotensive effects of glucagon-like peptide-2 in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Takashi; Kaneko, Maki; Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Oka, Jun-Ichiro

    2013-08-29

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a proglucagon-derived peptide released from enteroendocrine cells and neurons. We recently reported that GLP-2 induced hypotension. In the present study, we characterized the mechanisms of GLP-2-induced hypotension. GLP-2 was administered peripherally or centrally to male Wistar rats anesthetized with urethane and α-chloralose. The rats were vagotomized or systemically pretreated with atropine, prazosin, or propranolol before the GLP-2 administration. The central and peripheral administration of GLP-2 reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). The maximum change of MAP (maximum ΔMAP) was reduced by vagotomy or prazosin, but not propranolol. The effects of the central but not peripheral administration of GLP-2 were reduced by atropine. These results suggest that GLP-2 modulates vagal afferent inputs and inhibits the sympathetic nervous system in the brain to induce hypotension. PMID:23867714

  17. Characteristics contractile response to the calcium ionophore, A23187, in guinea-pig vas deferens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Y.; Shibata, S.

    1980-01-01

    1. In the guinea-pig isolated vas deferens, the calcium ionophore, A23187, initially caused a phasic contraction followed by rhythmic activity. 2. Treatment with atropine, phentolamine, tetrodotoxin and reserpine modified neither of the components of the contraction induced by the ionophore. Verapamil and nifedipine abolished the rhythmic activity but had no effect on the phasic contraction. 4. In a calcium-free solution, both components of the contraction were abolished. 5. It is suggested t...

  18. Role of M1 receptor in regulation of gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gajdus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:The subject of this study is determination of the influence of drugs on gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction induced by activation of muscarinic receptors M1. Experiments tested interactions between a receptor agonist, carbachol and muscarinic receptor antagonists, atropine and pirenzepine.Material/Methods:Testing was conducted on tissues isolated from rat’s stomach. Male Wistar rats with weight between 220 g and 360 g were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (120 mg/kg. The stomach was dissected, and later the gastric fundus was isolated. Tissue was placed in a dish for insulated organs with 20 ml in capacity, filled with Krebs fluid. Results contained in the study are average values ± SE. In order to determine statistical significance, the principles of receptor theory were used (Kenakin modification.Results:According to tests, carbachol, in concentrations ranging between 10–8 M to 10–4 M, in a dosage-dependent way induces gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction. Presented results indicate that carbachol meets the conditions posed to full agonists. On the other hand, atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, causes a concentration-dependent shift of concentration-effect curve (for carbachol to the right, maintaining maximum reaction. According to analysis of the curve determined, we can deduce that atropine meets the conditions posed to competitive antagonists. The use of pirenzepine, a competitive receptor agonist M1, causes shift of concentration-effect curve (for carbachol to the right, maintaining maximum reaction.Conclusions:From the testing conducted on the preparation of the gastric fundus we can deduce that atropine causes shift of concentration-effect curves for carbachol to the right. A similar effect is released by pirenzepine, selectively blocking muscarinic receptors of M1 type. The results indicate that in the preparation of the gastric fundus smooth muscle, M1 type

  19. Assessment of Pharmaceutical Equivalence: Difference Test or Equivalence Test?

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Felipe R.; Pinto, Terezinha J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical equivalence is an important step towards the confirmation of similarity and interchangeability among pharmaceutical products, particularly regarding those that will not be tested for bioequivalence. The aim of this paper is to compare traditional difference testing to two one-side equivalence tests in the assessment of pharmaceutical equivalence, by means of equivalence studies between similar, generic and reference products of acyclovir cream, atropine sulfate injection, merop...

  20. Prokinetic and laxative effects of the crude methanolic extract of Viola betonicifolia whole plant in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Naveed; Rehman, Najeeb ur; Khan, Haroon; Saeed, Muhammad; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was aimed to provide ethnopharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Viola betonicifolia whole plant in indigestion and constipation. Methods Mice were used in in-vivo prokinetic and laxative studies while in-vitro experiments were conducted on isolated tissues of rabbit and guinea-pig gut preparations suspended in a tissue bath to measure isotonic contractions. Results The crude methanolic extract of Viola betonicifolia (VBME) showed partially atropine-sensit...

  1. Exploring the mechanisms underpinning sweating: the development of a specialized ventilated capsule for use with intradermal microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Robert D; Louie, Jeffrey C; Poirier, Martin P; McGinn, Ryan; Fujii, Naoto; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-03-01

    Many studies have aimed to identify the controllers of sweating using ventilated capsules with intradermal microdialysis. It is unclear, however, if the surface area covered by the capsule influences the observed response as a result of differences in the number of sweat glands affected by the infused pharmacological agent relative to the total glands captured by the capsule. We evaluated the area of skin perfused with agents delivered via microdialysis. Thereafter, we developed a specialized sweat capsule (1.1 cm(2)) and compared the sweating response with a classic capsule (2.8 cm(2)). InProtocol 1(n = 6), methacholine was delivered to forearm skin in a dose-dependent manner (1-2000 mmol L(-1)). The area of activated sweat glands was assessed via the modified iodine-paper technique. InProtocol 2(n = 6), the area of inhibited sweat glands induced by ouabain and atropine was assessed during moderate-intensity cycling. Marked variability in the affected skin area was observed (0.9 ± 0.4 to 5.2 ± 1.1 cm(2)). InProtocol 3(n = 6), we compared the attenuation in local sweat rate (LSR) induced by atropine between the new and classic capsule during moderate-intensity cycling. Atropine attenuated sweating as assessed using the new (control: 0.87 ± 0.23 mg min(-1) cm(-2)vs. atropine: 0.54 ± 0.22 mg min(-1) cm(-2);P sweating response gained when using microdialysis. PMID:27033452

  2. Carbachol-induced rhythmic slow activity (theta) in cat hippocampal formation slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacki, J; Gołebiewski, H; Eckersdorf, B

    1992-04-24

    Application of the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, produced theta-like rhythmical waveforms, recorded in the stratum moleculare of the dentate gyrus in the cat hippocampal formation slices. This effect of carbachol was antagonized by atropine but not D-tubocurarine. These results provide first direct evidence that the hippocampal formation neuronal network in the cat is capable of producing synchronized slow wave activity when isolated from pulsed rhythmic inputs of the medial septum. PMID:1511270

  3. Electroacupuncture at the Zusanli (ST-36 Acupoint Induces a Hypoglycemic Effect by Stimulating the Cholinergic Nerve in a Rat Model of Streptozotocine-Induced Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA at Zusanli (ST-36 and Zhongwan (CV-12 acupoints reduces plasma glucose concentrations in rats with type II diabetes. However, whether EA reduces plasma glucose levels in type I diabetes is still unknown. In this study, we explore the various non-insulin-dependent pathways involved in EA-induced lowering of plasma glucose. Streptozotocin (STZ (60 mg kg−1, i.v. was administered via the femoral vein to induce insulin-dependent diabetes in non-adrenalectomized and in adrenalectomomized rats. EA (15 Hz was applied for 30 min to bilateral ST-36 acupoints after administration of Atropine (0.1 mg kg−1 i.p., Eserine (0.01 mg kg−1 i.p., or Hemicholinium-3 (5 μg kg−1 i.p. in non-adrenalectomized rats. Rats administered acetylcholine (0.01 mg kg−1 i.v. did not undergo EA. Adrenalectomized rats underwent EA at bilateral ST-36 acupoints without further treatment. Blood samples were drawn from all rats before and after EA to measure changes in plasma glucose levels. Expression of insulin signaling proteins (IRS1, AKT2 in atropine-exposed rats before and after EA was measured by western blot. Atropine and hemicholinium-3 completely blocked the plasma glucose lowering effects of EA, whereas eserine led to a significant hypoglycemic response. In addition, plasma glucose levels after administration of acetylcholine were significantly lower than the fasting glucose levels. In STZ-adrenalectomized rats, EA did not induce a hypoglycemic response. EA stimulated the expression of IRS1 and AKT2 and atropine treatment blocked the EA-induced expression of those insulin signaling proteins. Taken together, EA at the ST-36 acupoint reduces plasma glucose concentrations by stimulating the cholinergic nerves.

  4. Pharmacognosy: Science of natural products in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacognosy deals with the natural drugs obtained from organisms such as most plants, microbes, and animals. Up to date, many important drugs including morphine, atropine, galanthamine, etc. have originated from natural sources which continue to be good model molecules in drug discovery. Traditional medicine is also a part of pharmacognosy and most of the third world countries still depend on the use of herbal medicines. Consequently, pharmacognosy always keeps its popularity in pharmaceutical sciences and plays a critical role in drug discovery.

  5. M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors may play a role in the neurotoxicity of anhydroecgonine methyl ester, a cocaine pyrolysis product

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Caio Tamborelli Garcia; Livia Mendonça Munhoz Dati; Larissa Helena Torres; Mariana Aguilera Alencar da Silva; Mariana Sayuri Berto Udo; Fernando Maurício Francis Abdalla; José Luiz da Costa; Renata Gorjão; Solange Castro Afeche; Mauricio Yonamine; Niswender, Colleen M.; P. Jeffrey Conn; Rosana Camarini; Maria Regina Lopes Sandoval; Tania Marcourakis

    2015-01-01

    The smoke of crack cocaine contains cocaine and its pyrolysis product, anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). AEME possesses greater neurotoxic potential than cocaine and an additive effect when they are combined. Since atropine prevented AEME-induced neurotoxicity, it has been suggested that its toxic effects may involve the muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). Our aim is to understand the interaction between AEME and mAChRs and how it can lead to neuronal death. Using a rat primary hipp...

  6. Adverse Reactions to Radiographic Contrast Material

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, William H.; Mullarkey, Michael F.; Webb, D. Robert

    1980-01-01

    Major adverse reactions to radiographic contrast media will occur more often as contrast material is now also administered during computerized tomographic (CT) scanning. Differentiation of the two major contrast reactions, the vagus reaction and the anaphylactoid reaction, is essential. Bradycardia is the key finding for identifying the vagus reaction. The vagus reaction involving hypotension and bradycardia requires treatment with large doses of atropine given intravenously. The immediate ge...

  7. Intravenously administered lidocaine in therapeutic doses increases the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban

    2002-01-01

    the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. In the present study it was hypothesized that systemically administered lidocaine is acting through the same mechanisms as cholinergic agonists and affects the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. Microdialysis probes were placed in anesthetized rats for sampling...... of acetylcholine. Ten and 30 mg/kg lidocaine injected intravenously significantly increased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. The effect of lidocaine could be reduced by pretreatment with intraspinally administered atropine or mecamylamine. Our results suggest that the antinociceptive effect produced...

  8. Remifentanil for endotracheal intubation in premature infants: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Badiee, Zohreh; Vakiliamini, Mazyar; Mohammadizadeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Endotracheal intubation is a common procedure in neonatal care. The objective of this study was to determine whether the premedication with remifentanil before intubation has analgesic effects in newborn infants. Methods: A total of 40 premature infants who needed endotracheal intubation for intubation-surfactant-extubation method were randomly assigned in two groups of an equal number at two university hospitals. The control group was given 10 μg/kg atropine IV infusions in 1 min ...

  9. A STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jorige Archana et al

    2012-01-01

    Tinospora cordifolia is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, cardiovascular and antimicrobial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia were evaluated. Dose dependent negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects were observed with both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The effects were antagonized by atropine indicating involvement of muscarinic receptors. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found with ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia...

  10. Effects of PYY on the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex in the small intestine in vivo and the neural and endocrinal mechanisms of the effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of peptide YY (PYY) on the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) in the small intestine in vivo and explore the neural and endocrinal mechanisms of the effects. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were supplied with a venous catheter and bipolar electrodes in the duodenum and jejunum for electromyography of stomach and small intestine in wake state. PYY,phentolamine,nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA,the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) and atropine were served with PYY res...

  11. Excitatory effect of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin on the rat isolated aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Y.; Nomura, S; Oshita, Y.; Sakurai, J

    1986-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin caused contraction of the isolated aorta of the rat in a dose-dependent manner. The contractile action caused by the toxin was inhibited or abolished by calcium antagonists such as nifedipine, verapamil and cinnarizine, or a Ca-free medium, but was not affected by phentolamine, chlorpheniramine, atropine, tetrodotoxin or a low Na medium. The toxin stimulated Ca uptake into the aorta in a dose-dependent manner. 8-N,N'-diethylaminooctyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoa...

  12. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  13. STUDY ON 52 PATIENTS WITH ACUTE SEVERE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE POISONING%急性重度有机磷中毒52例临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟瑞; 卢敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump infusion of atropine in the treatment of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning( ASOPP ). Methods A total of 104 patients with ASOPP were retrospectively analysed, all patients were treated with gastric lavage and so on, the treated group adopted hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump infusion of atropine in addition to basic therapy. The clinical data was compared. Results The treated group was superior to the control group in time from coma to consciousness, total amount of atropine and recovery time of cholinesterase etc. The recovery rate was 84.6%. Conclusion It is effective to apply hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump iffusion of atropine in rescuing the acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的 评价血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵持续泵入治疗急性重度有机磷中毒(acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,ASOPP)的临床应用价值.方法 对104例ASOPP患者进行回顾性分析,所有患者均给予洗胃等治疗,治疗组在对照组基础上加用血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵治疗,比较2组各项临床资料.结果 治疗组昏迷至清醒时间、阿托品总量、胆碱酯酶恢复时间等明显优于对照组,治愈率为84.6%.结论 应用血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵治疗ASOPP效果较好.

  14. Binding and functional properties of antimuscarinics of the hexocyclium/sila-hexocyclium and hexahydro-diphenidol/hexahydro-sila-diphenidol type to muscarinic receptor subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Waelbroeck, M.; Tastenoy, M.; Camus, J.; Christophe, J; Strohmann, C.; Linoh, H.; Zilch, H.; Tacke, Reinhold; Mutschler, E.; Lambrecht, G.

    2012-01-01

    1. In an attempt to assess the structural requirements for the muscarinic receptor selectivity of hexahydro-diphenidol (hexahydro-difenidol) and hexahydro-sila-diphenidol (hexahydro-sila-difenidol), a series of structurally related C/Si pairs were investigated, along with atropine, pirenzepine and methoctramine, for their binding affinities in NB-OK 1 cells as well as in rat heart and pancreas. 2. The action of these antagonists at muscarinic receptors mediating negative inotropic responses i...

  15. The occurrence of postsynaptic alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors in the guinea-pig gall bladder.

    OpenAIRE

    Doggrell, S A; Scott, G W

    1980-01-01

    1 Guinea-pig gall bladder strips were contracted by (-)-noradrenaline, 10(-5) M, and by field stimulation at 5 Hz (in the absence or presence of 10(-6) M atropine) and relaxed to 10(-5) M (-)-isoprenaline. (-)-Adrenaline, 10(-5) M, predominantly contracted, but sometimes relaxed, this preparation. 2 In the presence of 10(-6) M phentolamine, contractions to (-)-noradrenaline and to (-)-adrenaline were reversed to relaxations. The relaxations produced by (-)-isoprenaline were unaltered. In the ...

  16. Changing pattern of poisoning in children in Newcastle, 1974-81.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, G R; Craft, A W; Jackson, R H

    1983-01-01

    All children aged under 15 years admitted to hospital in Newcastle upon Tyne between 1974 and 1981 with a diagnosis of poisoning were studied. After the introduction in 1976 of child resistant containers for salicylates and paracetamol, salicylate poisonings fell dramatically. The other most important medicines to cause poisoning in young children were tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazapines, Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine), and iron preparations; these should also be packaged in chil...

  17. Plantas de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina, con actividad gastroprotectora y antiespasmódica Antiulcerogenic and antispasmodic effects of plants from La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E Toso

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad gastroprotectora y antiespasmódica de extractos hidroalcohólicos de Marrubium vulgare (MV, Acmella decumbens (AD, Lippia turbinata (LT, Tribulus terrestres (TT y Ruta chalepensis (RC. Para determinar el efecto gastroprotector se indujeron úlceras por estrés y la motilidad gastrointestinal se evaluó midiendo el progreso del contenido intestinal en ratones. Atropina y ranitidina fueron utilizadas como drogas de referencia con actividad gastroprotectora y atropina fue utilizada, también, por su efecto inhibitorio sobre la motilidad gastrointestinal. Todos los extractos y la atropina mostraron actividad gastroprotectora (pThe objective of the research was the analysis of the antiulcerogenic and antispasmodic effects of Marrubium vulgare (MV, Acmella decumbens (AD, Lippia turbinata (LT, Tribulus terrestres and Ruta chalepensis (RC hidroalcoholic extracts. Antiulcerogenic activity was studied in mices for their ability to inhibit the gastric lesions induced on cold restraint stress. Gastrointestinal motility was evaluated with activated charcoal as intestinal transit indicator. Atropine and ranitidine were used like gastroprotectives. Atropine was used for decrease gastrointestinal motility. We proved that all plant extracts and atropine have gastroprotective activity (p< 0.01. Ranitidine did not prevent ulcers in mice. The extracts MV and AD also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared with atropine. LT, TT and RC extracts moderate but significantly inhibited gastrointestinal transit compared with control group (p< 0.01. These results further suggest that all extracts were found to possess antiulcerogenic and inhibitory activity on gastrointestinal motility, which might also be due to antispasmolitic activity.

  18. Effects of topical fucosyl-lactose, a milk oligosaccharide, on dry eye model: an example of nutraceutical candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eBucolo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Colostrum has been proposed to treat severe dryness and problematic eye lesions showing a beneficial effect. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of 2-fucosyl-lactose, a natural sugar present in the human colostrum, in an experimental dry eye. Methods: Dry eye was induced in adult male New Zealand albino rabbits by topical administration of 1% atropine. Tear volume (Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time (TBUT, corneal staining and tear osmolarity were assessed. Fucosyl-lactose eye drops was instilled at different concentrations (0.01%, 0.1%, 1%. Results: After 24 hours from first atropine administration, tear volume and TBUT values were significantly improved in groups treated with 2-flucosyl-lactose in a dose-dependent manner. Tear volume increased from 5.25 to 10.75 mm and TBUT values from 8.75 to 34.5 seconds with 0.01% or 1% 2-flucosyl-lactose treatment, respectively. No changes were observed in terms of corneal staining among the all groups treated with 2-fucosyl-lactose. Atropine instillation caused an increase of tear osmolarity (428 mOsm/L, which was reversed by topical treatment with 2-fucosyl-lactose at all doses.Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that 2-fucosyl-lactose, a human milk oligosaccharide, has protective effect on tear film stability.

  19. [Drug or plant substances which antagonize venoms or potentiate antivenins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Rakotonirina, V S; Rakotonirina, A; Dzikouk, G

    1997-01-01

    Dendroaspis jamesoni (Elapidae) and Echis oceliatus (Viperidae) are responsible for most of severe evenomation in Cameroon. Toxicity of venoms of these two species has been measured using mice according to the method of Spearman & Kàrber. The effect on experimental envenomation of various drugs (atropine, promethazine, neostigmine, hydrocortisone, pentosane sulfuric polyester, heparin, tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid) and plant extracts (Schumanniophyton magnificum, Bidens pilosa, Securidaca longepedunculata and Garcinia lucida) has been observed associated or not with the antivenom lpser Afrique (SAV). The venom of D. jamesoni contains neurotoxins agonizing and antagonising acetylcholine. The toxicity of the venom did not depend on the route of injection. Atropine, promethazine, neostigmine and hydrocortisone protected animals against a venom dose up to 2 LD50. Moreover, atropine and promethazine potentiated the SAV. Similar results have been obtained with extracts from S. magnificum and B. pilosa. The venom of E. ocellatus induces haemorrhage and necrosis. The toxicity increased by 3-fold when the venom was injected through intravenous or intraperitoneal route, compared to intramuscular route. Pentosane sulfuric polyester and tranexamic acid protected mice against doses up to 3 LD50. Pentosane sulfuric polyester, hydrocortisone, heparin and aminocaproic acid increased the SAV protective titre by 50%. However, tried plant extracts weakly antagonised the venom and did not potentiate the SAV. PMID:9479470

  20. Effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic agents on locomotion in the mudpuppy (Necturus maculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, M; Stein, R B

    2002-08-01

    Some neurotransmitters act consistently on the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion in a wide range of vertebrates. In contrast, acetylcholine (ACh) and noradrenaline (NA) have various effects on locomotion in different preparations. The roles of ACh and NA have not been studied in amphibian walking, so we examined their effects in an isolated spinal cord preparation of the mudpuppy ( Necturus maculatus). This preparation contains a CPG that produces locomotor activity when N-methyl- D-aspartic acid (NMDA), an excitatory amino acid agonist, is added to the bath. The addition of carbachol, a long acting ACh agonist, to the bath disrupted the walking rhythm induced by NMDA, while not changing the level of activity in flexor and extensor motoneurons. Adding clonidine, an alpha(2)-noradrenergic agonist, had no effect on the NMDA-induced walking rhythm. Physostigmine, an ACh-esterase inhibitor, disrupted the walking rhythm, presumably by potentiating the effects of endogenously released ACh. Atropine, an ACh antagonist that binds to muscarinic ACh receptors, blocked the effects of carbachol, indicating that the action is mediated, at least in part, by muscarinic receptors. In the absence of carbachol, atropine had no effect. Locomotion was not induced by carbachol, atropine or clonidine in a resting spinal cord preparation. Cholinergic actions do not seem to be essential to the CPG for walking in the mudpuppy, but ACh may convert a rhythmic walking state to a more tonic state with occasional bursts of EMG activity for postural adjustments.

  1. [Drug or plant substances which antagonize venoms or potentiate antivenins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Rakotonirina, V S; Rakotonirina, A; Dzikouk, G

    1997-01-01

    Dendroaspis jamesoni (Elapidae) and Echis oceliatus (Viperidae) are responsible for most of severe evenomation in Cameroon. Toxicity of venoms of these two species has been measured using mice according to the method of Spearman & Kàrber. The effect on experimental envenomation of various drugs (atropine, promethazine, neostigmine, hydrocortisone, pentosane sulfuric polyester, heparin, tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid) and plant extracts (Schumanniophyton magnificum, Bidens pilosa, Securidaca longepedunculata and Garcinia lucida) has been observed associated or not with the antivenom lpser Afrique (SAV). The venom of D. jamesoni contains neurotoxins agonizing and antagonising acetylcholine. The toxicity of the venom did not depend on the route of injection. Atropine, promethazine, neostigmine and hydrocortisone protected animals against a venom dose up to 2 LD50. Moreover, atropine and promethazine potentiated the SAV. Similar results have been obtained with extracts from S. magnificum and B. pilosa. The venom of E. ocellatus induces haemorrhage and necrosis. The toxicity increased by 3-fold when the venom was injected through intravenous or intraperitoneal route, compared to intramuscular route. Pentosane sulfuric polyester and tranexamic acid protected mice against doses up to 3 LD50. Pentosane sulfuric polyester, hydrocortisone, heparin and aminocaproic acid increased the SAV protective titre by 50%. However, tried plant extracts weakly antagonised the venom and did not potentiate the SAV.

  2. Blood pressure lowering action of active principle from Trachyspermum ammi (L.) sprague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, K; Atta-Ur-Rahman; Usmanghani, K

    1995-07-01

    Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Syn. Carum copticum (L.) Bth. (Apiaceae) is locally known as Ajowan. Bioassay-directed fractionation of Trachyspermum ammi has resulted in the isolation of thymol which is present in other plants as well. However, its action on blood pressure has not been studied so far. In anaesthetized rats, thymol (1-10mg/kg) produced dose-dependent fall in blood pressure and heart rate. These effects were not blocked by atropine (1 mg/kg) and thymol did not modify presser response of norepinepherine, which rules out the possibility of cholinergic stimulation or adrenergic blockade. In spontaneously beating atria, thymol caused decrease in force and rate of atrial contractions. These effects remained unaltered in the presence of atropine. In rabbit aorta, thymol caused relaxation of norepinepherine and potassium induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. These relaxant effects remained unchanged after the removal of endothelium. Moreover, atropine, propranolol, indomethacine and glibenclamide did not alter the vasorelaxation by thymol. These results suggest that Trachyspermum ammi contains a calcium channel blocker-like constituent (thymol) which may explain the hypotensive and bradycardiac effects observed in the in vivo studies.

  3. Role of Chronic Inflammation in Myopia Progression: Clinical Evidence and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ju Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and treatment of myopia is an important public problem worldwide. We found a higher incidence of myopia among patients with inflammatory diseases such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (7.9%, uveitis (3.7%, or systemic lupus erythematosus (3.5% compared to those without inflammatory diseases (p < 0.001 using data from children (<18 years old in the National Health Insurance Research database. We then examined the inhibition of myopia by atropine in Syrian hamsters with monocular form deprivation (MFD, an experimental myopia model. We found atropine downregulated inflammation in MFD eyes. The expression levels of c-Fos, nuclear factor κB (NFκB, interleukin (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were upregulated in myopic eyes and downregulated upon treatment with atropine. The relationship between the inflammatory response and myopia was investigated by treating MFD hamsters with the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CSA or the inflammatory stimulators lipopolysaccharide (LPS or peptidoglycan (PGN. Myopia progression was slowed by CSA application but was enhanced by LPS and PGN administration. The levels of c-Fos, NF-κB, IL-6, and TNF-α were upregulated in LPS- and PGN-treated eyes and downregulated by CSA treatment. These findings provide clinical and experimental evidence that inflammation plays a crucial role in the development of myopia.

  4. Effects of pharmacologic reductions in salivary flow on taste thresholds in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, C M; Navazesh, M; Brightman, V J

    1984-01-01

    The effects of short-term salivary flow reductions on human taste thresholds were measured. Recognition and detection thresholds were obtained from 65 subjects during periods of both normal and reduced salivary flow. Decreased salivary flow was achieved by oral administration of either Elavil, Benadryl or atropine. Thresholds were measured for NaCl, citric acid, quinine sulphate and sucrose with a traditional series of aqueous solutions as well as with a series of dry taste stimuli using a filter-paper base. Whole mouth resting flow and stimulated salivary flow were measured before and after taste testing. The pharmacologic agents produced depressions in salivary flow ranging between 30 and 75 per cent of normal levels. The large decreases in flow produced no measurable changes in taste thresholds with the exception that an increased sensitivity to aqueous and dry citric acid stimuli consistently was observed following atropine administration. Changes in salivary bicarbonate levels, produced by atropine, may have mediated the observed shifts in oral sensitivity to citric acid.

  5. Generation of theta and gamma rhythms in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L S

    1998-03-01

    In the behaving rat, theta rhythm was dominant during walking and rapid-eye-movement sleep, while irregular slow activity predominated during immobility and slow-wave sleep. Oscillatory evoked potentials of 20-50 Hz and spontaneous fast (gamma) waves were more prominent during theta compared with non-theta behaviors. The oscillations were simulated by a systems model with recurrent inhibition. The model also predicts a behaviorally dependent inhibition, which was confirmed experimentally using paired-pulse responses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) of the population spikes in CA1 was larger during walking than immobility, mostly mediated by a cholinergic input. Spike responses in vitro were characterized by a relative lack of inhibition or disinhibition compared with the behaving rat. The two-input, two-dipole model of the theta rhythm in CA1 is reviewed. Afferents to the CA1 pyramidal cells are assumed to be rhythmic and consist of atropine-sensitive and atropine-resistant inputs driving the somata and distal dendrites, respectively. The atropine-sensitive theta rhythm was mainly caused by a series of Cl- mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) on pyramidal cells. It is suggested that previous claims of the participation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and not IPSPs in the intracellular recordings in vivo were flawed. Single cell recordings in vitro suggested that intrinsic voltage-dependent membrane potential oscillations modulate the response to a theta-frequency driving. Membrane potentials of pyramidal cells in vitro showed resonance in the theta frequency range.

  6. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of yawning and genital grooming by the aqueous extract of Saccharum officinarum L. (sugarcane) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria T; Gamberini, Maria C; Nasello, Antonia G

    2015-01-01

    Yawning, associated with genital grooming, is a physiological response that may be used for elucidating the mechanism of action of drugs. Preliminary analysis showed that aqueous extract (AE) of Saccharum induced yawns in rats. So, we aimed to quantify these behavioral responses and investigate the pharmacological mechanisms involved in these actions. During 120 min, after AE administration, the yawns and the genital grooming were quantified at 10 min intervals. Since dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are implied in these responses, AE were evaluated in the presence of haloperidol 0.5 mg/kg and atropine 2 mg/kg. AE 0.5 g/kg increased the yawns, effect that was blocked both by haloperidol and atropine. Genital grooming could only be stimulated by AE 0.5 g/kg when dopaminergic receptors were blocked by haloperidol. However, it was inhibited when atropine was previously administered. So, we demonstrated a central action of Saccharum and it was postulated that neural circuits with the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are involved. The fact that AE is comprised of innumerous compounds could justify the extract's distinct responses. Also, we cannot disregard the presence of different neural circuits that count on the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways and could be activated by the same induction agent.

  7. Cholinergic mediation of small intestinal transit in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that small intestinal transit (SIT) in the rat is not cholinergically mediated. The geometric mean of a marker may be a more powerful method for SIT studies. Therefore, it was their goal to evaluate the effect of muscarinic blockade in normal and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-enhanced SIT using this method. Male, food-fasted rats (190 to 240 g) were first dosed subcutaneously with atropine. 30 min after the atropine the rats received an oral dose of PGE2 at 5.0 mg/kg. 5 min after PGE2, a 51Cr-labeled marker was dosed intraduodenally, and a 25 min transit period followed. The results are: (1) 5.0 mg/kg of PGE2 significantly stimulates the geometric mean of the marker in agreement with previous findings and (2) atropine is inhibitory at doses as low as 0.20 mg/kg for basal SIT and 0.10 mg/kg for PGE2-stimulated SIT. This indicates (1) the rat has cholinergically mediated SIT, and (2) cholinergic activation may be important for PGE2 effects on SIT in the rat

  8. Myopia Control: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walline, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Slowing the progression of myopia has become a considerable concern for parents of myopic children. At the same time, clinical science is rapidly advancing the knowledge about methods to slow myopia progression. This article reviews the peer-reviewed literature regarding several modalities attempting to control myopia progression. Several strategies have been shown to be ineffective for myopia control, including undercorrection of myopic refractive error, alignment fit gas-permeable contact lenses, outdoor time, and bifocal of multifocal spectacles. However, a recent randomized clinical trial fitted progressing myopic children with executive bifocals for 3 years and found a 39% slowing of myopia progression for bifocal-only spectacles and 50% treatment effect for bifocal spectacles with base-in prism, although there was not a significant difference in progression between the bifocal-only and bifocal plus prism groups. Interestingly, outdoor time has shown to be effective for reducing the onset of myopia but not for slowing the progression of myopic refractive error. More effective methods of myopia control include orthokeratology, soft bifocal contact lenses, and antimuscarinic agents. Orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses are both thought to provide myopic blur to the retina, which acts as a putative cue to slow myopic eye growth. Each of these myopia control methods provides, on average, slightly less than 50% slowing of myopia progression. All studies have shown clinically meaningful slowing of myopia progression, including several randomized clinical trials. The most investigated antimuscarinic agents include pirenzepine and atropine. Pirenzepine slows myopia progression by approximately 40%, but it is not commercially available in the United States. Atropine provides the best myopia control, but the cycloplegic and mydriatic side effects render it a rarely prescribed myopia control agent in the United States. However, low-concentration atropine has

  9. Controlling myopia progression in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Molly J; Walline, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-01

    Myopia is a common disorder, affecting approximately one-third of the US population and over 90% of the population in some East Asian countries. High amounts of myopia are associated with an increased risk of sight-threatening problems, such as retinal detachment, choroidal degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma. Slowing the progression of myopia could potentially benefit millions of children in the USA. To date, few strategies used for myopia control have proven to be effective. Treatment options such as undercorrection of myopia, gas permeable contact lenses, and bifocal or multifocal spectacles have all been proven to be ineffective for myopia control, although one recent randomized clinical trial using executive top bifocal spectacles on children with progressive myopia has shown to decrease the progression to nearly half of the control subjects. The most effective methods are the use of orthokeratology contact lenses, soft bifocal contact lenses, and topical pharmaceutical agents such as atropine or pirenzepine. Although none of these modalities are US Food and Drug Administration-approved to slow myopia progression, they have been shown to slow the progression by approximately 50% with few risks. Both orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses have shown to slow myopia progression by slightly less than 50% in most studies. Parents and eye care practitioners should work together to determine which modality may be best suited for a particular child. Topical pharmaceutical agents such as anti-muscarinic eye drops typically lead to light sensitivity and poor near vision. The most effective myopia control is provided by atropine, but is rarely prescribed due to the side effects. Pirenzepine provides myopia control with little light sensitivity and few near-vision problems, but it is not yet commercially available as an eye drop or ointment. Several studies have shown that lower concentrations of atropine slow the progression of myopia control with fewer side

  10. Effects of rhubarb on isolated gastric muscle strips of guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Yu; Ya-Li Luo; Jun-Wei Zheng; Yong-Hui Ding; Wei Li; Tian-Zhen Zheng; Song-Yi Qu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of rhubarb (dried root of Rheum officinale Baill.) on contractile activity of isolated gastric muscle strips of guinea pigs and its possible mechanism.METHODS: A total of 48 guinea pigs were killed to remove the whole stomach. Then, the stomach was opened and the mucosal layer was removed. Parallel to the circular fibers, muscle strips were cut from the body. Each isolated gastric muscle strip was suspended in a tissue chamber containing 5 mL Krebs solution, constantly warmed by water jacket at 37 ℃ and bubbled continuously with a mixed gas of 950 mL/L O2 and 50 mL/L CO2. After being incubated for 1 h with 1 g tension, rhubarb of varied concentrations (1%, 2%, 7%, 20% and 70%) was added cumulatively into the tissue chamber at intervals of 2 min. Atropine (10-6 mol/L) or isoptin (5×10-8 mol/L) orhexamethonium(10-5 mol/L) was given 2 min before the administration of rhubarb. The isometrical response was measured with an ink-writing recorder.RESULTS: Rhubarb dose dependently increased the resting tension of gastric body circular muscle(CM)(r = 0.726, P<0.05). Atropine (r= 0.829, P<0.05), isoptin (r = 0.764,P<0.05) and hexamethonium (r = 0.797, P<0.05) did notaffect its action in a dose-related manner. Atropine apparently reduced the increasing action of 1%, 3%, 10%, 30% and 100% rhubarb on the resting tension of gastric body CM. Isoptin inhibited the effect of 10%, 30% and 100% rhubarb on the resting tension of gastric body CM. Hexamethonium reduced the increasing action of 1%, 10%, 30% and 100% rhubarb on the resting tension of gastric body CM. Rhubarb increased the contractile frequency of CM of body. While atropine, isoptin and hexamethonium did not inhibit the contractile frequency of gastric body CM in comparison with rhubarb at the same concentration, rhubarb at the highest concentration (100%) decreased the meancontractile amplitude of gastric body CM. Atropine, isoptin and hexamethonium did not affect the mean contractile

  11. Brainstem thyrotropin-releasing hormone regulates food intake through vagal-dependent cholinergic stimulation of ghrelin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Yan; Go, Vay Liang W; Toy, Natalie; Li, Tei; Wang, Yu; Song, Moon K; Reeve, Joseph R; Liu, Yanyun; Yang, Hong

    2006-12-01

    The brainstem is essential for mediating energetic response to starvation. Brain stem TRH is synthesized in caudal raphe nuclei innervating brainstem and spinal vagal and sympathetic motor neurons. Intracisternal injection (ic) of a stable TRH analog RX77368 (7.5-25 ng) dose-dependently stimulated solid food intake by 2.4- to 3-fold in freely fed rats, an effect that lasted for 3 h. By contrast, RX77368 at 25 ng injected into the lateral ventricle induced a delayed and insignificant orexigenic effect only in the first hour. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, RX77368 (50 ng) ic induced a significant bipeak increase in serum total ghrelin levels from the basal of 8.7+/-1.7 ng/ml to 13.4+/-2.4 ng/ml at 30 min and 14.5+/-2.0 ng/ml at 90 min, which was prevented by either bilateral vagotomy (-60 min) or atropine pretreatment (2 mg/kg, -30 min) but magnified by bilateral adrenalectomy (-60 min). TRH analog ic-induced food intake in freely fed rats was abolished by either peripheral atropine or ghrelin receptor antagonist (D-Lys-3)-GHRP-6 (10 micromol/kg) or ic Y1 receptor antagonist 122PU91 (10 nmol/5 microl). Brain stem TRH mRNA and TRH receptor 1 mRNA increased by 57-58 and 33-35% in 24- and 48-h fasted rats and returned to the fed levels after a 3-h refeeding. Natural food intake in overnight fasted rats was significantly reduced by ic TRH antibody, ic Y1 antagonist, and peripheral atropine. These data establish a physiological role of brainstem TRH in vagal-ghrelin-mediated stimulation of food intake, which involves interaction with brainstem Y1 receptors.

  12. N-acetylcysteine in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: A Randomized, Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ebiary, Ahmad A; Elsharkawy, Rasha E; Soliman, Nema A; Soliman, Mohammed A; Hashem, Ahmed A

    2016-08-01

    Organophosphorus poisoning is a major global health problem with hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Research interest in N-acetylcysteine has grown among increasing evidence of the role of oxidative stress in organophosphorus poisoning. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of N-acetylcysteine as an adjuvant treatment in patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial on 30 patients suffering from acute organophosphorus poisoning, who were admitted to the Poison Control Center of Tanta University Emergency Hospital, Tanta, Egypt, between April and September 2014. Interventions included oral N-acetylcysteine (600 mg three times daily for 3 days) as an added treatment to the conventional measures versus only the conventional treatment. Outcome measures included mortality, total dose of atropine administered, duration of hospitalization and the need for ICU admission and/or mechanical ventilation. A total of 46 patients were screened and 30 were randomized. No significant difference was found between both groups regarding demographic characteristics and the nature or severity of baseline clinical manifestations. No major adverse effects to N-acetylcysteine therapy were reported. Malondialdehyde significantly decreased and reduced glutathione significantly increased only in the NAC-treated patients. The patients on NAC therapy required less atropine doses than those who received only the conventional treatment; however, the length of hospital stay showed no significant difference between both groups. The study concluded that the use of N-acetylcysteine as an added treatment was apparently safe, and it reduced atropine requirements in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. PMID:26786042

  13. Locality-dependent descending reflex motor activity in the anal canal-cholinergic and nitrergic contributions in the rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radomir RADOMIROV; Christina IVANCHEVA; Dimitar ITZEV; Polina PETKOVA-KIROVA

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Since the distal part of the intestine is targeted by a wide range of pathogens, the motility of the recto-anal region has been the object of many experimental and clinical observations. In this study, we investigated descending motor responses in the anal canal as a measure of the activation of autonomic reflex pathways underlying evacuatory recto-anal activity. Methods: The partitioned organ bath method was used to register motor responses of the anal canal as induced by balloon distension of the rectum in isolated rat recto-anal preparations. Results: Distension-induced descending responses of the anal canal comprised contractions (with distension at a distance of 15 mm), initial contractions and secondary relaxations (at 10 mm) and short contractions followed by deep relaxations (at 3-5 mm). Decreas-ing the distance between the distension stimulus and the anal canal resulted in a decreased contraction response and increased relaxation. Tetrodotoxin (0.1 μmol/L) inhibited these responses. Atropine (0.3 μmol/L) decreased contraction and did not change the relaxation response. N~G-nitro-L-arginine (0.5 mmol/L) enhanced contraction in both the absence and presence of atropine. L-arginine (0.5 mmol/L) inhibited contraction and extended relaxation in atropine-pretreated preparations. The actions of N~G-nitro-L-arginine and L-arginine were more pronounced in the aboral direction. ChAT-positive nerve fibers were observed in myenteric ganglia of the rectum and the anal canal. The density of NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons was higher in the anal canal region. Conclusion: Our results suggest that locality-dependent activation of the descending reflex neuromuscular communications underlie evacuatory activity in the recto-anal region. This activation response involves long excitatory cholinergic and non-cholinergic pathways along the rectum and short inhibitory nitrergic pathways located predominantly in the anal canal region.

  14. Role of cholinergic neural transmission on airway resistance in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, T; Kobayashi, I; Hayama, N; Tazaki, G; Ohta, Y

    2000-04-12

    The unique contractile profiles of bronchial smooth muscle (Kondo et al., 1995) and its neural control were investigated by comparing responses of the bronchus and trachea to acute hypercapnia, stimulation of vagus efferent fibers before and after intravenous atropine, and intravenous acetylcholine in decerebrated and paralyzed dogs. During acute hypercapnia, airway resistance represented by peak airway pressure (Pedley et al., 1970) significantly increased as well as tracheal tension (Ttr). During electric stimulation of the vagal efferent fibers, Ttr increased and was sustained throughout the simulation period while the peak airway pressure was not maintained at the peak level. The peak Ttr and the airway resistance (Raw) calculated from ventilatory flow and airway pressure increased with increases in intensity of electric stimulation. Ttr reached its maximal level at an intensity 16 times of the threshold (T), while Raw became maximal at 4T. Although both the Ttr-stimulus intensity and Raw-intensity curves were shifted to the right by administration of intravenous atropine, the Raw curve shifted more to the right than the Ttr curve with the same dose of atropine. When muscular muscarinic receptors were directly stimulated by intravenous acetylcholine, Ttr once increased and then decreased promptly while peak airway pressure remained at a high level for a few minutes. These findings suggested that the bronchus is more sensitive to vagal efferent stimulation and susceptible to competitive antagonist of actylcholine than the trachea. In conclusion, the contractile profiles of the fifth-order bronchus we have reported (Kondo et al., 1995) were reflected in airway resistance, and the neuromuscular junction may be the site of adaptation of bronchoconstrictor response to motor nerve adaptation.

  15. Tramadol state-dependent memory: involvement of dorsal hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari-Sabet, Majid; Jafari-Sabet, Ali-Reza; Dizaji-Ghadim, Ali

    2016-08-01

    The effects on tramadol state-dependent memory of bilateral intradorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) injections of physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and atropine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, were examined in adult male NMRI mice. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. Post-training intra-CA1 administration of an atypical μ-opioid receptor agonist, tramadol (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse), dose dependently impaired memory retention. Pretest injection of tramadol (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory acquired under the influence of post-training tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1). A pretest intra-CA1 injection of physostigmine (1 μg/mouse) reversed the memory impairment induced by post-training administration of tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1). Moreover, pretest administration of physostigmine (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) with an ineffective dose of tramadol (0.25 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) also significantly restored retrieval. Pretest administration of physostigmine (0.25, 0.5, and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) by itself did not affect memory retention. A pretest intra-CA1 injection of the atropine (1 and 2 μg/mouse) 5 min before the administration of tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) dose dependently inhibited tramadol state-dependent memory. Pretest administration of atropine (0.5, 1, and 2 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) by itself did not affect memory retention. It can be concluded that dorsal hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mechanisms play an important role in the modulation of tramadol state-dependent memory.

  16. Mechanisms for regulation of gastrin and somatostatin release from isolated rat stomach during gastric distention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Yu Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the intragastric mechanisms forregulation of gastric neuroendocrine functions during gastricdistention in isolated vascularly perfused rat stomach.METHODS: Isolated vascularly perfused rat stomach wasprepared, then the gastric lumen was distended with either5,10 or 15 ml pH7 isotonic saline during a period of 20 min.During the distention, the axonal blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX),the cholinergic antagonist atropine, or the putativesomatostatin-antagonist cyclo [7-aminoheptanoyl-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr(Bzl)] were applied by vascular perfusion. Thereleases of gastrin and somatostatin were then examinedby radioimmunoassay.RESULTS: The graded gastricdistention caused a significantvolume-dependent decrease in gastrin secretion [-183±75 (5ml), -385±86 (10 ml) and -440±85 (15 ml) pg/20 min] and asignificant increase of somatostatin secretion [260±102 (5 ml),608±148 (10 ml) and 943±316 (15 ml) pg/20 min]. In responseto 10 ml distention, the infusion of either axonal blocker TTX(10-6 M) or cholinergic blocker atropine (10-7 M) had a similaraffect. They both attenuated the decrease of gastrin releaseby approximately 50 %, and attenuated the increase ofsomatostatin release by approximately 40 %. The infusion ofsomatostatin-antagonist cyclo [7-aminoheptanoyl-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr (Bzl)] (10-6M) attenuated the decrease of gastrin releaseby about 60 %. Furthermore, combined infusion of thesomatostatin-antagonist and atropine completely abolisheddistention-induced inhibition of gastrin release.CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that distention ofisolated rat stomach stimulates somatostatin release viacholinergic and non-cholinergic TTX-insensitive pathways. Bothsomatostatin and intrinsic cholinergic pathways are responsiblefor distention-induced inhibition of gastrin release.

  17. Effect of acetylcholine receptors on the pain-related electrical activities in the hippocampal CA3 region of morphine-addicted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Zeng Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:To determine the effect of acetylcholine (ACh, pilocarpine, and atropine on pain evoked responses of pain excited neurons (PEN and pain inhibited neurons (PIN in hippocampal CA3 region of morphine addicted rats. Materials and Methods:Female Wistar rats, weighing between 230-260 g were used in this study. Morphine addicted rats were generated by subcutaneous injection of increasing concentrations of morphine hydrochloride for six days. Trains of electrical impulses applied to the sciatic nerve were used as noxious stimulation and the evoked electrical activities of PEN or PIN in hippocampal CA3 area were recorded using extracellular electrophysiological recording techniques in hippocampal slices. The effect of acetylcholine receptor stimulation byACh, the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine, and the muscarinic antagonist atropine on the pain evoked responses of pain related electrical activities was analyzed in hippocampal CA3 area of morphine addicted rats. Results:Intra-CA3 microinjection of ACh (2 μg/1 μl or pilocarpine (2 μg/1 μl decreased the discharge frequency and prolonged the firing latency of PEN, but increased the discharge frequency and shortened the firing inhibitory duration (ID of PIN. The intra-CA3 administration of atropine (0.5 μg/1 μl produced opposite effect. The peak activity of cholinergic modulators was 2 to 4 min later in morphine addicted rats compared to peak activity previously observed in normal rats. Conclusion: ACh dependent modulation of noxious stimulation exists in hippocampal CA3 area of morphine addicted rats. Morphine treatment may shift the sensitivity of pain related neurons towards a delayed response to muscarinergic neurotransmission in hippocampal CA3 region.

  18. Involvement of M3 Cholinergic Receptor Signal Transduction Pathway in Regulation of the Expression of Chemokine MOB-1, MCP-1 Genes in Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海; 陈道达; 张景輝; 田原

    2004-01-01

    Whether M3 cholinergic receptor signal transduction pathway is involved in regulation of the activation of NF-κB and the expression of chemokine MOB-1, MCP-1genes in pancreatic acinar cells was investigated. Rat pancreatic acinar cells were isolated, cultured and treated with carbachol, atropine and PDTC in vitro. The MOB-1 and MCP-1 mRNA expression was detected by using RT-PCR. The activation of NF-κB was monitored by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay.The results showed that as compared with control group, M3 cholinergic receptor agonist (103mol/L, 104-4ol/L carbachol) could induce a concentration-dependent and time-dependent increase in the expression of MOB-1, MCP-1 mRNA in pancreatic acinar cells. After treatment with 10 -3mol/L carbachol for 2 h, the expression of MOB-1, MCP-1 mRNA was strongest. The activity of NF-κB in pancreatic acinar cells was significantly increased (P<0.01) after treated with M3 cholinergic receptor agonist (10-3 mol/L carbachol) in vitro for 30 min. Either M3 cholinergic receptor antagonist (10-5 mol/L atropine) or NF-κB inhibitor (10-2 mol/L PDTC) could obviously inhibit the activation of NF-κB and the chemokine MOB-1, MCP-1 mRNA expression induced by carbachol (P <0.05). This inhibitory effect was significantly increased by atropine plus PDTC (P<0.01). The results of these studies indicated that M3 cholinergic receptor signal transduction pathway was likely involved in regulation of the expression of chemokine MOB-1 and MCP-1genes in pancreatic acinar cells in vitro through the activation of NF-κB.

  19. Mechanisms of airway responses to esophageal acidification in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ivan M; Haworth, Steven T; Medda, Bidyut K; Forster, Hubert; Shaker, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Acid in the esophagus causes airway constriction, tracheobronchial mucous secretion, and a decrease in tracheal mucociliary transport rate. This study was designed to investigate the neuropharmacological mechanisms controlling these responses. In chloralose-anesthetized cats (n = 72), we investigated the effects of vagotomy or atropine (100 μg·kg(-1)·30 min(-1) iv) on airway responses to esophageal infusion of 0.1 M PBS or 0.1 N HCl at 1 ml/min. We quantified 1) diameter of the bronchi, 2) tracheobronchial mucociliary transport rate, 3) tracheobronchial mucous secretion, and 4) mucous content of the tracheal epithelium and submucosa. We found that vagotomy or atropine blocked the airway constriction response but only atropine blocked the increase in mucous output and decrease in mucociliary transport rate caused by esophageal acidification. The mucous cells of the mucosa produced more Alcian blue- than periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-stained mucosubstances, and the mucous cells of the submucosa produced more PAS- than Alcian blue-stained mucosubstances. Selective perfusion of the different segments of esophagus with HCl or PBS resulted in significantly greater production of PAS-stained mucus in the submucosa of the trachea adjacent to the HCl-perfused esophagus than in that adjacent to the PBS-perfused esophagus. In conclusion, airway constriction caused by esophageal acidification is mediated by a vagal cholinergic pathway, and the tracheobronchial transport response is mediated by cholinergic receptors. Acid perfusion of the esophagus selectively increases production of neutral mucosubstances of the apocrine glands by a local mechanism. We hypothesize that the airway responses to esophageal acid exposure are part of the innate, rather than acute emergency, airway defense system. PMID:26846551

  20. Cardiovascular effects of Tacca integrifolia Ker-Gawl. extract in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakart Sawangchote

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizome of Tacca integrifolia, a Thai folk medicinal herb, has been used for controlling blood pressure and improving sexual function in humans. However, the biological activities of this herb on the cardiovascular system have not yet been documented. In the present study, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of methanolic extract from the rhizome of this herb (Tacca extract. In the in vivo study, intravenous injection of the Tacca extract (0.04-40 mg/kg caused a decrease in both mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate of anesthetized rats (Nembutal sodium, 60 mg/kg, i.p. in a dose dependent manner. Pretreatment of the animals with muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (1 mg/kg, i.v., significantly reduced the hypotensive and the negative chronotropic activities of the Tacca extract. In the in vitro preparation, the Tacca extract (0.001-3 mg/ml caused a decrease in both force and rate of spontaneous contraction of isolated atria in a dose dependent manner. These effects were reduced by preincubation of the atria with atropine (10-7 or 10-6 M. For isolated blood vessels, the Tacca extract (0.003-3 mg/ ml caused vasodilation of endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings pre-constricted with phenylephrine (3× 10-6 M. This effect disappeared after pre-incubation of blood vessels with atropine (10-6 M or with Nω-nitro- L-arginine (3×10-4 M, or by removing the vascular endothelium. The results obtained suggest that the hypotensive and negative chronotropic effects of the Tacca extract in the rat are due to the active components acting via the muscarinic receptors at the blood vessel to cause vasodilatation by stimulating the release of nitric oxide, as well as on the muscarinic receptors at the atria to cause the decrease of both rate and force of the atrial contraction.

  1. Adrenergic and cholinergic activity contributes to the cardiovascular effects of lionfish (Pterois volitans) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jarrod E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to further investigate the cardiovascular activity of Pterois volitans crude venom. Venom (0.6-18 microg protein/ml) produced dose- and endothelium-dependent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries that was potentiated by atropine (10nM), but significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA; 0.1mM), by prior exposure of the tissue to stonefish antivenom (SFAV, 3 units/ml, 10 min), or by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). In rat paced left atria, venom (10 microg protein/ml) produced a decrease, followed by an increase, in contractile force. Atropine (0.5 microM) abolished the decrease in force and potentiated the increase. Propranolol (5 microM) did not affect the decrease in force but significantly attenuated the increase. In spontaneously beating right atria, venom (10 microg protein/ml) produced an increase in rate that was significantly attenuated by propranolol (5 microM). Prior incubation with SFAV (0.3 units/microg protein, 10 min) abolished both the inotropic and chronotropic responses to venom. In the anaesthetised rat, venom (100 micro protein/kg, i.v.) produced a pressor response, followed by a sustained depressor response. Atropine (1mg/kg, i.v.) potentiated the pressor response. The further addition of prazosin (50 microg/kg, i.v.) restored the original response to venom. Prior administration of SFAV (100 units/kg, i.v., 10 min) significantly attenuated the in vivo response to venom. It is concluded that P. volitans venom produces its cardiovascular effects primarily by acting on muscarinic cholinergic receptors and adrenoceptors. As SFAV neutralised many of the effects of P. volitans venom, we suggest that the two venoms share a similar component(s). PMID:12175616

  2. Preparation and Characterization of β-Cyclodextrin Derivatized Ovalbumin Used as Chiral Selector in Pressure Capillary Electrochromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yu-hong; TANG Li; DAI Rong-ji; DENG Yu-lin; FU Ruo-nong

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis and properties of β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin used as chiral selector were investigated.β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin was synthesized using β-cyclodextrin and ovalbumin in the presence of ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether in boric acid buffer at pH value 8.7 at 37 ℃.Amino group was coated on the internal surface of the silica capillary by sol-gel technology with triethoxylmethylsiloxane and (3-arninopropyl)trimethoxysiloxane.Covalent binding of β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin was performed by glutaraldehyde.Enantiomers of chlorpheniramine,phenylalanine and atropine were separated by pressure capillary electrochromatography column coated with β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin.

  3. Species and tissue-specificity of prokinetic, laxative and spasmodic effects of Fumaria parviflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb-ur-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fumaria parviflora Linn. (Fumariaceae, is a small branched annual herb found in many parts of the world including Saudi Arabia and Pakistan. This study was designed to provide pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Fumaria parviflora in gut motility disorders. Methods The in-vivo prokinetic and laxative assays were conducted in mice. Isolated intestinal preparations (ileum and jejunum from different animal species (mouse, guinea-pig and rabbit were separately suspended in tissue baths containing Tyrode's solution bubbled with carbogen and maintained at 37°C. The spasmogenic responses were recorded using isotonic transducers coupled with PowerLab data acquisition system. Results The aqueous-methanol extract of Fumaria parviflora (Fp.Cr, which tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones showed partially atropine-sensitive prokinetic and laxative activities in the in-vivo in mice at 30 and 100 mg/kg. In the in-vitro studies, Fp.Cr (0.01-1 mg/ml caused a concentration-dependent atropine-sensitive stimulatory effect both in mouse tissues (jejunum and ileum, and rabbit jejunum but had no effect in rabbit ileum. In guinea-pig tissues (ileum and jejunum, the crude extract showed a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect with higher efficacy in ileum and the effect was partially blocked by atropine, indicating the involvement of more than one types of gut-stimulant components (atropine-sensitive and insensitive. This could be a plausible reason for the greater efficacy of Fp.Cr in gut preparations of guinea-pig than in rabbit or mouse. Conclusions This study shows the prokinetic, laxative and spasmodic effects of the plant extract partially mediated through cholinergic pathways with species and tissue-selectivity, and provides a sound rationale for the medicinal use of Fumaria parviflora in gut motility disorders such as, indigestion and constipation. This study also suggests using

  4. A short-chain α-neurotoxin from Naja naja atra produces potent cholinergic-dependent analgesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the analgesia induced by cobrotoxin (CT) from venom of Naja naja atra, and the effects of atropine and naloxone on the antinociceptive activity of CT in rodent pain models. Methods CT was administered intraperitoneally (33.3, 50, 75 μg/kg), intra-cerebral venticularly (2.4 μg/kg) or microinjected into periaqueductal gray ( PAG, 1.2 μg/kg). The antinociceptive action was tested using the hot-plate test and the acetic acid writhing test in mice and rats. The involvement of cholinergic system and the opioid system in CT-induced analgesia was examined by pretreatment of animals with atropine (0.5 mg/kg, im or 10 mg/kg, ip) or naloxone (3 mg/kg, ip). The effect of CT on motor activity was tested using the Animex test. Results CT (33.3, 50 and 75 μg/kg, ip) exhibited a dosedependent analgesic action in mice as determined with hot-plate test and acetic acid writhing test. In the mouse acetic acid writhing test, the intra-cerebral ventricle administration of CT 2.4 μg/kg (1/23th of a systemic dose) produced marked analgesic effects. Microinjection of CT 1.2 μg/kg ( 1/46th of systemic dose) into the PAG also elicited a robust analgesic action in the hot-plate test in rats. Atropine at 0.5 mg/kg (im) or naloxone at 3 mg/kg (ip) failed to block the analgesic effects of CT, but atropine at 10 mg/kg (ip) did antagonize the analgesia mediated by CT in the mouse acetic acid writhing test. At the highest effective dose of antinociception (75 μg/kg), CT did not change the spontaneous mobility of mice. Conclusion These results suggest that CT from Naja naja atra venom has analgesic effects. Central nervous system may be involved in CT' analgesic effects and the PAG may be the primary central site where CT exerts its effects. The central cholinergic system but not opioid system appears to be involved in the antinociceptive action of CT.

  5. Migrating Motor Complex in Colectomized Ileo Stoma Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mark B; Wallin, Lene; Husebye, Einar;

    2011-01-01

    In colectomized patients with ileo stoma, the reflex modulation of small intestinal functions is disturbed, resulting in high enteric stoma outputs and malabsorption. Serotonin has a pivotal role in initiating motor and secretory reflexes involving activation of neuronal 5-HT(3) and smooth muscle......, age- and gender-matched design. The effects of either standard meal or intravenous 5-HT (10 nmol/kg/min.) treatment with pre-treatment of saline (placebo) or ondansetron (250 µg/kg) or atropine (10 µg/kg) were compared. Adverse effects, blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiographic data were...

  6. Effects of maintenance of propofol-ketamine anesthesia with repeat bolus and constant rate infusion of propofol on physiological, biochemical, anesthetic and analgesic indices in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Njoku Uchechukwu Njoku

    2015-01-01

    The research work was aimed at investigating physiological, biochemical, analgesic and anesthetic indices of dogs anesthetized with propofol-ketamine and maintained with repeat bolus and constant infusions of propofol. Eight dogs, assigned to two groups (n=4), were used in this study. All dogs were pre-medicated with atropine (at 0.03 mg/kg bwt) and xylazine (at 2 mg/kg bwt). Anesthesia was induced by a concurrent administration of propofol (at 4 mg/kg bwt) and ketamine (at 2.5 mg/kg bwt). Ma...

  7. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J;

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  8. Do we really need to panic in all acute vision loss in ICU? Acute angle-closure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akal, Ali; Kucuk, Ahmet; Yalcin, Funda; Yalcin, Saban

    2014-08-01

    Acute angle closure glaucoma is a sight-threatening situation characterized by a sudden and marked rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) due to obstruction of aqueous humour outflow. Many local (ocular drops, nasal and nebulized agents) and systemic drugs (e.g. atropine, adrenaline, ephedrine, some psychoactive and antiepileptic drugs) that are widely used in intensive care units have the potential to precipitate such an acute attack. In this case report, we describe progressive visual loss due to acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG) in a 59 year old female patient followed in the ICU due to a massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:25252529

  9. Dosagem hormonal e avaliação testicular em cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyun thous) utilizando diferentes protocolos anestésicos

    OpenAIRE

    N.P. Souza; L.D'A Guimarães; R.C.R. Paz

    2011-01-01

    Tree Cerdocyon thous males received different anesthesia protocols: tiletamine-zolazepan (7mg/kg); ketamine-xylazine (12 and 1mg/kg); ketamine-xylazine-atropin (12, 1.0 and 0.04mg/kg), ketamine-midazolam (12 and 0.5mg/kg) and ketamine-acepromazine (12 and 0.1mg/kg) for semen collection by electroejaculation, testosterone hormonal dosages, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), testicular manual evaluation, biometry by caliper and ultrassonography (US). The ejaculates collected by electroejac...

  10. Acute unilateral parotid gland swelling after lateral decubitus position under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Postaci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute swelling of the parotid gland after general anesthesia (commonly known as anesthesia mumps or acute postoperative sialadenitis is a rare but declared complication of anesthesia. The etiology is not clear, but some possible causes such as obstruction of glandular excretory ducts caused by patient position and increase in the viscosity of the saliva because of acute dehydratation and/or medications like atropin have been proposed. We report a swelling in the left preauricular and postauricular region extending to the angle of the mandibule in a 35-year-old patient after left lateral decubitus position for laparoscopic nephrectomy.

  11. Acute unilateral parotid gland swelling after lateral decubitus position under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postaci, Aysun; Aytac, Ismail; Oztekin, Cetin Volkan; Dikmen, Bayazit

    2012-07-01

    Acute swelling of the parotid gland after general anesthesia (commonly known as anesthesia mumps or acute postoperative sialadenitis) is a rare but declared complication of anesthesia. The etiology is not clear, but some possible causes such as obstruction of glandular excretory ducts caused by patient position and increase in the viscosity of the saliva because of acute dehydratation and/or medications like atropin have been proposed. We report a swelling in the left preauricular and postauricular region extending to the angle of the mandibule in a 35-year-old patient after left lateral decubitus position for laparoscopic nephrectomy.

  12. Human eosinophil major basic protein is an endogenous allosteric antagonist at the inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacoby, D. B.; Gleich, G J; Fryer, A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of human eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) as well as other eosinophil proteins, on binding of [3H]N-methyl-scopolamine ([3H]NMS: 1 x 10(-10) M) to muscarinic M2 receptors in heart membranes and M3 receptors in submandibular gland membranes was studied. MBP inhibited specific binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors but not to M3 receptors. MBP also inhibited atropine-induced dissociation of [3H]NMS-receptor complexes in a dose-dependent fashion, demonstrating that the interaction of ...

  13. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a patient of organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Phatake

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old male presented with a history of consuming some organophosphorous compound with suicidal intention.He was treated with atropine, pralidoxime, ventilator support. During stay patient had persistent irritability, tachycardiaand hypertension despite sedation and labetalol infusion. He developed headache, visual blurring hemiparesis and focal seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multifocal hyperintensities mainly in subcortical areas of parietal and occipital regions in T2-weighted images, with increased values of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient, suggesting posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES. The possibilities of PRES caused by organophosphorous poisoning either due to hypertension caused by autonomic deregulation or direct neurological toxicity has been discussed.

  14. Increase in vagal activity during hypotensive lower-body negative pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander-Jensen, K; Mehlsen, J; Stadeager, C;

    1988-01-01

    Progressive central hypovolemia is characterized by a normotensive, tachycardic stage followed by a reversible, hypotensive stage with slowing of the heart rate (HR). We investigated circulatory changes and arterial hormone concentrations in response to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) in six...... volunteers before and after atropine administration. LBNP of 55 mmHg initially resulted in an increase in HR from 55 +/- 4 to 90 +/- 5 beats/min and decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 94 +/- 4 to 81 +/- 5 mmHg, in central venous pressure from 7 +/- 1 to -3 +/- 1 mmHg, and in cardiac output from 6...

  15. Comparison of the efficacy of three premedicants administered to cats

    OpenAIRE

    Dyson, Doris H.; Pascoe, Peter J.; Honeyman, Virginia; Rahn, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Healthy cats (n = 90), anesthetized for minor procedures, were included in a study designed to evaluate the efficacy of three premedicant mixtures. The drug combination was assigned randomly and the evaluations were made by individuals unaware of the treatment used. The mixtures and their final concentrations were as follows: acepromazine (1.0 mg/mL) and atropine (0.25 mg/mL) with either meperidine (20.0 mg/mL), ketamine (25.0 mg/mL), or oxymorphone (0.2 mg/mL). The dose used was 0.2 mL/kg0.7...

  16. A comparison of epidural anaesthesia with lignocaine, bupivacaine and a lignocaine-bupivacaine mixture in cats

    OpenAIRE

    F.M. Lawal; Adetunji, A.

    2009-01-01

    A mixture of 2% lignocaine (LIG) and 0.5% bupivacaine (BUP), at respective dose rates of 2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg (LIG-BUP), was compared to LIG (4 mg/kg) and BUP (1 mg/kg) for lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia in 5 sedated cats. Each cat received all 3 treatment regimens at 1-week intervals. The cats were premedicated with an intramuscular injection of atropine sulphate (0.04 mg/kg) and ketamine hydrochloride (10 mg/kg). Onset and duration of analgesia, and time to walking were determined. Assoc...

  17. Asystole Following Profound Vagal Stimulation During Hepatectomy

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    Preeta John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Asystole in a non laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery following intense vagal stimulation is a rare event. This case report highlights the need for awareness of such a complication when a thoracic epidural anaesthetic has been given in addition to a general anaesthetic for an upper abdominal procedure. A combined thoracic epidural and general anaesthetic was given. The anterior abdominal wall was retracted forty minutes after administration of the epidural bolus. This maneuver resulted in a profound vagal response with bradycardia and asystole. The patient was resuscitated successfully with a cardiac massage, atropine and adrenaline and the surgery was resumed. Surgery lasted eleven hours and was uneventful.

  18. [Differential diagnosis and therapy of bradycardic arrhythmias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, P; Jungmair, W; Kaliman, J F

    1994-01-01

    The most important symptoms in bradycardia are vertigo, dizziness and syncopy due to diminished cerebral blood sypply. Cardial symptoms are cardiac insufficiency and angina pectoris. By means of ECG, especially Holter-ECG, carotid sinus massage, atropin test and invasive methods (atrial stimulation, His-bundle ECG) sinu-nodal dysfunction, carotid sinus syndrome, bradyarrhythmia absoluta and AV-block can be diagnosed. Pharmacological treatment is only useful in acute situations. For symptomatic bradyarrhythmias the implantation of a Pacemaker is the therapy of choice. Individual treatment of the various types of bradyarrhythmia and the patients special needs is possible through the evolution of pacemaker technology. PMID:7825327

  19. The inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 as a novel target for antidepressant action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebenberg, Nico

    2010-01-01

    rats were treated with vehicle/drug(s) for 14 days, whereafter immobility, swimming and climbing behaviours were measured in the FST, or time spent in social interaction in the social interaction test. Following decapitation, saturation binding studies were performed for the measurement of m...... therapy of depression. A recent study from our laboratory reported an antidepressant-like response in the rat forced swim test (FST) following chronic (11 day) co-administration of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil and the muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonist atropine...

  20. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is involved in acetylcholine regulating stomatal movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In animal cells, action of acetylcholine depends on its binding with its two specific receptors on the plasma membrane: the nicotinic and muscarinic respectively. The present investigation has shown that agonists of muscarinic receptor (muscarine) could induce stomatal opening, while the antagonists (atropine) could block stomatal opening induced by acetylcholine. Their effects can only be realized in medium containing Ca2+, but not in medium containing K+. The results tend to reveal that the muscarinic receptor is involved in acetylcholine-induced stomatal movement.

  1. Drug: D01451 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01451 Drug Scopolamine butylbromide (JP16); Butylscopolamine bromide; Buscopan (TN...24 Antispasmodics 1242 Atropines D01451 Scopolamine butylbromide (JP16) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC...nthetic, quaternary ammonium compounds A03BB01 Butylscopolamine D01451 Scopolamine butylbromide (JP16) USP d...rug classification [BR:br08302] Gastrointestinal Agents Antispasmodics, Gastrointestinal Scopolamine D01451 Scopolamine butylbromide...A:1128 1129 1131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] Scopolamine [ATC:A04AD01] D01451 Scopolamine butylbromide

  2. Motor response of the human isolated small intestine and urinary bladder to porcine neuromedin U-8.

    OpenAIRE

    Maggi, C. A.; Patacchini, R.; S. Giuliani; Turini, D; Barbanti, G.; ROVERO P; Meli, A.

    1990-01-01

    1. Porcine neuromedin U-8 produced a concentration (0.3 nM-1 microM)-dependent contraction of the longitudinal muscle of the human isolated ileum, which was unaffected by either atropine (1 microM) or tetrodotoxin (1 microM). 2. By contrast, neuromedin U-8 had only a weak effect on the circular muscle of the human isolated ileum. 3. Neuromedin U-8 also produced a concentration-dependent contraction of mucosa-free muscle strips from the dome of the human isolated urinary bladder, its action be...

  3. Alopecia following oral acyclovir for the treatment of herpes simplex keratitis

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    Ashok Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report acyclovir-induced alopecia in a patient treated for herpetic keratouveitis. A 32-years-old female was diagnosed with herpetic keratouveitis. She was placed on prednisolone acetate (1% suspension four times a day, atropine sulfate (1% thrice a day, and oral acyclovir 400 mg twice-daily. Three weeks following oral acylovir, keratouveitis improved, but she developed alopecia without any drug eruptions. Oral acyclovir was discontinued. Three months later, alopecia completely resolved. Alopecia may be considered a possible complication following oral acyclovir.

  4. Dual action of antimuscarinic agents on the intestinal smooth muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya SRK

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Propantheline, oxyphenonium, isoproponaide, epidosine, adiphe-nine and atropine were studied for their effect on the superfused infesting of guinea pig and rat. In small, concentrations, all drugs produced a contraction, which with increasing concentration, was Hocked. Occasionally, a contraction and a relaxation or vice versa was recorded. A partial antagonism and a potentiation on the action of acetylcholine (Ach during recovery was observed. In very high concentrations, all drugs produced a graded contraction of intestine, except adiphenine which produced a sustained contraction. Some- times, a contraction and a relaxation was also observed.

  5. A STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorige Archana et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, cardiovascular and antimicrobial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia were evaluated. Dose dependent negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects were observed with both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The effects were antagonized by atropine indicating involvement of muscarinic receptors. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found with ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (15mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The organism showed resistance to aqueous extract giving an inhibition zone of 0.3mm. The data suggest that Tinospora cordifolia could be of benefit in arrhythmias and microbial infections.

  6. Use of inhaled anticholinergic agents in obstructive airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Ruben D

    2007-07-01

    In the last 2 decades, anticholinergic agents have been generally regarded as the first-choice bronchodilator therapy in the routine management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and, to a lesser extent, asthma. Anticholinergics are particularly important bronchodilators in COPD, because the vagal tone appears to be the only reversible component of airflow limitation in COPD. The inhaled anticholinergics approved for clinical use are synthetic quaternary ammonium congeners of atropine, and include ipratropium bromide, oxitropium bromide, and tiotropium bromide. This article reviews the most current evidence for inhaled anticholinergics in obstructive airway disease and summarizes outcomes reported in randomized controlled trials.

  7. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of behavioral responses has been previously established. In the brain, M2 receptors are found predominantly in presynaptic cholinergic neurons as autoreceptors, and in dopaminergic neurons as heteroceptors, suggesting a control role of acetylcholine and dopamine release, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the role of M2 receptors on the yawning and genital grooming of rats induced by apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist, focusing on the interaction between cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Initially, the effect of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, on yawning and genital grooming induced by apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.) was analyzed. Atropine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before induction of the behavioral responses by apomorphine. Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were quantified over a 60 min period. Apomorphine-induced yawning was increased by low dose (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but not by high doses (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) of atropine. Genital grooming was antagonized by 2 mg/kg i.p. of atropine and showed no changes at the other doses tested. Tripitramine, a selective M2 cholinergic antagonist, was used as a tool for distinguishing between M2 and all other muscarinic receptor subtypes in yawning and genital grooming. Tripitramine doses of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 μmol/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.). Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were also quantified over a 60 min period. Tripitramine 0.01 μmol/kg increased all parameters. Higher doses, which possibly block all subtypes of muscarinic receptor, did not modify the response of apomorphine, suggesting a non-selective effect of tripitramine at these doses. Given that low doses of tripitramine increased the behavioral responses induced by apomorphine and that the main distribution of the M2

  8. An electrophysiological study of excitatory purinergic neuromuscular transmission in longitudinal smooth muscle of chicken anterior mesenteric artery

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, Maisa; El-Mahmoudy, AbuBakr; SHIINA, Takahiko; Shimizu, Yasutake; NIKAMI, Hideki; El-Sayed, Mossad; Kobayashi, Haruo; TAKEWAKI, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    The object of the present study was to clarify the neurotransmitters controlling membrane responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the longitudinal smooth muscle cells of the chicken anterior mesenteric artery.EFS (5 pulses at 20 Hz) evoked a depolarization of amplitude 19.7±2.1 mV, total duration 29.6±3.1 s and latency 413.0±67.8 ms. This depolarization was tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive and its amplitude was partially decreased by atropine (0.5 μM); however, its duration was shorten...

  9. Pentobarbital Toxicity after Self-Administration of Euthasol Veterinary Euthanasia Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crellin, Steven Jason; Katz, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Suicide attempt via sodium pentobarbital is uncommon. A 48-year-old woman with a history of depression and prior suicide attempt was found unresponsive by her veterinarian spouse near a syringe containing pink solution. Upon EMS' arrival, the patient was experiencing apnea, hypoxemia, and miotic pupils; her blood glucose level measured 73 mg/dL. She was bradycardic and administered atropine with transient improvement in heart rate and transported to an emergency department; 2 mg of intravenous naloxone was administered without effect. She was endotracheally intubated via rapid sequence intubation. Rapid urine drug screening detected both benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit where she demonstrated a nearly absent radial pulse. Emergent fasciotomy to the left forearm and carpal tunnel was performed for acute compartment syndrome; "Euthasol" had been self-administered into the antecubital fossa. Expanded toxicological analysis via liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy detected caffeine, atropine, 7-aminoclonazepam, phenytoin, citalopram, and naproxen. The patient's coma resolved over 48 hours and she was successfully extubated without complication. Emergency physicians must closely monitor patients exposed to veterinary euthanasia agents who develop central nervous system and respiratory depression, hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension, or skin injury. Consultation with a regional poison center and medical toxicologist is recommended. PMID:26881149

  10. Analisis Gas Darah pada Kucing yang Mengalami Laparohisterotomi dengan Anestesi Xylazin-Ketamin dan Xylazin-Propofol (BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS OF XYLAZIN- KETAMIN AND XYLAZIN-PROPOFOL FOR ANESTHESIA TO LAPARO-HISTEROTOMY SURGERY IN CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Sari Yudaniayanti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the safety application of xylazine-ketamine and xylazinepropofolrecurrent dosage combination as anesthesia for laparo-histerotomy surgery in cat. Thisresearch used 10 female cats, 12-18 months of age, followed randomly divided into two groups, P1:atropine 0,04 mg/kgBW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + ketamine 20 mg/kg BW/IM; P2 : atropine0,04mg/kg BW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + Propofol 20 mg/kg BW/IV. The blood of the allgroups was taken from vena femuralis at 0 minute (before treatment, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutesduring anesthesia for measurement of blood gas value pH, pCO2 and HCO3. After all animals wereanesthetized, the animals were treated laparo-histerotomy surgery. The data were analyzed byusing Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD. The result showed both of groups were notsignificantly difference (p>0,05 to blood gas values for pH, pCO2 dan HCO3. Besides, both groupsanaesthetic agent perfectly caused metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis compensationperfectly, therefore it is relatively safe to use as anaesthetic agent for surgery that needs long timeprocedure, as laparo-histerotomy.

  11. Adenotomy under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokurka, J; Jakoubková, S; Vít, Z; Drahokoupilová, M

    1989-01-01

    Experience obtained from adenotomy (AT) under general anesthesia using Ketamin hydrochloride (Ketalar, Narkamon) in children are presented in this paper. The authors had used intramuscular premedication with Prothazin, Dolsin and Atropin at the first stage, then they shifted to oral administration of a combination of Diazepam, Theadryl and Atropin. Ketamin may be applied intravenously in the dosage of 1.0 to 1.5 mg/kg of body weight in most children. Where it is not possible, a triple dose into the muscle is used. A total of 2,266 AT were performed. About 70% of patients were calm during the operation, once a suspected aspiration was considered but it was not confirmed. The main contribution of the method is 100% amnesia of the surgery made. The procedure is a compromise between a requirement for minimal traumatization of the child's psyche by the intervention and the resources available, particularly the need of personnel at the majority of otorhinolaryngo-logical departments nowadays.

  12. The signaling of amitriptyline-induced inhibitory effect on electrical field stimulation response in colon smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Tin Sandar; Khin, Phyu Phyu; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-09-01

    Amitriptyline, a well-known antidepressant, exerts inhibitory effect on electrically stimulated rat colon smooth muscle contraction. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway of amitriptyline-induced inhibitory effect. Changes in isometric force of colon muscle were recorded on polygraph, and data were analyzed by measuring the inhibitory extent induced by amitriptyline. Firstly, muscles were contracted by stimulation with electric field stimulation (EFS), and then, amitriptyline was added cumulatively to determine its influence effect on EFS. Amitriptyline significantly inhibited EFS-induced contraction dose dependently. Then, the mechanism of inhibitory effect of amitriptyline was evaluated by pretreating with various antagonists such as L-NAME, methylene blue, atropine, 5-HT receptors blockers, guanethidine, prazosin, guanabenz, isoprenaline, Y27632 (Rho-kinase inhibitor), ML9 (myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor), U73122 (PLC inhibitor), and chelerythrine (PKC inhibitor). Then, Ca(2+) channel blocker (nifedipine) and K(+)channel blockers, tetraethylammonium (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and glybenclamide, were used to determine the involvement of ion channels. L-NAME, guanabenz, 5HT4 receptor blocker, ML9, and Y27632 enhanced the effect of amitriptyline. Meanwhile, methylene blue, atropine, guanethidine, prazosin, methylsergide, ondansetron, U73122, and chelerythrine blocked its effect. It was also shown that nifedipine enhanced but TEA and glybenclamide blocked amitriptyline-induced inhibitory effect on EFS. Our results indicated that amitriptyline may exert inhibitory effect in response to EFS by inhibiting muscarinic receptors and then PLC-mediated PKC pathway leading to opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channel. PMID:27234925

  13. Salvia miltiorrhiza Induces Tonic Contraction of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter in Rats via Activation of Extracellular Ca2+ Influx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chung Tsai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Up to 40% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD suffer from proton pump inhibitor refractory GERD but clinically the medications to strengthen the lower esophageal sphincter (LES to avoid irritating reflux are few in number. This study aimed to examine whether Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM extracts induce tonic contraction of rat LES ex vivo and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. To investigate the mechanism underlying the SM extract-induced contractile effects, rats were pretreated with atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist, tetrodotoxin (a sodium channel blocker, nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker, and Ca2+-free Krebs-Henseleit solution with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, followed by administration of cumulative dosages of SM extracts. SM extracts induced dose-related tonic contraction of the LES, which was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, atropine, or nifedipine. However, the SM extract-induced LES contraction was significantly inhibited by Ca2+-free Krebs-Henseleit solution with EGTA. Next, SM extracts significantly induce extracellular Ca2+ entry into primary LES cells in addition to intracellular Ca2+ release and in a dose-response manner. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the SM extracts consistently induced significant extracellular Ca2+ influx into primary LES cells in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, SM extracts could induce tonic contraction of LES mainly through the extracellular Ca2+ influx pathway.

  14. New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus as an Unusual Presentation of a Suspected Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahan Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE is a new entity in medical literature. It has different infectious and noninfectious etiologies showing a devastating impact onto the clinical outcome of patients. Therapy with anaesthetic and antiepileptic agents often fails to improve the condition, unless the primary cause is rectified. Here is presented the case of a young female with a history of depression who after a recent bereavement came to the Emergency Department of Aga Khan University Hospital with complaints of drowsiness that lasted for few hours. Though she had no history of organophosphate poisoning, her physical examination and further investigations were suggestive of the diagnosis. During her hospital stay, she developed refractory status epilepticus. Her seizures did not respond to standard antiepileptic and intravenous anesthetic agents and subsided only after intravenous infusion of atropine for a few days. Organophosphate poisoning is a very common presentation in the developing world and the associated status epilepticus poses a devastating problem for emergency physicians. In patients with suspected organophosphate poisoning with favoring clinical exam findings, the continuation of atropine intravenous infusion can be a safe option to abate seizures.

  15. Effects of Charred Fructus Crataegi on the contractilily of isolated rat gastric and intestine muscle strips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hou-li; DIAO Yun-peng; LIU Zhi-hao; HUANG Shan-shan; MA Xiao-chi; LIN Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract on contractililty of isolated rat gastric and intesting smooth muscle strips. Methods Isolated rat intestine was selected in the assay to test the effects of Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract on contractilty of isolated rat gastric and intestine smooth muscle strips using Krebs' solution, to observe the effects of in the presence of acetylcholine or atropine. Results Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract in the range of 2-8 rag crude drugs/mL could significantly reduce the contractility of rat gastric and intestine smooth muscle strips in a dose-dependent manner, and Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract 8 mg·mL-1(crude drugs) could inhibit the stimulation induced by acetylcholine. Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract 8 mg·mL-1(crude drugs) was found to have a inhibiton of the relaxtion concurrently used with atropin. Conclusions The results suggest that Charred Fructus Crataegi Alcohol Extract has prominent inhibitory effects on the contractile activity of isolated rat gastric and intestine smooth muscle strips.

  16. Confirmed Datura poisoning in a horse most probably due to D. ferox in contaminated tef hay : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gerber

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Two out of a group of 23 mares exposed to tef hay contaminated with Datura ferox (and possibly D. stramonium developed colic. The 1st animal was unresponsive to conservative treatment, underwent surgery for severe intestinal atony and had to be euthanased. The 2nd was less seriously affected, responded well to analgesics and made an uneventful recovery. This horse exhibited marked mydriasis on the first 2 days of being poisoned and showed protracted, milder mydriasis for a further 7 days. Scopolamine was chemically confirmed in urine from this horse for 3 days following the colic attack, while atropine could just be detected for 2 days. Scopolamine was also the main tropane alkaloid found in the contaminating plant material, confirming that this had most probably been a case of D. ferox poisoning. Although Datura intoxication of horses from contaminated hay was suspected previously, this is the 1st case where the intoxication could be confirmed by urine analysis for tropane alkaloids. Extraction and detection methods for atropine and scopolamine in urine are described employing enzymatic hydrolysis followed by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS.

  17. Orthostatic Dysregulation during Postural Change on the Dental Chair and Intraoperative Monitoring by Heart Rate Variability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Momota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first case report of orthostatic dysregulation (OD manifested during postural change on the dental chair and intraoperatively monitored by heart rate variability (HRV analysis. OD-associated autonomic dysfunction is induced by postural changes and easily leads to disturbance in circulatory dynamics; however, most dental practices have not yet realized the importance of managing OD. We measured autonomic activity in a patient with OD during dental therapy and assessed the clinical significance of HRV analysis for OD. The patient was a 17-year-old Japanese female. She was diagnosed with impacted wisdom teeth and had no previous history of a distinct systemic disease. A surgical procedure to extract the teeth was safely performed under both local anesthesia and sedation with nitrous oxide and midazolam. After the surgery, her postural change to sitting induced orthostatic hypotension. HRV variables showed parasympathetic dominance due to the upright position. Subsequently, her posture was returned to supine, and atropine sulfate administration for the immediate treatment of OD returned her blood pressure to normal levels. HRV variables showed relative sympathetic dominance due to an atropine-derived parasympathetic blockade. HRV analysis revealed OD-associated autonomic dysfunction and should become a standard tool for safe and secure dental management of OD.

  18. Electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of nucleus basalis magnocellularis neurons in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-qiu ZHANG; Shao-gang LU; Ya-ping JI; Zhi-qi ZHAO; Jun MEI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the primary electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nbM) neurons. METHODS: Single unit extracellular recordings from the nbM neurons were obtained with glass micropipettes in urethane-anesthetized rats. RESULTS: Most nbM neurons responded to noxious but not innocuous mechanical, thermal, chemical, and electrical stimuli. The receptive fields were usually very large and bilateral. Electrical stimulation applied to the frontal cortex (FCX) either activated orthodromically or antidromically the nbM neurons. The FCX stimulation-induced excitatory response in the nbM neurons could be partly blocked by intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of atropine 2.5 mmol/L or tubocurarine 0.1 mmol/L. Icv injection of ACh (1, 10, and 100 mmol/L) dose-dependently increased the spontaneous firing rate in most of the nbM neurons. Atropine (2.5, 25, and 250 mmol/L) or tubocurarine (0.1, 1, and 10 mmol/L) not only antagonized the ACh-induced excitation, but also inhibited the spontaneous firing of the nbM neurons. CONCLUSION: The nbM might be involved in nociception, although it was considered to play a critical role in cognitive function. Also,the nbM appears to be rich in cholinergic autoreceptors.

  19. Investigation of fundo-antral reflex in human beings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satish SC Rao; Anjana Kumar; Brent Harris; Bruce Brown; Konrad S Schulze

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the sensory and motor response(s)of the stomach following fundic distention and to assess whether cholinergic mechanisms influence these responses.METHODS: Fundic tone, gastric sensory responses and antral motility were evaluated in eight healthy volunteers after a probe with two sensors was placed in the antrum and a highly compliant balloon in the fundus. Isobaric balloon distentions were performed with a barostat.Study was repeated in six volunteers after intravenous atropine was given.RESULTS: Fundic distention induced large amplitude antral contractions in all subjects. The area under the curve was higher (P<0.05) during fundic distention.First sensation was reported at 12±4 mmHg,moderate sensation at 18±4 mmHg and discomfort at 21±4 mmHg. Discomfort was associated with a decrease in antral motility. After atropine was given, the area under the curve of pressure waves and fundic tone decreased (P<0.05). Sensory thresholds were not affected.CONCLUSIONS: Fundic balloon distention induces an antral motor response, the fundo-antral reflex, which in part may be mediated by cholinergic mechanisms.

  20. 儿童弱视47例临床分析%Children amblyopia 47 cases of clinical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李六平

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童弱视的规范化诊疗。方法对47例(84眼)弱视儿童阿托品散瞳验光,及时屈光矫正遮盖以及弱视训练等综合性治疗。结果47例(84眼)基本治愈70只眼(83.33%),进步14只眼(16.67%),总有效率100%。结论弱视儿童通过阿托品散瞳验光,配戴合适的眼镜,遮盖、弱视训练等综合疗法治疗,可以取得满意的效果。%Objective to explore the standardized diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia in children. Methods In 47 cases (84 eyes) of amblyopia children atropine mydriatic optometry, the comprehensive treatment such as cover and refractive amblyopia training in time. Results 47 cases (84 eyes) with basic cure 70 eyes (83.33%), 14 eyes (16.67%), progressive, total effective rate was 100%.conclusion Amblyopia children by atropine mydriatic optometry, wearing the right glasses, cover, amblyopia training, such as comprehensive therapy to treat, can obtain satisfactory results.

  1. Adrenergic and cholinergic responses in the uteroplacental vascular bed of the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on uterine and maternal placental circulation of adrenergic and cholinergic drugs, injected selectively in the ovarian and uterine arteries of guinea pigs, were analysed by serial angiography. Noradrenaline, 0.5 nmol/kg, was found to cause a reduction in both ovarian and uterine blood flow, associated with arterial vasoconstriction and impairment of the placental circulation. This response could be prevented by α-adrenergic blockade with 25 nmol/kg phenoxybenzamine. At injection into the ovarian artery, phenoxybenzamine alone increased ovarian blood flow and elicited arterial vasodilatation. At injection into the uterine artery the response was more variable, but vasodilatation was observed in four animals of six. Acetylcholine, 0.5 to 5.0 nmol/kg, evoked an increase in both ovarian and uterine blood flow and arterial vasodilatation. When the dose was increased to 50 nmol/kg, dilatation of the extrinsic uterine arteries was maintained, but the placental circulation was reduced due to concomitant contraction of the myometrium. All the effects of acetylcholine could be blocked by prior administration of 10 nmol/kg atropine. This dose of atropine did not affect uterine or placental circulation when given alone. (Auth.)

  2. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Induces Electrogenic Secretion in the Duodenum of Gerbil (Gerbillus cheesmani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Y. Al-Balool

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of serosally added 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT 100 µ­M on the short circuit-current (Isc across duodenum taken from fed, starved (4 days, water ad lib and undernourished (50% control food intake for 21 days gerbils (Gerbillus cheesmani were investigated. The effect of the neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX 10 µM and atropine (100 µ­M on the maximum increase in Isc induced by 5-HT were also studied. The 5-HT-induced Isc were higher in unstripped than in the stripped sheets in the three feeding conditions. TTX reduced the maximum increase in Isc induced by 5-HT across stripped and unstripped sheets taken from fed, starved and undernourished gerbils. Atropine decreased the 5-HT-induced Isc of stripped sheets in the three feeding conditions and it also decreased the 5-HT-induced Isc in unstripped sheets in fed duodenum. Therefore, the duodenal response to 5-HT occur partly by activation of a nonneural pathway and partly by activating electrogenic ion transport via muscarinic neural mechanism. It also showed that the 5-HT-induced Isc was chloride-dependent in fed duodenum and were chloride and bicarbonate dependent in the duodenum taken from starved and undernourished gerbil The results also showed that the increase in 5-HT-induced Isc as a results of starvation and undernourishment were TTX-sensitive and both chloride and bicarbonate dependent.

  3. Ketamine-propofol sedation in circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Gulec

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effects of ketamine alone or ketamine plus propofol on analgesia, sedation, recovery time, side effects in premedicated children with midazolam-ketamine-atropin who are prepared circumcision operation.METHODS: 60 American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I-II children, aged between 3 and 9 years, undergoing circumcision operations under sedation were recruited according to a randomize and double-blind institutional review board-approved protocol. Patients were randomized into two groups via sealed envelope assignment. Both groups were administered a mixture of midazolam 0.05 mg/kg + ketamine 3 mg/kg + atropine 0.02 mg/kg intramuscularly in the presence of parents in the pre-operative holding area. Patients were induced with propofol-ketamine in Group I or ketamine alone in Group II.RESULTS: In the between-group comparisons, age, weight, initial systolic blood pressure, a difference in terms of the initial pulse rate was observed (p > 0.050. Initial diastolic blood pressure and subsequent serial measurements of 5, 10, 15, 20th min, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate in ketamine group were significantly higher (p < 0.050.CONCLUSION: Propofol-ketamine (Ketofol provided better sedation quality and hemodynamy than ketamine alone in pediatric circumcision operations. We did not observe significant complications during sedation in these two groups. Therefore, ketofol appears to be an effective and safe sedation method for circumcision operation.

  4. Dorsal raphe nucleus acetylcholine-mediated neurotransmission modulates post-ictal antinociception: The role of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-01-15

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is a key structure of the endogenous pain inhibitory system. Although the DRN is rich in serotoninergic neurons, cholinergic neurons are also found in that nucleus. Both ictal and inter-ictal states are followed by post-ictal analgesia. The present study investigated the role of cholinergic mechanisms in postictal antinociceptive processes using microinjections of atropine and mecamylamine, muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonists, respectively, in the DRN of rats. Intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (at 64mg/kg) caused tonic and tonic-clonic seizures. The convulsive motor reactions were followed by an increase in pain thresholds, a phenomenon known as post-ictal analgesia. Pre-treatment of the DRN with atropine or mecamylamine at 1µg, 3µg and 5µg/0.2µL decreased the post-ictal antinociceptive phenomenon. The present results showed that the post-ictal analgesia was mediated by muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the DRN, a structure crucially involved in the neural network that organises post-ictal hypoalgesia. PMID:26620541

  5. Excretion of alkaloids by malpighian tubules of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddrell, S H; Gardiner, B O

    1976-04-01

    Nicotine is transported at high rates by Malpighian tubules of larvae of Manduca sexta, Pieris brassicae and Rhodnius prolixus and the transport persists in the absence of alkaloid from the diet. In the fluid-secreting portion of Rhodnius tubules this transport is not coupled to ion transport, nor is it dependent on the physiological state of the animal. The transport, which can occur against a steep electrochemical gradient, shows saturation kinetics with a maximal rate of 700 pmol. min-1 per tubule and is half saturated at 2-3 mM. Nicotine transport independent of ion movements also occurs in the lower resorptive parts of Rhodnius tubules. Both portions of Rhodnius tubules can transport morphine and atropine. These alkaloids and nicotine compete with one naother and are presumed to be carried by the smae transport system. Nicotine transport in Rhodnius was unaffected by organic anions, such as amaranth and benzyl penicillin, or by the organic anion transport inhibitor, probenecid. Fluid secretion in 5-HT-stimulated tubules was reduced by atropine and nicotine, probably by blocking the 5-HT receptors. The Malpighian tubules of adult Calliphora erythrocephala and Musca domestica remove nicotine from bathing solutions, an unknown metabolic accumulating in the tubules. Adult P. brassicae and M. sexta do not exhibit transport of nicotine by their Malpighian tubules.

  6. The Study of Corneal Topography in Myopic and Hyperopic Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Gao; Xuying Zhuo; Lusheng Ma; Ning Yu; Zhonghao Wang; Pengfei Jiang

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the differences of corneal topographies in myopic and hyperopic children and study the effect of Atropin on their changes.Methods: The refractive components of 136 eyes with different refractive conditions were measured with A-Scan and their corneal topographies with and without cycloplegia were obtained respectively.Results: The mean corneal power of zones 3mm (MD3, P=0.031 ) and minor keratometer K2 (P=0.003) of myopia are greater than those of hyperopia without cycloplegia. MD3 (P=0.009) and Keratometer K1 (P = 0.025) increased in hyperopic eyes, while MD3(P=0.033), K1 (P = 0.035) and K2 (P = 0.002) decreased in myopic eyes significantly after cycloplegia. Similarly, the mean corneal power of zones 5mm (MD5) and 7mm (MD7) in myopic eyes decreased dramatically (P ≤ 0.001 ).Conclusions: The corneal power was found to be greater in myopia than that in hyperopia. The effect of Atropin on corneal shape of myopia and hyperopia was in the opposite direction.

  7. Electroacupuncture at ST37 Enhances Jejunal Motility via Excitation of the Parasympathetic System in Rats and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqian; Li, Yuqin; Wang, Yidan; Zhang, Na; Hu, XuanMing; Yin, Yin; Zhu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background. The roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems in mediating the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at ST37 on jejunal motility have yet to be demonstrated. Aim. We used rats and mice to investigate the effect and mechanism of action of EA at ST37 on jejunal motility. Methods. Jejunal motility was recorded by a balloon placed in the jejunum and connected to a biological signal collection system through a transducer. The effects of EA (3 mA) at ST37 were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats without drugs and with the administration of clenbuterol, propranolol, acetylcholine, and atropine. Further, the efficacy of EA at different intensities (1/2/4/6/8 mA) was measured in wild-type mice and β1β2−/− mice and M2M3−/− mice. Results. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the excitatory effect of EA at ST37 on jejunal motility disappeared in the presence of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine. EA at ST37 was less effective in M2M3−/− mice than in wild-type mice. Furthermore, to a certain extent, there existed “intensity-response” relationship between jejunal motility and EA. Conclusions. EA at ST37 can enhance jejunal motility in rats and mice mainly via excitation of the parasympathetic pathway. There is an “intensity-response” relationship between EA and effect on jejunal motility.

  8. Mediators involved in the hyperthermic action of neuromedin U in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegdy, G; Adamik, A

    2014-01-01

    Neuromedin U (NmU), first was isolated from the porcine spinal cord, has subsequently been demonstrated in a number of species, in which it is present in the periphery and also the brain. Two receptors have been identified: NmU1R is mainly present in peripheral tissues, and Nmu2R in the central nervous system. NmU, a potent endogenous anorectic, serves as a catabolic signaling molecule in the brain; it inhibits food uptake, increases locomotion, activates stress mechanism, having cardiovasscular effects and, causes hyperthermia. The mechanism of this hyperthermia is unknown. In the present experiments, the effects of NmU on the colon temperature following i.c.v administration were studied in rats. For an investigation of the possible role of receptors in mediating hyperthermia, the animals were treated simultaneously with CRF 9-41 and antalarmin, a CRH1 receptor inhibitors, astressin 2B, a CRH2 receptor antagonist, haloperidol a dopamine receptor antagonist, atropine a muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, noraminophenazone a cyclooxygenase inhibitor or isatin, a prostaglandin receptor antagonist. NmU increased the colon temperature, maximal action being observed at 2-3h. CRF 9-41, antalarmin, astressin 2B haloperidol, atropine, noraminophenazone and isatin prevented the NmU-induced increase in colon temperature. The results demonstrated that, when injected into the lateral brain ventricle NmU increased the body temperature, mediated by CRHR1 and CRHR2, dopamine and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. The final pathway involves prostaglandin. PMID:25108055

  9. Mad honey intoxication: A systematic review on the 1199 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silici, Sibel; Atayoglu, A Timucin

    2015-12-01

    Mad honey, produced by honeybees from the nectars of Rhododendron genus (R. ponticum and R. luteum) flowers, is widely used in indigenous medicine, especially in the treatment of hypertension and sexual dysfunction. However, the consumption of this honey can result in intoxication soon after. The diagnosis of honey poisoning and a full understanding of its treatment is important for both effective and immediate treatment, and also for the prevention of unnecessary costs. Upon the evaluation of approximately 34 years of case reports between 1981 and 2014, it was found that the cases of poisoning were more frequently reported in males (75.17%) and between the ages 41 to 65. The most common complaints related to honey poisoning were dizziness, nausea, presyncope and the ECG findings were: sinus bradycardia (79.58%), complete atrioventricular block (45.83%), atrioventricular block (30.91%), ST-segment elevation (22.63%), and nodal rhythm (11.27%), As a result of the evaluation of 1199 cases, it was found that no deaths were reported. The patients were most frequently treated with 0.5 mg atropine (37.79%), 1 mg atropine (49.73%), salin (iv fluid) (65.35%), and generally the patients were discharged within 24 h after recovery.

  10. Influence of Needling the Foot-Yangming Points on Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration in Smooth Muscles of the Gastric Antrum in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yuanjiang; Yi Shouxiang; Lin Yaping; Yan Jie; Guo Hui; Xiang Zhiyong; Wu Fang; Liu Weiying; Chen Zhengqiu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of acupuncture at the points of Foot-Yangming Meridian on intracellular concentration of Ca2, called the 2nd messenger of gastric smooth muscles. Methods: 45rabbits were randomly divided into the following 5 groups: a normal saline group, a model group treated with atropine, an acupuncture group treated by needling the points of Foot-Yangming Meridian, an acupuncture group treated by needling the points of Foot-Shaoyang Meridian, an acupuncture group treated by needling the points of Foot-Taiyang Meridian, i.e. 9 rabbits in each group. After treatment, the smooth muscles of the gastric antrum were taken to make the suspension containing alive single muscular cells, and the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was determined by a spectrofluorometer.Results: The concentration of [Ca2+]i in the group of Foot-Yangming Meridian was obviously higher than that of the atropine group (P<0.01), but with no significant differences found among all the other groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: The influence of acupuncture at the points of Foot-Yangming Meridian on gastric movement is related to the release of intracellular Ca2+ in the gastric smooth muscles.

  11. Pentobarbital Toxicity after Self-Administration of Euthasol Veterinary Euthanasia Medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jason Crellin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt via sodium pentobarbital is uncommon. A 48-year-old woman with a history of depression and prior suicide attempt was found unresponsive by her veterinarian spouse near a syringe containing pink solution. Upon EMS’ arrival, the patient was experiencing apnea, hypoxemia, and miotic pupils; her blood glucose level measured 73 mg/dL. She was bradycardic and administered atropine with transient improvement in heart rate and transported to an emergency department; 2 mg of intravenous naloxone was administered without effect. She was endotracheally intubated via rapid sequence intubation. Rapid urine drug screening detected both benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit where she demonstrated a nearly absent radial pulse. Emergent fasciotomy to the left forearm and carpal tunnel was performed for acute compartment syndrome; “Euthasol” had been self-administered into the antecubital fossa. Expanded toxicological analysis via liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy detected caffeine, atropine, 7-aminoclonazepam, phenytoin, citalopram, and naproxen. The patient’s coma resolved over 48 hours and she was successfully extubated without complication. Emergency physicians must closely monitor patients exposed to veterinary euthanasia agents who develop central nervous system and respiratory depression, hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension, or skin injury. Consultation with a regional poison center and medical toxicologist is recommended.

  12. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae on Sexual Behavior in Normal Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nchegang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We studied prosexual effects of Eremomastax speciosa aqueous extract in male adult rats. Materials and Methods. 100 and 500 mg/kg of extract were administered orally (days 0, 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 (posttreatment. The sexual behavior of rats receiving a single dose (500 mg/kg was also evaluated after pretreatment with Lω-NAME (10 mg/kg, haloperidol (1 mg/kg, or atropine (5 mg/kg. Controls received distilled water or testosterone enanthate (20 mg/kg/day/3 days (s.c. before the test. Results. The extract (days 1–14 had no significant effect on mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies but on day 28 (14 days after treatment, it increased frequency of mounts and intromissions at 500 mg/kg. Mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies reduced and postejaculatory intervals decreased but the effect did not persist 2 weeks after treatment. Extract prosex effects were greatly reduced by atropine and completely abolished by haloperidol, while Lω-NAME increased mount latency and potentiated extract effect on intromission and ejaculation latencies. Conclusion. In summary, E. speciosa extract can have positive effects on male sexual motivation and performance when administered for two weeks at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The effects (dopaminergic and/or cholinergic dependent tend to appear during the posttreatment period.

  13. Methanol extract ofDesmodium gangeticumDC root mimetic post-conditioning effect in isolated perfused rat heart by stimulating muscarinic receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gino A Kurian; Jose Paddikkala

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate pharmacological mimetic action of herbal extractDesmodium gangeticum (DG) roots on ischemia reperfusion injury.Methods:With the help of Langendroff perfusion technique, ischemic post condition (POC) mimetic action of DG methanol root extract was evaluated and compared by using standard drugs that acts as muscarinic receptor agonist and antagonist, namely acetylcholine (Ach) and atropine (Atr) respectively in an isolated rat heart. Results:The physiological parameters like left ventricular developed pressure, end diastolic pressure and working index of isolated rat heart showed significant recovery in DG root extract administrated rat heart, similar to the recovery by POC. Kymogram results showed muscarinic receptor agonist like action for DG methanol root extract, confirmed in rat heart by muscarnic receptor agonist (acetylcholine) and anatoginst (atropine). Administration of DG root extract prior to reperfusion showed better antioxidant status in myocardial tissue homogenate and mitochondrial, complemented by the levels of cardiac specific marker proteins in myocardial tissue and perfusate. Even though DG methanol root extract mimics its action similar to that of Ach, the myocardial protection mediated by the extract was superior to Ach, due to the presence of antioxidants in the crude extract.Conclusions: DG methanol root extract provides myocardial protection towards IRI by stimulating muscarinic receptors.

  14. Antimotility effects of extracts and fractions of Eastern Nigeria mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus Linn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patience O Osadebe; Chika C Abba; Matthias O Agbo

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate the antimotility activity ofEasternNigerian mistletoe[Loranthus micranthus(L. micranthus)Linn] parasitic on six different host treesviz. Baphia nitida, Persia americana, Kola accuminata, Irvingia gabonensis, Citrus simensis andPentacletra macrophylla (P. mycrophylla).Methods:The antimotility of the methanol extracts and solvent fractions were evaluated in castor oil induced diarrheoa in rats.Results:The methanol extracts(200 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited defeacation significantly(P <0.05)4 h after administration(75.73% to93.33%) more than that of atropine sulphate(2 mg/kg,i.p.) which inhibited defeacation by80.0%.The methanol extract(200 mg/kg,i.p.) ofL. micranthus parasitic onP. mycrophylla exhibited significant(P<0.05) inhibition in gastrointestinal transit(67.6%) more than that of atropine sulphate(2 mg/kg,i.p.) which inhibited gastrointestinal transit by26.4%.The solvent fractions of L. micranthus parasitic onP. mycrophylla at dose levels of150 mg/kg inhibited significantly the gastrointestinal transit of mice.FractionF5 exhibited inhibitory activity which was comparable to loperamide(73.3%). Conclusions:The methanol extract ofL. micranthus parasitic onP. macrophylla exhibits higher antimotility activity that other extracts.The solvent fractions could serve as source of novel antimotility agents.

  15. Effects of ketamine on the gastrointestinal motility of mice%氯胺酮对小鼠胃肠道蠕动功能的影响及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴奎霖; 李瑶函; 孙锶琦; 郭小玮; 邹逸帆; 张鑫磊; 仝坤; 秦霞

    2016-01-01

    Object ive To investigate the effects of ketamine on the gastrointestinal mobility of mice and M -R in the small intestine .Methods A total of 40 mice were divided into four groups according to their routes of administra-tion:a normal saline lavage group , a ketamine lavage group , a normal saline group by intraperitoneal injection , and a ketamine group by intraperitoneal injection. After administration of2 min, 0.2 ml methylene blue solution was followed by oral administration.30 min later, mice were sacrificed and their abdominal cavity was opened to measure the move-ment of methylene blue in the bowel and the full length of the intestinal , and to calculate the movement rate of methylene blue .Meanwhile , another 40 mice were divided into a normal saline group , an atropine group , a ketamine group ,and an atropine and ketamine group .They were intraperitoneal injected with corresponding agents to measure the movement rate of methylene blue .Results The ketamine lavage group showed remarkably lower movement rate than the normal saline groups by lavage and intraperitoneal injection ( P<0.05 ) .The ketamine group by intraperitoneal injection showed re -markably lower movement rate than the normal saline group by intraperitoneal injection and the ketamine lavage group ( P<0.05).Meanwhile, compared with the atropine group , the movement rate was markedly reduced in the ketamine group and the atropine and ketamine group (P<0.05).Compared with the ketamine group, no significant change was found in the atropine and ketamine group .Conclusion Ketamine has inhibitory effects on the gastrointestinal motility in mice , without association with M -R.%目的:观察氯胺酮对小鼠胃肠道蠕动功能的影响及对小肠M受体的作用。方法将40只小鼠按给药方式分为生理盐水灌胃组、氯胺酮灌胃组、生理盐水腹腔注射组、氯胺酮腹腔注射组。给药2 min后,经口灌入亚甲蓝溶液0.2 ml。30 min后将小鼠处死,测量

  16. 胆碱能受体拮抗剂、拟肾上腺素药物及哌替啶对兔离体Oddi括约肌功能的影响%Effects of cholinergic receptor antagonists, adrenergic drugs and pethidine on the function of sphincter of Oddi isolated from rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平; 李丹丹; 江从勋; 唐承薇

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨胆碱能受体拮抗剂、拟肾上腺素药物及阿片受体激动剂哌替啶对Oddi括约肌舒缩功能的不同效果.方法 将60只健康家兔的离体Oddi括约肌环随机分为6组,每组10只,分别置入正常Krebs液(即正常功能记录组)和按非累积加药法,以浓度递增方式加入阿托品、山莨菪碱、肾上腺素、去甲肾上腺素、哌替啶的Krebs液中,观察和比较不同浓度的上述药物对Oddi括约肌的舒缩频率和收缩幅度的影响.结果 与对照组相比,5种药物在其浓度为10-6mol/L~10-2mol/L时,均可明显降低Oddi括约肌的收缩幅度(P<0.05),而对Oddi括约肌收缩频率的影响则不明显.抑制效应的顺序是去甲肾上腺素>肾上腺素>阿托品>山莨菪碱≈哌替啶.结论 除阿托品和山茛菪碱外,去甲肾上腺素、肾上腺素和哌替啶也同样可以通过降低Oddi括约肌的收缩幅度而松弛Oddi括约肌;肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素对Oddi括约肌收缩幅度的降低作用强于阿托品和山莨菪碱.%Objective To investigate the contractive effect of atropine, noradrenaline,adrenaline and pethidine on sphincter of Oddi (SO) isolated from rabbits. Methods The rings of SO isolated from 60 rabbits were treated with Krebs solution and then were exposed to gradient atropine,anisodamin, noradrenalin, adrenaline or pethidine with 10 each. The rest 10 rings of SO treated with Krebs solution only were served as controls. The amplitude and frequency of contraction of SO were recorded. Results Compared with control group, all of the 5 medicines were able to significantly decrease the contractive amplitude, but not frequency, of SO at the concentrations ranged from 10-6 mol/L to 10-2 mol/L (P<0.05). The inhibition order was as follows: noradrenaline > adrenaline >atropine > anisodamin ≈ pethidine. Conclusions Beside atropine and anisodamin, noradrenaline,adrenaline and pethidine also showed the direct relaxation of SO by

  17. 眼镜蛇长链神经毒素镇痛效应及可能机制%Analgesic effect of cobratoxin and its possible mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建明; 苏兰娣; 罗雪; 叶记林; 于有江

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the analgesic effect of cobratoxin (CBT) and its possible mechanisms. Methods The pain-evoked discharge from the spinal dorsal horn neurons in rats with chronic pain was recorded by the somatic extracellular record method. The 6 experimental rat groups were injected by the normal saline (5μL),CBT(20,40,80 ng/kg),atropine(2 mg/kg) and atropine(2 mg/kg)+CBT(40 ng/kg) respectively. The influence of different concentrations of CBT on the pain-evoked discharge from the spinal dorsal horn neurons was observed. At the same time ,whether cholinergic receptor antagonist atropine overturning its analgesic effect was observed too. Results The different concentrations of CBT could obviously inhibit the pain-evoked discharge from the spinal dorsal horn neuron in rats with chronic pain ,the discharge frequency had statistically significant difference between the different concentration and the normal saline group (P<0.05),moreover the effect could be blocked by atropine , the difference of the discharge frequency at 20,30,40,50,60 min had statistical difference between the atropine+CBT group and the CBT 40 ng/kg group(P<0.05). Conclusion CBT possesses a significant analgesic effect,this effect has certain dose dependence and the cholinergic receptor system participates in this analgesic process.%目的:探究眼镜蛇长链神经毒素(CBT)的镇痛作用及可能机制。方法采用在体细胞外记录方法记录慢性炎症痛模型大鼠脊髓背角神经元的痛诱发放电,分别对六组实验大鼠注射生理盐水(5μL)、CBT(20、40、80 ng/kg)、阿托品(2 mg/kg)、阿托品(2 mg/kg)+CBT(40 ng/kg),观察不同含量CBT对脊髓背角神经元痛诱发放电的影响,同时观察胆碱能受体拮抗剂阿托品能否翻转其镇痛效应。结果不同含量CBT均可以显著抑制慢性炎症痛大鼠脊髓背角神经元的痛诱发放电,各含量CBT组放电频率与生理盐水组比较,差

  18. Inhibition effect of sanguinarine on contraction of rat intestinal smooth muscle cells%血根碱对大鼠肠平滑肌细胞收缩的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 王悦尚; 刘兆颖; 孙志良

    2012-01-01

    采用酶消化法原代培养大鼠肠平滑肌细胞,用倒置相差显微镜测定血根碱对大鼠肠平滑肌细胞收缩的影响.结果表明:酶消化法原代培养的大鼠肠平滑肌细胞纯度高(α-actin检测阳性率达90%以上),密度大,并呈现平滑肌细胞特有的“峰-谷”样排列;血根碱及阿托品可显著抑制肠平滑肌细胞收缩,抑制率分别为32.22%和34.99%;血根碱和阿托品联用对肠平滑肌细胞收缩的抑制率可达68.8%,与单独使用血根碱或阿托品的抑制率差异显著;血根碱对乙酰胆碱、组胺及KCI诱导的肠平滑肌细胞的收缩具有显著的抑制作用;血根碱主要通过作用于细胞膜上的M受体、H1受体和钙离子通道来实现对大鼠肠平滑肌细胞收缩的抑制作用.%The influence of sanguinarine(SA) on contraction of smooth muscle cells isolated from rat intestines using collagenase digestion was measured by inverted phase-contrast microscope. The result showed that rat intestinal smooth muscle cells isolated by enzyme digestion showed high purity, high density and "peak-valley" arrangement which is unique to smooth muscle cells. SA and atropine showed significant inhibition on the contractions of the isolated cells, the inhibition rates were 32.22% and 34.99% respectively. The inhibition rate of SA together with atropine on the contraction of the isolated cells was 68.8% which was significantly different from those when SA and atropine were used separately. SA showed significant inhibition on the contractions of intestinal smooth muscle cells induced by ACh, HA or KC1. The results suggested that the inhibition effects of SA on contraction of rat intestinal smooth muscle cells were achieved mainly through M receptor, H1 receptor and calcium ions channels on the cell membrane.

  19. A long-form α-neurotoxin from cobra venom produces potent opioidindependent analgesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-xin CHEN; Hui-ling ZHANG; Zhen-lun GU; Bo-wen CHEN; Rong HAN; Paul F REID; Laurence N RAYMOND; Zheng-hong QIN

    2006-01-01

    Aim:In light of the antinociceptive activity of the short-chain neurotoxin,cobrotoxin,and other acetylcholine antagonists,the antinociceptive activity and mechanisms of cobratoxin (CTX) ,a long-chain postsynaptic α-neurotoxin,was investigated in rodent pain models.Methods:CTX was administered intraperitoneally (30,45,68μg/kg) ,intra-cerebral ventricularly (4.5 μg/kg) or microinjected into periaqueductal gray (PAG;4.5 μg/kg).The antinociceptive action was tested using the hot.plate and acetic acid writhing tests in mice and rats.The involvement of the cholinergic system and opioid system in CTX-induced analgesia was examined by pretreatment of animals with atropine (0.5 mg/kg,im;or 10 mg/kg,ip) or naloxone (1 and 5 mg/kg,ip).The effect of CTX on motor activity was tested using the Animex test.Results:CTX exhibited a dose-dependent analgesic action in mice as determined by both the hot-plate and acetic acid writhing tests.The Deak effect of analgesia was seen 3 h after administration.In the mouse acetic acid writhing test,the intra-cerebral ventricular administration of CTX at 4.5μg/kg (1/12th of a systemic dose) produced marked analgesic effects.Microinjection of CTX (4.5μg/kg) into the PAG region did not elicit an analgesic action in rats in the hot-plate test.Atropine at 0.5 mg/kg (im) and naloxone at l and 5 mg/kg (ip) both failed to block the analgesic effects of CTX,but atropine at 1 0 mg/kg (ip) did antagonize the analgesia mediated bv CTX in the mouse acetic acid writhing test.Acetylsalicylic acid (300 mg/kg) did not enhance the analgesic effects of CTX.At the highest effective dose of 68μg/kg the neurotoxin did not change the spontaneous mobility of mice.Conclusion:CTX has analgesic effects.which are mediated in the central nervous system though not through the PAG.The central cholinergic system but not opioid system appears to be involved in the antinociceptive action of CTX.

  20. Interactions between biomaterials and the sclera: Implications on myopia progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, James

    injectable materials. Fourth, the muscarinic antagonist drug, atropine, was encapsulated within the edsIPNs and delivered to the chick eye posterior pole to evaluate the local effect of atropine release. This fourth study offered an alternative method of ocular drug delivery for treatment of myopia, with the potential to elucidate the actual location of the inhibitive effect of atropine on myopia progression. In summary, this dissertation contributes to the design and use of biomaterials specific to myopia therapy and adds novel insights to scleral tissue engineering.

  1. Intoxicación por organofosforados con necesidad de altas dosis de atropina y administración tardía de oximas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Andrés Leotau Rodríguez, MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La intoxicación por organofosforados es una de las causas más frecuentes de intoxicación en el mundo y una de las tres normas principales de suicidio, llegando a mortalidades cercanas al 15 %. Esta radica en la inhibición irreversible que sus componentes hacen en la enzima acetilcolinesterasa, llevando con ello a la aparición de signos y síntomas secundarios al exceso de acetilcolina en los sistemas donde actúa. Su manejo aún es controvertido y sigue basándoseen las medidas de descontaminación, utilización de atropina, oximas y benzodiacepinas, sin haber consenso en muchas de las dosis e intervalos de tiempo para la administración de estos medicamentos. En este artículo exponemos un caso en el cual se hace necesario utilizardosis e intervalos de administración de atropina y el uso tardío de las oximas. Con este caso se puede concluir que la administración tardía de oximas y la utilización de grandes cantidades de atropina pueden ser una alternativa en el manejo de este tipo de intoxicación.______________________________________________________________________Organophosphate poisoning is one of the most frequent causes of poisoning in the world and one of the three main forms of suicide, reaching roughly 15% mortality, this lies in the irreversible inhibition that make components in the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, leading thus the signs and symptoms secondary to excessive acetylcholine in the systems where it operates. Its management is still controversial and remains based on the decontaminationmeasures, use of atropine, oximes and benzodiazepines, no consensus on many of the doses and time intervals for administration of these drugs. In this article we present a case in which it becomes necessary to use dose and timing of administration of atropine and late use of oximes. In this case we can conclude that the late administration of oximes using grades and quantities of atropine may be an alternative in handling this type of

  2. Effects of alpha-adrenoceptor and of combined sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade on cardiac performance and vascular resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Hilsted, J;

    1992-01-01

    ) blockade. 2. During alpha-adrenoceptor blockade heart rate and cardiac output increased considerably and left ventricular ejection fraction increased because of increased contractility. Systemic vascular resistance fell both during alpha-adrenoceptor blockade alone and during combined blockade. The...... increase in calf blood flow was of the same magnitude after combined blockade and after alpha-adrenoceptor blockade alone, and was considerably higher than the fall in systemic vascular resistance. Plasma catecholamine concentrations increased after phentolamine, but the changes were blunted when...... propranolol and atropine were added. 3. These results indicate that peripheral vasoconstriction especially that exerted by alpha-adrenoceptor nervous tone in skeletal muscle restricts left ventricular emptying of the intact heart. During pharmacologic blockade of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous...

  3. Effect of a crude sulfated polysaccharide from Halymenia floresia (Rhodophyta on gastrointestinal smooth muscle contractility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ronaldo Vasconcelos Graça

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of Halymenia floresia (Hf on duodenum contractility, and on experimental protocols of gastric compliance (GC in rats. Fraction Hf2s exhibited a concentration-dependent myocontractile effect (EC50 12.48 µg/ml, and an inhibitory effect after consecutive washing. The contractile response promoted by Hf2s in the duodenum strips was completely inhibited by verapamil, and the effects were prevented in the presence of Ca2+-free medium. The pretreatment with atropine prevented the Hf2s myocontractile effect. Hf2s was also capable to decrease the GC (from 3.8±0.06 to 3.4±0.13 ml, P<0.05, which did not return to basal levels after more 50 min of observation. These results indicated that the algal polysaccharide possessed in vitro and in vivo gastrointestinal effects.

  4. Spasmogenic effect of the aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae) on the contractile activity of guinea-pig taenia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A; Aka, K J

    2007-02-16

    The effect of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica (AETI) was studied on the guinea pig taenia coli, due to its use for treatment of constipation in traditional medicines. AETI, at concentrations ranging from 10(-8) mg/ml to 10(-2) mg/ml, increased the spontaneous contractile activity of guinea pig taenia coli in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 = 4x10(-6) mg/ml). This activity was unaffected by atropine. In high K(+), Ca(2+)-free solution containing EDTA, AETI as well as acetylcholine, used as a control, induced tonic contraction. These results suggest that the plant extract exert a spasmogenic effect that would not involve cholinergic mechanism of action. However, these active principles could mobilize both extra cellular calcium and intracellular calcium from internal stores.

  5. Contractile reaction of isolated frog aorta after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action of X-rays (50 kV, filtered by 0.3 mm Al) on helical strip of frog aorta (rana esculenta) has been investigated. The isolated preparations have a stable basal tone and are radio-sensitive to X-rays which induce reversible, dose-dependent, contractile responses. After repeated irradiational tachyphylaxis appears. The threshold doses are about 250 R at 3 to 6 kR/min, antiadrenergic (phentolamine, propranolol), anticholinergic (atropin), antihistaminic (Neo-Bridal) and serotoninergic (Deseril) drugs have no visible influence on the X-ray induced reaction, i.e. these action mechanisms of the irradiation-induced contraction do not seem probable. Theophylline and cAMP inhibit the X-ray contraction probably non-specifically. Indometacin also inhibits the X-ray contraction: this suggests participation of prostaglandin-mechanism on the contraction of frog aorta after irradiation. (orig.)

  6. Functional characterisation of the human alpha1 glycine receptor in a fluorescence-based membrane potential assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we have created a stable HEK293 cell line expressing the human homomeric alpha1 glycine receptor (GlyR) and characterised its functional pharmacology in a conventional patch-clamp assay and in the FLIPR Membrane Potential (FMP) assay, a fluorescence-based high throughput...... and RU 5135>strychnine>brucine>PMBA=picrotoxin>atropine for the antagonists. The actions of three allosteric modulators at the alpha1 GlyR cell line were also characterised in the FMP assay. Micromolar concentrations of Zn2+ inhibited alpha1 GlyR signalling but in contrast to previous reports the metal...... not be suited for sophisticated studies of GlyR pharmacology and kinetics. However, the assay offers several advantages in studies of ligand-receptor interactions. Furthermore, the assay could be highly useful in the search for structurally novel ligands acting at GlyRs....

  7. Acute poisoning in a child following topical treatment of head lice (pediculosis capitis) with an organophosphate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Muddathir H; Adeel, Ahmed Awad; Alhaboob, Ali Abdu N; Ashri, Ahmed M; Salih, Mustafa A

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of acute organophosphate poisoning in a child treated with topical application of Diazinon-60 (WHO Class II toxicity) for head lice (pediculosis capitis). The patient presented with neurological symptoms and signs. After emergency respiratory and circulatory resuscitation the patient underwent dermal decontamination and was treated with atropine, high flow oxygen and pralidoxime. Scanning electron micrographs of scalp hair specimens revealed both viable and empty head lice nits (lice eggs that attach to the hair shaft). The patient was hospitalized for seven days and discharged after full recovery. The case highlights the importance of raising the awareness of health workers and the community about the danger of misusing pesticides for the treatment of head lice. PMID:27651556

  8. Role of central histaminergic mechanism in behavioural depression (swimming despair) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, C; Gulati, A; Dhawan, K N; Gupta, G P

    1988-01-01

    The role of the central histaminergic system in depression was studied by using swimming despair test in mice - a behavioural model of depression. In this test, immobility of mice reflects a state of depression. Intracerebral (ic) injection of histamine (50-200 micrograms) increased significantly the immobility. The H1-receptor blocker mepyramine (2.5-20 mg/kg ip) had no effect while H2-receptor blocker cimetidine (100-200 micrograms ic) caused a significant decrease in immobility. The histamine induced facilitation was blocked completely by cimetidine and antidepressant drugs-imipramine and desipramine, but remained unaffected in mice pretreated with mepyramine or atropine. The H2 agonist impromidine (20-40 micrograms ic) also enhanced significantly, the immobility which was blocked by cimetidine and antidepressant drugs. It has been concluded that central H2-receptors facilitate depression and antidepressant drugs block central H2-receptors.

  9. Mannich Bases: An Important Pharmacophore in Present Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Bala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mannich bases are the end products of Mannich reaction and are known as beta-amino ketone carrying compounds. Mannich reaction is a carbon-carbon bond forming nucleophilic addition reaction and is a key step in synthesis of a wide variety of natural products, pharmaceuticals, and so forth. Mannich reaction is important for the construction of nitrogen containing compounds. There is a number of aminoalkyl chain bearing Mannich bases like fluoxetine, atropine, ethacrynic acid, trihexyphenidyl, and so forth with high curative value. The literature studies enlighten the fact that Mannich bases are very reactive and recognized to possess potent diverse activities like anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antifilarial, antibacterial, antifungal, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitubercular, analgesic, anti-HIV, antimalarial, antipsychotic, antiviral activities and so forth. The biological activity of Mannich bases is mainly attributed to α, β-unsaturated ketone which can be generated by deamination of hydrogen atom of the amine group.

  10. Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaf methanolic extract of Rauwolfia serpentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezeigbo II; Ezeja MI; Madubuike KG; Ifenkwe DC; Ukweni IA; Udeh NE; Akomas SC

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiarrhoeal property of methanol extract of the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) in experimental diarrhoea induced by castor oil in mice. Methods:Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg R. serpentina leaf methanol extracts were administered to castor oil induced diarrhoea mice to determine its antidiarrhoeal activity. Results: All doses of the extract and the reference drug atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-dependent reduction in intestinal weight and fluid volume. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to diphenoxylate Hcl (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusions: The results show that the extract of R. serpentina leaves has a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine.

  11. CNS depression in an infant after the ingestion of tobacco: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borys, D J; Setzer, S C; Ling, L J

    1988-02-01

    An 8-month-old female infant was brought in after ingesting cigarette butts. Upon presentation to the ED approximately 2.5 hr post-ingestion, the child was very lethargic and respirations were depressed. She was intubated and a NG tube was placed. Gastric lavage was performed, after which activated charcoal and sorbitol were given. Atropine was administered to treat excessive secretions. The patient became progressively more obtunded throughout the emergency department stay. Upon admission to the PICU she was minimally responsive. The urine tox screen was positive only for nicotine. The patient gradually improved with supportive care and was sent home on the third hospital day. Although the effects of Nicotine are well documented, few cases have been reported of severe toxicity in pediatric patients. We believe this to be the only reported case of severe CNS depression secondary to the ingestion of cigarette butts in a pediatric patient.

  12. Kindling: a pharmacological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, C G; Morin, A M; Jonec, V

    1982-01-01

    Injection of a few nanomoles of the muscarinic agonists carbamylcholine, muscarine or (+)-acetyl-beta-methylcholine once a day into the rat amygdala was initially subconvulsive, but on repetition led to the progressive development of kindled epileptic seizures. This behaviour was stereospecific, was potentiated by the cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine, and was blocked by the muscarinic antagonists atropine, QNB and scopolamine. The kindling potencies of cholinergic muscarinic agonists and antagonists paralleled their relative affinities for muscarinic receptors in vitro. No changes in muscarinic receptors, in cholinesterase or in choline acetyltransferase were observed in kindled brains after a stimulation-free period of at least 1 week. These data support the aggregate hypothesis of epileptogenesis and suggest that abnormal activity through a particular group of muscarinic synapses can be sufficient to generate an epileptic focus.

  13. [Vasomotor reactions of the pulmonary circulation upon hypothalamic stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsybenko, V A; Guinh-van-Tam

    1977-01-01

    The blood flow in the lung lobe perfused under constant pressure was recorded with photoelectric drop recorder in acute closed-chest experiments in anesthetized dogs. Stimulation of supraoptic and lateral mamillary nuclei in most cases decreased flow rate and increased vascular resistance in perfused pulmonary lobe, while stimulation of sympatho-inhibitory area exerted opposite effect. Bilateral vagotomy and administration of atropin and inderal did not block the lesser circulation responses to the hypothalamic stimulation. However, phentolamine and bilateral ablation of stellate and upper thoracic ganglia eliminated chnages of blood flow and vascular resistance in the perfused lobe. The data obtained suggest that stimulation of some hypothalamic areas evoke obvious vasomotor responses in the lesser circulation and that these responses occur mainly through alpha-adrenergic sympathetic innervation of pulmonary vessels. PMID:832755

  14. Catalytic bioscavengers in nerve agent poisoning: A promising approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2016-02-26

    The repeated use of the nerve agent sarin against civilians in Syria in 2013 emphasizes the continuing threat by chemical warfare agents. Multiple studies demonstrated a limited efficacy of standard atropine-oxime treatment in nerve agent poisoning and called for the development of alternative and more effective treatment strategies. A novel approach is the use of stoichiometric or catalytic bioscavengers for detoxification of nerve agents in the systemic circulation prior to distribution into target tissues. Recent progress in the design of enzyme mutants with reversed stereo selectivity resulting in improved catalytic activity and their use in in vivo studies supports the concept of catalytic bioscavengers. Yet, further research is necessary to improve the catalytic activity, substrate spectrum and in vivo biological stability of enzyme mutants. The pros and cons of catalytic bioscavengers will be discussed in detail and future requirements for the development of catalytic bioscavengers will be proposed.

  15. Investigations on behavioral effects of an extract of Cannabis sativa L. in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, S; Costa, G; Murari, G; Panico, A M; Rapisarda, E; Speroni, E; Arrigo-Reina, R

    1981-01-01

    The behavioral responses of the rat to an extract of Cannabis sativa were examined after IP injection of 5, 15 and 30 mg/kg (expressed as delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol). The lowest dose of the extract induced stereotyped behavior (rhythmic head movements, intermittent gnawing and sniffing) together with hypersensitivity to stimuli and hyperthermia. The administration of higher doses of the extract resulted, initially, in similar behavioral effects but of greater intensity, followed by a cataleptic state alternating with atonic muscular prostration; rectal temperature was decreased. Pre-treatment with 6-hydoxydopamine (6-OHDA, which produces degeneration of catecholamine-containing nerve terminals)or pimozide (blocker of dopamine receptors) significantly reduced both stereotype and hyperreactivity. Thermic effects were also antagonized by 6-OHDA pre-treatment. Cannabis-induced catalepsy was enhanced by pimozide but reduced by atropine (3 mg/kg SC). These results support the hypothesis that catecholamines play an important role in the complex behavioral effects of cannabis. PMID:6798604

  16. Nattrassia mangiferae causing fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindo A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fungal keratitis caused by the coelomycetous fungus Nattrassia mangiferae in a 70 year old gentleman, agriculturist by occupation, with a history of injury to his right eye. The scraping showed narrow septate fungal hyphae on a KOH mount, isolation of a fast growing black mould, which demonstrated hyphae and arthroconidia of varying widths typical of the Scytalidium synanamorph (S. dimidiatum. The formation of the pycnidia, which at maturity, expressed conidia. The patient was started on topical itraconazole one hourly and topical atropine thrice a day. The patient was lost to follow up hence we are not able to comment on the final outcome of the patient.

  17. ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON SCOPOLIA CARNIOLICA JACQ. VEGETATIVE ORGANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STEFANESCU

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Scopolia carniolica Jacq. is a medicinal species of Solanaceae, harvested from the Romanian spontaneous flora for its atropine and scopolamine content. We have analyzed the anatomical structure of the vegetative organs (rhizome, root, stem and leaf and the biometrical parameters of the leaf blade (vascular islet, stomatal index and palisade ratio, in order to establish the main specific characters and differential elements useful for the correct identification and for avoiding the impurification of medicinal products. The characteristic structures for the rhizome and root are the secondary ones, mainly with parenchyma elements and lacking in mechanical fibres; the stem has a primary becoming secondary structure, bicolateral vascular bundles with cambium in the interior and between them and endoderma as starch layer. The sand cells are characteristic for rhizome, root and stem structures. On the leaf surface were identified protector multicellular trichomes and specific secretory and glandular ones.

  18. Effects of intraocular mescaline and LSD on visual-evoked responses in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, J T; Wilkison, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of mescaline and LSD on the flash-evoked cortical potential (FEP) were determined in unrestrained rats with chronically-implanted electrodes. Systemic administration of mescaline or LSD significantly attenuated the primary component of the FEP at three stimulus intensities with the greatest effect observed 60-90 minutes following drug administration. The magnitude and specificity of the effects of these agents on the primary response suggest that they produce deficits in conduction through the retino-geniculato-cortical system. The serotonin receptor antagonists, cyproheptadine and methysergide, antagonized the mescaline-induced depression of the FEP in accordance with neurochemical and behavioral evidence that mescaline acts as a partial agonist on serotonin receptors. Topical or intraocular administration of atropine antagonized the actions of systemically-administered mescaline. In addition, intraocular administration of mescaline or LSD attenuated the FEP indicative of an action of these hallucinogens on visual processing in the retina which is modulated by muscarinic receptor activity.

  19. [Respiratory preparation before surgery in patients with chronic respiratory failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Jean-Marc; Jaber, Samir

    2012-03-01

    Scheduled and/or thoracic, abdominal surgeries increase the risk of respiratory postoperative complications. In patients with chronic respiratory failure, preoperative evaluation should be performed to evaluate respiratory function in aim to optimize perioperative management. Preoperative gas exchange abnormalities (hypoxemia or hypercapnia) are associated with respiratory postoperative complications. Respiratory physiotherapy and prophylactic non-invasive ventilation should be integrated in a global rehabilitation management for cardiothoracic or abdominal surgery procedures, which are at high risk of postoperative respiratory dysfunction. Stopping tobacco consummation should be benefit, but decease risk of postoperative complications is relevant only after a period for 6 to 8 weeks of cessation. Bronchodilatator aerosol therapy (beta-agonists and atropinics) and inhaled corticotherapy allow a rapid preparation for 24 to 48 h. Systematic preoperative antibiotherapy should not be recommended. PMID:22004791

  20. Türkiye'deki eczanelerde bulunan bitkisel ilaçlar

    OpenAIRE

    Sevda Süzgeç-Selçuk; Seda Eyisan

    2012-01-01

    u çalışmada, 2012 yılında Türkiye'deki eczanelerde bulunan, Sağlık Bakanlığı ruhsatlı bitkisel ilaçlar incelenerek; formülasyonunda aktif bileşik olarak standardize edilmiş bitkisel drog ekstresi veya drog preparatları bulunan müstahzarlar ele alınmıştır. Bitkilerden kimyasal işlemler sonucu elde edilen, bitkisel kaynaklı saf bileşikler (atropin, morfin, efedrin vb.) bitkisel ilaç olarak değerlendirilmediklerinden, bu çalışma kapsamına dahil edilmemiştir. Bu kapsamda, bitkisel ilaçların içeri...

  1. Effect of electroacupuncturein Weijing points on gastroin testinal interdigestive migrating motor complex and brain gut peptides release in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interdigestive gastrointestinal migratingmotor complex (MMC) activities were recorded by strain gauge implanted on the serosa in 7 conscious dogs. We studied theffects of electroacupuncture (EAP) Weijing points Zusanli (S36), Tianshu (S25), Liangmen (S21) on MMC and release of motilin and gastrin, and compared them with that of EAP Pangguangjing points. The results indicated that EAP Weijing points could not only strengthen MMC contractions in antrum, duodenum and proximal jejunum, but also increase plasma concentration of motilin and gastrin. Anti-motilin serum, proglumide, atropine, or hexamethonium could markedly block the effect of EAP on reinforcing MMC contraction and release of motilin and gastrin. We could get the conclusions that such enhancing effect of EAP Weijing points on MMC and brain-gut peptides release is mediated by motilin and gastrin, on which both cholinergic nerve and sympathetic nerve play important roles.

  2. Electroacupuncture-Induced Cholinergic Nerve Activation Enhances the Hypoglycemic Effect of Exogenous Insulin in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the mechanisms by which electroacupuncture (EA enhances the hypoglycemic effect of exogenous insulin in a streptozotocin- (STZ- diabetic rats. Animals in the EA group were anesthetized and subjected to the insulin challenge test (ICT and EA for 60 minutes. In the control group, rats were subjected to the same treatment with the exception of EA stimulation. Blood samples were drawn to measure changes in plasma glucose, free fatty acids (FFA, and insulin levels. Western blot was used to assay proteins involved in insulin signaling. Furthermore, atropine, hemicholinium-3 (HC-3, and Eserine were used to explore the relationship between EA and cholinergic nerve activation during ICT. EA augmented the blood glucose-lowering effects of EA by activating the cholinergic nerves in STZ rats that had been exposed to exogenous insulin. This phenomenon may be related to enhancement of insulin signaling rather than to changes in FFA concentration.

  3. 盐酸戊乙奎醚对诱导剂量顺式阿曲库铵起效及再次注药时间的影响%Effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on the onset time and re-injection time of in duction dose of cisatracurium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭; 董有静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride and atropine as premedication on the onset time and re-injection time of cisatracurium.Methods Thirty ASA I ~ Ⅱ female adult patients without any neuromuscular disease who underwent elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups with fifteen patients each :Group I (penehyclidine hydrochloride group)and Group l (atropine group).All patients were given penehyclidine hydrochloride 0.01 mg/kg or atropine 0.01 mg/kg deltoid muscle im.The responses of patients to train-of-four(TOF) stimulation of ulnar nerve were monitored.The onset time of cisatracurium ,the duration of neuromuscular blockade time from TOF ratio(T1/Tc)0 to 25% were recorded.Intravenous anesthesia was used for induction and sevoflurane inhalation anesthesia was used for maintenance.Results Compared with atropine, the onset time of cisatracurium of penehyclidine hydrochloride was significantly shorter( P < 0.05 ), and the re-injection time was significantly longer( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion The preoperative intramuscular injection of penehyclidine hydrochloride can significantly reduce the cisatracurium's onset time,increase the clinical relaxant maintance time of muscle and prolong the time of cisatracurium re-injection.%目的 比较盐酸戊乙奎醚与阿托品术前用药对诱导剂量顺式阿曲库铵起效时间及再次注药时间的影响.方法 选择30例ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级无神经肌肉疾患并拟在全麻下行择期手术的女性患者,随机分成盐酸戊乙奎醚组(Ⅰ组,15例)和阿托品组(Ⅱ组,15例).两组患者麻醉诱导前30 min分别肌注阿托品或盐酸戊乙奎醚0.01 mg/kg,采用TOF刺激方式,持续监测拇内收肌的收缩反应,TOF≥25%时追加肌松药,记录两组患者神经肌肉阻滞的起效时间及T从0恢复至25%的时间.应用静脉麻醉诱导,七氟烷吸入麻醉维持.结果 与阿托品组比较,盐酸戊乙奎醚组肌

  4. Determination of the length and position of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) by correlation of external measurements with combined radiographic and manometric estimations in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty DSH cats were studied radiographically and a highly significant linear correlation was found between the length of the oesophagus measured to the diaphragmatic line on the radiographs and the externally measured distance from the lower jaw incisor teeth to the anterior border of the head of 10th rib. A subsequent manometric study utilizing this correlation in 40 cats suggests that the functional lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) is situated almost at the level of the diaphragm in the cat. Significant differences were found between the length of the LOS in cats anaesthetized with ketamine compared to alphaxalone-alphadolone or xylazine-ketamine-atropine. The mean lengths of the LOS was 1.42 +/- 0.3 cm. The findings of this study indicate that external measurements can be used to position catheters for accurate oesophageal manometry in the cat

  5. Factors affecting radioactive microsphere measurement of blood flow in pregnant guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative blood flow studies were performed in pregnant guinea pigs using radioactive microspheres to test the effects of different sphere sizes on blood flow measurements and the relationship between flows obtained intraoperatively and those performed after 5 days of recovery from anesthesia and surgery. We observed that 1.5% of the cardiac output was shunted through the microcirculation of the carcass, gut, skin and endomyometrium when 15 mu microspheres were used. Intraoperative measurements of heart rate, cardiac output and placental blood flow are significantly lower than measurements made after 5 days recovery. These reductions were ameliorated with the addition of a continuous infusion of isoproterenol and the deletion of atropine from the anesthetic

  6. PENGARUH EKSTRAK BEBERAPA TANAMAN OBAT TERHADAP USUS TERISOLASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dzulkarnain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Anacardium occidentale L.leaves, Aegle marmelos Corr leaves and wood bark, Acorus calamus L. tuber and Desmodium triquetrum D.C. leaves has been tested on the isolated rabbit and guinea pig intestine. The extraction of A. occidentale L. leaves stimulated the isolated rabbit and guinea pig intestine which may due to the anacardic acid content. No consistent influence was seen by the extraction of A.marmelos Corr. leaves and wood bark. The A. calamus L. tuber extraction decreases the isolated intestine activities which is of the atropine-like type not antihistamin one. This may explain the use as antidysentri agent from the motility point of view. The D. triquetrum D.C. leaves extraction stimulated the isolated intestine which has a pilocarpine and histamine-like activity but does not exclude a seretonine-like action.

  7. Cholinergic receptor binding in the frontal cortex of suicide victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because there is a high incidence of individuals diagnosed as having an affective disorder who subsequently commit suicide, the author thought it would be of interest to determine QNB binding in the brains of a large sample of suicide victims, and to compare the findings with a well-matched control group. Brain samples were obtained at autopsy from 22 suicide victims and 22 controls. Frontal cortex samples were diseected, frozen, and stored until assayed. Samples of tissue homogenate were incubated in duplicate with 10 concentrations of tritium-QNB. Specific binding was determined with and without atropine. The results confirmed previous studies in which no changes were noted in suicide versus control brains. While the findings neither disprove nor support the cholinergic hypothesis of depression, they do suggest that the neurochemical basis for the in vivo observations of increased responsivity of depressed individuals to muscarinic cholinergic agents might not involve changes in receptors estimated by QNB binding

  8. Determinantes genéticos de las variables psicofisiológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaz Abe

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the genetic influence on varíous physiological functions related to the activity of the autonomic nervous system, on response to drugs and on sleep behaviors were reviewed. Genetic factor appears to play a significant role in; heart beat, electrocardíogramm, heart beat and respiratory response to startling events, or adrenalin or atropin injectíon, in predísposítíon to cardiac neurosis, peripheral vasomotor activity, (acrocyanosis, frost-bite sweat gland activity (hyperidrosis, galvaníc skin reflex, salivarysecretion rate, motion síckness, basal metabolism, blood sugar level, response to antídepressants, drug-induced Parkinsonism, sleepwalking, sleeptalking, childhood insomnia, and major shifts of sleep stages as observed by electroencephalogramm during sleep.

  9. A dramatic drop in blood pressure following prehospital GTN administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Malcolm J

    2007-03-01

    A male in his sixties with no history of cardiac chest pain awoke with chest pain following an afternoon sleep. The patient did not self medicate. The patient's observations were within normal limits, he was administered oxygen via a face mask and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Several minutes after the GTN the patient experienced a sudden drop in blood pressure and heart rate, this was rectified by atropine sulphate and a fluid challenge. There was no further deterioration in the patient's condition during transport to hospital. There are very few documented case like this in the prehospital scientific literature. The cause appears to be the Bezold-Jarish reflex, stimulation of the ventricular walls which in turn decreases sympathetic outflow from the vasomotor centre. Prehospital care providers who are managing any patient with a syncopal episode that fails to recover within a reasonable time frame should consider the Bezold-Jarisch reflex as the cause and manage the patient accordingly.

  10. The left ventricular contractility of the rat heart is modulated by changes in flow and a1-adrenoceptor stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F. Vassallo

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial contractility depends on several mechanisms such as coronary perfusion pressure (CPP and flow as well as on a1-adrenoceptor stimulation. Both effects occur during the sympathetic stimulation mediated by norepinephrine. Norepinephrine increases force development in the heart and produces vasoconstriction increasing arterial pressure and, in turn, CPP. The contribution of each of these factors to the increase in myocardial performance needs to be clarified. Thus, in the present study we used two protocols: in the first we measured mean arterial pressure, left ventricular pressure and rate of rise of left ventricular pressure development in anesthetized rats (N = 10 submitted to phenylephrine (PE stimulation before and after propranolol plus atropine treatment. These observations showed that in vivo a1-adrenergic stimulation increases left ventricular-developed pressure (Pa1-adrenoceptors and increased flow, increased cardiac performance acting simultaneously and synergistically.

  11. The effect of ions, ion channel blockers, and ionophores on uptake of vitellogenin into cockroach follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, H; Lanzrein, B; Kunkel, J G

    1990-12-01

    Since calcium plays an important role in vitellogenin binding and uptake in Nauphoeta cinerea and because calcium channels have been described in follicles of this species, we investigated the effect of various ions, ionophores, and ion channel blockers on vitellogenin uptake in vitro. Calcium significantly stimulated vitellogenin uptake; this effect could be substituted best by barium and less well by strontium and magnesium. The stimulatory effect of calcium, and to a certain extent also that of barium, was dependent on the vitellogenin concentration, whereas the effect of strontium and magnesium was not. In the presence of calcium, vitellogenin uptake was inhibited by barium, strontium, and magnesium as well as by the transition elements nickel, cobalt, and zinc, but not by manganese which had a stimulatory effect. Valinomycin, verapamil, tetraethylammonium, and atropine reduced vitellogenin uptake, while amiloride and ouabain were ineffective. Our results indicate that calcium inward (and possibly potassium outward) fluxes play an important role in vitellogenin uptake. PMID:2257971

  12. Functionalized chitosan/NIPAM (HEMA) hybrid polymer networks as inserts for ocular drug delivery: synthesis, in vitro assessment, and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verestiuc, Liliana; Nastasescu, Oana; Barbu, Eugen; Sarvaiya, Indrajeetsinh; Green, Keith L; Tsibouklis, John

    2006-06-15

    A series of hybrid polymeric hydrogels, prepared by the reaction of acrylic acid-functionalized chitosan with either N-isopropylacrylamide or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate monomers, were synthesized, pressed into minitablets, and investigated for their ability to act as controlled release vehicles for ophthalmic drug delivery. For comparison, interpolymeric complex analogues synthesized using the same monomers and pure, unfunctionalized chitosan were examined by means of an identical characterization protocol. The effects of network structure and composition upon the swelling properties, adhesion behavior, and drug release characteristics were investigated. Comparative in vitro studies employing chloramphenicol, atropine, norfloxacin, or pilocarpine informed the selection of drug-specific carrier compositions for the controlled delivery of these compounds. In addition, in vivo (rabbit model) experiments involving the delivery of pilocarpine indicated that chitosan-based hybrid polymer networks containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate are useful carriers for the delivery of this therapeutic agent. PMID:16555266

  13. Dorsomedial hypothalamic GABA regulates anxiety in the social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, A; Katner, J S

    1995-02-01

    Blockade of GABAA function in the region of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of rats is known to elicit a constellation of physiologic responses including increases in heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate, and plasma catecholamine levels, as well as behavioral responses such as increases in locomotor activity and anxiogenic-like effects as measured in a conflict test and the elevated plus-maze test. The aim of the present study was to test the effects of microinjecting GABAA antagonists bicuculline methiodide (BMI) and picrotoxin, as well as the GABAA agonist muscimol, into the DMH of rats placed in the social interaction (SI) test. Muscimol decreased HR and BP but increased SI, whereas the GABA antagonists increased HR and BP but decreased SI time. Blocking the HR changes elicited by GABAergic drugs injected into the DMH with systemic injections of atenolol and atropine methylbromide did not block their effects on SI.

  14. Iohexol compared to megulmine-Ca-metrizoate in common carotid angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakstad, P.; Sortland, O.; Aaserud, O.

    1983-04-01

    A randomized double blind cross-over study with iohexol (Omnipaque) and meglumine-Ca-metrizoate (Isopaque cerebral) was performed to answer questions concerning subjective side effects and tolerability that arrou from a double blind parallel study with the same two media. The cross-over study design, with injection of the contrast media under identical conditions in the same artery, seems to be the most practical method of comparison of two well tolerated media. Iohexol showed significantly less side effects than meglumine-Ca-metrizoate. The routine premedication with atropine was neglected in this study to evaluate effects on heart rate due, for example, to the toxicity of the media. Small tachycardial and bradycardial reactions were equally divided between the media. However, a short asystolic period following the injection of meglumine-Ca-metrizoate in two different patients may indicate a higher toxicity of this medium.

  15. Electrolyte and protein secretion by the perfused rabbit mandibular gland stimulated with acetylcholine or catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Novak, I;

    1980-01-01

    1. A method is described for the isolation and vascular perfusion in vitro of the mandibular gland of the rabbit. The perfusate is a physiological salt solution containing glucose as the only metabolic substrate.2. During perfusion with solutions containing acetylcholine, the gland secretes....... Acetylcholine evoked a small secretory response at a concentration of 8 x 10(-9) mol l(-1) and a maximum response at 8 x 10(-7) mol l(-1). Eserine (2 x 10(-5) mol l(-1)) evoked secretory responses comparable to those evoked by acetylcholine in a concentration of 8 x 10(-9) mol l(-1). Secretion, whether...... unstimulated or evoked by acetylcholine or eserine, could be blocked completely by atropine.4. During prolonged stimulation with acetylcholine, the fluid secretory response declined rapidly over a period of about 15 min from an initial high value to a much lower plateau value. After 3 or more hours...

  16. Clinical management of progressive myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, T A

    2014-02-01

    Myopia has been increasing in prevalence throughout the world, reaching over 90% in some East Asian populations. There is increasing evidence that whereas genetics clearly have an important role, the type of visual environment to which one is exposed to likely influences the onset, progression, and cessation of myopia. Consequently, attempts to either modify the environment or to reduce the exposure of the eye to various environmental stimuli to eye growth through the use of various optical devices are well under way at research centers around the globe. The most promising of current treatments include low-percentage atropine, bifocal soft contact lenses, orthokeratology, and multifocal spectacles. These methods are discussed briefly and are then categorized in terms of their expected degree of myopia progression control. A clinical strategy is presented for selecting the most effective treatment for the appropriate type of patient at the optimal stage of refractive development to achieve the maximum control of myopia progression. PMID:24357844

  17. Adolf Hitler's medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, D

    2005-02-01

    For the last nine years of his life Adolf Hitler, a lifelong hypochondriac had as his physician Dr Theodor Morell. Hitler's mood swings, Parkinson's disease, gastro-intestinal symptoms, skin problems and steady decline until his suicide in 1945 are documented by reliable observers and historians, and in Morell's diaries. The bizarre and unorthodox medications given to Hitler, often for undisclosed reasons, include topical cocaine, injected amphetamines, glucose, testosterone, estradiol, and corticosteroids. In addition, he was given a preparation made from a gun cleaner, a compound of strychnine and atropine, an extract of seminal vesicles, and numerous vitamins and 'tonics'. It seems possible that some of Hitler's behaviour, illnesses and suffering can be attributed to his medical care. Whether he blindly accepted such unorthodox medications or demanded them is unclear.

  18. Panuveitis with disc edema after dengue fever: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Annamalai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 47 year old male who presented with panuveitis and disc oedema two weeks after an episode of dengue fever. He had complaints of headache with pain and defective vision in his right eye that had developed during his recovery from dengue fever. We treated him with topical steroid drops and subtenon steroid injections along with atropine eye drops. Oral prednisolone was started after 1 week on his review visit following which his symptoms resolved and vision improved. This case is being presented as panuveitis with disc oedema is a rare complication of dengue fever and also because the patient responded well to medical management with restoration of his vision.

  19. RAT EXOCRINE PANCREATIC SECRETION BY VAGAL STIMULATION OCCURS VIA MULTIPLE MEDIATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓东; MTimmthyNelson; HaileTDebas

    1996-01-01

    The vagus is a mixed nerve containing cholinerrgic and non-cholinergie neurons. Vagal fibers interact with peptidergic neurons of the enteric nervous system which stain immunohistcchemically for cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and gastrin releasing peptide. The contribution of these pepticdergic neurons in the pancreatic response to vagal stimulation is unknown. We tested the effect of specific inhibitor of these stimulants against vagally mediated exocrine secretion in rats. The response to vagal stimulation was blocked significantly hy each of the following:the ganglionic blocker hexmethoninm (100% inhibition); the muscarinic, cholinergic blocker atropine (85%inhibition) ; the specific cholaeystokinln-A receptor blocker (91% inhibition); and a vasoactive intestinal polypeptide polyclonal antibody (89% inhibition). This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that potentiating interactions among several agonisrs mediate the vagal response. Our study, however, dose not exclude acetylehollne as the final commom mediator.

  20. Ambiguous nucleus regulates the proliferation and percentage of T lymphocytes in peripheral blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Wei Chen; Yingwu Mei; Bin Guo; Zhanqing Yang; Shoupeng Fu; Zhanpeng Yue; Juxiong Liu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the immunomodulatory role of the unilateral ambiguous nucleus (Amb). We performed electrical stimulation of the unilateral Amb, electrical stimulation of the left parietal cortex and the lateral hypothalamus following unilateral Amb lesion, as well as microinjection of acetylcholine chloride and hemicholine-3 into the unilateral Amb, and electrical stimulation of the unilateral Amb after injection of atropine, mecamylamine, propranolol, and phentolamine. Results showed that the number and proliferation of peripheral blood T lymphocytes were increased after electrical stimulation of the unilateral Amb. The cholinergic neurons in the Amb released choline substances to alter cellular immunity, thus confirming that the Amb mediates the neuro-immunomodulatory process.

  1. Quantification of phytochemical constituents and in-vitro antioxidant activity of Mesua ferrea leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narender Prasad D; B Ganga Rao; E Sambasiva Rao; T Mallikarjuna Rao; VS Praneeth D

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the quantification of total phenolic, alkaloid content and in-vitro antioxidant activity of ethanol (70%), methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of Mesua ferrea (M. ferrea) leaves. Methods: The quantification of the total phenolic and alkaloid contents were estimated by taking gallic acid and atropine are as a standard; In-vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for extracts by using different free radicals (superoxide, hydroxyl and DPPH).Results: M. ferrea leaves ethanol (70%) extract have more phenolic and alkaloidal content than other extracts. The selected plant extracts were produced concentration dependent percentage inhibition of different free radicals and produced maximum activity at a concentration of 1 280 μg and there after the percentage inhibition were raised gradually to its maximum level with higher concentrations. Conclusion: In the present study we found that the extracts of M. ferrea showed good antioxidant activity. Among the four extracts, the ethanol (70%) extract showed better activity than other extracts.

  2. Clinical Implication of Cough CPR in Cardiac Cath Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish S Rau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year-old-male with inferoposterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI was shifted to cardiac cath lab for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Coronary angiography revealed right coronary artery (RCA dominance with complete occlusion of the RCA in mid vessel. During angioplasty, the patient developed reperfusion induced Bezold Jarisch Reflex (BJR with profound bradycardia along with decrease in systolic pressure. The patient was asked to cough. The use of cough-CPR maintained the consciousness as the patient was getting syncopal. This report focuses on BJR and cough-CPR specific to interventional cardiology practice within the catheterization laboratory. Awareness of the fact that BJR may develop due to successful restoration of flow which can be managed with cough CPR, atropine and fluids can avoid the administration of vasoconstrictors.

  3. Aromatic Esters of Bicyclic Amines as Antimicrobials against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gracia Retamosa, María; Díez-Martínez, Roberto; Maestro, Beatriz; García-Fernández, Esther; de Waal, Bas; Meijer, E W; García, Pedro; Sanz, Jesús M

    2015-11-01

    A double approach was followed in the search of novel inhibitors of the surface choline-binding proteins (CBPs) of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) with antimicrobial properties. First, a library of 49 rationally-designed esters of alkyl amines was screened for their specific binding to CBPs. The best binders, being esters of bicyclic amines (EBAs), were then tested for their in vitro effect on pneumococcal growth and morphology. Second, the efficiency of EBA-induced CBP inhibition was enhanced about 45,000-fold by multivalency effects upon synthesizing a poly(propylene imine) dendrimer containing eight copies of an atropine derivative. Both approaches led to compounds that arrest bacterial growth, dramatically decrease cell viability, and exhibit a protection effect in animal disease models, demonstrating that the pneumococcal CBPs are adequate targets for the discovery of novel antimicrobials that overcome the currently increasing antimicrobial resistance issues. PMID:26377931

  4. Can We Find Better Bronchodilators to Relieve Asthma Symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Townsend

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchodilators are the first line therapy during acute asthmatic exacerbations to reverse airway obstruction primarily by relaxing airway smooth muscle. Only three categories of bronchodilators exist in clinical practice: -adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics, and methylxanthines. Each of these categories have specific drugs dating back to the early 20th century, raising the question of whether or not we can find better bronchodilators. While caffeine, theophylline, atropine, and epinephrine were the first generations of therapeutics in each of these drug classes, there is no question that improvements have been made in the bronchodilators in each of these classes. In the following editorial, we will briefly describe new classes of potential bronchodilators including: novel PDE inhibitors, natural phytotherapeutics, bitter taste receptor ligands, and chloride channel modulators, which have the potential to be used alone or in combination with existing bronchodilators to reverse acute airway obstruction in the future.

  5. A PRELIMINARY TRIAL OF THE MASS-TREATMENT OF URINARY BILHARZIASIS WITH AN ORGANO-PHOSPHORUS COMPOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Farahmandian

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available In the course of an evaluation of various schistosomicidal drugs In Iran, the effect of an organo-phosphorus compound in the-treatment of 45 mild cases of urinary bilhariziasis was assessed and the drug was given in 3 doses of 10 mg/kg body weight each with 3-week intervals. Follow-up examinations undertaken 3 weeks after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd doses as well as 3 months after completion of therapy showed cure rates of 71, 82, 91 and 90% responsively. A reverse correlation was observed between the mean number of eggs excreted in the urine and the cure rate. Side-effects were mild and were observed in only 20% of the patients. In order of their frequency, they were abdumina1 pain, nausea, headache, vertigo and vomiting. The administration of Atropine together with each dose of the drug did not have any effect on the reduction of side-effects.

  6. USE OF LOPINAVIR/RITONAVIR ASSOCIATED WITH ERGOTAMINE RESULTING IN FOOT AMPUTATION: BRIEF COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Raphael de Almeida Ferry

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old female, was diagnosed in 2004 with a C1 HIV1 infection, using zidovudine/lamivudine 300/150 mg BID and lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg BID, in addition to prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 800/160 mg QD, but no prophylaxis with macrolide antibiotics. The patient presented with a severe headache and was prescribed two capsules of the anti-migraine drug Ormigrein™, which contained ergotamine tartrate 1 mg, caffeine 100 mg, paracetamol 220 mg, hyoscyamine sulfate 87.5 mcg, and atropine sulfate 12.5 mcg. Afterwards she was prescribed one capsule of Ormigrein every 30 minutes for a total of six capsules a day. The patient took the medication as prescribed but developed a pain in her left ankle three days later, which evolved to the need for amputation.

  7. Use of lopinavir/ritonavir associated with ergotamine resulting in foot amputation: brief communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Da Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; De Sá, Carlos Alberto Morais

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old female, was diagnosed in 2004 with a C1 HIV1 infection, using zidovudine/lamivudine 300/150 mg BID and lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg BID, in addition to prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 800/160 mg QD, but no prophylaxis with macrolide antibiotics. The patient presented with a severe headache and was prescribed two capsules of the anti-migraine drug Ormigrein™, which contained ergotamine tartrate 1 mg, caffeine 100 mg, paracetamol 220 mg, hyoscyamine sulfate 87.5 mcg, and atropine sulfate 12.5 mcg. Afterwards she was prescribed one capsule of Ormigrein every 30 minutes for a total of six capsules a day. The patient took the medication as prescribed but developed a pain in her left ankle three days later, which evolved to the need for amputation. PMID:24879006

  8. Clinical research of small doses penehyclidine hydrochloride in painless colonoscopy%小剂量长托宁在无痛肠镜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林承雄; 李少波

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the application value of small doses penehyclidine hydrochloride in painless colonoscopy examination. Methods From July 2012 to January 2013, 90 patients who planed to have painless colonoscopy were randomly divided into 3 groups with each group 30 cases. Before anesthesia, giving small doses of penehyclidine hydrochloride to small-dose group, giving conventional dose of penehyclidine hydrochloride to routine-dose group, and giving atropine intravenous administration to atropine group. Observe the smoothly de-gree, and check the heart rate, mean arterial pressure and postoperative adverse reactions of three groups. Results There was no obvious difference among the three groups in trems of smooth degree and oxyhemoglobin saturation. In small-dose group, heart rate and mean arterial pressure before and after the examination were better than that of routine-dose group and atropine group, and there were obviously lower inci-dence of postoperative adverse reaction compared with the routine-dose group and atropine group. Conclusion Giving small-dose of penehy-clidine hydrochloride before anesthesia of painless colonoscopy examination can significantly improve the effect of examination, and it can re-duce the incidence of postoperative adverse reactions.%目的:探讨在无痛肠镜检查麻醉前给予小剂量长托宁(盐酸戊乙奎醚)治疗的应用价值。方法我院2012年7月至2013年1月接受无痛肠镜检查患者90例,将其随机分为3组,每组30例,分别于麻醉前给予小剂量长托宁静注(小剂量组)、常规剂量长托宁静注(常规剂量组)及阿托品静脉注射(阿托品组),观察3组患者的下镜顺利程度、检查前后心率和平均动脉压及术后不良反应情况。结果3组患者的总下镜顺利率和血氧饱和度比较未见明显差异,小剂量组在检查前后心率及平均动脉压方面作用明显优于常规剂量组及阿托品组,且小剂量组术后不良反应发

  9. Inability of Some Commercial Assays to Measure Suppression of Glucagon Secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Veedfald, Simon; Plamboeck, Astrid;

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon levels are increasingly being included as endpoints in clinical study design and more than 400 current diabetes-related clinical trials have glucagon as an outcome measure. The reliability of immune-based technologies used to measure endogenous glucagon concentrations is, therefore......, important. We studied the ability of immunoassays based on four different technologies to detect changes in levels of glucagon under conditions where glucagon levels are strongly suppressed. To our surprise, the most advanced technological methods, employing electrochemiluminescence or homogeneous time...... resolved fluorescence (HTRF) detection, were not capable of detecting the suppression induced by a glucose clamp (6 mmol/L) with or without atropine in five healthy male participants, whereas a radioimmunoassay and a spectrophotometry-based ELISA were. In summary, measurement of glucagon is challenging...

  10. Update and review of Urrets-Zavalia syndrome

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    Otavio A. Magalhães

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For more than half a century, Urrets-Zavalia syndrome (fixed dilated pupil has been described as a postoperative complication of ophthalmic surgery. Since first reported as a complication of penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus in patients receiving atropine, the characteristic features of Urrets-Zavalia syndrome have been expanded. In previous literature, a total of 110 cases resulted in a fixed and dilated pupil. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP in the immediate postoperative period, phakia, and air or gas in the anterior chamber appear to be the most important risk factors for Urrets-Zavalia syndrome following ophthalmic procedures. Mannitol, IOP control, the removal of air or gas in the anterior chamber, and iridectomy have all demonstrated utility in managing Urrets-Zavalia syndrome.

  11. A new method of assessing cardiac autonomic function and its comparison with spectral analysis and coefficient of variation of R-R interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toichi, M; Sugiura, T; Murai, T; Sengoku, A

    1997-01-12

    A new non-linear method of assessing cardiac autonomic function was examined in a pharmacological experiment in ten healthy volunteers. The R-R interval data obtained under a control condition and in autonomic blockade by atropine and by propranolol were analyzed by each of the new methods employing Lorenz plot, spectral analysis and the coefficient of variation. With our method we derived two measures, the cardiac vagal index and the cardiac sympathetic index, which indicate vagal and sympathetic function separately. These two indices were found to be more reliable than those obtained by the other two methods. We anticipate that the non-invasive assessment of short-term cardiac autonomic function will come to be performed more reliably and conveniently by this method.

  12. Effect of Qiangxin Fumai Granule(强心复脉颗粒) on Electrophysiological Functions of the Sinoatrial Node during Ischemia-reperfusion of the Right Coronary Artery in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of the Chinese medicine Qiangxin Fumai Granule (强心复脉颗粒,QFG) on electrophysiological functions of the sinoatrial node during ischemia-reperfusion (IR) of the right coronary artery in rabbits.Methods:The right coronary artery IR model in rabbits was adopted.The modeled rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups:the model group,the atropine group,the highclose QFG group,and the low-dose QFG group,with 8 animals in each group.In addition,twelve rabbits were selected for the sham-operative group.The drugs were administered once via duodenal perfusion after modeling had been stabilized for 10 min.The changes in AA interval,the sinoatrial conduction time (SACT),the sinus node recovery time (SNRT),the corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT) and the index of sinus node recovery time (ISNRT) at different time points during ischemia and reperfusion were measured.Results:The AA interval was prolonged for more than 40 ms in the model group during ischemia.Compared with the model group,the four electrophysiological parameters abovementioned in the high-dose QFG group and the low-dose QFG group were decreased to different extents at each time point (P<0.01 or P<0.05),and no statistically significant differences were found between the QFG groups and the atropine group (P>0.05).Conclusion:QFG is beneficial for accelerating the recovery of sinus node autorhythmicity and conduction function,so as to protect electrophysiological functions of the sinoatrial node.Accelerating the recovery of autorhythmicity and conduction function in the sinus node is considered its electrophysiological mechanism in the treatment of sinoatrial node injury induced by ischemia.

  13. Management of exogenous intoxication by carbamates and organophosphates at an emergency unit

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    Sydney Correia Leão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objectives: to evaluate and indicate the procedure to be followed in the health unit, both for diagnosis and the treatment of acute exogenous intoxications by carbamates or organophosphates. Methods: a descriptive study based on retrospective analysis of the clinical history of patients diagnosed with intoxication by carbamates or organophosphates admitted at the emergency unit of the Hospital de Urgências de Sergipe Governador João Alves (HUSE between January and December of 2012. Some criteria were evaluated, such as: intoxicating agent; patient's age and gender; place of event, cause, circumstances and severity of the intoxication; as well as signs and symptoms of the muscarinic, nicotinic and neurological effects. Results: seventy patients (average age: 25±19.97 formed the study's population. It was observed that 77.14% of them suffered carbamate intoxication. However, organophosphate intoxications were more severe, with 68.75% of patients presenting moderate to severe forms. Suicide attempt was the leading cause of poisoning, with 62 cases (88.57% of total. Atropine administration was an effective therapeutic approach for treating signs and symptoms, which included sialorrhea (p=0.0006, nausea (p=0. 0029 and emesis (p lt0.0001. The use of activated charcoal was shown effective, both in combating the signs and symptoms presented by both patient groups (p <0.0001. Conclusion: it is concluded that the use of atropine and activated charcoal is highly effective to treat the signs and symptoms developed by patients presenting acute exogenous intoxication by carbamates or organophosphates.

  14. Betabloqueador tópico pode determinar resultados inconclusivos no ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina em pacientes com glaucoma Topical betablocker use can result in inconclusive dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients with glaucoma

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    Adriana Cordovil

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina é um método bem estabelecido para avaliar doença arterial coronária, cuja sensibilidade tem sido potencializada pela adição de atropina no final do protocolo. Indivíduos com glaucoma, doença com alta prevalência em pacientes cardiopatas com mais de 40 anos, não podem se beneficiar do uso de atropina por ser contra-indicada neste grupo. Além disso, estes indivíduos são tratados freqüentemente com betabloqueadores tópicos (colírios, que podem exercer efeitos sistêmicos diminuindo a freqüência cardíaca, pressão arterial e capacidade pulmonar. O objetivo do nosso trabalho foi verificar se a ocorrência de um possível efeito sistêmico causado por estes colírios, causando baixa resposta cronotrópica, poderia determinar resultados inconclusivos no ecocardiograma sob estresse pela dobutamina nestes pacientes com glaucoma.Dobutamine stress echocardiography is a well-established method to assess coronary artery disease, of which sensitivity has been enhanced by adding atropine at the end of the protocol. Individuals with glaucoma, a disease with a high prevalence in patients with cardiac diseases older than 40 years, cannot benefit from the use of atropine as it is contraindicated for this group of patients. Additionally, these individuals are often treated with topical betablockers (eye drops, which can have systemic effects by decreasing cardiac frequency, blood pressure and pulmonary capacity. The aim of our study was to verify whether a possible systemic effect caused by the use of these eye drops, yielding a low chronotropic response, could result in inconclusive dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients with glaucoma.

  15. Cardiovascular effects induced by linalool in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Paulo J C; Lima, Aline O; Cunha, Patrícia S; De Sousa, Damião P; Onofre, Alexandre S C; Ribeiro, Thais P; Medeiros, Isac A; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Santosa, Márcio R V

    2013-01-01

    Linalool is a monoterpene alcohol and constituent of several Brazilian aromatic medicinal plants, popularly used against hypertension. Cardiovascular effects induced by linalool were evaluated. In normotensive rats, (+/-)-linalool [1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body weight (BW); intravenous (i.v.)]-induced hypotension was associated with tachycardia, which was attenuated by atropine (2 mg/kg BW) and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (20 mg/kg BW), but was not modified after indomethacin (5 mg/kg BW) administration. In hypertensive rats, linalool [200 mg/kg BW; oral (v.o.)] reduced blood pressure without changing the heart rate. In intact rings of rat mesenteric artery precontracted with 10 microM phenylephrine, linalool (from 6.4 x 10(-6) to 6.4 x 10(-3) M) induced relaxations in a concentration-dependent manner [E(max) = (115 +/- 13)%] that were not changed after atropine administration [E(max) = (105 +/- 2)%], and were not different from those obtained in endothelium-denuded rings precontracted with phenylephrine [E(max) = (108 +/- 7)%] or 80 mM KCl [E(max) = (113 +/- 7)%] or tetraethylammonium incubation [E(max) = (105 +/- 12)%]. Linalool (1.9 x 10(-3) M) antagonized the contractions induced by CaCl2 (3 x 10(-6)-10(-2) M) (maximal inhibition, 81%). Furthermore, linalool inhibited the contractions induced by 10 microM phenylephrine or 20 mM caffeine. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that linalool reduces blood pressure probably due to a direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle leading to vasodilation.

  16. Characteristic features of inhibitory junction potentials evoked by single stimuli in the guinea-pig isolated taenia caeci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgewater, M; Cunnane, T C; Brading, A F

    1995-05-15

    1. Changes in membrane potential of the guinea-pig isolated taenia caeci evoked by single stimuli have been investigated using intracellular recording techniques. Nifedipine (10 microM) was used to arrest spontaneous muscle action potentials. Single stimuli elicited complex junction potentials which consisted of both excitatory and inhibitory components. 2. The excitatory component of the compound junction potential was unaffected by hexamethonium (100 microM) but abolished by atropine (1 microM) and omega-conotoxin GVIA (10-100 nM). 3. In the presence of atropine, single stimuli elicited fast inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs). IJPs were sometimes biphasic during repolarization with a noticeable 'slow tail'. Apamin (30-100 nM) potently inhibited the fast IJP and revealed an underlying slow IJP. 4. The fast IJP was also abolished by omega-conotoxin GVIA (100 nM). However, the slow IJP was insensitive to omega-conotoxin GVIA but was abolished by cadmium (30 microM). 5. Guanethidine (3 microM) and N omega-nitro-L-arginine (10-100 microM) had no detectable effects on either of the IJPs. The dye Reactive Blue 2 reduced the amplitude of the fast IJP but this reduction was associated with a membrane hyperpolarization. 6. The existence of two distinct IJPs in the guinea-pig taenia caeci has been demonstrated. The ability of omega-conotoxin GVIA to selectively abolish the fast IJP leaving the slow IJP intact suggests that separate nerves are involved in mediating these responses.

  17. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia

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    C.M. Kerchove

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 ± 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 ± 0.32 g was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05, suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM. Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 ± 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 ± 0.9 g, which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 µM with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 µM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively.

  18. A COMPARISON OF MIDAZOLAM AND KETAMINE PLUS MIDAZOLAM COMBINATION AS AN ORAL PREMEDICANT IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS

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    Krishna Prabu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Effective premedication in pediatric patients posted for elective surgeries allays patients’ anxiety and reduces risk of post-operative behavioral problems. Oral midazolam and oral ketamine are tried in different doses as pediatric premedicant, but addition of 3mg/kg of oral ketamine with 0.5 mg/kg of oral midazolam resulted in better premedication when compared to oral midazolam 0.5mg/kg or oral ketamine 6mg/kg given alone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 60 healthy children under 1-8 yrs. age group posted for elective surgeries chosen for this study were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each. Double blinding was done using sealed envelope technique to prevent observer bias. Children with other co-existing illnesses were excluded from the study. Group KM received Ketamine 3 mg/kg and midazolam 0.5 mg/kg + atropine 20 µg/kg (oral route and Group M received midazolam 0.5 mg/kg and atropine 20 µg/kg (oral route 30 minutes before proposed induction time. Sedation score, anxiolysis score, parental separation and mask tolerance was assessed in all the patients 30 minutes after administration of the drug. RESULTS: The data collected was analyzed using SPSS statistical software. There was a statistically significant increase in sedation score at 15 and 30 minutes in group KM compared to group M. Parental separation at 30 minutes is peaceful in 30 children (100% in group KM compared to 24 children (80% in group M. CONCLUSION: The oral ketamine and midazolam combination produces significantly better anxiolysis, sedation, parental separation and mask tolerance, without hemodynamic alteration, when compared to oral midazolam (0.5mg/kg given alone.

  19. Application of forgetful analgesia induction in induction period in patients with obstructive jaundice

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    Wei DU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of forgetful analgesia induction and tracheal intubation on the hemodynamic changes in induction period in patients with obstructive jaundice, and explore a safe method for anesthesia induction and tracheal intubation. Methods Sixty patients with obstructive jaundice undergoing elective abdominal operation in General Hospital of PLA from February, 2013 to August, 2013 were involved in the present study. Participants included 36 male and 24 female patients, aging 19-65 years (mean 42±5 years, weighing 47-73 kg (mean 54±6 kg, with ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ. These 60 patients were randomly divided into forgetful analgesia induction-tracheal intubation group (group A, n=30 and rapid induction-tracheal intubation group (group B, n=30. The heart rate (HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 at the time point of before induction (T0, before intubation (T1, at the moment of intubation (T2 and 3 min after intubation (T3 were determined in both groups. Administration times of ephedrine hydrochloride and atropine was recorded in both groups. Results There was no significant difference in HR, MAP, SpO2 before and after induction in group A. In the patients of group B, the HR increased and MAP decreased after induction compared with those before induction (P<0.05, and the change of SpO2 was not significant. Ephedrine hydrochloride and atropine were administrated in both groups, and the cases and times of ephedrine hydrochloride administration were more in group B than in group A (P<0.05. Conclusion The forgetful analgesia induction-tracheal intubation could effectively control the stress response and reduce the fluctuation in hemodynamics during induction of anesthesia in patients with obstructive jaundice. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.15

  20. Cigarette Smoke Disturbs the Survival of CD8+ Tc/Tregs Partially through Muscarinic Receptors-Dependent Mechanisms in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

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    Gang Chen

    Full Text Available CD8+ T cells (Cytotoxic T cells, Tc are known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of smoking related airway inflammation including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, how cigarette smoke directly impacts systematic CD8+ T cell and regulatory T cell (Treg subsets, especially by modulating muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (MRs, has yet to be well elucidated.Circulating CD8+ Tc/Tregs in healthy nonsmokers (n = 15, healthy smokers (n = 15 and COPD patients (n = 18 were evaluated by flow cytometry after incubating with anti-CD3, anti-CD8, anti-CD25, anti-Foxp3 antibodies. Peripheral blood T cells (PBT cells from healthy nonsmokers were cultured in the presence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE alone or combined with MRs agonist/antagonist for 5 days. Proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry using Ki-67/Annexin-V antibodies to measure the effects of CSE on the survival of CD8+ Tc/Tregs.While COPD patients have elevated circulating percentage of CD8+ T cells, healthy smokers have higher frequency of CD8+ Tregs. Elevated percentages of CD8+ T cells correlated inversely with declined FEV1 in COPD. CSE promoted the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of CD8+ T cells, while facilitated both the proliferation and apoptosis of CD8+ Tregs. Notably, the effects of CSE on CD8+ Tc/Tregs can be mostly simulated or attenuated by muscarine and atropine, the MR agonist and antagonist, respectively. However, neither muscarine nor atropine influenced the apoptosis of CD8+ Tregs.The results imply that cigarette smoking likely facilitates a proinflammatory state in smokers, which is partially mediated by MR dysfunction. The MR antagonist may be a beneficial drug candidate for cigarette smoke-induced chronic airway inflammation.

  1. Changes in the pharmacotherapy of CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, J A; Gonzalez, E R

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review current changes in the pharmacologic management of cardiac arrest (ventricular fibrillation, pulseless ventricular tachycardia, asystole, and electromechanical dissociation) as put fourth by the American Heart Association's 1992 Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care. We concluded that the 1992 Guidelines provide a reference base for all clinicians involved in emergency cardiac care. The newly revised recommendations are classified on the basis of the true clinical merit of the intervention, for example, an intervention that has been proved effective (i.e., high-dose epinephrine) versus one that is possibly effective (i.e., high-dose epinephrine). The preferred intravenous fluid to be used in resuscitation is saline solution or lactated ringers solution because of possible adverse neurologic outcomes seen with dextrose-containing fluids. The dose of all drugs administered via the endotracheal route should be 2 to 2.5 times the intravenous dose. Modifications in the dose or dosing interval have been recommended for epinephrine, atropine, lidocaine, bretylium, and procainamide during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Options for high-dose epinephrine therapy are offered, but neither recommended or discouraged. Magnesium sulfate has been added for the management of torsades de points, severe hypomagnesemia, or refractory ventricular fibrillation. The maximum total dose of atropine in the treatment of asystole and electromechanical dissociation has been increased from 2 mg to 0.04 mg/kg. The use of sodium bicarbonate should be limited to the treatment of hyperkalemia, tricyclic antidepressant overdose, overdoses requiring urinary alkalinization, or preexisting bicarbonate sensitive acidosis. PMID:8288459

  2. Kindling-induced changes in EEG recorded during stimulation from the site of stimulation. III. Direct pharmacological manipulations of the kindled amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, K; Holmes, K H; Goddard, G V

    1987-07-01

    In our previous studies, we hypothesized that activation and subsequent collapse of GABA-mediated inhibition during tetanus is an important seizure-triggering mechanism in the kindled epileptogenic focus. To examine this hypothesis, in the present study, we investigated the effects of pharmacological manipulations of the kindled amygdala with several drugs, and measured the kindled seizures as well as the EEG events during tetanus. The results obtained were: (i) The selective GABA-A agonist, muscimol (1 and 5 nM/1 microliter), suppressed kindled seizures in a dose-dependent fashion, and the 5 nM muscimol significantly prolonged EEG suppression and reduced the number of oscillations in the subsequent rhythmic synchronous discharge. Similar effects followed systemic injection of diazepam (2 mg/kg). (ii) The selective GABA-B agonist, baclofen (5 nM), had no effect on kindled seizures nor on the EEG events during tetanus. (iii) The NMDA antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (80 nM), significantly reduced the afterdischarge duration and significantly delayed the appearance of the rhythmic synchronous discharge. However, these effects were not observed immediately, but 24 to 72 h after microinjection. (iv) The muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, atropine (40 and 80 nM), suppressed kindled seizures in a dose-dependent fashion, but the atropine caused marked synchronous discharge both in the awake resting EEG and during tetanic stimulation. We conclude that the GABA-A system, including the benzodiazepine system, is more involved in the seizure-triggering mechanism of amygdala kindling than the GABA-B system, that there is an interaction between the GABA-A and NMDA system, and that the cholinergic participation is independent of the primary seizure-triggering mechanisms.

  3. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchove, C M; Markus, R P; Freitas, J C; Costa-Lotufo, L V

    2002-04-01

    Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 +/- 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 +/- 0.32 g) was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax) to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05), suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM). Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 +/- 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 +/- 0.9 g), which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 microM) with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [3H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 microM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively. PMID:11960200

  4. Functional antidopaminergic and anticholinergic effects of thioridazine and its metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzwiecki, D.

    1986-01-01

    The relative potency of thioridazine and two of its clinically active metabolites, mesoridazine and sulforidazine was studied. In each of three separate methods, mesoridazine and sulforidazine exhibited greater potency than did thioridazine. Both metabolites showed greater affinities for striatal DA receptors as estimated by their competition for (/sup 3/H)spiperone binding sites in crude striatal membrane preparations. On a more functional level, both metabolites more potently antagonized the inhibitory effects of either the direct acting DA agonist apomorphine, or of endogenous DA, on the electrically evoked release of radiolabeled DA and ACh from perfused striatal slices. While thioridazine effectively blocked the agonist-induced inhibition at those striatal DA receptors which control DA release, it showed significantly lower potency at the striatal DA receptors which modulate ACh release. Thioridazine exhibited moderate affinity for striatal muscarinic cholinergic receptors. It was only five times less potent than atropine in competing for (/sup 3/H) quinuclidinylbenzilate binding sites in striatal membrane preparations. Unlike dopamine receptors, thioridazine showed greater antimuscarinic potency than did its metabolites. Despite this significant affinity for muscarinic binding sites in striatal homogenates, neither thioridezine nor its metabolites could block the inhibitory effects of the full muscarinic agonist carbachol, on the evoked release of ACh from striatal slices. This lack of effect contrasted with the antagonism of the carbachol-induced inhibition by such classical muscarinic blockers as quinuclindinylbenzilate or atropine. In combination with available pharmacokinetic data, these studies have demonstrated that the metabolites of thioridazine probably contribute to the antidopaminergic effects of this drug within the CNS.

  5. Acute and long-lasting cardiac changes following a single whole-body exposure to sarin vapor in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allon, N; Rabinovitz, I; Manistersky, E; Weissman, B A; Grauer, E

    2005-10-01

    Epinephrine-induced arrhythmias (EPIA) are known to be associated with local cardiac cholinergic activation. The present study examined the development of QT prolongation and the effect on EPIA of whole-body exposure of animals to a potent acetylcholine esterase inhibitor. Freely moving rats were exposed to sarin vapor (34.2 +/- 0.8 microg/liter) for 10 min. The electrocardiograms (ECG) of exposed and control animals were monitored every 2 weeks for 6 months. One and six months post exposure, rats were challenged with epinephrine under anesthesia, and the threshold for arrhythmias was determined. Approximately 35% of the intoxicated rats died within 24 h of sarin exposure. Additional occasional deaths were recorded for up to 6 months (final mortality rate of 48%). Surviving rats showed, agitation, aggression, and weight loss compared to non-exposed rats, and about 20% of them experienced sporadic convulsions. Sarin-challenged rats with severe symptoms demonstrated QT segment prolongation during the first 2-3 weeks after exposure. The EPIA that appeared at a significantly lower blood pressure in the treated group in the first month after intoxication lasted for up to 6 months. This decrease in EPIA threshold was blocked by atropine and methyl-atropine. Three months post exposure no significant changes were detected in either k(D) or B(max) values of (3)H-N-methyl scopolamine binding to heart homogenates, or in the affinity of carbamylcholine to cardiac muscarinic receptors. The increase in the vulnerability to develop arrhythmias long after accidental or terror-related organophosphate (OP) intoxication, especially under challenging conditions such as stress or intensive physical exercise, may explain the delayed mortality observed following OP exposure. PMID:16033992

  6. Evaluation of possible antioxidant and anticonvulsant effects of the ethyl acetate fraction from Platonia insignis Mart. (Bacuri) on epilepsy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, Joaquim Soares da Costa; de Almeida, Antonia Amanda C; Tomé, Adriana da Rocha; Citó, Antonia Maria das Graças Lopes; Saffi, Jenifer; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2011-12-01

    The aim of present study was to examine the effects of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from Platonia insignis on lipid peroxidation level, nitrite formation, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in rat striatum prior to pilocarpine-induced seizures as well as to explore its anticonvulsant activity in adult rats prior to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- and picrotoxin (PIC)-induced seizures. Wistar rats were treated with vehicle, atropine (25mg/kg), EAF (0.1, 1, and 10mg/kg), pilocarpine (400mg/kg, P400 group), PTZ (60 mg/kg, PTZ group), PIC (8 mg/kg, PIC group), atropine+P400, EAF+P400, EAF+PTZ, or EAF+PIC. Significant decreases in number of crossings and rearings were observed in the P400 group. The EAF 10+P400 group also had significant increases in these parameters. In addition, in rats treated with P400, there were significant increases in lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels; however, there were no alterations in SOD and catalase activities. In the EAF 10+P400 group, lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels significantly decreased and SOD and catalase activities significantly increased after pilocarpine-induced seizures. Additionally, effects of the EAF were evaluated in PTZ and PIC models. EAF did not increase the latency to development of convulsions induced with PTZ and PIC at the doses tested. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that EAF does not have anticonvulsant activity in the different models of epilepsy studied. Our results indicate that in the in vivo model of pilocarpine-induced seizures, EAF has antioxidant activity, but not anticonvulsant properties at the doses tested.

  7. Nonadrenergic, noncholinergic responses stabilize smooth muscle tone, with and without parasympathetic activation, in guinea-pig isolated airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, A; Löfdahl, C G; Ullman, A; Skoogh, B E

    1993-03-01

    In guinea-pig isolated airways, nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) neural responses converge towards a similar level of smooth muscle tone, via a contraction when the tone is low prior to stimulation, and via a relaxation when the tone is high prior to stimulation. We wanted to assess the effect of simultaneous parasympathetic activation on these converging NANC responses, with and without the addition of sympathetic activation. In guinea-pig isolated airways, the spontaneous airway tone was initially abolished by indomethacin (10 microM). In one series, adrenergic depletion by guanethidine (10 microM) was then established, with and without cholinergic blockade by atropine (1 microM). In another series, either cholinergic blockade by atropine (1 microM) or no blockade was utilized. Responses to electrical field stimulation (1,200 mA, 0.5 ms, 3 Hz for 240 s) were studied with no induced tone, at a moderate (0.3 microM) and at a near-maximum (6 microM), histamine-induced tone. The mean level of the tonus equilibrium (% of maximum tone) was higher with the simultaneous NANC and parasympathetic activation than with NANC activation alone (75% compared with 44%, in the main bronchus, n = 8). The level of the tonus equilibrium was also higher with the simultaneous NANC, sympathetic and parasympathetic activation than with NANC and sympathetic activation only (49% compared with 21%, in the main bronchus, n = 8). The pattern was similar in the distal trachea. In conclusion, NANC neural responses can stabilize smooth muscle tone, and this stabilizing effect can be modulated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic activation, in guinea-pig isolated airways. PMID:8472834

  8. The bradycardic and hypotensive responses to serotonin are reduced by activation of GABAA receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarius of awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callera J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of bilateral injections of the GABA receptor agonists muscimol (GABA A and baclofen (GABA B into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS on the bradycardia and hypotension induced by iv serotonin injections (5-HT, 2 µg/rat in awake male Holtzman rats. 5-HT was injected in rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally in the NTS, before and 5, 15, and 60 min after bilateral injections of muscimol or baclofen into the NTS. The responses to 5-HT were tested before and after the injection of atropine methyl bromide. Muscimol (50 pmol/50 nl, N = 8 into the NTS increased basal mean arterial pressure (MAP from 115 ± 4 to 144 ± 6 mmHg, did not change basal heart rate (HR and reduced the bradycardia (-40 ± 14 and -73 ± 26 bpm at 5 and 15 min, respectively, vs -180 ± 20 bpm for the control and hypotension (-11 ± 4 and -14 ± 4 mmHg, vs -40 ± 9 mmHg for the control elicited by 5-HT. Baclofen (12.5 pmol/50 nl, N = 7 into the NTS also increased basal MAP, but did not change basal HR, bradycardia or hypotension in response to 5-HT injections. Atropine methyl bromide (1 mg/kg body weight injected iv reduced the bradycardic and hypotensive responses to 5-HT injections. The stimulation of GABA A receptors in the NTS of awake rats elicits a significant increase in basal MAP and decreases the cardiac Bezold-Jarisch reflex responses to iv 5-HT injections.

  9. Venomic and pharmacological activity of Acanthoscurria paulensis (Theraphosidae) spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, Caroline Barbosa F; Oliveira, Fagner Neves; e Carvalho, Andréa C; Arenas, Claudia J; Duque, Harry Morales; Gonçalves, Jacqueline C; Macêdo, Jéssica K A; Galante, Priscilla; Schwartz, Carlos A; Mortari, Márcia R; Almeida Santos, Maria de Fátima M; Schwartz, Elisabeth F

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we conducted proteomic and pharmacological characterizations of the venom extracted from the Brazilian tarantula Acanthoscurria paulensis, and evaluated the cardiotoxicity of its two main fractions. The molecular masses of the venom components were identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) after chromatographic separation (HPLC). The lethal dose (LD(50)) was determined in mice. Nociceptive behavior was evaluated by intradermal injection in mice and the edematogenic activity by the rat hind-paw assay. Cardiotoxic activity was evaluated on in situ frog heart and on isolated frog ventricle strip. From 60 chromatographic fractions, 97 distinct components were identified, with molecular masses between 601.4 and 21,932.3 Da. A trimodal molecular mass distribution was observed: 30% of the components within 500-1999 Da, 38% within 3500-5999 Da and 21% within 6500-7999 Da. The LD(50) in mice was 25.4 ± 2.4 μg/g and the effects observed were hypoactivity, anuria, constipation, dyspnea and prostration until death, which occurred at higher doses. Despite presenting a dose-dependent edematogenic activity in the rat hind-paw assay, the venom had no nociceptive activity in mice. Additionally, the venom induced a rapid blockage of electrical activity and subsequent diastolic arrest on in situ frog heart preparation, which was inhibited by pretreatment with atropine. In the electrically driven frog ventricle strip, the whole venom and its low molecular mass fraction, but not the proteic one, induced a negative inotropic effect that was also inhibited by atropine. These results suggest that despite low toxicity, A. paulensis venom can induce severe physiological disturbances in mice.

  10. 农药透叶杀中毒三例报告%Three Reports of Insecticide Poison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月娥; 刘光辉; 徐振华

    2011-01-01

    Objective to discuss the clinical characteristic and cure of insecticide poison. Methods a retrospective analysis on three clinical materials of insecticide poison patients. Results threes patients appeared? gastrointestinal symptom like bellyache, nausea and vomiting, two of whom appeared neural symptom being recovery after skin cleaning, fluid infusion, atropine intravenous injection and heteropathy. Conclusions The main toxic ingredients of this kind of insecticide are deltamethrin, methidathion, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, small amount of matrine, nicotine, penetrating agent and etc. After poisoning, patients could appear bellyache, nausea and vomiting symptom. They are recovery after atropine intravenous injection and heteropathy, whom health conditions are well after leaving hospital.%目的 探讨农药透叶杀中毒的临床特点及治疗.方法 回顾性分析3例透叶杀中毒患者的临床资料.结果 3例患者于喷洒透叶杀后出现腹痛、恶心、呕吐等胃肠道症状,其中2例出现神经症状,经清洁皮肤、补液、阿托品静脉注射及对症治疗,痊愈.结论 农药透叶杀主要毒性成分有溴氰菊酯、杀扑磷、毒死稗、吡虫啉、以及少量的苦参碱以及烟碱、渗透剂等.中毒后,可以出现腹痛、恶心、呕吐症状.经阿托品静脉注射及对症治疗可痊愈,预后良好.

  11. Characterization of cardiovascular reflexes evoked by airway stimulation with allylisothiocyanate, capsaicin, and ATP in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, J S; Hadley, S H; Morris, K F; Breslin, J W; Dean, J B; Taylor-Clark, T E

    2016-03-15

    Acute inhalation of airborne pollutants alters cardiovascular function and evidence suggests that pollutant-induced activation of airway sensory nerves via the gating of ion channels is critical to these systemic responses. Here, we have investigated the effect of capsaicin [transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist], AITC [TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonist], and ATP (P2X2/3 agonist) on bronchopulmonary sensory activity and cardiovascular responses of conscious Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Single fiber recordings show that allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and capsaicin selectively activate C fibers, whereas subpopulations of both A and C fibers are activated by stimulation of P2X2/3 receptors. Inhalation of the agonists by conscious rats caused significant bradycardia, atrioventricular (AV) block, and prolonged PR intervals, although ATP-induced responses were lesser than those evoked by AITC or capsaicin. Responses to AITC were inhibited by the TRP channel blocker ruthenium red and the muscarinic antagonist atropine. AITC inhalation also caused a biphasic blood pressure response: a brief hypertensive phase followed by a hypotensive phase. Atropine accentuated the hypertensive phase, while preventing the hypotension. AITC-evoked bradycardia was not abolished by terazosin, the α1-adrenoceptor inhibitor, which prevented the hypertensive response. Anesthetics had profound effects on AITC-evoked bradycardia and AV block, which was abolished by urethane, ketamine, and isoflurane. Nevertheless, AITC inhalation caused bradycardia and AV block in paralyzed and ventilated rats following precollicular decerebration. In conclusion, we provide evidence that activation of ion channels expressed on nociceptive airway sensory nerves causes significant cardiovascular effects in conscious SD rats via reflex modulation of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:26718787

  12. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cam-Etoz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g female rats (N = 7 in each group the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv injected adrenomedullin (ADM on blood pressure and heart rate (HR, and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP receptors, peripheral V1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1 icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (DMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm. 2 Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM22-52 blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3 The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv. 4 The V1 receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl¹, O-me-Tyr²,Arg8]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg, that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  13. Effectiveness of donepezil, rivastigmine, and (+/-)huperzine A in counteracting the acute toxicity of organophosphorus nerve agents: comparison with galantamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aracava, Yasco; Pereira, Edna F R; Akkerman, Miriam; Adler, Michael; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2009-12-01

    Galantamine, a centrally acting cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor and a nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand used to treat Alzheimer's disease, is an effective and safe antidote against poisoning with nerve agents, including soman. Here, the effectiveness of galantamine was compared with that of the centrally active ChE inhibitors donepezil, rivastigmine, and (+/-)huperzine A as a pre- and/or post-treatment to counteract the acute toxicity of soman. In the first set of experiments, male prepubertal guinea pigs were treated intramuscularly with one of the test drugs and 30 min later challenged with 1.5 x LD(50) soman (42 microg/kg s.c.). All animals that were pretreated with galantamine (6-8 mg/kg), 3 mg/kg donepezil, 6 mg/kg rivastigmine, or 0.3 mg/kg (+/-)huperzine A survived the soman challenge, provided that they were also post-treated with atropine (10 mg/kg i.m.). However, only galantamine was well tolerated. In subsequent experiments, the effectiveness of specific treatment regimens using 8 mg/kg galantamine, 3 mg/kg donepezil, 6 mg/kg rivastigmine, or 0.3 mg/kg (+/-)huperzine A was compared in guinea pigs challenged with soman. In the absence of atropine, only galantamine worked as an effective and safe pretreatment in animals challenged with 1.0 x LD(50) soman. Galantamine was also the only drug to afford significant protection when given to guinea pigs after 1.0 x LD(50) soman. Finally, all test drugs except galantamine reduced the survival of the animals when administered 1 or 3 h after the challenge with 0.6 or 0.7 x LD(50) soman. Thus, galantamine emerges as a superior antidotal therapy against the toxicity of soman. PMID:19741148

  14. Neuropeptide AF induces anxiety-like and antidepressant-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palotai, Miklós; Telegdy, Gyula; Tanaka, Masaru; Bagosi, Zsolt; Jászberényi, Miklós

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the action of neuropeptide AF (NPAF) on anxiety and depression. Only our previous study provides evidence that NPAF induces anxiety-like behavior in rats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the action of NPAF on depression-like behavior and the underlying neurotransmissions in mice. In order to determine whether there are species differences between rats and mice, we have investigated the action of NPAF on anxiety-like behavior in mice as well. A modified forced swimming test (mFST) and an elevated plus maze test (EPMT) were used to investigate the depression and anxiety-related behaviors, respectively. Mice were treated with NPAF 30min prior to the tests. In the mFST, the animals were pretreated with a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, atropine, a non-selective 5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine, a mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, methysergide, a D2/D3/D4 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, a α1/α2β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin or a non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol 30min before the NPAF administration. In the mFST, NPAF decreased the immobility time and increased the climbing and swimming times. This action was reversed completely by methysergide and partially by atropine, whereas cyproheptadine, haloperidol, prazosin and propranolol were ineffective. In the EPMT, NPAF decreased the time spent in the arms (open/open+closed). Our results demonstrate that NPAF induces anti-depressant-like behavior in mice, which is mediated, at least in part, through 5HT2-serotonergic and muscarinic cholinergic neurotransmissions. In addition, the NPAF-induced anxiety is species-independent, since it develops also in mice.

  15. Acetylcholine Attenuates Hypoxia/ Reoxygenation-Induced Mitochondrial and Cytosolic ROS Formation in H9c2 Cells via M2 Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Miao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anti-infammatory and cardioprotective effect of acetylcholine (ACh has been reported; nevertheless, whether and how ACh exhibits an antioxidant property against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced oxidative stress remains obscure. Methods: In the present study, H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R to mimic I/R injury. We estimated intracellular different sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS by measuring mitochondrial ROS (mtROS, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number, xanthine oxidase (XO and NADPH oxidase (NOX activity and expression of rac 1. Cell injury was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release and cleaved caspase-3 expression. The siRNA transfection was performed to knockdown of M2 acetylcholine receptor (M2 AChR expression. Results: 12-h hypoxia followed by 2-h reoxygenation resulted in an abrupt burst of ROS in H9c2 cells. Administration of ACh reduced the levels of ROS in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared to the H/R group, ACh decreased mtROS, recovered mtDNA copy number, diminished XO and NOX activity, rac 1 expression as well as cell injury. Co- treatment with atropine rather than hexamethonium abolished the antioxidant and cardioprotective effect of ACh. Moreover, knockdown of M2 AChR by siRNA showed the similar trends as atropine co-treatment group. Conclusions: ACh inhibits mitochondria-, XO- and NOX-derived ROS production thus protecting H9c2 cells against H/R-induced oxidative stress, and these benefcial effects are mainly mediated by M2 AChR. Our findings suggested that increasing ACh release could be a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment and prevention of I/R injury.

  16. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam-Etoz, B.; Isbil-Buyukcoskun, N.; Ozluk, K. [Department of Physiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle/Bursa (Turkey)

    2012-03-02

    Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g) female rats (N = 7 in each group) the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected adrenomedullin (ADM) on blood pressure and heart rate (HR), and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors, peripheral V{sub 1} receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1) icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL) caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (ΔMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm). 2) Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP{sub 8-37}) and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM{sub 22-52}) blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3) The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv) and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv) prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv). 4) The V{sub 1} receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl{sup 1}, O-me-Tyr{sup 2},Arg{sup 8}]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg), that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V{sub 1} receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  17. Anxiolytic action of neuromedin-U and neurotransmitters involved in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegdy, G; Adamik, A

    2013-09-10

    Peptide Neuromedin-U (NmU) is widely distributed in the central nervous system and the peripheral tissues. Its physiological effects include the regulation of blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature, and the inhibition of gastric acid secretion. The action of NmU in rats is mediated by two G-protein-coupled receptors, NmU-1R and NmU-2R. NmU-2R is present mainly in the brain, and NmU-1R mainly in the periphery. Despite the great variety of the physiological action of NmU, little is known about its possible effects in different forms of behavior, such as anxiety. In the present work, NmU-23 (the rodent form of the peptide) was tested for its effect on anxiety in elevated plus maze test in mice. For detection of the possible involvement of neurotransmitters, the mice were pretreated with receptor blockers: haloperidol (a D2, dopamine receptor antagonist), propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist), atropine (a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist), phenoxybenzamine (a nonselective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) or nitro-l-arginine (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). The peptide and nitro-l-arginine were administered into the lateral brain ventricle, while the receptor blockers were applied intraperitoneally. An NmU-23 dose 0.5μg elicited anxiolytic action, whereas this action is faded away when the dose was increased. For further testing therefore 0.5μg i.c.v. was used. Propranolol and atropine fully blocked the NmU-induced anxiolytic action, while haloperidol, phenoxybenzamine and nitro-l-arginine were ineffective. The results suggest that β-adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms are involved in the anxiolytic action of NmU. PMID:23892031

  18. Molecular cloning of motilin and mechanism of motilin-induced gastrointestinal motility in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, Auvijit Saha; Mondal, Anupom; Kitazawa, Takio; Takemi, Shota; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Motilin, a peptide hormone produced in the upper intestinal mucosa, plays an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In the present study, we first determined the cDNA and amino acid sequences of motilin in the Japanese quail and studied the distribution of motilin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract. We also examined the motilin-induced contractile properties of quail GI tracts using an in vitro organ bath, and then elucidated the mechanisms of motilin-induced contraction in the proventriculus and duodenum of the quail. Mature quail motilin was composed of 22 amino acid residues, which showed high homology with chicken (95.4%), human (72.7%), and dog (72.7%) motilin. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that motilin-immunopositive cells were present in the mucosal layer of the duodenum (23.4±4.6cells/mm(2)), jejunum (15.2±0.8cells/mm(2)), and ileum (2.5±0.7cells/mm(2)), but were not observed in the crop, proventriculus, and colon. In the organ bath study, chicken motilin induced dose-dependent contraction in the proventriculus and small intestine. On the other hand, chicken ghrelin had no effect on contraction in the GI tract. Motilin-induced contraction in the duodenum was not inhibited by atropine, hexamethonium, ritanserin, ondansetron, or tetrodotoxin. However, motilin-induced contractions in the proventriculus were significantly inhibited by atropine and tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that motilin is the major stimulant of GI contraction in quail, as it is in mammals and the site of action of motilin is different between small intestine and proventriculus. PMID:27179882

  19. A functional study on small intestinal smooth muscles in jejunal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tyagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the contractile status of neonatal small intestinal smooth muscle of dilated pre-atretic part of intestinal atresia to resolve debatable issues related to mechanisms of persistent dysmotility after surgical repair. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 longitudinally sectioned strips were prepared from pre-atretic dilated part of freshly excised 8 jejunal atresia type III a cases. Spontaneous as well as acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contractions were recorded in vitro by using organ bath preparations. Chemically evoked contractions were further evaluated after application of atropine (muscarinic blocker, pheniramine (H1 blocker, and lignocaine (neuronal blocker to ascertain receptors and neuronal involvement. Histological examinations of strips were made by using Masson trichrome stain to assess the fibrotic changes. Results: All 34 strips, except four showed spontaneous contractions with mean frequency and amplitude of 5.49 ± 0.26/min and 24.41 ± 5.26 g/g wet tissue respectively. The response to ACh was nearly twice as compared to histamine for equimolar concentrations (100 μM. ACh (100 μM induced contractions were attenuated (by 60% by atropine. Histamine (100 μM-induced contractions was blocked by pheniramine (0.32 μM and lignocaine (4 μM by 74% and 78%, respectively. Histopathological examination showed varying degree of fibrotic changes in muscle layers. Conclusions: Pre-atretic dilated part of jejunal atresia retains functional activity but with definitive histopathologic abnormalities. It is suggested that excision of a length of pre-atretic part and early stimulation of peristalsis by locally acting cholinomimetic or H1 agonist may help in reducing postoperative motility problems in atresia patients.

  20. Effects of PYY on the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex in the small intestine in vivo and the neural and endocrinal mechanisms of the effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan Guo; Min-min Kong; Li Zhang; Lei Dong

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of peptide YY (PYY) on the interdigestive migrating myoelectrlc complex (MMC) in the small intestine in vivo and explore the neural and endecrinal mechanisms of the effects. Methods Spragne-Dawley rats were supplied with a venous catheter and bipolar electrodes in the duodenum and jejunum for electromyography of stomach and small intestine in wake state. PYY, phentolamine, nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) and atropine were served with PYY respectively. The plasma motilin levels before and after the infusion of PYY were observed. Results At all the three recording points, PYY lengthened the drde length of MMC [from (591.90±128.98)s to (999.25±216.59)s, P<0. 01] and lowered the frequency of phase Ⅲ [from (39.28±8.40) min-1 to (22.08±3.13) min-1 , P<0.01], amplitude of phase Ⅲ [from (0. 320±0.060)mV to (0. 179±0.030)mV, P<0.01], and the portion of phase Ⅲ over the whole circle length [from (28. 61 ± 5.84)% to (15.43 ±5.16)% , P<0.01]. Phentolumine had no influence on the role of PYY. Administered L-NNA combined with PYY, the percentage of phase Ⅲ increased [(42. 09±8.67)%] compared with that of control(P<0.01) and compared with that of PYY administered alone (P<0. 01) too. Atropine combined with PYY showed stronger depressing effects on MMC. No significant difference was found between the plasma motilin levels before and after the infusion of PYY. Conclusion PYY my inhibit the interdigestive intestine motility through the none-adrenergic none-choUnergic tract, while the m-receptor tract and circulating motilin are probably not involved In the depressing effect.

  1. Effect of Cynomorium songaricum polysaccharide on mice of gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion%锁阳多糖对小鼠胃排空、小肠推进功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰城

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究锁阳多糖(Cynomorium Songaircum polysalcharides,CSP)对小鼠胃肠运动的影响。方法:采用酚红标记的小鼠胃排空、小肠推进实验,观察CSP对正常小鼠胃排空、小肠推进影响以及对在阿托品负荷的小鼠胃排空、小肠推进抑制的影响。结果:CSP对小鼠的胃排空无显著影响(P>0.05),但对小肠的推进性蠕动作用明显(P<0.05),且成剂量依赖性。结论:CSP对小鼠胃排空的促进作用不明显,CSP对小鼠肠推进具有明显的促进作用,并且可以拮抗由阿托品引起的小鼠肠蠕动的抑制。%Objective:To study the effect of GSP on gastrointestinal motility in mice. Method:the gastric emptying, intestinal phenolsulfonphthalein propulsion experiments,the effects of CSP on gastric emptying,intestinal propulsion in normal mice and mice gastric emptying,intestinal propulsion in atropine loadinhibition effect. Results:there was no significant effect of CSP on mice gastric emptying (P>0.05),but on small intestinal propulsion significantly peristalsis function (P<0.05)in a dose-dependent;conclusion:CSP had less effect on gastric emptying in mice,CSP has obvious effect on small intestinal propulsion,suppression and can be antagonized by atropine due to the small intestinal peristalsis of mice.

  2. Gastric motor effects of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6 in diabetic mice with gastroparesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Cai Qiu; Zhi-Gang Wang; Wei-Gang Wang; Jun Yan; Qi Zheng

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the potential therapeutic significance of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6(GHRP-6) in diabetic mice with gastric motility disorders.METHODS:A diabetic mouse model was established by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan.Diabetic mice were injected ip with ghrelin or GHRP-6 (20-200 μg/kg),and the effects on gastric emptying were measured after intragastric application of phenol red.The effect of atropine,NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) or D-Lys3-GHRP-6 (a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) antagonist) on the gastroprokinetic effect of ghrelin or GHRP-6 (100 μg/kg)was also investigated.The effects of ghrelin or GHRP-6(0.01-10 μmol/L) on spontaneous or carbachol-induced contractile amplitude were also investigated in vitro,in gastric fundic circular strips taken from diabetic mice.The presence of growth hormone secretagogue receptor la transcripts in the fundic strips of diabetic mice was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS:We established a diabetic mouse model with delayed gastric emptying.Ghrelin and GHRP-6accelerated gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis.In the presence of atropine or L-NAME,which delayed gastric emptying,ghrelin and GHRP-6(100 μg/kg) failed to accelerate gastric emptying.D-Lys3-GHRP-6 also delayed gastric emptying induced by the GHS-R agonist.Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increased the carbachol-induced contractile amplitude in gastric fundic strips taken from diabetic mice.RT-PCR confirmed the presence of GHS-R mRNA in the strip preparations.CONCLUSION:Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increase gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis,perhaps by activating peripheral cholinergic pathways in the enteric nervous system.

  3. Acetylcholine increases the breakdown of triphosphoinositide of rabbit iris muscle prelabelled with [32P] phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, A A; Akhtar, R A; Hawthorne, J N

    1977-01-15

    1. Paired iris smooth muscles from rabbits were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C in an iso-osmotic salt medium containg glucose, inositol, cytidine and [32P]phosphate. 2. One of the pair was then incubated at 37 degrees C for 10 min in unlabelled medium containing 10mM-2-deoxyglucose and the other was incubated in the presence of acetylcholine plus eserine (0.05mM each). 2-Deoxyglucose, which was included in the incubation medium to minimize the biosynthesis of triphosphoinositide from ATP and diphosphoinositide, decreased the amount of labelled ATP by 71% and inhibited further 32P incorporation from ATP into triphosphoinositide by almost 30%. 3. Acetylcholine (0.05mM) increased significantly the loss of 32P from triphosphoinositide (the 'triphosphoinositide effect') in 32P-labelled iris muscle. This effect was measured both chemically and radiochemically. It was also observed when 32Pi was replaced by myo-[3H]inositol in the incubation medium. 4. The triphosphoinositide effect was blocked by atropine but not by D-tubocurarine. Further, muscarinic but not nicotinic agonists were found to provoke this effect. 5. Acetylcholine decreased by 28% the 32P incorporation into triphosphoinositide, presumably by stimulating its breakdown. This decrement in triphosphoinositide was blocked by atropine, but not by D-tubocurarine. 6. The triphosphoinositide effect was accompanied by a significant increase in 32P labelling, but not tissue concentration, of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid. The possible relationship between the loss of 32P label from triphosphoinositide in response to acetylcholine and the concomitant increase in that of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid is discussed. 7. The presence of triphosphoinositide phosphomonoesterase, the enzyme that might be stimulated in the iris smooth muscle by the neurotransmitter, was demonstrated, and, under our methods of homogenization and assay, more than 80% of its activity was localized in the

  4. Pulmonary function, cholinergic bronchomotor tone, and cardiac autonomic abnormalities in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study analyzed the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in pulmonary and cardiac function by evaluating cardiovascular reflex and its correlation with pulmonary function abnormalities of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients (N = 17 and healthy subjects (N = 17 were evaluated by 1 pulmonary function tests including spirometry, He-dilution method, N2 washout test, and specific airway conductance (SGaw determined by plethysmography before and after aerosol administration of atropine sulfate, and 2 autonomic cardiovascular activity by the passive tilting test and the magnitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA. Basal heart rate was higher in the diabetic group (87.8 ± 11.2 bpm; mean ± SD than in the control group (72.9 ± 7.8 bpm, P<0.05. The increase of heart rate at 5 s of tilting was 11.8 ± 6.5 bpm in diabetic patients and 17.6 ± 6.2 bpm in the control group (P<0.05. Systemic arterial pressure and RSA analysis did not reveal significant differences between groups. Diabetes intragroup analysis revealed two behaviors: 10 patients with close to normal findings and 7 with significant abnormalities in terms of RSA, with the latter subgroup presenting one or more abnormalities in other tests and clear evidence of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. End-expiratory flows were significantly lower in diabetic patients than in the control group (P<0.05. Pulmonary function tests before and after atropine administration demonstrated comparable responses by both groups. Type 2 diabetic patients have cardiac autonomic dysfunction that is not associated with bronchomotor tone alterations, probably reflecting a less severe impairment than that of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Yet, a reduction of end-expiratory flow was detected.

  5. Pharmacokinetic profile and quantitation of protection against soman poisoning by the antinicotinic compound MB327 in the guinea-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew E; Docx, Cerys J; Rice, Helen; Fairhall, Sarah J; Poole, Sarah J C; Bird, Michael; Whiley, Luke; Flint, Daniel P; Green, A Christopher; Timperley, Christopher M; Tattersall, John E H

    2016-02-26

    Current organophosphorus nerve agent medical countermeasures do not directly address the nicotinic effects of poisoning. A series of antinicotinic bispyridinium compounds has been synthesized in our laboratory and screened in vitro. Their actions can include open-channel block at the nicotinic receptor which may contribute to their efficacy. The current lead compound from these studies, MB327 1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium) as either the diiodide (I2) or dimethanesulfonate (DMS) has been examined in vivo for efficacy against nerve agent poisoning. MB327 I2 (0-113mgkg(-1)) or the oxime HI-6 DMS (0-100mgkg(- 1)), in combination with atropine and avizafone (each at 3mgkg(-1)) was administered to guinea-pigs 1min following soman poisoning. Treatment increased the LD50 of soman in a dose-dependent manner. The increase was statistically significant (p<0.01) at the 33.9mgkg(-1) (MB327) or 30mgkg(-1) (HI-6) dose with a comparable degree of protection obtained for both compounds. Following administration of 10mgkg(-1) (i.m.), MB327 DMS reached plasma Cmax of 22μM at 12min with an elimination t1/2 of 22min. In an adverse effect study, in the absence of nerve agent poisoning, a dose of 100mgkg(-1) or higher of MB327 DMS was lethal to the guinea-pigs. A lower dose of MB327 DMS (30mgkg(-1)) caused flaccid paralysis accompanied by respiratory impairment. Respiration normalised by 30min, although the animals remained incapacitated to 4h. MB327 or related compounds may be of utility in treatment of nerve agent poisoning as a component of therapy with atropine, anticonvulsant and oxime, or alternatively as an infusion under medical supervision.

  6. Neurofunctional endpoints assessed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells for estimation of acute systemic toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the EU-funded integrated project ACuteTox is to develop a strategy in which general cytotoxicity, together with organ-specific toxicity and biokinetic features, are used for the estimation of human acute systemic toxicity. Our role in the project is to characterise the effect of reference chemicals with regard to neurotoxicity. We studied cell membrane potential (CMP), noradrenalin (NA) uptake, acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, acetylcholine receptor (AChR) signalling and voltage-operated calcium channel (VOCC) function in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after exposure to 23 pharmaceuticals, pesticides or industrial chemicals. Neurotoxic alert chemicals were identified by comparing the obtained data with cytotoxicity data from the neutral red uptake assay in 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Furthermore, neurotoxic concentrations were correlated with estimated human lethal blood concentrations (LC50). The CMP assay was the most sensitive assay, identifying eight chemicals as neurotoxic alerts and improving the LC50 correlation for nicotine, lindane, atropine and methadone. The NA uptake assay identified five neurotoxic alert chemicals and improved the LC50 correlation for atropine, diazepam, verapamil and methadone. The AChE, AChR and VOCC assays showed limited potential for detection of acute toxicity. The CMP assay was further evaluated by testing 36 additional reference chemicals. Five neurotoxic alert chemicals were generated and orphendrine and amitriptyline showed improved LC50 correlation. Due to the high sensitivity and the simplicity of the test protocol, the CMP assay constitutes a good candidate assay to be included in an in vitro test strategy for prediction of acute systemic toxicity.

  7. The pharmacology of Malo maxima jellyfish venom extract in isolated cardiovascular tissues: A probable cause of the Irukandji syndrome in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Wright, Christine E; Winkel, Kenneth D; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Angus, James A

    2011-03-25

    The in vitro cardiac and vascular pharmacology of Malo maxima, a newly described jellyfish suspected of causing Irukandji syndrome in the Broome region of Western Australia, was investigated in rat tissues. In left atria, M. maxima crude venom extract (CVE; 1-100μg/mL) caused concentration-dependent inotropic responses which were unaffected by atropine (1μM), but significantly attenuated by tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.1μM), propranolol (1μM), Mg(2+) (6mM) or calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist (CGRP(8-37); 1μM). CVE caused no change in right atrial rate until 100μg/mL, which elicited bradycardia. This was unaffected by atropine, TTX, propranolol or CGRP(8-37). In the presence of Mg(2+), CVE 30-100μg/mL caused tachycardia. In small mesenteric arteries CVE caused concentration-dependent contractions (pEC(50) 1.03±0.07μg/mL) that were unaffected by prazosin (0.3μM), ω-conotoxin GVIA (0.1μM) or Mg(2+) (6mM). There was a 2-fold increase in sensitivity in the presence of CGRP(8-37) (3μM). TTX (0.1μM), box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri antivenom (92.6U/mL) and benextramine (3μM) decreased sensitivity by 2.6, 1.9 and 2.1-fold, respectively. CVE-induced maximum contractions were attenuated by C. fleckeri antivenom (-22%) or benextramine (-49%). M. maxima CVE appears to activate the sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, nervous system and to stimulate sensory nerve CGRP release in left atria and resistance arteries. These effects are consistent with the catecholamine excess thought to cause Irukandji syndrome, with additional actions of CGRP release. PMID:21237252

  8. GABA(A) receptors implicated in REM sleep control express a benzodiazepine binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tin Quang; Liang, Chang-Lin; Marks, Gerald A

    2013-08-21

    It has been reported that non-subtype-selective GABAA receptor antagonists injected into the nucleus pontis oralis (PnO) of rats induced long-lasting increases in REM sleep. Characteristics of these REM sleep increases were identical to those resulting from injection of muscarinic cholinergic agonists. Both actions were blocked by the muscarinic antagonist, atropine. Microdialysis of GABAA receptor antagonists into the PnO resulted in increased acetylcholine levels. These findings were consistent with GABAA receptor antagonists disinhibiting acetylcholine release in the PnO to result in an acetylcholine-mediated REM sleep induction. Direct evidence has been lacking for localization in the PnO of the specific GABAA receptor-subtypes mediating the REM sleep effects. Here, we demonstrated a dose-related, long-lasting increase in REM sleep following injection (60 nl) in the PnO of the inverse benzodiazepine agonist, methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-β-carboline (DMCM, 10(-2)M). REM sleep increases were greater and more consistently produced than with the non-selective antagonist gabazine, and both were blocked by atropine. Fluorescence immunohistochemistry and laser scanning confocal microscopy, colocalized in PnO vesicular acetylcholine transporter, a presynaptic marker of cholinergic boutons, with the γ2 subunit of the GABAA receptor. These data provide support for the direct action of GABA on mechanisms of acetylcholine release in the PnO. The presence of the γ2 subunit at this locus and the REM sleep induction by DMCM are consistent with binding of benzodiazepines by a GABAA receptor-subtype in control of REM sleep.

  9. Molecular cloning of motilin and mechanism of motilin-induced gastrointestinal motility in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, Auvijit Saha; Mondal, Anupom; Kitazawa, Takio; Takemi, Shota; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Motilin, a peptide hormone produced in the upper intestinal mucosa, plays an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In the present study, we first determined the cDNA and amino acid sequences of motilin in the Japanese quail and studied the distribution of motilin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract. We also examined the motilin-induced contractile properties of quail GI tracts using an in vitro organ bath, and then elucidated the mechanisms of motilin-induced contraction in the proventriculus and duodenum of the quail. Mature quail motilin was composed of 22 amino acid residues, which showed high homology with chicken (95.4%), human (72.7%), and dog (72.7%) motilin. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that motilin-immunopositive cells were present in the mucosal layer of the duodenum (23.4±4.6cells/mm(2)), jejunum (15.2±0.8cells/mm(2)), and ileum (2.5±0.7cells/mm(2)), but were not observed in the crop, proventriculus, and colon. In the organ bath study, chicken motilin induced dose-dependent contraction in the proventriculus and small intestine. On the other hand, chicken ghrelin had no effect on contraction in the GI tract. Motilin-induced contraction in the duodenum was not inhibited by atropine, hexamethonium, ritanserin, ondansetron, or tetrodotoxin. However, motilin-induced contractions in the proventriculus were significantly inhibited by atropine and tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that motilin is the major stimulant of GI contraction in quail, as it is in mammals and the site of action of motilin is different between small intestine and proventriculus.

  10. Protection against ventricular fibrillation via cholinergic receptor stimulation and the generation of nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, Manish; Chotalia, Minesh; Coughlan, Charles; Hao, Guoliang; Crabtree, Mark J.; Tomek, Jakub; Bub, Gil; Paterson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Animal studies suggest an anti‐fibrillatory action of the vagus nerve on the ventricle, although the exact mechanism is controversial.Using a Langendorff perfused rat heart, we show that the acetylcholine analogue carbamylcholine raises ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) and flattens the electrical restitution curve.The anti‐fibrillatory action of carbamylcholine was prevented by the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and can be mimicked by the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside.Carbamylcholine increased NO metabolite content in the coronary effluent and this was prevented by mecamylamine.The anti‐fibrillatory action of both carbamylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was ultimately dependent on muscarinic receptor stimulation as all effects were blocked by atropine.These data demonstrate a protective effect of carbamylcholine on VFT that depends upon both muscarinic and nicotinic receptor stimulation, where the generation of NO is likely to be via a neuronal nNOS–sGC dependent pathway. Abstract Implantable cardiac vagal nerve stimulators are a promising treatment for ventricular arrhythmia in patients with heart failure. Animal studies suggest the anti‐fibrillatory effect may be nitric oxide (NO) dependent, although the exact site of action is controversial. We investigated whether a stable analogue of acetylcholine could raise ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT), and whether this was dependent on NO generation and/or muscarinic/nicotinic receptor stimulation. VFT was determined in Langendorff perfused rat hearts by burst pacing until sustained VF was induced. Carbamylcholine (CCh, 200 nmol l–1, n = 9) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced heart rate from 292 ± 8 to 224 ± 6 b.p.m. Independent of this heart rate change, CCh caused a significant increase in VFT (control 1.5 ± 0.3 mA, CCh 2.4 ± 0.4 mA, wash 1.1

  11. Effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of ;organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%两组用药清除有机磷农药中毒肠道毒物的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴艳丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨大黄、思密达与硫酸镁、漂白土在治疗急性有机磷农药中毒的疗效。方法将76例口服有机磷中毒的重度患者随机均分2组。两组均给予彻底洗胃、适量应用长托宁及阿托品解毒,氯磷定复能剂等综合常规治疗。A组(治疗组)应用大黄导泻、思密达吸附;B组(对照组)应用硫酸镁导泻、漂白土吸附。观察首次排便时间,胃肠功能不全发生率及严重程度评分;观察胃肠功能恢复时间、阿托品化时间、意识恢复时间、胆碱酯酶活力恢复50%以上时间、阿托品和长托宁用量、药物耐受、中毒反跳、中间综合征、迟发性神经病、住院时间和死亡情况。结果治疗组各指标均优于对照组,均差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01或P<0.05)。结论思密达、大黄是目前彻底清除AOPP患者胃肠道残留毒物较好的导泻、吸附联合用药,减少了药物用量和并发症、缩短了住院时间。%Objective investigate the effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of organopjophorus pesticide poisoning. Methods Seventy-six patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning underwent conventional treatment including thorough gastric lavage, muscular injection of penehyckiine hydrochloride, intravenous injection of atropine through micropumping, and intravenous drip of pyraloxime methylchloride. The patients were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: Group A underdoing catharsis with 200 ml of Chinese Rhubarb powder and then suspension of Smecta through gastric tube 2h later as a cycle per 4 hours for 48 hours, and Group B undergoing irrigation of magnesium sulphate solution and suspension of Fuller's earth per 4 hours as a cycle for 48 hours. The effects were observed. Results The first defecation yime, recovery time of gastrointestinal tract, time of atropinization time, consciousness recovery time, recovery time of cholinesterase activity, and length

  12. 强心复脉颗粒对兔慢性窦房结损伤模型心律的影响%Effect of Qiangxin Fumai Granule on Cardiac Rhythm of Sinoatrial Node with Chronic Injury inRabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘如秀; 王妮娜; 李汇博; 暴美静; 汪艳丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 在建立兔慢性窦房结损伤模型的基础上,观察强心复脉颗粒方对该模型的影响.方法 大耳白兔30只,随机分为正常组、模型组、阿托品组及强心复脉颗粒高、中、低剂量组(以下简称高、中、低剂量组),每组5只,正常组不造模,余5组甲醛加压注射渗透法建立兔慢性病态窦房结综合征模型,并于模型建立稳定后连续灌胃给药7d,分别观测各组造模及给药前后心律的变化.结果 与正常组比较,模型组、阿托品组及高、中、低剂量组造模后心率均明显降低(P<0.01).与模型组比较,阿托品组及高、中、低剂量组给药后心率均有不同程度升高(P<0.05或P<0.01).且高剂量组较西药阿托品组效果显著(P<0.05),低、中剂量组与阿托品组比较无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 强心复脉颗粒能够提高心率、改善心律失常,对病态窦房结综合征有一定的治疗作用.%Objective To study the effect of Qiangxin Fumai granule on cardiac rhythm of the sinoatrial node with chronic injury in rabbits. Methods Sixty healthy adult big ears white rabbits were randomly divided into 6 groups: the normal group, the model group, the atropine group, the high-dose Qiangxin Fumai Granule group, the middle-dose Qiangxin Fumai Granule group and the low-dose Qiangxin Fumai Granule group, with five animals in each group. The rabbit model was established by injecting formaldehyde to the sinoatrial node except the normal group. After the model established, the rabbits received intragastric administration for 7 days, the changes of heart rate at different phases were measured. Results Compared with the normal group, the heart rate in the model group, the atropine group, the high-dose Qiangxin Fumai granule group, the middle-dose Qiangxin Fumai Granule group and the low-dose Qiangxin Fumai granule group were slowed significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the heart rate in four treatment

  13. An inherent acceleratory effect of insulin on small intestinal transit and its pharmacological characterization in normal mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Murali Krishna Reddy Peddyreddy; Steven Aibor Dkhar; Subramanian Ramaswamy; Amrithraj Theophilus Naveen; Deepak Gopal Shewade

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study an inherent effect of insulin on small intestinal transit and to explore involvement of various systems/mechanisms in normal mice.METHODS: Insulin at the doses of 2 μU/kg, 2 mU/kg,2 U/kg or vehicle was subcutaneously administered to four groups of overnight fasted normal male mice.Blood glucose (BG) levels were measured 2 min before insulin administration and 2 min before sacrificing the animals for the measurement of small intestinal transit (SIT). Charcoal meal was administered (0.3 mL) intragastrically 20 min after insulin administration and animals were sacrificed after 20 min and SIT was determined. For exploration of the various mechanisms involved in insulin-induced effect on SIT, the dose of insulin which can produce a significant acceleration of SIT without altering BG levels was determined.The following drugs, atropine (1 mg/kg), clonidine (0.1 mg/kg), ondansetron (1 mg/kg), naloxone (5mg/kg), verapamil (8 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg), were administered intravenously 10 min prior to the administration of insulin (2 μU/kg).RESULTS: The lower doses of insulin (2 μU/kg and 2 mU/kg) produced a significant acceleration of SIT from 52.0% to 70.7% and 73.5% without lowering blood glucose levels (P< 0.01), while the highest dose of insulin (2 U/kg) produced a fall in blood glucose levels which was also associated with significant acceleration of SIT (P< 0.01). After pretreatment of insulin (2 μU/kg)group with atropine, insulin could reverse 50% of the inhibition produced by atropine. In clonidine-pretreated group, insulin administration could reverse only 37%of the inhibition produced by clonidine and inhibition of SIT was significant compared with vehicle + insulintreated group, i.e. from 74.7% to 27.7% (P<0.01). In ondansetron-pretreated group, insulin administration could produce only mild acceleration of SIT (23.5%). In naloxone-pretreated group, insulin administration could significantly reverse the inhibition of SIT produced

  14. 云木香不同提取物对小鼠胃排空和小肠推进功能的影响%Effect of Yunmuxiang on Gastric Emptying and Intestinal Propulsion of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张猛; 郭建生; 王小娟; 刘红艳; 聂子文; 陈君

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究云木香3种提取物对小鼠胃排空和小肠推进功能的影响,并探讨云木香影响胃肠道的物质基础.方法:采用改良的酚红含量测定法观察云木香3种提取液对正常状态下、新斯的明所致的亢进状态下、阿托品所致的抑制状态下小鼠胃排空和小肠推进功能的影响.结果:挥发油能够显著降低正常小鼠胃酚红排空率(P<0.01),能够显著提高阿托品所致抑制状态下的小鼠胃酚红排空率(P<0.01),能够显著降低新斯的明所致亢进状态下的小鼠胃酚红排空率(P<0.01),并降低小肠酚红推进率(P<0.05).结论:云木香挥发油能够抑制正常小鼠胃排空,改善阿托品所致抑制状态下的小鼠胃排空障碍,拮抗新斯的明所致的小鼠胃排空和小肠推进功能亢进.挥发油是云木香对小鼠胃肠道起作用的物质基础.%Objective: To study the effect of 3 kinds of extract of Yunmuxiang on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion of mice, and to find the material basis of Yunmuxiang which affact gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion of mice. Method: Using modified determination of content of phenol red to observe the effect of 3 kinds of extract of Yunmuxiang on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion of mice in normal state, hyperthyroidism state caused by neostigmine, inhibiting state caused by atropine. Result: Volatile oil of Yunmuxiang could significant decrease gastric emptying rate of phenol red of normal mice ( P < 0. 01 ), could significantly improve gastric emptying rate of phenol red in the state of inhibition caused by atropine (P < 0. 01 ) , could significantly decrease gastric emptying rate of phenol red in the state of hyperthyroidism caused by neostigmine (P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion: The extract of Yunmuxiang can inhibit gastric emptying of normal mice, can improve gastric emptying of mice in the state of inhibition caused by atropine, antagonistise gastric emptying and intestinal

  15. Non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) excitatory response of the channel catfish intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, C S; Holmes, E P; Jarboe, H H; Kleinow, K M

    1994-06-01

    1. Optimal parameters for electrical field stimulation (EFS) of catfish pyloric and middle intestinal segments were determined (15 Hz, 60 V) from a range of frequencies (5-45 Hz) and voltages (40-120 V) using a modified Magnus' method. Contractile responses were produced by EFS which were reproducible and showed no significant difference between the tissues. 2. The contractile cholinergic responses of the tissues to carbachol and acetylcholine (ACh) were blocked by atropine on an equimolar concentration, whereas, these responses were enhanced in the presence of neostigmine, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. 3. Adrenergic responses were examined with noradrenaline (NA). NA produced contraction of the segments only, at a concentration of 10(-4) M. Among the various adrenoceptors, beta-adrenoceptor stimulation produced a weak relaxation whereas, both alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor stimulation produced contractions, of which alpha 2-induced contraction was of greater magnitude. The beta, alpha 1 and alpha 2 responses were blocked by their respective blocking agents propranolol, prazosin and yohimbine. 4. The autonomic components of the response to EFS were determined by using selected cholinergic and adrenergic antagonists separately or collectively. Cholinergic blockade with atropine did not produce a significant blockade of the EFS-induced response. Similarly, blockade of beta-adrenoceptors with propranolol did not modulate the contractile response to EFS to any significant level. Blockade by prazosin or yohimbine did not significantly change the contractile response to EFS. After a complete blockade of the adrenergic and cholinergic divisions, the intestinal segments still showed a contractile response to EFS which was not significantly different from the control response. This indicated the presence of a non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) response. 5. Tetrodotoxin, at 10(-6) M, significantly blocked the EFS-induced NANC response suggesting a neurogenic

  16. 右美托咪定对扁桃体摘除术麻醉苏醒期躁动的影响%Effects of dexmdetomidine on emergence agitation after tonsillectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海健; 翁浩; 王建光

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of dexmedctomidine nn emergence agitation in patients after tonsillectomy. Methods Patients aged 12-30 years, weighing 35-65 kg, ASA status I or II , were equally randomized into two groups: dexmedetomidine group (group D) and control group (group C). Dexmedetomidirw was given with 1.0 jig/kg within 10 min following anesthesia induction in group D, then was continuously given at 0. 5 μgokg-1 oh-1 till 20 mm before the end of surgery. The same volume of normal saline was given in group C. Times and amount of atropine and ephedrine were recorded. Sedation-agitation score (SAS)at tracheal extubationand ramsay score at 10 nun after tracheal extubaiion were recored. Results Amount snd times of atropine, Ramsay score were higher, SAS was lower in group D than in group C (P<0. 05). Conclusion Dexmedetomidinc can reduce the occurrence of emergene agitation in tonsillectomy.%目的 评价右美托咪定对扁桃体摘除术患者麻醉苏醒期躁动的影响.方法 择期扁桃体摘除术患者60例,年龄12~20岁,体重35~65 kg,ASA Ⅰ或Ⅱ级,随机均分为两组.麻醉诱导后,右美托咪定组(D组)在10 min内静脉泵注右美托咪定1.0μg/kg(用生理盐水稀释至50 ml),然后以0.5μg,kg-1·h-1持续泵入至手术结束前20 min.对照组(C组)以同样方式泵注生理盐水.术中吸入异氟醚和静注丙泊酚维持麻醉.记录吸痰拔管时镇静躁动(SAS)评分及拔管后10 min的Ramsay镇静评分及VAS评分.结果 D组阿托品使用次数明显多于C组(P<0.05).拔管时D组SAS评分明显低于C组,而Ramsay评分明显高于C组(P<0.05).结论 右美托咪定可明显减少扁桃体摘除术患者麻醉苏醒期闻躁动的发生.

  17. Autonomic control of the pulmonary surfactant system and lung compliance in the lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, P G; Andrew, L K; Daniels, C B; Orgeig, S; Roberts, C T

    1997-01-01

    An increase in body temperature in the bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps, is accompanied by an increase in the amount of pulmonary surfactant, a mixture of proteins and lipids, with the latter consisting predominantly of phospholipid and cholesterol. This increase may result from a temperature-induced change in autonomic input to the lungs, as perfusing the isolated lungs of P. vitticeps with either acetylcholine or adrenaline increases surfactant phospholipid release. However, whether acetylcholine acts via intrapulmonary sympathetic ganglia or directly on alveolar Type II cells is unknown. Moreover, the relative importance of circulating catecholamines and pulmonary sympathetic nerves on the control of the surfactant system is also obscure. Here, we describe the mechanism of the modulation of the surfactant system and the effect of this modulation on lung compliance. The role of acetylcholine was determined by perfusing isolated lungs with acetylcholine, acetylcholine and the ganglionic antagonist hexamethonium, or acetylcholine, hexamethonium, and the muscarinic antagonist atropine. Perfusing with acetylcholine significantly increased phospholipid release but did not affect cholesterol release. While histological examination of the lung revealed the presence of a large autonomic ganglion at the apex, blocking sympathetic ganglia with hexamethonium did not prevent the acetylcholine-mediated increase in phospholipid. However, the increase was inhibited by blocking muscarinic receptors with atropine, which indicates that acetylcholine acts on muscarinic receptors to stimulate phospholipid release. By increasing pulmonary smooth muscle tone, acetylcholine decreased opening pressure and increased static inflation pressures. Plasma levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline increased with increasing temperature and were accompanied by a greater surfactant content in the lungs. While surfactant content was also higher in animals that exercised, plasma levels of adrenaline

  18. Effects of pirenzepine ophthalmic solution on form-deprivation myopia in the guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE Qi-hua; CHENG Neng-neng; WU Wei; CHU Ren-yuan

    2005-01-01

    Background Nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine, was believed to inhibit myopic progression. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy, through topical administration, of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine in preventing experimentally induced form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs.Methods Fifty-three guinea pigs, which underwent monocular deprivation with their eyelids sutured, were divided into 6 groups. Three groups were treated with 1%, 2% or 4% pirenzepine ophthalmic solutions; the fourth group with atropine; the fifth with saline and the last group left untreated. Ocular refraction, in vivo biometric measurements and wet eye weight were collected before and after the experiment. All the eyes were finally enucleated for histopathological examination to evaluate the possible toxic effects on ocular structures.Results Animals untreated or treated with saline produced (-2.31±1.47) D and (-2.25±0.88) D of axial myopia respectively. Those treated with 1% pirenzepine ophthalmic solution produced relative myopia of (-1.63±0.48) D, and those under the treatment of 2% and 4% pirenzepine ophthalmic solution only developed a relative myopia of (-0.89±0.42) D and (-0.70±0.41) D (F=9.56, P<0.05). The significant reduction in myopia in 2% and 4% pirenzepine treated animals was caused by significantly less vitreous chamber elongation and axial elongation of the deprived eyes [2% group: (0.009±0.052) mm, 4% group: (0.006±0.078) mm] when compared with untreated, saline treated or 1% pirenzepine treated guinea pigs [(0.057±0.056) mm, (0.064±0.053) mm and (0.033±0.035) mm, respectively]. Histological examinations revealed no obviously toxic effects on the eyes treated with pirenzepine.Conclusion Topical administration of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, can prevent induced form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs by inhibiting axial elongation without obvious damage to ocular tissues.

  19. 乙酰胆碱对离体豚鼠心室肌的直接作用机制探讨%The mechanisms underlying the effects of acetylcholine on isolated guinea-pig ventricular myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方萍; 张晓东; 等

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of ACh on isolated guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. METHODS: Using standard microelectrodes and force transducer we recorded the effects of ACh (10-5 mol/L) and various blockers such as atropine, CsCl and CdCl2 on the action potential and force contraction in isolated ventricular myocytes of guinea-pig. RESULTS: ACh(10-5 mol/L) reduced the duration of action potential and twitch tensions by 7.31% and 37.57% respectively (P<0.05),which could be blocked by atropine, CsCl, but not by CdCl2. CONCLUSION: ACh (10-5 mol/L) could cause a negative chronotropic and inotropic effects on guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. These effects are related to the muscarinic receptor and the potassium channel and may not related to the calcium channel.%目的: 研究乙酰胆碱(ACh)对离体豚鼠心室肌的直接负性作用及机制。方法: 采用标准玻璃微电极细胞内记录技术记录动作电位(AP)及肌力换能器记录心肌收缩力(FC)的方法观察ACh对离体豚鼠心室肌的作用,并观察几种受体或通道水平的阻断剂阿托品、氯化铯(CsCl)、氯化镉(CdCl2)对ACh直接作用的影响。结果: 10-5mol/L ACh对心室肌动作电位持续时间(APD)及FC的抑制率分别为7.31%和37.57%(P<0.05),10-5 mol/L阿托品和20 mmol/L CsCl可阻断该作用,0.1 mmol/L CdCl2对该作用无影响。结论: 10-5mol/L ACh 对离体豚鼠心室肌有直接负性作用,ACh的作用与毒蕈碱型胆碱受体及K+电流有关,而与Ca2+电流的关系可能不大。

  20. Early differential cell death and survival mechanisms initiate and contribute to the development of OPIDN: A study of molecular, cellular, and anatomical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophosphorus-ester induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia progressing to paralysis with a concomitant central and peripheral, distal axonapathy. Diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) produces OPIDN in the chicken that results in mild ataxia in 7–14 days and severe paralysis as the disease progresses with a single dose. White leghorn layer hens were treated with DFP (1.7 mg/kg, sc) after prophylactic treatment with atropine (1 mg/kg, sc) in normal saline and eserine (1 mg/kg, sc) in dimethyl sulfoxide. Control groups were treated with vehicle propylene glycol (0.1 ml/kg, sc), atropine in normal saline and eserine in dimethyl sulfoxide. The hens were euthanized at different time points such as 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 days, and the tissues from cerebrum, midbrain, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord were quickly dissected and frozen for mRNA (northern) studies. Northern blots were probed with BCL2, GADD45, beta actin, and 28S RNA to investigate their expression pattern. Another set of hens was treated for a series of time points and perfused with phosphate buffered saline and fixative for histological studies. Various staining protocols such as Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E); Sevier-Munger; Cresyl echt Violet for Nissl substance; and Gallocynin stain for Nissl granules were used to assess various patterns of cell death and degenerative changes. Complex cell death mechanisms may be involved in the neuronal and axonal degeneration. These data indicate altered and differential mRNA expressions of BCL2 (anti apoptotic gene) and GADD45 (DNA damage inducible gene) in various tissues. Increased cell death and other degenerative changes noted in the susceptible regions (spinal cord and cerebellum) than the resistant region (cerebrum), may indicate complex molecular pathways via altered BCL2 and GADD45 gene expression, causing the homeostatic imbalance between cell survival and cell death mechanisms. Semi quantitative

  1. Activation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtype 4 is Essential for Cholinergic Stimulation of Gastric Acid Secretion - Relation To D Cell/Somatostatin -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Takeuchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground/Aim: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors exist in five subtypes (M1~M5, and they are widely expressed in various tissues to mediate diverse autonomic functions, including gastric secretion. In the present study, we demonstrated, using M1~M5 KO mice, the importance of M4 receptors in carbachol (CCh stimulation of acid secretion and investigated how the secretion is modulated by the activation of M4 receptors. Methods: C57BL/6J mice of wild-type (WT and M1-M5 KO were used. Under urethane anesthesia, acid secretion was measured in the stomach equipped with an acute fistula. CCh (30 µg/kg was given s.c. to stimulate acid secretion. Atropine or octreotide (a somatostatin analogue was given s.c. 20 min before the administration of CCh. CYN154806 (a somatostatin SST2 receptor antagonist was given i.p. 20 min before the administration of octreotide or CCh. Results: CCh caused an increase of acid secretion in WT mice, and the effect was totally inhibited by prior administration of atropine. The effect of CCh was similarly observed in the animals lacking M1, M2 or M5 receptors but significantly decreased in M3 or M4 KO mice. CYN154806, the SST2 receptor antagonist, dose-dependently and significantly reversed the decreased acid response to CCh in M4 but not M3 KO mice. Octreotide, the somatostatin analogue, inhibited the secretion of acid under CCh-stimulated conditions in WT mice. The immunohistochemical study showed the localization of M4 receptors on D cells in the stomach. Serum somatostatin levels in M4 KO mice were higher than WT mice under basal conditions, while those in WT mice were significantly decreased in response to CCh. Conclusions: These results suggest that under cholinergic stimulation the acid secretion is directly mediated by M3 receptors and indirectly modified by M4 receptors. It is assumed that the activation of M4 receptors inhibits the release of somatostatin from D cells and minimizes the acid inhibitory effect

  2. Lomotil (diphenoxylate dependence in India

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    Aseem Mehra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lomotil (diphenoxylate atropine combination has been in use as an antidiarrhoeal agent. Due to presence of opioid (diphenoxylate, there are chances of abuse. The reports of abuse of lomotil have been few in published literature. This chart review aimed to evaluate the characteristics of patients with dependence on lomotil coming to our centre. Materials and Methods: This retrospective chart review was conducted at the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. The records of patients who had presented to the centre with dependence on Lomotil in the last five years were identified, and clinical details were extracted from the records. Results: We identified 41 patients who had presented to our centre with dependence upon lomotil as the primary substance of abuse. The cases were typically married and employed males, educated up to 10 th grade, belonging to a rural Sikh extended or joint family. Most of the patients had taken other opioids too. The number of tablets taken in a day varied from 3- to 250 (median 25. The reasons of initiation were to relieve withdrawals, as a cheap substitute opioid, curiosity, and on suggestion of friends. Conclusion: Lomotil is a medication with a potential of abuse and regulatory controls are required to prevent escalation of misuse of this easily available prescription drug. Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine combination has been used since a long time as an anti-diarrheal agent. Reports of abuse of diphenoxylate had surfaced. We present a series of 41 cases of opioid dependence presenting with the use of the diphenoxylate as the primary substance. The cases were typically married and employed males, educated up to 10 th grade, belonging to a rural Sikh extended or joint family. Most of the patients had taken other opioids too. The number of tablets taken in a day varied from 3 to 250 (median 25. The reasons of initiation of diphenoxylate were to relieve withdrawals, as a

  3. 黄体酮联用美洛昔康治疗肾绞痛疗效观察%The curative effect of Progesterone combined with meloxicam in treating renal colic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰翔; 李利

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect and security of progesterone combined with meloxicam on renal colic.Methods 84 patients,who were clinically diagnosed as renal colic,were randomly divided into observation group and control group.The patients in observation group received Progesterone 40mg and meloxieaml5mg (im),while the patients in control group received atropine 0.5mg (im).The therapeutic effect,replace rate and side effects in both groups were observed.Results The total effective rate in observation group was 90.48%,which was 73.81% in control group,there was obvious difference between two groups(P<0.05).And the replace rate and side effects was lower in observation group than in control group(P<0.05).Conclusion The efficacy of progesterone combined with meloxicam in the treatment of renal colic is better than atropine,furthermore,with lower replace rate,few side effects,which is worth application extensively in clinic.%目的 观察黄体酮联合美洛昔康治疗肾绞痛的疗效和安全性.方法 选择临床确诊的84例急性肾绞痛患者,随机分为观察组及时照组各42例,观察组予以黄体酮40mg及美洛昔康15mg肌肉注射,对照组予以阿托品0.5mg肌肉注射,比较两组的疗效、复发率及不良反应.结果 观察组总有效率90.48%,对照组总有效率73.81%,两组疗效有明显差异(P<0.05),且复发率及不良反应发生率观察组也均明显低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 黄体酮联合美洛昔康治疗肾绞痛疗效确切,且复发率低,不良反应少,值得临床推广应用.

  4. 布比卡因局部阻滞治疗输尿管结石所致肾绞痛60例的临床观察%The Clinic Observation of 60 Cases of Bupivacaine Local Block Treatment in the Renal Colic Caused by Upper Ureteral Stones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘功海; 吴世东; 曾国华; 欧长伟; 范翰文; 何小鹏

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较药物治疗与布比卡因局部阻滞治疗输尿管上段结石所致的肾绞痛的临床疗效.方法:选择输尿管结石患者共120例.随机分成药物治疗组(M组)与局部阻滞组(B组)各60例,其中药物治疗组采用杜冷丁加阿托品治疗,局部阻滞组采用布比卡因行痛区局部阻滞,两组年龄、性别均无统计学差异,比较两组患者治疗的总有效率、不良反应、镇痛起效时间、缓解时间等疗效指标.结果:局部阻滞组治疗的总有效率大于药物治疗组,不良反应也比药物治疗组少.疼痛起效时间及缓解时间,局部阻滞组均明显短于药物治疗组.结论:布比卡因局部阻滞治疗输尿管上段结石所致的肾绞痛临床疗效明显优于以杜冷丁加阿托品为代表的药物治疗.%To compare the clinical efficacy of the drug treament way and the bupivacaine local block way in the patients with renal colic caused by upper ureteral stones. Methods: 120 patients with upper ureteral stones were randomly divided into drug treament group(Group D) and bupivacaine local block group(Group B) of each 60 cases. Group D were treated with pethidine plus atropine treatment, and Group B were treated with bupivacaine local block in pain regionl. There were no significant differences in the two groups in age and gender. The total efficiency, adverse reactions analgesic onset time, pain relief time of the two groups of patients were analyzed. Results: Group B have more advantages than the group D in the total efficiency, adverse reactions, analgesic onset time and pain relief time. Conclusion: The bupivacaine local block group is superior to the pethidine plus atropine as the representative of drug treatment group in the renal colic cases caused by upper ureteral stones .

  5. Mechanisms of the antinociceptive action of (− Epicatechin obtained from the hydroalcoholic fraction of Combretum leprosum Mart & Eic in rodents

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    Lopes Luciano da

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms of the antinociceptive activity of (− epicatechin (EPI, a compound isolated from the hydroalcoholic fraction of Combreum leprosum Mart & Eicher. Methods were assessed in the model of chemical nociception induced by glutamate (20 μmol/paw. To evaluate the mechanisms involved, the animals , male Swiss mice (25-30 g, received EPI (50 mg/kg p.o. after pretreatment with naloxone (2 mg/kg s.c. opioid antagonist, glibenclamide (2 mg/kg s.c. antagonist K + channels sensitive to ATP, ketanserin (0.3 mg/kg s.c. antagonist of receptor 5-HT2A, yoimbine (0.15 mg/kg s.c. α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, pindolol (1 mg/kg s.c. 5-HT1a/1b receptor antagonist, atropine (0.1 mg/kg s.c. muscarinic antagonist and caffeine (3 mg/kg s.c. adenosine receptor antagonist, ondansetron (0.5 mg/kg s.c. for 5-HT3 receptor and L-arginine (600 mg/kg i.p.. Results The antinociceptive effect of EPI was reversed by pretreatment with naloxone and glibenclamide, ketanserin, yoimbine, atropine and pindolol, which demonstrates the involvement of opioid receptors and potassium channels sensitive to ATP, the serotoninergic (receptor 5HT1A and 5HT2A, adrenergic (receptor alpha 2 and cholinergic (muscarinic receptor systems in the activities that were observed. The effects of EPI, however, were not reversed by pretreatment with caffeine, L-arginine or ondansetron, which shows that there is no involvement of 5HT3 receptors or the purinergic and nitrergic systems in the antinociceptive effect of EPI. In the Open Field and Rotarod test, EPI had no significant effect, which shows that there was no central nervous system depressant or muscle relaxant effect on the results. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the antinociceptive activity of EPI in the glutamate model involves the participation of the opioid system, serotonin, adrenergic and cholinergic.

  6. Neurotransmissions of antidepressant-like effects of neuromedin U-23 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaru; Telegdy, Gyula

    2014-02-01

    Neuromedin U (NmU) is a widely distributed and multifunctional peptide in the central nervous system and the peripheral tissues. Little is know about the mechanisms of NmU on brain functions. The rodent isoform of the NmU, NmU-23, has been shown to have anxiolytic effects involved in the β-adrenergic and cholinergic nervous systems in elevated plus maze test. NmU-23 was tested for antidepressant-like effects in modified forced swimming test (FST) in mice and furthermore, the involvement of the adrenergic, serotonergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic or gaba-ergic receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of NmU-23 was studied in modified mice FST. Mice were pretreated with a non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist phenoxybenzamine, an α1/α2β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, yohimbine, a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, a mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, methysergide, a non-selective 5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine, nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, atropine, D2,D3,D4 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol or γ-aminobutyric acid subunit A (GABAA) receptor antagonist, bicuculline. NmU-23 showed the antidepressant-like effects by decreasing the immobility time and increasing the climbing and swimming time. Prazosin, haloperidol, and bicuculline prevented the effects of NmU-23 on the climbing and swimming time. Methysergide and cyproheptadine prevented the effects of NmU-23 on the immobility, swimming and climbing time. Atropine prevented the effects of NmU-23 on the climbing time. Phenoxybenzamine, yohimbine and propranolol did not change the effects of NmU-23. The results demonstrated that the antidepressant-like effect of NmU-23 is mediated, at least in part, by an interaction of the α2-adrenergic, 5-HT1-2 serotonergic, D2,D3,D4 dopamine receptor, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and γ-aminobutyric acid subunit A (GABAA

  7. Mechanisms of relaxation induced by flavonoid ayanin in isolated aorta rings from Wistar rats

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    Rosalía Carrón

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study shows the relaxant effect induced by ayanin in aorta rings from Wistar rats linked to nitric oxide/cyclic-GMP pathway.  This flavonoid is the prevalent compound obtained from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht (Euphorbiaceae, specie used in Colombian folk medicine for the treatment of arterial hypertension. Objectives: To identify possible action mechanisms of vascular relaxation induced by ayanin (quercetin 3,4',7-trimethyl ether. Methodology: Isolated aorta rings from Wistar rats obtained at the Animal House of the University of Salamanca were contracted with KCl (80 mM or phenylephrine (PE, 10-6 M and exposed to ayanin (10-6-10-4 M.  Then, the effect of ayanin was assessed in deendothelized rings contracted with PE and in intact rings contracted with PE previously incubated with: ODQ (10-6 M, L-NAME (10-4 M, L-NAME plus D- and L-arginine (10-4 M, indomethacin (5x10-6 M, dipyridamole (3x10-7 M, glibenclamide (10-6 M, propranolol (10-6 M, verapamil (10-7 M or atropine (3x10-5 M.  In addition, the relaxant effect of acetylcholine (Ach, 10-8-3x10-4 M, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10-9-3x10-5 M was assessed in the presence and absence of ayanin (10-6 M. Results: Ayanin induced a greater concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels contracted with phenylephrine (pEC50: 5.84±0.05, an effect significantly reduced by deendothelization and by both ODQ and L-NAME.  L-arginine was able to reverse the effect of L-NAME.  Indomethacin weakly inhibited ayanin response.  Dipyridamole, glibenclamide, propranolol, verapamil, and atropine did not affect ayanin relaxation.  Ayanin did not have any effect on the relaxation elicited by acetylcholine (ACh, while weakly decreasing the relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Conclusion: Ayanin induces endothelium-dependent relaxation in the rat aorta mainly related to nitric oxide/cGMP pathway, according to the response observed in the presence of L-NAME, L-arginine and ODQ.

  8. Neurotransmissions of antidepressant-like effects of neuromedin U-23 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaru; Telegdy, Gyula

    2014-02-01

    Neuromedin U (NmU) is a widely distributed and multifunctional peptide in the central nervous system and the peripheral tissues. Little is know about the mechanisms of NmU on brain functions. The rodent isoform of the NmU, NmU-23, has been shown to have anxiolytic effects involved in the β-adrenergic and cholinergic nervous systems in elevated plus maze test. NmU-23 was tested for antidepressant-like effects in modified forced swimming test (FST) in mice and furthermore, the involvement of the adrenergic, serotonergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic or gaba-ergic receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of NmU-23 was studied in modified mice FST. Mice were pretreated with a non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist phenoxybenzamine, an α1/α2β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, yohimbine, a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, a mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, methysergide, a non-selective 5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine, nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, atropine, D2,D3,D4 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol or γ-aminobutyric acid subunit A (GABAA) receptor antagonist, bicuculline. NmU-23 showed the antidepressant-like effects by decreasing the immobility time and increasing the climbing and swimming time. Prazosin, haloperidol, and bicuculline prevented the effects of NmU-23 on the climbing and swimming time. Methysergide and cyproheptadine prevented the effects of NmU-23 on the immobility, swimming and climbing time. Atropine prevented the effects of NmU-23 on the climbing time. Phenoxybenzamine, yohimbine and propranolol did not change the effects of NmU-23. The results demonstrated that the antidepressant-like effect of NmU-23 is mediated, at least in part, by an interaction of the α2-adrenergic, 5-HT1-2 serotonergic, D2,D3,D4 dopamine receptor, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and γ-aminobutyric acid subunit A (GABAA

  9. Current status on the development and treatment of myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jeffrey; Schulman, Erica; Jamal, Nadine

    2012-05-01

    This is a review of the current literature describing the effect of atropine, bifocals, and/or contact lenses on slowing the progression of myopia. Cumulative data from a number of studies have demonstrated atropine instilled once a day in myopic eyes resulted in a 90% average reduction of myopia progression, as compared to untreated eyes, i.e., from 0.50 D/year to 0.05 D/year. Pirenzepine, a muscarinic pharmacological agent, has a minimal effect on pupil size and accommodation, and it has been shown to slow myopia by 44%. Bifocals and progressive lenses, which have been used for years to slow the progression of myopia, have recently been shown to produce, on average, only small, clinically insignificant treatment effects. However, their effectiveness is increased in children who are esophoric and have a large lag of accommodation, reducing myopia progression to between 0.25 and 0.40 D/year. Traditional correcting soft and gas permeable contact lenses, as well as novel spectacle lens designs, have not been shown to be effective in reducing myopic progression. Under-correction of the refractive error has been shown not only to be ineffective in slowing myopia, but has also been associated with an increased rate of myopia progression. Orthokeratology, using reverse geometry designed lenses, has been shown to be moderately effective in decreasing the progression of myopia by between 30 to 50% in a number of short-term, well-controlled studies, reducing myopia progression to between -0.25 and -0.35 D/year. Recently, there have been pilot studies using novel peripherally correcting soft contact lenses to slow the progression of myopia. Two of those lens designs have been shown to be moderately effective in slowing the progression of myopia, both of which had a 30% efficacy, reducing myopia progression to 0.35 D/year. In summary, myopia control is entering a new era with the use of contact lenses and pharmaceutical agents to effectively slow its progression with minimal

  10. Huperzine A prophylaxis against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats is associated with increased cortical inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersner, R; Ekstein, D; Dhamne, S C; Schachter, S C; Rotenberg, A

    2015-11-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a naturally occurring compound found in the firmoss Huperzia serrata. While HupA is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, its full pharmacologic profile is incompletely described. Since previous works suggested a capacity for HupA to prophylax against seizures, we tested the HupA antiepileptic potential in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rat epilepsy model and explored its mechanism of action by spectral EEG analysis and by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS), a measure of GABA-mediated intracortical inhibition. We tested whether HupA suppresses seizures in the rat PTZ acute seizure model, and quantified latency to first myoclonus and to generalized tonic-clonic seizure, and spike frequency on EEG. Additionally, we measured power in the EEG gamma frequency band which is associated with GABAergic cortical interneuron activation. Then, as a step toward further examining the HupA antiepileptic mechanism of action, we tested long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) using ppTMS coupled with electromyography to assess whether HupA augments GABA-mediated paired-pulse inhibition of the motor evoked potential. We also tested whether the HupA effect on paired-pulse inhibition was central or peripheral by comparison of outcomes following administration of HupA or the peripheral acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine. We also tested whether the HupA effect was dependent on central muscarinic or GABAA receptors by co-administration of HupA and atropine or PTZ, respectively. In tests of antiepileptic potential, HupA suppressed seizures and epileptic spikes on EEG. Spectral EEG analysis also revealed enhanced gamma frequency band power with HupA treatment. By ppTMS we found that HupA increases intracortical inhibition and blocks PTZ-induced cortical excitation. Atropine co-administration with HupA did not alter HupA-induced intracortical inhibition suggesting independent of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors mechanism in this model

  11. Therapeutic effects of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6 on gastroparesis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic guinea pigs in vivo and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Wen-cai; WANG Zhi-gang; WANG Wei-gang; YAN Jun; ZHENG Qi

    2008-01-01

    Background Diabetic gastroparesis is a disabling condition with no consistently effective treatment.In normal animals,both ghrelin and its synthetic peptide,growth hormone releasing peptide 6(GHRP-6),increase gastric emptying.Thus,we investigated the potential therapeutic significance of ghrelin and GHRP-6 in diabetic guinea pigs with gastric motility disorders.Methods A diabetic guinea pig model was produced by intraperitoneal(i.p.)injection of streptozotocin(STZ,280 mg/kg).Diabetic guinea pigs were injected i.p.with ghrelin or GHRP-6(10-100 pg/kg),and the effects on gastric emptying were measured after intragastric application of phenol red.The effect of atropine or a growth hormone secretagogue receptor(GHS-R)antagonist,D-Lys3-GHRP-6,on the gastroprokinetic effects of ghrelin or GHRP-6(100 μg/kg)was also investigated.Further,the in vitro effects of ghrelin or GHRP-6(0.01-10 μmol/L)on spontaneous or carbachol-induced contractile amplitude in gastric fundic circular strips taken from diabetic guinea pigs were examined.Growth hormone secretagogue receptor transcripts in the fundic strips of diabetic guinea pigs were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).Results We established a guinea pig model of delayed gastric emptying.Ghrelin(20,50,or 100 μg/kg)and GHRP-6 (20,50,or 1 00 μg/kg)accelerated gastric emptying in diabetic guinea pigs with gastroparesis(n=-6,P<0.05).In the presence of atropine,which delayed gastric emptying,ghrelin and GHRP-6(100 μg/kg)failed to accelerate gastric emptying(n=6,P<0.05).D-Lys3-GHRP-6 also delayed gastric emptying induced by the GHS-R agonist(n=6,P<0.05).Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increased the carbachol-induced contractile amplitude in gastric fundic strips taken from diabetic guinea pigs(n=6,P<0.05).RT-PCR confirmed the presence of GHS-R mRNA in the strip preparations.Conclusions Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increased gastric emptying in diabetic guinea pigs with gastroparesis,potentially,by activating the

  12. Calcium ion requirement for acetylcholine-stimulated breakdown of triphosphoinositide in rabbit iris smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, R A; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1978-03-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have established that addition of acetylcholine (ACh) or norepinephrine to 32P-labeled rabbit iris smooth muscle increases significantly the breakdown of triphosphoinositide (TPI) and that these stimulatory effects are blocked by atropine and phentolamine, respectively. The present studies were undertaken in order to show the effect of Ca++ on the ACh-stimulated breakdown of TPI ("TPI effect") in this tissue. Paired iris smooth muscles were prelabeled with 32Pi for 30 minutes at 37 degrees C in Ca++-free iso-osmotic salt medium. The prelabeled irises were then washed and incubated for 10 minutes in nonradioactive Ca++-free medium which contained 10 mM 2-deoxyglucose under various conditions. The phospholipids were isolated by means of two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography and their radioactivities were determined. In the absence of Ca++, 50 micrometer ACh increased TPI breakdown and phosphatidic acid (PA) labeling by 16 and 38%, respectively. In the absence of ACh, 0.75 micrometer Ca++ increased TPI breakdown and PA labeling by 11 and 20%, respectively. When both ACh and Ca++ were added, the increase in TPI breakdown and PA labeling rose to 32 and 74%, respectively. The labeling of phosphatidylinositol was found to be insensitive to the presence of Ca++. Ca++ was determined in the iris smooth muscle and it was found to contain 3.13 mumol of Ca++ per g of tissue. This was reduced by 80% after the muscle was washed and incubated in a medium which contained 0.25 micrometer ethyleneglycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). The TPI effect was abolished by 0.25 micrometer EGTA and restored when excess Ca++ (1.25 micrometer) was added. Concentrations of Ca++ as low as 50 micrometer provoked a TPI effect. Sr++ (2 micrometer), but not Ba++ or Mn++, was found to substitute partially for Ca++. Ionophore A-23187 (20 micrometer) was found to increase the breakdown of TPI and labeling of PA by 11 and 24

  13. GABAB receptor blockade enhances theta and gamma rhythms in the hippocampus of behaving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L Stan; Shen, Bixia

    2007-01-01

    The participation of GABA(B) receptors in hippocampal EEG generation was studied by intracerebroventricular (icv) and intracerebral infusions of GABA(B) receptor antagonist p-(3-aminopropyl)-p-diethoxymethyl-phosphinic acid (CGP35348) in freely behaving rats. During awake-immobility, icv CGP35348 induced a theta rhythm and increased gamma waves (30-100 Hz) in the hippocampus. The immobility theta peaked at 6-7 Hz and had a theta phase in CA1 stratum radiatum of approximately 160 degrees with reference to the theta at the alveus, when compared with approximately 130 degrees during walking. Immobility theta power peaks at 6-7 Hz was also found in normal rats, and it was detected in 27% of the EEG segments during immobility. Incidence of immobility theta increased to 87.5% after 480 nmol of CGP35348 icv. Muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (5 mg/kg, ip) suppressed the induction of immobility theta and the gamma power increase after icv CGP35348. CGP35348 icv did not significantly change the hippocampal theta power at 7-8 Hz during walking (theta fundamental), but it increased power at 12-15 Hz, at the second harmonic of theta. CGP35348 icv also increased 30-50 Hz gamma power during walking. Medial septal infusion of CGP35348 (12 nmol in 0.4 microl) increased the power and the frequency of the hippocampal theta second harmonic during walking, but did not increase gamma activity. Infusion of CGP35348 (8 nmol in 0.4 microl) in the hippocampus increased the local gamma activity at 30-100 Hz, but did not induce immobility theta or affect the walking theta rhythm. In conclusion, icv GABA(B) receptor blockade increased an atropine-sensitive input that generated an immobility theta rhythm, while GABA(B) receptor blockade of the medial septum increased atropine-resistant theta harmonics possibly generated by apical dendritic spikes. GABA(B) receptor blockade may enhance cognitive task performance by activating hippocampal theta and gamma rhythms in behaving rats.

  14. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of leading oxime therapies in guinea pigs exposed to organophosphorus chemical warfare agents or pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Christina M., E-mail: wilhelmc@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Snider, Thomas H., E-mail: snidert@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Babin, Michael C., E-mail: babinm@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Jett, David A., E-mail: jettd@ninds.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Platoff, Gennady E., E-mail: platoffg@niaid.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Yeung, David T., E-mail: dy70v@nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The currently fielded pre-hospital therapeutic regimen for the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in the United States (U.S.) is the administration of atropine in combination with an oxime antidote (2-PAM Cl) to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Depending on clinical symptoms, an anticonvulsant, e.g., diazepam, may also be administered. Unfortunately, 2-PAM Cl does not offer sufficient protection across the range of OP threat agents, and there is some question as to whether it is the most effective oxime compound available. The objective of the present study is to identify an oxime antidote, under standardized and comparable conditions, that offers protection at the FDA approved human equivalent dose (HED) of 2-PAM Cl against tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), and VX, and the pesticides paraoxon, chlorpyrifos oxon, and phorate oxon. Male Hartley guinea pigs were subcutaneously challenged with a lethal level of OP and treated at approximately 1 min post challenge with atropine followed by equimolar oxime therapy (2-PAM Cl, HI-6 DMS, obidoxime Cl{sub 2}, TMB-4, MMB4-DMS, HLö-7 DMS, MINA, and RS194B) or therapeutic-index (TI) level therapy (HI-6 DMS, MMB4-DMS, MINA, and RS194B). Clinical signs of toxicity were observed for 24 h post challenge and blood cholinesterase [AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] activity was analyzed utilizing a modified Ellman's method. When the oxime is standardized against the HED of 2-PAM Cl for guinea pigs, the evidence from clinical observations, lethality, quality of life (QOL) scores, and cholinesterase reactivation rates across all OPs indicated that MMB4 DMS and HLö-7 DMS were the two most consistently efficacious oximes. - Highlights: • First comprehensive evaluation of leading AChE oxime reactivators • All oximes are compared against current U.S. therapy 2-PAM Cl. • Relative therapeutic oxime efficacies against OP CWNA and pesticides • Contribution to more effective

  15. Treatment experience of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒的救治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡相东

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨急性有机磷农药中毒的救治体会。方法:2010年3月-2013年10月收治急性有机磷农药中毒患者78例,作为研究对象,回顾性分析所有患者的临床资料。结果:78例患者中,75例患者在经过洗胃、服用阿托品、输血治疗、其他症状治疗等系列治疗后均痊愈出院,有效率96.1%;有3例患者因口服有机磷农药中毒且治疗不及时,抢救无效死亡,死亡率3.9%。结论:及时给予患者彻底的洗胃、正确使用阿托品是及时抢救急性有机磷农药中毒的关键,同时有针对性治疗患者的其他症状可以显著提高治疗效果。%Objective:To explore the treatment experience of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.Methods:78 cases with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were selected from March 2010 to October 2013.They were as the study objects.The clinical data of all patients were retrospectively analyzed.Results:In 78 cases,75 cases were recovered discharge after a series of treatment method,such as gastric lavage,taking atropine,blood transfusion treatment and other symptoms treatment.The effective rate was 96.1%.3 cases with oral excessive pesticide poisoning and delayed treatment were rescue invalid death.The mortality was 3.9%.Conclusion:The timely and thorough gastric lavage for patients and the correct use of atropine are the key to timely rescue acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.And targeted therapy in patients with other symptoms can significantly improve the treatment effect.

  16. Effect of fractionated extracts and isolated pure compounds of Spondias mombin (L. Anacardiaceae) leaves on novelty-induced rearing and grooming behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoka, Abiodun O; Owolabi, Rotimi A; Bamitale, Samuel K; Akomolafe, Rufus O; Aladesanmi, Joseph A; Ukponmwan, Eghe O

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to elucidate the neurotransmitter systems involved in the neurophysiological properties of ethanolic extract, fractions and pure isolates of Spondias mombin leaves in mice (n = 6) after intraperitoneal (i.p.) route of administration.The crude ethanolic extract of Spondian mombin leaves was fractionated using the partitioning method to obtain the ethylacetate, butanolic and aqueous fractions. Open column chromatographic fractionation of the ethylacetate fraction yielded seven sub-fractions, out of which the pure coumaroyl, quercetin and gallic acid derivatives were obtained after purification on Sephadex LH 20. The ethanolic extract, butanolic fraction, ethylacetate subfractions and pure isolates of the Spondian mombin leaves were tested on novelty-induced rearing and grooming behaviours in mice with standard pharmacological tools using the open field method. The extract and its fractions decreased novelty-induced rearing in a dose-dependent manner. While the Coumaroyl derivative had no effect on novelty-induced rearing, it significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of yohimbine, propranolol and haloperidol on novelty-induced rearing. Quercetin significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of yohimbine on novelty-induced rearing. Naloxone significantly potentiated the quercetin-induced suppression of novelty-induced rearing. Gallic acid derivative significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of yohimbine on novelty-induced rearing. Naloxone, atropine and haloperidol pretreatments significantly potentiated gallic acid derivative-induced suppression of novelty-induced rearing.The extract and its fractions had biphasic effect on novelty-induced grooming in mice. Coumaroyl derivative significantly increased novelty-induced grooming, while quercetin and gallic acid derivative decreased novelty-induced grooming significantly. The three pure isolates significantly reversed the effects of yohimbine and atropine on the novelty-induced grooming in

  17. An electrophysiological study of excitatory purinergic neuromuscular transmission in longitudinal smooth muscle of chicken anterior mesenteric artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Maisa; El-Mahmoudy, AbuBakr; Shiina, Takahiko; Shimizu, Yasutake; Nikami, Hideki; El-Sayed, Mossad; Kobayashi, Haruo; Takewaki, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    The object of the present study was to clarify the neurotransmitters controlling membrane responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the longitudinal smooth muscle cells of the chicken anterior mesenteric artery. EFS (5 pulses at 20 Hz) evoked a depolarization of amplitude 19.7±2.1 mV, total duration 29.6±3.1 s and latency 413.0±67.8 ms. This depolarization was tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive and its amplitude was partially decreased by atropine (0.5 μM); however, its duration was shortened by further addition of prazosin (10 μM). Atropine/prazosin-resistant component was blocked by the nonspecific purinergic antagonist, suramin, in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that this component is mediated by the neurotransmitter adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP). Neither desensitization nor blocking of P2X receptor with its putative receptor agonist α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-MeATP, 1 μM) and its antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic (PPADS, up to 50 μM), had significant effect on the purinergic depolarization. In contrast, either desensitization or blocking of P2Y receptor with its putative agonist 2-methylthioATP (2-MeSATP, 1 μM) and its antagonist Cibacron blue F3GA (CBF3GA, 10 μM) abolished the purinergic depolarization, indicating that this response is mediated through P2Y but not P2X receptor. The purinergic depolarization was inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX, 600 ng ml−1). Furthermore, it was significantly inhibited by a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, U-73122 (10 μM), indicating that the receptors involved in mediating the purinergic depolarization are linked to a PTX-sensitive G-protein, which is involved in a PLC-mediated signaling pathway. Data of the present study suggest that the EFS-induced excitatory membrane response occurring in the longitudinal smooth muscle of the chicken anterior mesenteric artery is mainly purinergic in nature and is mediated via P2Y purinoceptors. PMID:15685211

  18. Early differential cell death and survival mechanisms initiate and contribute to the development of OPIDN: A study of molecular, cellular, and anatomical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damodaran, T.V., E-mail: tdamodar@nccu.edu [Dept of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Pharmacology and Cancer biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Dept of Biology, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707 (United States); Attia, M.K. [Pharmacology and Cancer biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Abou-Donia, M.B., E-mail: donia@mc.duke.edu [Pharmacology and Cancer biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphorus-ester induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia progressing to paralysis with a concomitant central and peripheral, distal axonapathy. Diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) produces OPIDN in the chicken that results in mild ataxia in 7-14 days and severe paralysis as the disease progresses with a single dose. White leghorn layer hens were treated with DFP (1.7 mg/kg, sc) after prophylactic treatment with atropine (1 mg/kg, sc) in normal saline and eserine (1 mg/kg, sc) in dimethyl sulfoxide. Control groups were treated with vehicle propylene glycol (0.1 ml/kg, sc), atropine in normal saline and eserine in dimethyl sulfoxide. The hens were euthanized at different time points such as 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 days, and the tissues from cerebrum, midbrain, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord were quickly dissected and frozen for mRNA (northern) studies. Northern blots were probed with BCL2, GADD45, beta actin, and 28S RNA to investigate their expression pattern. Another set of hens was treated for a series of time points and perfused with phosphate buffered saline and fixative for histological studies. Various staining protocols such as Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E); Sevier-Munger; Cresyl echt Violet for Nissl substance; and Gallocynin stain for Nissl granules were used to assess various patterns of cell death and degenerative changes. Complex cell death mechanisms may be involved in the neuronal and axonal degeneration. These data indicate altered and differential mRNA expressions of BCL2 (anti apoptotic gene) and GADD45 (DNA damage inducible gene) in various tissues. Increased cell death and other degenerative changes noted in the susceptible regions (spinal cord and cerebellum) than the resistant region (cerebrum), may indicate complex molecular pathways via altered BCL2 and GADD45 gene expression, causing the homeostatic imbalance between cell survival and cell death mechanisms. Semi quantitative

  19. Combination anticonvulsant treatment of soman-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplovitz, I; Schulz, S; Shutz, M; Railer, R; Macalalag, R; Schons, M; McDonough, J

    2001-12-01

    These studies investigated the effectiveness of combination treatment with a benzodiazepine and an anticholinergic drug against soman-induced seizures. The anticholinergic drugs considered were biperiden, scopolamine, trihexaphenidyl, and procyclidine; the benzodiazepines were diazepam and midazolam. Male guinea pigs were implanted surgically with cortical screw electrodes. Electrocorticograms were displayed continually and recorded on a computerized electroencephalographic system. Pyridostigmine (0.026 mg x kg(-1), i.m.) was injected as a pretreatment to inhibit red blood cell acetylcholinesterase by 30-40%. Thirty minutes after pyridostigmine, 2 x LD50 (56 microg x kg(-1)) of soman was injected s.c., followed 1 min later by i.m. treatment with atropine (2 mg x kg(-1)) + 2-PAM (25 mg x kg(-1)). Electrographic seizures occurred in all animals. Anticonvulsant treatment combinations were administered i.m. at 5 or 40 min after seizure onset. Treatment consisted of diazepam or midazolam plus one of the above-mentioned anticholinergic drugs. All doses of the treatment compounds exhibited little or no antiseizure efficacy when given individually. The combination of a benzodiazepine and an anticholinergic drug was effective in terminating soman-induced seizure, whether given 5 or 40 min after seizure onset. The results suggest a strong synergistic effect of combining benzodiazepines with centrally active anticholinergic drugs and support the concept of using an adjunct to supplement diazepam for the treatment of nerve-agent-induced seizures.

  20. Gastrin-releasing peptide is a transmitter mediating porcine gallbladder contraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Birgit; Poulsen, S.S.; Schmidt, P.;

    1991-01-01

    We studied the role of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) for porcine gallbladder motility. Immunohistochemistry visualized nerve fibers containing GRP-like immunoreactivity in muscularis. GRP concentration dependently stimulated contractions of muscularis strips (ED50, 2.9 nM). Neuromedin B was less...... potent (ED50, 0.1 microM), suggesting existence of GRP-preferring receptors. GRP-induced contractions were unaffected by muscarinic antagonism (1 microM atropine), axonal blockade (1 microM tetrodotoxin), cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonism (10 microM MK-329), or substance P desensitization (1...... microM), supporting the existence of myogenic GRP receptors. The bombesin (BN) analogue D-Phe6-BN-(6-13)propylamide (PA) stimulated contractions (ED50, 3.3 nM) with low efficacy (29% of that of GRP). D-Phe6-BN-(6-13)PA (1 microM) shifted GRP concentration-response curves one log to the right. D-Phe6-BN...

  1. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  2. Functional subtyping of muscarinic receptors on canine esophageal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, R; Donoff, B; Rangachari, P K

    1991-09-01

    Serosal addition of muscarinic agonists elicited rapid changes in electrical parameters across the isolated canine esophageal epithelium set up in vitro. Both carbachol and the M1-selective agonist, McNeil A343 (McN), increased transmucosal potential differences (PDs), decreased transmucosal resistances (R), and increased short-circuit currents (Isc). Carbachol was more potent and more effective than McN. Muscarinic antagonists were used to define the muscarinic receptor involved. The pA2 values obtained with Schild plots were as follows: atropine 9.14, 4-DAMP 8.98, AFDX-116 6.71, and pirenzepine 7.12. Low concentrations of pirenzepine (10(-8) M), produced a rightward shift in the dose-response curve to McN, without inhibiting responses to carbachol. Thus the receptor subtype is clearly not an M2. As in other glandular systems, M3 receptors are present. Whether M1 receptors also exist requires better definition of receptor densities-reserves in this tissue. Carbachol induced net secretion of Na and Cl and converted a predominantly absorptive tissue to a secretory one. PMID:1716057

  3. Trigemino-cardiac reflex during skull-base neurosurgeries: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khajavi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Trigemino-cardiac reflex (TCR has been studied as a phenomenon including; bradycardia, arterial hypotension, apnea and gastric hypermotility during manipulation of the peripheral or central parts of the trigeminal nerve.Case presentation: We report a case of a 26-year-old man undergoing surgery for a skull base extra axial tumor in right petrous bone suspected to metastasis of a previous renal cell carcinoma which had been treated four years ago. The patient presented with continuous and unilateral headache and difficulty in swallowing, sensory neural hearing loss, nasal speech and tongue deviation to left side. He underwent general anesthesia with standard monitoring and total intravenous anesthetic technique. The first episode of sudden onset bradycardia and hypotension related to surgical manipulation was detected intraoperatively in which the heart rate spontaneously returned to normal level once the surgical manipulation stopped. However, it repeated several times by beginning of tumor resection and manipulation in the region of trigeminal nerve. The intensity of bradycardia in subsequent episodes of TCR was relatively crescendo and had no fatigability. Finally, it was treated by administration of a single dose of atropine (0.5mg/IV and did not happen again.Conclusion: The risk of TCR should be considered in any neurosurgical intervention involving trigeminal nerve and its branches, especially at the skull base surgeries. The vigilance of the medical team and continuous intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring alerts the surgeons to interrupt surgical maneuvers upon the TCR occurrence, immediately.

  4. Intoxicación aguda en perro por toxinas de sapo (Bufo bufo - Acute intoxication in a dog by toxins of a toad (Bufo bufo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Palacios, O´Connor, Rocío

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas intoxicaciones por toxinas de sapo no son frecuentes en España y su incidencia es mayor en primavera y verano. En este trabajo describimos un caso de intoxicación aguda de una perra de 4 años de edad tras la aprehensión de un sapo (Bufo bufo en la zona de Huelva. Los signos de una intoxicación comenzaron a los 15 minutos de entrar en contacto con el sapo muriendo a las 3 horas sin responder al tratamiento suministrado (corticoides, atropina, fluidoterapia y acepromazina. Aunque el diagnóstico fue precoz, a pesar del tratamiento se produjo la muerte en 3 horas.SummaryIntoxications by toad toxins are not frequent in Spain, and its incidence is greater in spring and summer. In this work it is described a case of an acute intoxication of a dog of 4 years old by toad toxins (Bufo bufo in the area of Huelva. The animal began to show signs of intoxication 15 minutes after the contact with the toad, dying 3 hours later without any response to the provided treatment (corticoids, atropine, fluidotherapy and acepromazine. Although the diagnosis was precocious and the treatment was administrated, after 3 hours the animal died.

  5. Correlation between oxytocin neuronal sensitivity and oxytocin receptor binding: An electrophysiological and autoradiographical study comparing rat and guinea pig hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggenbass, M.; Tribollet, E.; Dubois-Dauphin, M.; Dreifuss, J.J. (Univ. Medical Center, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1989-01-01

    In transverse hippocampal slices from rat and guinea pig brains, the authors obtained unitary extracellular recordings from nonpyramidal neurones located in or near the stratum pyramidale in the CA1 field and in the transition region between the CA1 and the subiculum. In rats, these neurones responded to oxytocin at 50-1,000 nM by a reversible increase in firing rate. The oxytocin-induced excitation was suppressed by a synthetic structural analogue that acts as a potent, selective antioxytocic on peripheral receptors. Nonpyramidal neurones were also excited by carbachol at 0.5-10 {mu}M. The effect of this compound was postsynaptic and was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. In guinea pigs, by contrast, nonpyramidal neurones were unaffected by oxytocin, although they were excited by carbachol. Light microscopic autoradiography, carried out using a radioiodinated selective antioxytocic as a ligand, revealed labeling in the subiculum and in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of rats, whereas no oxytocin-binding sites were detected in the hippocampus of guinea pigs. The results indicate (i) that a hippocampal action of oxytocin is species-dependent and (ii) that a positive correlation exists between neuronal responsiveness to oxytocin and the presence in the hippocampus of high-affinity binding sites for this peptide.

  6. Tako-Tsubo syndrome in an anaesthetised patient undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artukoglu Feyzi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of stress-induced myocardial stunning, also known as tako-Tsubo syndrome, in an anaesthetised patient undergoing arthroscopic replacement of the cruciate ligament. The patient′s (44 y male, ASA class II had a history of hypertension with no other known disease. He underwent a femoral nerve block with 20 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine before receiving a balanced general anaesthesia (propofol induction, sevoflurane maintenance, 10 µg/kg sufentanil. Ten min after the beginning of surgery during endoscopic intra-articular manipulation, the patient suffered from bradycardia and hypotension; following the administration of ephedrine and atropine, he developed tachycardia, hypertension and ST segment depression. Subsequently, his systemic blood pressure dropped necessitating inotropic drug support and - later - intraaortic balloon counterpulsation; a TEE revealed no evidence of hypovolemia, anterior and antero-septal hypokinesia with an ejection fraction of 25%. Surgery was finished whilst stabilising the patient haemodynamically. Postoperative cardiac enzymes showed little elevation, an emergency coronary angiogram apical akinesia with typical ballooning and basal hyperkinesias, compatible with Tako-tsubo syndrome. The patient′s postoperative course was uneventful. We theorize that stress caused by sudden surgical pain stimulus (introduction of the endoscope into the articulation, superficial anaesthesia and insufficient analgesia created a stressful event which probably might have caused a catecholamine surge as basis of Tako-tsubo syndrome.

  7. Cholinergic and adrenergic influence on the teleost heart in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, M; Ehrenström, F; Nilsson, S

    1987-01-01

    The tonical cholinergic and adrenergic influence on the heart rate was investigated in vivo in seven species of marine teleosts (pollack, Pollachius pollachius; cuckoo wrasse, Labrus mixtus; ballan wrasse, Labrus berggylta; five-bearded rockling, Ciliata mustela; tadpole fish, Raniceps raninus; eel-pout, Zoarces viviparus and short-spined sea scorpion, Myoxocephalus scor pius) during rest and, in two of the species (P. pollachius and L. mixtus), also during moderate swimming exercise in a Blazka-type swim tunnel. Ventral aortic blood pressure and heart rate were recorded via a catheter implanted in an afferent branchial artery, and the influence of the cholinergic and adrenergic tonus on the heart rate was assessed by injection of atropine and sotalol respectively. During rest the adrenergic tonus was higher than the cholinergic tonus in all species except L. berggylta, where the reverse was true. In P. pollachius and L. mixtus, exercise appeared to produce a lowering of the cholinergic tonus on the heart and, possibly, a slight increase of the adrenergic tonus. The nature of the adrenergic tonus (humoral or neural) is not clear, but the low plasma concentrations of catecholamines both during rest and exercise could be interpreted in favour of a mainly neural adrenergic tonus on the teleost heart. These experiments are compatible with the view that both a cholinergic inhibitory tonus and an adrenergic excitatory tonus are general features in the control of the teleost heart in vivo, both at rest and during moderate swimming exercise.

  8. The ent-15α-Acetoxykaur-16-en-19-oic Acid Relaxes Rat Artery Mesenteric Superior via Endothelium-Dependent and Endothelium-Independent Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Êurica Adélia Nogueira; Herculano, Edla de Azevedo; da Costa, Cintia Danieli Ferreira; Furtado, Fabiola Fialho; da-Cunha, Emídio Vasconcelos Leitão; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; de Medeiros, Isac Almeida

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism of the relaxant activity of the ent-15α-acetoxykaur-16-en-19-oic acid (KA-acetoxy). In rat mesenteric artery rings, KA-acetoxy induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels precontracted with phenylephrine. In the absence of endothelium, the vasorelaxation was significantly shifted to the right without reduction of the maximum effect. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with L-NAME, an inhibitor of the NO-synthase (NOS), indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase, L-NAME + indomethacin, atropine, a nonselective antagonist of the muscarinic receptors, ODQ, selective inhibitor of the guanylyl cyclase enzyme, or hydroxocobalamin, a nitric oxide scavenger. The relaxation was completely reversed in the presence of L-NAME + 1 mM L-arginine or L-arginine, an NO precursor. Diterpene-induced relaxation was not affected by TEA, a nonselective inhibitor of K+ channels. The KA-acetoxy antagonized CaCl2-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner and also inhibited an 80 mM KCl-induced contraction. The KA-acetoxy did not interfere with Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The vasorelaxant induced by KA-acetoxy seems to involve the inhibition of the Ca2+ influx and also, at least in part, by endothelial muscarinic receptors activation, NO and PGI2 release. PMID:23346202

  9. Libidibia ferrea Mature Seeds Promote Antinociceptive Effect by Peripheral and Central Pathway: Possible Involvement of Opioid and Cholinergic Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Armando Sawada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Libidibia ferrea (LF is a medicinal plant that holds many pharmacological properties. We evaluated the antinociceptive effect in the LF aqueous seed extract and Lipidic Portion of Libidibia ferrea (LPLF, partially elucidating their mechanisms. Histochemical tests and Gas chromatography of the LPLF were performed to characterize its fatty acids. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin-induced pain, and hot-plate test in mice were employed in the study. In all experiments, aqueous extract or LPLF was administered systemically at the doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg. LF aqueous seed extract and LPLF demonstrated a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all tests indicating both peripheral anti-inflammatory and central analgesia properties. Also, the use of atropine (5 mg/kg, naloxone (5 mg/kg in the abdominal writhing test was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of the LPLF, indicating that at least one of LF lipids components is responsible for the dose related antinociceptive action in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. Together, the present results suggested that Libidibia ferrea induced antinociceptive activity is possibly related to its ability to inhibit opioid, cholinergic receptors, and cyclooxygenase-2 pathway, since its main component, linoleic acid, has been demonstrated to produce such effect in previous studies.

  10. Carbachol induces a rapid and sustained hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositide in bovine tracheal smooth muscle measurements of the mass of polyphosphoinositides, 1,2-diacylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takuwa, Y.; Takuwa, N.; Rasmussen, H.

    1986-11-05

    The effects of carbachol on polyphosphoinositides and 1,2-diacylglycerol metabolism were investigated in bovine tracheal smooth muscle by measuring both lipid mass and the turnover of (/sup 3/H)inositol-labeled phosphoinositides. Carbachol induces a rapid reduction in the mass of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate and a rapid increase in the mass of 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. These changes in lipid mass are sustained for at least 60 min. The level of phosphatidylinositol shows a delayed and progressive decrease during a 60-min period of carbachol stimulation. The addition of atropine reverses these responses completely. Carbachol stimulates a rapid loss in (/sup 3/H)inositol radioactivity from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate associated with production of (/sup 3/H)inositol trisphosphate. The carbachol-induced change in the mass of phosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid is not affected by removal of extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ and does not appear to be secondary to an increase in intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. These results indicate that carbachol causes phospholipase C-mediated polyphosphoinositide breakdown, resulting in the production of inositol trisphosphate and a sustained increase in the actual content of 1,2-diacylglycerol. These results strongly suggest that carbachol-induced contraction is mediated by the hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositides with the resulting generation of two messengers: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol.

  11. Relationship between stimulated phosphatidic acid production and inositol lipid hydrolysis in intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle from guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallows, R S; Bolton, T B

    1987-06-15

    Accumulation of [32P]phosphatidic acid (PA) and total [3H]inositol phosphates (IPs) was measured in the longitudinal smooth-muscle layer from guinea-pig small intestine. Stimulation with carbachol, histamine and substance P produced increases in accumulation of both [3H]IPs and [32P]PA over the same concentration range. The increase in [32P]PA accumulation in response to carbachol (1 microM-0.1 mM) was inhibited in the presence of atropine (0.5 microM). Buffering the external free [Ca2+] to 10 nM did not prevent the carbachol-stimulated increase in [32P]PA accumulation. Carbachol and Ca2+ appear to act synergistically to increase accumulation of [32P]PA. In contrast, although incubation with noradrenaline also increased accumulation of [3H]IPs, no increase in accumulation of [32P]PA could be detected. These results suggest that an increase in formation of IPs is not necessarily accompanied by an increase in PA formation, and imply the existence of receptor-modulated pathways regulating PA concentrations other than by phospholipase-C-catalysed inositol phospholipid hydrolysis.

  12. Carbachol induces a rapid and sustained hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositide in bovine tracheal smooth muscle measurements of the mass of polyphosphoinositides, 1,2-diacylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuwa, Y; Takuwa, N; Rasmussen, H

    1986-11-01

    The effects of carbachol on polyphosphoinositides and 1,2-diacylglycerol metabolism were investigated in bovine tracheal smooth muscle by measuring both lipid mass and the turnover of [3H]inositol-labeled phosphoinositides. Carbachol induces a rapid reduction in the mass of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate and a rapid increase in the mass of 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. These changes in lipid mass are sustained for at least 60 min. The level of phosphatidylinositol shows a delayed and progressive decrease during a 60-min period of carbachol stimulation. The addition of atropine reverses these responses completely. Carbachol stimulates a rapid loss in [3H]inositol radioactivity from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate associated with production of [3H]inositol trisphosphate. The carbachol-induced change in the mass of phosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid is not affected by removal of extracellular Ca2+ and does not appear to be secondary to an increase in intracellular Ca2+. These results indicate that carbachol causes phospholipase C-mediated polyphosphoinositide breakdown, resulting in the production of inositol trisphosphate and a sustained increase in the actual content of 1,2-diacylglycerol. These results strongly suggest that carbachol-induced contraction is mediated by the hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositides with the resulting generation of two messengers: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol.

  13. Paraoxon Attenuates Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction through Inhibiting Ca2+ Influx in the Rabbit Thoracic Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouhong Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of paraoxon on vascular contractility using organ baths in thoracic aortic rings of rabbits and examined the effect of paraoxon on calcium homeostasis using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique in isolated aortic smooth muscle cells of rabbits. The findings show that administration of paraoxon (30 μM attenuated thoracic aorta contraction induced by phenylephrine (1 μM and/or a high K+ environment (80 mM in both the presence and absence of thoracic aortic endothelium. This inhibitory effect of paraoxon on vasoconstrictor-induced contraction was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, or in the presence of the Ca2+ channel inhibitor, verapamil. But atropine had little effect on the inhibitory effect of paraoxon on phenylephrine-induced contraction. Paraoxon also attenuated vascular smooth muscle contraction induced by the cumulative addition of CaCl2 and attenuated an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration induced by K+ in vascular smooth muscle cells. Moreover, paraoxon (30 μM inhibited significantly L-type calcium current in isolated aortic smooth muscle cells of rabbits. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that paraoxon attenuates vasoconstrictor-induced contraction through inhibiting Ca2+ influx in the rabbits thoracic aorta.

  14. Most drugs that reverse multidrug resistance also inhibit photoaffinity labeling of P-glycoprotein by a vinblastine analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, S.; Cornwell, M.M.; Kuwano, M.; Pastan, I.; Gottesman, M.M.

    1988-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant human KB carcinoma cells express a 170,000-dalton membrane glycoprotein (P-glycoprotein) that can be photoaffinity labeled with the vinblastine analog N-(p-azido-(3-/sup 125/I)salicyl)-N'-(beta-aminoethyl)vindesine. Several agents that suppress the multidrug-resistant phenotype, including N-solanesyl-N,N'-bis(3,4-dimethylbenzyl)ethylenediamine, cepharanthine, quinidine, and reserpine, were found to inhibit photolabeling of P-glycoprotein at doses comparable to those that reverse multidrug resistance. However, the phenothiazines chlorpromazine and trifluoperazine, which also effectively reverse multidrug resistance, were poor inhibitors of the photoaffinity labeling of P-glycoprotein. Chloroquine, propranolol, or atropine, which only partially reversed the drug resistance, also did not inhibit photolabeling. Naphthalene sulfonamide calmodulin inhibitors, W7 and W5, as well as many other drugs that did not circumvent multidrug resistance, did not inhibit photolabeling. These studies suggest that most, but not all, agents that phenotypically suppress multidrug resistance also inhibit drug binding to a site on P-glycoprotein with which a photoaffinity analog of vinblastine interacts.

  15. Ketamine and midazolam sedation for pediatric gastroinntestinal endoscopy in the Arab world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamad-Iqbal S Miqdady; Wail A Hayajneh; Ruba Abdelhadi; Mark A Gilger

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of intravenous ketamine-midazolam sedation during pediatric endoscopy in the Arab world. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of all pediatric endoscopic procedures performed between 2002-2008 at the shared endoscopy suite of King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science & Technology, Jordan was conducted. All children were > 1 year old and weighed > 10 kg with American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1 or 2. Analysis was performed in terms of sedation-related complications (desaturation, respiratory distress, apnea, bradycardia, cardiac arrest, emergence reactions), adequacy of sedation, need for sedation reversal, or failure to complete the procedure. RESULTS: A total of 301 patients (including 160 males) with a mean age of 9.26 years (range, 1-18 years) were included. All were premedicated with atropine; and 79.4% (239/301) had effective and uneventful sedation. And 248 (82.4%) of the 301 patients received a mean dose of 0.16 mg/kg (range, 0.07-0.39) midazolam and 1.06 mg/kg (range, 0.31-2.67) ketamine, respectively within the recommended dosage guidelines. Recommended maximum midazolam dose was exceeded in 17.6% patients [34 female (F):19 male (M), P = 0.003] and ketamine in 2.7% (3 M:5 F). Maximum midazolam dose was more likely to be exceeded than ketamine (P 1 year and weighing > 10 kg without co-morbidities.

  16. 急性有机磷农药中毒疗效分析及预防措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓宇; 柯欣; 罗金明

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)现状,完善AOPP的防治工作,降低AOPP患者的病死率。方法对400例AOPP患者的发病时间、性别、年龄、就诊时间、中毒类型、临床表现、呼吸肌麻痹(RMP)的发生率、病死率、入院时的血清胆碱脂酶(ChE)、阿托品的用量进行统计分析。结果使用性中毒患者中男性占82.30%(P<0.01)。使用性中毒和食物中毒的患者中重型临床表现例数较少(P<0.01)。口服中毒者的病死率(22.27%)、RMP发生率(43.36%);阿托品维持量(50.0mg)、阿托品总量(836.0mg);恢复至口服维持的时间(9.3d)较长,与其他两种有显著性差异(P<0.01)。使用性中毒患者的就诊时间(29.1h)较晚(P<0.05)。随年龄增大、病死率有上升趋势。结论使用性中毒发病率有逐渐下降趋势,其阿托品用量少、恢复快、RMP的发生率和病死率低。需加强有机磷农药的管理,限制剧毒高毒类农药的生产、销售和使用。入院时的血清胆碱脂酶值与病情及预后不相关。在治疗上要根据不同的类型中毒和临床表现选择合适的治疗方案,降低病死率。%ObjectiveTo decrease the mortality of the acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning(AOPP)and improve the preventment and therapy of it by investigating AOPP in the countryside region.MethodsA retrospective review was conducted about the difference of episode time, sex,age,time of medical treatment,type of intoxication,clinical situation,incidence rate of respiratory muscular paralysis(RMP),mortality, prior to admission of serum cholinesterase,atropinic dosage of 400 patients.ResultsThe rate of used poisoning in male is 82.30%.The case of middle and gravis type are few which poisoned by used or food poisoning,the mortality(22.27%),the incidencerate of RMP(43.36%),the maintenance dose of atropine(50.0mg),the total amount of atropine(836.0mg)were higher and

  17. Occurrence of Myocardial Ischemia in Patients Undergoing Pharmacologic Stress Echocardiography: The Impact of Type-D Personality

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    Rafael Borsoi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type-D personality has been identified as a risk factor for general and cardiac mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE is an established method for non-invasive evaluation of myocardial ischemia in patients with CAD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of type-D personality and its association with the occurrence of myocardial ischemia as assessed by DASE. Methods: This case-control study enrolled 306 patients (61 ± 9.6 years, 57.8% female who were referred by physicians to assessment of myocardial ischemia. Before undergoing DASE, the patients answered the type-D scale, which identifies type-D personality. Results: Type-D personality was identified in 106 patients (34.6%. DASE was positive for myocardial ischemia in 32.4% (99 of 306 participants there was no significant association between type-D personality and ischemic changes on DASE (P = 0.941; odds ratio: 0.98; confidence interval 95%: 0.57-1.69. Chest pain was the only clinical variable with statistically significant prevalence in type-D personality patients (77.4% vs. 57.0%; P < 0.001. Conclusions: Type-D personality was not a significant risk factor for the presence of ischemic changes on DASE. Patients with type-D personality tended to complain more frequently of chest pain than non-type-D patients.

  18. Effects of maintenance of propofol-ketamine anesthesia with repeat bolus and constant rate infusion of propofol on physiological, biochemical, anesthetic and analgesic indices in dogs

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    Njoku Uchechukwu Njoku

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research work was aimed at investigating physiological, biochemical, analgesic and anesthetic indices of dogs anesthetized with propofol-ketamine and maintained with repeat bolus and constant infusions of propofol. Eight dogs, assigned to two groups (n=4, were used in this study. All dogs were pre-medicated with atropine (at 0.03 mg/kg bwt and xylazine (at 2 mg/kg bwt. Anesthesia was induced by a concurrent administration of propofol (at 4 mg/kg bwt and ketamine (at 2.5 mg/kg bwt. Maintenance of anesthesia in Group 1 was done with a repeat bolus of propofol (at 2 mg/kg bwt, while in Group 2 it was done with a constant infusion of propofol (at 0.2 mg/kg bwt/min. Gastrotomy was performed in both groups, and anesthesia was maintained for 60 min. Physiological, analgesic, anesthetic parameters and plasma glucose concentration were measured. There was no significant (P>0.05 difference found in the analgesia and pedal reflex scores, durations of analgesia and recumbency, recovery time and standing time between the groups. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature reduced significantly (P0.05 between the groups. In conclusion, both maintenance protocols are suitable for dogs, although the repeat bolus technique produces marked cardiopulmonary depression.

  19. Non-linear HRV indices under autonomic nervous system blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Juan; Pueyo, Esther; Laguna, Pablo; Bailón, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied as a non-invasive technique to characterize the autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of the heart. Non-linear methods based on chaos theory have been used during the last decades as markers for risk stratification. However, interpretation of these nonlinear methods in terms of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is not fully established. In this work we study linear and non-linear HRV indices during ANS blockades in order to assess their relation with sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Power spectral content in low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz) bands of HRV, as well as correlation dimension, sample and approximate entropies were computed in a database of subjects during single and dual ANS blockade with atropine and/or propranolol. Parasympathetic blockade caused a significant decrease in the low and high frequency power of HRV, as well as in correlation dimension and sample and approximate entropies. Sympathetic blockade caused a significant increase in approximate entropy. Sympathetic activation due to postural change from supine to standing caused a significant decrease in all the investigated non-linear indices and a significant increase in the normalized power in the low frequency band. The other investigated linear indices did not show significant changes. Results suggest that parasympathetic activity has a direct relation with sample and approximate entropies.

  20. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: opposite effects on systolic and mean arterial pressure in supine humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, M.; Toska, K.; Chon, K. H.; Raeder, E. A.; Cohen, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    1. Are arterial blood pressure fluctuations buffered or reinforced by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)? There is still considerable debate about this simple question. Different results have been obtained, triggering a discussion as to whether or not the baroreflexes are responsible for RSA. We suspected that the measurements of different aspects of arterial pressure (mean arterial pressure (MAP) and systolic pressure (SP)) can explain the conflicting results. 2. Simultaneous recordings of beat-to-beat MAP, SP, left cardiac stroke volume (SV, pulsed ultrasound Doppler), heart rate (HR) and respiration (RE) were obtained in 10 healthy young adults during spontaneous respiration. In order to eliminate HR variations at respiratory frequency we used propranolol and atropine administration in the supine and tilted positions. Respiration-synchronous variation in the recorded variables was quantified by spectral analysis of the recordings of each of these variables, and the phase relations between them were determined by cross-spectral analysis. 3. MAP fluctuations increased after removing heart rate variations in both supine and tilted position, whereas SP fluctuations decreased in the supine position and increased in the head-up tilted position. 4. RSA buffers respiration-synchronous fluctuations in MAP in both positions. However, fluctuations in SP were reinforced by RSA in the supine and buffered in the tilted position.

  1. Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis: A Rare Case of Neonatal Mortality

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    Allison J. Pollock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background - Eosinophilic endomyocarditis (EEM is a rare diagnosis that is extremely uncommon in newborns. This case report aimed to present a case of neonatal mortality from acute cardiac failure due to EEM. Case - Our report presents a term male neonate with minor complications in the immediate postnatal course, who was discharged at 48 hours of life, but who developed unexpected respiratory distress, followed by cardiac arrest and death at 3 days of life. One day after discharge, the infant developed respiratory distress and cool skin, and then developed cardiac arrest at the pediatrician's office, undergoing resuscitation with intravenous fluid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, epinephrine, atropine, and failed intubation. Autopsy revealed EEM, an inflammatory infiltrative process involving the endomyocardium. Pathology - Pathogenesis involves three stages: (1 myocarditis with an acute eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate followed by (2 myocyte necrosis and eventually (3 fibrosis in the final stage of the disease. Discussion - The cause of death was acute cardiac failure due to intense eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation with early subendocardial myocyte necrosis but before development of extensive myocyte necrosis. This case appears to be the youngest patient reported with EEM.

  2. Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis: A Rare Case of Neonatal Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Allison J; Hitt, Stacy L; Stier, Michael A; Houser, Laura M

    2015-10-01

    Background Eosinophilic endomyocarditis (EEM) is a rare diagnosis that is extremely uncommon in newborns. This case report aimed to present a case of neonatal mortality from acute cardiac failure due to EEM. Case Our report presents a term male neonate with minor complications in the immediate postnatal course, who was discharged at 48 hours of life, but who developed unexpected respiratory distress, followed by cardiac arrest and death at 3 days of life. One day after discharge, the infant developed respiratory distress and cool skin, and then developed cardiac arrest at the pediatrician's office, undergoing resuscitation with intravenous fluid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, epinephrine, atropine, and failed intubation. Autopsy revealed EEM, an inflammatory infiltrative process involving the endomyocardium. Pathology Pathogenesis involves three stages: (1) myocarditis with an acute eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate followed by (2) myocyte necrosis and eventually (3) fibrosis in the final stage of the disease. Discussion The cause of death was acute cardiac failure due to intense eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation with early subendocardial myocyte necrosis but before development of extensive myocyte necrosis. This case appears to be the youngest patient reported with EEM. PMID:26495174

  3. Failure of intravenous lipid emulsion in treatment of cardiotoxicity caused by mixed overdose including dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers

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    Jović-Stošić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers are among the most frequently ingested cardiovascular drugs in self-poisoning causing significant mortality. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE is reported as a potentially novel antidote for treatment of acute poisoning caused by some of these drugs. Case report. We presented two cases of poisoning with these drugs. The case 1, a 24-year-old woman ingested amplodipine, metformin and gliclazide for self-poisoning. She presented with tachycardia and hypotension. Laboratory analyses revealed hyperglycaemia and metabolic acidosis. Despite the treatment which included fluid resuscitation, vasopressors, intravenous calcium, glucagon and ILE, circulatory shock occurred. The patient died 10 hours after admission due to cardiac arrest refractory to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The case 2, a 41-year old man, was found in a coma with empty packages of nifedipine, metoprolol and diazepam tablets. On admission vital signs included Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS of 3, weak palpable pulses, undetectable blood pressure, and irregular breathing with oxygen saturation of 60%. An electrocardiography showed AV block (Mobitz II with ventricular rate of 44/min with progression to third degree of AV block. In attempt to increase heart rate and blood pressure the following agents were administered: atropine boluses, normal saline with dopamine, glucagon, calcium chloride and ILE. Temporary transvenous pacemaker was placed, electrical capture was recorded, but without improvement in haemodynamics. Three hours after admission cardiac arrest happened and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was unsuccessful. Conclusion. Intravenous lipid emulsion may be ineffective in acute poisonings with amlodipine, nifedipine or metoprolol.

  4. Analysis of responses to kallidin, DABK, and DAK in feline hindlimb vascular bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, J A; Garrison, E A; Champion, H C; Smith, R E; Del Rio, O; Kadowitz, P J

    1995-12-01

    Responses to kallidin, des-Arg9-bradykinin (DABK), and des-Arg10-kallidin (DAK) were investigated in the hindlimb vascular bed of the cat under constant-flow conditions. Injections of kallidin, DABK, and DAK into the hindlimb perfusion circuit produced dose-dependent vasodilator responses in the hindlimb vascular bed. Vasodilator responses to kallidin and bradykinin (BK) were similar in magnitude and time course, and both peptides were approximately 100-fold more potent than DABK or DAK. Responses to kallidin were decreased by the kinin B2 antagonist, HOE 140, whereas responses to DABK and DAK were reduced by des-Arg9[Leu8]BK, a kinin B1-receptor antagonist. N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) reduced vasodilator responses to kallidin, DABK, and DAK, whereas meclofenamate, atropine, and U-37883A, a vascular selective ATP-sensitive K+ (K+ATP) channel-blocking agent, did not alter responses to the three peptides. These data suggest that both kinin B1 and B2 receptors are normally present in the hindlimb vascular bed. These data also suggest that kinin B1 and B2 receptor-mediated vasodilator responses are mediated by the release of nitric oxide and that the activation of K+ATP channels or muscarinic receptors, or the release of vasodilator prostaglandins play little if any role in mediating responses to kallidin, DABK, or DAK in the hindlimb vascular bed of the cat.

  5. Dizocilpine (MK-801) arrests status epilepticus and prevents brain damage induced by Soman. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparenborg, S.; Brennecke, L.H.; Jaax, N.K.; Braitman, D.J.

    1992-12-31

    The involvement of the NMDA receptor in the neurotoxicity induced by soman, an organophosphorus compound which irreversibly inhibits cholinesterase, was studied in guinea pigs. The drug MK-801 (0.5, 1 or 5 mg/kg, i.p.) was given as a pretreatment before a convulsant dose of soman or as a post treatment (30, 100 or 300 micron g/kg, i.m.) 5 min after the development of soman-induced status epilepticus. Pyridostigmine, atropine and pralidoxime chloride were also given to each subject to counteract the lethality of soman. All subjects that were challenged with soman and given the vehicle for MK-801 (saline) exhibited severe convulsions and electrographic seizure activity. Neuronal necrosis was found in the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus and the pyriform and cerebral cortices of those subjects surviving for 48 hr. Pretreatment with 0.5 or 1 mg/kg doses of MK-801 did not prevent nor delay the onset of seizure activity but did diminish its intensity and led to its early arrest. At the largest dose (5 mg/kg), MK-801 completely prevented the development of seizure activity and brain damage. Post treatment with MK-801 prevented, arrested or reduced seizure activity, convulsions and neuronal necrosis in a dose-dependent manner. The NMDA receptor may play a more critical role in the spread and maintenance, rather than the initiation of cholinergically-induced seizure activity....Seizure-related brain damage, Organophosphorus compound, Nerve agent, Cholinesterase inhibition, Excitotoxicity, Guinea pig.

  6. Hyposmotic membrane stretch potentiated muscarinic receptor agonist-induced depolarization of membrane potential in guinea-pig gastric myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Nan-Ge Jin; Lin Piao; Ming-Yu Hong; Zheng-Yuan Jin; Ying Li; Wen-Xie Xu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship betweenhyposmotic membrane stretch and muscarinic receptoragonist-induced depolarization of membrane potentialin antral gastric circular myocytes of guinea-pig.METHODS: Using whole cell patch-clamp techniquerecorded membrane potential and current in singlegastric myocytes isolated by collagena se.RESULTS: Hyposmotic membrane stretch hyperpolarizedmembrane potential from -60.0mV±1.0mV to -67.9mV±1.0mV. TEA (10mmol/L), a nonselective potassiumchannel blocker significantly inhibited hyposmoticmembrane stretch-induced hyperpolarization. After KCIin the pipette and NaCI in the external solution werereplaced by CsCI to block the potassium current,hyposmotic membrane stretch depolarized the membranepotential from -60.0 mV±-1.0mV to -44.8 mV±2.3mV(P<0.05), and atropine (1 pmol/L) inhibited thedepolarization of the membrane potential. Muscarinicreceptor agonist Carbachol depolarized membranepotential from -60.0mV±1.0mV to -50.3 mV±0.3mV(P<0.05) and hyposmotic membrane stretchpotentiated the depolarization. Carbachol inducedmuscarinic current (Icch) was greatly increased byhyposmotic membrane stretch.CONCLUSION: Hyposmotic membrane stretchpotentiated muscarinic receptor agonist-induceddepolarization of membrane potential, which is relatedto hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase ofmuscarinic current.

  7. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND PURGATIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF VERNONIA AMYGDALINA DEL. LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wazis CH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vernonia amygdalina has diverse ethno-medical uses including constipation. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical component and purgative effect of ethanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf on rabbit jejunum. Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina were collected, dried, ground and extracted using 95% ethanol. Isolated tissue of rabbit jejunum was challenged with acetylcholine as standard and different strength of the extract at dose ranges of 10 mg to 160 mg in a 50 ml capacity organ bath. The preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phlabotannins, saponins, and anthraquinones. Alkaloids, tannins, and saponins appeared in high quantities, while steroids and flavonoids were absent. The extract at concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2mg/ml produce contractile responses of 3.0, 7.0, 10.2, 15.3 and 15.0 mm respectively which were dose depended. Atropine was able to block the contraction exerted by the extract. These suggest that the extract may be acting on the muscarinic receptors (M3 which are present on the intestine. This study amply justifies the ethno medical claim that the leaves are used as purgatives.

  8. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05 relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusions: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain.

  9. Mechanisms of cardiovascular activity of Andrographis paniculata in the anaesthetized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C Y; Tan, B K

    1997-04-01

    The cardiovascular activities of crude water extract (WE) of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae), its three semi-purified ethyl acetate (FA), n-butanol (FB) and aqueous (FC) fractions, as well as andrographolide, a major plant constituent, were elucidated in anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for the very first time. FA and andrographolide, which possesses multiple pharmacological activities, elicited no drop in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), while WE, FB and FC produced a significant fall in MAP in a dose-dependent manner without significant decrease in heart rate. The ED50 values for WE, FB and FC were 11.4, 5.0 and 8.6 mg/kg-respectively. These suggested that the hypotensive substance(s) of the crude water extract was concentrated in FB. Pharmacological antagonist studies were consequently only tested in FB (5 mg/kg). The hypotensive action of FB was not mediated through effects on the beta-adrenoceptor, muscarinic cholinergic receptor and angiotensin-converting enzyme, for it was not affected by propranolol, atropine and captapril, respectively. However, it seems to work via alpha-adrenoceptors, autonomic ganglion and histaminergic receptors, since the hypotensive effect of FB was negated or attenuated in the presence of phentolamine, hexamethonium as well as pyrilamine and cimetidine. PMID:9174969

  10. Cardiovascular activity of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide in the anaesthetised rat and isolated right atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Kuroyangi, M; Tan, B K

    1998-12-01

    The cardiovascular activity of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDA) from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) was elucidated in anaesthetised Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and isolated rat right atria. In anaesthetised rats, DDA produced significant falls in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate in a dose-dependent manner with the maximum decrease of 37.6 +/- 2.6% and 18.1 +/- 4.8%, respectively. The ED50 value for MAP was 3.43 mmol kg-1. Pharmacological antagonist studies were done using this dose. The hypotensive action of DDA was not mediated through effects on the alpha-adrenoceptor, muscarinic cholinergic and histaminergic receptors, for it was not affected by phentolamine, atropine as well as pyrilamine and cimetidine. However, it seems to work via adrenoceptors, autonomic ganglia receptor and angiotensin-converting enzyme, since the hypotensive effect of DDA was negated or attenuated in the presence of propranolol, hexamethonium and captopril. In the isolated right atria, DDA caused negative chronotropic action and antagonised isoproterenol-induced positive chronotropic actions in a non-competitive and dose-dependent manner. These results further supported the bradycardia-inducing and beta-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties of DDA in vivo. PMID:9990649

  11. Clinicians’ perspectives of health related quality of life (HRQoL) implications of amblyopia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Aims or Purpose The health related quality of life (HRQoL) implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment have been reported. However the clinician’s perspective has not previously been explored. The purpose of this study was to explore the HRQoL implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment from a clinicians’ perspective. Methods Three focus group sessions were conducted with practising orthoptists. Thematic content analysis was undertaken, to identify HRQoL themes associated with amblyopia and/or its treatment. Results Nine HRQoL themes associated with amblyopia and/or its treatment were identified. These included adult quality of life issues; hospital appointments; appearance; glasses-wear; patching treatment; atropine treatment; limited activities; relationships within the family; and treatment compliance. Conclusions The HRQoL implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment was similar to those identified in the literature. Participants acknowledged a change in societal attitudes towards glasses and patching; with glasses becoming more socially acceptable. Further research is needed to explore the exact impact of amblyopia and/or its treatment from both the child and the parental perspective. PMID:22022338

  12. Recent advances in drug therapy for myopia%近视眼药物治疗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许瑶; 曾骏文

    2013-01-01

    本文回顾了最近国内外近视眼药物治疗的相关研究,从常见药物治疗和针对脉络膜新生血管的治疗两方面作了介绍,并为未来的治疗方向提出了一些设想.本文主要介绍了阿托品、哌仑西平、阿扑吗啡、7-甲基黄嘌呤等传统药物的新用法,同时也阐述了光动力疗法、单抗类药物用于近视治疗的最新研究进展.%This article reviews about recent advances of studies on drug therapy for myopia,introducing the common drug therapies and therapies for choroidal neovascularization.This article proposes some ideas of future treatment for myopia.This review introduces the new usage of some traditional drugs including atropine,pirenzepine,apomorphine,7-methylxanthine,and reviews the latest advances in studies on photodynamic therapy and monoclonal antibody drugs therapy for myopia.

  13. Dosagem hormonal e avaliação testicular em cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyun thous utilizando diferentes protocolos anestésicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tree Cerdocyon thous males received different anesthesia protocols: tiletamine-zolazepan (7mg/kg; ketamine-xylazine (12 and 1mg/kg; ketamine-xylazine-atropin (12, 1.0 and 0.04mg/kg, ketamine-midazolam (12 and 0.5mg/kg and ketamine-acepromazine (12 and 0.1mg/kg for semen collection by electroejaculation, testosterone hormonal dosages, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC, testicular manual evaluation, biometry by caliper and ultrassonography (US. The ejaculates collected by electroejaculation showed urine contamination making impossible the semen evaluation. The M±PD of serum testosterone was 0.74±0.2ng/mL. The cell types found in FNAC were: spermatogonia 13.3±11.5%, primary spermatocytes 5.5±1.1%, secondary spermatocytes 5.5±3.9%, early spermatids 12.8±6.2%, late spermatids 26.2±11.2%, sperm 14.5±4.7% and Sertoli cells 21.8±2.7%. Manual testicular evaluation showed normal consistency of testicles. The M±PD of testicular biometry by caliper was 3.8±1.5cm³ and by US was 1.1±0.3cm³. The animals showed normal spermatogenesis with normal spermatozoa observed in FNAC and normal testicular US.

  14. Anesthetic management of a 2-day-old with complete congenital heart block

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    Puneet Khanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal connective tissue disorders such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (most common, Sjogren′s syndrome, mixed connective tissue disorders may lead to the rare condition of complete congenital heart block in the neonate. Rare fetal syndromes such as myocarditis, 18p syndrome, mucopolysaccharidoses and mitochondrial diseases are other causes. The mortality rate of this condition is inversely propotional to the age of presentation being 6 % in the neonatal age group. As the cardiac output in the neonate is heart rate dependent, it is crucial to maintain the heart rate in these patients. Pharamacological interventions with dopamine, isoprenaline, epinephrine and atropine are known for their variable response. Although permanent pacing is the most reliable mode of management, the access to it is often not readily available, especially in the developing countries. In such cases temporary pacing methods become lifesaving. Of all the modalities of temporary pacing (transcutaneous, transesophageal and transvenous transcutaneous pacing is the most readily available and immediate mode. In this case report we present a two day old neonate with isolated complete congenital heart block and a resting heart rate of 50-55/min in immediate need of palliative surgery for trachea-esophageal fistula (TEF. With pharmacological intervention the heart rate could only be raised to 75-80/min. The surgery was successfully carried out using transcutaneous pacing to maintain a heart rate of 100/min.

  15. The Effects of Cholecystojejunostomy and Biliary Drainage on Biliary Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑启昌; 陈阳龙

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Simulating physiological neuronal and hormonal conditions during digestive and interdigestive periods, the study identified the changes of the motility of biliary system including bile duct and sphincter of Oddi (SO) before and after cholecystojejunostomy. Thirty-five rabbits were divided into five groups randomly. The experimental groups received the venous injection of CCK 10 ng/kg, ery thromycin 10 mg/kg, atropine 3 μg/kg and L-NAME 10 mg/kg respectively. Each rabbit under went manometry through introducing a three-lumen catheter via the papilla retrogradely, using the low-compliance papillary infusion system. Then the gallbladder and the upper segment of the jejunum was anastomosed and the manometric procedures repeated after one week. SO basal pressure was in creased, contraction amplitude decreased, contraction time shortened after cholecystojejunostomy. L-NAME, CCK and erythromycin could all excite SO. L-NAME could increase basal pressure and con traction amplitude, CCK increase basal pressure contraction amplitude and frequency, and ery-thromycin increase contraction amplitude, respectively. But comparing with that before cholecystoje junostomy, the increasing extent was decreased. The tensional and spontaneous contractions of the SO were under the control of the neural and hormonal mechanism. The anastomosis of gallbladder and jejunum and the drainage of bile made the tensional contraction stronger, but the spontaneous contraction weakened after the operation due to the decreases of the sensitivity of SO to hormonal fac tors. The clinical symptoms may not be relieved when the patients with SO dysfunction accepted cholecystojejunostomy.

  16. An anesthesiological approach to nerve agent victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Ahmet; Kenar, Levent

    2006-01-01

    The potential use of weapons of mass destruction has recently become a real threat even in the areas of ongoing armed conflicts. Mass casualty victims can suffer from psychological and physical trauma. The exposure of physically injured patients to a toxic substance, in a scenario of mass injury, has recently gained major attention among planners of future protocols for emergency medical services. Because rapid deterioration and multiorgan involvement are to be expected after physical injuries, proper organization and complex but efficient acute medical care systems must be organized and deployed to ensure a maximal number of saved lives. These victims will inevitably require urgent surgical intervention and prolonged perioperative care. Understanding the interdependence between the toxic and traumatic occurrences and the drugs used to prevent or treat nerve agent intoxication (pyridostigmine bromide, a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase; atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist that is one of the on-site, first aid, pharmacological resuscitation drugs; and oxime-like pralidoxime chloride or obidoxime chloride, acetylcholinesterase reactivators) is vital. In addition, the administration of anesthesia and emergency surgery pose further unpredictable threats to the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, and respiratory function, all of which may be compromised after chemical intoxication and physical trauma. It is noteworthy that information concerning the effects of nerve agent intoxication among human subjects is derived largely from reports of incidents of intentional terrorist attacks or of accidental exposure to organophosphate pesticides, compounds that are chemically related to nerve agents. PMID:16532866

  17. Reactivation of organophosphate-inhibited human, Cynomolgus monkey, swine and guinea pig acetylcholinesterase by MMB-4: A modified kinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of poisoning by highly toxic organophosphorus compounds (OP, nerve agents) is a continuous challenge. Standard treatment with atropine and a clinically used oxime, obidoxime or pralidoxime is inadequate against various nerve agents. For ethical reasons testing of oxime efficacy has to be performed in animals. Now, it was tempting to investigate the reactivation kinetics of MMB-4, a candidate oxime to replace pralidoxime, with nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from human and animal origin in order to provide a kinetic basis for the proper assessment of in vivo data. By applying a modified kinetic approach, allowing the use of necessary high MMB-4 concentrations, it was possible to determine the reactivation constants with sarin-, cyclosarin-, VX-, VR- and tabun-inhibited AChE. MMB-4 exhibited a high reactivity and low affinity towards OP-inhibited AChE, except of tabun-inhibited enzyme where MMB-4 had an extremely low reactivity. Species differences between human and animal AChE were low (Cynomolgus) to moderate (swine, guinea pig). Due to the high reactivity of MMB-4 a rapid reactivation of inhibited AChE can be anticipated at adequate oxime concentrations which are substantially higher compared to HI-6. Additional studies are necessary to determine the in vivo toxicity, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of MMB-4 in humans in order to enable a proper assessment of the value of this oxime as an antidote against nerve agent poisoning.

  18. [Stabilization of physostigmine salicylate injection solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trose, D; Slowig, P

    1985-02-01

    Aimed at the centralized manufacture of physostigmin salicylate injection solutions, the efficacy of different stabilizators has been studied under conditions of the thermic load. As for physostigmin sodium pyrosulphite is no antioxidant but a discolouration-protective agent. A decrease of the physostigmin content is not avoided. During the tests ascorbic acid proved to be the most efficient stabilizator, because its application resulted in the most favourable rates of storage stability and usability and at the same time in a pH stabilization to the optimum range of 3 necessary for the physostigmin keeping quality. An additionally stabilizing effect is obtained by a 5 min carbon dioxide gasing of the solutions. Moreover, ascorbic acid is as viewed in physiological perspective the most harmless one. A servicable stabilizing procedure for generation of 0.1% physostigmin salicylate injection solutions has been developed on this basis. These solutions had repeatedly and successfully been applied an antidote to intoxications with atropine syndrome, especially to intoxications with tricyclic anti-depressives and phenothiazines. PMID:3923501

  19. The effect of cannabinoids on dinitrofluorobenzene-induced experimental asthma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Turgut Emrah; Kaya, Yesim; Durlu-Kandilci, Nezahat Tugba; Onder, Sevgen; Sahin-Erdemli, Inci

    2016-09-01

    Cannabinoids have anti-inflammatory effects and can produce bronchodilation in the airways. We have investigated the effects of cannabinoids on tracheal hyperreactivity and airway inflammation in dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced experimental non-atopic asthma in mice. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced contraction response was enhanced while carbachol- and electrical field stimulation-induced contractions, and isoprenaline-induced relaxation responses were remained unchanged in DNFB group. The increased 5-HT-induced contractions were inhibited by incubation with either atropine or tetrodotoxin. DNFB application resulted in increased macrophage number in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In vivo ACEA (CB1 agonist) treatment prevented the increase in 5-HT contractions, while JWH133 (CB2 agonist) had no effect. However, neither ACEA nor JWH133 prevented the increase in macrophage number in BALF. In vitro ACEA incubation also inhibited the increase in 5-HT contraction in DNFB group. These results show that cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist can prevent tracheal hyperreactivity to 5-HT in DNFB-induced non-atopic asthma in mice. PMID:27216000

  20. Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates tracheal submucosal gland secretion in ferret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peatfield, A.C.; Barnes, P.J.; Bratcher, C.; Nadel, J.A.; Davis, B.

    1983-07-01

    We studied the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the output of 35S-labeled macromolecules from ferret tracheal explants either placed in beakers or suspended in modified Ussing chambers. In Ussing chamber experiments, the radiolabel precursor, sodium (35S)sulfate, and all drugs were placed on the submucosal side of the tissue. Washings were collected at 30-min intervals from the luminal side and were dialyzed to remove unbound 35S, leaving radiolabeled macromolecules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide at 3 X 10(-7) M stimulated bound 35S output by a mean of + 252.6% (n . 14). The VIP response was dose-dependent with a near maximal response and a half maximal response at approximately 10(-6) M and 10(-8), M, respectively. The VIP effect was not inhibited by a mixture of tetrodotoxin, atropine, I-propranolol, and phentolamine. Vasoactive intestinal peptide had no effect on the electrical properties of the of the tissues. We conclude that VIP stimulates output of sulfated-macromolecules from ferret tracheal submucosal glands without stimulating ion transport. Our studies also suggest that VIP acts on submucosal glands via specific VIP receptors. Vasoactive intestinal peptide has been shown to increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, and we suggest that this may be the mechanism for its effect on the output of macromolecules. This mechanism may be important in the neural regulation of submucosal gland secretion.

  1. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  2. Effects of Afferent Stimulation of the Lingual Nerve on Gastrointestinal Motility in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimoto,Masaharu

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of afferent stimulation of the lingual nerve (LNAS on gastrointestinal motility and the reflex pathways which mediate the response to LNAS were investigated in rats. LNAS induced excitatory, inhibitory or biphasic responses in the stomach, duodenum and proximal colon. These responses continued after bilateral vagotomy, but were abolished after additional bilateral splanchnicotomy or transection of the spinal cord between Th4 and Th5. The inhibitory, excitatory and biphasic responses induced by LNAS were not affected by decerebration. Both after administration of atropine (0.2 mg/kg, i.v. and guanethidine (3-5 mg/kg, i.v., LNAS-induced excitatory and inhibitory responses were abolished in most cases, but the slight inhibitory response in the stomach and duodenum to LNAS remained in a few cases. These results suggest that the reflex centers which cause LNAS-induced excitatory and inhibitory responses are located in the dorsal nucleus of vagus and that the reflex pathways include the vagus and splanchnic nerves.

  3. The anti-malarial drug Mefloquine disrupts central autonomic and respiratory control in the working heart brainstem preparation of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lall Varinder K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is an anti-malarial drug that can have neurological side effects. This study examines how mefloquine (MF influences central nervous control of autonomic and respiratory systems using the arterially perfused working heart brainstem preparation (WHBP of the rat. Recordings of nerve activity were made from the thoracic sympathetic chain and phrenic nerve, while heart rate (HR and perfusion pressure were also monitored in the arterially perfused, decerebrate, rat WHBP. MF was added to the perfusate at 1 μM to examine its effects on baseline parameters as well as baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes. Results MF caused a significant, atropine resistant, bradycardia and increased phrenic nerve discharge frequency. Chemoreceptor mediated sympathoexcitation (elicited by addition of 0.1 ml of 0.03% sodium cyanide to the aortic cannula was significantly attenuated by the application of MF to the perfusate. Furthermore MF significantly decreased rate of return to resting HR following chemoreceptor induced bradycardia. An increase in respiratory frequency and attenuated respiratory-related sympathetic nerve discharge during chemoreceptor stimulation was also elicited with MF compared to control. However, MF did not significantly alter baroreceptor reflex sensitivity. Conclusions These studies indicate that in the WHBP, MF causes profound alterations in autonomic and respiratory control. The possibility that these effects may be mediated through actions on connexin 36 containing gap junctions in central neurones controlling sympathetic nervous outflow is discussed.

  4. Dexmedetomidine Related Bradycardia Leading to Cardiac Arrest in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Chen2, K-S. Chen1,2, K. M. Chang2, W. M. Lee1,2, S. C. Chang1,2 and H. C. Wang1,2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old, mixed breed female dog (16 kg underwent an exploratory laparotomy following ultrasonographic diagnosis of foreign body and a segment of small intestine intussusceptions. The patient was classified as an ASA II. Ketamine (1mg/kg, IV, and dexmedetomidine (2.5 µg/kg, IV, and morphine (0.6 mg/kg, SC were given as anesthetic premedication. Propofol (0.1 mg/kg, IV titrated to a total amount of 4 ml (2.5 mg/ kg was given for intubation. Asystole was occurred. Cardiac resuscitation was then conducted immediately. Atipamezole (0.1 ml was injected, but showed no response on ECG. Atropine (0.02 mg/kg was then injected, and a second dosage was given. Two-three mins later, the heart rate at 84 beats/min. The NIBP showed 203/132 with MAP 153 mmHg, and the SpO2 showed 95% after the cardiac function was regained. Dexmedetomidine related bradycardia leading to cardiac arrest has been suggested in this case.

  5. Demonstration of spread-on peel-off consumer products for sampling surfaces contaminated with pesticides and chemical warfare agent signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Deborah L; Smith, Deborah L; Katona, Vanessa R; Lewis, Alan T; Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    A terrorist attack using toxic chemicals is an international concern. The utility of rubber cement and latex body paint as spray-on/spread-on peel-off collection media for signatures attributable to pesticides and chemical warfare agents from interior building and public transportation surfaces two weeks post-deposition is demonstrated. The efficacy of these media to sample escalator handrail, stainless steel, vinyl upholstery fabric, and wood flooring is demonstrated for two pesticides and eight chemicals related to chemical warfare agents. The chemicals tested are nicotine, parathion, atropine, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, dipinacolyl methylphosphonate, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphonic acid, and thiodiglycol. Amounts of each chemical found are generally greatest when latex body paint is used. Analytes with low volatility and containing an alkaline nitrogen or a sulfur atom (e.g., nicotine and parathion) usually are recovered to a greater extent than the neutral phosphonate diesters and acidic phosphonic acids (e.g., dimethyl methylphosphonate and ethyl methylphosphonic acid). PMID:24835029

  6. Introduction to the clinical pharmacology of medetomidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, O

    1989-01-01

    Medetomidine is a sedative and analgesic drug intended for use in dogs and cats but it can also be successfully used in many other species. The effect of medetomidine is dose dependent at the recommended dose range (10-80 micrograms/kg for dogs and 50-150 micrograms/kg for cats). At doses higher than the recommended ones the strength of sedation does not increase, only the duration of the effect. From the cardiovascular changes induced with medetomidine, the profound bradycardia is most prominent. It can be transiently prevented with atropine or glycopyrrolate medication. An initial increase in arterial blood pressure followed by a longer lasting slightly hypotensive or normotensive period can be observed. Respiratory frequency tends to decrease but the changes stay within normal limits for resting animals. Vomiting may occur during the induction period of sedation. Occasional muscle jerks can be observed. Hypothermia has been reported in every animal sedated with medetomidine. Medetomidine can be used as preanaesthetic prior to ketamine, barbiturate and halothane anaesthesia. PMID:2571283

  7. Effects of stimulation of vesical afferents on colonic motility in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, M; Grimaud, J C; Abysique, A

    1990-05-01

    The effects of distension and isovolumetric contraction of urinary bladder on colonic motility were studied in anesthetized cats. Distension and contraction of the urinary bladder induced an inhibition of spontaneous colonic electromyographic activity and a decrease in the amplitudes of the excitatory junction potentials evoked in the colon by stimulation of the distal end of the parasympathetic nerve fibers. This inhibition was blocked by guanethidine and phentolamine. Reversely, vesical emptying resulted in an increase in colonic motility, abolished by atropine, and an increase in the amplitude of the excitatory junction potentials. Both excitatory and inhibitory reflexes disappeared after hexamethonium. The inhibitory effects of bladder distension were abolished by bilateral section of the lumbar ventral or dorsal spinal roots and after bilateral section of the lumbar colonic or hypogastric nerves. These results indicate (a) that the vesical afferents responsible for the inhibitory and excitatory reflexes run in the hypogastric and pelvic nerves respectively and (b) that the inhibitory and excitatory effects are caused by the activation of sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent nerve fibers, respectively. The supraspinal nervous structures were not implicated in these reflexes because they persisted in spinal cats.

  8. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. PMID:26505271

  9. Mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects produced by the acute application of amfepramone in vitro to rat aortic rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Canales, J.S. [Section of Postgraduate Studies and Investigation, Higher School of Medicine from the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Department of Cellular Biology, National Institute of Perinatology, Mexico City (Mexico); Lozano-Cuenca, J.; Muãoz-Islas, E.; Aguilar-Carrasco, J.C. [Department of Cellular Biology, National Institute of Perinatology, Mexico City (Mexico); López-Canales, O.A.; López-Mayorga, R.M.; Castillo-Henkel, E.F.; Valencia-Hernández, I.; Castillo-Henkel, C. [Section of Postgraduate Studies and Investigation, Higher School of Medicine from the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2015-03-27

    Amfepramone (diethylpropion) is an appetite-suppressant drug used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. It has been suggested that the systemic and central activity of amfepramone produces cardiovascular effects such as transient ischemic attacks and primary pulmonary hypertension. However, it is not known whether amfepramone produces immediate vascular effects when applied in vitro to rat aortic rings and, if so, what mechanisms may be involved. We analyzed the effect of amfepramone on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings with or without endothelium and the influence of inhibitors or blockers on this effect. Amfepramone produced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings that was not affected by the vehicle, atropine, 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. The vasorelaxant effect of amfepramone was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and was blocked by removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that amfepramone had a direct vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings, and that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the opening of Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} channels were involved in this effect.

  10. Regulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA release from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakawa, J.; Taniyama, K.; Iwai, S.; Tanaka, C.

    1988-12-01

    The presence of receptors that regulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied in strips of the guinea pig urinary bladder. GABA (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and muscimol (10(-8)-10(-5) M), but not baclofen (10(-5) M), reduced the Ca2+-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant release of (/sup 3/H)GABA evoked by high K+ from the urinary bladder strips preloaded with (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline and potentiated by diazepam, clonazepam, and pentobarbital sodium. The potentiating effect of clonazepam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. Acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited the high K+-evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of ACh was antagonized by atropine sulfate and pirenzepine but not by hexamethonium. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited the evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of NE was mimicked by clonidine, but not by phenylephrine, and was antagonized by yohimbine but not by prazosin. These results provide evidence that the release of GABA from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated via the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor, M1-muscarinic, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors.

  11. Regulation of [3H]GABA release from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of receptors that regulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied in strips of the guinea pig urinary bladder. GABA (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and muscimol (10(-8)-10(-5) M), but not baclofen (10(-5) M), reduced the Ca2+-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant release of [3H]GABA evoked by high K+ from the urinary bladder strips preloaded with [3H]GABA. The inhibitory effect of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline and potentiated by diazepam, clonazepam, and pentobarbital sodium. The potentiating effect of clonazepam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. Acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited the high K+-evoked release of [3H]GABA. The inhibitory effect of ACh was antagonized by atropine sulfate and pirenzepine but not by hexamethonium. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited the evoked release of [3H]GABA. The inhibitory effect of NE was mimicked by clonidine, but not by phenylephrine, and was antagonized by yohimbine but not by prazosin. These results provide evidence that the release of GABA from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated via the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor, M1-muscarinic, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors

  12. Freeze-drying of HI-6-loaded recombinant human serum albumin nanoparticles for improved storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadparvar, Miriam; Wagner, Sylvia; Wien, Sascha; Worek, Franz; von Briesen, Hagen; Kreuter, Jörg

    2014-10-01

    Severe intoxications with organophosphates require the immediate administration of atropine in combination with acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) reactivators such as HI-6. Although this therapy regimen enables the treatment of peripheral symptoms, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the access of the hydrophilic antidotes to the central nervous system which could lead to a fatal respiratory arrest. Therefore, HI-6-loaded albumin nanoparticles were previously developed to enhance the transport across this barrier and were able to reactivate organophosphate-(OP)-inhibited AChE in an in vitro BBB model. Since HI-6 is known to be moisture-sensitive, the feasibility of freeze-drying of the HI-6-loaded nanoparticles was investigated in the present study using different cryo- and lyoprotectants at different concentrations. Trehalose and sucrose (3%, w/v)-containing formulations were superior to mannitol concerning the physicochemical parameters of the nanoparticles whereas trehalose-containing samples were subject of a prolonged storage stability study at temperatures between -20°C and +40°C for predetermined time intervals. Shelf-life computations of the freeze-dried HI-6 nanoparticle formulations revealed a shelf-life time of 18 months when stored at -20°C. The formulations' efficacy was proven in vitro by reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE after transport over a porcine brain capillary endothelial cell layer model.

  13. Radiolabelling of phoneutria nigriventer spider toxin (Tx1): a tool to study its binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Diniz, Carlos Roberto; Nascimento, Marta Cordeiro [FUNED, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Maria Elena de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia

    1996-07-01

    The neurotoxin Tx1, isolated from the venom of the South American spider Phoneutria nigriventer produces tail elevation and spastic paralysis of posterior limbs after intracerebral ventricular injection in mice. Tx1 also produces ileum contraction in bioassay. We have investigated the binding of radioiodinated-Tx1 ({sup 125} I-Tx1) on the preparation of myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle membrane from guinea pig ileum (MPLM) as a tool to characterize the interaction of this neurotoxin with its site. The neurotoxin Tx1 was radioiodinated with Na{sup 125} I by the lactoperoxidase method. {sup 125} I-Tx1 specifically binds to a single class of noninteracting binding sites of high affinity (Kd= 3.5 x 10{sup -10} M) and low capacity (1.2 pmol/mg protein). The specific binding increased in parallel with the protein concentration. In competition experiments the ligands of ionic channels used (sodium, potassium and calcium) did not affect the binding of {sup 125} I-Tx1 to MPLM neither did the cholinergic ligands (hemicholinium-3, hexamethonium, d-tubocurarine and atropine). Another neurotoxin (Tx2-6, one of the isoforms of Tx2 pool) decreased toxin with MPLM and showed that toxin has a specific and saturable binding site in guinea pig ileum and this binding site appears to be related to the Tx2 site. (author)

  14. Potential Additive Effects of Ticagrelor, Ivabradine, and Carvedilol on Sinus Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Di Serafino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old male patient presented to the emergency room with an anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction. After a loading dose of both ticagrelor and aspirin, the patient underwent primary-PCI on the left anterior descending coronary artery with stent implantation. After successful revascularization, medical therapy included beta-blockers, statins, and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Two days later, ivabradine was also administered in order to reduce heart rate at target, but the patient developed a severe symptomatic bradycardia and sinus arrest, even requiring administration of both atropine and adrenaline. Ivabradine and ticagrelor have been then suspended and this latter changed with prasugrel. Any other similar event was not reported during the following days. This clinical case raised concerns about the safety of the combination of beta-blockers and ivabradine in patients treated with ticagrelor, particularly during the acute phase of an acute coronary syndrome. These two latter drugs, in particular, might interact with the same receptor. In fact, ivabradine directly modulates the If-channel which is also modulated by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels. These latter have been shown to increase after ticagrelor assumption via inhibition of adenosine uptake by erythrocytes. Further studies are warrant to better clarify the safety of this association.

  15. EFFECT OF DICHLOROMETHANE-ETHANOL EXTRACT OF MORINDA MORINDOIDES (BACKER MILNE-REDHEAD (RUBIACEAE (ETDE ON RABBIT CAROTID BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boga Gogo Lucien

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Morinda morindoides (Backer Milne-Redhead (Rubiaceae is used by the people of west and central Africa for the treatment of diarrhea. The dichloromethane/ethanol extract of M. morindoides (Back (ETDE known to be used orally, will be in direct contact with the nobles organs. This study is conduced to see if this extract has effects on the body more precisely on blood pressure. ETDE injected intravenously (10.40 mg/kg b.w to 31.19 mg/kg b.w provoked a decrease in the arterial blood pressure (hypotension in a dose-dependent manner (ED50 = 7.08 mg/kg b.w. ETDE at 41.58 mg/kg b.w induce a maximum and irreversible hypotension which leads to the death of the animal. The effects induced by ETDE were inhibited in the presence of atropine at a concentration of 4.46 ×10-4 mg/kg b.w. Our observations, regarding the effects of ETDE on the high blood pressure initiated by adrenaline, showed that the hypertensive effects induced by adrenalin were totally inhibited by ETDE. ETDE induced a dose-dependent hypotension and reversible and his antihypertensive effect could militate for its use in the treatment of hypertension.

  16. Investigation of kinetic interactions between approved oximes and human acetylcholinesterase inhibited by pesticide carbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Timo; Kaltenbach, Lisa; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2013-12-01

    Carbamates are widely used for pest control and act primarily by inhibition of insect and mammalian acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Accidental or intentional uptake of carbamates may result in typical signs and symptoms of cholinergic overstimulation which cannot be discriminated from those of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. There is an ongoing debate whether standard treatment with atropine and oximes should be recommended for human carbamate poisoning as well, since in vitro and in vivo animal data indicate a deleterious effect of oximes when used in combination with the N-methyl carbamate carbaryl. Therefore, we performed an in vitro kinetic study to investigate the effect of clinically used oximes on carbamoylation and decarbamoylation of human AChE. It became evident that pralidoxime and obidoxime in therapeutic concentrations aggravate the inhibition of AChE by carbaryl and propoxur, with obidoxime being substantially more potent compared to 2-PAM. However, obidoxime had no impact on the decarbamoylation kinetics. Hence, the administration of 2-PAM and especially of obidoxime to severely propoxur and carbaryl poisoned humans cannot be recommended.

  17. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  18. Distinct regulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expression at mRNA and peptide levels in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, D V; Colburn, S; Krajniak, K G; Waschek, J A

    1992-05-25

    Neuronal differentiation was induced in cultures of the human neuroblastoma cell line subclone SH-SY5Y by 14-day treatment with dibutyryl cAMP (dBcAMP), retinoic acid, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). An approximate 4-fold increase in vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) mRNA concentration was observed after differentiation with retinoic acid, whereas no change in VIP mRNA concentration was observed after differentiation with dBcAMP or PMA. A short-term treatment of cells with PMA did however result in a 5-fold transient increase in VIP mRNA; prior differentiation with retinoic acid or dBcAMP diminished this effect. Observed increases in VIP mRNA were in all cases accompanied by increases in VIP immunoreactivity. Remarkably, however, long-term treatment of cells with dBcAMP, which caused no change in mRNA levels, resulted in a six-fold increase in VIP immunoreactivity. Acute (36-h) treatment with carbachol also caused an increase in VIP immunoreactivity (about 2-fold, and blocked by atropine) without an increase in VIP mRNA level. Thus, a quantitative change in gene transcription or mRNA stability appears not to be a prerequisite for increased VIP expression, indicating that regulation can occur at translational or post-translational steps.

  19. Serious response during tilt-table test in elderly and its prophylactic management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yang; LI Xiao-xia; JLANG Wei-li; WANG Zhao-di; CHEN Tian-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the serious response during tilt-table test (TTT) and its prophylactic management. Method:Seventy-six elderly patients were tested at a tilt angle of 70 degrees for a maximum of 45 min and then subjected to isoproterenol-provocative tilt testing. ECG and blood pressure were monitored during the test and patients were kept at normal saline condition through a peripheral intravenous duct. Results: Fifty-one of 76 patients were defined as positive including 23 having serious response; 6 of the 23 patients had arteriosclerosis involving intemal carotid arteries and 7 cases had bradycardia, two of which were associated with Ⅱ°-Ⅰ A-V block and the others with chronic atrial fibrillation. The serious response consisted of cardiac arrest for more than 5 s (6 cases), or serious bradycardia for more than 1 min (7 cases) or serious hypotension for more than 1 min (10 cases).Those with serious response were managed by returning to supine position, thus driving up legs and intravenous atropine, CPR (2cases with cardiac arrest) and needing oxygen supplementation (11 cases). Only 2 hypotension patients recovered gradually by 10min after emergency management, while others recovered rapidly with no complications. Conclusion: Although non-invasive,TTT may result in serious response, especially in elderly. Therefore proper patient selection, control of isoproterenol infusion and close observation of vital signs are decisive for a safe consequence.

  20. Incremental value of contrast myocardial perfusion to detect intermediate versus severe coronary artery stenosis during stress-echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to compare the incremental value of contrast myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI for the detection of intermediate versus severe coronary artery stenosis during dipyridamole-atropine echocardiography (DASE. Wall motion (WM assessment during stress-echocardiography demonstrates suboptimal sensitivity to detect coronary artery disease (CAD, particularly in patients with isolated intermediate (50%-70% coronary stenosis. Methods We performed DASE with MPI in 150 patients with a suspected chest pain syndrome who were given clinical indication to coronary angiography. Results and discussion When CAD was defined as the presence of a ≥50% stenosis, the addition of MPI increased sensitivity (+30% and decreased specificity (-14%, with a final increase in total diagnostic accuracy (+16%, p Conclusions The addition of MPI on top of WM analysis during DASE increases the diagnostic sensitivity to detect obstructive CAD, whatever its definition (≥50% or > 70% stenosis, but it is mainly driven by the sensitivity increase in the intermediate group (50%-70% stenosis. The total diagnostic accuracy increased only when defining CAD as ≥50% stenosis, since in patients with severe stenosis (> 70% the decrease in specificity is not counterbalanced by the minor sensitivity increase.

  1. Antihypertensive Effect of Syzygium cumini in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Melo Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vivo potential antihypertensive effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Syzygium cumini leaves (HESC in normotensive Wistar rats and in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, as well as its in vitro effect on the vascular reactivity of resistance arteries. The hypotensive effect caused by intravenous infusion of HESC (0.01–4.0 mg/kg in anesthetized Wistar rats was dose-dependent and was partially inhibited by pretreatment with atropine sulfate. SHR received HESC (0.5 g/kg/day, orally, for 8 weeks and mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and vascular reactivity were evaluated. Daily oral administration of HESC resulted in a time-dependent blood pressure reduction in SHR, with a maximum reduction of 62%. In the endothelium-deprived superior mesenteric arteries rings the treatment with HESC reduced by 40% the maximum effect (Emax⁡ of contraction induced by NE. The contractile response to calcium and NE of endothelium-deprived mesenteric rings isolated from untreated SHR was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by HESC (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/mL. This study demonstrated that Syzygium cumini reduces the blood pressure and heart rate of SHR and that this antihypertensive effect is probably due to the inhibition of arterial tone and extracellular calcium influx.

  2. Antihypertensive Effect of Syzygium cumini in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rachel Melo; Pinheiro Neto, Vicente Férrer; Ribeiro, Kllysmann Santos; Vieira, Denilson Amorim; Abreu, Iracelle Carvalho; Silva, Selma do Nascimento; Cartágenes, Maria do Socorro de Sousa; Freire, Sônia Maria de Farias; Borges, Antonio Carlos Romão; Borges, Marilene Oliveira da Rocha

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo potential antihypertensive effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Syzygium cumini leaves (HESC) in normotensive Wistar rats and in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as its in vitro effect on the vascular reactivity of resistance arteries. The hypotensive effect caused by intravenous infusion of HESC (0.01-4.0 mg/kg) in anesthetized Wistar rats was dose-dependent and was partially inhibited by pretreatment with atropine sulfate. SHR received HESC (0.5 g/kg/day), orally, for 8 weeks and mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and vascular reactivity were evaluated. Daily oral administration of HESC resulted in a time-dependent blood pressure reduction in SHR, with a maximum reduction of 62%. In the endothelium-deprived superior mesenteric arteries rings the treatment with HESC reduced by 40% the maximum effect (E max⁡) of contraction induced by NE. The contractile response to calcium and NE of endothelium-deprived mesenteric rings isolated from untreated SHR was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by HESC (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/mL). This study demonstrated that Syzygium cumini reduces the blood pressure and heart rate of SHR and that this antihypertensive effect is probably due to the inhibition of arterial tone and extracellular calcium influx. PMID:25614751

  3. Retarded hippocampal development following prenatal exposure to ethanolic leaves extract of Datura metel in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeez Olakunle Ishola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Datura metel contains atropine alkaloids and has been used to treat complication like asthma and, bronchitis, because of its anticholinergic properties. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prenatal effects of ethanolic extract of D. metel leaves exposure on the development of hippocampus. Materials and Methods: Twenty rats (12 females and 8 males were purchased. The females were grouped into four groups (A_D. Group A were given 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract on the first day of fertilization to the end of gestation period, Group B were given 500 mg/kg body weight on the 8 th day of fertilization to the end of gestation period, Group C were given 500 mg/kg body weight on 15 th day of fertilization to the end of gestation period and Group D were given normal saline throughout the gestation period. Results: Rats in Group A showed no implantation, rats in Group B had abortion on the 7 th day after administration, and rats in Group C gave birth with their litters showing retarded hippocampus development and neural degeneration and rats in Group D (control showed normal development. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of D. metel leaf is teratogenic in the late stage of pregnancy, is abortificient and can serve as a contraceptive.

  4. Cholecystokinin hyperresponsiveness in functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ASB Chua; PWN Keeling

    2006-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder of yet uncertain etiology. Dyspeptic symptoms are usually meal related and suggest an association to gastrointestinal (GI) sensorimotor dysfunction. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an established brain-gut peptide that plays an important regulatory role in gastrointestinal function. It inhibits gastric motility and emptying via a capsaicin sensitive vagal pathway. The effects on emptying are via its action on the proximal stomach and pylorus. CCK is also involved in the regulation of food intake. It is released in the gut in response to a meal and acts via vagal afferents to induce satiety. Furthermore CCK has also been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of panic disorder, anxiety and pain. Other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and noradrenaline may be implicated with CCK in the coordination of GI activity. In addition,intravenous administration of CCK has been observed to reproduce the symptoms in FD and this effect can be blocked both by atropine and Ioxiglumide (CCK-A antagonist). It is possible that an altered response to CCK may be responsible for the commonly observed gastric sensorimotor dysfunction, which may then be associated with the genesis of dyspeptic symptoms.

  5. Chemical Composition, Toxicity and Vasodilatation Effect of the Flowers Extract of Jasminum sambac (L. Ait. “G. Duke of Tuscany”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanukit Kunhachan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic Jasmine flower extract of Jasminum sambac (L. Ait. “G. Duke of Tuscany” revealed the mixtures of coumarins, cardiac glycosides, essential oils, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, and steroids. However, alkaloids, anthraquinones, and tannins were not detected. By intravenous injection at a single dose of 0.5 mL/mouse (15 mg of the flower extract, no systemic biological toxicity demonstrated in ICR mice was observed. In Wistar rats, the LD50 of the extract was higher than 5,000 mg/kg BW by oral administration. Vasodilatation effect of the 95% ethanolic extract on isolated aortic rats was also investigated. Compared with the control group, the Jasmine flowers extract in 0.05% DMSO clearly reduced tonus of isolated endothelium thoracic aortic rings preconstricted with phenylephrine (10−6 M, as a dose-dependent manner. Nevertheless, this pharmacological effect disappeared after the preincubation of the rings with atropine (10−6 M or with Nω-nitro-L-arginine (10−4 M. These are possibly due to the actions of the active components on the vessel muscarinic receptors or by causing the release of nitric oxide.

  6. Evaluation of analgesic activity of the leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarna Ingale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora incarnata also known as ′Passion flower′ is used as an anxiolytic and sedative throughout the world from ancient time. The plant is used as an analgesic, antispasmodic, sedative- hypnotic and narcotic. It is also used in neuralgia, epilepsy, insomnia, ulcers, haemorrhoids and neurosis in many parts of the world. There was no report on analgesic activity of P. incarnata. Hence, the present study is designed to assess analgesic activity of leaves of P. incarnata using sodium chloride-induced eye wiping test and formalin test. In formalin test, n-butanol extract of leaves of P. incarnata (BEPI in the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg as well as BEPI-F1 showed significant reduction in duration of paw licking in neurogenic and inflammatory phase(P<0.001. Pretreatment with naloxone reversed the analgesia induced by BEPI, while atropine did not reverse the analgesia induced by BEPI significantly (P≤0.001. In eye wiping test, BEPI in the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, i.p. exerted significant reduction ( P≤0.001 in number of eye wipes compared to control group. Thus, the result concludes that BEPI and the fraction separated, BEPI-F1 has significant analgesic activity, which may be mediated through central mechanism by modulation of opioid receptors and nicotinic receptors.

  7. Monitoring cholinergic activity during attentional performance in mice heterozygous for the choline transporter: a model of cholinergic capacity limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolone, Giovanna; Mallory, Caitlin S; Koshy Cherian, Ajeesh; Miller, Thomas R; Blakely, Randy D; Sarter, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Reductions in the capacity of the human choline transporter (SLC5A7, CHT) have been hypothesized to diminish cortical cholinergic neurotransmission, leading to risk for cognitive and mood disorders. To determine the acetylcholine (ACh) release capacity of cortical cholinergic projections in a mouse model of cholinergic hypofunction, the CHT+/- mouse, we assessed extracellular ACh levels while mice performed an operant sustained attention task (SAT). We found that whereas SAT-performance-associated increases in extracellular ACh levels of CHT+/- mice were significantly attenuated relative to wildtype littermates, performance on the SAT was normal. Tetrodotoxin-induced blockade of neuronal excitability reduced both dialysate ACh levels and SAT performance similarly in both genotypes. Likewise, lesions of cholinergic neurons abolished SAT performance in both genotypes. However, cholinergic activation remained more vulnerable to the reverse-dialyzed muscarinic antagonist atropine in CHT+/- mice. Additionally, CHT+/- mice displayed greater SAT-disrupting effects of reverse dialysis of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine. Receptor binding assays revealed a higher density of α4β2* nAChRs in the cortex of CHT+/- mice compared to controls. These findings reveal compensatory mechanisms that, in the context of moderate cognitive challenges, can overcome the performance deficits expected from the significantly reduced ACh capacity of CHT+/- cholinergic terminals. Further analyses of molecular and functional compensations in the CHT+/- model may provide insights into both risk and resiliency factors involved in cognitive and mood disorders.

  8. M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors may play a role in the neurotoxicity of anhydroecgonine methyl ester, a cocaine pyrolysis product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raphael Caio Tamborelli; Dati, Livia Mendonça Munhoz; Torres, Larissa Helena; da Silva, Mariana Aguilera Alencar; Udo, Mariana Sayuri Berto; Abdalla, Fernando Maurício Francis; da Costa, José Luiz; Gorjão, Renata; Afeche, Solange Castro; Yonamine, Mauricio; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Camarini, Rosana; Sandoval, Maria Regina Lopes; Marcourakis, Tania

    2015-01-01

    The smoke of crack cocaine contains cocaine and its pyrolysis product, anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). AEME possesses greater neurotoxic potential than cocaine and an additive effect when they are combined. Since atropine prevented AEME-induced neurotoxicity, it has been suggested that its toxic effects may involve the muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). Our aim is to understand the interaction between AEME and mAChRs and how it can lead to neuronal death. Using a rat primary hippocampal cell culture, AEME was shown to cause a concentration-dependent increase on both total [(3)H]inositol phosphate and intracellular calcium, and to induce DNA fragmentation after 24 hours of exposure, in line with the activation of caspase-3 previously shown. Additionally, we assessed AEME activity at rat mAChR subtypes 1-5 heterologously expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. l-[N-methyl-(3)H]scopolamine competition binding showed a preference of AEME for the M2 subtype; calcium mobilization tests revealed partial agonist effects at M1 and M3 and antagonist activity at the remaining subtypes. The selective M1 and M3 antagonists and the phospholipase C inhibitor, were able to prevent AEME-induced neurotoxicity, suggesting that the toxicity is due to the partial agonist effect at M1 and M3 mAChRs, leading to DNA fragmentation and neuronal death by apoptosis. PMID:26626425

  9. [Neuro-autonomic inhibition and haemodynamics management optimization during cesarean section under spinal anaesthesia in pregnant women with gestosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur'ianov, V A; Shumov, I V

    2012-01-01

    Results showed that autonomic nervous system (ANS) and blood circulation system (BCS) dysfunction in 3rd trimester pregnant women with gestosis are more pronounced, than in healthy pregnant women, despite the prescribed treatment. The most significant disturbances were vagotonia and hypokinetic haemodynamics type (often iatrogenic). Spinal anaesthesia (SA) during Cesarean section in pregnant women is accompanied by blood pressure decrease to the level demanding on vasopressors use. Considering normal indicators of SI, CI, oxygen transportation and electrocardiogram vasopressor was not introduced Apgar score assessment of newborns was within normal. However, vagotonia and hypokinetic haemodynamics type during anaesthesia that certifies autoregulation reserves insufficiency. Atropine introduction in pregnant women with vagotonia and hypokinetic haemodynamics type (often iatrogenic, owing to irrational therapy) before SA beginning of promoted neurovegetative inhibition optimization and haemodynamics stabilization in eukinetic range. Vagus blockade (elimination of ANS dysfunction) was accompanied by more physiologic sympathicotonia development with smaller decrease of blood pressure (without stroke index reduction!), absence of bradycardia and vomiting. Research showed that the blood pressure cannot be the only objective criterion of vasopressors use. PMID:23662521

  10. A new family of insect muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, R-Y; Li, M-Q; Wu, Y-S; Qi, Y-X; Ye, G-Y; Huang, J

    2016-08-01

    Most currently used insecticides are neurotoxic chemicals that target a limited number of sites and insect cholinergic neurotransmission is the major target. A potential target for insecticide development is the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), which is a metabotropic G-protein-coupled receptor. Insects have A- and B-type mAChRs and the five mammalian mAChRs are close to the A-type. We isolated a cDNA (CG12796) from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. After heterologous expression in Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells, CG12796 could be activated by acetylcholine [EC50 (half maximal effective concentration), 73 nM] and the mAChR agonist oxotremorine M (EC50 , 48.2 nM) to increase intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Thus, the new mAChR is coupled to Gq/11 but not Gs and Gi/o . The classical mAChR antagonists atropine and scopolamine N-butylbromide at 100 μM completely blocked the acetylcholine-induced responses. The orthologues of CG12796 can also be found in the genomes of other insects, but not in the genomes of the honeybee or parasitoid wasps. Knockdown of CG12796 in the central nervous system had no effect on male courtship behaviours. We suggest that CG12796 represents the first recognized member of a novel mAChR class. PMID:27003873

  11. Cyanobacterial xenobiotics as evaluated by a Caenorhabditis elegans neurotoxicity screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jingjuan; Saul, Nadine; Kochan, Cindy; Putschew, Anke; Pu, Yuepu; Yin, Lihong; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2014-05-01

    In fresh waters cyanobacterial blooms can produce a variety of toxins, such as microcystin variants (MCs) and anatoxin-a (ANA). ANA is a well-known neurotoxin, whereas MCs are hepatotoxic and, to a lesser degree, also neurotoxic. Neurotoxicity applies especially to invertebrates lacking livers. Current standardized neurotoxicity screening methods use rats or mice. However, in order to minimize vertebrate animal experiments as well as experimental time and effort, many investigators have proposed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an appropriate invertebrate model. Therefore, four known neurotoxic compounds (positive compounds: chlorpyrifos, abamectin, atropine, and acrylamide) were chosen to verify the expected impacts on autonomic (locomotion, feeding, defecation) and sensory (thermal, chemical, and mechanical sensory perception) functions in C. elegans. This study is another step towards successfully establishing C. elegans as an alternative neurotoxicity model. By using this protocol, anatoxin-a adversely affected locomotive behavior and pharyngeal pumping frequency and, most strongly, chemotactic and thermotactic behavior, whereas MC-LR impacted locomotion, pumping, and mechanical behavior, but not chemical sensory behavior. Environmental samples can also be screened in this simple and fast way for neurotoxic characteristics. The filtrate of a Microcystis aeruginosa culture, known for its hepatotoxicity, also displayed mild neurotoxicity (modulated short-term thermotaxis). These results show the suitability of this assay for environmental cyanotoxin-containing samples. PMID:24776722

  12. Cyanobacterial Xenobiotics as Evaluated by a Caenorhabditis elegans Neurotoxicity Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjuan Ju

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In fresh waters cyanobacterial blooms can produce a variety of toxins, such as microcystin variants (MCs and anatoxin-a (ANA. ANA is a well-known neurotoxin, whereas MCs are hepatotoxic and, to a lesser degree, also neurotoxic. Neurotoxicity applies especially to invertebrates lacking livers. Current standardized neurotoxicity screening methods use rats or mice. However, in order to minimize vertebrate animal experiments as well as experimental time and effort, many investigators have proposed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an appropriate invertebrate model. Therefore, four known neurotoxic compounds (positive compounds: chlorpyrifos, abamectin, atropine, and acrylamide were chosen to verify the expected impacts on autonomic (locomotion, feeding, defecation and sensory (thermal, chemical, and mechanical sensory perception functions in C. elegans. This study is another step towards successfully establishing C. elegans as an alternative neurotoxicity model. By using this protocol, anatoxin-a adversely affected locomotive behavior and pharyngeal pumping frequency and, most strongly, chemotactic and thermotactic behavior, whereas MC-LR impacted locomotion, pumping, and mechanical behavior, but not chemical sensory behavior. Environmental samples can also be screened in this simple and fast way for neurotoxic characteristics. The filtrate of a Microcystis aeruginosa culture, known for its hepatotoxicity, also displayed mild neurotoxicity (modulated short-term thermotaxis. These results show the suitability of this assay for environmental cyanotoxin-containing samples.

  13. Insulin-like substance and insulin-degrading complex of hemolysate of human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lysate of human erythrocytes was fractionated on gel-filtration resins of different types and immunoreactive insulin, the insulinase activity and the effect of individual fractions on the insulinase activity was determined in the fractions obtained. It was established that the hemolysate contains a complex of insulin-metabolizing compounds, including an insulin-like substance, insulinase, and an inhibitor and activator of the insulinase activity. The insulin-like substance coincided with native insulin in site of elution from a column of Sephadex G-50 and its concentration in the lysate exceeded that of insulin in the blood plasma. Insulinase, which has a molecular weight of about 100,000, cleaved [125I] insulin to fragments soluble in trichloroacetic acid, but had no effect on hypophyseal proteins and glycoprotein hormones. The insulinase activity was inhibited by low temperatures, atropine, and a newly discovered intraerythrocytic proteinase inhibitor, which also inhibits the serine proteinases trypsin and chymotrypsin. A substance eluted from a column of Sephadex G-100 in the region of low-molecular-weight substances increased the insulinase activity. The elution curve of substances with proteinase-inhibiting and insulinase-activating activities indicates that there is more than one inhibitory and activating factor. The results of the studies suggest that the insulin-degrading complex in human erythrocytes acts as a regulator of the insulin level in the blood plasma. It is also possible that the insulin-like substance is produced in the cytosol of the erythrocytes

  14. Pulmonary oedema in a patient undergoing vitreo-retinal surgery under peribulbar block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjolie Chhabra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42 - year-old diabetic and hypertensive male with good effort tolerance was administered peribulbar block for vitreo-retinal surgery. Ten millilitres of an equal mixture of 2% lignocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine was administered for the block after ascertaining negative aspiration for blood. Inadequate akinesia of the eye necessitated further supplementation with 4 mL of local anaesthetic (LA mixture. Thirty minutes later, the patient complained of uneasiness, respiratory distress and desaturated despite oxygen supplementation. He was found to be in pulmonary oedema. He subsequently developed a weak thready pulse, became unresponsive, apnoeic and had generalized tonic clonic convulsions. Immediately, atropine 0.6 mg, followed by midazolam, intubation, mechanical ventilation, morphine and furosemide, were administered intravenously. Spontaneous respiration returned in 20 minutes and he started responding to verbal commands 90 minutes later. He was weaned off the ventilator the next morning. There was no evidence of an ischemic myocardial event and non-contrast computerized tomography scan of the head was normal. The reversible cardiorespiratory arrest, associated convulsions and loss of consciousness were suggestive of LA toxicity. Pulmonary oedema manifesting as respiratory distress and desaturation can be the initial manifestation of LA toxicity in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease undergoing eye surgery under peribulbar block.

  15. ECG changes during cerebral angiography; A comparison of low osmolality contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Abe, Mitsuyuki (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Hayakawa, Katsumi (Kyoto City Hospital (Japan). Department of Radiology)

    334 electrocardiographic recordings obtained from 109 patients who underwent cerebral angiography with low osmolality contrast media (CM) were analysed. CM used in this study included meglumine sodium ioxaglate, iopamidol and iohexol. A tachycardial effect greater than 10 percent was seen in 8.3 percent of the recordings, while a bradycardial effect greater than 10 percent was seen in 11.1 percent. Assessment was based on the type of CM used, age of the patients, usage of atropine sulfate as premedication, and the vessel injected. Patients who were under 19 years of age, and unpremedicated had a significantly higher incidence of bradycardia. On the other hand, there was no significant difference of the incidence of electrocardiographic abnormality between the 3 CM, and between the 2 injected vessel groups. The authors have also analysed the incidence of generalized adverse effect. There was no serious complication, however, 11.9 percent of the patients who under-went cerebral angiography with ioxaglate developed urticaria and this was significantly higher than in the other 2 CM groups. (author). 17 refs.; 9 tabs.

  16. Inhibition of the mechanical activity of mouse ileum by cactus pear (Opuntia Ficus Indica, L, Mill.) fruit extract and its pigment indicaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, S; Tesoriere, L; Rotondo, A; Serio, R; Livrea, M A; Mulè, F

    2010-07-14

    We investigated, using an organ bath technique, the effects of a hydrophilic extract from Opuntia ficus indica fruit pulp (cactus fruit extract, CFE) on the motility of mouse ileum, and researched the extract component(s) responsible for the observed responses. CFE (10-320 mg of fresh fruit pulp equivalents/mL of organ bath) reduced dose-dependently the spontaneous contractions. This effect was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, a neuronal blocker, N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase blocker, tetraethylammonium, a potassium channel blocker, or atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. CFE also reduced the contractions evoked by carbachol, without affecting the contractions evoked by high extracellular potassium. Indicaxanthin, but not ascorbic acid, assayed at concentrations comparable with their content in CFE, mimicked the CFE effects. The data show that CFE is able to exert direct antispasmodic effects on the intestinal motility. The CFE inhibitory effects do not involve potassium channels or voltage-dependent calcium channels but rather pathways of calcium intracellular release. The fruit pigment indicaxanthin appears to be the main component responsible for the CFE-induced effects.

  17. Evaluation of drug-muscarinic receptor affinities using cell membrane chromatography and radioligand binding assay in guinea pig jejunum membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-xiang YUAN; Jin HOU; Lang-chong HE; Guang-de YANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study if cell membrane chromatography (CMC) could reflect drug-receptor interaction and evaluate the affinity and competitive binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR). Methods: The cell membrane stationary phase(CMSP) was prepared by immobilizing guinea pig jejunum cell membrane on the surface of a silica carrier, and was used for the rapid on-line chromatographic evaluation of ligand binding affinities to mAChR. The affinity to mAChR was also evaluated from radioligand binding assays (RBA) using the same jejunum membrane preparation. Results: The capacity factor (k') profiles in guinea pig jejunum CMSP were: (-)QNB (15.4)>(+)QNB (11.5)>atropine (5.35)>pirenzepine(5.26)>4-DAMP (4.45)>AF-DX 116 (4.18)>pilocarpine (3.93)>acetylcholine(1.31). These results compared with the affinity rank orders obtained from radioligand binding assays indicated that there wasa positive correlation (r2=0.8525, P<0.0001) between both data sets. Conclusion: The CMC method can be used to evaluate drug-receptor affinities for drug candidates.

  18. Regulating role of acetylcholine and its antagonists in inward rectified K+ channels from guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The inward rectified potassium current of Vicia faba guard cell protoplasts treated with acetylcholine (ACh) or the antagonists of its receptors were recorded by employing the patch clamp technique. The results show that ACh at lower concentrations increases the inward K+ current, in contrast, ACh at higher concentrations inhibits it. Treated with d-Tubocurarine (d-Tub), an antagonist of the nicotine ACh receptor (nAChR) inhibits the inward K+ current by 30%. Treated with atropine (Atr), an antagonist of the muscarine (Mus) ACh receptor (mAChR) also inhibits it by 36%.However,if guard cell protoplasts are treated with d-Tub and Atr together, the inward K+ current is inhibited by 60%-75%. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a strong inhibitor of K+ channels has no effect on the inward K+ current regulated by ACh, suggesting that there are inward K+ channels modulated by AChRs on the membrane of the guard cell protoplasts. These data demonstrate an ACh-regulated mechanism for stomatal movement.

  19. Regulating role of acetylcholine and its antagonists in inward rectified K~+ channels from guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷强; 花宝光; 郭玉海; 娄成后

    2000-01-01

    The inward rectified potassium current of Vicia faba guard cell protoplasts treated with acetylcholine (ACh) or the antagonists of its receptors were recorded by employing the patch clamp technique. The results show that ACh at lower concentrations increases the inward K+ current, in contrast, ACh at higher concentrations inhibits it. Treated with d-Tubocurarine (d-Tub), an antagonist of the nicotine ACh receptor (nAChR) inhibits the inward K+ current by 30%. Treated with atropine (Atr), an antagonist of the muscarine (Mus) ACh receptor (mAChR) also inhibits it by 36%. However, if guard cell protoplasts are treated with d-Tub and Atr together, the inward K+ current is inhibited by 60%-75%. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a strong inhibitor of K+ channels has no effect on the inward K+ current regulated by ACh, suggesting that there are inward K+ channels modulated by AChRs on the membrane of the guard cell protoplasts. These data demonstrate an ACh-regulated mechanism for stomatal movement.

  20. Ca2+ is involved in muscarine-acetylcholine-receptor-mediated acetylcholine signal transduction in guard cells of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fanxia; MIAO Long; ZHANG Shuqiu; LOU Chenghou

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important neurochemical transmitter in animals; it also exists in plants and plays a significant role in various kinds of physiological functions in plants. ACh has been known to induce the stomatal opening. By monitoring the changes of cytosolic Ca2+ with fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM under the confocal microscopy,we found that exogenous ACh increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of guard cells of Vicia faba L. Muscarine, an agonist of muscarine acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), could do so as well. In contrast, atropine, the antagonist of mAChR abolished the ability of ACh to increase Ca2+ in guard cells.This mechanism is similar to mAChR in animals. When EGTA was used to chelate Ca2+ or ruthenium red to block Ca2+ released from vacuole respectively, the results showed that the increased cytosolic Ca2+ mainly come from intracellular Ca2+ store. The evidence supports that Ca2+ is involved in guard-cell response to ACh and that Ca2+ signal is coupled to mAChRs in ACh signal transduction in guard cells.

  1. Two types of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila and other arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Caitlin Alexis; Hauser, Frank; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto I;

    2013-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play a central role in the mammalian nervous system. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are activated by the agonists acetylcholine and muscarine, and blocked by a variety of antagonists. Mammals have five mAChRs (m1-m5......). In this study, we cloned two structurally related GPCRs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which, after expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells, proved to be muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. One mAChR (the A-type; encoded by gene CG4356) is activated by acetylcholine (EC50, 5 × 10(-8) M......) and muscarine (EC50, 6 × 10(-8) M) and blocked by the classical mAChR antagonists atropine, scopolamine, and 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB), while the other (the B-type; encoded by gene CG7918) is also activated by acetylcholine, but has a 1,000-fold lower sensitivity to muscarine, and is not blocked...

  2. 发生胆碱能危象的重症肌无力危象患者抢救成功1例%Cholinergic Crisis of Myasthenia Gravis Crisis Patients Rescue Success in 1 Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍; 于馥伟; 孙悦; 绪红; 李英

    2016-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is common in clinic, when its in cholinergic crisis after the disease is dangerous, should be timely diagnosis and offer effective emergency treatment. Once confirmed, the patients should immediately stop using cholinesterase inhibitor, the so-called dry therapy, 0.5 ~ 1 mg intravenous injection atropine, at the same time when the patients to the ICU should be closely monitoring, to closely observe patient vital signs, prompting patients turned the corner.%重症肌无力(MG)在临床中十分常见,当其出现胆碱能危象后病情十分凶险,需及时明确诊断并给予有效抢救。患者一旦确诊,即应立即停用胆碱酯酶抑制剂,即所谓的干涸疗法,同时静脉注射阿托品0.5~1 mg,当患者送至ICU后应严密监护,对患者生命体征密切观察,促使患者转危为安。

  3. [Influence of beta block and autonomic nerve block on the recovery time of the sinus node in sick sinus syndrome and carotid sinus syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole, M; Sartore, B; Barra, M; Menozzi, C; Monducci, I; Bertulla, A

    1984-10-01

    In order to evaluate the relative role of the automatic nervus system and of the intrinsic electrophysiologic properties on the sinus node function, we measured the corrected sinus node recovery time before and after autonomic nervous system blockade in 24 patients. Fourteen had a sick sinus syndrome, five had a carotid sinus syncope, two had syncope of unknown origin associated with bradycardia. Beta blockade was obtained by infusing metoprolol intravenously at a dosage of 0.2 mg/kg; complete automatic blockade was achieved by further i.v. administration of atropine at a dosage of 0.04 mg/kg. After beta blockade, the corrected sinus node recovery time increased in patients with sick sinus syndrome and intrinsic slow heart rate, whereas it decreased in patients with carotid sinus syncope or with syncope and bradycardia. In patients with sick sinus syndrome and normal intrinsic heart rate the response was variable. A positive direct correlation was found between the changes of the corrected sinus node recovery time induced by beta blockade and those induced by autonomic blockade; that is, both either prolonged or shortened the corrected sinus node recovery time. The changes of the corrected sinus node recovery time after beta blockade alone were inversely correlated with the intrinsic heart rate. We conclude that patients with intrinsic depression of the sinus node have an increased sympathetic tone.

  4. Role of temporary pacing at the right ventricular outflow tract in anesthetic management of a patient with asymptomatic sick sinus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Kusha; Nagella, Amrutha Bindu; Kumar, V R Hemanth; Singh, Dewan Roshan; Ravishankar, M

    2015-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman posted for percutaneous nephrolithotomy with ureterolithotripsy was found to have a history of hypertension and ischemic heart disease from past 6 months on regular treatment. Pulse rate was irregularly irregular in a range of 56-60/min, unresponsive to atropine, with a sinus pause on the electrocardiogram. Although the patient was asymptomatic, anticipating unmasking of the sick sinus syndrome during general anesthesia in the prone position, a temporary pacemaker was implanted at right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) septum before the scheduled surgery. A balanced anesthesia technique with endotracheal intubation was administered. There were several episodes of continuous pacing by the temporary pacemaker intraoperatively, which may be attributed to unmasking of the sinus node dysfunction due to general anesthesia. At the end of surgery, patient was extubated after adequate reversal from neuromuscular blockade. Postoperative period remained uneventful, and the pacemaker wires were removed on the 2(nd) postoperative day. With this case report, we highlight the importance of inserting a temporary pacemaker prior to anesthesia even in an asymptomatic patient if a sinus node dysfunction is suspected preoperatively and if intraoperative access to transvenous pacing is difficult such as in prone position. Pacing at RVOT septum minimizes ventricular dyssynchrony and improves hemodynamic parameters.

  5. Digitalis and the sick sinus syndrome. Clinical and electrophysiologic documentation of severe toxic effect on sinus node function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, J R; Strauss, H C; Miller, H C; Gilbert, M; Wallace, A G

    1975-07-01

    Digoxin, in a common clinical dose and at a low serum level, brought out severe manifestations of sinus node dysfunction in a patient who had previously undergone successful mitral valve replacement. This report presents the results of extensive clinical and electrophysiologic studies of this patient before and after a digoxin challenge. In the absence of cardiac glycoside, the only demonstrable abnormalities of sinus node function were mild resting sinus bradycardia and failure to respond to atropine administration. Responses to isoproterenol administration, programmed premature atrial stimulation, and overdrive pacing at several cycle lengths were normal. Following the administration of intravenous digoxin, 1.025 mg/24 hrs, the resting sinus cycle length increased and the response to overdrive pacing became markedly abnormal. The latter was followed by sinus pauses in excess of six seconds, even at relatively slow overdrive pacing rates. The electrophysiologic and clinical implications of these data are discussed. It is suggested that despite previous reports that digitalis preparations are relatively well tolerated by patients with sick sinus syndrome, caution should be used when administering these drugs to this group of patients.

  6. Sinus node function after autonomic blockade in normals and in sick sinus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, K K; Jaishankar, S; Balachander, J; Bahl, V K; Gupta, M P

    1984-06-01

    Electrophysiologic studies were performed in 10 normals and 33 patients with sick sinus syndrome before and after total autonomic blockade with propranolol and atropine. In normals both corrected sinus node recovery time (SNRT) and sinoatrial conduction time (SACT) decreased significantly after autonomic blockade. In patients with sick sinus syndrome the corrected SNRT was abnormal (greater than 450 msec) in 16 (48.5%) cases before and 25 (76%) cases (greater than 285 msec) after autonomic ablation (P less than 0.02). Thirteen of 21 patients (62%) with normal intrinsic heart rate and all 12 cases with abnormally low intrinsic rate after autonomic blockade had abnormal corrected SNRT (greater than 285 msec). Mean SACT measured in 19 patients also shortened significantly following pharmacologic denervation. During control it was prolonged (greater than 226 msec) in 8 patients (44%). After autonomic blockade 2 of 13 patients with normal intrinsic heart rate and 3 of 6 with low intrinsic rate showed abnormal SACT (greater than 151 msec). The data suggest that the majority (76%) of patients with sick sinus syndrome have intrinsic abnormality of sinus node automaticity while in a minority (24%) disturbed autonomic regulation is the pathogenetic mechanism. Patients with normal intrinsic heart rate usually have normal intrinsic SACT, while a significant proportion of those with low intrinsic rate have abnormal perinodal conduction. Subjects with abnormal intrinsic heart rate have more severe disturbances of sinus node function than those with normal intrinsic rate.

  7. Vasopressin release induced by water deprivation - Effects of centrally administered saralasin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Dundore, R. L.; Wurpel, J. N. D.; Severs, W. B.; Barbella, Y. R.

    1983-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to whether endogenous angiotensin activates brain mechanisms controlling vasopressin (AVP) secretion during dehydration. Various doses of saralasin were injected into a lateral cgrebroventricle (IVT) of conscious, male rats deprived of water for 48 h. The rats were killed at different times. The concentration of AVP in the plasma p(AVP), measured by radioimmunoassay, was unaffected by saralasin. IVT pretreatment with 1-Sar-8-Ile-angiotensin II blocked maximal AVP release by IVT angiotensin, but this pretreatment did not reduce p(AVP) after 24, 48 or 72 hr water deprivation. A 3-hour continuous IVT infusion of CSF or saralasin (10 micrograms/hour) into 48-hour water-deprived rats revealed equivalent p(AVP) concentration and urine volumes. When the infusions were continued for 3 h more with water available, control and saralasin-treated rats: (1) drank at similar rates, (2) excreted similar amounts of urine, and (3) reduced their p(AVP) concentration levels to the same extent. IVT saralasin did not affect p(AVP) concentration of rats dehydrated with hypertonic NaCl. Combined IVT saralasin and atropine reduced p(AVP) concentration of 48-hour water deprived rats about 30 percent (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that redundancy exists for sensing, integrating and releasing vasopressin in dehydrated rats.

  8. Simple and Rapid Hollow Fiber Liquid Phase Microextraction Followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Determination of Drug-protein Binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Guo-chen; HU Shuang; BAI Xiao-hong

    2011-01-01

    A method was established using hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction(HF-LPME) followed by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) to determine the concentration of the free(unbound) drug in the solution of the drug and protein.Measurements of drug-protein binding ratios and free drug concentrations were then analyzed with the Klotz equation to determine the equilibrium binding constant and number of binding sites for drug-protein interaction.The optimized method allows one to perform the efficient extraction and separation of free drug from protein-bound drug,protein,and other interfering substances.This approach was used to characterize the binding of the anticholinergic drugs atropine sulfate and scopolamine hydrobromide to proteins in human plasma and bovine serum albumin(BSA).The results demonstrate the utility of HF-LPME method for measuring free drug concentrations in protein-drug mixtures and determining the protein binding parameters of a pharmacologically important class of drugs.

  9. Mechanism of bombesin-induced tonic contraction of the porcine lower esophageal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Chang, Li-Ching; Lin, Kai-Jen; Tey, Shu-Leei; Su, Yu-Tsun; Liu, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Tong-Rong; Huang, Shih-Che

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a disorder that is related to an incompetent lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Previous studies showed that bombesin could increase LES pressure in humans and opossums. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of bombesin on porcine LES contraction. We used the selective agonists, neuromedin B (NMB), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and [D-Tyr(6),Apa-4Cl(11),Phe(13),Nle(14)]bombesin-(6-14) (DTACPN-BN), as well as receptor antagonists of bombesin receptor subtype 2 (BB2), and 3 (BB3) for ex vivo contraction studies. Atropine, nifedipine, tetrodotoxin, and ω-conotoxin GVIA were used to explore the agonist-induced LES contraction mechanism. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were applied to detect bombesin receptor expression. Our results indicate that GRP and DTACPN-BN, but not NMB, induced tonic contractions of the porcine LES in a dose-dependent manner, and the contractions were inhibited with selective BB2 and BB3 antagonists. The GRP-induced contraction is mainly caused by L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated Ca(2+) influx. However, DTACPN-BN-induced contractions are associated with neuronal conduction. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that BB2 and BB3 were expressed in the porcine LES. Bombesin-induced tonic contraction of the LES is mediated through BB2 and BB3. Bombesin, BB2, and BB3 agonists might have the potential to treat GERD. PMID:26522854

  10. The ent-15α-Acetoxykaur-16-en-19-oic Acid Relaxes Rat Artery Mesenteric Superior via Endothelium-Dependent and Endothelium-Independent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Êurica Adélia Nogueira Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism of the relaxant activity of the ent-15α-acetoxykaur-16-en-19-oic acid (KA-acetoxy. In rat mesenteric artery rings, KA-acetoxy induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels precontracted with phenylephrine. In the absence of endothelium, the vasorelaxation was significantly shifted to the right without reduction of the maximum effect. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with L-NAME, an inhibitor of the NO-synthase (NOS, indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase, L-NAME + indomethacin, atropine, a nonselective antagonist of the muscarinic receptors, ODQ, selective inhibitor of the guanylyl cyclase enzyme, or hydroxocobalamin, a nitric oxide scavenger. The relaxation was completely reversed in the presence of L-NAME + 1 mM L-arginine or L-arginine, an NO precursor. Diterpene-induced relaxation was not affected by TEA, a nonselective inhibitor of K+ channels. The KA-acetoxy antagonized CaCl2-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner and also inhibited an 80 mM KCl-induced contraction. The KA-acetoxy did not interfere with Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The vasorelaxant induced by KA-acetoxy seems to involve the inhibition of the Ca2+ influx and also, at least in part, by endothelial muscarinic receptors activation, NO and PGI2 release.

  11. Current Pharmacological Advances in the Treatment of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Papastylianou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest is defined as the sudden cessation of spontaneous ventilation and circulation. Within 15 seconds of cardiac arrest, the patient loses consciousness, electroencephalogram becomes flat after 30 seconds, pupils dilate fully after 60 seconds, and cerebral damage takes place within 90–300 seconds. It is essential to act immediately as irreversible damage can occur in a short time. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is an attempt to restore spontaneous circulation through a broad range of interventions which are early defibrillation, high-quality and uninterrupted chest compressions, advanced airway interventions, and pharmacological interventions. Drugs should be considered only after initial shocks have been delivered (when indicated and chest compressions and ventilation have been started. During cardiopulmonary resuscitation, no specific drug therapy has been shown to improve survival to hospital discharge after cardiac arrest, and only few drugs have a proven benefit for short-term survival. This paper reviews current pharmacological treatment of cardiac arrest. There are three groups of drugs relevant to the management of cardiac arrest: vasopressors, antiarrhythmics, and other drugs such as sodium bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, atropine, fibrinolytic drugs, and corticosteroids.

  12. Therapeutic effect of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride to rescue severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%长托宁抢救重度有机磷农药中毒疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嗣庭

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较观察阿托品和盐酸戊乙奎醚(商品名:长托宁)分别用于重度有机磷中毒(acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,AOPP)抢救的疗效.方法:选掸60例重度AOPP患者,随机分成长托宁+氯解磷定组(P组)及阿托品+氯解磷定组(A组),各30例,两组基础治疗相同,P组肌注长托宁4~6 mg,氯磷定2.0~3.0 g静脉注射;A组给予阿托品首剂10~20 mg静脉注射后间断维持,同时氯磷定2.0~3.0 g静脉注射,观察记录两组患者毒蕈碱样症状消失时间、烟碱样症状消失时间、中枢神经系统症状消失时间及胆碱酯酶活力恢复60%时间,统计各组治愈率、住院时间及严重并发症发生率,观察药物不良反应发生情况.结果:P组患者蕈碱样症状消失时间、烟碱样症状消失时间、中枢神经系统症状消失时间及胆碱酯酶活力恢复60%时间均低于A组(P<0.05),P组胆碱酯酶活力恢复明显较A组快,P组治愈率高于A组(P<0.05),P组住院时间较A组缩短,严重并发症发生率及药物不良反应发生率P组均低于A组(P<0.05).结论:长托宁能有效缓解重度AOPP症状,促进胆碱酯酶活力恢复,不良反应少,是较阿托品更为理想的重度AOPP治疗药物.%Objective: To compare the therapeutic effect of Atropine and Penehyclidine Hydrochloride used for severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). Methods: 30 cases of severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were selected and divided into Penehyclidine Hydrochloride + Pyraloxime Chloride group (group P) and Atropine + Pyraloxime Chloride group (group A) randomly. The same basic treatment was given, 4-6 mg Penehyclidine Hydrochloride im and 2.0-3.0 g Pyraloxime Chloride iv for group P, 10-20 mg initial dose of Atropine iv and 2.0-3.0 g Pyraloxime Chloride iv for group A. Then extinction time of M sample, extinction time of N sample, extinction time of CNS sample and time of recovery 60% ChE activity were observed

  13. Preventive counterplan for chemical poisonings and the role of toxicology; Kagaku busshitsu chudoku jiko taisaku to dokubutsugaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T. [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1996-02-10

    Some cases of poisoning by chemical substances are taken up, and counterplans are discussed. This report centers about the neurotoxic gas sarin incidents dealing with them as examples of acute poisoning caused by chemical substances. The important difference in terms of chemical structure between a neurotoxic gas and organo-phosphoric pesticide is that in the former phosphorus is directly bonded with carbon or halogen while, in the latter, bondage is represented by P-O-C, P-S-C, and the like, so bonded as to form the phosphoric acid, thiophosphoric acid, or dithiophosphoric acid. The result of the difference in chemical structure is that the neurotoxic gas easily gains access to the target enzyme and remains stable after bonding therewith while the organo-phosphoric pesticide is easily hydrolyzed by enzymes other than the target enzyme. Poisoning by neurotoxic gas or organo-phosphoric pesticide is clinically treated by the administration of atropine and 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide which is an antidote. It is mandatory to let people clearly know beforehand the methods of analysis of chemical substances and their toxicity and to establish beforehand how to first-aid the victims and what emergency treatment can be executed. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Pathogenic mechanisms and intervention of myopia progression in school-aged children%儿童近视进展的机制及其干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬杰; 李宁东

    2015-01-01

    近年来,针对近视发生和发展的可能机制,学者们从遗传、调节滞后、远视性离焦等多个方面进行了大量的动物研究和临床试验.目前延缓近视发展的主要措施有渐进多焦点眼镜、双光眼镜、角膜塑形镜等.此外,学者们在阿托品等药物防控近视方面也进行了有益的探索.%Nowadays,investigators have done a lot of clinical and animal experiments to explore the pathogenic mechanisms and the new clinical treatments for retarding the progression of myopia,which including bifocals,progressive addition lenses (PAL),rigid gas permeable contact lenses (RGP) and orthokeratology (OK).Besides,some meaningful trials have been done to explore the effect of atropine in treatment of progression myopia.

  15. Target analysis and retrospective screening of veterinary drugs, ergot alkaloids, plant toxins and other undesirable substances in feed using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Nuria; Pastor, Agustín; Yusà, Vicent

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive strategy combining a quantitative method for 77 banned veterinary drugs, mycotoxins, ergot alkaloids and plant toxins, and a post-target screening for 425 substances including pesticides and environmental contaminants in feed were developed using a QuEChERS-based extraction and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). The quantitative method was validated after previous statistical optimisation of the main parameters governing ionisation, and presented recoveries ranging, in general, from 80 to 120%, with a precision in terms of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) lower than 20%. The full-scan accurate mass data were acquired with a resolving power of 50000 FWHM and a mass accuracy lower than 5ppm. The method LOQ was lower than 12.5µgkg(-1) for the majority of the veterinary drugs and plant toxins and 20µgkg(-1) for ergot alkaloids. For post-target screening a customised theoretical database including the exact mass, the polarity of acquisition and the expected adducts was built and used for post-run retrospective screening. The analytical strategy was applied to 32 feed samples collected from farms of the Valencia Region (Spain). Florfenicol, zearalenone and atropine were identified and quantified at concentrations around 10µgkg(-1). In the post-target screening of the real samples, Sulfadiazine, Thrimetoprin and Pirimiphosmethyl were tentatively identified.

  16. Measurements of myocardial flow vs. extraction of rubidium under varying physiological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, T.F.; Yano, Y.; Moyer, B.R.; Twitchell, J.A.; Brennan, K.M.; Huesman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial rubidium extraction (E) and flow (F) are well described by the single capillary model E = (1-exp(-PS/F)) with a permeability surface product PS = 0.87 cc/min/gm. Some effects of alkalosis and acidosis have been reported. Here the authors investigate the effects of dipyridamole, norepinephrine-atropine, exsanguination, pacing, ouabain and calcium on extraction using Rb-82 PET and Rb-86 acute studies with microspheres in dogs. Thoracotomies were performed for left atrial microsphere infusion. Anesthesia was by N/sub 2/O and methoxyflurane. The degree of exsanguination, drug levels administered and pacing rates were sufficient to produce flow modifications. Extraction was calculated by dividing FE from Rb observations by F from microsphere data. These results of extraction vs. flow do not show a significant dependence on the method used for flow modification. There was less than a 20% change in FE after an infusion of 0.04 mg/kg ouabain over 5 minutes in 3 replicate studies each on 4 dogs. An important finding not previously explained in flow vs. extraction studies is the occurrence of extraction values greater than 1.0 which is possible only if the distribution opportunities of small cations are greater than that of microspheres. This is equivalent to the well known hematocrit effect in small channels.

  17. Involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in the antinociceptive effect of Uncaria tomentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgensen, Sofia; Dalbó, Sílvia; Angers, Paul; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria

    2005-07-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC (Rubiaceae) is a vine that grows in the Amazon rainforest. Its bark decoctions are used by Peruvian Indians to treat several diseases. Chemically, it consists mainly of oxindole alkaloids. An industrial fraction of U. tomentosa (UT fraction), containing 95% oxindole alkaloids, was used in this study in order to characterize its antinociceptive activity in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, formalin and capsaicin tests) and thermal (tail-flick and hot-plate tests) models of nociception in mice. UT fraction given by the i.p. route dose-dependently suppressed the behavioural response to the chemical stimuli in the models indicated and increased latencies in the thermal stimuli models. The antinociception caused by UT fraction in the formalin test was significantly attenuated by i.p. treatment of mice with ketanserin (5-HT2 receptor antagonist), but was not affected by naltrexone (opioid receptor antagonist), atropine (a nonselective muscarinic antagonist), l-arginine (precursor of nitric oxide), prazosin (alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist), and reserpine (a monoamine depleter). Together, these results indicate that UT fraction produces dose-related antinociception in several models of chemical and thermal pain through mechanisms that involve an interaction with 5-HT2 receptors.

  18. Luminal oxidants selectively modulate electrogenic ion transport in rat colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julio M Mayol; Yolanda Adame-Navarrete; Pilar Alarma-Estrany; Elena Molina-Roldan; Fernando Huete-Toral; Jesus A Fernandez-Represa

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of luminal exposure to H2O2 and two related thiol oxidizing agents on basal and stimulated chloride secretion in native colon using electrophysiological and pharmacological approaches.METHODS: Unstripped rat distal colon segments were mounted in Ussing chambers. Potential difference, cal culated resistance and short-circuit current across unstripped colon segments were monitored with a dual voltage/current clamp. Paracellular permeability was assessed by measuring the mucosa-to-serosa flux of a fluorescent probe (FITC).RESULTS: Luminal exposure to hydrogen peroxide transitorily stimulated chloride secretion without altering barrier function. This stimulatory effect could be blocked by basolateral atropine but not indomethacin. The cysteine and methionine oxidizing compounds, phenylarsine oxide and chloramine T respectively, mimicked the effect of H2O2, except for a drop in transcolonic resistance after 30 min. In contrast to the observed stimulatory effect on basal secretion, cAMP-stimulated electrogenic ion trans port was blunted by luminal H2O2. However, the Ca2+-activated response remained unchanged.CONCLUSION: H2O2 may be an important selective modulator of intestinal ion and water secretion in certain pathologic conditions such as inflammation or ischemiareperfusion by multiple mechanisms.

  19. A report of the anesthesia in posterior fossa operations in the sitting position in 55 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanguiri B

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, 55 patients were studied in a period of six years for having the anesthesia in the sitting position. In this position, the surgeon will had a better access to the location, whose damages have been sustained, so less damages would be given to the healthy tissues. For the patients, due to their critical general conditions, one week prior to giving anesthesia to the posterior fossa, operation in the sitting position the right ventriculoatiral shunt was placed. For preventing the fall of blood pressure, a bandage was placed in the lower limbs after inducing anesthesia and changing supine position to sitting position. Before the induction, central venous pressure was measured for treating the air embolism. The head of catheter was placed inside the right atrial. Premedications such as atropine, pethidine, and inductive agents like thiopenton, and muscle relaxants, maintained with halothane and nitrous oxide. All of the patients endured this condition without the fall of blood pressure and air embolism

  20. A review on the pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Datura stramonium L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhakta Prasad Gaire; Lalita Subedi

    2013-01-01

    Datura stramonium L.,a wild-growing plant of the Solanaceae family,is widely distributed and easily accessible.It contains a variety of toxic tropane alkaloids such as atropine,hyoscamine,and scopolamine.In Eastern medicine,especially in Ayurvedic medicine,D.stramonium has been used for curing various human ailments,including ulcers,wounds,inflammation,rheumatism and gout,sciatica,bruises and swellings,fever,asthma and bronchitis,and toothache.A few previous studies have reported on the pharmacological effects of D.stramonium; however,complete information regarding the pharmacology,toxicity,ethnobotany and phytochemistry remains unclear.Ethnomedicinally,the frequent recreational abuse of D.stramonium has resulted in toxic syndromes.D.stramonium,in the form of paste or solution to relieve the local pain,may not have a deleterious effect; however,oral and systemic administration may lead to severe anticholinergic symptoms.For this reason,it is very important for individuals,mainly young people,to be aware of the toxic nature and potential risks associated with the use of this plant.This comprehensive review of D.stramonium includes information on botany,phytochemistry,pharmacology,toxicology and ethnomedicinal uses.

  1. Modulation of Visceral Nociception, Inflammation and Gastric Mucosal Injury by Cinnarizine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M.E. Abdel-Salam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cinnarizine, a drug used for the treatment of vertigo was assessed in animal models of visceral nociception, inflammation and gastric mucosal injury. Cinnarizine (1.25–20 mg/kg, s.c. caused dose-dependent inhibition of the abdominal constrictions evoked by i.p. injection of acetic acid by 38.7–99.4%. This effect of cinnarizine (2.5 mg/kg was unaffected by co-administration of the centrally acting dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, sulpiride, haloperidol or metoclopramide, the peripherally acting D2 receptor antagonist domperidone, but increased by the D2 receptor agonist bromocryptine and by the non-selective dopamine receptor antagonist chlorpromazine. The antinociception caused by cinnarizine was naloxone insenstive, but enhanced by propranolol, atropine and by yohimbine. The antinociceptive effect of cinnarizine was prevented by co-treatment with the adenosine receptor blocker theophylline or by the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP blocker glibenclamide. Cinnarizine at 2.5 mg/kg reversed the baclofen-induced antinociception. Cinnarizine at 2.5 mg/kg reduced immobility time in the Porsolt’s forced-swimming test by 24%. Cinnarizine inhibited the paw oedema response to carrageenan and reduced gastric mucosal lesions caused by indomethacin in rats. It is suggested that cinnarizine exerts anti-infl ammatory, antinociceptive and gastric protective properties. The mechanism by which cinnarizine modulates pain transmission is likely to involve adenosine receptors and KATP channels.

  2. Modulation of visceral nociception, inflammation and gastric mucosal injury by cinnarizine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E

    2007-01-01

    The effect of cinnarizine, a drug used for the treatment of vertigo was assessed in animal models of visceral nociception, inflammation and gastric mucosal injury. Cinnarizine (1.25-20 mg/kg, s.c.) caused dose-dependent inhibition of the abdominal constrictions evoked by i.p. injection of acetic acid by 38.7-99.4%. This effect of cinnarizine (2.5 mg/kg) was unaffected by co-administration of the centrally acting dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, sulpiride, haloperidol or metoclopramide, the peripherally acting D2 receptor antagonist domperidone, but increased by the D2 receptor agonist bromocryptine and by the non-selective dopamine receptor antagonist chlorpromazine. The antinociception caused by cinnarizine was naloxone insenstive, but enhanced by propranolol, atropine and by yohimbine. The antinociceptive effect of cinnarizine was prevented by co-treatment with the adenosine receptor blocker theophylline or by the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP)) blocker glibenclamide. Cinnarizine at 2.5 mg/kg reversed the baclofen-induced antinociception. Cinnarizine at 2.5 mg/kg reduced immobility time in the Porsolt's forced-swimming test by 24%. Cinnarizine inhibited the paw oedema response to carrageenan and reduced gastric mucosal lesions caused by indomethacin in rats. It is suggested that cinnarizine exerts anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and gastric protective properties. The mechanism by which cinnarizine modulates pain transmission is likely to involve adenosine receptors and K(ATP) channels. PMID:21901060

  3. Autonomic Nervous System Mediates the Hypotensive Effects of Aqueous and Residual Methanolic Extracts of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum Leaves in Anaesthetized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A; Mohamed, M; Sulaiman, S A; Wan Ahmad, W A N

    2013-01-01

    Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum leaves are consumed as a traditional Malay treatment of hypertension. This study investigates hypotensive potential of aqueous (AESP) and residual methanolic (met-AESP) extracts of S. polyanthum leaves and possible involvement of autonomic receptors. AESP and met-AESP (20 to 100 mg/kg) were intravenously administered into anaesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Blood pressure and heart were monitored for 20 min. AESP and met-AESP induced significant dose-dependent hypotension, but only 100 mg/kg AESP caused mild bradycardia (n = 5). AESP-induced hypotension was more potent than that of met-AESP in WKY. AESP has a faster onset time than that of met-AESP in both WKY and SHR. However, met-AESP-induced hypotension was more sustained than that of AESP in SHR. Blockages of autonomic ganglion and α -adrenergic receptors using hexamethonium and phentolamine (n = 5 for each group) partially attenuated AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of α -adrenergic receptors. Blockages of autonomic ganglion, β -adrenergic, cholinergic receptors, and nitric oxide production using hexamethonium, propranolol, atropine, and N- ω -nitro-l arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (n = 5 for each group) partially attenuated met-AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of β -adrenergic and cholinergic receptors via nitric oxide production. PMID:24454508

  4. Autonomic Nervous System Mediates the Hypotensive Effects of Aqueous and Residual Methanolic Extracts of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight Walp. var. polyanthum Leaves in Anaesthetized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium polyanthum (Wight Walp. var. polyanthum leaves are consumed as a traditional Malay treatment of hypertension. This study investigates hypotensive potential of aqueous (AESP and residual methanolic (met-AESP extracts of S. polyanthum leaves and possible involvement of autonomic receptors. AESP and met-AESP (20 to 100 mg/kg were intravenously administered into anaesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR rats. Blood pressure and heart were monitored for 20 min. AESP and met-AESP induced significant dose-dependent hypotension, but only 100 mg/kg AESP caused mild bradycardia (n=5. AESP-induced hypotension was more potent than that of met-AESP in WKY. AESP has a faster onset time than that of met-AESP in both WKY and SHR. However, met-AESP-induced hypotension was more sustained than that of AESP in SHR. Blockages of autonomic ganglion and α-adrenergic receptors using hexamethonium and phentolamine (n=5 for each group partially attenuated AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of α-adrenergic receptors. Blockages of autonomic ganglion, β-adrenergic, cholinergic receptors, and nitric oxide production using hexamethonium, propranolol, atropine, and N-ω-nitro-l arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (n=5 for each group partially attenuated met-AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of β-adrenergic and cholinergic receptors via nitric oxide production.

  5. Dobutamine stress echo is superior to exercise stress testing in achieving target heart rate among patients on beta blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, Adam; Pack, Michael; Markiewicz, Richard; John, Jooby; Gaballa, Mohamed; Goldman, Steven; Thai, Hoang

    2005-01-01

    Published guidelines recommend continuing beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in patients undergoing stress testing. We evaluated the role of pharmacological versus exercise stress testing in achieving target heart rate (THR) among patients on beta-adrenergic blockade. We compared data from 140 patients who underwent dobutamine stress echo (DSE) and 143 patients who underwent exercise treadmill testing (ETT). In both groups, beta-adrenergic blocker was continued at the time of stress testing. Overall, patients undergoing DSE achieved THR more frequently than ETT. With beta-adrenergic blockade, DSE patients met THR more frequently than ETT patients (p < 0.001). Without beta-adrenergic blockade, there was no difference between either modality in achieving THR. In both DSE and ETT patients, absence of beta-adrenergic blockade increased the odds of achieving THR [odds ratio (OR): 2.46, p = 0.042 and OR: 7.44, p < 0.001, respectively]. Atropine use with DSE increased the odds of achieving THR (OR: 3.76, p = 0.006). In conclusion, pharmacological stress testing appears to be superior to exercise stress testing in achieving THR among patients on beta-adrenergic blockade.

  6. Effect of Taurine on The Respiratory System of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammer E.M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effect of taurine on isolated trachea and pulmonary artery of rats and the possible mechanism(s of action. The possible antioxidant effect of taurine was also studied by measuring its protective effect against cyclophosphamide induced lung injuiry. Taurine produced a concentration dependent relaxation in the isolated tracheal strips and pulmonary arterial rings precontracted by serotonin (2x10-4 mM. The relaxing effect of taurine was not influenced by pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME , cysteinyl leukotreines receptor 1 blocker (montelukast , H1 receptor blocker (chlorpheniramine , β-adrenoceptor blocker (propranolol, potassium channel blocker (amiodarone , cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin or muscarinic receptor blocker (atropine. Preincubation with adenosine receptor blocker (aminophylline significantly potentiated the relaxing effect of taurine in the tracheal strips and pulmonary arterial rings. Cyclophosphamide (CYP, 150 mg/kg administerated i.p. in a single dose was used to produce lung injuiry in rats. CYP caused marked increase in lung lipid peroxides (MDA and decrease in lung reduced glutathione (GSH. Administration of taurine (1% in drinking water starting 7 days before CYP and continuing throughout the duration of the experiment (24 hours improved significantly the lung GSH and MDA. It can be concluded that taurine relaxes precontracted rat tracheal strips and pulmonary arterial rings probably by direct effect on the smooth muscles. Also, the observed antioxidant activity of taurine which may contribute to its relaxant effect suggesting the usefulness of turine in pulmonary hypertension.

  7. Evaluation of oxime efficacy in nerve agent poisoning: Development of a kinetic-based dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread use of organophosphorus compounds (OP) as pesticides and the repeated misuse of highly toxic OP as chemical warfare agents (nerve agents) emphasize the necessity for the development of effective medical countermeasures. Standard treatment with atropine and the established acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators, obidoxime and pralidoxime, is considered to be ineffective with certain nerve agents due to low oxime effectiveness. From obvious ethical reasons only animal experiments can be used to evaluate new oximes as nerve agent antidotes. However, the extrapolation of data from animal to humans is hampered by marked species differences. Since reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE is considered to be the main mechanism of action of oximes, human erythrocyte AChE can be exploited to test the efficacy of new oximes. By combining enzyme kinetics (inhibition, reactivation, aging) with OP toxicokinetics and oxime pharmacokinetics a dynamic in vitro model was developed which allows the calculation of AChE activities at different scenarios. This model was validated with data from pesticide-poisoned patients and simulations were performed for intravenous and percutaneous nerve agent exposure and intramuscular oxime treatment using published data. The model presented may serve as a tool for defining effective oxime concentrations and for optimizing oxime treatment. In addition, this model can be useful for the development of meaningful therapeutic animal models

  8. Health Aspects of Organophosphorous Pesticides in Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Balali-Mood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorous (OP pesticides are used frequently in agriculture, particularly in Asian countries over the pastdecades. Poisoning by these agents, either as acute or chronic in these nations, is a serious health problem. OP pesticidesresidue in fruits and vegetables that may not induce early clinical features, could also affect the human health.Therefore, medical and health professionals should be aware and learn more on the toxicology, prevention and proper management of OP poisoning. The well-known mechanism of OP toxicity is the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase,resulting in an accumulation of acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors. Therefore, they arealso called anticholinesterase agents. Determination of blood acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase activities remains a mainstay for the rapid initial screening of OP pesticides. Quantitative analysis of OP and their degradation products in plasma and urine by mass spectrometric methods is a more specific method, but is expensive and limited to specialized laboratories. Therefore, history of OP pesticides exposure and clinical manifestations of a cholinergic syndrome is sufficient for management of the exposed patients. However, electrophysiological tests may be requiredfor the diagnosis of delayed neuropathy of OP poisoning. The standard management of OP poisoning includes decontamination,atropine sulphate with an oxime. Recent advances focus on blood alkalinisation and magnesium sulphate as promising adjunctive therapies. Preventive measures in OP exposure are of great importance in human health in developing countries. Therefore, regulations and controls on safe use of OP particularly in Asian countries are recommended.

  9. Autonomic control of the heart in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Nina Kerting; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Bayley, Mark;

    2011-01-01

    during water- and air-breathing. The shift from water- to air-breathing was associated with a rise in heart rate from 27.7 ± 1.6 to 41.4 ± 2.6 min− 1 and an increase in cardiac output from 23.1 ± 3.0 to 58.7 ± 6.5 mL min− 1 kg− 1, while mean systemic blood pressure did not change (39.0 ± 3.5 and 46.4 ± 1......The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is an air-breathing teleost with very reduced gills that uses the buccal cavity for air-breathing. Here we characterise the cardiovascular changes associated with the intermittent breathing pattern in M. albus and we study the autonomic control of the heart.......3 cm H2O). The autonomic control of the heart during water- and air-breathing was revealed by infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and muscarinic antagonist atropine (3 mg kg− 1) in eels instrumented with an arterial catheter. Inhibition of the sympathetic and parasympathetic...

  10. Libidibia ferrea Mature Seeds Promote Antinociceptive Effect by Peripheral and Central Pathway: Possible Involvement of Opioid and Cholinergic Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Luis Armando; Monteiro, Vanessa Sâmia da Conçeição; Rabelo, Guilherme Rodrigues; Dias, Germana Bueno; Da Cunha, Maura; do Nascimento, José Luiz Martins; Bastos, Gilmara de Nazareth Tavares

    2014-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea (LF) is a medicinal plant that holds many pharmacological properties. We evaluated the antinociceptive effect in the LF aqueous seed extract and Lipidic Portion of Libidibia ferrea (LPLF), partially elucidating their mechanisms. Histochemical tests and Gas chromatography of the LPLF were performed to characterize its fatty acids. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin-induced pain, and hot-plate test in mice were employed in the study. In all experiments, aqueous extract or LPLF was administered systemically at the doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg. LF aqueous seed extract and LPLF demonstrated a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all tests indicating both peripheral anti-inflammatory and central analgesia properties. Also, the use of atropine (5 mg/kg), naloxone (5 mg/kg) in the abdominal writhing test was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of the LPLF, indicating that at least one of LF lipids components is responsible for the dose related antinociceptive action in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. Together, the present results suggested that Libidibia ferrea induced antinociceptive activity is possibly related to its ability to inhibit opioid, cholinergic receptors, and cyclooxygenase-2 pathway, since its main component, linoleic acid, has been demonstrated to produce such effect in previous studies. PMID:24860820

  11. Impaired small-bowel barrier integrity in the presence of lumenal pancreatic digestive enzymes leads to circulatory shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Erik B; Alsaigh, Tom; Chang, Marisol; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2012-08-01

    In bowel ischemia, impaired mucosal integrity may allow intestinal pancreatic enzyme products to become systemic and precipitate irreversible shock and death. This can be attenuated by pancreatic enzyme inhibition in the small-bowel lumen. It is unresolved, however, whether ischemically mediated mucosal disruption is the key event allowing pancreatic enzyme products systemic access and whether intestinal digestive enzyme activity in concert with increased mucosal permeability leads to shock in the absence of ischemia. To test this possibility, the small intestinal lumen of nonischemic rats was perfused for 2 h with either digestive enzymes, a mucin disruption strategy (i.e., mucolytics) designed to increase mucosal permeability, or both, and animals were observed for shock. Digestive enzymes perfused included trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, amylase, and lipase. Control (n = 6) and experimental animals perfused with pancreatic enzymes only (n = 6) or single enzymes (n = 3 for each of the five enzyme groups) maintained stable hemodynamics. After mucin disruption using a combination of enteral N-acetylcysteine, atropine, and increased flow rates, rats (n = 6) developed mild hypotension (P shock and increase systemic protease activation in the absence of ischemia, implicating bowel mucin disruption as a key event in early ischemia. Digestive enzymes and their products, if allowed to penetrate the gut wall, may trigger multiorgan failure and death.

  12. Cardiac stress MR imaging with dobutamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strach, K.; Meyer, C.; Schild, H.; Sommer, T. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Stress testing for detection of ischemia-induced wall-motion abnormalities has become a mainstay for noninvasive diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Recent technical developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including the adoption of balanced steady-state free precession (b-SSFP) sequences - preferentially in combination with parallel imaging techniques - have led to a significant reduction of imaging time and improved patient safety. The stress protocol includes application of high-dose dobutamine (up to 40 {mu}g/kg/min) combined with fractionated atropine (up to a maximal dose of 1.0 mg). High-dose dobutamine stress MRI revealed good sensitivity (83-96%) and specificity (80-100%) for detection of significant CAD. Myocardial tagging methods have been shown to further increase sensitivity for CAD detection. Severe complications (sustained tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock) are rare but may be expected in 0.1-0.3% of patients. Dobutamine stress MRI has emerged as a reliable and safe clinical alternative for noninvasive assessment of CAD. New pulse sequences, such as real-time imaging, might obviate the need for breath holding and electrocardiogram (ECG) triggering in patients with severe dyspnoea and cardiac arrhythmias, which may further improve the clinical impact and acceptance of stress MRI in the future. (orig.)

  13. Cyclosporine-pancuronium interaction in a patient with a renal allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, E; Robblee, J A

    1988-05-01

    A case is described of a 54-year-old 55 kg patient who presented for clipping of a middle cerebral aneurysm two years after a successful renal allograft. Immunosuppression was maintained with azathioprine 100 mg daily, cyclosporine 300 mg daily and prednisone 10 mg daily. The patient had chronic hypertension controlled with nifedipine 40 mg daily and furosemide 20 mg daily. The cyclosporine level taken on the morning of surgery was 166 micrograms.L-1. Induction of anaesthesia consisted of fentanyl 350 micrograms, thiopentone 125 mg and pancuronium 5.5 mg. Anaesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide 70 per cent in oxygen and isoflurane 0.5-1.5 per cent. No additional doses of pancuronium were given during the four hour surgical procedure. At the end of surgery, four twitches were present with train-of-four stimulation, but evidence of residual muscle paralysis was present. Residual neuromuscular blockade was reversed with atropine 1.2 mg and neostigmine 2.5 mg. Residual paralysis was present in the Recovery Room and edrophonium 10 mg was given prior to extubation. Clinical testing demonstrated adequate reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Twenty minutes following extubation, increasing respiratory distress was noted. There was clinical evidence of muscle paralysis. The patient was re-intubated. It is proposed that cyclosporine potentiated the pancuronium blockade producing prolonged neuromuscular relaxation resulting in residual paralysis following surgery. The potential interactions of cyclosporine and muscle relaxants deserve further study.

  14. Huperzine A Alleviates Mechanical Allodynia but Not Spontaneous Pain via Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Xing Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a major health issue and most patients suffer from spontaneous pain. Previous studies suggest that Huperzine A (Hup A, an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herb Huperzia serrata, is a potent analgesic with few side effects. However, whether it alleviates spontaneous pain is unclear. We evaluated the effects of Hup A on spontaneous pain in mice using the conditioned place preference (CPP behavioral assay and found that application of Hup A attenuated the mechanical allodynia induced by peripheral nerve injury or inflammation. This effect was blocked by atropine. However, clonidine but not Hup A induced preference for the drug-paired chamber in CPP. The same effects occurred when Hup A was infused into the anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, ambenonium chloride, a competitive inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, also increased the paw-withdrawal threshold but failed to induce place preference in CPP. Therefore, our data suggest that acetylcholinesterase in both the peripheral and central nervous systems is involved in the regulation of mechanical allodynia but not the spontaneous pain.

  15. Genetic dissection of theta rhythm heterogeneity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jonghan; Kim, Daesoo; Bianchi, Riccardo; Wong, Robert K S; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2005-12-13

    Rhythmic oscillatory activities at the theta frequency (4-12 Hz) in the hippocampus have long-attracted attention because they have been implicated in diverse brain functions, including spatial cognition. Although studies based on pharmacology and lesion experiments suggested heterogeneity of these rhythms and their behavioral correlates, controversies are abundant on these issues. Here we show that mice harboring a phospholipase C (PLC)-beta1(-/-) mutation (PLC-beta1(-/-) mice) lack one subset of theta rhythms normally observed during urethane anesthesia, alert immobility, and passive whole-body rotation. In contrast, the other subset of theta rhythms observed during walking or running was intact in these mutant mice. PLC-beta1(-/-) mice also have somewhat disrupted theta activity during paradoxical sleep but do have an atropine-resistant component of theta rhythm. In addition, carbachol-induced oscillations were obliterated in hippocampal slices of PLC-beta1(-/-) mice. Interestingly, PLC-beta1(-/-) mice showed deficits in a hidden platform version of the Morris water maze yet performed well in motor coordination tests and a visual platform version of the Morris water maze. The results genetically define the existence of at least two subtypes of theta rhythms and reveal their association with different behaviors.

  16. Characteristics and classification of hippocampal θ rhythm induced by passive translational displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kangning; Yan, Yili; Fang, Xiaolei; Gao, Shangkai; Hong, Bo

    2012-04-25

    Theta rhythms in the hippocampus are believed to be the "metric" relating to various behavior patterns for free roaming rats. In this study, the theta rhythms were studied while rats either walked or were passively translated by a toy car on a linear track (referred to as WALK and TRANS respectively). For the similar running speeds in WALK and TRANS conditions, theta frequency and amplitude were both reduced during TRANS. Theta modulation of pyramidal cells during TRANS was reduced compared to that during WALK. Theta frequency was positively correlated with translation speed during TRANS. Theta rhythm remained apparent during TRANS and WALK after large dose of atropine sulfate (blocking the cholinergic pathway) was injected compared to still states. The present study demonstrated the patterns of theta rhythm induced by passive translation in rats and suggested that the Type I theta rhythm could occur during non-voluntary locomotion. We further argued that the perception of actual self-motion may be the underlying mechanism that initiates and modulates type I theta.

  17. Black henbane and its toxicity – a descriptive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Alizadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Black henbane (BH or Hyoscyamus niger, has been used as a medicine since last centuries and has been described in all traditional medicines. It applies as a herbal medicine, but may induce intoxication accidentally or intentionally. All part of BH including leaves, seeds and roots contain some alkaloids such as Hyoscyamine, Atropine, Tropane and Scopolamine. BH has pharmacological effects like bronchodilating, antisecretory, urinary bladder relaxant, spasmolytic, hypnotic, hallucinogenic, pupil dilating, sedative and anti-diarrheal properties. Clinical manifestations of acute BH poisoning are very wide which include mydriasis, tachycardia, arrhythmia, agitation, convulsion and coma, dry mouth, thirst, slurred speech, difficulty speaking, dysphagia, warm flushed skin, pyrexia, nausea, vomiting, headache, blurred vision and photophobia, urinary retention, distension of the bladder, drowsiness, hyper reflexia, auditory, visual or tactile hallucinations, confusion, disorientation, delirium, aggressiveness, and combative behavior. The main treatment of BH intoxicated patients is supportive therapies including gastric emptying (not by Ipecac, administration of activated charcoal and benzodiazepines. Health care providers and physicians particularly emergency physicians and clinical toxicologists should know the nature, medical uses, clinical features, diagnosis and management of BH poisoning.

  18. DRUGS – “WAY” OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nowacka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to the phenomenon of an increasing number of people abusing drugs in the 20th century. In addition to the natural types of narcotics there are many other semi-synthetic and fully synthetic substances made available to the market by chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The use of narcotics and psychoactive substances usually causes adverse and often irreversible health effects. In Department of Laboratory Diagnostics of the Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health in Sosnowiec tests for presence of drugs are among routinely conducted analyses. The presence of drugs has been revealed in 898 cases between the years 2004 and 2008. On top of the list of the most frequently detected narcotics were: amphetamine, cannabis, opiates, methamphetamine and cocaine. At the same time the most popular psychoactive substances are atropine, scopolamine and psilocybin. Additionally, the laboratory analyses indicated in many cases the presence of derivatives of benzodiazepines, trycyclic antidepressants and alcohol. Regional Centre of Acute Intoxication in Sosnowiec, Poland, hospitalized 78 patients due to overdose of drugs, narcotics or psychoactive substances as a result of experimenting with such substances. Half of the hospitalized cases patients have tried to commit suicide; one of the attempts has led to death. According to patients’ history their problems with reaching out for the use of psychoactive substances and narcotics were mainly caused by socio-psychological disorders.

  19. Microbore liquid chromatography of tertiary amine anticholinergic pharmaceuticals with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeman, J A; Danielson, N D

    1995-06-01

    The post-column chemiluminescent reaction of six anticholinergic alkaloid compounds with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) (Ru(bpy)3(3+)) is applied to microbore high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). At flow rates less than 200 microL/min, the capillary mixing cell in which Ru(bpy)3(3+) and the analyte are mixed directly allows for good light detection. In contrast, a diminished signal occurs at these low flow rates with conventional post-column mixing in a tee. Optimal chemiluminescent pH conditions for atropine, scopolamine, dicyclomine, cyclopentolate, cyclobenzaprine, and procyclidine are determined at moderately basic conditions (pH 7 to 9). 2-Butanone is found to be compatible with the chemiluminescent reaction, whereas tetrahydrofuran and propionitrile cause an increase in background noise and a chemiluminescent signal loss. As 2-butanone is more nonpolar than acetonitrile, it assists in the elution of these hydrophobic anticholinergic compounds. Five anticholinergic compounds are resolved successfully with a PRP-1 polymeric column and a slightly basic mobile phase, but a C8 silica column is better suited for the more hydrophobic compounds (cyclobenzaprine, procyclidine, and dicyclomine).

  20. 急性有机磷中毒患者66例的急救护理%Emergency nursing care of 66 cases of patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the nursing measures and effect of acute organic phosphorus poisoning.Methods:66 patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning were selected.The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.Results:The average time of the patients with atropinization was (3.31±1.43) hours.62 cases had successful treatment;4 cases died;the success rate was 96.8%. Conclusion:Timely and effective treatment and nursing for patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning can improve the cure rate and promote the rehabilitation of patients.%目的:探讨急性有机磷中毒的护理措施及效果。方法:收治急性有机磷中毒患者66例,回顾性分析其临床资料。结果:患者达阿托品化时间平均(3.31±1.43)h。成功救治62例,死亡4例,抢救成功率96.8%。结论:对急性有机磷中毒实施患者实施及时、有效的治疗和护理可以提高治愈率,促进患者康复。